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Sample records for age-matched healthy adults

  1. Hypoconnectivity of Resting-State Networks in Persons with Aphasia Compared with Healthy Age-Matched Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Chaleece W.

    2017-01-01

    Aphasia is a language disorder affecting more than one million people in the US. While language function has traditionally been the focus of neuroimaging research, other cognitive functions are affected in this population, which has implications not only for those specific processes but also for the interaction of language and other cognitive functions. Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is a practical and informative way to explore and characterize general cognitive engagement and/or health in this population, but it is currently underutilized. The aim of this study was to explore the functional connectivity in resting state networks (RSNs) and in the semantic network in seven persons with aphasia (PWA) who were at least 6 months post onset compared with 11 neurologically healthy adults (NHA) in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of general cognitive engagement in aphasia. These preliminary results show that PWA exhibit hypoconnectivity in the semantic network and all RSNs except the visual network. Compared with NHA, PWA appear to have fewer cross- and left-hemispheric connections. However, PWA exhibit some stronger connections than NHA within the semantic network, which could indicate compensatory mechanisms. Importantly, connectivity for RSNs appear to increase with decreasing aphasia severity and decrease with increasing lesion size. This knowledge has the potential to improve aphasia therapy by furthering the understanding of lesion effects on the cognitive system as a whole, which can guide treatment target selection and promotion of favorable neural reorganization for optimal recovery of function. PMID:28293185

  2. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J F; Andersen, T R; Andersen, L J; Randers, M B; Hornstrup, T; Hansen, P R; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG; 68.2 ± 3.2 years). Examinations included measurements of cardiac function, microvascular endothelial function [reactive hyperemic index (RHI)], maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and body composition. In VPG, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume was 20% larger (P < 0.01) and LV ejection fraction was higher (P < 0.001). Tissue Doppler imaging revealed an augmented LV longitudinal displacement, i.e., LV shortening of 21% (P < 0.001) and longitudinal 2D strain was 12% higher (P < 0.05), in VPG. In VPG, resting heart rate was lower (6 bpm, P < 0.05), and VO2max was higher (18%, P < 0.05). In addition, RHI was 21% higher (P < 0.05) in VPG. VPG also had lower body mass index (P < 0.05), body fat percentage, total body fat mass, android fat percentage, and gynoid fat percentage (all P < 0.01). Lifelong participation in football training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  3. Impact of Limiting Visual Input on Gait: Individuals with Parkinson Disease, Age-matched Controls and Healthy Young Participants

    PubMed Central

    Pilgram, Laura M.; Earhart, Gammon M.; Pickett, Kristen A.

    2016-01-01

    Normal and limited vision gait was investigated in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD), healthy older and healthy young individuals. Participants walked a GAITRite mat with normal vision or vision of lower limbs occluded. Results indicate individuals with PD walked more slowly, with shorter and wider steps and spent more time in double support with limited vision as compared to full vision. Healthy young and old individuals took shorter steps but were otherwise unchanged between conditions. PMID:26987577

  4. The Long-Term Effect of Radical Prostatectomy on Erectile Function, Urinary Continence, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Comparison to Age-Matched Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ponholzer, Anton; Augustin, Herbert; Madersbacher, Stephan; Pummer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. To analyze the impact of radical prostatectomy (RPE) on erectile function and lower urinary tract function in comparison to age-matched healthy men. Materials and Methods. Patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy completed questionnaires containing the IIEF-5, the Bristol female LUTS questionnaire, and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Results. Patients after RPE were included (n = 363). Age-matched healthy men (n = 363) were included. The mean IIEF-5 of patients aged 61–70 yrs after RPE was 10.4 ± 6.6 versus 18.8 ± 5.3 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs after RPE were 7.2 ± 6.5 versus 13.6 ± 7.7 in the control cohort. Urinary incontinence after RPE was reported in 41.9% (61–70 years) and 37.7% (71–80) versus 7.5% and 15.1% in the control cohort. The mean IPSS of patients after RPE aged 61–70 yrs was 5.0 ± 4.4 versus 5.5 ± 4.9 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs were 6.0 ± 4.9 versus 7.5 ± 5.7 in the healthy cohort. Conclusions. The negative effect of radical prostatectomy on erectile and urinary incontinence remains substantial. The physiologically declining erectile and lower urinary tract function with ageing reduces the difference between healthy men and those after surgery. Healthy men have a higher IPSS presumably due to the presence of bladder outlet obstruction. PMID:28261619

  5. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  6. Influence of BMI on health-related quality of life: comparison between an obese adult cohort and age-matched population norms.

    PubMed

    Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila; Caterson, Ian D; Leibman, Steven; Smith, Garett S; Sambrook, Phillip N; Fransen, Marlene; March, Lyn M

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine health-related quality of life and fatigue measures in obese subjects and to compare scores with age- and gender-matched population norms. A total of 163 obese subjects were recruited from laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or exercise and diet weight loss programs between March 2006 and December 2007. All subjects completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL), and Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) questionnaires. One-sample t-tests were used to compare transformed scores with age- and gender-matched population norms and controls. Obese subjects have significantly lower SF-36 physical and emotional component scores, significantly lower AQoL utility scores and significantly higher fatigue scores compared to age-matched population norms. Within the study cohort, the SF-36 physical functioning, role physical and bodily pain scores, and AQoL utility index were even lower in subjects with clinical knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, obese individuals without OA still had significantly lower scores compared to population norms. Obesity is associated with impaired health-related quality of life and disability as measured by the SF-36, AQoL, and fatigue score (MAF) compared to matched population norms.

  7. Speaking-Related Dyspnea in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoit, Jeannette D.; Lansing, Robert W.; Perona, Kristen E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To reveal the qualities and intensity of speaking-related dyspnea in healthy adults under conditions of high ventilatory drive, in which the behavioral and metabolic control of breathing must compete. Method: Eleven adults read aloud while breathing different levels of inspired carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]). After the highest level,…

  8. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals.

  9. Strategies used during a challenging weighted walking task in healthy adults and individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kubinski, Andrew J; Higginson, Jill S

    2012-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease that affects millions of people. While numerous gait differences have been identified between healthy adults and adults with knee OA under normal and challenging conditions, adults with knee OA have not been studied during a challenging weighted walking task. Investigation of the effect of weighted walking on the initial contact and loading response phases of gait was undertaken in 20 healthy and 20 knee OA subjects ages 40-85 years old walking at 1.0m/s while unweighted and weighted with 1/6th of their body weight in a weight vest. Subjects were grouped according to their Kellgren and Lawrence radiographic score and healthy subjects were age-matched to those with knee OA. ANOVA revealed significant effects for hip flexion angle at initial contact, step length, initial double support percent, and load rate. Post hoc t-tests revealed that subjects with knee OA had a larger initial double support percent and hip flexion angle at initial contact and a decreased load rate compared to unweighted, healthy adults. Also, both groups increased their initial double support percent in response to the challenging weighted walking task, but only the healthy adults increased their hip flexion angle at initial contact and decreased their load rate. During the weighted condition, the knee OA group had a shorter step length compared to the healthy group. Because the knee OA group only made minor compensations to their gait strategy, it appears that they may be unable or prefer not to adjust their gait mechanics due to underlying issues.

  10. Reliability of Transcallosal Inhibition in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Melanie K.; Newham, Di J.

    2017-01-01

    Transcallosal inhibition (TCI), assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation, can provide insight into the neurophysiology of aging and of neurological disorders such as stroke. However, the reliability of TCI using the ipsilateral silent period (iSP) has not been formally assessed, despite its use in longitudinal studies. This study aimed to determine the reliability of iSP onset latency, duration and depth in healthy young and older adults. A sample of 18 younger (mean age 27.7 years, range: 19–42) and 13 older healthy adults (mean age 68.1 years, range: 58–79) attended four sessions whereby the iSP was measured from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of each hand. 20 single pulse stimuli were delivered to each primary motor cortex at 80% maximum stimulator output while the participant maintained an isometric contraction of the ipsilateral FDI. The average onset latency, duration of the iSP, and depth of inhibition relative to baseline electromyography activity was calculated for each hand in each session. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for all four sessions, or the first two sessions only. For iSP onset latency the reliability ranged from poor to good. For iSP duration there was moderate to good reliability (ICC > 0.6). Depth of inhibition demonstrated variation in reproducibility depending on which hand was assessed and whether two or four sessions were compared. Bland and Altman analyses showed wide limits of agreement between the first two sessions, particularly for iSP depth. However, there was no systematic pattern to the variability. These results indicate that although iSP duration is reliable in healthy adults, changes in longitudinal studies should be interpreted with caution, particularly for iSP depth. Future studies are needed to determine reliability in clinical populations. PMID:28119588

  11. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations.

  12. [Hypoxemia after general anesthesia in healthy adults].

    PubMed

    Croston, J; Brown, L

    1990-09-01

    It has been shown that a variable percentage of patients who receive a general anesthetic are significantly hypoxemic when they arrive at the recovery room. Pulse oximetry has proved to be a reliable method to determine arterial oxygen saturation when compared to arterial or mixed venous blood oxygen saturation measurements. The authors determined the incidence and severity of hypoxemia by pulse oximetry in 45 healthy adult patients, (non obese, non smokers) who underwent non thoracic surgery under general anesthesia. Arterial oxygen saturation was measured without premedication before surgery (control), when they arrived at the recovery room, and 5 and 15 minutes later. The axillary temperature was taken at the same times. The results were expressed as the median and standard deviation and were analyzed with Student T Test, and p LO.05 was considered significant. Nine patients (20%) showed unacceptable oxygen saturation when they arrived at the recovery room (88.4 +/- 2.50%, LO.05). All patients showed significant hypothermia (35.3 +/- 0.54 degrees C). The authors conclude that a significant number of healthy adult patients who are given a general anesthetic show severe hypoxemia when they arrive at the recovery room. The severe hypothermia found in these patients can aggravate the hypoxemia. They consider it is mandatory to control the temperature of and to administer oxygen in the recovery room to all patients who receive a general anesthetic.

  13. Measuring Fluid Intelligence in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Goghari, Vina M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluated subjective and objective cognitive measures as predictors of fluid intelligence in healthy older adults. We hypothesized that objective cognitive measures would predict fluid intelligence to a greater degree than self-reported cognitive functioning. Ninety-three healthy older (>65 years old) community-dwelling adults participated. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) were used to measure fluid intelligence, Digit Span Sequencing (DSS) was used to measure working memory, Trail Making Test (TMT) was used to measure cognitive flexibility, Design Fluency Test (DFT) was used to measure creativity, and Tower Test (TT) was used to measure planning. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) was used to measure subjective perceptions of cognitive functioning. RAPM was correlated with DSS, TT, and DFT. When CFQ was the only predictor, the regression model predicting fluid intelligence was not significant. When DSS, TMT, DFT, and TT were included in the model, there was a significant change in the model and the final model was also significant, with DFT as the only significant predictor. The model accounted for approximately 20% of the variability in fluid intelligence. Our findings suggest that the most reliable means of assessing fluid intelligence is to assess it directly. PMID:28250990

  14. Macular thickness in healthy Saudi adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zamil, Waseem M.; Al-Zwaidi, Fahad M.; Yassin, Sanaa A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the macular thickness in the eyes of healthy Saudi adults using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study, including 158 healthy participants between August and December 2015. Mean subject age was 29.9 ± 7.85 years old. All participants underwent full ophthalmic evaluation, including SD-OCT imaging, and axial length measurement. Data from the right eye were included. Mean retinal thickness was determined. Correlations between retinal thickness and gender, age, axial length, and spherical equivalence were analyzed. Results: Mean central retinal thickness was 244.76 ± 23.62 µm, mean axial length was 23.8 ± 1.062 mm (range: 20.5-29 mm) and mean spherical equivalent was -0.31 ± 1.75 diopters (D) (range: -5.50 to +4.25 D). Central subfield (CSF) thickness and foveal volume were significantly lower in women than in men (both p<0.001). Data from the various age groups did not show statistically significant differences in the CSF thickness (p=0.389) or foveal volume (p=0.341). A positive correlation between CSF thickness and axial length (p<0.001) was observed. Conclusion: The normal macular thickness values in healthy Saudi individuals is different from that reported in other ethnic groups, as obtained by SD-OCT. Saudi men had thicker CSF than Saudi women and axial length was positively correlated to the central foveal thickness. PMID:28042632

  15. Resistance to the impact of interruptions during multitasking by healthy adults and dysexecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Law, Anna S; Logie, Robert H; Pearson, David G; Cantagallo, Anna; Moretti, Eva; Dimarco, Francesca

    2004-07-01

    Two experiments (one with healthy adult volunteers and the other with controls and dysexecutive patients) assessed the impact of interruptions on a novel test of multitasking. The test involved switching repeatedly between four tasks (block construction, bead threading, paper folding, alphabetical searching) over a 10 min period. In Experiment 1, there were four groups of 20 healthy participants. One group attempted multitasking with no interruption, a second group was interrupted early in the test, a third group late in the test and a fourth group was interrupted both early and late. Interruption involved carrying out a fifth, unexpected task for a period of 1 min before returning to the four main tasks. There was no difference in multitasking performance between the groups. In Experiment 2 the participants were seven dysexecutive patients and 14 age-matched controls. A repeated measures approach was employed to assess the impact of two interruptions (early and late) for both groups. Contrary to predictions, the patients as well as controls were resistant to the effects of interruptions, despite their clearly impaired multitasking performance. These results suggest that the ability to deal with interruptions may be separable from the ability to organise and execute multiple tasks within a limited time frame.

  16. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  17. Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method: Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups--young adults (20-29 years of age) and older…

  18. Impact of Short- and Long-term Tai Chi Mind-Body Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Healthy Adults: Results From a Hybrid Observational Study and Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jacquelyn N.; Manor, Brad; Hausdorff, Jeffrey; Novak, Vera; Lipsitz, Lewis; Gow, Brian; Macklin, Eric A.; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cognitive decline amongst older adults is a significant public health concern. There is growing interest in behavioral interventions, including exercise, for improving cognition. Studies to date suggest tai chi (TC) may be a safe and potentially effective exercise for preserving cognitive function with aging; however, its short-term and potential long-term impact on physically active, healthy adults is unclear. Objective: To compare differences in cognitive function among long-term TC expert practitioners and age-matched and gender-matched TC-naïve adults and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on measures of cognitive function in healthy, nonsedentary adults. Design: A hybrid design including an observational comparison and a 2-arm randomized clinical trial (RCT) Participants: Healthy, nonsedentary, TC-naive adults (50 y-79 y) and age-matched and gender-matched long-term TC experts Methods: A cross-sectional comparison of cognitive function in healthy TC-naïve (n=60) and TC expert (24.5 y ÷ 12 y experience; n=27) adults: TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, 2-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Six measures of cognitive function were assessed for both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. Results: TC experts exhibited trends towards better scores on all cognitive measures, significantly so for category fluency (P=.01), as well as a composite z score summarizing all 6 cognitive assessments (P=.03). In contrast, random assignment to 6 months of TC training in TC-naïve adults did not significantly improve any measures of cognitive function. Conclusions: In healthy nonsedentary adults, long-term TC training may help preserve cognitive function; however, the effect of short-term TC training in healthy adults remains unclear. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01340365 PMID:26331103

  19. Postural sway following cryotherapy in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Claudiane A; Duarte, Marcos; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2014-01-01

    In light of the wide use of cryotherapy and its potential negative effects on postural stability, little is known about how postural sway is affected, particularly when the whole lower limb is immersed. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of cryotherapy on postural sway in healthy males. Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned into two intervention groups: control (tepid water at ∼26°C) or ice (cold water at ∼11°C). Postural sway was measured through the center of pressure (COP) position while they stood on a force plate during bipedal (70 s) and unipedal (40 s) conditions before and after the subjects were immersed in a water tub up to the umbilical level for 20 min. COP standard deviation (SD) and COP velocity were analyzed in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions. Statistical analysis showed that in the bipedal condition cryotherapy increased the COP SD and COP velocity in the ML direction. During the unipedal condition, a higher COP velocity in the AP and ML directions was also reported. Our findings indicate that cryotherapy by immersing the whole lower limb should be used with caution before engaging in challenging postural control activities.

  20. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals.

  1. Sleep Reduces False Memory in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Sim, Sam K. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Design: Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). Measurements and Results: At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made “remember”/“know” and “new” judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced “remember” responses, but not “know” responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode. Citation: Lo JC; Sim SK; Chee MW. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults. SLEEP 2014;37(4):665-671. PMID:24744453

  2. Promoting Healthy Aging in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar; Sorensen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the research on health promotion for adults aging with developmental disabilities. First, it examines barriers to healthy aging, including health behaviors and access to health screenings and services. Second, it reviews the research on health promotion interventions, including physical activity interventions, health education…

  3. Modulation, Adaptation, and Control of Orofacial Pathways in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estep, Meredith E.

    2009-01-01

    Although the healthy adult possesses a large repertoire of coordinative strategies for oromotor behaviors, a range of nonverbal, speech-like movements can be observed during speech. The extent of overlap among sensorimotor speech and nonspeech neural correlates and the role of neuromodulatory inputs generated during oromotor behaviors are unknown.…

  4. Napping: Do's and Don'ts for Healthy Adults

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Napping isn't just for children. Understand the pros and cons of napping and the best way to take a nap. ... you might be thinking about taking a nap. Napping at the wrong time of day or for ...

  5. Understanding Arthritis Promoting Healthy Lifestyles for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremethick, Mary Jane; Hogan, Patricia I.; Coleman, Barb; Adams, Kady

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of "Healthy People 2010" is to decrease the incidence of limitation in physical activity due to arthritis. Physical education, recreation, and dance professionals can play an important role in meeting this objective by addressing barriers to physical activity and exercise in older adults with arthritis, and by successfully…

  6. Predictive Accuracy of Exercise Stress Testing the Healthy Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Exercise stress testing provides information on the aerobic capacity, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to graded exercises of a healthy adult. The reliability of exercise tests as a diagnostic procedure is discussed in relation to sensitivity and specificity and predictive accuracy. (JN)

  7. Physical benefits of dancing for healthy older adults: a review.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Justin W L; Kilding, Andrew; Pidgeon, Philippa; Ashley, Linda; Gillis, Dawn

    2009-10-01

    Dancing is a mode of physical activity that may allow older adults to improve their physical function, health, and well-being. However, no reviews on the physical benefits of dancing for healthy older adults have been published in the scientific literature. Using relevant databases and keywords, 15 training and 3 cross-sectional studies that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Grade B-level evidence indicated that older adults can significantly improve their aerobic power, lower body muscle endurance, strength and flexibility, balance, agility, and gait through dancing. Grade C evidence suggested that dancing might improve older adults' lower body bone-mineral content and muscle power, as well as reduce the prevalence of falls and cardiovascular health risks. Further research is, however, needed to determine the efficacy of different forms of dance, the relative effectiveness of these forms of dance compared with other exercise modes, and how best to engage older adults in dance participation.

  8. INTERACTIVE VIDEO DANCE GAMES FOR HEALTHY OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    STUDENSKI, S.; PERERA, S.; HILE, E.; KELLER, V.; SPADOLA-BOGARD, J.; GARCIA, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity promotes health in older adults but participation rates are low. Interactive video dance games can increase activity in young persons but have not been designed for use with older adults. The purpose of this research was to evaluate healthy older adults’ interest and participation in a dance game adapted for an older user. Methods Healthy older adults were recruited from 3 senior living settings and offered three months of training and supervision using a video dance game designed for older people. Before and after the program, data was collected on vital signs, physical function and self reported quality of life. Feedback was obtained during and after training. Results Of 36 persons who entered (mean age 80.1 ± 5.4 years, 83 % female), 25 completed the study. Completers were healthier than non completers. Completers showed gains in narrow walk time, self-reported balance confidence and mental health. While there were no serious adverse events, 4 of 11 non completers withdrew due to musculoskeletal complaints. Conclusions Adapted Interactive video dance is feasible for some healthy older adults and may help achieve physical activity goals. PMID:21125204

  9. A retroactive spatial cue improved VSTM capacity in mild cognitive impairment and medial temporal lobe amnesia but not in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Rachel N; Duarte, Audrey; Pun, Carson; Smith, Victoria M; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D

    2015-10-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a vital cognitive ability, connecting visual input with conscious awareness. VSTM performance declines with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and medial temporal lobe (MTL) amnesia. Many studies have shown that providing a spatial retrospective cue ("retrocue") improves VSTM capacity estimates for healthy young adults. However, one study has demonstrated that older adults are unable to use a retrocue to inhibit irrelevant items from memory. It is unknown whether patients with MCI and MTL amnesia will be able to use a retrocue to benefit their memory. We administered a retrocue and a baseline (simultaneous cue, "simucue") task to young adults, older adults, MCI patients, and MTL cases. Consistent with previous findings, young adults showed a retrocue benefit, whereas healthy older adults did not. In contrast, both MCI patients and MTL cases showed a retrocue benefit--the use of a retrocue brought patient performance up to the level of age-matched controls. We speculate that the patients were able to use the spatial information from the retrocue to reduce interference and facilitate binding items to their locations.

  10. Management of recurrent urinary tract infections in healthy adult women.

    PubMed

    Hickling, Duane R; Nitti, Victor W

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence after urinary tract infection (rUTI) is common in adult women. The majority of recurrences are believed to be reinfection from extraurinary sources such as the rectum or vagina. However, uropathogenic Escherichia coli are now known to invade urothelial cells and form quiescent intracellular bacterial reservoirs. Management of women with frequent symptomatic rUTI can be particularly vexing for both patients and their treating physicians. This review addresses available and promising management strategies for rUTI in healthy adult women.

  11. Management of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Healthy Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Hickling, Duane R; Nitti, Victor W

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence after urinary tract infection (rUTI) is common in adult women. The majority of recurrences are believed to be reinfection from extraurinary sources such as the rectum or vagina. However, uropathogenic Escherichia coli are now known to invade urothelial cells and form quiescent intracellular bacterial reservoirs. Management of women with frequent symptomatic rUTI can be particularly vexing for both patients and their treating physicians. This review addresses available and promising management strategies for rUTI in healthy adult women. PMID:24082842

  12. Walking stability during cell phone use in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Higginson, Christopher I; Seymour, Kelly; Kamerdze, Morgan; Higginson, Jill S

    2015-05-01

    The number of falls and/or accidental injuries associated with cellular phone use during walking is growing rapidly. Understanding the effects of concurrent cell phone use on human gait may help develop safety guidelines for pedestrians. It was shown previously that older adults had more pronounced dual-task interferences than younger adults when concurrent cognitive task required visual information processing. Thus, cell phone use might have greater impact on walking stability in older than in younger adults. This study examined gait stability and variability during a cell phone dialing task (phone) and two classic cognitive tasks, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Nine older and seven younger healthy adults walked on a treadmill at four different conditions: walking only, PASAT, phone, and SDMT. We computed short-term local divergence exponent (LDE) of the trunk motion (local stability), dynamic margins of stability (MOS), step spatiotemporal measures, and kinematic variability. Older and younger adults had similar values of short-term LDE during all conditions, indicating that local stability was not affected by the dual-task. Compared to walking only, older and younger adults walked with significantly greater average mediolateral MOS during phone and SDMT conditions but significantly less ankle angle variability during all dual-tasks and less knee angle variability during PASAT. The current findings demonstrate that healthy adults may try to control foot placement and joint kinematics during cell phone use or another cognitive task with a visual component to ensure sufficient dynamic margins of stability and maintain local stability.

  13. Walking Stability during Cell Phone Use in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Higginson, Christopher I.; Seymour, Kelly; Kamerdze, Morgan; Higginson, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    The number of falls and/or accidental injuries associated with cellular phone use during walking is growing rapidly. Understanding the effects of concurrent cell phone use on human gait may help develop safety guidelines for pedestrians. It was shown previously that older adults had more pronounced dual-task interferences than younger adults when concurrent cognitive task required visual information processing. Thus, cell phone use might have greater impact on walking stability in older than in younger adults. This study examined gait stability and variability during a cell phone dialing task (phone) and two classic cognitive tasks, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Nine older and seven younger healthy adults walked on a treadmill at four different conditions: walking only, PASAT, phone, and SDMT. We computed short-term local divergence exponent (LDE) of the trunk motion (local stability), dynamic margins of stability (MOS), step spatiotemporal measures, and kinematic variability. Older and younger adults had similar values of short-term LDE during all conditions, indicating that local stability was not affected by the dual-task. Compared to walking only, older and younger adults walked with significantly greater average mediolateral MOS during phone and SDMT conditions but significantly less ankle angle variability during all dual-tasks and less knee angle variability during PASAT. The current findings demonstrate that healthy adults may try to control foot placement and joint kinematics during cell phone use or another cognitive task with a visual component to ensure sufficient dynamic margins of stability and maintain local stability. PMID:25890490

  14. Comparison of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients having pseudo exfoliation syndrome with healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Yasmeen, Naila; Fatima, Nauroz; Qamar-ul-Islam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients having pseudo exfoliation (PXF) with normal age matched controls using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: This was a case control study conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO) Rawalpindi from 12 June 2013 to 12 January 2014. Seventy eyes (Group A - 35 patients with PXF and Group B - 35 healthy age matched subjects) of more than 40 years of age were included in the study. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) and peripapillary RNFL thickness was measured in four quadrants with SD-OCT (Topcon 3D OCT-1000 Mark II) in all subjects. Data was analyzed using the SPSS version 14. Results: Mean age of group A (PXF patients) was 65.63 ± 8.47 years and of group B (Healthy subjects) was 64.31 ± 6.51 years (p = 0.470). Both groups were gender matched with male preponderance (p = 0.673). Mean IOP in each group was 13.80 ± 2.59 mm Hg, and 13.49 ± 2.07 mm Hg respectively (p= 0.578). Mean average peripapillary RNFL thickness was 77.46 ± 12.17 µm in group A and 83.96 ± 10.58 µm in group B. Statistically significant differences were detected between two groups for mean average RNFL thickness (p= 0.020) and mean RNFL thickness in inferior quadrant (p=0.014). Conclusion: PXF patients with normal IOP and visual fields have thin RNFL as compared to healthy age matched controls. Therefore routine assessment and follow up of PXF patients with OCT may help in early diagnosis of PXF glaucoma. PMID:28083059

  15. Echocardiographic parameters in healthy young adult Sphynx cats.

    PubMed

    Mottet, E; Amberger, C; Doherr, M G; Lombard, C

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this retrospective study is to determine normal reference values for 2-Dimension (2D) and Motion-mode (M-mode) echocardiographic parameters in nonsedated healthy young adult Sphynx cats and to compare them to those of the domestic shorthair (DSH). 131 Sphynx cats underwent cardiac screening prior to breeding. The control group consisted of 30 healthy adult domestic cats. A complete cardiac ultrasound was performed on all cats using right parasternal long and short axis views. There were few echocardiographic parameters in the Sphynx that differed from those of the healthy DSH. Only the left atrial (LA) dimension in 2D and M-mode, the left atrial/aortic (LA/Ao) ratio and the internal dimension of the left ventricle in systole (LVIDs) measured with M-mode were different. In conclusion, although the heart of Sphynx cat can often have a particular 2-D echocardiographic appearance, the M-mode cardiac dimensions are similar to those of the DSH.

  16. Cryptosporidium muris: Infectivity and Illness in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Cynthia L.; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; Langer-Curry, Rebecca C.; Lupo, Philip J.; Widmer, Giovanni; Tzipori, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Although Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis cause the majority of human cryptosporidiosis cases, other Cryptosporidium species are also capable of infecting humans, particularly when individuals are immunocompromised. Ten C. muris cases have been reported, primarily in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive patients with diarrhea. However, asymptomatic cases were reported in two HIV-negative children, and in another case, age and immune status were not described. This study examines the infectivity of C. muris in six healthy adults. Volunteers were challenged with 105 C. muris oocysts and monitored for 6 weeks for infection and/or illness. All six patients became infected. Two patients experienced a self-limited diarrheal illness. Total oocysts shed during the study ranged from 6.7 × 106 to 4.1 × 108, and the number was slightly higher in volunteers with diarrhea (2.8 × 108) than asymptomatic shedders (4.4 × 107). C. muris-infected subjects shed oocysts longer than occurred with other species studied in healthy volunteers. Three volunteers shed oocysts for 7 months. Physical examinations were normal, with no reported recurrence of diarrhea or other gastrointestinal complaints. Two persistent shedders were treated with nitazoxanide, and the infection was resolved. Thus, healthy adults are susceptible to C. muris, which can cause mild diarrhea and result in persistent, asymptomatic infection. PMID:25311695

  17. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Action Observation in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virji-Babul, Naznin; Moiseev, Alexander; Cheung, Teresa; Weeks, Daniel J.; Cheyne, Douglas; Ribary, Urs

    2010-01-01

    Results of a magnetoencephalography (MEG) brain imaging study conducted to examine the cortical responses during action execution and action observation in 10 healthy adults and 8 age-matched adults with Down syndrome are reported. During execution, the motor responses were strongly lateralized on the ipsilateral rather than the contralateral side…

  18. Single tooth bite forces in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Serrao, G; Dellavia, C; Tartaglia, G M

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of bite forces on healthy single tooth appears essential for a correct quantification of the actual impact of single implant oral rehabilitations. In the present study, a new single tooth strain-gauge bite transducer was used in 52 healthy young adults (36 men, 16 women) with a complete permanent dentition. The influences of tooth position along the dental arch, of side, and of sex, on maximum bite force were assessed by an ANOVA. No significant left-right differences were found. On average, in both sexes the lowest bite force was recorded on the incisors (40-48% of maximum single tooth bite force), the largest force was recorded on the first molar. Bite forces were larger in men than in women (P < 0.002), and increased monotonically along the arch until the first or second permanent molar (P < 0.0001). The present data can be used as reference values for the comparison of dental forces in patients.

  19. Haemophilia Joint Health Score in healthy adults playing sports.

    PubMed

    Sluiter, D; Foppen, W; de Kleijn, P; Fischer, K

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate outcome of prophylactic clotting factor replacement in children with haemophilia, the Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) was developed aiming at scoring early joint changes in children aged 4-18. The HJHS has been used for adults on long-term prophylaxis but interpretation of small changes remains difficult. Some changes in these patients may be due to sports-related injuries. Evaluation of HJHS score in healthy adults playing sports could improve the interpretation of this score in haemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HJHS scores in a cohort of young, healthy men participating in sports. Concomitant with a project collecting MRI images of ankles and knees in normal young adults, HJHS scores were assessed in 30 healthy men aged 18-26, participating in sports one to three times per week. One physiotherapist assessed their clinical function using the HJHS 2.1. History of joint injuries was documented. MRI images were scored by a single radiologist, using the International Prophylaxis Study Group additive MRI score. Median age of the study group was 24.3 years (range 19.0-26.4) and median frequency of sports activities was three times per week (range 1-4). Six joints (five knees, one ankle) had a history of sports-related injury. The median overall HJHS score was 0 out of 124 (range 0-3), with 60% of subjects showing no abnormalities on HJHS. All joints were normal on MRI. These results suggest that frequent sports participation and related injuries are not related with abnormalities in HJHS scores.

  20. Strategies of Healthy Adults Walking on a Laterally Oscillating Treadmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2008-01-01

    We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate locomotor responses produced by healthy adults introduced to a dynamic walking surface. The experiment examined self-selected strategies employed by participants when exposed to continuous, sinusoidal lateral motion of the support surface while walking. Torso translation and step width were used to classify responses used to stabilize gait in a novel, dynamic environment. Two response categories emerged. Participants tended to either fix themselves in space (FIS), allowing the treadbelt to move laterally beneath them, or they fixed themselves to the base (FTB), moving laterally as the motion base oscillated. The degree of fixation in both extremes varied across participants. This finding suggests that normal adults have innate and varied preferences for reacquiring gait stability, some depending more heavily on vision (FIS group) and others on proprioception (FTB group). Keywords: Human locomotion, Unstable surface, Treadmill, Adaptation, Stability

  1. Differences in Resting State Functional Connectivity between Young Adult Endurance Athletes and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Raichlen, David A.; Bharadwaj, Pradyumna K.; Fitzhugh, Megan C.; Haws, Kari A.; Torre, Gabrielle-Ann; Trouard, Theodore P.; Alexander, Gene E.

    2016-01-01

    Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults. Although generally considered an automated repetitive task, locomotion, especially at an elite level, likely engages multiple cognitive actions including planning, inhibition, monitoring, attentional switching and multi-tasking, and motor control. Here, we examined connectivity in three resting-state networks that link such executive functions with motor control: the default mode network (DMN), the frontoparietal network (FPN), and the motor network (MN). We found two key patterns of significant between-group differences in connectivity that are consistent with the hypothesized cognitive demands of elite endurance running. First, enhanced connectivity between the FPN and brain regions often associated with aspects of working memory and other executive functions (frontal cortex), suggest endurance running may stress executive cognitive functions in ways that increase connectivity in associated networks. Second, we found significant anti-correlations between the DMN and regions associated with motor control (paracentral area), somatosensory functions (post-central region), and visual association abilities (occipital cortex). DMN deactivation with task-positive regions has been shown to be generally beneficial for cognitive performance, suggesting anti-correlated regions observed here are engaged during running. For all between

  2. Differences in Resting State Functional Connectivity between Young Adult Endurance Athletes and Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Raichlen, David A; Bharadwaj, Pradyumna K; Fitzhugh, Megan C; Haws, Kari A; Torre, Gabrielle-Ann; Trouard, Theodore P; Alexander, Gene E

    2016-01-01

    Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults. Although generally considered an automated repetitive task, locomotion, especially at an elite level, likely engages multiple cognitive actions including planning, inhibition, monitoring, attentional switching and multi-tasking, and motor control. Here, we examined connectivity in three resting-state networks that link such executive functions with motor control: the default mode network (DMN), the frontoparietal network (FPN), and the motor network (MN). We found two key patterns of significant between-group differences in connectivity that are consistent with the hypothesized cognitive demands of elite endurance running. First, enhanced connectivity between the FPN and brain regions often associated with aspects of working memory and other executive functions (frontal cortex), suggest endurance running may stress executive cognitive functions in ways that increase connectivity in associated networks. Second, we found significant anti-correlations between the DMN and regions associated with motor control (paracentral area), somatosensory functions (post-central region), and visual association abilities (occipital cortex). DMN deactivation with task-positive regions has been shown to be generally beneficial for cognitive performance, suggesting anti-correlated regions observed here are engaged during running. For all between

  3. Decreased segregation of brain systems across the healthy adult lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Micaela Y.; Park, Denise C.; Savalia, Neil K.; Petersen, Steven E.; Wig, Gagan S.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy aging has been associated with decreased specialization in brain function. This characterization has focused largely on describing age-accompanied differences in specialization at the level of neurons and brain areas. We expand this work to describe systems-level differences in specialization in a healthy adult lifespan sample (n = 210; 20–89 y). A graph-theoretic framework is used to guide analysis of functional MRI resting-state data and describe systems-level differences in connectivity of individual brain networks. Young adults’ brain systems exhibit a balance of within- and between-system correlations that is characteristic of segregated and specialized organization. Increasing age is accompanied by decreasing segregation of brain systems. Compared with systems involved in the processing of sensory input and motor output, systems mediating “associative” operations exhibit a distinct pattern of reductions in segregation across the adult lifespan. Of particular importance, the magnitude of association system segregation is predictive of long-term memory function, independent of an individual’s age. PMID:25368199

  4. Alternate-day dosing of itraconazole in healthy adult cats.

    PubMed

    Middleton, S M; Kubier, A; Dirikolu, L; Papich, M G; Mitchell, M A; Rubin, S I

    2016-02-01

    The current available formulations of itraconazole are not ideal for dosing in cats. The capsular preparation often does not allow for accurate dosing, the oral solution is difficult to administer and poorly tolerated, and the bioavailability of compounded formulations has been shown to be poor in other species. The aim of this study was to evaluate every other day dosing of 100 mg itraconazole capsule in healthy adult cats. Ten healthy adult cats received a 100 mg capsule of itraconazole orally every 48 h for 8 weeks. Peak and trough serum concentrations of itraconazole were measured weekly using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Physical examination, complete blood count (CBC), and chemistry profiles were performed weekly. The dosage regimen achieved average therapeutic trough concentrations (>0.5 μg/mL) within 3 weeks. The protocol yielded no adverse effects in 8 of the 10 study cats, with affected cats recovering fully with discontinuation of the drug and supportive care. At 8 weeks, an average peak concentration of 1.79 ± 0.952 μg/mL (95% CI: 0.996-2.588) and an average trough concentration of 0.761 ± 0.540 μg/mL (95% CI: 0.314-1.216) were achieved. Overall, a 100 mg every other day oral dosage regimen for itraconazole in cats yielded serum concentrations with minimal fluctuation and with careful monitoring may be considered for treatment of cats with systemic fungal disease.

  5. Associations between food insecurity and healthy behaviors among Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chun, In-Ae; Park, Jong; Ro, Hee-Kyung; Han, Mi-Ah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Food insecurity has been suggested as being negatively associated with healthy behaviors and health status. This study was performed to identify the associations between food insecurity and healthy behaviors among Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data used were the 2011 Community Health Survey, cross-sectional representative samples of 253 communities in Korea. Food insecurity was defined as when participants reported that their family sometimes or often did not get enough food to eat in the past year. Healthy behaviors were considered as non-smoking, non-high risk drinking, participation in physical activities, eating a regular breakfast, and maintaining a normal weight. Multiple logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify the association between food insecurity and healthy behaviors. RESULTS The prevalence of food insecurity was 4.4% (men 3.9%, women 4.9%). Men with food insecurity had lower odds ratios (ORs) for non-smoking, 0.75 (95% CI: 0.68-0.82), participation in physical activities, 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76-0.90), and eating a regular breakfast, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.59-0.74), whereas they had a higher OR for maintaining a normal weight, 1.19 (95% CI: 1.09-1.30), than men with food security. Women with food insecurity had lower ORs for non-smoking, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.66-0.89), and eating a regular breakfast, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72-0.88). For men, ORs for obesity were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.70-0.87) for overweight and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.39-0.82) for mild obesity. For women, the OR for moderate obesity was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.14-3.63) as compared with normal weight. CONCLUSIONS Food insecurity has a different impact on healthy behaviors. Provision of coping strategies for food insecurity might be critical to improve healthy behaviors among the population. PMID:26244083

  6. Wingate Anaerobic Test Percentile Norms in Colombian Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Albán, Carlos A; La Rotta-Villamizar, Diego R; Romero-García, Jesús A; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) became one of the most convenient tests used to evaluate anaerobic capacity and the effectiveness of anaerobic training programs for a variety of power sports. However, its use and interpretation as an evaluative measurement are limited because there are few published reference values derived from large numbers of subjects in nonathletic populations. We present reference values for the WAnT in Colombian healthy adults (aged 20-80 years old). The sample comprised 1,873 subjects (64% men) from Cali, Colombia, who were recruited for the study between 2002 and 2012. The 30-second WAnT was performed on a Monark ergometer. The WAnT resistance was set at 0.075 kp · kg(-1) body mass (BM). The mean absolute peak power (PP), relative PP normalized to the BM, and the fatigue index (FI%) were calculated using the LMS method (L [curve Box-Cox], M [curve median], and S [curve coefficient of variation]) and expressed as tabulated percentiles from 3 to 97 and as smoothed centile curves (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, P97). Mean ± SD values for the patients' anthropometric data were 38.1 ± 11.7 years of age, 72.7 ± 14.2 kg weight, 1.68 ± 0.09 m height, and 25.6 ± 4.2 body mass index. Our results show that mean absolute PP value, relative PP relative values normalized to BM, and FI were 527.4 ± 131.7 W, 7.6 ± 2.3 W · kg(-1), and 29.0 ± 15.7%, respectively. Men performed better than women in terms of PP and FI values. Nevertheless, the mean PP decreased with age and sex. Age-specific PP and FI normative values among healthy Colombian adults are defined. A more specific set of reference values is useful for clinicians and researchers studying anaerobic capacity in healthy adults.

  7. Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Low and middle income nations will experience an unprecedented growth of the elderly population and subsequent increase in age-related neurological disorders. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of all-types of neurological disorders with serious mental health complications will increase with life expectancy across the globe. One-in- ten individuals over 75 has at least moderate cognitive impairment. Prevalence of cognitive impairment doubles every 5 years thereafter. Latin America’s population of older adult’s 65 years and older is growing rapidly, yet little is known about cognitive aging among healthy older Latinos. Clinically significant depressive symptomatology is common among community-dwelling older adults and is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains, however much of the literature has not modeled the unique effects of depression distinct from negative and low positive affect. Our objective was to understand how mental health affects cognitive health in healthy aging Latinos. Methods The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relative effects of Negative Affect, Positive Affect and Geriatric Depression on Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, Processing Speed, and Working Memory in healthy aging Latinos. Data was collected from a sample of healthy community dwelling older adults living in San Jose, Costa Rica. Modeling of latent variables attenuated error and improved measurement reliability of cognition, affect, and depression variables. Results Costa Ricans enjoy a notoriety for being much happier than US citizens and are renowned as one of the happiest nations in the world in global surveys. This was born out in these data. Costa Rican affective profiles differed substantively from US profiles. Levels of negative affect and depression were similar to US samples, but their levels of positive affect were much higher. Cognitive performance of these Costa Rican

  8. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence.

  9. Prehypertension and Its Determinants in Apparently Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Senthil, Sunandha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction High incidence of prehypertension is reported in medical undergraduates. Prehypertension may progress to hypertension and eventually cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, identifying the risk factors of hypertension in prehypertensive state may aid in effective control of blood pressure. Aim To find whether clustering of known risk factors of hypertension or certain individual risk factors alone affect blood pressure in young adults. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study done in 84 apparently healthy medical students of either sex aged between 18-23 years. It included students with at least one known risk factor of hypertension. Blood pressure levels of 120 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg were defined as prehypertension. The risk factors considered were male gender, family history of cardiovascular disease, sedentary life, general and central obesity, sleep quality, perceived stress and dietary pattern. Clustering of risk factors was assessed based on collective scoring system in which each risk factor was scored appropriately. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired t, Chi-square and Pearson correlation coefficient tests. The p<0.05 was considered significant. Results There was a positive correlation between total risk factor score and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.266, p = 0.015). Among the risk factors, frequency of males with systolic and diastolic prehypertension was higher compared to females (p <0.0001,= 0.022 respectively). Body mass index was higher in systolic and diastolic prehypertensives compared to normotensives (p <0.001, 0.002, respectively). Waist circumference was higher in systolic and diastolic prehypertensives compared to normotensives (p< 0.0001). Conclusion In apparently healthy young adults, male gender and obesity are the major risk factors of elevated blood pressure. PMID:27790426

  10. Pramipexole Impairs Stimulus-Response Learning in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gallant, Haley; Vo, Andrew; Seergobin, Ken N.; MacDonald, Penny A.

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic therapy has paradoxical effects on cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, with some functions worsened and others improved. The dopamine overdose hypothesis is proposed as an explanation for these opposing effects of medication taking into account the varying levels of dopamine within different brain regions in PD. The detrimental effects of medication on cognition have been attributed to exogenous dopamine overdose in brain regions with spared dopamine levels in PD. It has been demonstrated that learning is most commonly worsened by dopaminergic medication. The current study aimed to investigate whether the medication-related learning impairment exhibited in PD patients is due to a main effect of medication by evaluating the dopamine overdose hypothesis in healthy young adults. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 40 healthy young undergraduate students completed a stimulus-response learning task. Half of the participants were treated with 0.5 mg of pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, whereas the other half were treated with a placebo. We found that stimulus-response learning was significantly impaired in participants on pramipexole relative to placebo controls. These findings are consistent with the dopamine overdose hypothesis and suggest that dopaminergic medication impairs learning independent of PD pathology. Our results have important clinical implications for conditions treated with pramipexole, particularly PD, restless leg syndrome, some forms of dystonia, and potentially depression. PMID:27594823

  11. Psychological correlates of habitual diet in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    There are 3 motivations for studying the psychological correlates of habitual diet. First, diet is a major but modifiable cause of morbidity and mortality, and dietary interventions could be improved by knowing the psychological characteristics of consumers of healthy/unhealthy diets. Second, animal studies indicate that diet can impair cognition, stress responsiveness, and affective processing, but it is unclear whether this also happens in humans. Third, certain psychological traits are associated with obesity, but it is not known whether these precede and thus contribute to weight gain. Although many psychological correlates of diet have been identified, the literature is highly dispersed, and there has been no previous comprehensive narrative review. Organized here by psychological domain, studies linking diet with individual differences in perception, cognition, impulsivity, personality, affective processing, mental health, and attitudes, beliefs and values-in healthy adults-are reviewed. Although there is a growing literature on the psychological correlates of fruit/vegetable intake-the core of a healthy diet-consumers of unhealthy diets have characteristics that probably make them less responsive to education-based interventions. Diet may be a causal contributor to depression, and diet is consistently linked to impulsivity and certain personality traits. There are inconsistent and less explored links to perceptual, affective and cognitive processes, with several emerging parallels to the animal literature. Impulsivity and personality traits common to obese individuals also occur in lean consumers of unhealthy diets, suggesting these may contribute to weight gain. Diet-psychology correlates remain understudied even though this could significantly benefit human health. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Association between osteocalcin and cognitive performance in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bradburn, Steven; McPhee, Jamie S; Bagley, Liam; Sipila, Sarianna; Stenroth, Lauri; Narici, Marco Vincenzo; Pääsuke, Mati; Gapeyeva, Helena; Osborne, Gabrielle; Sassano, Lorraine; Meskers, Carel G. M.; Maier, Andrea B.; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Barnouin, Yoann; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Murgatroyd, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Introduction cognitive deterioration and reductions of bone health coincide with increasing age. We examine the relationship between bone composition and plasma markers of bone remodelling with measures of cognitive performance in healthy adults. Methods this cross-sectional study included 225 old (52% women, mean age: 74.4 ± 3.3 years) and 134 young (52% women, mean age: 23.4 ± 2.7 years) adult participants from the MyoAge project. Whole body bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood analyses included a panel of bone-related peptides (dickkopf-1, osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin (OC), osteopontin, sclerostin, parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor 23), as well as serum calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D assays. A selection of cognitive domains (working memory capacity, episodic memory, executive functioning and global cognition) was assessed with a standardised neuropsychological test battery. Results adjusting for covariates and multiple testing revealed that plasma OC levels were positively associated with measures of executive functioning (β = 0.444, P < 0.001) and global cognition (β = 0.381, P = 0.001) in the older women. Discussion these correlative results demonstrate a positive association between OC, a factor known to regulate bone remodelling, with cognitive performance in older non-demented women. Further work should address possible mechanistic interpretations in humans. PMID:27515675

  13. Atorvastatin Increases Exercise Leg Blood Flow in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Beth A.; Capizzi, Jeffrey A.; Augeri, Amanda L.; Grimaldi, Adam S.; White, C. Michael; Thompson, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We sought to examine the effect of atorvastatin therapy on exercise leg blood flow in healthy middle-aged and older, men and women. BACKGROUND The vasodilatory response to exercise decreases in humans with aging and disease and this reduction may contribute to reduced exercise capacity. METHODS We used a double-blind, randomly assigned, placebo-controlled protocol to assess the effect of atorvastatin treatment on exercising leg hemodynamics. We measured femoral artery blood flow (FBF) using Doppler ultrasound and calculated femoral vascular conductance (FVC) from brachial mean arterial pressure (MAP) before and during single knee-extensor exercise in healthy adults (ages 40–71) before (PRE) and after (POST) 6 months of 80 mg atorvastatin (A: 14 men, 16 women) or placebo (P: 14 men, 22 women) treatment. FBF and FVC were normalized to exercise power output and estimated quadriceps muscle mass. RESULTS Atorvastatin reduced LDL cholesterol by approximately 50%, but not in the placebo group (p < 0.01). Atorvastatin also increased exercise FBF from 44.2 ± 19.0 to 51.4 ± 22.0 mL/min/W/kg muscle whereas FBF in the placebo group was unchanged (40.1 ± 16.0 vs 39.5 ± 16.1) (p <0.01). FVC also increased with atorvastatin from 0.5 ± 0.2 to. 0.6 ± 0.2 mL/min/mmHg/W/kg muscle, but not in the placebo subjects (P: 0.4 ± 0.2 vs 0.4 ± 0.2) ( p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS High-dose atorvastatin augments exercising leg hyperemia. Statins may mitigate reductions in the exercise vasodilatory response in humans that are associated with aging and disease. PMID:22018642

  14. Gastrointestinal tolerance and utilization of agave inulin by healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Holscher, Hannah D; Doligale, Jamie L; Bauer, Laura L; Gourineni, Vishnupriya; Pelkman, Christine L; Fahey, George C; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-06-01

    Little clinical research exists on agave inulin as a fiber source. Due to differences in botanical origin and chemical structure compared to other inulin-type fibers, research is needed to assess gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance following consumption. This study aimed to evaluate GI tolerance and utilization of 5.0 and 7.5 g per day of agave inulin in healthy adults (n = 29) using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial consisting of three 21 day periods with 1 week washouts among periods. GI tolerance was assessed via daily and weekly questionnaires, three fecal samples were collected on days 16-20 of each period, and breath hydrogen testing was completed on the final day of each treatment period. Survey data were compared using a generalized linear mixed model. All other outcomes were analyzed using a mixed linear model with a repeated measures procedure. Composite GI intolerance scores for 5.0 and 7.5 g treatments were both greater (P < 0.05) than control, however, scores were low, with means of 0.4, 1.9, and 2.3 on a 0-12 point composite scale for 0, 5.0, and 7.5 g treatments, respectively. There were slight increases (P < 0.05) in bloating, flatulence, and rumbling frequency with 5.0 and 7.5 g agave inulin. Abdominal pain and rumbling intensity were marginally greater (P < 0.05) with 7.5 g. Bloating and flatulence intensity increased (P < 0.05) with 5.0 g and 7.5 g. Agave inulin did not affect diarrhea (P > 0.05). Number of bowel movements per day increased, stools were softer, and stool dry matter percentage was lower with 7.5 g (P < 0.05). Breath hydrogen concentrations increased (P < 0.001) from 5-8 hour postprandial when participants consumed agave inulin compared to control. These data demonstrate that doses up to 7.5 g per day of agave inulin led to minimal GI upset, do not increase diarrhea, and improve laxation in healthy young adults.

  15. Kidney dysfunction and cerebral microbleeds in neurologically healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Shin, Dong Wook; Yun, Jae Moon; Lee, Ji Eun; Lim, Jae-Sung; Cho, Be Long

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral microbleed (CMB) is a potent risk factor for overt cerebrovascular disease. Although some studies indicated the possible role of renal dysfunction as a risk factor of CMB, the findings could not be generalized. This study aimed to investigate the association between renal dysfunction and cerebral microbleed (CMB) in neurologically healthy adults. Materials and methods A total of 2,518 subjects who underwent brain MRI as part of health screening were involved in the study. CMBs were defined as well-demarcated focal areas of low signal intensity with associated blooming on the T2-weighted MRI measuring less than 5mm in diameter. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Kidney function was classified as normal (≥90), mild (60 to 89.9), moderate (30 to 59.9), and severe (<30 mL/min/1.73 m2) renal dysfunction according to the GFR. Results The mean age of the participants was 57.5 ± 8.3 years (ranged 40 to 79), and 1,367 subjects (54.3%) were male. The mean GFR level was 81.5 ± 15.5, and the prevalence of CMB was 4.1% (n = 103). Subjects with CMB demonstrated a higher proportion of moderate-to-severe renal dysfunction than those without CMB (15.5% vs. 5.0%, p < 0.001). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, moderate-to-severe renal dysfunction showed a significant association with CMB (adjusted odd ratio = 2.63; p = 0.008). Furthermore, a decrease in the GFR level was associated with an increasing trend of the presence of CMB (p for trend = 0.031) and number of CMB lesions (p for trend = 0.003). Conclusions Renal dysfunction was significantly associated with the presence of CMB in neurologically healthy adults. More studies are needed to evaluate if treatment of kidney disease and risk factor modification may prevent further progress of CMB. PMID:28207801

  16. Biomechanical Correlates of Surface Electromyography Signals Obtained during Swallowing by Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crary, Michael A.; Carnaby (Mann), Giselle D.; Groher, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe biomechanical correlates of the surface electromyographic signal obtained during swallowing by healthy adult volunteers. Method: Seventeen healthy adults were evaluated with simultaneous videofluoroscopy and surface electromyography (sEMG) while swallowing 5 mL of liquid barium sulfate. Three…

  17. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B.; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation. PMID:27732604

  18. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  19. Bikram yoga training and physical fitness in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Brian L; Hart, Cady E F

    2013-03-01

    There has been relatively little longitudinal controlled investigation of the effects of yoga on general physical fitness, despite the widespread participation in this form of exercise. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effect of short-term Bikram yoga training on general physical fitness. Young healthy adults were randomized to yoga training (N = 10, 29 ± 6 years, 24 sessions in 8 weeks) or a control group (N = 11, 26 ± 7 years). Each yoga training session consisted of 90-minute standardized supervised postures performed in a heated and humidified studio. Isometric deadlift strength, handgrip strength, lower back/hamstring and shoulder flexibility, resting heart rate and blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (treadmill), and lean and fat mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after training. Yoga subjects exhibited increased deadlift strength, substantially increased lower back/hamstring flexibility, increased shoulder flexibility, and modestly decreased body fat compared with control group. There were no changes in handgrip strength, cardiovascular measures, or maximal aerobic fitness. In summary, this short-term yoga training protocol produced beneficial changes in musculoskeletal fitness that were specific to the training stimulus.

  20. Limited Effects of Set Shifting Training in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Grönholm-Nyman, Petra; Soveri, Anna; Rinne, Juha O.; Ek, Emilia; Nyholm, Alexandra; Stigsdotter Neely, Anna; Laine, Matti

    2017-01-01

    Our ability to flexibly shift between tasks or task sets declines in older age. As this decline may have adverse effects on everyday life of elderly people, it is of interest to study whether set shifting ability can be trained, and if training effects generalize to other cognitive tasks. Here, we report a randomized controlled trial where healthy older adults trained set shifting with three different set shifting tasks. The training group (n = 17) performed adaptive set shifting training for 5 weeks with three training sessions a week (45 min/session), while the active control group (n = 16) played three different computer games for the same period. Both groups underwent extensive pre- and post-testing and a 1-year follow-up. Compared to the controls, the training group showed significant improvements on the trained tasks. Evidence for near transfer in the training group was very limited, as it was seen only on overall accuracy on an untrained computerized set shifting task. No far transfer to other cognitive functions was observed. One year later, the training group was still better on the trained tasks but the single near transfer effect had vanished. The results suggest that computerized set shifting training in the elderly shows long-lasting effects on the trained tasks but very little benefit in terms of generalization. PMID:28386226

  1. Effects of Peginesatide Injection on QTc Interval in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Czerniak, Richard; Kukulka, Michael; Wu, Jing Tao; Qiu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    A single-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and positive-controlled, three-period crossover study was conducted to evaluate the effect of peginesatide injection on QT interval in healthy adults. Subjects received single doses of placebo, peginesatide injection 0.1 mg/kg intravenous, or moxifloxacin 400 mg during three treatment periods, separated by 14-day washout intervals. ECG recordings and blood samples for peginesatide and moxifloxacin plasma concentrations were collected prior to dosing and through 22 hours postdose. QT intervals were measured with a high resolution manual on-screen caliper method. The study endpoint was the mean difference between peginesatide and placebo in baseline-adjusted corrected QT interval (ddQTc). The maximum upper bound of the one-sided 95% CI was 2.2 milliseconds at 0.75 hours for Fridericia-corrected ddQTc (ddQTcF) and 2.2 milliseconds at 0.25 hours for individual corrected ddQTcI. The linear relationship between ddQTcF and peginesatide concentrations was essentially flat and not statistically significant [slope = 0.001, P = 0.126, 90% CI: (<−0.0005, 0.002)]. Using this model, the projected ddQTcF effect at the observed mean peak plasma concentration is estimated to be 0.9 milliseconds, 90% CI: (−2.0, 0.3 milliseconds). There were no peginesatide-related effects on heart rate, PR interval, or QRS interval. Thus, there is no anticipated cardiovascular effect of peginesatide injection 0.1 mg/kg in patients. PMID:26161294

  2. Effects of Peginesatide Injection on QTc Interval in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Czerniak, Richard; Kukulka, Michael; Wu, Jing Tao; Qiu, Ping

    2014-11-01

    A single-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and positive-controlled, three-period crossover study was conducted to evaluate the effect of peginesatide injection on QT interval in healthy adults. Subjects received single doses of placebo, peginesatide injection 0.1 mg/kg intravenous, or moxifloxacin 400 mg during three treatment periods, separated by 14-day washout intervals. ECG recordings and blood samples for peginesatide and moxifloxacin plasma concentrations were collected prior to dosing and through 22 hours postdose. QT intervals were measured with a high resolution manual on-screen caliper method. The study endpoint was the mean difference between peginesatide and placebo in baseline-adjusted corrected QT interval (ddQTc). The maximum upper bound of the one-sided 95% CI was 2.2 milliseconds at 0.75 hours for Fridericia-corrected ddQTc (ddQTcF) and 2.2 milliseconds at 0.25 hours for individual corrected ddQTcI. The linear relationship between ddQTcF and peginesatide concentrations was essentially flat and not statistically significant [slope = 0.001, P = 0.126, 90% CI: (<-0.0005, 0.002)]. Using this model, the projected ddQTcF effect at the observed mean peak plasma concentration is estimated to be 0.9 milliseconds, 90% CI: (-2.0, 0.3 milliseconds). There were no peginesatide-related effects on heart rate, PR interval, or QRS interval. Thus, there is no anticipated cardiovascular effect of peginesatide injection 0.1 mg/kg in patients.

  3. Physical exercise and cardiac autonomic activity in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kaninika; Krishna, Pushpa

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Regular exercise is known to improve health and maintain physical fitness. The heart rate response to exercise reflects autonomic control of heart and has shown to predict cardiovascular prognosis. Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is known as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to study the effect of exercise on cardiac autonomic activity. Thirty two healthy adult men in the age group of 18-25 years with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited from different physical fitness centers, who were undergoing regular exercise for past 3 months. Resting ECG was recorded for 5 minutes and analyzed for frequency analysis of HRV. HRV parameters of the subjects were compared with fifty age and BMI matched subjects who were not undergoing any exercise program. Physical activity level of all subjects was assessed by using Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. The exercising (E) subjects were found to have a lesser heart rate (73.27 ± 8.6 vs 74.41 ± 8.59) compared to non-exercising (NE) group, which was not significant. No significant difference was found in frequency domain parameters of HRV between exercising and non-exercising group with LF (47.12 ± 19.17 vs 43.55 ± 16.66), HF (41.03 ± 17.65 vs 46.03 ± 15.89) and LF/HF (1.61 ± 1.16 vs 1.22 ± 0.93) respectively. Physical activity level was significantly different between the two groups (4175 ± 1481.53 vs 1176.4?1103.83, p<0.001). This study showed 3 months of exercise did not have any effect on cardiac autonomic activity despite the difference in physical activity.

  4. Neural Mechanisms of Verb Argument Structure Processing in Agrammatic Aphasic and Healthy Age-Matched Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Fix, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior peri-sylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions on the basis of argument structure complexity. The aim of…

  5. Older-Adult Playfulness: An Innovative Construct and Measurement for Healthy Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…

  6. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creati...

  7. Fast Mapping in Healthy Young Adults: The Influence of Metamemory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandra, Vijayachandra; Rickenbach, Bryna; Ruda, Marissa; LeCureux, Bethanie; Pope, Moira

    2010-01-01

    Several research studies suggest the significant role played by metamemory in lexical abilities of both adults and children. To our knowledge, there have been no studies to date that have explored the role of metamemory (Judgments of Learning) in fast mapping of novel words by adults. One hundred and twelve undergraduate students were given tasks…

  8. Effecting Healthy Lifestyle Changes in Overweight and Obese Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors.…

  9. Stage-Based Healthy Lifestyles Program for Non-College Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jennifer; Kattelmann, Kendra; White, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the feasibility of implementing a healthy lifestyles intervention to maintain or achieve healthy weight for low-income young adults in vocational education. Design/methodology/approach: Non-randomized, quasi-experimental feasibility test of a ten-week intervention with follow-up assessment designed…

  10. Healthy Behaviors and Lifestyles in Young Adults with a History of Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…

  11. Project Healthy Bones: An Osteoporosis Prevention Program for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotzbach-Shimomura, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Project Healthy Bones is a 24-week exercise and education program for older women and men at risk for or who have osteoporosis. The exercise component is designed to improve strength, balance, and flexibility. The education curriculum stresses the importance of exercise, nutrition, safety, drug therapy, and lifestyle factors. (SK)

  12. Variability in Perisylvian Brain Anatomy in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Bollich, Angela M.; Corey, David M.; Lemen, Lisa C.; Foundas, Anne L.

    2006-01-01

    Gray matter volumes of Heschl's gyrus (HG), planum temporale (PT), pars triangularis (PTR), and pars opercularis were measured on MRI in 48 healthy right-handers. There was the expected leftward PT asymmetry in 70.8%, and leftward PTR asymmetry in 64.6% of the sample. When asymmetry patterns within individuals were examined, there was not one…

  13. Intraindividual variability in physical and emotional functioning: comparison of adults with traumatic brain injuries and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Burton, Catherine L; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther; Hunter, Michael A

    2002-08-01

    Recent research has shown that individuals with certain neurological conditions demonstrate greater intraindividual variability on cognitive tasks compared to healthy controls. The present study investigated intraindividual variability in the domains of physical functioning and affect/stress in three groups: adults with mild head injuries, adults with moderate/severe head injuries, and healthy adults. Participants were assessed on 10 occasions and results indicated that (a) individuals with head injuries demonstrated greater variability in dominant finger dexterity and right grip strength than the healthy controls; (b) increased variability tended to be associated with poorer performance/report both within and across tasks; and (c) increased variability on one task was associated with increased variability on other tasks. The findings suggest that increased variability in physical function, as well as cognitive function, represents an indicator of neurological compromise.

  14. Large Epidemic of Respiratory Illness Due to Adenovirus Types 7 and 3 in Healthy Young Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-15

    Epidemic of Respiratory fliness Due to Adenovirus Types 7 and 3 in Healthy Young Adults Margaret A. K. Ryan, Gregory C. Gray," Besa Smith, Jamie A...immunization, respiratory infections due to adenoviruses have reemerged to threaten the health of young adults in the military. Shortly after the loss...challenges for young adults in the military in the postvaccine era. The US military has long had concern about the impact adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7

  15. Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies.

  16. Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies. PMID:27378996

  17. Normal range values for thromboelastography in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Scarpelini, S; Rhind, S G; Nascimento, B; Tien, H; Shek, P N; Peng, H T; Huang, H; Pinto, R; Speers, V; Reis, M; Rizoli, S B

    2009-12-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) provides a functional evaluation of coagulation. It has characteristics of an ideal coagulation test for trauma, but is not frequently used, partially due to lack of both standardized techniques and normal values. We determined normal values for our population, compared them to those of the manufacturer and evaluated the effect of gender, age, blood type, and ethnicity. The technique was standardized using citrated blood, kaolin and was performed on a Haemoscope 5000 device. Volunteers were interviewed and excluded if pregnant, on anticoagulants or having a bleeding disorder. The TEG parameters analyzed were R, K, alpha, MA, LY30, and coagulation index. All volunteers outside the manufacturer's normal range underwent extensive coagulation investigations. Reference ranges for 95% for 118 healthy volunteers were R: 3.8-9.8 min, K: 0.7-3.4 min, alpha: 47.8-77.7 degrees, MA: 49.7-72.7 mm, LY30: -2.3-5.77%, coagulation index: -5.1-3.6. Most values were significantly different from those of the manufacturer, which would have diagnosed coagulopathy in 10 volunteers, for whom additional investigation revealed no disease (81% specificity). Healthy women were significantly more hypercoagulable than men. Aging was not associated with hypercoagulability and East Asian ethnicity was not with hypocoagulability. In our population, the manufacturer's normal values for citrated blood-kaolin had a specificity of 81% and would incorrectly identify 8.5% of the healthy volunteers as coagulopathic. This study supports the manufacturer's recommendation that each institution should determine its own normal values before adopting TEG, a procedure which may be impractical. Consideration should be given to a multi-institutional study to establish wide standard values for TEG.

  18. Prospective dynamic balance control in healthy children and adults.

    PubMed

    Austad, Hanne; van der Meer, Audrey L H

    2007-08-01

    Balance control during gait initiation was studied using center of pressure (CoP) data from force plate measurements. Twenty-four participants were divided into four age groups: (1) 2-3 years, (2) 4-5 years, (3) 7-8 years, and (4) adults. Movement in the antero-posterior (CoPy) direction during the initial step was tau-G analyzed, investigating the hypothesis that tau of the CoPy motion-gap (tau(CoPy)), i.e., the time it will take to close the gap at its current closure rate, is tau-coupled onto an intrinsic tau-G guide (tau(G)), by maintaining the relation tau(CoPy )= Ktau(G), for a constant K. Mean percentage of tau-guidance for all groups was >/=99%, resulting in all r(2) exceeding 0.95, justifying an investigation of the regression slope as an estimate of the coupling constant K in the tau-coupling equation. Mean K values decreased significantly with age and were for 2- to 3-year-olds 0.56, for 4- to 5-year-olds 0.50, for 7- to 8-year-olds 0.47, and for adults 0.41. Therefore, the control of dynamic balance develops from the youngest children colliding with the boundaries of the base of support (K > 0.5) to the older children and adults making touch contact (K

  19. Moderators of noise-induced cognitive change in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Bernice AL; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Ettinger, Ulrich; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Environmental noise causes cognitive impairment, particularly in executive function and episodic memory domains, in healthy populations. However, the possible moderating influences on this relationship are less clear. This study assessed 54 healthy participants (24 men) on a cognitive battery (measuring psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, working memory, and verbal learning and memory) under three (quiet, urban, and social) noise conditions. IQ, subjective noise sensitivity, sleep, personality, paranoia, depression, anxiety, stress, and schizotypy were assessed on a single occasion. We found significantly slower psychomotor speed (urban), reduced working memory and episodic memory (urban and social), and more cautious decision-making (executive function, urban) under noise conditions. There was no effect of sex. Variance in urban noise-induced changes in psychomotor speed, attention, Trail Making B-A (executive function), and immediate recall and social noise-induced changes in verbal fluency (executive function) and immediate recall were explained by a combination of baseline cognition and paranoia, noise sensitivity, sleep, or cognitive disorganization. Higher baseline cognition (but not IQ) predicted greater impairment under urban and social noise for most cognitive variables. Paranoia predicted psychomotor speed, attention, and executive function impairment. Subjective noise sensitivity predicted executive function and memory impairment. Poor sleep quality predicted less memory impairment. Finally, lower levels of cognitive disorganization predicted slower psychomotor speed and greater memory impairment. The identified moderators should be considered in studies aiming to reduce the detrimental effects of occupational and residential noise. These results highlight the importance of studying noise effects in clinical populations characterized by high levels of the paranoia, sleep disturbances, noise sensitivity, and cognitive disorganization. PMID

  20. Moderators of noise-induced cognitive change in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bernice Al; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Ettinger, Ulrich; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Environmental noise causes cognitive impairment, particularly in executive function and episodic memory domains, in healthy populations. However, the possible moderating influences on this relationship are less clear. This study assessed 54 healthy participants (24 men) on a cognitive battery (measuring psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, working memory, and verbal learning and memory) under three (quiet, urban, and social) noise conditions. IQ, subjective noise sensitivity, sleep, personality, paranoia, depression, anxiety, stress, and schizotypy were assessed on a single occasion. We found significantly slower psychomotor speed (urban), reduced working memory and episodic memory (urban and social), and more cautious decision-making (executive function, urban) under noise conditions. There was no effect of sex. Variance in urban noise-induced changes in psychomotor speed, attention, Trail Making B-A (executive function), and immediate recall and social noise-induced changes in verbal fluency (executive function) and immediate recall were explained by a combination of baseline cognition and paranoia, noise sensitivity, sleep, or cognitive disorganization. Higher baseline cognition (but not IQ) predicted greater impairment under urban and social noise for most cognitive variables. Paranoia predicted psychomotor speed, attention, and executive function impairment. Subjective noise sensitivity predicted executive function and memory impairment. Poor sleep quality predicted less memory impairment. Finally, lower levels of cognitive disorganization predicted slower psychomotor speed and greater memory impairment. The identified moderators should be considered in studies aiming to reduce the detrimental effects of occupational and residential noise. These results highlight the importance of studying noise effects in clinical populations characterized by high levels of the paranoia, sleep disturbances, noise sensitivity, and cognitive disorganization.

  1. An electrophysiological investigation of discourse coherence in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Yael; Epstein, Baila; Yu, Yan H; Benasich, April A; Shafer, Valerie

    2014-11-01

    This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate discourse-coherence processing. Because there are scant data on ERP indices of discourse coherence in typical adults, it is important to study a non-clinical population before examining clinical populations. Twelve adults listened to a story with sentences in a coherent versus incoherent order. Sequences of nonsense syllables served as a control. ERPs in the 200-400 ms time window, reflecting phonological and lexical processing, and in the 600-900 ms time window, reflecting later discourse processing for integration, were investigated. Results revealed a right anterior and posterior positivity that was greater for coherent than for incoherent discourse during the 600-900 ms time window. These findings point to an index of discourse coherence and further suggest that ERPs can be used as a clinical tool to study discourse-processing disorders in populations with brain damage, such as aphasia and traumatic brain injury.

  2. Failure to differentiate between threat-related and positive emotion cues in healthy adults with childhood interpersonal or adult trauma.

    PubMed

    Chu, Denise A; Bryant, Richard A; Gatt, Justine M; Harris, Anthony W F

    2016-07-01

    Enhanced threat-related processing is associated with both elevated anxiety and childhood exposure to trauma. Given the paucity of evidence regarding the effects of childhood and adult trauma exposure on subsequent psychophysiological processes in the absence of psychopathology, we investigated the relative impacts of childhood interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma, as well as adult trauma exposure on neural processing of threat in healthy adults. We measured peak amplitudes of the N170 face-sensitive visual ERP component response to non-conscious and conscious Angry (threat) versus Happy (non-threat, positive) and Neutral (non-threat baseline) faces at temporo-occipital sites (right-T6; left-T5) in 489 psychiatrically asymptomatic adults (aged 18-70 years, 54% women, 94% right-handed). N170 peak amplitude differences between Angry vs Happy or Neutral faces were calculated and subjected to hierarchical multiple regression analysis, with trauma types (childhood interpersonal, childhood non-interpersonal and adult trauma) entered as predictors of interest. After controlling for sociodemographic and health factors, N170 peak amplitudes for non-conscious Angry vs Happy faces were inversely associated with childhood interpersonal trauma at T6 and adult trauma exposure at T5. Post-hoc repeated measures ANOVA indicated that unlike adults without trauma exposure, trauma-exposed adults failed to show significantly reduced N170 responses to Happy relative to Angry faces during non-conscious processing. This suggests that childhood interpersonal and adult trauma exposure are associated with a failure to differentiate between non-threat or positive and threat-related emotion cues. This is consistent with generalised hypervigilance seen in PTSD, and suggests trauma exposure is associated with a generalized heightened responsivity to non-conscious non-threat or positive as well as threat-related emotion cues in psychiatrically healthy adults.

  3. Strategic creatine supplementation and resistance training in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Candow, Darren G; Vogt, Emelie; Johannsmeyer, Sarah; Forbes, Scott C; Farthing, Jonathan P

    2015-07-01

    Creatine supplementation in close proximity to resistance training may be an important strategy for increasing muscle mass and strength; however, it is unknown whether creatine supplementation before or after resistance training is more effective for aging adults. Using a double-blind, repeated measures design, older adults (50-71 years) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: creatine before (CR-B: n = 15; creatine (0.1 g/kg) immediately before resistance training and placebo (0.1 g/kg cornstarch maltodextrin) immediately after resistance training), creatine after (CR-A: n = 12; placebo immediately before resistance training and creatine immediately after resistance training), or placebo (PLA: n = 12; placebo immediately before and immediately after resistance training) for 32 weeks. Prior to and following the study, body composition (lean tissue, fat mass; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and muscle strength (1-repetition maximum leg press and chest press) were assessed. There was an increase over time for lean tissue mass and muscle strength and a decrease in fat mass (p < 0.05). CR-A resulted in greater improvements in lean tissue mass (Δ 3.0 ± 1.9 kg) compared with PLA (Δ 0.5 ± 2.1 kg; p < 0.025). Creatine supplementation, independent of the timing of ingestion, increased muscle strength more than placebo (leg press: CR-B, Δ 36.6 ± 26.6 kg; CR-A, Δ 40.8 ± 38.4 kg; PLA, Δ 5.6 ± 35.1 kg; chest press: CR-B, Δ 15.2 ± 13.0 kg; CR-A, Δ 15.7 ± 12.5 kg; PLA, Δ 1.9 ± 14.7 kg; p < 0.025). Compared with resistance training alone, creatine supplementation improves muscle strength, with greater gains in lean tissue mass resulting from post-exercise creatine supplementation.

  4. Influential factors for pressure pulse waveform in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Wang, Ling; Li, Shuyu; Zhi, Guang; Li, Deyu; Zhang, Chi

    2015-01-01

    The effects of gender and other contributory factors on pulse waveform are still under arguments. In view of different results caused by few considerations of possible influential factors and general agreement of gender relating to pulse waveform, this study aims to address the confounding factors interfering with the association between gender and pulse waveform characteristics. A novel method was proposed to noninvasively detect pressure pulse wave and assess the morphology of pulse wave. Forty healthy young subjects were included in the present research. Height, weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured manually and body mass index (BMI), pulse blood pressure (PP) and heart rate (HR) were calculated automatically. Student's t test was used to analyze the gender difference and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to examine the effects of intrinsic factors. Univariate regression analysis was performed to assess the main factors on the waveform characteristics. Waveform features were found significantly different between genders. However this study indicates that the main factors for time-related and amplitude-related parameters are HR and SBP respectively. In conclusion, the impact of HR and SBP on pulse waveform features should not be underestimated, especially when analyzing the gender difference.

  5. Effects of oxytocin on aggressive responding in healthy adult males

    PubMed Central

    Alcorn, Joseph L.; Green, Charles E.; Schmitz, Joy; Lane, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of oxytocin (OT) on human aggression using a well-established laboratory measure of state (reactive) aggression to test the hypothesis that OT would decrease the frequency of aggressive responding. In a within-subject design, 17 healthy male volunteers received placebo or 24 international units of intranasal OT. Aggression was measured via the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm at 30 min prior and 30, 60 and 90 min post-dose. Acute OT did not produce a significant main effect on aggressive behavior. OT attenuated the expected rise in diastolic blood pressure from morning to early afternoon observed under placebo, providing a possible indicator of biological activity. Examination of individual differences showed that aggressive responding following OT dosing (but not placebo) was positively correlated with psychometric measures of interpersonal manipulation and anger (Pearson’s r = 0.57), indicating that higher scores on these antisocial personality traits were related to increased aggressive behavior following OT administration. These preliminary results stand in contrast to previous work on the prosocial effects of OT and highlight the need for further understanding of individual differences in aggression following OT administration. Such individual differences may have implications for the therapeutic use of OT in individuals with psychiatric disorders and dysfunctional social behavior. PMID:26241153

  6. Postural finger tremor exhibited by Parkinson patients and age-matched subjects.

    PubMed

    Palmer, S S; Hutton, J T

    1995-09-01

    Physiological correlates of postural tremor of the finger seen in Parkinson's disease patients are different from those seen in age-matched control subjects. A significant correlation between the spectral peak of acceleration and the spectral peak of rectified electromyographic activity from the muscle responsible for finger extension was found in Parkinson's disease patients. This correlation was not seen in age-matched control subjects. Any neural drive imposed on the motoneuron pool from supraspinal levels would enhance the electromyographic activity. Likewise, any feedback effects via spinal stretch reflexes or supraspinal stretch responses would be mediated through the motoneuron pool and electromyographic activity. The results of this research support the theory that Parkinson tremor is a centrally driven rhythm that may be influenced by feedback effects, whereas physiological tremor is due to a complex interaction of central, feedback, and mechanical effects.

  7. Renal excretion of plasma soluble melanins by healthy human adults.

    PubMed

    Hegedus, Z L; Nayak, U

    1993-01-01

    The soluble melanins of blood plasma form in vivo and in vitro from dopa, catecholamines, catechol, hydroquinone, homogentisic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, p-aminophenol, p-phenylenediamine and other structurally related end(ex)ogenous compounds by oxidative polymerization. The mean quantity of natural melanins in normal plasma is 1.61 +/- 0.10 (standard deviation) mg/ml, (n = 20) and in uraemic plasma 2.72 +/- 0.38 mg/ml, (n = 16). The plasma melanins (approximately 3%), are associated with proteins (approximately 85%), mucoproteins (approximately 0.25%), lipids (approximately 0.4%), as soluble lipofuscins, and probably are associated with proteins without lipids as soluble melanoproteins. Fluorescence, UV-VIS and IR spectroscopies and the melanin isolation method show the presence of soluble melanins in the urine of healthy people. Soluble melanins can also be formed in vitro in the urine by oxidative polymerization of the precursors. In most of the urine samples we studied, melanins were present in larger amounts than the urinary proteins, indicating that the kidneys can selectively excrete the melanin components of the lipofuscins, and that the solubility of melanins does not depend upon combination with proteins. The quantities of purified melanins precipitated with 6 N HCl at 110 degrees C during 72 h from urine samples collected during 24 h periods ranged from 0.1460 g to 3.7627 g (mean 1.1303 +/- 1.1739 g, n = 8) and the plasma clearance rates ranged from 0.06 ml/min to 1.56 ml/min (mean 0.48 +/- 0.48 ml/min, n = 8). From the individual 24 h urine samples we obtained from 9 to 216 mg/dl of precipitated melanins while the individual plasma samples contained from 145 to 175 mg/dl.

  8. Diurnal variation in the quantitative EEG in healthy adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, L; Dane, A; Rhodes, J; Lynch, P; Hughes, A M

    2000-01-01

    Aims To define the change in power in standard waveband frequencies of quantitative cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) data over a 24 h period, in a drug free representative healthy volunteer population. Methods This was an open, non randomised study in which 18 volunteers (9 male and 9 female) were studied on 1 study day, over a 24 h period. Volunteers had a cortical EEG recording taken at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 24 h. Each recording lasted for 6 min (3 min eyes open, 3 min eyes closed). All EEG recordings were taken in a quietened ward environment with the curtains drawn round the bed and the volunteer supine. During the 3 min eyes open, volunteers were asked to look at a red circle on a screen at the foot of the bed, and refrain from talking. Results Plots produced of geometric mean power by time of the standard wave band frequencies gave some indication of a circadian rhythm over the 24 h period for θ (4.75–6.75 Hz), α1 (7.0–9.5 Hz) and β1 (12.75–18.50 Hz) wavebands. Mixed models were fitted to both the eyes open and eyes closed data which confirmed a change in mean waveband power with time with statistical significance at the conventional 5% level (P < 0.05). Conclusions These data indicate the presence of a diurnal variation in the cortical quantitative EEG. They support the use of a placebo control group when designing clinical trials which utilize quantitative EEG to screen for central nervous system (CNS) activity of pharmaceutical agents, to control for the confounding variable of time of day at which the EEG recordings were made. PMID:10886113

  9. Executive functioning and adaptive coping in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Villegas, Ana Lilia; Salvador Cruz, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Middle-aged individuals encounter multiple environmental demands to which they must develop efficient solutions, thus making the study of executive functions and coping strategies within this age group important. This study evaluated the relationship between the planning and flexible organization of executive function with adaptive coping strategies (ACS) in adults aged 43 to 52 years old. The study included 104 participants, including 52 men and 52 women, with no history of neurological or psychiatric illnesses, diabetes, or hypertension. The participants engaged in the Tower of London(DX) (TOL(DX)) test, the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), and the Coping Strategies Inventory. A relationship was observed between the percentage of errors and conceptual-level responses (WCST) and the Problem Solving ACS. In a separate analysis performed on the men, a negative relationship was discovered between the WCST and the Emotional Expression ACS. In the female group, the dimensions of the WCST and the TOL(DX) were associated with the ACS Emotional Expression and Problem-Solving subscales and the maladaptive coping strategy Social Withdrawal subscale. The relationship between executive functioning and the ACS is multidimensional, complex, and different between men and women. This study adds a neuropsychological characterization of the relationship between executive functions and ACS with ecological validity. The study confirms a relationship between the flexible organization of executive function and the Problem-Solving ACS.

  10. Arm-Hand Usage in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Debbie; Eng, Janice J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives 1) To quantify arm-hand usage of older adults without a disability and to determine the effect of hand dominance, gender and day on hand usage, 2) to determine the factors that predict arm-hand usage. This information will enhance the understanding of the client’s extent of occupational performance. Methods Twenty men and 20 women, 65–85 years old, wore 3 accelerometers (wrists and hip) for 7 consecutive days. Manual dexterity and grip strength were assessed. A 3–way factorial ANOVA and multiple linear regressions were conducted. Results The activity kilocounts from both wrist accelerometers revealed a significant interaction effect between hand and gender (F(1,190)=24.4, p<.001). Enhanced manual dexterity of the right hand was associated with greater right hand usage. Conclusion Arm-hand usage is a novel dimension of hand function which can be used to measure the extent of real-life occupational performance when the client is in his/her home. PMID:21218678

  11. Low bone mineral density among young healthy adult Saudi women

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Zeidan A.; Sultan, Intisar E.; Guraya, Shaista S.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Khoshhal, Khalid I.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To screen for low bone mineral density among young adult Saudi women using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and exploring the high risk groups. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 279, 20-36 years old female students and employees of Taibah University, Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January and May 2014. The study included bone status assessed using QUS, a structured self-reported questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and evaluation of bone markers of bone metabolism. Results: The prevalence of low bone mineral density was 9%. Serum osteocalcin was found significantly higher in candidates with low bone mineral density, 20.67 ng/ml versus 10.7 ng/ml, and it was negatively correlated with T-scores. At any given point in time the exposed subjects to low calcium intake and inadequate sun exposure in the population were 11 times and 3 times more likely to have low bone mineral density, (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 11.0; 95%confidence interval [CI]=3.16, 38.34; p=0.001) and (adjusted OR, 3.32, 95%CI=1.27, 8.66, p<0.01). Conclusion: Early detection screening programs for low bone mineral density are needed in Saudi Arabia as it affects young Saudi women specially the high-risk group that includes young women with insufficient calcium intake and insufficient sun exposure. Serum osteocalcin as a biomarker for screening for low bone mineral density could be introduced. PMID:27761561

  12. Mechanism of Sequential Swallowing during Straw Drinking in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Corey, David M.; Hadskey, Leslie D.; Legendre, Calli; Priestly, Daniel H.; Rosenbek, John C.; Foundas, Anne L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has revealed differences between isolated and sequential swallowing in healthy young adults; however, the influence of normal aging on sequential swallowing has not been studied. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of normal aging on deglutition during sequential straw drinking. Videofluoroscopic…

  13. Long–term effects of caloric restriction on total and resting energy expenditure in healthy adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of long-term caloric restriction (CR) on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) in humans is uncertain. Objective To examine the effects of a 30% CR regimen on TEE and RMR. Methods One year randomized controlled trial of 30% CR in 29 healthy overweight adults (me...

  14. Mild Memory Impairment in Healthy Older Adults Is Distinct from Normal Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargin, J. Weaver; Maruff, P.; Collie, A.; Masters, C.

    2006-01-01

    Mild memory impairment was detected in 28% of a sample of healthy community-dwelling older adults using the delayed recall trial of a word list learning task. Statistical analysis revealed that individuals with memory impairment also demonstrated relative deficits on other measures of memory, and tests of executive function, processing speed and…

  15. Lung Volume during Swallowing: Single Bolus Swallows in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegland, Karen M. Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between swallowing and lung volume initiation in healthy adults during single swallows of boluses differing in volume and consistency. Differences in lung volume according to respiratory phase surrounding the swallow were also assessed. Method: Nine men and 11 women between the ages of 19 and 28 years…

  16. The Relationship between Relative Fundamental Frequency and a Kinematic Estimate of Laryngeal Stiffness in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Victoria S.; Heller Murray, Elizabeth S.; Lien, Yu-An S.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between the acoustic measure relative fundamental frequency (RFF) and a kinematic estimate of laryngeal stiffness. Method: Twelve healthy adults (mean age = 22.7 years, SD = 4.4; 10 women, 2 men) produced repetitions of /ifi/ while varying their vocal effort during simultaneous acoustic and video…

  17. Correlates of Intellectual Ability with Morphology of the Hippocampus and Amygdala in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amat, Jose A.; Bansal, Ravi; Whiteman, Ronald; Haggerty, Rita; Royal, Jason; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Several prior imaging studies of healthy adults have correlated volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala with measures of general intelligence (IQ), with variable results. In this study, we assessed correlations between volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala and full-scale IQ scores (FSIQ) using a method of image analysis that permits detailed…

  18. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: A systematic literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were i...

  19. Carer Knowledge and Perceptions of Healthy Lifestyles for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Craig A.; Hamilton, Sarah; Miller, Susan; Boyle, Susan; Robinson, Nicola; Pert, Carol; Hankey, Catherine R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Carers can have a significant impact supporting people with intellectual disabilities to make healthy lifestyle choices. This study examines carers' training needs on diet and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of the knowledge and perceptions of carers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities.…

  20. Neuronal mechanisms of motor learning and motor memory consolidation in healthy old adults.

    PubMed

    Berghuis, K M M; Veldman, M P; Solnik, S; Koch, G; Zijdewind, I; Hortobágyi, T

    2015-06-01

    It is controversial whether or not old adults are capable of learning new motor skills and consolidate the performance gains into motor memory in the offline period. The underlying neuronal mechanisms are equally unclear. We determined the magnitude of motor learning and motor memory consolidation in healthy old adults and examined if specific metrics of neuronal excitability measured by magnetic brain stimulation mediate the practice and retention effects. Eleven healthy old adults practiced a wrist extension-flexion visuomotor skill for 20 min (MP, 71.3 years), while a second group only watched the templates without movements (attentional control, AC, n = 11, 70.5 years). There was 40 % motor learning in MP but none in AC (interaction, p < 0.001) with the skill retained 24 h later in MP and a 16 % improvement in AC. Corticospinal excitability at rest and during task did not change, but when measured during contraction at 20 % of maximal force, it strongly increased in MP and decreased in AC (interaction, p = 0.002). Intracortical inhibition at rest and during the task decreased and facilitation at rest increased in MP, but these metrics changed in the opposite direction in AC. These neuronal changes were especially profound at retention. Healthy old adults can learn a new motor skill and consolidate the learned skill into motor memory, processes that are most likely mediated by disinhibitory mechanisms. These results are relevant for the increasing number of old adults who need to learn and relearn movements during motor rehabilitation.

  1. EFFECTS OF AGE AND ACUTE MUSCLE FATIGUE ON REACTIVE POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Evan V.; Foreman, K. Bo; Dibble, Lee E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. METHODS A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-minutes (T15) and 30-minutes (T30) of rest. FINDINGS Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. INTERPRETATION Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 minutes of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. PMID:26351001

  2. Adolescent Family Factors Promoting Healthy Adult Functioning: A Longitudinal Community Study

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Angela D.; Giaconia, Rose M.; Reinherz, Helen Z.; Beardslee, William R.; Ward, Kirsten E.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although long-held wisdom and current research suggests that accepting and supportive family relationships may positively influence adult psychosocial functioning, few studies have prospectively investigated these associations. This study examined whether positive family factors during adolescence are associated with healthy adult functioning. Method The 353 participants were part of a single-age cohort whose psychosocial development has been prospectively traced. Two aspects of family functioning - feeling highly valued as a family member and having a family confidant - were measured at age 15. Developmentally-relevant areas of functioning were assessed at age 30. Results Both positive family factors were predictive of adaptive adult functioning across several domains, including mental health and social/interpersonal functioning. Conclusions Findings provide evidence about the salient relationships between positive family relationships and later healthy functioning. PMID:21532965

  3. Physical Activity Interventions with Healthy Minority Adults: Meta-Analysis of Behavior and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Phillips, Lorraine J.; Ruppar, Todd M.; Chase, Jo-Ana D.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis is a systematic compilation of research focusing on various exercise interventions and their impact on the health and behavior outcomes of healthy African American, Hispanic, Native American, and Native Hawaiian adults. Comprehensive searching located published and unpublished studies. Random-effects analyses synthesized data to calculate effect sizes (ES) as a standardized mean difference (d) and variability measures. Data were synthesized across 21,151 subjects in 100 eligible samples. Supervised exercise significantly improved fitness (ES=.571–.584). Interventions designed to motivate minority adults to increase physical activity changed subsequent physical activity behavior (ES=.172–.312) and anthropometric outcomes (ES=.070–.124). Some ES should be interpreted in the context of limited statistical power and heterogeneity. Attempts to match intervention content and delivery with minority populations were inconsistently reported. Healthy minority adults experienced health improvements following supervised exercise. Interventions designed to motivate subjects to increase physical activity have limited magnitude heterogeneous effects. PMID:22643462

  4. Influence of continual biofeedback on jaw pursuit-tracking in healthy adults and in adults with apraxia plus aphasia.

    PubMed

    Ballard, K J; Robin, D A

    2007-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is a disorder of motor programming resulting from damage to premotor or anterior insula cortex. The authors used a pursuit visuomotor tracking task to test whether such a disorder interferes with development of motor programs or with modification of existing programs via integration of feedback. Healthy older adults (n = 15) and adults with AOS plus aphasia and nonverbal apraxia (n = 8) performed a jaw movement task with (a) continuous visual feedback of a target movement pattern and their jaw movement and (b) no feedback. Healthy speakers were more accurate and less variable with feedback, suggesting accurate development of a program and feedback integration. Apraxic individuals' performance accuracy and response to feedback suggested that the neurological damage impairs both development of new programs and efficient integration of feedback.

  5. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and adults in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obiandu, C; Okerengwo, A A; Dapper, D V

    2013-06-30

    Serum levels of the immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA and IgM were determined by the single radial immunodiffusion technique of Mancini in a total of 122 apparently healthy subjects consisting of 43 children (20 males; 23 females) aged 5-12 years and 79 adults (39 males; 40 females) aged 18-65 years resident in Port Harcourt, southeastern Nigeria. The effects of age and sex on the serum levels of the various immunoglobulin types were also determined. The mean values and ranges for the various immunoglobulin types are presented for both children and adults. Although, female children were found to have significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male children (p<0.05), there were no significant differences in the mean values of both IgG and IgM between male and female children involved in the present study (p>0.05). However, female adults had significantly higher mean values of IgG and significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male adults (p<0.05); suggesting a significant gender difference in the value of both IgG and IgA amongst adult subjects. No significant differences were observed in the mean values of any of the various types of immunoglobulin between adults and children. The present study reports mean values of the various types of immunoglobulin in apparently healthy children and adults resident in Port Harcourt, southeastern Nigeria. Significant gender differences were observed for some of the immunoglobulin types only amongst adults. Our results suggest that these gender differences amongst adults were apparently a gradual build-up from childhood. The results also confirm suggestions that levels of some immunoglobulin types seen amongst African adults may have possibly been attained during childhood. Our study could be of value since previous reports in this regard have been relatively scanty especially in this part of Nigeria.

  6. Transcranial Doppler Sonography Reveals Reductions in Hemispheric Asymmetry in Healthy Older Adults during Vigilance

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Amanda E.; Greenwood, Pamela M.; Shaw, Tyler H.

    2017-01-01

    Given that older adults are remaining longer in the workforce, their ability to perform demanding cognitive tasks such as vigilance assignments needs to be thoroughly examined, especially since many vigilance assignments affect public safety (e.g., aviation, medicine and long distance driving). Previous research exploring the relation between aging and vigilance is conflicted, with some studies finding decreased vigilance performance in older adults but others finding no effect of age. We sought a better understanding of effects of age on vigilance by assessing neurophysiological change over the course of a vigil in young (aged 18–24) and healthy older (aged 66–77) adults. To measure temporal changes in cerebral blood flow, participants underwent functional transcranial doppler (fTCD) recording during a 1 h vigilance task. Based on research showing a compensatory effect of increased left hemisphere activation during vigilance in young adults and the “hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults” (HAROLD) model, we predicted that during vigilance our older adults would show greater left hemisphere activation but perform at a similar level compared to young adults. While cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) declined over time in both groups, only young adults showed the typical right-lateralized CBFV pattern. Older adults showed greater left hemisphere activation consistent with the HAROLD model. However, the increased left hemisphere activation did not appear to be compensatory as the older adults performed at a significantly lower level compared to young adults over the vigil. Findings are discussed in terms of the HAROLD model of healthy aging and the resource theory of vigilance. PMID:28228722

  7. The Functional Integration in the Sensory-Motor System Predicts Aging in Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Chang, Xin; Shan, Yan; Cao, Weifang; Gong, Jinnan; Klugah-Brown, Benjamin; Bobes, Maria A; Biswal, Bharat; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is typically accompanied by a decrease in the motor capacity. Although the disrupted neural representations and performance of movement have been observed in older age in previous studies, the relationship between the functional integration of sensory-motor (SM) system and aging could be further investigated. In this study, we examine the impact of healthy aging on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the SM system, and investigate as to how aging is affecting the rsFC in SM network. The SM network was identified and evaluated in 52 healthy older adults and 51 younger adults using two common data analytic approaches: independent component analysis and seed-based functional connectivity (seed at bilateral M1 and S1). We then evaluated whether the altered rsFC of the SM network could delineate trajectories of the age of older adults using a machine learning methodology. Compared with the younger adults, the older demonstrated reduced functional integration with increasing age in the mid-posterior insula of SM network and increased rsFC among the sensorimotor cortex. Moreover, the reduction in the rsFC of mid-posterior insula is associated with the age of older adults. Critically, the analysis based on two-aspect connectivity-based prediction frameworks revealed that the age of older adults could be reliably predicted by this reduced rsFC. These findings further indicated that healthy aging has a marked influence on the SM system that would be associated with a reorganization of SM system with aging. Our findings provide further insight into changes in sensorimotor function in the aging brain.

  8. The Functional Integration in the Sensory-Motor System Predicts Aging in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Chang, Xin; Shan, Yan; Cao, Weifang; Gong, Jinnan; Klugah-Brown, Benjamin; Bobes, Maria A.; Biswal, Bharat; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Healthy aging is typically accompanied by a decrease in the motor capacity. Although the disrupted neural representations and performance of movement have been observed in older age in previous studies, the relationship between the functional integration of sensory-motor (SM) system and aging could be further investigated. In this study, we examine the impact of healthy aging on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the SM system, and investigate as to how aging is affecting the rsFC in SM network. The SM network was identified and evaluated in 52 healthy older adults and 51 younger adults using two common data analytic approaches: independent component analysis and seed-based functional connectivity (seed at bilateral M1 and S1). We then evaluated whether the altered rsFC of the SM network could delineate trajectories of the age of older adults using a machine learning methodology. Compared with the younger adults, the older demonstrated reduced functional integration with increasing age in the mid-posterior insula of SM network and increased rsFC among the sensorimotor cortex. Moreover, the reduction in the rsFC of mid-posterior insula is associated with the age of older adults. Critically, the analysis based on two-aspect connectivity-based prediction frameworks revealed that the age of older adults could be reliably predicted by this reduced rsFC. These findings further indicated that healthy aging has a marked influence on the SM system that would be associated with a reorganization of SM system with aging. Our findings provide further insight into changes in sensorimotor function in the aging brain. PMID:28111548

  9. Precursors to suicidality and violence on antidepressants: systematic review of trials in adult healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Bielefeldt, Andreas Ø; Danborg, Pia B

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the risk of suicidality and violence when selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are given to adult healthy volunteers with no signs of a mental disorder. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Main outcome measure Harms related to suicidality, hostility, activation events, psychotic events and mood disturbances. Setting Published trials identified by searching PubMed and Embase and clinical study reports obtained from the European and UK drug regulators. Participants Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adult healthy volunteers that reported on suicidality or violence or precursor events to suicidality or violence. Results A total of 5787 publications were screened and 130 trials fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The trials were generally uninformative; 97 trials did not report the randomisation method, 75 trials did not report any discontinuations and 63 trials did not report any adverse events or lack thereof. Eleven of the 130 published trials and two of 29 clinical study reports we received from the regulatory agencies presented data for our meta-analysis. Treatment of adult healthy volunteers with antidepressants doubled their risk of harms related to suicidality and violence, odds ratio 1.85 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 3.08, p = 0.02, I2 = 18%). The number needed to treat to harm one healthy person was 16 (95% confidence interval 8 to 100; Mantel-Haenszel risk difference 0.06). There can be little doubt that we underestimated the harms of antidepressants, as we only had access to the published articles for 11 of our 13 trials. Conclusions Antidepressants double the occurrence of events in adult healthy volunteers that can lead to suicide and violence. PMID:27729596

  10. Naturalistic assessment of executive function and everyday multitasking in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Everyday multitasking and its cognitive correlates were investigated in an older adult population using a naturalistic task, the Day Out Task. Fifty older adults and 50 younger adults prioritized, organized, initiated, and completed a number of subtasks in a campus apartment to prepare for a day out (e.g., gather ingredients for a recipe, collect change for a bus ride). Participants also completed tests assessing cognitive constructs important in multitasking. Compared to younger adults, the older adults took longer to complete the everyday tasks and more poorly sequenced the subtasks. Although they initiated, completed, and interweaved a similar number of subtasks, the older adults demonstrated poorer task quality and accuracy, completing more subtasks inefficiently. For the older adults, reduced prospective memory abilities were predictive of poorer task sequencing, while executive processes and prospective memory were predictive of inefficiently completed subtasks. The findings suggest that executive dysfunction and prospective memory difficulties may contribute to the age-related decline of everyday multitasking abilities in healthy older adults.

  11. Similar Subgroups Based on Cognitive Performance Parse Heterogeneity in Adults With ADHD and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mostert, Jeanette C.; Hoogman, Martine; Onnink, A. Marten H.; van Rooij, Daan; von Rhein, Daniel; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Dammers, Janneke; Kan, Cornelis C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Norris, David G.; Franke, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize heterogeneity in adults with ADHD we aimed to identify subgroups within the adult ADHD spectrum, which differ in their cognitive profile. Method Neuropsychological data from adults with ADHD (n = 133) and healthy control participants (n = 132) were used in a confirmatory factor analysis. The resulting six cognitive factors were correlated across participants to form networks. We used a community detection algorithm to cluster these networks into subgroups. Results Both the ADHD and control group separated into three profiles that differed in cognitive performance. Profile 1 was characterized by aberrant attention and inhibition, profile 2 by increased delay discounting, and profile 3 by atypical working memory and verbal fluency. Conclusion Our findings suggest that qualitative differences in neuropsychological performance exist in both control and ADHD adult individuals. This extends prior findings in children with and without ADHD and provides a framework to parse participants into well-defined subgroups. PMID:26374770

  12. Prevalence of Healthy Sleep Duration among Adults--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Cunningham, Timothy J; Lu, Hua; Croft, Janet B

    2016-02-19

    To promote optimal health and well-being, adults aged 18-60 years are recommended to sleep at least 7 hours each night (1). Sleeping <7 hours per night is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, stroke, frequent mental distress, and all-cause mortality (2-4). Insufficient sleep impairs cognitive performance, which can increase the likelihood of motor vehicle and other transportation accidents, industrial accidents, medical errors, and loss of work productivity that could affect the wider community (5). CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to determine the prevalence of a healthy sleep duration (≥ 7 hours) among 444,306 adult respondents in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A total of 65.2% of respondents reported a healthy sleep duration; the age-adjusted prevalence of healthy sleep was lower among non-Hispanic blacks, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and multiracial respondents, compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and Asians. State-based estimates of healthy sleep duration prevalence ranged from 56.1% in Hawaii to 71.6% in South Dakota. Geographic clustering of the lowest prevalence of healthy sleep duration was observed in the southeastern United States and in states along the Appalachian Mountains, and the highest prevalence was observed in the Great Plains states. More than one third of U.S. respondents reported typically sleeping <7 hours in a 24-hour period, suggesting an ongoing need for public awareness and public education about sleep health; worksite shift policies that ensure healthy sleep duration for shift workers, particularly medical professionals, emergency response personnel, and transportation industry personnel; and opportunities for health care providers to discuss the importance of healthy sleep duration with patients and address reasons for poor sleep health.

  13. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults with Parkinson's Disease, Adults with Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stipancic, Kaila L.; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014).…

  14. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17,015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample.

  15. A proteomic study of protein variation between osteopenic and age-matched control bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Christopher D; Dangott, Lawrence J; Rahm, Mark D; Hitt, Kirby D; Stewart, Donald S; Wayne Sampson, H

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this study was to identify changes in protein expression within the bone tissue environment between osteopenic and control bone tissue of human femoral neck patients with osteoarthritis. Femoral necks were compared from osteopenic patients and age-matched controls. A new method of bone protein extraction was developed to provide a swift, clear view of the bone proteome. Relative changes in protein expression between control and osteopenic samples were quantified using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) technology after affinity chromatographic depletion of albumin and IgG. The proteins that were determined to be differentially expressed were identified using standard liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and database searching techniques. In order to rule out blood contamination, blood from age-matched osteoporotic, osteopenic and controls were analyzed in a similar manner. Image analysis of the DIGE gels indicated that 145 spots in the osteopenic bone samples changed at least ± 1.5-fold from the control samples (P < 0.05). Three of the proteins were identified by LC/MS/MS. Of the proteins that increased in the osteopenic femurs, two were especially significant: carbonic anhydrase I and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. Apolipoprotein A-I was the most prominent protein that significantly decreased in the osteopenic femurs. The blood samples revealed no significant differences between groups for any of these proteins. In conclusion, carbonic anhydrase I, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 and apolipoprotein A-I appeared to be the most significant variations of proteins in patients with osteopenia and osteoarthritis.

  16. Prohibition or coffee shops: regulation of amphetamine and methylphenidate for enhancement use by healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Dubljević, Veljko

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes appropriate public policies for enhancement use of two most important stimulant drugs: Ritalin (methylphenidate) and Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts). The author argues that appropriate regulation of cognition enhancement drugs cannot be a result of a general discussion on cognitive enhancements as such, but has to be made on a case-by-case basis. Starting from the recently proposed taxation approach to cognition enhancement drugs, the author analyzes available, moderately permissive models of regulation. After a thorough analysis of relevant characteristics of methylphenidate and amphetamine, the author concludes that a moderately liberal permissive regulation of enhancement use by healthy adults might be appropriate for extended release forms of methylphenidate. However, due to their danger profile, amphetamine and instant release forms of methylphenidate should not be made readily available to healthy adults and would need to be prohibited.

  17. Altered Value Coding in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing; Mamerow, Loreen; Lei, Xu; Fang, Lei; Mata, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Previous work suggests that aging is associated with changes in risk taking but less is known about their underlying neural basis, such as the potential age differences in the neural processing of value and risk. The goal of the present study was to investigate adult age differences in functional neural responses in a naturalistic risk-taking task. Twenty-six young adults and 27 healthy older adults completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Young and older adults showed similar overt risk-taking behavior. Group comparison of neural activity in response to risky vs. control stimuli revealed similar patterns of activation in the bilateral striatum, anterior insula (AI) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Group comparison of parametrically modulated activity in response to continued pumping similarly revealed comparable results for both age groups in the AI and, potentially, the striatum, yet differences emerged for regional activity in the vmPFC. At whole brain level, insular, striatal and vmPFC activation was predictive of behavioral risk taking for young but not older adults. The current results are interpreted and discussed as preserved neural tracking of risk and reward in the AI and striatum, respectively, but altered value coding in the vmPFC in the two age groups. The latter finding points toward older adults exhibiting differential vmPFC-related integration and value coding. Furthermore, neural activation holds differential predictive validity for behavioral risk taking in young and older adults. PMID:27630561

  18. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  19. The impact of diurnal variation on induced sputum cell counts in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Induced sputum cell counts are a non-invasive, reliable method for evaluating the presence, type, and degree of inflammation in the airways of the lungs. Current reference values for induced sputum cell counts in healthy adults do not account for the effects of circadian rhythm, including diurnal variation. The objective of this study was to describe the diurnal variation in induced sputum cell counts, compared between early morning and late afternoon, in healthy adult individuals. Methods 100 healthy adult subjects with no history of lung disease and normal bronchial reactivity proceeded with induced sputum testing at 7 am and 4 pm on different days. The order of testing was randomized. The cytotechnologist preparing and performing the cell counts was blinded to the sample collection time and subject characteristics. Results 65 subjects were included in the final analyses. There was no significant change in the total and differential sputum cell counts between the 7 am and 4 pm collections. There was good inter-observer agreement with respect to differential sputum cell count interpretation. Conclusions This is the largest study to assess the variation in induced sputum cell counts in healthy adult subjects at different times of the day. We found no significant change in total and differential sputum cell counts between the 7 am and 4 pm collection time points. This is in contrast to studies in asthmatics that demonstrated a circadian variation in sputum cell counts and other markers of inflammation, suggesting that fluctuations in airway inflammatory cells during the day are a disease-specific effect. PMID:23537329

  20. Differences in chewing behaviors between healthy fully dentate young and older adults assessed by electromyographic recordings.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-01-01

    To characterize changes in chewing behaviors associated with healthy aging, 10 young and 10 older fully dentate healthy participants were enrolled in this study. They chewed carrot samples that differed in hardness until their normal swallowing threshold. Their chewing behaviors were assessed using an electromyographic recording device. Adjusting for gender and body mass index, older adults had a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.020), a longer chewing duration (p < 0.001), a slower chewing rate (p = 0.002), a greater maximal electromyographic voltage (p = 0.003) and a greater muscle activity (p = 0.002) before they could comfortably swallow the food bolus. A statistically significant main effect of food hardness on the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration, chewing rate and muscle activity was also observed (p < 0.001 for all). These results suggest that reduced mastication efficiency is associated with healthy aging in fully dentate adults. This ingestive behavior may contribute to aging-related reduction in appetite in older adults.

  1. Ultrasound Dimensions of the Rotator Cuff and Other Associated Structures in Korean Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongwon; Kim, Hong Geum; Song, Daeheon; Yoon, Jung Yoon; Chung, Myung Eun

    2016-09-01

    In evaluating patients complaining of shoulder pain, ultrasonography is an emerging imaging tool due to convenience, low cost, high sensitivity and specificity. However, normative values of ultrasound dimensions of the shoulder to be compared with pathologic findings in Korean adults are not provided yet. We evaluated the ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff, long head of biceps tendon, deltoid muscle and acromioclavicular joint in Korean healthy adults. Shoulder ultrasonography was performed on 200 shoulders from 100 healthy adults. The dimensions of the thickness of rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis tendon), deltoid muscle, long head of biceps tendon, subacromial subdeltoid bursa, and acromioclavicular joint interval were measured in a standardized manner. Differences in measurements among sex, age, and dominant arms were compared. The thickness of rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis) and deltoid muscle were significantly different between men and women. The thickness of subacromial subdeltoid bursa was significantly different between men and women for non-dominant side. In rotator cuff tendon measurements, the differences between dominant and non-dominant shoulders were not significant, which means the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder can be used to estimate the normal reference values. When stratified by age divided by 10 years, the measurements of supraspinatus, subscapularis and deltoid thickness showed tendency of increase with the age. The acromioclavicular joint interval, on the other hand, revealed decreasing tendency. This report suggests normative values of ultrasound dimensions of healthy Korean population with varying age, and can be useful as reference values in evaluating shoulder pathology, especially in rotator cuff tendon pathology.

  2. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20–79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases. PMID:27598192

  3. Adoption of American Heart Association 2020 ideal healthy diet recommendations prevents weight gain in young adults.

    PubMed

    Forget, Geneviève; Doyon, Myriam; Lacerte, Guillaume; Labonté, Mélissa; Brown, Christine; Carpentier, André C; Langlois, Marie-France; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-11-01

    In 2010, the American Heart Association established the concept of ideal cardiovascular health. Nationally representative data estimated that <1% of Americans meet the seven health metrics required for achieving ideal cardiovascular health, with the main challenge residing in meeting the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. In a cohort of young adults (N=196), we aimed to investigate the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health and ideal Healthy Diet Score and its association to weight gain over a 4-year follow-up period. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and blood samples were taken according to standardized procedures. Dietary intake was measured by a 3-day food diary and verified by a registered dietitian. We observed that only 0.5% of our sample met the criteria for ideal cardiovascular health and only 4.1% met the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. The components of the Healthy Diet Score with the lowest observance were consumption of fruits and vegetables (9.7%) and whole grains (14.8%). Meeting zero or one out of five of the Healthy Diet Score components was associated with increased risk of weight gain over 4 years compared with meeting at least two components (P=0.03). With the exception of dietary criteria, prevalence was high for achieving ideal levels of the remaining six cardiovascular health metrics. In conclusion, in this sample of young adults, a very low prevalence of ideal overall cardiovascular health was observed, mainly driven by poor dietary habits, and a poor Healthy Diet Score was associated with increased weight gain.

  4. Reference Values for Cardiac and Aortic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy, Young Caucasian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Eikendal, Anouk L. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Haaring, Cees; Saam, Tobias; van der Geest, Rob J.; Westenberg, Jos J. M.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Leiner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference values for morphological and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system in early life are relevant since they may help to identify young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for aortic wall characteristics, cardiac function parameters and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a population-based sample of healthy, young adults using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods In 131 randomly selected healthy, young adults aged between 25 and 35 years (mean age 31.8 years, 63 men) of the general-population based Atherosclerosis-Monitoring-and-Biomarker-measurements-In-The-YOuNg (AMBITYON) study, descending thoracic aortic dimensions and wall thickness, thoracic aortic PWV and cardiac function parameters were measured using a 3.0T MR-system. Age and sex specific reference values were generated using dedicated software. Differences in reference values between two age groups (25–30 and 30–35 years) and both sexes were tested. Results Aortic diameters and areas were higher in the older age group (all p<0.007). Moreover, aortic dimensions, left ventricular mass, left and right ventricular volumes and cardiac output were lower in women than in men (all p<0.001). For mean and maximum aortic wall thickness, left and right ejection fraction and aortic PWV we did not observe a significant age or sex effect. Conclusion This study provides age and sex specific reference values for cardiovascular MR parameters in healthy, young Caucasian adults. These may aid in MR guided pre-clinical identification of young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. PMID:27732640

  5. Arousal Responses during Overnight Polysomnography and their Reproducibility in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Azarbarzin, Ali; Ostrowski, Michele; Younes, Magdy; Keenan, Brendan T.; Pack, Allan I.; Staley, Bethany; Kuna, Samuel T.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Arousal intensity and heart rate (HR) response to arousal during polysomnography (PSG) vary considerably between patients with sleep disorders. Our objective was to determine the range of these arousal characteristics in healthy young adults and whether they are consistent on repeated testing. Design: Post hoc analysis of 56 preexisting PSG files recorded from 28 healthy adults on 2 consecutive nights. Setting: Academic medical center and Research and Development Laboratory (YRT Limited, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada). Participants: Twenty-eight healthy young adults. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Arousals were identified using an automatic system followed by manual editing. The intensity of arousals was scaled (between 0 and 9) using an automatic algorithm based on the change in the electroencephalography (EEG) signals' wavelet characteristics. 4,751 arousals in 28 pairs of PSGs (night 1 and night 2) were scaled. HR responses (ΔHR) to all arousals were determined and averaged at each arousal scale per file. Overall average arousal intensity ranged 3.0–7.1 in different subjects, and average ΔHR ranged 1.9–18.3 beats.min−1. Heart rate response at a given arousal intensity, expressed as ΔHR at a moderate arousal scale of 5.0 (ΔHR5), ranged 4.1–18.1 beats.min−1. There was a strong correlation between arousal intensity and ΔHR within each subject. More importantly, there were excellent intraclass correlations (ICC) between night 1 and night 2 results for all three variables (ICC = 0.72 for average intensity, 0.92 for average ΔHR4, and 0.91 for ΔHR5). Conclusions: Average arousal intensity and heart rate response to arousal are highly variable among healthy young adults and stable within individuals. Citation: Azarbarzin A, Ostrowski M, Younes M, Keenan BT, Pack AI, Staley B, Kuna ST. Arousal responses during overnight polysomnography and their reproducibility in healthy young adults. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1313–1321. PMID

  6. Aging and longitudinal change in perceptual-motor skill acquisition in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Raz, Naftali

    2005-07-01

    Knowledge about aging of perceptual-motor skills is based almost exclusively on cross-sectional studies. We examined age-related changes in the retention of mirror-tracing skills in healthy adults who practiced for 3 separate days at baseline and retrained 5 years later at follow-up. Overall, the speed and accuracy of an acquired skill were partially retained after a 5-year interim, although the same asymptote was reached. Analyses with individual learning curves indicated that the effects of age on mirror-tracing speed were greater at longitudinal follow-up than at baseline, with older adults requiring more training to reach asymptote. Thus, although the long-term retention of acquired skills declines with age, older adults still retain the ability to learn the skill. Moreover, those who maintained a processing speed comparable with that of the younger participants evidenced no age-related performance decrements on the mirror-drawing task.

  7. Comparison of Brachial Artery Vasoreactivity in Elite Power Athletes and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Michael A.; Blalock, Paul; Credeur, Daniel P.; Parish, Tracie R.

    2013-01-01

    Elite endurance athletes typically have larger arteries contributing to greater skeletal muscle blood flow, oxygen and nutrient delivery and improved physical performance. Few studies have examined structural and functional properties of arteries in power athletes. Purpose To compare the size and vasoreactivity of the brachial artery of elite power athletes to age-matched controls. It was hypothesized brachial artery diameters of athletes would be larger, have less vasodilation in response to cuff occlusion, but more constriction after a cold pressor test than age-matched controls. Methods Eight elite power athletes (age = 23±2 years) and ten controls (age = 22±1 yrs) were studied. High-resolution ultrasonography was used to assess brachial artery diameters at rest and following 5 minutes of forearm occlusion (Brachial Artery Flow Mediated Dilation = BAFMD) and a cold pressor test (CPT). Basic fitness measures included a handgrip test and 3-minute step test. Results Brachial arteries of athletes were larger (Athletes 5.39±1.51 vs. Controls: 3.73±0.71 mm, p<0.05), had greater vasodilatory (BAFMD%: Athletes: 8.21±1.78 vs. Controls: 5.69±1.56%) and constrictor (CPT %: Athletes: -2.95±1.07 vs. Controls: −1.20±0.48%) responses, compared to controls. Vascular operating range (VOR = Peak dilation+Peak Constriction) was also greater in athletes (VOR: Athletes: 0.55±0.15 vs. Controls: 0.25±0.18 mm, p<0.05). Athletes had superior handgrip strength (Athletes: 55.92±17.06 vs. Controls: 36.77±17.06 kg, p<0.05) but similar heart rate responses at peak (Athletes: 123±16 vs. Controls: 130±25 bpm, p>0.05) and 1 minute recovery (Athletes: 88±21 vs. Controls: 98±26 bpm, p>0.05) following the step test. Conclusion Elite power athletes have larger brachial arteries, and greater vasoreactivity (greater vasodilatory and constrictor responses) than age-matched controls, contributing to a significantly greater VOR. These data extend the existence of an

  8. Epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic characteristics of human rhinovirus infection among otherwise healthy children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ju; Arnold, John C.; Fairchok, Mary P.; Danaher, Patrick J.; McDonough, Erin A.; Blair, Patrick J.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Schofield, Christina; Ottolini, Martin; Mor, Deepika; Ridoré, Michelande; Burgess, Timothy H.; Millar, Eugene V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a major cause of influenza-like illness (ILI) in adults and children. Differences in disease severity by HRV species have been described among hospitalized patients with underlying illness. Less is known about the clinical and virologic characteristics of HRV infection among otherwise healthy populations, particularly adults. Objectives To characterize molecular epidemiology of HRV and association between HRV species and clinical presentation and viral shedding. Study design Observational, prospective, facility-based study of ILI was conducted from February 2010 to April 2012. Collection of nasopharyngeal specimens, patient symptoms, and clinical information occurred on days 0, 3, 7, and 28. Patients recorded symptom severity daily for the first 7 days of illness in a symptom diary. HRV was identified by RT-PCR and genotyped for species determination. Cases who were co-infected with other viral respiratory pathogens were excluded from the analysis. We evaluated the associations between HRV species, clinical severity, and patterns of viral shedding. Results Eighty-four HRV cases were identified and their isolates genotyped. Of these, 62 (74%) were >18y. Fifty-four were HRV-A, 11 HRV-B, and 19 HRV-C. HRV-C infection was more common among children than adults (59% vs. 10%, P<0.001). Among adults, HRV-A was associated with higher severity of upper respiratory symptoms compared to HRV-B (P=0.02), but no such association was found in children. In addition, adults shed HRV-A significantly longer than HRV-C (Ptrend=0.01). Conclusions Among otherwise healthy adults with HRV infection, we observed species-specific differences in respiratory symptom severity and duration of viral shedding. PMID:25728083

  9. Adverse childhood experiences and leukocyte telomere maintenance in depressed and healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Stephen H.; Epel, Elissa S.; Mellon, Synthia H.; Lin, Jue; Reus, Victor I.; Rosser, Rebecca; Kupferman, Eve; Burke, Heather; Mahan, Laura; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Wolkowitz, Owen M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. Adverse childhood experiences are also associated with shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in adults, suggesting accelerated cell aging. No studies have yet assessed the relationship of ACEs to LTL in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD), despite the high incidence of antecedent ACEs in individuals with MDD. Further, no studies in any population have assessed the relationship of ACEs to the activity of telomerase, the major enzyme responsible for maintaining LTL, or the relationship between telomerase and LTL in individuals with ACEs. METHODS Twenty healthy, unmedicated adults with MDD and 20 healthy age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched controls had ACEs assessed and had blood drawn for LTL and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) resting telomerase activity. RESULTS In healthy controls, greater ACE exposure was associated with shorter LTL (p< 0.05) but was unassociated with telomerase activity. In MDD, however, the opposite pattern was seen: Greater ACE exposure was unrelated to LTL but was associated with increased telomerase activity (p< 0.05) and with a higher telomerase: LTL ratio (p= 0.022). LIMITATIONS Study limitations include the small sample size, a single timepoint assessment of telomerase activity, and the use of retrospective self-report to assess ACEs. CONCLUSIONS These results replicate prior findings of shortened LTL in healthy adults with histories of multiple ACEs. However, in MDD, this relationship was substantially altered, raising the possibility that activation of telomerase in ACE-exposed individuals with MDD could represent a compensatory response to endangered telomeres. PMID:25173430

  10. Nimodipine disposition and haemodynamic effects in patients with cirrhosis and age-matched controls.

    PubMed Central

    Gengo, F M; Fagan, S C; Krol, G; Bernhard, H

    1987-01-01

    Six biopsy proven cirrhotics and five age-matched controls (mean 55.3 vs 52.4 years) were randomly given single 60 mg p.o. and 30 mg s.l. doses of nimodipine. Serum concentrations and blood pressure were measured regularly over the subsequent 24 h period. The clearance of nimodipine was reduced in the patients with cirrhosis. Apparent oral clearance of nimodipine in the cirrhotic group was significantly lower than that observed in the normal group (187 +/- 163 l h-1 vs 469.6 +/- 198.4 l h-1, P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the normal subjects. There were, however, significant reductions in MAP following oral nimodipine in the cirrhotics. These reductions were significantly related to nimodipine concentrations in individual patients (P less than 0.05). PMID:3814462

  11. Measurement of M-mode echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult Van cats.

    PubMed

    Kayar, Abdullah; Ozkan, Cumali; Iskefli, Onur; Kaya, Abdullah; Kozat, Suleyman; Akgul, Yakup; Gonul, Remzi; Or, Mehmet Erman

    2014-05-01

    Cardiomyopathies are the most common type of cardiac diseases in cats. Although some normal echocardiographic values for cats have been published, there are variations based on breeds and gender. The objective of this study is to determine normal reference values for M-mode echocardiographic parameters in nonsedated healthy adult Van cats and to compare those values with data reported for nonsedated healthy cats of other breeds. A total of 40 clinically healthy Van cats of both sexes belonging to the Van Cat Research and Application Center of Yuzuncu Yil University were used. Body weight (BW) and 16 M-mode echocardiographic variables were measured in 40 healthy Van cats. The effect of gender and age on each echocardiographic parameter was analyzed and the relationship between BW and each parameter investigated. There was a significant relationship between gender and left atrial dimension during ventricular systole (LAD) and aortic root dimension at end-diastole (AOD) as well as between BW and interventricular septal thickness at end-diastole (IVSd) and end-systole (IVSs), left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole (LVIDd), left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-diastole (LVPWd), LAD, AOD, the left ventricular end diastolic volume (EDV) and the stroke volume (SV). A relationship between age and the SV parameter alone was also established. This present study is the first work on cardiac reference values for Van cats highlighting the differences in some M-mode echocardiographic parameters of healthy adult Van cats and other cat breeds, which should be considered when interpreting echocardiographic findings, in order to draw the correct conclusions regarding cardiac health.

  12. Design and evaluation of a computer game to promote a healthy diet for young adults.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei

    2009-03-01

    This article reports the development and evaluation of a computer game (RightWay Café) as a special medium to promote a healthy diet for young adults. Structural features of computer games, such as interactive tailoring, role playing, the element of fun, and narrative, were operationalized in the RightWay Café game to afford behavior rehearsal in a safe and entertaining way. Theories such as the health belief model, social cognitive theory, and theory of reasoned action guided the content design of the game to influence mediators of behavior change, including self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and behavior change intention. A randomized controlled evaluation study with pretest, posttest, and follow-up design demonstrated that this game was effective in teaching nutrition and weight management knowledge and increasing people's self-efficacy and perceived benefits of healthy eating, as well as their intention to be on a healthy diet. Limited long-term effects were also found: participants in the game-playing group had greater self-efficacy than participants in the control group after 1 month. This study validates the computer game-based approach to health promotion for young adults. Limitations and implications are also discussed.

  13. Prefrontal Cortex and Executive Functions in Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Structural Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Peng; Raz, Naftali

    2014-01-01

    Lesion studies link the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to executive functions. However, the evidence from in vivo investigations in healthy people is mixed, and there are no quantitative estimates of the association strength. To examine the relationship between PFC volume and cortical thickness with executive cognition in healthy adults, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that assessed executive functions and PFC volume (31 samples,) and PFC thickness (10 samples) in vivo, N=3272 participants. We found that larger PFC volume and greater PFC thickness were associated with better executive performance. Stronger associations between executive functions and PFC volume were linked to greater variance in the sample age but was unrelated to the mean age of a sample. Strength of association between cognitive and neuroanatomical indices depended on the executive task used in the study. PFC volume correlated stronger with Wisconsin Card Sorting Test than with digit backwards span, Trail Making Test and verbal fluency. Significant effect size was observed in lateral and medial but not orbital PFC. The results support the “bigger is better” hypothesis of brain-behavior relation in healthy adults and suggest different neural correlates across the neuropsychological tests used to assess executive functions. PMID:24568942

  14. Neuromodulation as a cognitive enhancement strategy in healthy older adults: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Martins, Ana R S; Fregni, Felipe; Simis, Marcel; Almeida, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    Increases in life expectancy have been followed by an upsurge of age-associated cognitive decline. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have risen as promising approaches to prevent or delay such cognitive decline. However, consensus has not yet been reached about their efficacy in improving cognitive functioning in healthy older adults. Here we review the effects of TMS and tDCS on cognitive abilities in healthy older adults. Despite considerable variability in the targeted cognitive domains, design features and outcomes, the results generally show an enhancement or uniform benefit across studies. Most studies employed tDCS, suggesting that this technique is particularly well-suited for cognitive enhancement. Further work is required to determine the viability of these techniques as tools for long-term cognitive improvement. Importantly, the combination of TMS/tDCS with other cognitive enhancement strategies may be a promising strategy to alleviate the cognitive decline associated with the healthy aging process.

  15. The effect of manual therapy on pulmonary function in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Wall, Bradley A; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Losco, Barrett; Hebert, Jeffrey J

    2016-09-12

    Manual therapy is suggested as a potentially therapeutic intervention that may improve pulmonary function. However, this form of therapy is largely based on clinical observations and hypothetical models rather than mechanistic knowledge. This study examined the influence of a single session of manual therapy applied to the thoracic spine and thorax on dynamic pulmonary function over an extended time frame in healthy adults. 21 healthy individuals (14 males) aged 19-35 (mean [SD] age = 23 [3.9], BMI [SD] = 22.97 [2.41]) completed one experimental testing session consisting of five pulmonary function tests and the delivery of a manual therapy intervention. Pulmonary function was measured at baseline and 1 minute, 10 minutes, 20 minutes and 30 minutes following the intervention. Baseline mean (SD) forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 second (FEV1) and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were 5.55(1.23 L), 4.64(0.92 L) and 165.7(40.0L min(-1)) respectively. The mean (SD) FEV1/FVC ratio was 0.84(0.07). There were no statistically significant changes in any of the pulmonary function measures following the manual therapy intervention. Our findings do not support the use of manual therapy to provide a short-term benefit in respiratory function to healthy adults.

  16. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration) to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency) and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length) of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks. PMID:27195007

  17. The effect of manual therapy on pulmonary function in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Bradley A.; Peiffer, Jeremiah J.; Losco, Barrett; Hebert, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Manual therapy is suggested as a potentially therapeutic intervention that may improve pulmonary function. However, this form of therapy is largely based on clinical observations and hypothetical models rather than mechanistic knowledge. This study examined the influence of a single session of manual therapy applied to the thoracic spine and thorax on dynamic pulmonary function over an extended time frame in healthy adults. 21 healthy individuals (14 males) aged 19–35 (mean [SD] age = 23 [3.9], BMI [SD] = 22.97 [2.41]) completed one experimental testing session consisting of five pulmonary function tests and the delivery of a manual therapy intervention. Pulmonary function was measured at baseline and 1 minute, 10 minutes, 20 minutes and 30 minutes following the intervention. Baseline mean (SD) forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 second (FEV1) and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were 5.55(1.23 L), 4.64(0.92 L) and 165.7(40.0L min−1) respectively. The mean (SD) FEV1/FVC ratio was 0.84(0.07). There were no statistically significant changes in any of the pulmonary function measures following the manual therapy intervention. Our findings do not support the use of manual therapy to provide a short-term benefit in respiratory function to healthy adults. PMID:27616562

  18. Prefrontal cortex and executive functions in healthy adults: a meta-analysis of structural neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng; Raz, Naftali

    2014-05-01

    Lesion studies link the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to executive functions. However, the evidence from in vivo investigations in healthy people is mixed, and there are no quantitative estimates of the association strength. To examine the relationship between PFC volume and cortical thickness with executive cognition in healthy adults, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that assessed executive functions and PFC volume (31 samples,) and PFC thickness (10 samples) in vivo, N=3272 participants. We found that larger PFC volume and greater PFC thickness were associated with better executive performance. Stronger associations between executive functions and PFC volume were linked to greater variance in the sample age but was unrelated to the mean age of a sample. Strength of association between cognitive and neuroanatomical indices depended on the executive task used in the study. PFC volume correlated stronger with Wisconsin Card Sorting Test than with digit backwards span, Trail Making Test and verbal fluency. Significant effect size was observed in lateral and medial but not orbital PFC. The results support the "bigger is better" hypothesis of brain-behavior relation in healthy adults and suggest different neural correlates across the neuropsychological tests used to assess executive functions.

  19. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  20. Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee-Oh; O'Sullivan, David; Choi, Bum-Gwon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ± 2.8 years; weight, 48.1 ± 14.1 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ± 2.9 years; weight, 43.6 ± 10 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite(®) system while their plantar pressure was being recorded. [Results] The results showed a reduction in cadence, gait velocity, and step length, and an increase in step width in children with autism. Plantar pressure variables highlight the differences between the active pressure areas, especially in the hindfoot of children with autism. [Conclusion] The results suggest that children with autism have an abnormal gait compared with that of age-matched controls, and thus they need extra attention to correct these abnormal gait patterns.

  1. The reliability of two visual motor integration tests used with healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted; Chinner, Alexandra; Stagnitti, Karen

    2010-10-01

    ABSTRACT Occupational therapists often assess the visual motor integration (VMI) skills of children, adults, and the elderly, which are parts of the Body Functions and Structures of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Objective. As it is imperative that therapists use tests and measures with strong psychometric properties, this study aims to examine the reliability of two VMI tests used with adults. Method. Sixty-one healthy adults, 18 males and 43 females, with an average age of 31.82 years, completed the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (DTVMI) and the Full Range Test of Visual Motor Integration (FRTVMI). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to examine the tests' internal consistency, while the Spearman's rho correlation was used to evaluate the test-retest reliability, intrarater reliability, and interrater reliability of the two VMI tests. Results. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the DTVMI and FRTVMI was 0.66 and 0.80, respectively. The test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.77 (p < .001) for the DTVMI and 0.61 (p < .001) for the FRTVMI. The interrater reliability correlation was significant for both DTVMI at 0.79 (p < .001) and FRTVMI at 0.80 (p < .001). The DTVMI intrarater reliability correlation result was 0.95 (p < .001) and the FRTVMI at 0.87 (p < .001). Conclusion. Overall, the DTVMI and the FRTVMI exhibited moderate to high levels of reliability when used with a sample of healthy adults. Both VMI tests appear to exhibit reasonable levels of reliability and are recommended for use with adults and the elderly.

  2. Combined Healthy Lifestyle Is Inversely Associated with Psychological Disorders among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ammar; Reza Roohafza, Hamid; Afshar, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population. Methods In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to screen for anxiety and depression. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01–0.27) and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01–0.15), compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47–0.88) and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48–0.81) compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10–0.16) and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08–0.12) than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59–0.87) than those with a non-healthy diet. Conclusion We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders. PMID:26771311

  3. Pulmonary responses of healthy young adults exposed to 0.06 and 0.08 ppm ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Previous studies have shown small but significant decreases in spirometric lung function in healthy young adults exposed to 0.08 ppm ozone. It is unclear, however, if such effects may are seen at concentrations below 0.08 ppm. Methods. A group of 30 healthy young adul...

  4. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults With Parkinson's Disease, Adults With Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014). Method Speakers read Harvard sentences in habitual, clear, loud, and slow conditions. Sentence stimuli were equated for peak intensity and mixed with multitalker babble. A total of 50 listeners orthographically transcribed sentences. Procedures were identical to those for a VAS reported in Tjaden, Sussman, and Wilding (2014). Results The percent correct scores from transcription were significantly higher in magnitude than the VAS scores. Multivariate linear modeling indicated that the pattern of findings for transcription and VAS was virtually the same with respect to differences among groups and speaking conditions. Correlation analyses further indicated a moderately strong, positive relationship between the two metrics. The majority of these correlations were significant. Last, intrajudge and interjudge listener reliability metrics for the two intelligibility tasks were comparable. Conclusion Results suggest that there may be instances when the less time-consuming VAS task may be a viable substitute for an orthographic transcription task when documenting intelligibility in mild dysarthria. PMID:26556727

  5. Long-term effects of histidine depletion on whole-body protein metabolism in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kriengsinyos, Wantanee; Rafii, Mahroukh; Wykes, Linda J; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2002-11-01

    The essentiality of histidine in healthy adults is a controversial topic. To study the potential metabolic effects of a lack of exogenous histidine, four healthy adults consumed a histidine-free diet, with adequate energy and 1.0 g/(kg. d) of an L-amino acid mixture for 48 d. Protein metabolism was monitored every 4 d by using indicator amino acid (L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine) oxidation (in four subjects) and [(15)N]glycine (in one subject). Urine samples (24-h) were collected for measurement of urea, total nitrogen, creatinine, 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), histidine and beta-alanine. Albumin, transferrin and hematologic concentrations were measured on d 0, 24 and 48. Urinary excretion of nitrogen, urea, creatinine and 3-MH were not affected by the histidine-free diet. However, there was a significant (P < 0.001) linear decline (24-28%) in whole-body protein turnover. Significant (P < 0.05) decreases in albumin (12%), transferrin (17%) and hemoglobin (Hb) (11%) concentrations occurred slowly over the histidine depletion period. The urinary excretion of beta-alanine (an index of carnosine catabolism) generally increased in the smallest subject during the consumption of histidine-free diet. This study demonstrates that a lack of histidine in the diet for a prolonged period resulted in an accommodation of protein turnover and phenylalanine oxidation, measured by the (13)C-phenylalanine indicator amino acid. The extensive metabolic accommodation, together with decreases in Hb, albumin and transferrin during histidine depletion, leaves unresolved the issue of whether histidine is a dietary essential amino acid in healthy adults.

  6. Grip Strength as a Marker of Hypertension and Diabetes in Healthy Weight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mainous, Arch G.; Tanner, Rebecca J.; Anton, Stephen D.; Jo, Ara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Muscle strength may play a role in cardiometabolic disease. We examined the relationship between hand grip strength and diabetes and hypertension in a sample of healthy weight adults. Methods In 2015, we analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2012 for adults aged ≥20 years with healthy BMIs (between 18.5 and <25 kg/m2) and no history of cardiovascular disease (unweighted n=1,469; weighted n=61,672,082). Hand grip strength was assessed with a dynamometer. Diabetes was based on hemoglobin A1c level and reported diabetes diagnosis. Hypertension was based on measured blood pressure and reported hypertension diagnosis. Results Individuals with undiagnosed diabetes compared with individuals without diabetes had lower grip strength (51.9 vs 69.8, p=0.0001), as well as among individuals with diagnosed diabetes compared with individuals without diabetes (61.7 vs 69.8, p=0.008). Mean grip strength was lower among individuals with undiagnosed hypertension compared with individuals without hypertension (63.5 vs 71.5, p=0.008) as well as among individuals with diagnosed hypertension compared with those without hypertension (60.8 vs 71.5, p<0.0001). In adjusted analyses controlling for age, sex, race, smoking status, and first-degree relative with disease, mean grip strength was lower for undiagnosed diabetes (β= −10.02, p<0.0001) and diagnosed diabetes (β= −8.21, p=0.03) compared with individuals without diabetes. In adjusted analyses, grip strength was lower among individuals with undiagnosed hypertension (β= −6.6, p=0.004) and diagnosed hypertension (β= −4.27, p=0.04) compared with individuals without hypertension. Conclusions Among healthy weight adults, combined grip strength is lower in individuals with diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and hypertension. PMID:26232901

  7. Airborne particles of the california central valley alter the lungs of healthy adult rats.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kevin R; Kim, Seongheon; Recendez, Julian J; Teague, Stephen V; Ménache, Margaret G; Grubbs, David E; Sioutas, Constantinos; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that airborne particulate matter (PM) with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm (PM10) is associated with an increase in respiratory-related disease. However, there is a growing consensus that particles < 2.5 microm (PM2.5), including many in the ultrafine (< 0.1 microm) size range, may elicit greater adverse effects. PM is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds; however, those components or properties responsible for biologic effects on the respiratory system have yet to be determined. During the fall and winter of 2000-2001, healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in six separate experiments to filtered air or combined fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine portions of ambient PM in Fresno, California, enhanced approximately 20-fold above outdoor levels. The intent of these studies was to determine if concentrated fine/ultrafine fractions of PM are cytotoxic and/or proinflammatory in the lungs of healthy adult rats. Exposures were for 4 hr/day for 3 consecutive days. The mean mass concentration of particles ranged from 190 to 847 microg/m3. PM was enriched primarily with ammonium nitrate, organic and elemental carbon, and metals. Viability of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from rats exposed to concentrated PM was significantly decreased during 4 of 6 weeks, compared with rats exposed to filtered air (p< 0.05). Total numbers of BAL cells were increased during 1 week, and neutrophil numbers were increased during 2 weeks. These observations strongly suggest exposure to enhanced concentrations of ambient fine/ultrafine particles in Fresno is associated with mild, but significant, cellular effects in the lungs of healthy adult rats. PMID:12782490

  8. Ultrasound Dimensions of the Rotator Cuff and Other Associated Structures in Korean Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating patients complaining of shoulder pain, ultrasonography is an emerging imaging tool due to convenience, low cost, high sensitivity and specificity. However, normative values of ultrasound dimensions of the shoulder to be compared with pathologic findings in Korean adults are not provided yet. We evaluated the ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff, long head of biceps tendon, deltoid muscle and acromioclavicular joint in Korean healthy adults. Shoulder ultrasonography was performed on 200 shoulders from 100 healthy adults. The dimensions of the thickness of rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis tendon), deltoid muscle, long head of biceps tendon, subacromial subdeltoid bursa, and acromioclavicular joint interval were measured in a standardized manner. Differences in measurements among sex, age, and dominant arms were compared. The thickness of rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis) and deltoid muscle were significantly different between men and women. The thickness of subacromial subdeltoid bursa was significantly different between men and women for non-dominant side. In rotator cuff tendon measurements, the differences between dominant and non-dominant shoulders were not significant, which means the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder can be used to estimate the normal reference values. When stratified by age divided by 10 years, the measurements of supraspinatus, subscapularis and deltoid thickness showed tendency of increase with the age. The acromioclavicular joint interval, on the other hand, revealed decreasing tendency. This report suggests normative values of ultrasound dimensions of healthy Korean population with varying age, and can be useful as reference values in evaluating shoulder pathology, especially in rotator cuff tendon pathology. PMID:27510393

  9. Stool microbiome and metabolome differences between colorectal cancer patients and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Weir, Tiffany L; Manter, Daniel K; Sheflin, Amy M; Barnett, Brittany A; Heuberger, Adam L; Ryan, Elizabeth P

    2013-01-01

    In this study we used stool profiling to identify intestinal bacteria and metabolites that are differentially represented in humans with colorectal cancer (CRC) compared to healthy controls to identify how microbial functions may influence CRC development. Stool samples were collected from healthy adults (n = 10) and colorectal cancer patients (n = 11) prior to colon resection surgery at the University of Colorado Health-Poudre Valley Hospital in Fort Collins, CO. The V4 region of the 16s rRNA gene was pyrosequenced and both short chain fatty acids and global stool metabolites were extracted and analyzed utilizing Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). There were no significant differences in the overall microbial community structure associated with the disease state, but several bacterial genera, particularly butyrate-producing species, were under-represented in the CRC samples, while a mucin-degrading species, Akkermansia muciniphila, was about 4-fold higher in CRC (p<0.01). Proportionately higher amounts of butyrate were seen in stool of healthy individuals while relative concentrations of acetate were higher in stools of CRC patients. GC-MS profiling revealed higher concentrations of amino acids in stool samples from CRC patients and higher poly and monounsaturated fatty acids and ursodeoxycholic acid, a conjugated bile acid in stool samples from healthy adults (p<0.01). Correlative analysis between the combined datasets revealed some potential relationships between stool metabolites and certain bacterial species. These associations could provide insight into microbial functions occurring in a cancer environment and will help direct future mechanistic studies. Using integrated "omics" approaches may prove a useful tool in identifying functional groups of gastrointestinal bacteria and their associated metabolites as novel therapeutic and chemopreventive targets.

  10. Acute effect of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism on vascular function in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Kim, Han-Kyul; Meade, Thomas H; English, Mark; Talcott, Susanne; Jaffe, Iris Z; Christou, Demetra D

    2016-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation by aldosterone may regulate vascular function in health or contribute to vascular dysfunction in cardiovascular disease. Whether the effects are beneficial or detrimental to vascular function appear to be dependent on the integrity of the vascular endothelium and whether the responses are short-term or chronic. Acute modulation of MR activation has resulted in conflicting outcomes on vascular function in young healthy adults. Little is known about the vascular role of aldosterone and MR activation in healthy human aging. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether acute inhibition of MR by the selective antagonist eplerenone, influences vascular function in healthy older adults. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in 22 adults (61±1 years; mean±SE, 53-79 years) who were free from overt clinical cardiovascular disease. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation and endothelium-independent dilation to sublingual nitroglycerin (0.4 mg) following eplerenone (100 mg/dose, 2 doses, 24h between doses) or placebo. In response to acute MR antagonism, flow-mediated dilation decreased by 19% (from 6.9±0.5 to 5.6±0.6%, P=0.02; placebo vs. eplerenone). Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity also decreased following MR antagonism based on the ratio of phosphorylated eNOS(Ser1177) to total eNOS (1.53±0.08 vs. 1.29±0.06, P=0.02). Nitroglycerin-induced dilation and blood pressure were unaffected (nitroglycerin-induced dilation: 21.9±1.9 vs. 21.0±1.5%, P=0.5 and systolic/diastolic blood pressure: 135/77±4/2 vs. 134/77±4/2 mmHg, P≥0.6). In conclusion, acute MR antagonism impairs vascular endothelial function in healthy older adults without influencing vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to exogenous nitric oxide or blood pressure.

  11. Acute Effect of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonism on Vascular Function in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Kim, Han-Kyul; Meade, Thomas H.; English, Mark; Talcott, Susanne; Jaffe, Iris Z.; Christou, Demetra D.

    2015-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation by aldosterone may regulate vascular function in health or contribute to vascular dysfunction in cardiovascular disease. Whether the effects are beneficial or detrimental to vascular function appear to be dependent on the integrity of the vascular endothelium and whether the responses are short-term or chronic. Acute modulation of MR activation has resulted in conflicting outcomes on vascular function in young healthy adults. Little is known about the vascular role of aldosterone and MR activation in healthy human aging. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether acute inhibition of MR by the selective antagonist eplerenone, influences vascular function in healthy older adults. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in 22 adults (61±1 y; mean ± SE, 53–79 y) who were free from overt clinical cardiovascular disease. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation and endothelium-independent dilation to sublingual nitroglycerin (0.4mg) following eplerenone (100 mg/dose, 2 doses, 24 hours between doses) or placebo. In response to acute MR antagonism, flow-mediated dilation decreased by 19% (from 6.9±0.5 to 5.6±0.6 %, P=0.02; placebo vs. eplerenone). Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity also decreased following MR antagonism based on the ratio of phosphorylated eNOSSer1177 to total eNOS (1.53±0.08 vs. 1.29±0.06, P=0.02). Nitroglycerin-induced dilation and blood pressure were unaffected (nitroglycerin-induced dilation: 21.9±1.9 vs. 21.0±1.5 %, P=0.5 and systolic/diastolic blood pressure: 135/77±4/2 vs. 134/77± 4/2 mmHg, P ≥0.6). In conclusion, acute MR antagonism impairs vascular endothelial function in healthy older adults without influencing vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to exogenous nitric oxide or blood pressure. PMID:26639352

  12. Establishment of reference values of CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte subsets in healthy Nigerian adults.

    PubMed

    Oladepo, D K; Idigbe, E O; Audu, R A; Inyang, U S; Imade, G E; Philip, A O; Okafor, G O; Olaleye, D; Mohammed, S B; Odunukwe, N N; Harry, T O; Edyong-Ekpa, M; Idoko, J; Musa, A Z; Adedeji, A; Nasidi, A; Ya'aba, Y; Ibrahim, K

    2009-09-01

    A total of 2,570 apparently healthy human immunodeficiency virus-negative adults from the six geopolitical zones in the country were enrolled in our study in 2006. The samples were assayed using the Cyflow technique. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS). The majority (64%) of the participants had CD4 counts within the range of 501 to 1,000 cells/microl. The reference range for CD4 was 365 to 1,571 cells/microl, while the reference range for CD8 was 145 to 884 cells/microl.

  13. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2016-07-27

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  14. [Reference intervals for peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in healthy adults in Lima, Peru].

    PubMed

    Cóndor, José M; Álvarez, Marco; Cano, Luis; Matos, Edgar; Leiva, Christian; Paredes, José A

    2013-04-01

    In order to establish the reference intervals (RIs) of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (PBL) in healthy adults in Lima (Peru), a cross-sectional study was conducted among blood donors taken in between 2011 and 2012. Based on the criteria obtained from the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI C28-A3), 318 samples were processed, 61.9% (197/318) coming from male donors. For PBL count, a flow cytometer with a simple platform was used. The RIs are established for each PBL in adults based on sex with their respective reference limits and 90% confidence intervals. Differences were found in CD3+ percentage counts (p=0.001) and in CD3-CD56+ absolute (p=0.003) and percentage counts (p?0.001). The RIs found are different to those described in studies conducted in other countries due to the characteristics of the population and the study model.

  15. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  16. Association of elevated cytokines with childhood adversity in a sample of healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Hartwell, Karen J.; Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M.; Twal, Waleed O.; Shaftman, Stephanie; DeSantis, Stacia M.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood trauma has been associated adult stress-related disorders. However, little is known about physiologic alterations in adults with a history of early life trauma that do not have current psychiatric or medical diagnoses. In this study, the relationships between childhood adversity and cytokine and C - reactive protein (CRP) levels in healthy adults were examined. Method Participants included men (n=18) and women (n=20) who did not meet DSM-IV criteria for Axis I psychiatric disorders or any major medical illness. Cytokine and CRP levels were obtained from baseline blood samples. Subjects completed the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report (ETI-SR). The primary outcomes included serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL1-β), and CRP levels. In addition, the mean numbers of traumatic experiences (sexual, physical, emotional, general, and the summed total) were measured. Results Significant positive associations were found between the total ETI score and IL-6 (p = 0.05), IL1-β (p < 0.05), and TNF-α (p = 0.01). Significant positive correlations were found between the number of general traumas and IL1-β (p < 0.05), TNF-α (p < 0.05), and IL-6 (p < 0.01). Neither the total number of traumas nor any of the trauma subscales were significantly associated with CRP levels. Conclusions The positive association between childhood trauma and basal cytokine levels supports the extant literature demonstrating the long-term impact of childhood trauma and stress on homeostatic systems. Importantly, this association was found in healthy adults, suggesting that these alterations may precede the development of significant stress-related psychiatric disorder or disease. PMID:23415658

  17. Gait Velocity Is an Indicator of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jabourian, Artin; Lancrenon, Sylvie; Delva, Catherine; Perreve-Genet, Alain; Lablanchy, Jean-Pierre; Jabourian, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Psychomotor retardation, especially motor and cognitive slowing down, has been described many times in the elderly but to our knowledge, has never been examined in healthy middle-aged adults. The present study explores whether walking time may provide an early signal of cognitive performance, using 266 healthy adults ([18–65] years old, mean age: 45.7±12.9 years) who were also subdivided in 2 groups: under or over 50. Walking time (50 meters) and cognitive performances (mini-mental state examination, Benton Visual Retention Test and Rey Complex Figure) were assessed; total psychometric score was the sum of individual test scores. Analyses were controlled for age, gender, education level, height and weight. The mean psychometric scores were within the normal range. A substantial proportion of subjects exhibited low performance in some aspects of visuospatial memory, particularly in the older subset. In the total population, walking time was negatively correlated with all cognitive tests, particularly to total psychometric score (R = −0.817, p<0.0001); the unique contribution of walking time on all cognitive scores was very high (delta R-squared = 0.496). In the older subset, performances on walk and cognition were lower than in the younger subset. Total psychometric score showed the strongest correlation with walking time in the older subset (R = −0.867; p<0.001). In all subsets, walking time was the main explanatory variable of the total psychometric score (delta R-squared: ≤ 49 = 0.361; ≥50 = 0.613). These findings indicate that i) a significant proportion of adults without cognitive complaints exhibit low cognitive performance including visuospatial memory and longer walking time, ii) cognitive functioning is strongly correlated to walking time in healthy middle-aged adults, iii) gait velocity (GV) could be an indicator of cognitive performance in some important cognitive domains. These results warrant further investigation because

  18. Serological immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in healthy adults in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Sonal; Jais, Manoj; Dutta, Renu; Dutta, A K

    2009-07-01

    Widespread childhood immunization with DPT (diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus) has largely eradicated diphtheria and tetanus from many countries. The reduction in the circulation of toxigenic strains has resulted in less natural boosting of adult immunity. As a result, the adult population in countries with high childhood immunization coverage have become susceptible to the disease. The duration of immunity after primary immunization to diphtheria and tetanus is limited and a reduction in immunity is common in adults. With this perspective, the present study was carried out on a random serum sample of 255 healthy individuals aged 20-50 years. The serum samples were tested for immunoglobulin G levels against diphtheria and tetanus by enzyme immuno assays. Fifty-three per cent of adults were unprotected; 22 % were seen to have only a basic protection against diphtheria; 25% were protected against both diseases; and 47% were susceptible to tetanus. The susceptibility was seen to increase with age. To avoid epidemics in the future, immunity must be improved. It is important to treat even the most trivial wound with care and tetanus toxoid immunization. Also, it is necessary to monitor the community for immunity to diphtheria using standard techniques in order to undertake epidemiological surveillances of, and prevention from, these dreadful diseases.

  19. Sleep modulates word-pair learning but not motor sequence learning in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jessica K; Baran, Bengi; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Ivry, Richard B; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2012-05-01

    Sleep benefits memory across a range of tasks for young adults. However, remarkably little is known of the role of sleep on memory for healthy older adults. We used 2 tasks, 1 assaying motor skill learning and the other assaying nonmotor/declarative learning, to examine off-line changes in performance in young (20-34 years), middle-aged (35-50 years), and older (51-70 years) adults without disordered sleep. During an initial session, conducted either in the morning or evening, participants learned a motor sequence and a list of word pairs. Memory tests were given twice, 12 and 24 hours after training, allowing us to analyze off-line consolidation after a break that included sleep or normal wake. Sleep-dependent performance changes were reduced in older adults on the motor sequence learning task. In contrast, sleep-dependent performance changes were similar for all 3 age groups on the word pair learning task. Age-related changes in sleep or networks activated during encoding or during sleep may contribute to age-related declines in motor sequence consolidation. Interestingly, these changes do not affect declarative memory.

  20. Preserved Learning during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J.; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit–symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol–digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol–digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. Results: The repetition of the same symbol–digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the

  1. Variability in heart rate recovery measurements over 1 year in healthy, middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Mellis, M G; Ingle, L; Carroll, S

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the longer-term (12-month) variability in post-exercise heart rate recovery following a submaximal exercise test. Longitudinal data was analysed for 97 healthy middle-aged adults (74 male, 23 female) from 2 occasions, 12 months apart. Participants were retrospectively selected if they had stable physical activity habits, submaximal treadmill fitness and anthropometric measurements between the 2 assessment visits. A submaximal Bruce treadmill test was performed to at least 85% age-predicted maximum heart rate. Absolute heart rate and Δ heart rate recovery (change from peak exercise heart rate) were recorded for 1 and 2 min post-exercise in an immediate supine position. Heart rate recovery at both time-points was shown to be reliable with intra-class correlation coefficient values ≥ 0.714. Absolute heart rate 1-min post-exercise showed the strongest agreement between repeat tests (r = 0.867, P < 0.001). Lower coefficient of variation (≤ 10.2%) and narrower limits of agreement were found for actual heart rate values rather than Δ heart rate recovery, and for 1-min rather than 2-min post-exercise recovery time points. Log-transformed values generated better variability with acceptable coefficient of variation for all measures (2.2-10%). Overall, 1 min post-exercise heart rate recovery data had least variability over the 12-month period in apparently healthy middle-aged adults.

  2. ESTABLISHING MEAN CD4+ T CELL VALUES AMONG HEALTHY JAVANESE ADULTS IN INDONESIA.

    PubMed

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Zaini, Khilyat Ulin Nur

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to establish mean CD4+ T cell values among healthy Javanese adults in Indonesia. Two hundred forty-one healthy adults (119 women and 122 men), aged 18-65 years, were enrolled in the study. CD4+ T cells were analyzed by immunophenotyping. The mean absolute CD4+ T cell count was 753.3 ± 270.3 cells/µl (median = 725.0 cells/µl) and the mean CD4+ T cell percentage was 32.6 ± 7.7%, (median = 31.0%). Women had a slightly higher mean absolute CD4+ T cell count and CD4+ T cell percentage (779.1 ± 271.0 cells/ µl; 33.4 ± 8.2%) than men (728.2 ± 268.3 cells/µl; 31.8 ± 7.1%), but the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.126, p = 0.216, respectively). The mean absolute CD4+ T cell varied significantly by age group (p = 0.002). Sixty-one point seven percent of men studied (37/60) had a CD4+ T cell count less than 500 cells/µl (OR 1.8; 95% CI = 1.001-3.300). Absolute CD4+ T cell counts among Javanese Indonesians varied significantly by age.

  3. A computerized algorithm for arousal detection in healthy adults and patients with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Gertrud L; Jennum, Poul; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle; Sorensen, Helge B D

    2012-02-01

    Arousals occur from all sleep stages and can be identified as abrupt electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) changes. Manual scoring of arousals is time consuming with low interscore agreement. The aim of this study was to design an arousal detection algorithm capable of detecting arousals from non-rapid eye movement (REM) and REM sleep, independent of the subject's age and disease. The proposed algorithm uses features from EEG, EMG, and the manual sleep stage scoring as input to a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). The performance of the algorithm has been assessed using polysomnographic (PSG) recordings from a total of 24 subjects. Eight of the subjects were diagnosed with Parkinson disease (PD) and the rest (16) were healthy adults in various ages. The performance of the algorithm was validated in 3 settings: testing on the 8 patients with PD using the leave-one-out method, testing on the 16 healthy adults using the leave-one-out method, and finally testing on all 24 subjects using a 4-fold crossvalidation. For these 3 validations, the sensitivities were 89.8%, 90.3%, and 89.4%, and the positive predictive values (PPVs) were 88.8%, 89.4%, and 86.1%. These results are high compared with those of previously presented arousal detection algorithms and especially compared with the high interscore variability of manual scorings.

  4. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Converse, Alexander K; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Travers, Brittany G; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD.

  5. Exercise using mung bean bag improves balance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Siriphorn, A; Chamonchant, D; Boonyong, S

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise using a mung bean bag (MB) for balance ability. Thirty-nine healthy female young adults (aged 18-25 years with normal body mass index) were randomly assigned into three groups (n for each group = 13): control group, firm surface (FS) exercise group, and MB exercise group. The FS and MB groups were trained with static and dynamic balance exercises (20 minutes × 3 times/week × 6 weeks). Participants' balance abilities were measured using a Balance Master 4 times: at pre-training (baseline) and at the second, fourth, and sixth weeks post-training. Three tests were assessed: unilateral stance test, modified clinical test for sensory integrations on balance (mCTSIB), and limits of stability (LOS) test. The MB group significantly improved unilateral stance balance in both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions, whereas the FS group improved only in the eyes-closed condition. No significant difference was found across groups in the mCTSIB parameters. Only the FS group significantly improved LOS parameters. These results suggest the MB exercise could be used to improve unilateral stance balance, but not the LOS or mCTSIB, in healthy young adults.

  6. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (<75 mg) on sustained attention are limited and use short-term tests. Therefore, we investigated the acute effects of a 60 mg dose of caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  7. The role of masturbation in healthy sexual development: perceptions of young adults.

    PubMed

    Kaestle, Christine E; Allen, Katherine R

    2011-10-01

    Despite efforts to identify masturbation as a strategy to improve sexual health, promote relational intimacy, and reduce unwanted pregnancy, STIs, and HIV transmission, masturbation as a context for healthy sexual development has been met with silence or trepidation in the scientific and educational communities. Relegated to the realm of commercial media, rather than rational discourse in families, schools, and the general public, young people receive mixed messages about this non-reproductive sexual behavior. In order to explore how young adults have learned about masturbation and currently perceive masturbation, we conducted a grounded theory study of 72 college students (56 females; 16 males) enrolled in a human sexuality class. Findings revealed that a young adult's perceptions of and feelings toward masturbation were the result of a developmental process that included: (1) learning about the act of masturbation and how to do it, (2) learning and internalizing the social contradiction of stigma and taboo surrounding this pleasurable act, and (3) coming to terms with this tension between stigma and pleasure. Although nearly all participants learned about masturbation through the media and peers (not parents or teachers), gender was salient in coming to terms with the contradiction of stigma and pleasure. Most of the women reported either still struggling with the contradiction or accepting it as normal. Most of the men recognized the beneficial aspects for healthy sexual development that result from masturbation. Both male and female participants identified differential sexual scripts as contributing to the double standard.

  8. Flavonoids and phenolic acids from cranberry juice are bioavailable and bioactive in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    McKay, Diane L; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Zampariello, Carly A; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2015-02-01

    Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are a rich source of phenolic phytochemicals, which likely contribute to their putative health benefits. A single-dose pharmacokinetic trial was conducted in 10 healthy adults ⩾50y to evaluate the acute (24-h) absorption and excretion of flavonoids, phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins (PACs) from a low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (54% juice). Inter-individual variability was observed in the Cmax and Tmax of many of these compounds in both plasma and urine. The sum total concentration of phenolics detected in plasma reached a peak of 34.2μg/ml between 8 and 10h, while in urine this peak was 269.8μg/mg creatinine, and appeared 2-4h earlier. The presence of PAC-A2 dimers in human urine has not previously been reported. After cranberry juice consumption, plasma total antioxidant capacity assessed using ORAC and TAP assays correlated with individual metabolites. Our results show phenolic compounds in cranberry juice are bioavailable and exert antioxidant actions in healthy older adults.

  9. Measurement of and Factors Associated with the Anterior Chamber Volume in Healthy Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Yu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To measure the anterior chamber volume (ACV) and determine factors associated with the ACV in healthy Chinese adults. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we used swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) to measure ACV and other anterior segment parameters. Factors associated with ACV were also determined. Results. A total of 313 healthy Chinese adults were enrolled. The anterior segment parameters, including ACV, could be measured by SS-OCT with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. There was a significant difference between the horizontal and vertical anterior chamber widths (ACW) (P < 0.05), with a mean difference of 390 μm. The ACV (mean 153.83 ± 32.42 mm3) was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters, especially anterior chamber depth (ACD), which accounted for about 85% of the variation of ACV. Most of the anterior segment parameters were significantly correlated with age, and the relative changes in ACV and ACD were greatest in subjects aged 41–50 years. Conclusion. ACV was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters measured in this study, particularly ACD. The relatively large difference between horizontal and vertical ACW suggests that the ACV could and should be measured using multiple OCT scans. PMID:28168046

  10. Measurement of and Factors Associated with the Anterior Chamber Volume in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Zong, Yuan; Xu, Qian; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhu, Haohao; Yu, Jian; Sun, Xinghuai

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To measure the anterior chamber volume (ACV) and determine factors associated with the ACV in healthy Chinese adults. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we used swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) to measure ACV and other anterior segment parameters. Factors associated with ACV were also determined. Results. A total of 313 healthy Chinese adults were enrolled. The anterior segment parameters, including ACV, could be measured by SS-OCT with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. There was a significant difference between the horizontal and vertical anterior chamber widths (ACW) (P < 0.05), with a mean difference of 390 μm. The ACV (mean 153.83 ± 32.42 mm(3)) was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters, especially anterior chamber depth (ACD), which accounted for about 85% of the variation of ACV. Most of the anterior segment parameters were significantly correlated with age, and the relative changes in ACV and ACD were greatest in subjects aged 41-50 years. Conclusion. ACV was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters measured in this study, particularly ACD. The relatively large difference between horizontal and vertical ACW suggests that the ACV could and should be measured using multiple OCT scans.

  11. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Stiegel, M A; Pleil, J D; Sobus, J R; Angrish, M M; Morgan, M K

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creatinine is a human metabolite that is continually produced in skeletal muscles and presumably excreted in the urine at a stable rate. However, creatinine also serves as a biomarker for glomerular filtration rate (efficiency) of the kidneys, so undiagnosed kidney function impairment could affect this commonly applied dilution calculation. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has recently conducted a study that collected approximately 2600 urine samples from 50 healthy adults, aged 19-50 years old, in North Carolina in 2009-2011. Urinary ancillary data (creatinine concentration, total void volume, elapsed time between voids), and participant demographic data (race, gender, height, and body weight) were collected. A representative subset of 280 urine samples from 29 participants was assayed using a new kidney injury panel (KIP). In this article, we investigated the relationships of KIP biomarkers within and between subjects and also calculated their interactions with measured creatinine levels. The aims of this work were to document the analytical methods (procedures, sensitivity, stability, etc.), provide summary statistics for the KIP biomarkers in "healthy" adults without diagnosed disease (distribution, fold range, central tendency, variance), and to develop an understanding as to how urinary creatinine level varies with respect to the individual KIP proteins. Results show that new instrumentation and data reduction methods have sufficient sensitivity to measure KIP levels in nominally healthy urine samples, that linear regression between creatinine concentration and urinary excretion explains only about 68% of variability, that KIP markers are poorly correlated with

  12. Physical activity in adults with controlled and uncontrolled asthma as compared to healthy adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Though exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is common among asthmatics, physical activity (PA) seems important in asthma management. Still, various studies point at avoidance of sports and certain daily life activities like walking stairs, even by patients with mild symptoms. We aimed to compare physical activity levels between healthy subjects and asthmatics with controlled and uncontrolled disease. Methods Data on asthma and PA were drawn from the Portuguese National Asthma Survey. The short telephone version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure PA levels. Current asthma was defined as self-reported asthma and at least one of these criteria: one or more asthma symptoms in the last twelve months, currently taking asthma medication or an asthma medical appointment in the previous twelve months. Controlled asthma was defined as a CARAT global score > 24 or a CARAT second factor score ≤ 16. Healthy subjects were defined as individuals without atopy, heart disease or any respiratory symptom. X2 and Mann–Whitney/Kruskall-Wallis tests were used to compare groups. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess relations between asthma status and PA dimensions. Results A total of 606 non-asthmatics, 125 controlled and 78 uncontrolled asthmatic subjects were included. In both genders, overall PA level did not differ significantly between groups. Controlled (men) and uncontrolled (women) asthmatics did more vigorous PA than healthy respondents. Male controlled asthmatics also did more moderate PA. Crude logistic regression showed positive relations between daily sitting time, vigorous and moderate PA and controlled asthma in men and between vigorous PA and uncontrolled asthma in women. After adjustments for confounders, moderate PA remained a predictor of controlled asthma in men, while vigorous PA doubled the risk of uncontrolled asthma in women. Conclusion Our study showed that adult asthmatics, independent

  13. White matter microstructure in the executive network associated with aggression in healthy adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bato, Angelica A.; Blair, Melanie A.; DeRosse, Pamela; Szeszko, Philip R.; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting which individuals may engage in aggressive behavior is of interest in today’s society; however, there is little data on the neural basis of aggression in healthy individuals. Here, we tested whether regional differences in white matter (WM) microstructure were associated with later reports of aggressive tendencies. We recontacted healthy young adults an average of 3 years after they underwent research MRI scans. Via electronic survey, we administered the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire. We divided aggression into Aggressive Thoughts (Anger and Hostility subscales) and Aggressive Acts (Verbal and Physical subscales) and used Tract-Based Spatial Statistics to test the relationship of those measures to WM microstructure. In 45 individuals age 15–30 at baseline, we observed significant relationships between Aggressive Acts and fractional anisotropy (FA) in a parietal region consistent with the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). As the SLF has an established relationship to executive function, we performed an exploratory analysis in a subset of individuals with working memory data. Decreased FA in executive network regions, as well as working memory performance, were associated with later self-reported aggressive tendencies. This has implications for our healthy behavior understanding of as well as that of patient populations known to have executive dysfunction. PMID:25691778

  14. Relationships between maximal oxygen uptake and endothelial function in healthy male adults: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Silvio; Canino, Baldassare; Batsis, John A; Buscemi, Chiara; Calandrino, Vincenzo; Mattina, Alessandro; Arnone, Mariangela; Caimi, Gregorio; Cerasola, Giovanni; Verga, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    Aerobic capacity, as indicated by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) has an important role in contrasting the traditional cardiovascular risk factors and preventing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is known that endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, is strictly linked to atherogenesis and cardiovascular risk. However, the relationship between VO2 max and FMD has not been fully investigated especially in healthy non-obese subjects. This preliminary study cross-sectionally investigated the relationship between VO2 max and FMD in 22 non-obese, healthy sedentary male subjects. Dividing the cohort in two subgroups of 11 subjects each according to the median value of VO2 max, the FMD was significantly lower in the subgroup with lower VO2 max (mean ± sem: 7.1 ± 0.7 vs. 9.5 ± 0.8 %; P = 0.035). Absolute VO2 max (mL min(-1)) was significantly and independently correlated with body fat mass (r = -0.50; P = 0.018) and with FMD (r = 0.44; P = 0.039). This preliminary study suggests that maximal oxygen uptake is independently correlated with endothelial function in healthy non-obese adults. These results are also in agreement with the possibility that improving maximal oxygen uptake may have a favorable effect on endothelial function and vice versa.

  15. Altered Response to Neuroendocrine Challenge Linked to Indices of the Metabolic Syndrome in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, A. R.; Walters, O. C.; Price, L. H.; Anderson, G. M.; Carpenter, L. L.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by central obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is frequently abnormal in MetS, and excessive cortisol exposure may be implicated in metabolic derangements. We investigated the hypothesis that cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) responses to a standardized neuroendocrine challenge test would be associated with indices of MetS in a community sample of healthy adults. Healthy adults, 125 men and 170 women, without significant medical problems or chronic medications were recruited from the community. Participants completed the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test, and anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and cholesterol were measured. Participants reported on their history of early life stress and recent stress, as well as mood and anxiety symptoms. Cortisol and ACTH responses to the Dex/CRH test were negatively associated with measures of central adiposity (p < 0.001) and blood pressure (p < 0.01), and positively associated with HDL cholesterol (p < 0.01). These findings remained significant after controlling for body mass index (BMI). Measures of stress and anxiety and depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with cortisol and ACTH responses in the Dex/CRH test but were not related to MetS indices. That altered HPA axis function is linked to MetS components even in a healthy community sample suggests that these processes may be involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. Identification of premorbid risk processes might allow for detection and intervention prior to the development of disease. PMID:22549400

  16. Eustachian Tube Opening Measurement by Sonotubometry Using Perfect Sequences for Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beleskiene, Vilma; Lesinskas, Eugenijus; Januskiene, Vaida; Daunoraviciene, Kristina; Rauba, Darius; Ivaska, Justinas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to establish the rate variation of sonotubometric measurements using a specific broadband class of signals, the so-called perfect sequences (PSEQ) among healthy adults and to identify an optimal and technically simple test to provoke Eustachian tube (ET) openings. Methods Sonotubometry was performed on 105 healthy adult subjects. Three different consecutive maneuvers were performed for ET opening: dry swallowing, water swallowing (a small [2 mL] and a large [5 mL] water bolus). Values of the amplitude and duration of each measured ET opening were calculated. Results A total of 6,300 measurements were performed. Sonotubometric ET openings were detected for all subjects but not for each measurement. In 6,180 of 6,300 measurements (98.1%), objective ET openings were registered. In 11 of 105 subjects (10.5%) at least one sonotubometric ET opening was not detected. The mean ET opening duration time and the mean sound amplitude similar for all performed test and were 270 (SD, ±96) msec, 13.48 (SD, ±6.57) dB. Conclusion Sonotubometry based on PSEQ stimuli is a reliable methodology to assess the ET opening function in healthy subjects. Mean ET opening duration time and the mean sound wave amplitude performed similarly in all analysed tests, hence it might be concluded that dry (saliva) and water swallowing are reliable sonotubometric maneuvers and may be used when examining ET opening function. The size of a sip during water swallowing does not affect the sonotubometry result. All maneuvers can be equally used as the optimal test, and water swallow is most comfortable for the subject. PMID:27090279

  17. Improved cognition while cycling in Parkinson's disease patients and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hazamy, Audrey A; Altmann, Lori J P; Stegemöller, Elizabeth; Bowers, Dawn; Lee, Hyo Keun; Wilson, Jonathan; Okun, Michael S; Hass, Chris J

    2017-04-01

    Persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) are typically more susceptible than healthy adults to impaired performance when two tasks (dual task interference) are performed simultaneously. This limitation has by many experts been attributed to limitations in cognitive resources. Nearly all studies of dual task performance in PD employ walking or balance-based motor tasks, which are commonly impaired in PD. These tasks can be performed using a combination of one or two executive function tasks. The current study examined whether persons with PD would demonstrate greater dual task effects (DTEs) on cognition compared to healthy older adults (HOAs) during a concurrent cycling task. Participants with and without PD completed a battery of 12 cognitive tasks assessing visual and verbal processing in the following cognitive domains: speed of processing, controlled processing, working memory and executive function. Persons with PD exhibited impairments compared to healthy participants in select tasks (i.e., 0-back, 2-back and operation span). Further, both groups unexpectedly exhibited dual task facilitation of response times in visual tasks across cognitive domains, and improved verbal recall during an executive function task. Only one measure, 2-back, showed a speed-accuracy trade-off in the dual task. These results demonstrate that, when paired with a motor task in which they are not impaired, people with PD exhibit similar DTEs on cognitive tasks as HOAs, even when these task effects are facilitative. More generally, these findings demonstrate that pairing cognitive tasks with cycling may actually improve cognitive performance which may have therapeutic relevance to cognitive decline associated with aging and PD pathology.

  18. Identifying effective healthy weight and lifestyle advertisements: Focus groups with Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Helen; Murphy, Michael; Scully, Maree; Rose, Mischa; Cotter, Trish

    2016-08-01

    This study explored adult's attitudes and reactions to a range of television advertisements (ads) promoting healthy weight, physical activity and healthy eating. Twenty-four focus groups (N = 179) were conducted in metropolitan and regional areas of the Australian states of Victoria, New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, with participants segmented by sex, education (no tertiary, at least some tertiary) and life stage (young adults, parents). Each group was assigned to one of the three advertising streams - Weight, Activity, or Nutrition - where responses to five different ads were explored using semi-structured, moderator-led discussions. Discussion transcripts were qualitatively content analysed using a conventional approach. Four main themes were identified in participants' discussions about the ads' main messages - (i) Why is it a problem? (ii) Who is it a problem for? (iii) What should I do about it? (iv) How do I make the changes? Reactions varied by demographic factors and current weight and lifestyle status. Participants furthest from achieving public health recommendations for weight, diet and activity were motivated by 'what' and 'how' ads involving gentle persuasion and helpful hints. Participants who were closer to meeting these recommendations were motivated by 'why' ads featuring more graphic and emotive content and new information. Findings suggest a strategic approach is important for the development of public health ads promoting healthy weight and lifestyle, with consideration given to the specific communication goals and who the target audience is. This should help ensure an appropriate message is delivered to priority population subgroups in the most informative and motivating manner.

  19. Effects of moderate beer consumption on first-line immunity of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Romeo, J; Wärnberg, J; Díaz, L E; González-Gross, M; Marcos, A

    2007-06-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption has shown to induce benefits on host specific (cell-mediated and humoral) immune system, but there is scarce literature regarding first-line immune responses. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in non-specific immunity after alcohol abstention and moderate beer consumption in healthy adults. After a 30 day-alcohol abstemious period, 57 healthy volunteers were submitted to a daily moderate consumption of beer (330 mL for women and 660 mL for men, respectively) during the following 30 days. White blood cell counts and phagocytic and oxidative burst activity were evaluated at three points: a) basal, b) abstemious, c) after moderate consumption of beer. Absolute values of leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes and basophiles (x10(9)/L) increased significantly in women from point b to point c (6.34 +/- 1.26 vs. 7.27 +/- 1.97, 3.43 +/- 0.88 vs. 4.13 +/- 1.53, 2.14 +/- 0.50 vs. 2.38 +/- 0.63, and 0.05 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.06 +/- 0.03, respectively; p < 0.05) as well as basophils in men (0.05 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.06 +/- 0.03). A significant increase of oxidative burst capacity was also observed after the moderate consumption of beer in both women (33.90 +/- 19.00 vs. 48.86 +/- 21.83) and men (27.39 +/- 18.13 vs. 39.25 +/- 24.53). In healthy adults, after 30 days of moderate beer consumption the parameter describing the non-specific immunity improved when compared to the basal situation. For several of these parameters, the response is more enhanced in women.

  20. Salivary cortisol, stress and mood in healthy older adults: the Zenith study.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Ellen E A; McConville, Chris; Rae, Gordon; O'Connor, Jacqueline M; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Coudray, Charles; Strain, J J

    2008-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between salivary cortisol, stress and mood and to look at the circadian rhythms of positive (PA) and negative (NA) mood in older adults. The participants were 41 healthy adults aged 55-69 years, recruited in Northern Ireland as part of the European Commission-funded Zenith project. Salivary cortisol samples were obtained twice a day (2.30 p.m. and 10.30 p.m.) for 7 consecutive days in conjunction with momentary measures of positive (PA) and negative mood (NA), using PANAS and a trait measure of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale). Salivary cortisol levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. Higher perceived stress levels were associated with lower afternoon PA (r=-0.46, p=0.003) and higher afternoon (r=0.43, p=0.007) and evening (r=0.45, p=0.004) NA. Lower afternoon PA was correlated with higher evening cortisol concentrations (r=-0.47, p=0.002). Greater afternoon PA variability was associated with higher evening cortisol concentrations (r=0.38, p=0.015). A high intra-class correlation between cortisol and positive mood was found (r=0.67, p=0.009). Previously established rhythms for positive and negative mood were confirmed. Interestingly, there was no association between salivary cortisol levels and perceived stress in these healthy older adults. Further, more extensive research is required to better understand the apparent interplay between these variables and ageing.

  1. VOR Gain Is Related to Compensatory Saccades in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Anson, Eric R.; Bigelow, Robin T.; Carey, John P.; Xue, Qian-Li; Studenski, Stephanie; Schubert, Michael C.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain is well-suited for identifying rotational vestibular dysfunction, but may miss partial progressive decline in age-related vestibular function. Since compensatory saccades might provide an alternative method for identifying subtle vestibular decline, we describe the relationship between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Methods: Horizontal VOR gain was measured in 243 subjects age 60 and older from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging using video head impulse testing (HIT). Saccades in each HIT were identified as either “compensatory” or “compensatory back-up,” i.e., same or opposite direction as the VOR response respectively. Saccades were also classified as “covert” (occurring during head movement) and “overt” (occurring after head movement). The relationship between VOR gain and percentage of HITs with saccades, as well as the relationship between VOR gain and saccade latency and amplitude, were evaluated using regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and race. Results: In adjusted analyses, the percentage of HITs with compensatory saccades increased 4.5% for every 0.1 decrease in VOR gain (p < 0.0001). Overt compensatory saccade amplitude decreased 0.6° (p < 0.005) and latency increased 90 ms (p < 0.001) for every 0.1 increase in VOR gain. Covert back-up compensatory saccade amplitude increased 0.4° for every 0.1 increase in VOR gain. Conclusion: We observed significant relationships between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Lower VOR gain was associated with larger amplitude, shorter latency compensatory saccades. Compensatory saccades reflect underlying rotational vestibular hypofunction, and may be particularly useful at identifying partial vestibular deficits as occur in aging adults. PMID:27445793

  2. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Facilitate Dynamic Balance Task Learning in Healthy Old Adults.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Elisabeth; Hoff, Maike; Rjosk, Viola; Steele, Christopher J; Gundlach, Christopher; Sehm, Bernhard; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Older adults frequently experience a decrease in balance control that leads to increased numbers of falls, injuries and hospitalization. Therefore, evaluating older adults' ability to maintain balance and examining new approaches to counteract age-related decline in balance control is of great importance for fall prevention and healthy aging. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been shown to beneficially influence motor behavior and motor learning. In the present study, we investigated the influence of tDCS applied over the leg area of the primary motor cortex (M1) on balance task learning of healthy elderly in a dynamic balance task (DBT). In total, 30 older adults were enrolled in a cross-sectional, randomized design including two consecutive DBT training sessions. Only during the first DBT session, either 20 min of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) or sham tDCS (s-tDCS) were applied and learning improvement was compared between the two groups. Our data showed that both groups successfully learned to perform the DBT on both training sessions. Interestingly, between-group analyses revealed no difference between the a-tDCS and the s-tDCS group regarding their level of task learning. These results indicate that the concurrent application of tDCS over M1 leg area did not elicit DBT learning enhancement in our study cohort. However, a regression analysis revealed that DBT performance can be predicted by the kinematic profile of the movement, a finding that may provide new insights for individualized approaches of treating balance and gait disorders.

  3. Determinants of physical activity and exercise in healthy older adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The health benefits of regular physical activity and exercise have been widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, a decline in physical activity is observed in older adults. Knowledge of the determinants of physical activity (unstructured activity incorporated in daily life) and exercise (structured, planned and repetitive activities) is needed to effectively promote an active lifestyle. Our aim was to systematically review determinants of physical activity and exercise participation among healthy older adults, considering the methodological quality of the included studies. Methods Literature searches were conducted in PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO/OVID for peer reviewed manuscripts published in English from 1990 onwards. We included manuscripts that met the following criteria: 1) population: community dwelling healthy older adults, aged 55 and over; 2) reporting determinants of physical activity or exercise. The outcome measure was qualified as physical activity, exercise, or combination of the two, measured objectively or using self-report. The methodological quality of the selected studies was examined and a best evidence synthesis was applied to assess the association of the determinants with physical activity or exercise. Results Thirty-four manuscripts reporting on 30 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which two were of high methodological quality. Physical activity was reported in four manuscripts, exercise was reported in sixteen and a combination of the two was reported in fourteen manuscripts. Three manuscripts used objective measures, twenty-two manuscripts used self-report measures and nine manuscripts combined a self-report measure with an objective measure. Due to lack of high quality studies and often only one manuscript reporting on a particular determinant, we concluded "insufficient evidence" for most associations between determinants and physical activity or exercise. Conclusions Because physical activity was reported in four manuscripts

  4. Binding of [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide to serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors and of [(3)H]paroxetine to serotonin uptake sites in platelets from healthy children, adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Sigurdh, J; Spigset, O; Allard, P; Mjörndal, T; Hägglöf, B

    1999-11-01

    Possible age effects on binding of [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([(3)H]LSD) to serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors and of [(3)H]paroxetine to serotonin uptake sites were studied in platelets from healthy children (11-12 years of age), adolescents (16-17 years of age) and adults. Significant overall age effects were found both for the number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]LSD binding (p < 0.001), the affinity constant (K(d)) for [(3)H]LSD binding (p < 0.001), B(max) for [(3)H]paroxetine binding (p < 0.001) and K(d) for [(3)H] paroxetine binding (p = 0.006). In general, there was a decrease in B(max) with increasing age, which predominantly occurred between the ages 11-12 years and 16-17 years for the 5-HT(2A) receptor, and after 16-17 years of age for the serotonin uptake site. These developmental changes might have an impact on the effect of treatment with serotonergic drugs in children and adolescents. When the platelet serotonin variables investigated are employed in studies in children or adolescents, age matching or, alternatively, introduction of age control in the statistical analysis should be performed.

  5. Effects of combined physical and cognitive training on fitness and neuropsychological outcomes in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins-Crépeau, Laurence; Berryman, Nicolas; Fraser, Sarah A; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Li, Karen ZH; Bosquet, Laurent; Bherer, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Physical exercise and cognitive training have been shown to enhance cognition among older adults. However, few studies have looked at the potential synergetic effects of combining physical and cognitive training in a single study. Prior trials on combined training have led to interesting yet equivocal results. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of combined physical and cognitive interventions on physical fitness and neuropsychological performance in healthy older adults. Methods Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to one of four training combinations using a 2×2 factorial design. The physical intervention was a mixed aerobic and resistance training program, and the cognitive intervention was a dual-task (DT) training program. Stretching and toning exercises and computer lessons were used as active control conditions. Physical and cognitive measures were collected pre- and postintervention. Results All groups showed equivalent improvements in measures of functional mobility. The aerobic–strength condition led to larger effect size in lower body strength, independently of cognitive training. All groups showed improved speed of processing and inhibition abilities, but only participants who took part in the DT training, independently of physical training, showed increased task-switching abilities. The level of functional mobility after intervention was significantly associated with task-switching abilities. Conclusion Combined training did not yield synergetic effects. However, DT training did lead to transfer effects on executive performance in neuropsychological tests. Both aerobic-resistance training and stretching-toning exercises can improve functional mobility in older adults. PMID:27698558

  6. Tracking Healthy Days -- a window on the health of older adults.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, David G; Kobau, Rosemarie; Zack, Matthew M; Zahran, Hatice S

    2005-07-01

    In collaboration with its partners in the public health and aging services communities, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health Care and Aging Studies Branch has developed and validated a brief set of health-related quality of life (CDC HRQOL) measures for tracking the perceived physical and mental health of adults over time. For the past 12 years, these measures -- also called the Healthy Days measures -- have been used in an expanding set of population health surveys, surveillance systems, performance report cards, and evaluation studies, and they have provided useful disease and disability burden data to inform decision making and provide new insights for prevention research. Although now used continuously to assess health-related quality of life for Americans aged 12 years and older, the measures and population data have been especially valuable in applications affecting older adults, for which health-related quality of life is an outcome of primary importance. The CDC HRQOL measures are recommended to public health and social service professionals as a feasible way to assess perceived physical and mental health needs of older adults and to document the effects of policies and interventions.

  7. Influence of physical fitness on antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde level in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Régis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how physical fitness level could affect antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level at rest and in response to exhaustive exercise in healthy older adults. Fifty older adults (average age: 66.1 ± 3.8 years) were divided according to their physical fitness level into an unfit group (UG) (n = 15), a low fitness level group (LFG) (n = 18), and a high fitness level group (HFG) (n = 17). Fitness status was classified based on answers to a questionnaire about physical activity in the previous 12 months. Before and after an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion, the following markers were assessed: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and MDA. At rest, SOD, GPX, and α-tocopherol activities were higher in the HFG (p < 0.05), whereas MDA level was lower in the LFG in comparison with the 2 other groups (p < 0.05). During the postexercise period, antioxidant activity increased only in the LFG and the HFG (GPX, SOD, and α-tocopherol). MDA level increased in all groups after the exercise (p < 0.05). In addition, MDA level was higher during the recovery period in the HFG as compared with the others groups. This study concluded that both low and high physical fitness levels help maintain better antioxidant defenses in older adults. However, a higher physical fitness level, rather than a lower physical fitness level, could increase lipid peroxidation.

  8. Developmental Level and Psychopathology: Comparing Children with Developmental Delays to Chronological and Mental Age Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Barbara; Neece, Cameron L.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    Children with developmental delays (DD) are at heightened risk for developing clinically significant behavioral and emotional difficulties as compared to children with typical development (TD). However, nearly all studies comparing psychopathology in youth with DD employ TD control groups of the same chronological age (CA). It is unclear, then, whether the heightened symptomology found in age-matched children with DD is beyond what would be expected given their developmental level. The present study assessed rates of behavior problems and mental disorder in 35 children with DD at age 9 years. These were compared with rates from 35 children with TD matched for CA at age 9 and also earlier rates for these same children at age 6, when matched for mental age (MA). Children with DD had significantly more behavior problems in 7 of the 17 scales of the CBCL when compared to TD children matched for CA, and 6 of 17 scales when compared to the MA-matched group. Rates of meeting DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric disorder were significantly higher in the DD group than both the CA- and MA-matched TD groups for three and four, respectively, of the seven diagnoses examined. Descriptively, the mean ratings for all variables assessed were higher for the DD group than both TD comparison groups, with the exception of the Anxious/Depressed scale of the CBCL. These findings validate the heightened risk for clinically significant behavior problems and mental disorders in youth with DD above and beyond their developmental functioning. PMID:25498740

  9. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  10. ABCB1 genotypes and haplotypes in patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients

    PubMed Central

    Frankfort, Suzanne V; Doodeman, Valerie D; Bakker, Remco; Tulner, Linda R; van Campen, Jos PCM; Smits, Paul HM; Beijnen, Jos H

    2006-01-01

    Amyloid β is an in vitro substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux pump at the blood brain barrier (BBB). The Multi Drug Resistance (ABCB1) gene, encoding for P-gp, is highly polymorphic and this may result in a changed function of P-gp and may possibly interfere with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. This study investigates to what extent ABCB1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs; C1236T in exon 12, G2677T/A in exon 21 and C3435T in exon 26) and inferred haplotypes exist in an elderly population and if these SNPs and haplotypes differ between patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients. ABCB1 genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies were neither significantly different between patients with dementia and age-matched controls, nor between subgroups of different types of dementia nor age-matched controls. This study shows ABCB1 genotype frequencies to be comparable with described younger populations. To our knowledge this is the first study on ABCB1 genotypes in dementia. ABCB1 genotypes are presently not useful as a biomarker for dementia, as they were not significantly different between demented patients and age-matched control subjects. PMID:16999857

  11. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  12. Effects of hydraulic-resistance exercise on strength and power in untrained healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, SungChul; Islam, Mohammod M; Rogers, Michael E; Kusunoki, Masanobu; Okada, Akiyoshi; Takeshima, Nobuo

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of hydraulic-resistance exercise (HDRE) in improving strength and power in healthy older adults. Thirty-nine older adults (68.6 ± 4.9 years; 15 men, 24 women) were divided into a training group or control group (CON). Hydraulic-resistance exercise consisted of a 12-week supervised program, 50 min · d(-1), 3 d · wk(-1). Hydraulic-resistance exercise was used for 10 exercises: Chest press and pull, shoulder press and pull, low back flexion and extension squat, leg adduction/abduction, leg press, and elbow extension/flexion. The number of the sets and the hydraulic-resistance dial setting (D) were gradually increased in 3 stages during the 12-week program. Strength, rating of perceived exertion, and relative intensity during exercise increased significantly from stage to stage whereas repetition velocity decreased. Total work was higher in the second stage compared with the first but lower in the final stage because of reduced repetitions. Peak torque at D2 and D11 increased (p < 0.05) for knee extension (58 and 9%) and flexion (94 and 21%), chest press (35 and 12%) and pull (29 and 14%), shoulder press (14 and 18%) and pull (75 and 18%), and low back flexion (59 and 46%) and extension (84 and 34%). Peak power at D2 and D11 also increased (p < 0.05) for knee extension (140 and 26%) and flexion (96 and 36%), chest press (54 and 28%) and pull (62 and 23%), shoulder press (55 and 31%) and pull (159 and 30%), and low back flexion (177 and 127%) and extension (104 and 66%). There were no significant changes in the CON. Hydraulic-resistance exercise elicits significant improvements in strength and power in older adults. Therefore, HDRE is an effective form of resistance training that provides benefits using low and moderate intensity of training for older adults.

  13. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  14. Anxiety symptoms, cerebral amyloid burden and memory decline in healthy older adults without dementia: 3-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Scott, J Cobb; Neumeister, Alexander; Lim, Yen Ying; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Harrington, Karra; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Szoeke, Cassandra; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although beta-amyloid, anxiety and depression have linked cross-sectionally to reduced memory function in healthy older adults without dementia, prospective data evaluating these associations are lacking. Using data an observational cohort study of 178 healthy older adults without dementia followed for 3 years, we found that anxiety symptoms significantly moderated the relationship between beta-amyloid level and decline in verbal (Cohen's d = 0.65) and episodic (Cohen's d = 0.38) memory. Anxiety symptoms were additionally linked to greater decline in executive function, irrespective of beta-amyloid and other risk factors. These findings suggest that interventions to mitigate anxiety symptoms may help delay memory decline in otherwise healthy older adults with elevated beta-amyloid.

  15. Common epigenetic variation in a European population of mentally healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Milnik, Annette; Vogler, Christian; Demougin, Philippe; Egli, Tobias; Freytag, Virginie; Hartmann, Francina; Heck, Angela; Peter, Fabian; Spalek, Klara; Stetak, Attila; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Vukojevic, Vanja

    2016-12-01

    DNA methylation represents an important link between structural genetic variation and complex phenotypes. The study of genome-wide CpG methylation and its relation to traits relevant to psychiatry has become increasingly important. Here, we analyzed quality metrics of 394,043 CpG sites in two samples of 568 and 319 mentally healthy young adults. For 25% of all CpGs we observed medium to large common epigenetic variation. These CpGs were overrepresented in open sea and shore regions, as well as in intergenic regions. They also showed a strong enrichment of significant hits in association analyses. Furthermore, a significant proportion of common DNA methylation is at least partially genetically driven and thus may be observed similarly across tissues. These findings could be of particular relevance for studies of complex neuropsychiatric traits, which often rely on proxy tissues.

  16. Effects of visual fatigue caused by smartphones on balance function in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Hyun; An, Chang-Man; Moon, Sung-Jun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of visual fatigue caused by smartphone use on balance function. [Subjects and Methods] The participants consisted of 22 healthy male and female adults. Their postural stability, limit of stability, and limit of stability running time were evaluated using a computerized posturography apparatus before and after inducing visual fatigue. Postural stability and the limit of stability were divided into static and dynamic conditions. [Results] There were significant differences between the dynamic postural stability, the static and dynamic limit of stability, and both the static and dynamic limit of stability running times after the induction of visual fatigue. [Conclusion] The results showed that visual fatigue caused by smartphone use has a negative effect on balance function. Therefore, reducing visual fatigue through proper rest is necessary. PMID:28265143

  17. Albumin bound and alpha 2-macroglobulin bound zinc concentrations in the sera of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Foote, J W; Delves, H T

    1984-09-01

    Reference ranges for albumin bound and alpha 2-macroglobulin bound zinc concentrations have been determined in a study of sera obtained from 134 healthy adults. The concentrations of zinc bound to alpha 2-macroglobulin were remarkably constant with a mean (+/-SD) of 2.4 +/- 0.6 mumol/l; the variations in total serum zinc concentrations were almost entirely accounted for by variations in the zinc associated with albumin. There were no sex related differences in the transport of zinc in serum; neither was this sensitive to the use of oral contraceptives. These data provide a baseline for further investigations into the effects of zinc deficiency on the serum transport of the metal.

  18. Preliminary efficacy of prize-based contingency management to increase activity levels in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Washington, Wendy Donlin; Banna, Kelly M; Gibson, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 30% of Americans meet the criteria for obesity. Effective, low-cost interventions to increase physical activity are needed to prevent and treat obesity. In this study, 11 healthy adults wore Fitbit accelerometers for 3 weeks. During the initial baseline, subjects earned prize draws for wearing the Fitbit. During intervention, percentile schedules were used to calculate individual prize-draw criteria. The final week was a return to baseline. Four subjects increased step counts as a result of the intervention. A bout analysis of interresponse times revealed that subjects increased overall step counts by increasing daily minutes active and within-bout response rates and decreasing pauses between bouts of activity. Strategies to improve effectiveness are suggested, such as modification of reinforcement probability and amount and identification of the function of periods of inactivity.

  19. A time to be stressed? Time perspectives and cortisol dynamics among healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Olivera-Figueroa, Lening A.; Juster, Robert-Paul; Morin-Major, Julie Katia; Marin, Marie-France; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions of past, present, and future events may be related to stress pathophysiology. We assessed whether Time Perspective (TP) is associated with cortisol dynamics among healthy adults (N = 61, Ages = 18–35, M = 22.9, SD = 4.1) exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). TP was measured according to two profiles: maladaptive Deviation from Balanced TP (DBTP) and adaptive Deviation from Negative TP (DNTP). Eight salivary cortisol samples were analyzed using area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) and to increase (AUCi). Statistic analyses involved partial correlations controlling for depressive symptoms. Results for both sexes showed that higher DBTP scores were associated with lower cortisol AUCg scores, while higher DNTP scores were associated with higher cortisol AUCg scores. These novel findings suggest that maladaptive TP profiles influence hypocortisolism, whereas adaptive TP profiles influence hypercortisolism. Thus, TP profiles may impact conditions characterized by altered cortisol concentrations. PMID:26362588

  20. Composition of Microbial Oral Biofilms during Maturation in Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Langfeldt, Daniela; Neulinger, Sven C.; Heuer, Wieland; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Künzel, Sven; Baines, John F.; Eberhard, Jörg; Schmitz, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to analyze the bacterial community structure of oral biofilms at different maturation stages in young healthy adults. Oral biofilms established on membrane filters were collected from 32 human subjects after 5 different maturation intervals (1, 3, 5, 9 and 14 days) and the respective phylogenetic diversity was analyzed by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Our analyses revealed highly diverse entire colonization profiles, spread into 8 phyla/candidate divisions and in 15 different bacterial classes. A large inter-individual difference in the subjects’ microbiota was observed, comprising 35% of the total variance, but lacking conspicuous general temporal trends in both alpha and beta diversity. We further obtained strong evidence that subjects can be categorized into three clusters based on three differently occurring and mutually exclusive species clusters. PMID:24503584

  1. State and trait affect as predictors of salivary cortisol in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Polk, Deborah E; Cohen, Sheldon; Doyle, William J; Skoner, David P; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2005-04-01

    We measured affect in 334 healthy adults on each of 7 days over a 3-week period. On the last day, salivary cortisol was assessed 14 times yielding scores for total concentration, morning rise amplitude, and slope of the time function. Trait negative affect (NA) was associated with higher total cortisol concentrations and greater morning rise in men. Cortisol levels for men low in trait positive affect (PA) did not decrease in the afternoon, resulting in a relatively high, flat rhythm. In contrast, women high in trait PA had low morning cortisol resulting in a low flat rhythm. State (person-centered) NA was not associated with same-day cortisol measures. State PA was associated with decreased total cortisol concentration in women. These are the first results showing associations between cortisol and trait PA. Differences in rhythmicity found here are noteworthy given the possible role of cortisol dysregulation in disease incidence, morbidity, mortality, and severity.

  2. A time to be stressed? Time perspectives and cortisol dynamics among healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Olivera-Figueroa, Lening A; Juster, Robert-Paul; Morin-Major, Julie Katia; Marin, Marie-France; Lupien, Sonia J

    2015-10-01

    Perceptions of past, present, and future events may be related to stress pathophysiology. We assessed whether Time Perspective (TP) is associated with cortisol dynamics among healthy adults (N=61, Ages=18-35, M=22.9, SD=4.1) exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). TP was measured according to two profiles: maladaptive Deviation from Balanced TP (DBTP) and adaptive Deviation from Negative TP (DNTP). Eight salivary cortisol samples were analyzed using area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) and to increase (AUCi). Statistic analyses involved partial correlations controlling for depressive symptoms. Results for both sexes showed that higher DBTP scores were associated with lower cortisol AUCg scores, while higher DNTP scores were associated with higher cortisol AUCg scores. These novel findings suggest that maladaptive TP profiles influence hypocortisolism, whereas adaptive TP profiles influence hypercortisolism. Thus, TP profiles may impact conditions characterized by altered cortisol concentrations.

  3. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Intelligence in Healthy Young Adults: The Role of Basal Ganglia Volume

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Cosima; Mühle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. Conclusions/Significance The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia

  4. Analytes and Metabolites Associated with Muscle Quality in Young, Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    LUSTGARTEN, MICHAEL S.; PRICE, LORI LYN; FIELDING, ROGER A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Identification of mechanisms that underlie lower extremity muscle quality (leg press one repetition maximum/total lean mass; LP/Lean) may be important for individuals interested in optimizing fitness and sport performance. The purpose of the current study was to provide observational insight into mechanisms that may underlie muscle quality by characterizing the association between 286 mass spectrometry metabolites and 17 chemistry screen analytes with LP/Lean in young, healthy adults (N = 77 (49 women and 28 men); mean age, 24.4 ± 4.2 yr; BMI, 23.5 ± 2.6 kg·m−2). Methods Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the 286 metabolites into 73 metabolite-containing PCA factors. Sex-adjusted linear regression was used to examine the association between PCA factors and chemistry screen analytes with LP/Lean. Q values were computed to account for multiple comparison testing. Stepwise linear regression and leave-one-out cross validation were used to identify a predictor set representative of LP/Lean and to assess internal validity, respectively. Results Metabolites or analytes related to dietary protein intake (albumin, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)) and excitation-contraction coupling (calcium and magnesium) were positively associated, whereas metabolites related to gut bacterial metabolism (cinnamoylglycine, hydrocinnamate, hippurate, indolepropionate) and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) (methylglutarylcarnitine and cinnamoylglycine) activation were negatively associated with LP/Lean. Use of leave-one-out cross validation identified magnesium, sex, and the PCA factors containing BCAAs and methionine and methylglutarylcarnitine to be present in more than 90% of the stepwise regression models, thereby explaining 26.7% of the variance (adjusted R2) inherent in muscle quality. Conclusion Collectively, these data suggest that mechanisms related to dietary protein intake, excitation-contraction coupling, gut microbial

  5. The influence of peripheral vision induced by moving people on postural control in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Han; Park, Du-Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of the peripheral vision (PV) induced by moving people on postural control in healthy adults. The subjects consisted of 12 healthy adult volunteers (5 males, 7 females) who had been informed of the study purpose and procedure. The visual interventions were composed of three types. PV1 and PV2 were stimulated using a one-way vertical striped pattern and a two-way vertical striped pattern, respectively. To embody the features of moving people reflected in the mirrors, researchers recorded movements of people or objects provided by mirrors on video image. In this study, this was named PV3. The subjects were exposed to each of the visual stimuli for 3 min in a random order, and their postural control was then evaluated. All the subjects were allowed to practice once prior to performing the one leg stand test, functional reaching test and body sway test. All the evaluations were made before and after the visual intervention, and the subjects rested for 30 min between each intervention. PV3 ranked second in before and after differences of trace length and velocity and had no significant difference from PV2, demonstrating that the PV3, as well as PV2, affected the amount and velocity of body sway. In addition, the standard deviation velocity, trace length and velocity values of PV3 were higher than the PV1 values. Therefore, the treatment of those who have difficulty with postural control and balance maintenance should take place in a controlled therapeutic environment. PMID:27807518

  6. Enhanced task related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bowtell, Joanna L; Aboo-Bakkar, Zainie; Conway, Myra; Adlam, Anna-Lynne R; Fulford, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. High flavonoid intakes attenuate age-related cognitive decline, but data from human intervention studies are sparse. We investigated whether 12 weeks of blueberry concentrate supplementation improved brain perfusion, task-related activation and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Participants were randomised to consume either 30 ml blueberry concentrate providing 387 mg anthocyanidins (5 female, 7 male; age 67.5±3.0 y; BMI, 25.9±3.3 kg.m-2) or isoenergetic placebo (8 female, 6 male; age 69.0 ±3.3 y; BMI, 27.1±.4.0 kg.m-2). Pre- and post-supplementation, participants undertook a battery of cognitive function tests and a numerical Stroop test within a 1.5T MRI scanner while functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) were continuously acquired. Quantitative resting brain perfusion was determined using an arterial spin labelling (ASL) technique, and blood biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Significant increases in brain activity were observed in response to blueberry supplementation relative to the placebo group within Brodmann areas 4/6/10/21/40/44/45, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and insula/thalamus (p<0.001), as well as significant improvements in grey matter perfusion in the parietal (5.0±1.8 vs -2.9±2.4 %, p=0.013) and occipital (8.0±2.6 vs -0.7±3.2 %, p=0.031) lobes. There was also evidence suggesting improvement in working memory (two back test) after blueberry versus placebo supplementation (p=0.05). Supplementation with an anthocyanin rich blueberry concentrate improved brain perfusion and activation in brain areas associated with cognitive function in healthy older adults.

  7. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Facilitate Dynamic Balance Task Learning in Healthy Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Elisabeth; Hoff, Maike; Rjosk, Viola; Steele, Christopher J.; Gundlach, Christopher; Sehm, Bernhard; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Older adults frequently experience a decrease in balance control that leads to increased numbers of falls, injuries and hospitalization. Therefore, evaluating older adults’ ability to maintain balance and examining new approaches to counteract age-related decline in balance control is of great importance for fall prevention and healthy aging. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been shown to beneficially influence motor behavior and motor learning. In the present study, we investigated the influence of tDCS applied over the leg area of the primary motor cortex (M1) on balance task learning of healthy elderly in a dynamic balance task (DBT). In total, 30 older adults were enrolled in a cross-sectional, randomized design including two consecutive DBT training sessions. Only during the first DBT session, either 20 min of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) or sham tDCS (s-tDCS) were applied and learning improvement was compared between the two groups. Our data showed that both groups successfully learned to perform the DBT on both training sessions. Interestingly, between-group analyses revealed no difference between the a-tDCS and the s-tDCS group regarding their level of task learning. These results indicate that the concurrent application of tDCS over M1 leg area did not elicit DBT learning enhancement in our study cohort. However, a regression analysis revealed that DBT performance can be predicted by the kinematic profile of the movement, a finding that may provide new insights for individualized approaches of treating balance and gait disorders. PMID:28197085

  8. Incremental shuttle walk test: Reference values and predictive equation for healthy Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Bela; Shah, Monal; Andhare, Nilesh; Mullerpatan, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Physical inactivity in Indians is leading to an increase in noncommunicable disorders at an early age in life. Early identification and quantification of the lack of physical activity using simple and reliable exercise testing is the need of the hour. The incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) is an externally paced walk test widely used for the evaluation of exercise capacity. Currently the normative values available for clinical reference are generated from Western populations. Hence, the study was conducted to find normative values for the ISWT in healthy Indian adults (17-75 years). Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 862 subjects was recruited after ethical approval was obtained. All subjects were divided into groups as per age and gender. For age, the grouping was as follows: Group 1: Young adulthood (17-40 years), group 2: Middle adulthood (40-65 years), and group 3: Old adulthood (>65 years). The ISWT was performed as per standard protocol by Sally Singh. Results: The average distance walked were 709.2m,556.4m and 441.3m in females and 807.9 m, 639.6 m and 478.2 m in males in the three respective age groups. Stepwise regression analysis revealed age and gender as key variables correlating with incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD). The derived predictive equations for males and females may be given as follows: 740.351 - (5.676 × age) + (99.007 × gender). Conclusion: Reference values were generated for healthy Indian adults. Physiological response to the ISWT was shown to be affected by gender and increasing age. Easily measurable variables explained 68% of the variance seen in the test, making the reference equation a relevant part of the evaluation of the ISWT. PMID:26933305

  9. Atorvastatin Treatment Does Not Alter Pulse Wave Velocity in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Kevin D.; Taylor, Beth A.; Capizzi, Jeffrey A.; Grimaldi, Adam S.; White, C. Michael; Thompson, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Both statins and regular physical activity (PA) reduce arterial stiffness. The present post hoc analysis examined if arterial stiffness was improved with high-dose atorvastatin treatment in healthy adults and whether PA levels magnified this response. We utilized data from a double-blind, random-assignment clinical trial investigating the effects of atorvastatin 80 mg/d for 6 mo on skeletal muscle symptoms. Methods. Central and peripheral arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured and PA levels assessed at baseline and 6 mo in subjects randomized to atorvastatin (n = 21, 9 men) or placebo (n = 29, 16 men). Results. Baseline participant characteristics, PWV, and PA levels were not different between treatments. Central (means ± SD; 8.7 ± 2.6 to 9.0 ± 2.5 m/sec) and peripheral PWV (9.9 ± 1.3 to 9.8 ± 1.6 m/sec) were unchanged from baseline following atorvastatin treatment (time × drug interaction: P ≥ 0.13). Similarly, PA levels were unaffected by time or treatment. In sex and age adjusted models, baseline levels of PA were not related to changes in PWV with atorvastatin treatment. Conclusion. These data indicate that high-dose atorvastatin treatment for 6 mo does not influence arterial stiffness in healthy adults. Participation in habitual PA did not magnify the vascular effects of statin therapy. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00609063. PMID:27351006

  10. Regional age differences in gray matter diffusivity among healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Lauren E.; Conturo, Thomas E.; Laidlaw, David H.; Cabeen, Ryan P.; Akbudak, Erbil; Lane, Elizabeth M.; Heaps, Jodi M.; Bolzenius, Jacob D.; Baker, Laurie M.; Cooley, Sarah; Scott, Staci; Cagle, Lee M.; Phillips, Sarah; Paul, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with microstructural changes in brain tissue that can be visualized using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). While previous studies have established age-related changes in white matter (WM) diffusion using DTI, the impact of age on gray matter (GM) diffusion remains unclear. The present study utilized DTI metrics of mean diffusivity (MD) to identify age differences in GM/WM micro-structure in a sample of healthy older adults (N=60). A secondary aim was to determine the functional significance of whole-brain GM/WM MD on global cognitive function using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Participants were divided into three age brackets (ages 50–59, 60–69, and 70+) to examine differences in MD and cognition by decade. MD was examined bilaterally in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes for the primary analyses and an aggregate measure of whole-brain MD was used to test relationships with cognition. Significantly higher MD was observed in bilateral GM of the temporal and parietal lobes, and in right hemisphere WM of the frontal and temporal lobes of older individuals. The most robust differences in MD were between the 50–59 and 70+ age groups. Higher whole-brain GM MD was associated with poorer RBANS performance in the 60–69 age group. Results suggest that aging has a significant and differential impact on GM/WM diffusion in healthy older adults, which may explain a modest degree of cognitive variability at specific time points during older adulthood. PMID:25864197

  11. Effects of Age and Bolus Volume on Velocity of Hyolaryngeal Excursion in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Barikroo, Ali; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Reduced movement velocity has been identified as a risk marker for movement impairment in older adults. Hyolaryngeal excursion is a key movement feature of normal swallowing function which is known to change with age and other extrinsic variables such as bolus volume. However, velocity of hyolaryngeal excursion has received limited attention in the literature on normal or abnormal swallowing. This study evaluated the effects of age and bolus volume on the velocity of hyoid and laryngeal excursion during swallowing in healthy adults. Forty-four healthy volunteers were grouped into three age bands (young: 20-35 years, middle age: 36-55 years, older: 56 ≥ years). All subjects swallowed 5 and 20 mL of thin liquid during fluoroscopic recording. Fluoroscopic images were extracted for each swallow representing the onset and maximum excursion positions of the hyoid and larynx. Superior and anterior excursion distance (excursion magnitude) and the time difference between rest and maximum excursion (excursion duration) were calculated. Velocity was calculated as a ratio of distance over time. Superior hyoid excursion magnitude was significantly increased for the 20 mL volume. Anterior laryngeal excursion magnitude was also significantly increased for the 20 mL volume. No kinematic duration measure demonstrated significant change across age or bolus conditions. Superior hyoid excursion velocity was significantly faster for the 20 mL volume. Superior and anterior laryngeal excursion velocity were significantly faster for the 20 mL volume only in the older group. Results of this study indicate that magnitude and velocity of hyoid and laryngeal excursion vary with age and volume. Comprising both excursion magnitude and duration, kinematic velocity may be a more complete metric to evaluate age-related swallowing performance.

  12. APOE Polymorphism Affects Brain Default Mode Network in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun Yan; Liang, Xue; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Varga-Szemes, Akos; West, Henry C.; Qi, Rongfeng; Kong, Xiang; Chen, Hui Juan; Lu, Guang Ming; Zhang, Long Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism on the resting-state brain function, structure, and blood flow in healthy adults younger than 35 years, using multimodality magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Seventy-six healthy adults (34 men, 23.7 ± 2.8 y; 31 APOE ε4/ε3 carriers, 31 ε3/ε3 carriers, and 14 ε2/ε3 carriers) were included. For resting-state functional MRI data, default mode network (DMN) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation maps were extracted and analyzed. Voxel-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging from structural imaging, and cerebral blood flow based on arterial spin labeling MR imaging were also analyzed. Correlation analysis was performed between the above mentioned brain parameters and neuropsychological tests. There were no differences in neuropsychological performances, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, gray/white matter volumes, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, or whole brain cerebral blood flow among the 3 groups. As for DMN, the ε4/ε3 group showed increased functional connectivities (FCs) in the left medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral posterior cingulate cortices/precuneus compared with the ε3/ε3 group, and increased FCs in the left medial prefrontal cortex and right temporal lobe compared with the ε2/ε3 group (P < 0.05, Alphasim corrected). No differences of DMN FCs were found between the ε2/ε3 and ε3/ε3 groups. FCs in the right temporal lobe positively correlated with the performances of vocabulary learning, delayed recall, and graph recall in all participants (P < 0.05). APOE ε4 carriers exhibited significantly increased DMN FCs when compared with ε3 and ε2 carriers. The ε4 affects DMN FCs before brain structure and blood flow in cognitively intact young patients, suggesting DMN FC may serve as a potential biomarker for the detection of early manifestations of genetic effect. PMID:26717353

  13. Iodine Excretion in 24-hour Urine Collection and Its Dietary Determinants in Healthy Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Uechi, Ken; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Since seaweed is a common component of the Japanese diet, iodine intake in Japanese is expected to be high. However, urinary iodine excretion, measured using 24-hour urine samples, and its dietary determinants are not known. Methods Apparently healthy adults aged 20 to 69 years living in 20 areas throughout Japan were recruited in February and March, 2013. Urinary iodine excretion was evaluated using 24-hour urine collected from 713 subjects (362 men and 351 women), and the difference among age groups was assessed. The association between dietary intake of food groups and urinary iodine excretion was assessed among 358 subjects who completed a semi-weighed 4-day diet record (DR) and urine collection. The correlations between iodine intake and iodine excretion were also evaluated, and correlation coefficients were calculated for iodine intake in the DR of the overlapping day or the DR 1 day before and after urine collection. Results Median iodine excretion in 24-hour urine was 365 µg, and excretion was significantly higher in older subjects. Iodine intake estimated by the DRs was significantly correlated with urinary iodine excretion when DRs and urine collection were obtained on the same day (r = 0.37). After adjustment for confounding factors, iodine excretion was significantly associated with intakes of kelp and soup stock from kelp and fish. Conclusions Although multiple measurements for urinary iodine are required to confirm our results, this study showed the current iodine status of healthy Japanese adults. The results suggest that kelp and fish are the main contributors to Japanese iodine status measured by 24-hour urine. PMID:27374137

  14. Daily Marital Interaction Quality and Carotid Artery Intima Medial Thickness in Healthy Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Nataria T.; Kamarck, Thomas W.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between marital interaction quality during daily life and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies have shown that marital status and quality of marriage are associated with cardiovascular health. However, little is known about the role of marital interaction quality during daily life in contributing to these effects. Methods The sample consisted of 281 healthy, employed middle-aged adults who were married or living with a partner in a marital-like relationship (mean age = 42.0 years, 88% white, 52% men). Marital interaction quality was assessed using hourly real-time Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMAs) for 4 days, with participants rating their current or recent partner interactions on positive and negative characteristics (e.g., agreeableness and conflict). Carotid artery intima medial thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Results Adjusting for demographics, positive marital interaction was inversely associated with IMT, [b = −.02 F(1, 275) = 9.18, p = .002], and negative marital interaction was positively associated with IMT, [b = .02 F(1, 275) = 10.29, p = .001]. These associations were not accounted for by behavioral and biological cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and were consistent across age, sex, race, and education. The associations were also independent of marital interaction frequency, nonmarital social interaction quality, and personality factors. Global reports of marital quality, in contrast, were not associated with IMT. Conclusions Marital quality as measured during real-time interactions between partners was associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease in healthy middle-aged adults. This study supports the utility of real-time social interaction assessment for characterizing links between social relationships and cardiovascular health. PMID:24915293

  15. Prebiotic effects of almonds and almond skins on intestinal microbiota in healthy adult humans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibin; Lin, Xiuchun; Huang, Guangwei; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Pingfan; Ni, Li

    2014-04-01

    Almonds and almond skins are rich in fiber and other components that have potential prebiotic properties. In this study we investigated the prebiotic effects of almond and almond skin intake in healthy humans. A total of 48 healthy adult volunteers consumed a daily dose of roasted almonds (56 g), almond skins (10 g), or commercial fructooligosaccharides (8 g) (as positive control) for 6 weeks. Fecal samples were collected at defined time points and analyzed for microbiota composition and selected indicators of microbial activity. Different strains of intestinal bacteria had varying degrees of growth sensitivity to almonds or almond skins. Significant increases in the populations of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were observed in fecal samples as a consequence of almond or almond skin supplementation. However, the populations of Escherichia coli did not change significantly, while the growth of the pathogen Clostridum perfringens was significantly repressed. Modification of the intestinal microbiota composition induced changes in bacterial enzyme activities, specifically a significant increase in fecal β-galactosidase activity and decreases in fecal β-glucuronidase, nitroreductase and azoreductase activities. Our observations suggest that almond and almond skin ingestion may lead to an improvement in the intestinal microbiota profile and a modification of the intestinal bacterial activities, which would induce the promotion of health beneficial factors and the inhibition of harmful factors. Thus we believe that almonds and almond skins possess potential prebiotic properties.

  16. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J.; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. PMID:26506378

  17. Protein Considerations for Optimising Skeletal Muscle Mass in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Witard, Oliver C.; Wardle, Sophie L.; Macnaughton, Lindsay S.; Hodgson, Adrian B.; Tipton, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is critical for human health. Protein feeding, alongside resistance exercise, is a potent stimulus for muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and is a key factor that regulates skeletal muscle mass (SMM). The main purpose of this narrative review was to evaluate the latest evidence for optimising the amino acid or protein source, dose, timing, pattern and macronutrient coingestion for increasing or preserving SMM in healthy young and healthy older adults. We used a systematic search strategy of PubMed and Web of Science to retrieve all articles related to this review objective. In summary, our findings support the notion that protein guidelines for increasing or preserving SMM are more complex than simply recommending a total daily amount of protein. Instead, multifactorial interactions between protein source, dose, timing, pattern and macronutrient coingestion, alongside exercise, influence the stimulation of MPS, and thus should be considered in the context of protein recommendations for regulating SMM. To conclude, on the basis of currently available scientific literature, protein recommendations for optimising SMM should be tailored to the population or context of interest, with consideration given to age and resting/post resistance exercise conditions. PMID:27023595

  18. Electrophysiological responses to argument structure violations in healthy adults and individuals with agrammatic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kielar, Aneta; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Thompson, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Sentence comprehension requires processing of argument structure information associated with verbs, i.e. the number and type of arguments that they select. Many individuals with agrammatic aphasia show impaired production of verbs with greater argument structure density. The extent to which these participants also show argument structure deficits during comprehension, however, is unclear. Some studies find normal access to verb arguments, whereas others report impaired ability. The present study investigated verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasia by examining event-related potentials associated with argument structure violations in healthy young and older adults as well as aphasic individuals. A semantic violation condition was included to investigate possible differences in sensitivity to semantic and argument structure information during sentence processing. Results for the healthy control participants showed a negativity followed by a positive shift (N400-P600) in the argument structure violation condition, as found in previous ERP studies (Friederici & Frisch, 2000; Frisch, Hahne, & Friederici, 2004). In contrast, individuals with agrammatic aphasia showed a P600, but no N400, response to argument structure mismatches. Additionally, compared to the control groups, the agrammatic participants showed an attenuated, but relatively preserved, N400 response to semantic violations. These data show that agrammatic individuals do not demonstrate normal real-time sensitivity to verb argument structure requirements during sentence processing. PMID:23022079

  19. Interaction between resistance training and flexibility training in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Antonio C L; Paula, Karla C; Carvalho, Ana Cristina G

    2005-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that increases in muscle strength and flexibility are developed by specific training programs, 43 healthy young adults were tested before and after 4 different interventions conducted twice a week for 12 weeks: (a) resistance training only (n = 13); (b) flexibility training only (n = 11); (c) resistance and flexibility training (n = 9); and (d) no intervention (n = 10). There was no change in either strength or flexibility in the control group (p > 0.05). Resistance training improved muscle strength either alone (+14%; effect size = 0.53; p < 0.001) or in combination with flexibility training (+16%; effect size = 0.66; p = 0.032), but did not change flexibility (p = 0.610). Flexibility increased with specific training alone (+33%; p < 0.001) or in combination with resistance training (+18%; p < 0.001). In conclusion, in young, healthy subjects, resistance training alone did not increase flexibility, but resistance training did not interfere with the increase in joint range of motion during flexibility training. These results support the concept that specific training should be employed in order to increase either muscle strength or flexibility.

  20. Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness After Inspiratory Threshold Loading in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Sunita; Sheel, A. William; Road, Jeremy D.; Reid, W. Darlene

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Skeletal muscle damage occurs following high-intensity or unaccustomed exercise; however, it is difficult to monitor damage to the respiratory muscles, particularly in humans. The aim of this study was to use clinical measures to investigate the presence of skeletal muscle damage in the inspiratory muscles. Methods: Ten healthy subjects underwent 60 minutes of voluntary inspiratory threshold loading (ITL) at 70% of maximal inspiratory pressure. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures, delayed onset muscle soreness on a visual analogue scale and plasma creatine kinase were measured prior to ITL, and at repeated time points after ITL (4, 24 and 48 hours post-ITL). Results: Delayed onset muscle soreness was present in all subjects 24 hours following ITL (intensity = 22 ± 6 mm; significantly higher than baseline p = 0.02). Muscle soreness was reported primarily in the anterior neck region, and was correlated to the amount of work done by the inspiratory muscles during ITL (r = 0.72, p = 0.02). However, no significant change was observed in maximal inspiratory or expiratory pressures or creatine kinase. Conclusions: These findings suggest that an intense bout of ITL results in muscle soreness primarily in the accessory muscles of inspiration, however, may be insufficient to cause significant muscle damage in healthy adults. PMID:20467514

  1. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Vannice, Gretchen; Rasmussen, Heather

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (the Academy) that dietary fat for the healthy adult population should provide 20% to 35% of energy, with an increased consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and limited intake of saturated and trans fats. The Academy recommends a food-based approach through a diet that includes regular consumption of fatty fish, nuts and seeds, lean meats and poultry, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes. These recommendations are made within the context of rapidly evolving science delineating the influence of dietary fat and specific fatty acids on human health. In addition to fat as a valuable and calorically dense macronutrient with a central role in supplying essential nutrition and supporting healthy body weight, evidence on individual fatty acids and fatty acid groups is emerging as a key factor in nutrition and health. Small variations in the structure of fatty acids within broader categories of fatty acids, such as polyunsaturated and saturated, appear to elicit different physiological functions. The Academy recognizes that scientific knowledge about the effects of dietary fats on human health is young and takes a prudent approach in recommending an increase in fatty acids that benefit health and a reduction in fatty acids shown to increase risk of disease. Registered dietitian nutritionists are uniquely positioned to translate fat and fatty acid research into practical and effective dietary recommendations.

  2. Propagation Curve and Velocity of Swallowing Pressure in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Keigo; Kumai, Yoshihiko; Samejima, Yasuhiro; Yumoto, Eiji

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to construct a propagation curve and determine propagation velocities in young healthy adults examined using a 2.64-mm-diameter high-resolution manometry catheter with 36 circumferential sensors; to explore data reproducibility; and to determine whether the swallowing pressure (SP) propagation velocity correlated with bolus volume. Repeated measures with subjects serving as their own controls. Thirty healthy subjects (average age 25.3 years) swallowed saliva and 2, 5, and 10 mL of cold water to determine the maximum SP from the soft palate to the cervical esophagus. The SP propagation curve was obtained by plotting the duration to reach each SP peak. The SP propagation velocity was calculated for each region. These parameters were examined according to bolus size and gender. The intra-class correlation coefficient for estimating the SP propagation curves was >0.61 (i.e., highly consistent). The propagation velocity was maximal at the meso-hypopharynx and minimal at the UES and cervical esophagus. The SP propagation curve was very reproducible within any subject. Neither the water volume (with the exception of 2 and 5 mL) nor gender exerted any apparent effect on velocity in any region. However, the velocity was quite variable at the cervical esophagus.

  3. The Hispanic Paradox and older adults' disabilities: is there a healthy migrant effect?

    PubMed

    Thomson, Esme Fuller; Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Richardson, Dawn; Raza, Ferrah; Minkler, Meredith

    2013-05-03

    The "Hispanic Paradox" suggests that despite rates of poverty similar to African Americans, Hispanics have far better health and mortality outcomes, more comparable to non-Hispanic White Americans. Three prominent possible explanations for the Hispanic Paradox have emerged. The "Healthy Migrant Effect" suggests a health selection effect due to the demands of migration. The Hispanic lifestyle hypothesis focuses on Hispanics' strong social ties and better health behaviors. The reverse migration argument suggests that the morbidity profile in the USA is affected when many Hispanic immigrants return to their native countries after developing a serious illness. We analyzed data from respondents aged 55 and over from the nationally representative 2006 American Community Survey including Mexican Americans (13,167 U.S. born; 11,378 immigrants), Cuban Americans (314 U.S. born; 3,730 immigrants), and non-Hispanic White Americans (629,341 U.S. born; 31,164 immigrants). The healthy migrant effect was supported with SES-adjusted disability comparable between Mexican, Cuban and non-Hispanic Whites born in the USA and all immigrants having lower adjusted odds of functional limitations than U.S. born non-Hispanic Whites. The reverse migration hypothesis was partially supported, with citizenship and longer duration in the USA associated with higher rates of SES-adjusted disability for Mexican Americans. The Hispanic healthy life-style explanation had little support in this study. Our findings underline the importance of considering nativity when planning for health interventions to address the needs of the growing Hispanic American older adult population.

  4. Self-Reported Health Problems of Young Adults in Clinical Settings: Survivors of Childhood Cancer and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Lisa A.; Mao, Jun J.; Werba, Branlyn E.; Ginsberg, Jill P.; Hobbie, Wendy L.; Carlson, Claire A.; Mougianis, Ifigenia D.; Ogle, Sue K.; Kazak, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Increasing numbers of childhood cancer survivors are seen in primary care settings as young adults. It is unknown how their self-reported health problems differ from those of healthy young adults. Self-reported health problems of cancer survivors and healthy controls are compared in this study. Methods 156 cancer survivors visiting a cancer survivorship program and 138 controls in primary care centers (mean age of 20 years) completed the Health Knowledge Inventory (HKI), a checklist of 35 health problems. Results Cancer survivors reported significantly more health problems than healthy controls (5.6 vs 2.6 problems, p < .001). For cancer survivors, more intense treatment and older age related to Organic/Major problems and Constitutional/Other problems. Female gender related to report of Organic/Major and Constitutional/Other problems for the controls. While at least 20% of both healthy controls and survivors endorsed dermatologic, headache, gastrointestinal and weight problems, survivors endorsed growth, thyroid, kidney, immunological, heart, and fertility problems fourfold over controls. Conclusions Cancer survivors endorse significantly more health problems than healthy controls. However, some problems are reported with equal frequency among the groups. Understanding these similarities and differences between survivors and healthy controls will facilitate patient-centered comprehensive care for young adult cancer survivors. PMID:20453176

  5. Active vision task and postural control in healthy, young adults: Synergy and probably not duality.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Baudry, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    In upright stance, individuals sway continuously and the sway pattern in dual tasks (e.g., a cognitive task performed in upright stance) differs significantly from that observed during the control quiet stance task. The cognitive approach has generated models (limited attentional resources, U-shaped nonlinear interaction) to explain such patterns based on competitive sharing of attentional resources. The objective of the current manuscript was to review these cognitive models in the specific context of visual tasks involving gaze shifts toward precise targets (here called active vision tasks). The selection excluded the effects of early and late stages of life or disease, external perturbations, active vision tasks requiring head and body motions and the combination of two tasks performed together (e.g., a visual task in addition to a computation in one's head). The selection included studies performed by healthy, young adults with control and active - difficult - vision tasks. Over 174 studies found in Pubmed and Mendeley databases, nine were selected. In these studies, young adults exhibited significantly lower amplitude of body displacement (center of pressure and/or body marker) under active vision tasks than under the control task. Furthermore, the more difficult the active vision tasks were, the better the postural control was. This underscores that postural control during active vision tasks may rely on synergistic relations between the postural and visual systems rather than on competitive or dual relations. In contrast, in the control task, there would not be any synergistic or competitive relations.

  6. Combined Cognitive Training vs. Memory Strategy Training in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Zhu, Xinyi; Hou, Jianhua; Chen, Tingji; Wang, Pengyun; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    As mnemonic utilization deficit in older adults associates with age-related decline in executive function, we hypothesized that memory strategy training combined with executive function training might induce larger training effect in memory and broader training effects in non-memory outcomes than pure memory training. The present study compared the effects of combined cognitive training (executive function training plus memory strategy training) to pure memory strategy training. Forty healthy older adults were randomly assigned to a combined cognitive training group or a memory strategy training group. A control group receiving no training was also included. Combined cognitive training group received 16 sessions of training (eight sessions of executive function training followed by eight sessions of memory strategy training). Memory training group received 16 sessions of memory strategy training. The results partly supported our hypothesis in that indeed improved performance on executive function was only found in combined training group, whereas memory performance increased less in combined training compared to memory strategy group. Results suggest that combined cognitive training may be less efficient than pure memory training in memory outcomes, though the influences from insufficient training time and less closeness between trained executive function and working memory could not be excluded; however it has broader training effects in non-memory outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration: www.chictr.org.cn, identifier ChiCTR-OON-16007793. PMID:27375521

  7. Absorption of strontium from the gastrointestinal tract into plasma in healthy human adults.

    PubMed

    Apostoaei, A Iulian

    2002-07-01

    The radioactive isotopes of strontium have always been a major concern in radiation protection. Currently, radiostrontium is of interest for evaluation of the health effects of the Chernobyl accident and for epidemiological studies in populations exposed to releases from the Mayak nuclear facilities in Russia. Ingestion is one of the most important exposure pathways involving radioactive strontium. The main sources of published data on the fraction of the ingested strontium that is transferred to plasma (f1) are summarized. For some of these studies, the original data had to be reanalyzed and a new iterative method to account for the elimination in feces of strontium of endogenous origin (i.e., that was absorbed to blood and has already been returned into feces) was employed. Data indicate no significant dependence of the absorbed fraction on sex or age at exposure within the adult group, but absorption of strontium is reduced if the intake of stable calcium is very high and is enhanced if the intake of calcium is very low. The probability distribution function of f1 values is well represented by a lognormal curve with a geometric mean of 22.3% and a geometric standard deviation of 1.44 (95% confidence interval 10.9% to 45.6%, or about a factor of 2 around the geometric mean). This distribution can be considered representative for the variability of the f1 values in a population of healthy adults.

  8. Response inhibition and avoidance of virtual obstacles during gait in healthy young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Potocanac, Zrinka; Smulders, Ellen; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Verschueren, Sabine; Duysens, Jacques

    2015-02-01

    Adjustments of preplanned steps are essential for fall avoidance and require response inhibition. Still, inhibition is rarely tested under conditions resembling daily living. We evaluated the ability of young and older adults to modify ongoing walking movements using a novel precision step inhibition (PSI) task combined with an auditory Stroop task. Healthy young (YA, n=12) and older (OA, n=12) adults performed the PSI task at 4 individualized difficulty levels, as a single and dual task (DT). Subjects walked on a treadmill by stepping on virtual stepping stones, unless these changed color during approach, forcing the subjects to avoid them. OA made more failures (40%) on the PSI task than YA (16%), but DT did not affect their performance. In combination with increased rates of omitted Stroop task responses, this indicates a "posture first" strategy. Yet, adding obstacles to the PSI task significantly deteriorated Stroop performance in both groups (the average Stroop composite score decreased by 13% in YA and 27% in OA). Largest deficit of OA was observed in rates of incorrect responses to incongruent Stroop stimuli (OA 35% and YA 12%), which require response inhibition. We concluded that the performance of OA suffered specifically when response inhibition was required.

  9. Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Cognitive Functions in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Antonenko, Daria; Faxel, Miriam; Grittner, Ulrike; Lavidor, Michal; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Recently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has emerged as a tool to enhance human cognitive processes. Here, we provide a brief summary of the rationale behind tACS-induced effects on task-relevant brain oscillations and associated cognitive functions and review previous studies in young subjects that have applied tACS in cognitive paradigms. Additionally, we present pilot data where we administered theta-tACS (6 Hz) over the temporoparietal cortex and a supraorbital reference for 20 min during implicit language learning in healthy young (mean/SD age: 22/2) and older (mean/SD age: 66/4) adults, in a sham-controlled crossover design. Linear mixed models revealed significantly increased retrieval accuracy following tACS-accompanied associative learning, after controlling for session order and learning success. These data provide the first implementation of tACS during cognitive performance in older adults and support recent studies suggesting that tACS in the theta frequency range may serve as a tool to enhance cognition, possibly through direct modulation of task-relevant brain oscillations. So far, studies have been heterogeneous in their designs, leaving a number of issues to be addressed in future research, including the setup of electrodes and optimal stimulation frequencies to be employed, as well as the interaction with age and underlying brain pathologies in specific patient populations. PMID:27298740

  10. T cell subset profile in healthy Zambian adults at the University Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Chisenga, Caroline Cleopatra; Kelly, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Symptom-free human immunodeficiency virus antibody-negative Zambian adults (51 subjects, aged 20 to 62 years, 33.3% women and 66.7% men) were studied to establish T cell subset reference ranges. Methods We carried out across sectional study at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka. Blood samples were collected from healthy donor volunteers from hospital health care staff, between February and March 2015. Immunopheno typing was undertaken to characterize Tcell subsets using the markers CD3, CD4, CD8, α4β7, Ki67, CD25, CCR7, CD54RA, CD57, CD28, CD27 and HLA-DR. Results Among 51 volunteers, Women had significantly higher absolute CD4 count (median 1042; IQR 864, 1270) than in men (671; 545, 899) (p=0.003). Women also had more CD4 cells expressing homing, naïve, effector and effector memory T cell subsets compared to men. However, in the CD8 population, only the effector cells were significantly different with women expressing more than the males. Conclusion We provide early reference range for T cell subsets in Zambian adults and conclude that among the African women some T cell subsets are higher than men. PMID:27231509

  11. Phenotypic vulnerability of energy balance responses to sleep loss in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Andrea M.; Dinges, David F.; Goel, Namni

    2015-01-01

    Short sleep duration is a risk factor for increased hunger and caloric intake, late-night eating, attenuated fat loss when dieting, and for weight gain and obesity. It is unknown whether altered energy-balance responses to sleep loss are stable (phenotypic) over time, and the extent to which individuals differ in vulnerability to such responses. Healthy adults experienced two laboratory exposures to sleep restriction separated by 60–2132 days. Caloric intake, meal timing and weight were objectively measured. Although there were substantial phenotypic differences among participants in weight gain, increased caloric intake, and late-night eating and fat intake, responses within participants showed stability across sleep restriction exposures. Weight change was consistent in both normal-weight and overweight adults. Weight change and increased caloric intake were more stable in men whereas late-night eating was consistent in both genders. This is the first evidence of phenotypic differential vulnerability and trait-like stability of energy balance responses to repeated sleep restriction, underscoring the need for biomarkers and countermeasures to predict and mitigate this vulnerability. PMID:26446681

  12. Intermittent use of an "anchor system" improves postural control in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Milena de Bem Zavanella; Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane; Moraes, Renato

    2013-07-01

    Haptic information, provided by a non-rigid tool (i.e., an "anchor system"), can reduce body sway in individuals who perform a standing postural task. However, it was not known whether or not continuous use of the anchor system would improve postural control after its removal. Additionally, it was unclear as to whether or not frequency of use of the anchor system is related to improved control in older adults. The present study evaluated the effect of the prolonged use of the anchor system on postural control in healthy older individuals, at different frequencies of use, while they performed a postural control task (semi-tandem position). Participants were divided into three groups according to the frequency of the anchor system's use (0%, 50%, and 100%). Pre-practice phase (without anchor) was followed by a practice phase (they used the anchor system at the predefined frequency), and a post-practice phase (immediate and late-without anchor). All three groups showed a persistent effect 15min after the end of the practice phase (immediate post-practice phase). However, only the 50% group showed a persistent effect in the late post-practice phase (24h after finishing the practice phase). Older adults can improve their postural control by practicing the standing postural task, and use of the anchor system limited to half of their practice time can provide additional improvement in their postural control.

  13. Strategic Variations in Fitts’ Task: Comparison of Healthy Older Adults and Cognitively Impaired Patients

    PubMed Central

    Poletti, Céline; Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita; Decker, Leslie Marion; Retornaz, Frédérique; Lemaire, Patrick; Temprado, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating how healthy older adults (HOA) and cognitively impaired patients (CIP) differ in a discrete Fitts’ aiming task. Four levels of task difficulty were used, resulting from the simultaneous manipulation of the size of the target and its distance from home position. We found that movement times (MTs) followed Fitts’ law in both HOA and CIP, with the latter being significantly slower and more affected by increased task difficulty. Moreover, correlation analyses suggest that lower information processing speed (IPS) and deficits in executive functions (EFs) are associated with decline of sensorimotor performance in Fitts’ task. Analyses of strategic variations showed that HOA and CIP differed in strategy repertoire (which strategies they used), strategy distribution (i.e., how often they used each available strategy), and strategy execution (i.e., how quick they were with each available strategy). These findings further our understanding of how strategic variations used in a sensorimotor task are affected by cognitive impairment in older adults. PMID:28163682

  14. Estimating Cognitive Reserve in Healthy Adults Using the Cognitive Reserve Scale

    PubMed Central

    León, Irene; García-García, Juan; Roldán-Tapia, Lola

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cognitive reserve emerged from observed disparities between brain pathology and clinical symptoms. It may explain better neuropsychological performance in healthy individuals. The objectives of this study were to measure reserve in healthy subjects using a new Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS), analyze the internal consistency of the CRS, and analyze validity evidence. A total of 117 healthy individuals were divided into two groups: 87 adults (aged 18–64 years) and 30 elderly adults (≥65 years). All subjects completed the CRS and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The internal consistency of the scale was satisfactory (α = 0.77). No significant differences were observed between genders (t = 0.51, p = 0.611), and age was corrected by averaging the CRS score. The study of validity evidence showed that education affected the CRS (t = −2.98, p = 0.004, partial h2 = 0.07) and there was no significant relationship between the CRS and IQ (r = 0.09, p = 0.33). Occupational attainment and the CRS were not related (F2,116 = 0.11, p = 0.898). In line with previous studies on reserve, heterogeneity was observed in the analyses of relationships between the CRS and cognitive performance. There were significant relationships between CRS score and the Verbal Learning Spanish–Complutense Test last trial (r = 0.24, p = 0.009), sum (r = 0.32, p = 0.000), short-term (r = 0.29, p = 0.002) and long-term memory (r = 0.22, p = 0.018), Matrix Reasoning subtest (r = 0.20, p = 0.027) and Block Design subtest (r = 0.20, p = 0.029). No other neuropsychological variables correlated with the CRS (p>0.05). The CRS is a reliable instrument that reflects the frequency of participation in brain-stimulating activities across the lifetime. The associations between the CRS and education and neuropsychological performance support validity evidence. PMID:25050711

  15. Approximate Time to Steady-state Resting Energy Expenditure Using Indirect Calorimetry in Young, Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Popp, Collin J; Tisch, Jocelyn J; Sakarcan, Kenan E; Bridges, William C; Jesch, Elliot D

    2016-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry (IC) measurements to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) necessitate a stable measurement period or steady state (SS). There is limited evidence when assessing the time to reach SS in young, healthy adults. The aims of this prospective study are to determine the approximate time to necessary reach SS using open-circuit IC and to establish the appropriate duration of SS needed to estimate REE. One hundred young, healthy participants (54 males and 46 females; age = 20.6 ± 2.1 years; body weight = 73.6 ± 16.3 kg; height 172.5 ± 9.3 cm; BMI = 24.5 ± 3.8 kg/m(2)) completed IC measurement for approximately 30 min while the volume of oxygen (VO2) and volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2) were collected. SS was defined by variations in the VO2 and VCO2 of ≤10% coefficient of variation (%CV) over a period of five consecutive minutes. The 30-min IC measurement was divided into six 5-min segments, such as S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6. The results show that SS was achieved during S2 (%CV = 6.81 ± 3.2%), and the %CV continued to met the SS criteria for the duration of the IC measurement (S3 = 8.07 ± 4.4%, S4 = 7.93 ± 3.7%, S5 = 7.75 ± 4.1%, and S6 = 8.60 ± 4.6%). The current study found that in a population of young, healthy adults the duration of the IC measurement period could be a minimum of 10 min. The first 5-min segment was discarded, while SS occurred by the second 5-min segment.

  16. Multiparametric immunophenotyping of B cells in peripheral blood of healthy adults by flow cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Höffkes, H G; Schmidtke, G; Uppenkamp, M; Schmücker, U

    1996-01-01

    The investigation of patients suffering from malignant lymphomas of the B-cell type requires flow cytometric immunophenotyping. Several reports described the expression of almost all B lineage antigens on normal and abnormal B lymphocytes. Thus, immunophenotyping of lymphomas must be interpreted in the context of the reference values obtained for healthy control individuals. For this purpose multiparametric flow cytometric analysis offers the unique feature for lymphocyte subset analysis. In the present study B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of healthy adults were investigated by multiparametric flow cytometric immunophenotyping for the detection of the frequency (in percent) of antigens provided by the revised European-American classification of lymphoid neoplasms (REAL) classification. Thus, 84 healthy adults were investigated and grouped by age (average ages were as follows: group 1, 25.38 years; group 2, 33.86 years; group 3, 44.17 years; group 4, 55.67 years; group 5, 66.67 years). Analysis was done for surface immunoglobulins (kappa and lambda chains of immunoglobulin M [IgM] and IgD) as well as CD10, CD11c, CD23, CD38, CD103, FMC-7, and B-B4. Three-color immunophenotyping was performed for kappa/CD19/CD5, lambda/CD19/CD5, surface IgM/surface IgD/CD19, FMC-7/CD19/CD5, CD103/CD11c/CD19, CD10/CD23/CD19, and CD38/B-B4/CD19 by live gating of CD19+ events (n = 2,000). Although some numerical differences could be obtained for the different groups, statistical differences (P < 0.005) could only be obtained for the CD19+/CD5+ B-cell subset, which was decreased in the elderly patients (group 5). The established two-color and three-color stainings will serve as a basis for future multiparametric immunophenotyping of abnormal lymphocytes (e.g., for patients suffering from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the B-cell type). PMID:8770500

  17. Hand function is impaired in healthy older adults at risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Todd, Gabrielle; Haberfield, Miranda; Faulkner, Patrick L; Rae, Caroline; Hayes, Michael; Wilcox, Robert A; Taylor, Janet L; Gandevia, Simon C; Godau, Jana; Berg, Daniela; Piguet, Olivier; Double, Kay L

    2014-11-01

    Abnormal substantia nigra morphology in healthy individuals, viewed with transcranial ultrasound, is a significant risk factor for Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about the functional consequences of this abnormality (termed 'hyperechogenicity') on movement. The aim of the current study was to investigate hand function in healthy older adults with (SN+) and without (SN-) substantia nigra hyperechogenicity during object manipulation. We hypothesised that SN+ subjects would exhibit increased grip force and a slower rate of force application compared to SN- subjects. Twenty-six healthy older adults (8 SN+ aged 58 ± 8 years, 18 SN- aged 57 ± 6 years) were asked to grip and lift a light-weight object with the dominant hand. Horizontal grip force, vertical lift force, acceleration, and first dorsal interosseus EMG were recorded during three trials. During the first trial, SN+ subjects exhibited a longer period between grip onset and lift onset (i.e. preload duration; 0.27 ± 0.25 s) than SN- subjects (0.13 ± 0.08 s; P = 0.046). They also exerted a greater downward force prior to lift off (-0.54 ± 0.42 N vs. -0.21 ± 0.12 N; P = 0.005) and used a greater grip force to lift the object (19.5 ± 7.0 N vs. 14.0 ± 4.3 N; P = 0.022) than SN- subjects. No between group differences were observed in subsequent trials. SN+ subjects exhibit impaired planning for manipulation of new objects. SN+ individuals over-estimate the grip force required, despite a longer contact period prior to lifting the object. The pattern of impairment observed in SN+ subjects shares similarities with de novo Parkinson's disease patients.

  18. Approximate Time to Steady-state Resting Energy Expenditure Using Indirect Calorimetry in Young, Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Popp, Collin J.; Tisch, Jocelyn J.; Sakarcan, Kenan E.; Bridges, William C.; Jesch, Elliot D.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry (IC) measurements to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) necessitate a stable measurement period or steady state (SS). There is limited evidence when assessing the time to reach SS in young, healthy adults. The aims of this prospective study are to determine the approximate time to necessary reach SS using open-circuit IC and to establish the appropriate duration of SS needed to estimate REE. One hundred young, healthy participants (54 males and 46 females; age = 20.6 ± 2.1 years; body weight = 73.6 ± 16.3 kg; height 172.5 ± 9.3 cm; BMI = 24.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2) completed IC measurement for approximately 30 min while the volume of oxygen (VO2) and volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2) were collected. SS was defined by variations in the VO2 and VCO2 of ≤10% coefficient of variation (%CV) over a period of five consecutive minutes. The 30-min IC measurement was divided into six 5-min segments, such as S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6. The results show that SS was achieved during S2 (%CV = 6.81 ± 3.2%), and the %CV continued to met the SS criteria for the duration of the IC measurement (S3 = 8.07 ± 4.4%, S4 = 7.93 ± 3.7%, S5 = 7.75 ± 4.1%, and S6 = 8.60 ± 4.6%). The current study found that in a population of young, healthy adults the duration of the IC measurement period could be a minimum of 10 min. The first 5-min segment was discarded, while SS occurred by the second 5-min segment. PMID:27857943

  19. Quantitative Molecular Detection of 19 Major Pathogens in the Interdental Biofilm of Periodontally Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Carrouel, Florence; Viennot, Stéphane; Santamaria, Julie; Veber, Philippe; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    In oral health, the interdental spaces are a real ecological niche for which the body has few or no alternative defenses and where the traditional daily methods for control by disrupting biofilm are not adequate. The interdental spaces are the source of many hypotheses regarding their potential associations with and/or causes of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, degenerative disease, and depression. This PCR study is the first to describe the interdental microbiota in healthy adults aged 18–35 years-old with reference to the Socransky complexes. The complexes tended to reflect microbial succession events in developing dental biofilms. Early colonizers included members of the yellow, green, and purple complexes. The orange complex bacteria generally appear after the early colonizers and include many putative periodontal pathogens, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum. The red complex (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola) was considered the climax community and is on the list of putative periodontal pathogens. The 19 major periodontal pathogens tested were expressed at various levels. F. nucleatum was the most abundant species, and the least abundant were Actinomyces viscosus, P. gingivalis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The genome counts for Eikenella corrodens, Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter rectus, T. denticola, and Tannerella forsythensis increased significantly with subject age. The study highlights the observation that bacteria from the yellow complex (Streptococcus spp., S. mitis), the green complex (E. corrodens, Campylobacter gracilis, Capnocytophaga ochracea, Capnocytophaga sputigena, A. actinomycetemcomitans), the purple complex (Veillonella parvula, Actinomyces odontolyticus) and the blue complex (A. viscosus) are correlated. Concerning the orange complex, F. nucleatum is the most abundant species in interdental biofilm. The red complex, which is recognized as the most important

  20. Consuming a multi-ingredient thermogenic supplement for 28 days is apparently safe in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Roxanne M.; Joy, Jordan M.; Falcone, Paul H.; Mosman, Matt M.; Kim, Michael P.; Moon, Jordan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thermogenic (TRM) supplements are often used by people seeking to decrease body weight. Many TRM supplements are formulated with multiple ingredients purported to increase energy expenditure and maximize fat loss. However, in the past some TRM ingredients have been deemed unsafe and removed from the market. Therefore, it is important to verify the safety of multi-ingredient TRM supplements with chronic consumption. Objective To assess the safety of daily consumption of a multi-ingredient TRM supplement over a 28-day period in healthy adults. Design Twenty-three recreationally active adults (11M, 12F; 27.1±5.4 years, 171.6±9.6 cm, 76.8±16.1 kg, 26±5 BMI) were randomly assigned either to consume a multi-ingredient TRM supplement (SUP; n=9) or remain unsupplemented (CRL; n=14) for 28 days. Participants maintained their habitual dietary and exercise routines for the duration of the study. Fasting blood samples, resting blood pressure, and heart rate were taken before and after the supplementation period. Samples were analyzed for complete blood counts, comprehensive metabolic, and lipid panels. Results Significant (p<0.05) group by time interactions were present for diastolic BP, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), chloride, CO2, globulin, albumin:globulin (A/G), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Dependent t-tests conducted on significant variables revealed significant (p<0.05) within-group differences in SUP for diastolic BP (+6.2±5.3 mmHG), creatinine (+0.09±0.05 mg/dL), eGFR (−11.2±5.8 mL/min/1.73), globulin (−0.29±0.24 g/dL), A/G (+0.27±0.23), and HDL (−5.0±5.5 mg/dL), and in CRL for CO2 (−1.9±1.5 mmol/L) between time points. Each variable remained within the accepted physiological range. Conclusion Results of the present study support the clinical safety of a multi-ingredient TRM containing caffeine, green tea extract, and cayenne powder. Although there were statistically significant (p<0.05) intragroup

  1. Exercise Mode Moderates the Relationship Between Mobility and Basal Ganglia Volume in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Weinstein, Andrea M.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Kramer, Arthur F.; McAuley, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying effective intervention strategies to combat age-related decline in mobility and brain health is a priority. The primary aim of our study was to examine whether 12 months of aerobic training (AT) versus balance and toning (BAT) exercises moderates the relationship between change in mobility and change in basal ganglia volume in older adults. Design Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Setting Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. Participants Community-dwelling older adults (N = 101; mean age = 66.41 years) Intervention 12-month exercise trial with two groups: AT and BAT. Measurements Mobility was assessed by the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. Basal ganglia (putamen, caudate nucleus, pallidum) was segmented from T1-weighted MR images using FIRST. Measurements were obtained at baseline and trial completion. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to examine whether exercise mode moderates the relationship between change in mobility and change in basal ganglia volume over 12 months. Age, sex, and education were included as covariates. Results Exercise mode significantly moderated the relationship between change in mobility and change in left putamen volume. Specifically, for the AT group, volume of the left putamen did not change, regardless of change in mobility. Similarly, in the BAT group, those who improved their mobility most over 12 months had no change in left putamen volume; however, those who declined in mobility levels significantly decreased in left putamen volume. Conclusion Our primary finding that older adults who engage in 12 months of balance and tone training and improve mobility exhibit maintenance of brain volume in a key region responsible for motor control provides compelling evidence that such exercises can contribute to the promotion of functional independence and healthy aging. PMID:26782858

  2. Are effects of the symmetric and asymmetric tonic neck reflexes still visible in healthy adults?

    PubMed

    Bruijn, S M; Massaad, F; Maclellan, M J; Van Gestel, L; Ivanenko, Y P; Duysens, J

    2013-11-27

    When a cat's head is rotated in a transverse plane to one side, the legs on that side of the body extend, while on the other side, they flex (asymmetric tonic neck reflexes ATNR). On the contrary, when the head is rotated in a sagittal plane both legs flex when the head flexes, and extend when the head extends (symmetric tonic neck reflexes STNR). These reflexes have also been found in newborn babies and are thought to be a motor primitive, which is suppressed later in life. Still, using a test in which children sit on hand and knees, the ATNR and STNR can be found in children up to 9 years of age. This may suggest that these reflexes may still be involved in motor control in these children. Whether this is also the case in full-grown adults has thus far only been studied using coarse methods. Thus, for the current study, we set out to measure in detail whether the ATNR/STNR can still be evoked in healthy adult subjects. We measured 10 subjects who were asked to sit on their hands and knees while (1) their head was rotated left and right by an experimenter, (2) their head was flexed and extended by an experimenter. Kinematics was registered using a Vicon system. Elbow and head angles were detrended, and a regression analysis was performed, to investigate the effects of head angle on elbow angle. Results clearly showed the existence of the ATNR and STNR in adult subjects. A next step will be to assess the effects of the ATNR and STNR during everyday motor control tasks, such as making head rotations while driving a bike.

  3. Are anthropometric changes in healthy adults caused by modifications in dietary habits or by aging?

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Torres, A; Gimeno, A; Muñoz, F J; Vicent, D

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate to what extent age-dependent anthropometric changes are causally related to changes in dietary habits. In a randomly obtained sample of 246 healthy adults in the age range of 20-90 years from a well-defined agrarian population, the intake of proteins, fat and carbohydrates in males decreases with age (r = -0.65, p < 0.001; r = -0.65, p < 0.001; r = -0.5, p < 0.01, respectively), but in females it remains unaltered (e.g. the mean +/- SD daily protein intake in young adult females is 74 +/- 31 vs. 71 +/- 11 g in individuals over 80); in males it decreases from 140 +/- 34 to 71 +/- 13 g. On the contrary, in both sexes the muscle-mass-related measurements decrease (r = -0.45, p < 0.001; vs. r = -0.41, p < 0.001; mean values of the quotient lean body mass with body length in young adult females and males were 41.9 +/- 4.4 and 52.7 +/- 5.9 vs. 35.0 +/- 3.1 and 43.2 +/- 5.0, respectively, in individuals over 80, p < 0.001 in both sexes). From 35 onwards, the daily urea excretion-as a marker of the protein degradation rate-declines significantly with age, but without a clear correlation to the protein intake (r = 0.38), as occurs during young adulthood (r = 0.63). Furthermore, body fat content tends to increase with age, but the differences are statistically significant only in males of very advanced age (p < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Calabrese, Pasquale; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT) as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD), and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females), 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females), and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy adolescents and healthy young adults, and equivalent levels of moderate-intensity PA and SD as young adults. MS patients reported lower levels of vigorous PA compared to both healthy adolescents and young adults. Conclusion The pattern of the results of the present study suggests that the onset of MS is not associated with poor MT, poor sleep, or reduced moderate-intensity PA. Lower levels of vigorous PA were observed in MS patients. Low levels of vigorous PA may lead to decreased cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with MS and, in the long run, to reduced cardiovascular health and degraded psychological functioning. PMID:27390520

  5. Comparison of Cognitive Change after Working Memory Training and Logic and Planning Training in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Goghari, Vina M.; Lawlor-Savage, Linette

    2017-01-01

    Recent attention has focused on the benefits of cognitive training in healthy adults. Many commercial cognitive training programs are available given the attraction of not only bettering one’s cognitive capacity, but also potentially preventing age-related declines, which is of particular interest to older adults. The issue of whether cognitive training can improve performance within cognitive domains not trained (i.e., far transfer) is controversial, with meta-analyses of cognitive training both supporting and falsifying this claim. More support is present for the near transfer (i.e., transfer in cognitive domain trained) of cognitive training; however, not in all studies. To date, no studies have compared working memory training to training higher-level processes themselves, namely logic and planning. We studied 97 healthy older adults above the age of 65. Healthy older adults completed either an 8-week web-based cognitive training program on working memory or logic and planning. An additional no-training control group completed two assessments 8-weeks apart. Participants were assessed on cognitive measures of near and far transfer, including working memory, planning, reasoning, processing speed, verbal fluency, cognitive flexibility, and creativity. Participants improved on the trained tasks from the first day to last day of training. Bayesian analyses demonstrated no near or far transfer effects after cognitive training. These results support the conclusion that performance-adaptive computerized cognitive training may not enhance cognition in healthy older adults. Our lack of findings could be due to a variety of reasons, including studying a cohort of healthy older adults that were performing near their cognitive ceiling, employing a training protocol that was not sufficient to produce a change, or that no true findings exist. Research suggests numerous study factors that can moderate the results. In addition, the role of psychological variables, such as

  6. Comparison of Cognitive Change after Working Memory Training and Logic and Planning Training in Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Goghari, Vina M; Lawlor-Savage, Linette

    2017-01-01

    Recent attention has focused on the benefits of cognitive training in healthy adults. Many commercial cognitive training programs are available given the attraction of not only bettering one's cognitive capacity, but also potentially preventing age-related declines, which is of particular interest to older adults. The issue of whether cognitive training can improve performance within cognitive domains not trained (i.e., far transfer) is controversial, with meta-analyses of cognitive training both supporting and falsifying this claim. More support is present for the near transfer (i.e., transfer in cognitive domain trained) of cognitive training; however, not in all studies. To date, no studies have compared working memory training to training higher-level processes themselves, namely logic and planning. We studied 97 healthy older adults above the age of 65. Healthy older adults completed either an 8-week web-based cognitive training program on working memory or logic and planning. An additional no-training control group completed two assessments 8-weeks apart. Participants were assessed on cognitive measures of near and far transfer, including working memory, planning, reasoning, processing speed, verbal fluency, cognitive flexibility, and creativity. Participants improved on the trained tasks from the first day to last day of training. Bayesian analyses demonstrated no near or far transfer effects after cognitive training. These results support the conclusion that performance-adaptive computerized cognitive training may not enhance cognition in healthy older adults. Our lack of findings could be due to a variety of reasons, including studying a cohort of healthy older adults that were performing near their cognitive ceiling, employing a training protocol that was not sufficient to produce a change, or that no true findings exist. Research suggests numerous study factors that can moderate the results. In addition, the role of psychological variables, such as

  7. Carbohydrate-related dietary factors and plasma adiponectin levels in healthy adults in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet may influence circulating adiponectin levels by improving insulin sensitivity. We examined the associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors and plasma adiponectin levels in healthy adults aged 26–81 y (n= 979 men and 1227 women). Dietary intakes were assessed using a FFQ. Fasting...

  8. Whole body vibration training improves vibration perception threshold in healthy young adults: A randomized clinical trial pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Mocholi, M.A.; Dominguez-Muñoz, F.J.; Corzo, H.; Silva, S.C.S.; Adsuar, J.C.; Gusi, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Loss of foot sensitivity is a relevant parameter to assess and prevent in several diseases. It is crucial to determine the vibro-tactile sensitivity threshold response to acute conditions to explore innovative monitor tools and interventions to prevent and treat this challenge. The aims were: 1) to analyze the acute effects of a single whole body vibration session (4min-18Hz-4mm) on vibro-tactile perception threshold in healthy young adults. 2) to analyze the 48 hours effects of 3 whole body vibration sessions on vibro-tactile perception threshold in healthy young adults. Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial over 3 sessions of whole body vibration intervention or 3 sessions of placebo intervention. Twenty-eight healthy young adults were included: 11 experimental group and 12 placebo group. The experimental group performed 3 sessions of WBV while the placebo group performed 3 sessions of placebo intervention. Results: The vibro-tactile threshold increased right after a single WBV session in comparison with placebo. Nevertheless, after 3 whole body vibration sessions and 48 hours, the threshold decreased to values lower than the initial. Conclusions: The acute response of the vibro-tactile threshold to one whole body vibration session increased, but the 48 hours short-term response of this threshold decreased in healthy young adults. PMID:26944818

  9. Balancing Healthy Meals and Busy Lives: Associations between Work, School, and Family Responsibilities and Perceived Time Constraints among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize associations between perceived time constraints for healthy eating and work, school, and family responsibilities among young adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: A large, Midwestern metropolitan region. Participants: A diverse sample of community college (n = 598) and public university (n = 603) students.…

  10. Pulmonary Responses in Healthy Young Adults Exposed to Low Concentration of Ozone for 6.6 Hours with Mild Exercise

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rational: Recent studies have shown small but significant decreases in lung function following a prolonged exposure (6.6 hour) of healthy young adults to levels of ozone (0.08 ppm) near the current 8 hour standard. It is unclear, however, if such effects may be extended to concen...

  11. Mental Time Travel into the Past and the Future in Healthy Aged Adults: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viard, Armelle; Chetelat, Gael; Lebreton, Karine; Desgranges, Beatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Remembering the past and envisioning the future rely on episodic memory which enables mental time travel. Studies in young adults indicate that past and future thinking share common cognitive and neural underpinnings. No imaging data is yet available in healthy aged subjects. Using fMRI, we scanned older subjects while they remembered personal…

  12. High intake of whole grains and beans pattern is inversely associated with insulin resistance in healthy Korean adult population.

    PubMed

    Song, SuJin; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, YoonJu

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the association between dietary patterns and insulin resistance in the 3871 healthy Korean adults from the 2007 to 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The whole grains and beans pattern was associated with lower prevalence of insulin resistance (OR for highest quintile=0.80, 95% CI=0.61-1.03, P for trend=0.013).

  13. Specific Interference between a Cognitive Task and Sensory Organization for Stance Balance Control in Healthy Young Adults: Visuospatial Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Raymond K. Y.; Mills, Bradley; Dailey, Leanna; Lane, Elizabeth; Smith, Sarah; Lee, Kyoung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a computational overload results when two activities, one motor and the other cognitive that draw on the same neural processing pathways, are performed concurrently. Healthy young adult subjects carried out two seemingly distinct tasks of maintaining standing balance control under conditions of low (eyes closed),…

  14. Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) Oleocanthal and Oleacein Content on Platelet Reactivity in Healthy Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) Oleocanthal and Oleacein Content on Platelet Reactivity in Healthy Adults. Roberta R Holt1, Karan Agarwal1, Xuequi Li2, Eleni Melliou3, Theresa Pedersen1, Selina Wang2, Dan Flynn2, Prokopios Magiatis3, John W Newman1,4 1Department of Nutrition, and 2UC Davis ...

  15. The barriers and enablers of healthy eating among young adults: a missing piece of the obesity puzzle: A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Munt, A E; Partridge, S R; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2017-01-01

    Young adults in Western countries are gaining weight faster than their parents and are more likely to gain weight than any other age cohort. Despite this, investigation into the complex young adults' food choice motives, which enable and prevent healthy eating, has not been widely investigated. A scoping review was conducted involving an extensive literature search of four major electronic databases: Medline, Embase, PsychInfo and CINAHL. Data were collected from 34 articles: study descriptions numerically analysed and key findings thematically analysed. The key barriers found included: male apathy towards diet; unhealthy diet of friends and family; expected consumption of unhealthy foods in certain situations; relative low cost of unhealthy foods; lack of time to plan, shop, prepare and cook healthy foods; lack of facilities to prepare, cook and store healthy foods; widespread presence of unhealthy foods; lack of knowledge and skills to plan, shop, prepare and cook healthy foods; lack of motivation to eat healthily (including risk-taking behaviour). The key enablers found included: female interest in a healthy diet; healthy diet of friends and family; support/encouragement of friends and family to eat healthy; desire for improved health; desire for weight management; desire for improved self-esteem; desire for attractiveness to potential partners and others; possessing autonomous motivation to eat healthy and existence and use of self-regulatory skills. This research provides evidence that can be used to tailor interventions for healthy eating and overweight and obesity in this population. However, government intervention in addressing food access, affordability, marketing and taxation remains essential to any significant change.

  16. Sirolimus and tacrolimus rather than cyclosporine A cause bone loss in healthy adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Mercedes; Montero, Mercedes; Guede, David; Caeiro, Jose-Ramón; Martín-Fernández, Marta; Díaz-Curiel, Manuel; de la Piedra, Concepción

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of cyclosporine (CsA), tacrolimus (FK-506), and rapamycin (RAPA) on bone mass, femoral microstructure, femoral biomechanical properties, and bone remodeling in healthy adult male rats. Forty-eight 5-month-old male Wistar rats were used. CsA (2 mg/kg/day), FK-506 (3 mg/kg/day), RAPA (1.25 mg/kg/day), or water (0.5 ml/rat/day, control group) were administered orally for 3 months. After sacrifice, mean values of immunosuppressants in blood were: CsA (670.4 ng/ml), FK-506 (19.2 ng/ml), and RAPA (4.8 ng/ml). Levels of biochemical parameters were normal in all groups. Femoral BMD was decreased in FK-506 and RAPA groups and lumbar BMD in FK-506 group. Trabecular volume fraction (BV/TV) decreased only in FK-506 group. RAPA and CsA affected femoral cortical structure, but FK-506 did not. FK-506 produced an increase in bone remodeling, and CsA a decrease. FK-506 group showed a decrease in biomechanical parameters relative to all groups. RAPA group showed a decrease in ultimate stress vs control group, and CsA group presented an increase in biomechanical parameters versus control group. We found that administration of both RAPA and FK-506 as monotherapy for healthy rats produced osteopenia. CsA treatment only produces slight damages in the cortical zone of the femur.

  17. Brain structures and functional connectivity associated with individual differences in Internet tendency in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Li, Yadan; Yang, Wenjing; Zhang, Qinglin; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Hitchman, Glenn; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Internet addiction (IA) incurs significant social and financial costs in the form of physical side-effects, academic and occupational impairment, and serious relationship problems. The majority of previous studies on Internet addiction disorders (IAD) have focused on structural and functional abnormalities, while few studies have simultaneously investigated the structural and functional brain alterations underlying individual differences in IA tendencies measured by questionnaires in a healthy sample. Here we combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity, rsFC) information to explore the neural mechanisms underlying IAT in a large sample of 260 healthy young adults. The results showed that IAT scores were significantly and positively correlated with rGMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, one key node of the cognitive control network, CCN), which might reflect reduced functioning of inhibitory control. More interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right DLPFC and the medial prefrontal cortex/rostral anterior cingulate cortex (mPFC/rACC, one key node of the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher IAT scores, which might be associated with reduced efficiency of the CCN and DMN (e.g., diminished cognitive control and self-monitoring). Furthermore, the Stroop interference effect was positively associated with the volume of the DLPFC and with the IA scores, as well as with the connectivity between DLPFC and mPFC, which further indicated that rGMV variations in the DLPFC and decreased anticonnections between the DLPFC and mPFC may reflect addiction-related reduced inhibitory control and cognitive efficiency. These findings suggest the combination of structural and functional information can provide a valuable basis for further understanding of the mechanisms and pathogenesis of IA.

  18. Latent profiles of executive functioning in healthy young adults: evidence of individual differences in hemispheric asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Rau, Holly K; Suchy, Yana; Butner, Jonathan E; Williams, Paula G

    2016-11-01

    Two competing theoretical models of individual differences in executive functioning (EF) were examined: the Prefrontal Convexity Model and the Hemispheric Asymmetry Model. Neurologically healthy individuals (N = 315; mean age 20.8) completed a modified switching task (MST) and the Attention Network Test (ANT) in a single testing session. Data analysis was conducted in two phases. In the first phase (model identification), latent profile analysis was applied to MST variables measuring the abilities to form, switch, and maintain mental sets under conditions designed to tax left or right hemisphere resources. In the second phase (model validation), participant clusters obtained from the first phase were compared on the ANT. The Model Identification phase yielded a 3-profile solution consistent with the Hemispheric Asymmetry Model. Profile 1 (N = 203) was characterized by average EF performances. Profile 2 (N = 43) revealed a set maintenance weakness under non-verbal conditions. Profile 3 (N = 38) demonstrated weaknesses in cognitive flexibility combined with poor executive performances under verbal conditions. The Model Validation phase confirmed group differences. Profile 1 demonstrated average EF performances. Profile 2 demonstrated distractibility and decreased alertness, consistent with a right hemisphere weakness. Profile 3 demonstrated cognitive rigidity in the absence of external cues, consistent with a left hemisphere weakness. Individual differences in EF appear to follow a Hemispheric Asymmetry Model of EF among neurologically healthy adults. Investigating the relationship between hemispherically mediated executive functions and other individual difference factors known to confer health risk or resilience could inform numerous disciplines within the field of psychology.

  19. Leptin and Hunger Levels in Young Healthy Adults After One Night of Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Pejovic, Slobodanka; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Basta, Maria; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Zoumakis, Emanuel; Vgontzas, Angeliki; Bixler, Edward O.; Chrousos, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system in healthy, young adults has been shown to be associated with decreased leptin levels, impaired insulin sensitivity and increased hunger and appetite. To assess the effects of one night of sleep loss in a less stressful environment on hunger, leptin, adiponectin, cortisol, and blood pressure/heart rate and whether a 2-hour mid-afternoon nap reverses the changes associated with sleep loss, 21 young healthy individuals (10 men, 11 women) participated in a 7-day sleep deprivation experiment (4 consecutive nights followed by a night of sleep loss and 2 recovery nights). Half of the subjects were randomly assigned to take a mid-afternoon nap (1400–1600) the day following the night of total sleep loss. Serial 24-hour blood sampling and hunger scales were completed on the fourth (pre-deprivation) and sixth day (post-deprivation). Leptin levels were significantly increased after one night of total sleep loss, whereas adiponectin, cortisol levels, blood pressure/heart rate, and hunger were not affected. Daytime napping did not influence the effects of sleep loss on leptin, adiponectin or hunger. Acute sleep loss, in a less stressful environment, influences leptin levels in an opposite manner from that of short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system. It appears that sleep loss associated with activation of the stress system but not sleep loss per se may lead to increased hunger and appetite and hormonal changes which ultimately may lead to increased consumption of “comfort” food and obesity. PMID:20545838

  20. Absorption and safety of serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Audrey L; Mathews, David W; Hinkle, John E; Petschow, Bryon W; Weaver, Eric M; Detzel, Christopher J; Klein, Gerald L; Bradshaw, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have shown that oral administration of bovine immunoglobulin protein preparations is safe and provides nutritional and intestinal health benefits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the plasma amino acid response following a single dose of serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) and whether bovine immunoglobulin G (IgG) is present in stool or in blood following multiple doses of SBI in healthy volunteers. Methods A total of 42 healthy adults were administered a single dose of placebo or SBI at one of three doses (5 g, 10 g, or 20 g) in blinded fashion and then continued on SBI (2.5 g, 5 g, or 10 g) twice daily (BID) for an additional 2 weeks. Serial blood samples were collected for amino acid analysis following a single dose of placebo or SBI. Stool and blood samples were collected to assess bovine IgG levels. Results The area under the curve from time 0 minute to 180 minutes for essential and total amino acids as well as tryptophan increased following ingestion of 5 g, 10 g, or 20 g of SBI, with a significant difference between placebo and all doses of SBI (p<0.05) for essential amino acids and tryptophan but only the 10 g and 20 g doses for total amino acids. Bovine IgG was detected in the stool following multiple doses of SBI. No quantifiable levels of bovine IgG were determined in plasma samples 90 minutes following administration of a single dose or multiple doses of SBI. Conclusion Oral administration of SBI leads to increases in plasma essential amino acids during transit through the gastrointestinal tract and is safe at levels as high as 20 g/day. PMID:27980432

  1. Leptin and hunger levels in young healthy adults after one night of sleep loss.

    PubMed

    Pejovic, Slobodanka; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Basta, Maria; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Zoumakis, Emmanuel; Vgontzas, Angeliki; Bixler, Edward O; Chrousos, George P

    2010-12-01

    Short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system in healthy, young adults has been shown to be associated with decreased leptin levels, impaired insulin sensitivity, and increased hunger and appetite. To assess the effects of one night of sleep loss in a less stressful environment on hunger, leptin, adiponectin, cortisol and blood pressure/heart rate, and whether a 2-h mid-afternoon nap reverses the changes associated with sleep loss, 21 young healthy individuals (10 men, 11 women) participated in a 7-day sleep deprivation experiment (four consecutive nights followed by one night of sleep loss and two recovery nights). Half of the subjects were randomly assigned to take a mid-afternoon nap (14:00-16:00 hours) the day following the night of total sleep loss. Serial 24-h blood sampling and hunger scales were completed on the fourth (predeprivation) and sixth day (postdeprivation). Leptin levels were significantly increased after one night of total sleep loss, whereas adiponectin, cortisol levels, blood pressure/heart rate, and hunger were not affected. Daytime napping did not influence the effects of sleep loss on leptin, adiponectin, or hunger. Acute sleep loss, in a less stressful environment, influences leptin levels in an opposite manner from that of short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system. It appears that sleep loss associated with activation of the stress system but not sleep loss per se may lead to increased hunger and appetite and hormonal changes, which ultimately may lead to increased consumption of 'comfort' food and obesity.

  2. Neurophysiological Effects of Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Adults, a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Klumpers, Ursula M. H.; Veltman, Dick J.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Kloet, Reina W.; Boellaard, Ronald; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Total sleep deprivation (TSD) may induce fatigue, neurocognitive slowing and mood changes, which are partly compensated by stress regulating brain systems, resulting in altered dopamine and cortisol levels in order to stay awake if needed. These systems, however, have never been studied in concert. At baseline, after a regular night of sleep, and the next morning after TSD, 12 healthy subjects performed a semantic affective classification functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task, followed by a [11C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) scan. Saliva cortisol levels were acquired at 7 time points during both days. Affective symptoms were measured using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) and visual analogue scales. After TSD, perceived energy levels, concentration, and speed of thought decreased significantly, whereas mood did not. During fMRI, response speed decreased for neutral words and positive targets, and accuracy decreased trendwise for neutral words and for positive targets with a negative distracter. Following TSD, processing of positive words was associated with increased left dorsolateral prefrontal activation. Processing of emotional words in general was associated with increased insular activity, whereas contrasting positive vs. negative words showed subthreshold increased activation in the (para)hippocampal area. Cortisol secretion was significantly lower after TSD. Decreased voxel-by-voxel [11C]raclopride binding potential (BPND) was observed in left caudate. TSD induces widespread cognitive, neurophysiologic and endocrine changes in healthy adults, characterized by reduced cognitive functioning, despite increased regional brain activity. The blunted HPA-axis response together with altered [11C]raclopride binding in the basal ganglia indicate that sustained wakefulness requires involvement of additional adaptive biological systems. PMID:25608023

  3. Assessment of pharmacokinetics and tolerability of intranasal diazepam relative to rectal gel in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Henney, Herbert R; Sperling, Michael R; Rabinowicz, Adrian L; Bream, Gary; Carrazana, Enrique J

    2014-09-01

    Diazepam rectal gel (RG) is currently the only approved rescue therapy for outpatient management of seizure clusters in the United States. There is an unmet medical need for an alternative rescue therapy for seizure clusters that is effective, and more convenient to administer with a socially acceptable method of delivery. An intranasal diazepam formulation has been developed, and this study evaluates the tolerability and bioavailability of diazepam nasal spray (NS) relative to an equivalent dose of diazepam-RG in healthy adults. Twenty-four healthy adults were enrolled in a phase 1, open-label, 3-period crossover study. Plasma diazepam and metabolite concentrations were measured by serial sampling. Dose proportionality for 5- and 20-mg intranasal doses and the bioavailability of 20mg diazepam-NS relative to 20mg diazepam-RG were assessed by maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and systemic exposure parameters (AUC0-∞ and AUC0-24). The mean Cmax values for 20mg diazepam-NS and 20mg diazepam-RG were 378 ± 106 and 328 ± 152 ng/mL, achieved at 1.0 and 1.5h, respectively. Subjects administered intranasal and rectal gel formulations experienced nasal and rectal leakage, respectively. Diazepam absorption following intranasal administration was consistent but 3 subjects with diazepam-RG had low plasma drug levels at the earliest assessment of 5 min, due to poor retention, and were excluded from analysis. Excluding them, the treatment ratios (20mg diazepam-NS:20mg diazepam-RG) and 90% confidence intervals for diazepam Cmax and AUC0-24 were 0.98 (0.85-1.14) and 0.89 (0.80-0.98), respectively, suggesting that the bioavailability was comparable between the two formulations. Dose proportionality was observed between the lowest and highest dose-strengths of intranasal formulation. Both intranasal and rectal treatments were well tolerated with mild to moderate adverse events. Results suggest that a single-dose of 20mg diazepam-NS is tolerable and comparable in bioavailability

  4. Measurement of neural respiratory drive via parasternal intercostal electromyography in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    MacBean, V; Hughes, C; Nicol, G; Reilly, C C; Rafferty, G F

    2016-11-01

    Neural respiratory drive, quantified by the parasternal intercostal muscle electromyogram (EMGpara), provides a sensitive measure of respiratory system load-capacity balance. Reference values for EMGpara-based measures are lacking and the influence of individual anthropometric characteristics is not known. EMGpara is conventionally expressed as a percentage of that obtained during a maximal inspiratory effort (EMGpara%max), leading to difficulty in applying the technique in subjects unable to reliably perform such manoeuvres. To measure EMGpara in a large, unselected cohort of healthy adult subjects in order to evaluate relevant technical and anthropometric factors. Surface second intercostal space EMGpara was measured during resting breathing and maximal inspiratory efforts in 63 healthy adult subjects, median (IQR) age 31.0 (25.0-47.0) years, 28 males. Detailed anthropometry, spirometry and respiratory muscle strength were also recorded. Median (IQR EMGpara was 4.95 (3.35-6.93) µV, EMGpara%max 4.95 (3.39-8.65)% and neural respiratory drive index (NRDI, the product of EMGpara%max and respiratory rate) was 73.62 (46.41-143.92) %.breath/min. EMGpara increased significantly to 6.28 (4.26-9.93) µV (p  <  0.001) with a mouthpiece, noseclip and pneumotachograph in situ. Median (IQR) EMGpara was higher in female subjects (5.79 (4.42-7.98) µV versus 3.56 (2.81-5.35) µV, p  =  0.003); after controlling for sex neither EMGpara, EMGpara%max or NRDI were significantly related to anthropometrics, age or respiratory muscle strength. In subjects undergoing repeat measurements within the same testing session (n  =  48) or on a separate occasion (n  =  19) similar repeatability was observed for both EMGpara and EMGpara%max. EMGpara is higher in female subjects than males, without influence of other anthropometric characteristics. Reference values are provided for EMGpara-derived measures. Expressing EMGpara as a percentage of maximum confers no

  5. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of intravenous ampicillin plus sulbactam in healthy elderly and young adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Rho, J P; Jones, A; Woo, M; Castle, S; Smith, K; Bawdon, R E; Norman, D C

    1989-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of intravenous ampicillin and sulbactam, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, were evaluated in two different age groups. Twelve healthy elderly subjects (age 65-93 years) and 12 healthy young adult subjects (age 20-35 years) received both a dose of ampicillin 1 g plus sulbactam 0.5 g and a higher dose of ampicillin 2 g plus sulbactam 1 g after a one-week period between doses. A reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography method was used for the quantitation of ampicillin and sulbactam in serum and urine. The pharmacokinetic parameters for both ampicillin and sulbactam were calculated by computer-based two-compartment nonlinear model. After a 30-min infusion, serum concentrations of both drugs declined in a biexponential manner for both doses. Elderly subjects demonstrated significantly lower total clearances (Clt) than young adult subjects of ampicillin 1 g (220.0 +/- 104.2 vs 360.0 +/- 95.8 ml/min/1.73 m2), ampicillin 2 g (72.6 +/- 36.6 vs 306.8 +/- 109.77 ml/min/1.73 m2), sulbactam 0.5 g (122.3 +/- 47.8 vs 263.9 +/- 93.7 ml/min/1.73 m2), and sulbactam 1 g (171.2 +/- 85.8 vs 391.7 +/- 70.8 ml/min/1.73 m2), respectively. Significance was defined as P less than 0.05. Renal clearance was also significantly reduced in the elderly subjects. Area under the curve was found to be significantly increased in the elderly subjects compared to the young subjects for both ampicillin and sulbactam as were the beta elimination half-lives. No significant difference in the apparent volume of distribution, when adjusted for body weight, was found for either sulbactam (P greater than 0.95) or ampicillin (P greater than 0.95) between the two groups. Linear regression analysis revealed that age was significantly correlated with the Clt of ampicillin 1 g (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001), ampicillin 2 g (r = 0.90, P less than 0.001), sulbactam 0.5 g (r = 0.80, P less than 0.001), and sulbactam 1 g (r = 0.93, P less than 0.001). A multivariate analysis showed a slight

  6. Subclinical sleep apnoea and plasma levels of endothelin-1 among young and healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Tobias; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Leuppi, Joerg D; Miedinger, David; Werthmüller, Ursina; Estis, Joel; Todd, John; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Conen, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a risk factor for vascular disease and other adverse outcomes. These associations may be at least partly due to early endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated endothelial dysfunction (ED). Therefore, we assessed the relationships between subclinical sleep apnoea and plasma levels of ET-1. Methods We performed a population-based study among 1255 young and healthy adults aged 25–41 years. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes or a body mass index >35 kg/m2 were exclusion criteria. Plasma levels of ET-1 were measured using a high-sensitivity, single-molecule counting technology. The relationships between subclinical sleep apnoea (OSA indices: respiratory event index (REI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), mean night-time blood oxygen saturation (SpO2)) and ET-1 levels were assessed by multivariable linear regression analysis. Results Median age of the cohort was 35 years. Median ET-1 levels were 2.9 (IQR 2.4–3.6) and 2.5 pg/mL (IQR 2.1–3.0) among patients with (n=105; 8%) and without subclinical sleep apnoea (REI 5–14), respectively. After multivariable adjustment, subclinical sleep apnoea remained significantly associated with plasma levels of ET-1 (β=0.13 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.20) p=0.0002 for a REI 5–14; β=0.10 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.16) p=0.003 for an ODI≥5). Every 1% decrease in mean night-time SpO2 increased ET-1 levels by 0.1 pg/mL, an association that remained significant after multivariable adjustment (β=0.02 (95% CI 0.003 to 0.033) p=0.02). Conclusions In this study of young and healthy adults, we found that participants with subclinical sleep apnoea had elevated plasma ET-1 levels, an association that was due to night-time hypoxaemia. Our results suggest that ED may already be an important consequence of subclinical sleep apnoea.

  7. Consuming foods with added oligofructose improves stool frequency: a randomised trial in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Wendy J; Wright, Arnelle R; Specht, Gretchen J; Christman, Mary; Mathews, Anne; Meyer, Diederick; Boileau, Thomas; Willis, Holly J; Langkamp-Henken, Bobbi

    2014-01-01

    The impact of oligofructose (OF) intake on stool frequency has not been clearly substantiated, while significant gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms have been reported in some individuals. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of OF on stool frequency and GI symptoms in healthy adults. In an 8-week, randomised, double-blind, parallel-arm study, ninety-eight participants were provided with 16 g OF in yogurt and snack bars (twenty male and thirty female) or matching control foods (seventeen male and thirty-one female), to incorporate, by replacement, into their usual diets. Participants completed a daily online questionnaire recording stool frequency and rating four symptoms: bloating, flatulence, abdominal cramping and noise, each on a Likert scale from '0' for none (no symptoms) to '6' for very severe, with a maximum symptom intensity score of 24 (sum of severities from all four symptoms). Online 24 h dietary recalls were completed during pre-baseline and weeks 4, 6 and 8 to determine fibre intake. When provided with OF foods, fibre intake increased to 24·3 (sem 0·5) g/d from pre-baseline (12·1 (sem 0·5) g/d; P < 0·001). Stool frequency increased with OF from 1·3 (sem 0·2) to 1·8 (sem 0·2) stools per d in males and 1·0 (sem 0·1) to 1·4 (sem 0·1) stools per d in females during intervention weeks compared with pre-baseline (P < 0·05),but did not change for control participants (males: 1·6 (sem 0·2) to 1·8 (sem 0·2); females: 1·3 (sem 0·1) to 1·4 (sem 0·1)). Flatulence was the most commonly reported symptom. Mean GI symptom intensity score was higher for the OF group (3·2 (sem 0·3)) v. control (1·7 (sem 0·1)) (P < 0·01), with few participants reporting above moderate symptoms. No change in symptom intensity occurred over time. Consuming yogurt and snack bars with 16 g OF improves regularity in young healthy adults. However, GI symptoms, resulting from an increase in oligofructose intake, may not diminish with time.

  8. Oral trehalose supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kaplon, Rachelle E.; Hill, Sierra D.; Bispham, Nina Z.; Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; Nowlan, Molly J.; Snyder, Laura L.; Chonchol, Michel; LaRocca, Thomas J.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that supplementation with trehalose, a disaccharide that reverses arterial aging in mice, would improve vascular function in middle-aged and older (MA/O) men and women. Thirty-two healthy adults aged 50-77 years consumed 100 g/day of trehalose (n=15) or maltose (n=17, isocaloric control) for 12 weeks (randomized, double-blind). In subjects with Δbody mass<2.3kg (5 lb.), resistance artery endothelial function, assessed by forearm blood flow to brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (FBFACh), increased ∼30% with trehalose (13.3±1.0 vs. 10.5±1.1 AUC, P=0.02), but not maltose (P=0.40). This improvement in FBFACh was abolished when endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production was inhibited. Endothelium-independent dilation, assessed by FBF to sodium nitroprusside (FBFSNP), also increased ∼30% with trehalose (155±13 vs. 116±12 AUC, P=0.03) but not maltose (P=0.92). Changes in FBFACh and FBFSNP with trehalose were not significant when subjects with Δbody mass≥2.3kg were included. Trehalose supplementation had no effect on conduit artery endothelial function, large elastic artery stiffness or circulating markers of oxidative stress or inflammation (all P>0.1) independent of changes in body weight. Our findings demonstrate that oral trehalose improves resistance artery (microvascular) function, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, in MA/O adults, possibly through increasing NO bioavailability and smooth muscle sensitivity to NO. PMID:27208415

  9. Access to Interdental Brushing in Periodontal Healthy Young Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Julie; Bravo, Manuel; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Interdental diameter space is largely undefined in adults, which compromises the decision support for daily interdental cleaning during routine practice in individual oral prophylaxis. This study assesses the distribution of diameter access of interdental spaces in an 18- to 25-year-old adult population free of periodontal disease. Methods In March-April 2015, a cross-sectional study using random sampling was performed at the University Lyon 1, France. The interproximal dental spaces of 99 individuals were examined using a colorimetric calibrated probe associated with the corresponding calibrated interdental brush (IDB). Results Of the 2,408 out of 2,608 sites, the overall accessibility prevalence of any interdental brushing was 92.3%. In total, 80.6% of the sites required interdental brushes with smaller diameters (0.6–0.7 mm). In anterior sites, the diameter of the interdental brushes used was smaller (55.8% of IDB with 0.6 mm) than the diameter of the interdental brushes used in posterior sites (26.1% of IDB with 0.6 mm) (p < 0.01). The adjusted ORs indicate a significant association with the location of the sites (approximately doubling the risk of bleeding, i.e., OR = 1.9, in posterior sites). Conclusions Most interdental sites can be cleaned using interdental brushes. Even in healthy people, interdental hygiene requirements are very high. Strengthening the oral hygiene capacity by specifically using interdental brushes can have an effect on the health of the entire population. Screening of the accessibility of the interdental space should be a component of a routine examination for all patients. PMID:27192409

  10. Excess diuresis and natriuresis during acute sleep deprivation in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstroem, Soren; Radvanska, Eva; Rittig, Soren; Djurhuus, Jens Christian

    2010-08-01

    The transition from wakefulness to sleep is associated with a pronounced decline in diuresis, a necessary physiological process that allows uninterrupted sleep. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of acute sleep deprivation (SD) on urine output and renal water, sodium, and solute handling in healthy young volunteers. Twenty young adults (10 male) were recruited for two 24-h studies under standardized dietary conditions. During one of the two admissions, subjects were deprived of sleep. Urine output, electrolyte excretions, and osmolar excretions were calculated. Activated renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, and atrial natriuretic peptide were measured in plasma, whereas prostaglandin E(2) and melatonin were measured in urine. SD markedly increased the diuresis and led to excess renal sodium excretion. The effect was more pronounced in men who shared significantly higher diuresis levels during SD compared with women. Renal water handling and arginine vasopressin levels remained unaltered during SD, but the circadian rhythm of the hormones of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was significantly affected. Urinary melatonin and prostaglandin E(2) excretion levels were comparable between SD and baseline night. Hemodynamic changes were characterized by the attenuation of nocturnal blood pressure dipping and an increase in creatinine clearance. Acute deprivation of sleep induces natriuresis and osmotic diuresis, leading to excess nocturnal urine production, especially in men. Hemodynamic changes during SD may, through renal and hormonal processes, be responsible for these observations. Sleep architecture disturbances should be considered in clinical settings with nocturnal polyuria such as enuresis in children and nocturia in adults.

  11. Direct Ex-Vivo Evaluation of Pneumococcal Specific T-Cells in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Aamir; Chapel, Helen; Ogg, Graham

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an encapsulated bacterium that causes significant global morbidity and mortality. The nasopharynxes of children are believed to be the natural reservoir of pneumococcus and by adulthood nasopharyngeal carriage is infrequent; such infrequency may be due to demonstrable pneumococcal specific T and B-cell responses. HLA Class 2 tetrameric complexes have been used to characterise antigen specific T-cell responses in a variety of models of infection. We therefore sought to determine the frequency and phenotype of pneumococcal specific T-cells, using a novel HLA-DRB1*1501 tetramer complex incorporating a recently defined T-cell epitope derived from the conserved pneumococcal serine/threonine kinase (StkP). We were able to detect direct ex-vivo StkP446–60-tetramer binding in HLA-DRB1*1501 adults. These StkP446–60-tetramer binding T-cells had increased CD38 expression and were enriched in CCR7- CD45RA+ expression indicating recent and on-going activation and differentiation. Furthermore, these StkP446–60-tetramer binding T-cells demonstrated rapid effector function by secreting interferon-gamma on stimulation with recombinant StkP. This is the first study to directly enumerate and characterise pneumococcal specific T-cells using HLA class 2 tetrameric complexes. We found that ex-vivo pneumococcal-specific T cells were detectable in healthy adults and that they were enriched with cell surface markers associated with recent antigen exposure and later stages of antigen-driven differentiation. It is likely that these activated pneumococcal specific T-cells reflect recent immunostimulatory pneumococcal exposure in the nasopharynx and it is possible that they may be preventing subsequent colonisation and disease. PMID:22039412

  12. Feasibility of integrating the "Healthy moves for aging well" program into home care aide services for frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae-Hee; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility of implementing simple, safe, non-equipment evidence-based movements (Healthy Moves for Aging Well program) using an affordable and sustainable homecare-aide based delivery model that reaches the maximum possible number of frail older adults living at home in Illinois. Two local agencies were asked to identify two experienced home care aides and two inexperienced home care aides (n= 8). Each home care aides delivered the Healthy Moves to four clients (n= 16). Eight home care aides visited the client in the home and were asked to deliver the Healthy Moves program on a regular basis for a four-month time period. Outcome measures included a pre-and post- survey, a functional fitness test (older adults), and interviews. Evaluation procedures focused on older adult participants, homecare aids, and sites. The results showed that both interview and survey data revealed that most participants including older adults, home care aides, and site directors had a positive perception and high satisfaction with the program. Specially, 100% of older adult participants reported that they would recommend the program to others. Additionally, seniors and home care aides reported that they enjoyed working with each other on the program and both site directors reported that dissemination of the program in the State of Illinois employing home care aides was feasible and acceptable. Our study results indicate that Healthy Moves for Aging Well could be safely and successfully be disseminated to frail older adults in the State of Illinois.

  13. Subjective mood and energy levels of healthy weight and overweight/obese healthy adults on high-and low-glycemic load experimental diets.

    PubMed

    Breymeyer, Kara L; Lampe, Johanna W; McGregor, Bonnie A; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests a positive association of diet and obesity with depression. Researchers have examined several diet-mood hypotheses, including investigating the extent to which carbohydrates may impact mood. There is limited research on how glycemic load, a characteristic of carbohydrates, impacts mood in healthy adults. Eighty-two healthy weight and overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, adults enrolled in a randomized, crossover controlled feeding study testing low-compared to high-glycemic load diets. All participants completed self-report mood and energy level questionnaires during each arm of the intervention. Diets were isocaloric and were matched by macronutrient content as a percent of total energy. Mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) subscales; tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment, total mood disturbance (TMD), and negative affect (NA) in addition to the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression (CES-D) scale at baseline and end of both 28-day feeding periods. Linear mixed models tested the intervention effect on mood, controlling for baseline POMS and CES-D scores, diet type, diet sequence, feeding period, sex, and percent body fat classification. The consumption of the high-glycemic load diet resulted in a 38% higher score for depressive symptoms on the CES-D (P = 0.002) compared to the low-glycemic load diet as well as 55% higher score for TMD (P = 0.05), and 26% higher score for fatigue/inertia (P = 0.04). In subgroup analyses, the overweight/obese participants had 40% higher scores on the CES-D scale compared to healthy weight participants (P = 0.05). In conclusion, a high-glycemic load diet was associated with higher depression symptoms, total mood disturbance, and fatigue compared to a low-glycemic load diet especially in overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT

  14. Schizotypal Traits are Associated with Poorer Executive Functioning in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Louise, Stephanie; Gurvich, Caroline; Neill, Erica; Tan, Eric J.; Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E.; Rossell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown mild forms of the neurocognitive impairments seen in schizophrenia among healthy individuals exhibiting high schizotypal traits. This study aimed to explore associations between schizotypy and cognitive performance in an adult community sample. Ninety-five females and 79 males completed the Oxford–Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), which measures four separable aspects of schizotypy: cognitive disorganization, unusual experiences, introvertive anhedonia, and impulsive non-conformity. Subsequently, participants were administered a neurocognitive battery incorporating measures of executive skills including inhibition, cognitive flexibility, reasoning, and problem solving along with measures of attention and processing speed and both verbal and spatial working memory. In line with predictions, the current study found that higher scores on the subscales of unusual experiences, cognitive disorganization, and impulsive non-conformity related to worse performance on a measure of inhibition. Additionally, as introvertive anhedonia increased, both attention and processing speed and reasoning and problem-solving performance became more impaired. In conclusion, this study extends schizotypy literature by examining the subscales of the O-LIFE, and enables inferences to be drawn in relation to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. PMID:26082726

  15. Changes in joint space width during Kaltenborn traction according to traction grade in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Gui-do; Kim, Tae-ho; Lim, Jin-yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the joint space width of the humeral head and glenoid fossa during traction under 2 grade conditions (grade 2/grade 3). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy male adults who had not experienced any shoulder injury. Three radiographs were obtained with the subjects in the supine position (resting, grades 2 and 3). The glenohumeral joint space was examined on radiography. Joint space width was measured by a radiologist at the points described by Petersson and Redlund-Johnell. A radiologist blinded to the variable “resting” or “traction” performed all radiographic measurements. The joint space widths were compared by using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. [Results] The results of this study indicated significant differences in the changes in joint space width according to traction grade. Compared to resting, grades 2 and 3 traction significantly increased joint space width. However, no significant difference in joint space width was found between grades 2 and 3 traction. [Conclusion] Although no significant differences were found between grades 2 and 3 traction during glenohumeral joint traction, the increase in joint space width between the glenoid fossa and humeral head was highest during grade 3 traction. PMID:26957767

  16. Changes in joint space width during Kaltenborn traction according to traction grade in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Moon, Gui-do; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the joint space width of the humeral head and glenoid fossa during traction under 2 grade conditions (grade 2/grade 3). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy male adults who had not experienced any shoulder injury. Three radiographs were obtained with the subjects in the supine position (resting, grades 2 and 3). The glenohumeral joint space was examined on radiography. Joint space width was measured by a radiologist at the points described by Petersson and Redlund-Johnell. A radiologist blinded to the variable "resting" or "traction" performed all radiographic measurements. The joint space widths were compared by using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. [Results] The results of this study indicated significant differences in the changes in joint space width according to traction grade. Compared to resting, grades 2 and 3 traction significantly increased joint space width. However, no significant difference in joint space width was found between grades 2 and 3 traction. [Conclusion] Although no significant differences were found between grades 2 and 3 traction during glenohumeral joint traction, the increase in joint space width between the glenoid fossa and humeral head was highest during grade 3 traction.

  17. Carbohydrate and fat digestion is necessary for maximal suppression of total plasma ghrelin in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Tai, Kamilia; Hammond, Angela J; Wishart, Judith M; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian M

    2010-12-01

    It is uncertain whether the postprandial suppression of ghrelin is dependent on digestion and absorption of nutrients or whether the presence of nutrients in the small intestine is sufficient. Twenty-four healthy young adults with a mean age of 23 ± 0.6 years were examined on 3 separate days after an overnight fast. Twelve subjects participated in Part A, and the other 12 subjects in Part B. In Part A, subjects consumed, in random order, one of three study drinks: 300 mL water; 300 mL high-fat drink, with and without, 120 mg orlistat. In Part B, subjects received, in random order, one of three drinks: 300 mL water; 300 mL sucrose, with and without, 100mg acarbose. In both parts gastric emptying as measured by 2-D ultrasound. In Part A, plasma ghrelin concentrations decreased following ingestion of the high-fat drink, but did not change with the high-fat-orlistat drink or water. In Part B, the suppression of plasma ghrelin following the sucrose drink, was attenuated by acarbose. Orlistat accelerated gastric emptying of the high-fat drink, while acarbose delayed gastric emptying of the sucrose drink. In conclusion, fat and carbohydrate digestion is required for maximal suppression of ghrelin secretion.

  18. Effect of Rotating Acoustic Stimulus on Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Bhaskar; Choudhuri, Raghabendra; Pandey, Ambarish; Bandopadhyay, Sajal; Sarangi, Sasmit; Kumar Ghatak, Sobhendu

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic stimulus can modulate the Autonomic Nervous System. However, previous reports on this topic are conflicting and inconclusive. In this study we have shown, how rotating acoustic stimulus, a novel auditory binaural stimulus, can change the autonomic balance of the cardiac system. We have used Heart rate Variability (HRV), an indicator of autonomic modulation of heart, both in time and frequency domain to analyze the effect of stimulus on 31 healthy adults. A decrease in the heart rate accompanied with an increase in SD and RMSSD indices on linear analysis was observed post-stimulation. In the Poincaré Plot, Minor Axis (SD1), Major Axis (SD2) and the ratio SD12 (SD1/SD2) increased after the stimulation. Post stimulus greater increment of SD12 with higher lag numbers of (M) beat to beat intervals, when compared to pre stimulus values, resulted in increased curvilinearity in the SD12 vs. Lag number plot. After stimulation,value of exponent alpha of Dretended Flactuation Analysis of HRV was found to be decreased. From these characteristic responses of the heart after the stimulus, it appears that rotating acoustic stimulus may be beneficial for the sympathovagal balance of the heart. PMID:23091566

  19. "Tailored" submaximal step test for VO2max prediction in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Pogliaghi, Silvia; Bellotti, Cecilia; Paterson, Donald H

    2014-04-01

    The authors developed and validated a "tailored" version of the Astrand-Rhyming step test (tA-R) and a new equation for VO2max prediction in older adults (OA). Sixty subjects (age 68 ± 4 yr, 30 male, 30 female) performed their tA-R step test (5-min, 30-cm step, tailored stepping rate) and an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. VO2max was (a) predicted using the standard A-R equation (predicted VO2max), (b) predicted based on the authors' new multiple linear equation (equation VO2max), and (c) directly measured by incremental cycling test (direct VO2max). Agreement among values of VO2max was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis. The predicted VO2max was not significantly different from the direct VO2max, yet with relatively large imprecision. The equation VO2max allowed more precise as well as accurate predictions of VO2max compared with standard A-R prediction. The "tailored" version of the Astrand-Rhyming step test and the new prediction equation appear suitable for a rapid (5-min), safe (submaximal), accurate, and precise VO2max prediction in healthy OA.

  20. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Wendy E; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A A; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteristics (i.e. social control and fear of crime) impacted cortisol responses to an induced stressor among older healthy adults. Data from Heart Scan, a sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, were used to generate multilevel piecewise growth-curve models of cortisol trajectories after a laboratory stressor accounting for neighborhood and demographic characteristics. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with individual perceptions of social control and fear of crime in the neighborhood while an association with blunted cortisol reactivity was only evidence among women. Social control was significantly associated with greater cortisol reactivity and mediation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and cortisol reactivity was suggested among women. These findings support a gender-dependent role of neighborhood in stress process models of health.

  1. Weight for gestational age and metabolically healthy obesity in adults from the Haguenau cohort

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Joane; Carette, Claire; Levy Marchal, Claire; Bertrand, Julien; Pétéra, Mélanie; Zins, Marie; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Comte, Blandine; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Background An obesity subphenotype, named ‘metabolically healthy obese’ (MHO) has been recently defined to characterise a subgroup of obese individuals with less risk for cardiometabolic abnormalities. To date no data are available on participants born with small weight for gestational age (SGA) and the risk of metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). Objective Assess the risk of MUHO in SGA versus appropriate for gestational age (AGA) adult participants. Methods 129 young obese individuals (body mass index ≥30 kg/m²) from data of an 8-year follow-up Haguenau cohort (France), were identified out of 1308 participants and were divided into 2 groups: SGA (n=72) and AGA (n=57). Metabolic characteristics were analysed and compared using unpaired t-test. The HOMA-IR index was determined for the population and divided into quartiles. Obese participants within the first 3 quartiles were considered as MHO and those in the fourth quartile as MUHO. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CI for being MUHO in SGA versus AGA participants were computed. Results The SGA-obese group had a higher risk of MUHO versus the AGA-obese group: RR=1.27 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.6) independently of age and sex. Conclusions In case of obesity, SGA might confer a higher risk of MUHO compared with AGA. PMID:27580829

  2. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of KNS-760704 (dexpramipexole) in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Bozik, Michael E; Mather, James L; Kramer, William G; Gribkoff, Valentin K; Ingersoll, Evan W

    2011-08-01

    Dexpramipexole (KNS-760704; [6R]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-N6-propyl-2,6-benzothiazole-diamine) is a novel synthetic amino-benzothiazole in development for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Preclinical studies have shown that dexpramipexole is neuroprotective in vitro and in vivo, is highly orally bioavailable and water soluble, and rapidly achieves and maintains high central nervous system concentrations relative to plasma. Two phase 1 clinical studies were conducted to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of single and multiple doses of dexpramipexole in 54 healthy male and female adults. The effect of food on the single-dose PK of dexpramipexole was also evaluated. Single doses (50 mg, 150 mg, or 300 mg) and multiple doses (50 mg twice daily, 100 mg twice daily, or 150 mg twice daily) of dexpramipexole over 4.5 days were safe and well tolerated. Dexpramipexole was rapidly absorbed, with time to maximum plasma concentration ranging from 1.8 to 2.6 hours and half-life ranging from 6.4 to 8.1 hours under fasted conditions, and was mostly eliminated in urine as unchanged parent drug (84%-90% of dose). Food had no effect on the single-dose PK of dexpramipexole. These findings support the ongoing development of dexpramipexole for the treatment of ALS and further evaluation of the compound's therapeutic potential in other neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Upper lifting performance of healthy young adults in functional capacity evaluations: a comparison of two protocols.

    PubMed

    IJmker, S; Gerrits, E H; Reneman, M F

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the concurrent validity of test results of upper lifting tasks of the Ergo-Kit FCE and the Isernhagen Work Systems (IWS) FCE. Seventy-one healthy young adults performed 5 upper lifting tests with at least 5 min of rest in between. The lifting tests included 3 standard protocols and 2 modified protocols. Three criteria for concurrent validity were established: 1) Pearson correlation higher than .75, 2) nonsignificant two-tailed t test, and 3) mean difference smaller than 5 kg. The results showed that none of the criteria were met for the standard protocols. For the modified protocols criteria 2 and 3 were not met. Individual differences larger than 10 kg were found for both standard and modified protocols. It was concluded that the standard protocols for upper lifting tasks of the Ergo-Kit FCE and the IWS FCE do not meet the criteria for concurrent validity and can, therefore, not be used interchangeably.

  4. Heart rate variability is reduced in underweight and overweight healthy adult women.

    PubMed

    Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Valenzano, Anna; Ciliberti, Michela Anna Pia; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Villani, Stefano; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni; Federici, Antonio; Babiloni, Claudio; Cibelli, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is altered in obese subjects, but whether this is true also in underweight (UW) subjects is still under debate. We investigated the HRV profile in a sample of healthy adult women and its association with adiposity. Five-minute resting state electrocardiographic activity was recorded in 69 subjects grouped according to their body mass index, [23 normal weight (NW), 23 overweight/obese (OW) and 23 UW). Body fat mass (FM) was measured by bio-impedance. Frequency- and time-domain analyses were performed. Compared to NW, UW and OW subjects showed a significant decrease in HRV indices, as revealed by spectral analysis. No differences were observed between UW and OW subjects. A second-order polynomial regression unveiled an inverted U-shaped relationship between FM extent and HRV indices. A decrease of HRV indices was associated with changes in FM extent, proving that in UW and OW subjects, the adaptive flexibility of autonomic cardiac function was reduced. These findings provide important clues to guide future studies addressed to determine how changes in adiposity and autonomic cardiac function may contribute to health risk.

  5. The effects of visual stimuli on EEG mu rhythms in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, JiYoung; Kim, SeongYoel

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Several action observation/imagery training studies have been conducted in patients with limited physical activity showing improvements in motor function. However, most studies compared effects of action observation and imagery, so little is known about the changes caused by subsequent observation of target objects. Moreover, few studies analyzed brain wave changes in the EEG mu rhythm. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen healthy female adults participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: 'Visual Stimuli' and 'Non-Visual Stimuli'. EEG amplitude in the 8-13 Hz frequency band over the sensorimotor cortex was evaluated. [Results] Significant mu suppression was obtained in the action observation trials. Mu power showed a main effect of visual stimuli, with decreased power during action observation, and increased power post-observation in both conditions. Comparing the 'Visual Stimuli' and 'Non-Visual Stimuli' conditions during the post-observation period, mu power demonstrated a greater increase in the 'Non-Visual Stimuli' condition. Furthermore, mu power was lower post-observation than pre-observation. [Conclusion] These results show the effects of visual input between maintaining target objects and no visual input, and their relevance to modulations of the mirror neuron system. It also suggests that greater visual input may be more effective for cognitive rehabilitation.

  6. Comparison of three different thermometers in evaluating the body temperature of healthy young adult individuals.

    PubMed

    Basak, Tulay; Aciksoz, Semra; Tosun, Betul; Akyuz, Aygul; Acikel, Cengizhan

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the measurement values obtained with a non-contact infrared thermometer, a tympanic thermometer and a chemical dot thermometer. The research population was composed of students studying in two departments of a university in Ankara. A total of 452 students who fit the inclusion criteria of the study and volunteered to participate were included in the sample. Body temperature measurements with different thermometers were performed by the same researcher at the same room temperature. Data were analyzed in a computerized environment by SPSS 15.0 statistical program pack and Bland-Altman graph. Mean age of healthy young adults participating in the study was 19.66 ± 0.94, and 55.1% of them were female. The agreement limits for non-contact infrared and chemical dot was between -1.30 and 0.32°C; for non-contact infrared and tympanic was between -1.26 and 0.13°C; and for chemical dot and tympanic -0.89 and 0.74°C. It was determined that, although the measurement values of the tympanic membrane and chemical dot thermometers conformed with each other, the conformity of the non-contact infrared thermometer was weak.

  7. Methylphenidate (MPH) promotes visual cortical activation in healthy adults in a cued visuomotor task.

    PubMed

    Hodzhev, Yordan; Yordanova, Juliana; Diruf, Martin; Kratz, Oliver; Moll, Gunter H; Kolev, Vasil; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2012-11-01

    Seeking for the mechanisms by which methylphenidate (MPH) improves behavior has demonstrated that MPH modulates excitability in the primary motor cortex. However, little is known about the influence of MPH on top-down controlled mechanisms in the sensory domain. The present study explored the effects of MPH on the activation of visual cortices in healthy adults who performed a cued visuo-motor task in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. Two distinct measures, posterior alpha power and occipital slow cortical potentials (SCPs), were used to reflect raise in excitability and attention-based activation of visual cortical areas. According to the results, performance parameters (reaction time, response variance and error rate) were not affected by MPH. At the neurophysiologic level reflected by reduced alpha power, MPH increased the overall excitability of the occipital cortex, but not the parietal cortex. Before the cued response, MPH reduced alpha power and increased SCPs only before right hand responses, mostly at the right occipital location. It can be concluded that in visuo-motor tasks, MPH has the potency of adjusting the background excitation/inhibition balance of visual areas. Additionally, MPH may raise the attention controlled activation of visual cortical regions, especially during increased response control.

  8. The effects of increased fluid viscosity on stationary characteristics of EEG signal in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Jestrović, I; Coyle, J L; Sejdić, E

    2014-11-17

    Electroencephalography (EEG) systems can enable us to study cerebral activation patterns during performance of swallowing tasks and possibly infer about the nature of abnormal neurological conditions causing swallowing difficulties. While it is well known that EEG signals are non-stationary, there are still open questions regarding the stationarity of EEG during swallowing activities and how the EEG stationarity is affected by different viscosities of the fluids that are swallowed by subjects during these swallowing activities. In the present study, we investigated the EEG signal collected during swallowing tasks by collecting data from 55 healthy adults (ages 18-65). Each task involved the deliberate swallowing of boluses of fluids of different viscosities. Using time-frequency tests with surrogates, we showed that the EEG during swallowing tasks could be considered non-stationary. Furthermore, the statistical tests and linear regression showed that the parameters of fluid viscosity, sex, and different brain regions significantly influenced the index of non-stationarity values. Therefore, these parameters should be considered in future investigations which use EEG during swallowing activities.

  9. Differential sweetness of commercial sour liquids elicited by miracle fruit in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Go; Higuchi, Ryota; Yamazaki, Takako; Ito, Naoko; Ashida, Ichiro; Miyaoka, Yozo

    2013-06-01

    Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) contains the glycoprotein miraculin which turns a sour taste into a sweet one. Chemical analyses and sensory evaluation experiments were conducted to examine the sweetening effect of miracle fruit with regard to five different commercial sour liquids which were diluted until they were subjectively equally sour. HPLC-based analyses revealed that (1) the predominating acids in two and three of the liquids were citric acid and acetic acid, respectively and (2) all five liquids contained fructose and glucose. Healthy young adults (eight males and 10 females) in the sensory evaluation experiments were asked to chew a miracle fruit and apply their saliva to the oral mucosae. They were asked to score the sweetness elicited by the five liquids relative to a sucrose standard at 0, 15, 25 and 35 min thereafter. The citric acid-based liquids were perceived as being sweeter than the acetic acid-based liquids at all timepoints. Thus, commercial sour liquids that mainly contain citric acid are more effective than acetic acid-based liquids in eliciting a perception of sweetness after the miracle fruit application, while the sugars in the liquids seemed to play a minimal role as determinants of sweetness.

  10. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Dordevic, Aimee L; Pendergast, Felicity J; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K; Larsen, Amy E; Sinclair, Andrew J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  11. Fatal venous air embolism during anesthesia in an apparently healthy adult Chihuahua.

    PubMed

    Mouser, Pamela J; Wilson, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    An apparently healthy adult female Chihuahua was presented for elective ovariohysterectomy. After induction of general anesthesia, but prior to the start of the surgery, air was inadvertently administered to the patient via the i.v. fluid line. The patient convulsed, became apneic, arrested, and died despite attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation. At necropsy, the pericardial sac was incised and filled with water to entirely submerge the intact heart. The right ventricular free wall was punctured, releasing several air bubbles from the right ventricle. Death was attributed to venous air embolism based on the clinical history, gross findings, and paucity of underlying gross and microscopic pathology that might have predisposed the dog to an anesthetic-related death. The discussion of this case includes a review of previously reported veterinary cases of fatal venous air embolism, including the varied mechanisms of embolus formation, the potential impact of pre-existing cardiopulmonary disease, and the methods used to detect emboli. This report outlines the events of fatal iatrogenic venous air embolization and emphasizes the importance of considering this entity in the case of sudden death of a patient with an indwelling catheter in order to pursue either appropriate diagnostic tests or necropsy techniques to aid in the diagnosis.

  12. Systemic evening primrose oil improves the biophysical skin parameters of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Muggli, R

    2005-08-01

    Biophysical skin parameters are indicators of age-related structural and functional changes in skin tissues. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy adults tested the effect of Efamol evening primrose oil [EPO, a gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) containing vegetable oil] on skin moisture, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), redness, firmness, elasticity, fatigue resistance and roughness. Efamol EPO was administered orally in soft gel capsules, 3 x 500 mg b.i.d. for 12 weeks. Measurements were taken at baseline and at weeks 4 and 12. The two treatment groups did not differ at baseline and at week 4. At week 12, however, all measured variables, with the exception of skin redness, were significantly different in the EPO group compared with placebo. Skin moisture, TEWL, elasticity, firmness, fatigue resistance and roughness had significantly improved by 12.9, 7.7, 4.7, 16.7, 14.2 and 21.7%, respectively. The two-sided levels of significance in favor of the EPO treatment ranged between 0.034 and 0.001. These findings lend further support to the notion that GLA is a conditionally essential fatty acid for the skin, i.e. it is unable to synthesize GLA, and therefore depends on preformed GLA for optimal structure and function.

  13. Music intervention on cognitive dysfunction in healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bing; Sui, Yi; Zhu, Chunyan; Yang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Jin; Li, Li; Ren, Li; Wang, Xu

    2017-03-08

    The background of this study is to determine whether there is an association between music intervention and cognitive dysfunction therapy in healthy older adults, and if so, whether music intervention can be used as first-line non-pharmacological treatment. The method used in this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials that examined the effects of music intervention on patient-relevant and disease-specific outcomes. A comprehensive literature was performed on PubMed, EMbase and the Cochrane Library from inception to September 2016. A total of 10 studies (14 analyses, 966 subjects) were included; all of them had an acceptable quality based on the PEDro scale score and CASP scale score. Compared with control group, the standardized mean difference was 0.03 (-0.18 to 0.24) for cognitive function as primary outcome by random effect model; secondary outcomes were included disruptive behavior, depressive score, anxiety and quality of life. No evidence of publication bias could be found in funnel plots, Begg's test and Egger's test. Subgroup analyses showed that intervention method, comparator, trial design, trial period and outcome measure instruments made little difference in outcomes. Meta-regression might not identify cause of heterogeneity. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD442016036264. There was positive evidence to support the use of music intervention on treatment of cognitive function.

  14. Interaction between serum BDNF and aerobic fitness predicts recognition memory in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; He, Xuemei; Chen, Tai C; Wagenaar, Robert C; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2014-02-01

    Convergent evidence from human and non-human animal studies suggests aerobic exercise and increased aerobic capacity may be beneficial for brain health and cognition. It is thought growth factors may mediate this putative relationship, particularly by augmenting plasticity mechanisms in the hippocampus, a brain region critical for learning and memory. Among these factors, glucocorticoids, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hormones that have considerable and diverse physiological importance, are thought to effect normal and exercise-induced hippocampal plasticity. Despite these predictions, relatively few published human studies have tested hypotheses that relate exercise and fitness to the hippocampus, and none have considered the potential links to all of these hormonal components. Here we present cross-sectional data from a study of recognition memory; serum BDNF, cortisol, IGF-1, and VEGF levels; and aerobic capacity in healthy young adults. We measured circulating levels of these hormones together with performance on a recognition memory task, and a standard graded treadmill test of aerobic fitness. Regression analyses demonstrated BDNF and aerobic fitness predict recognition memory in an interactive manner. In addition, IGF-1 was positively associated with aerobic fitness, but not with recognition memory. Our results may suggest an exercise adaptation-related change in the BDNF dose-response curve that relates to hippocampal memory.

  15. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates the association between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among psychiatrically healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Gillihan, Seth J; Rao, Hengyi; Brennan, Lauretta; Wang, Danny J J; Detre, John A; Sankoorikal, Geena Mary V; Brodkin, Edward S; Farah, Martha J

    2011-09-30

    Recent attempts to understand the biological bases of depression vulnerability have revealed that both the short allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and activity in the amygdala are associated with depression. Other studies have reported amygdala hyperactivity associated with the 5-HTTLPR short allele, linking the genetic and neuroimaging lines of research and suggesting a mechanism whereby the short allele confers depression risk. However, fewer investigations have examined the associations among depression, 5-HTTLPR variability, and amygdala activation in a single study. The current study thus investigated whether 5-HTTLPR genotype modulates the association between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among psychiatrically healthy adults. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with perfusion fMRI during a task-free scan. We hypothesized differential associations between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among individuals homozygous for the short allele and individuals homozygous for the long allele. Both whole brain analyses and region-of-interest analyses confirmed this prediction, revealing a significant negative association among the long allele group and a trend of positive association among the short allele group. These results complement existing reports of short allele related amygdala hyperactivity and suggest an additional neurobiological mechanism whereby the 5-HTTLPR is associated with psychiatric outcomes.

  16. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates the association between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among psychiatrically healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Gillihan, Seth J.; Rao, Hengyi; Brennan, Lauretta; Wang, Danny JJ; Detre, John A.; Sankoorikal, Geena Mary V.; Brodkin, Edward S.; Farah, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent attempts to understand the biological bases of depression vulnerability have revealed that both the short allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and activity in the amygdala are associated with depression. Other studies have reported amygdala hyperactivity associated with the 5-HTTLPR short allele, linking the genetic and neuroimaging lines of research and suggesting a mechanism whereby the short allele confers depression risk. However, fewer investigations have examined the associations between depression, 5-HTTLPR variability, and amygdala activation in a single study. The current study thus investigated whether 5-HTTLPR genotype modulates the association between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among psychiatrically healthy adults. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with perfusion fMRI during a task-free scan. We hypothesized differential associations between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among individuals homozygous for the short allele and individuals homozygous for the long allele. Both whole brain analyses and region-of-interest analyses confirmed this prediction, revealing a significant negative association among the long allele group and a trend of positive association among the short allele group. These results complement existing reports of short allele related amygdala hyperactivity and suggest an additional neurobiological mechanism whereby the 5-HTTLPR is associated with psychiatric outcomes. PMID:21764567

  17. Electrically induced muscle cramps induce hypertrophy of calf muscles in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Behringer, M.; Moser, M.; Montag, J.; McCourt, M.; Tenner, D.; Mester, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Skeletal muscles usually cramp at short lengths, where the tension that can be exerted by muscle fibers is low. Since high tension is an important anabolic stimulus, it is questionable if cramps can induce hypertrophy and strength gains. In the present study we investigated if electrically induced cramps (EIMCs) can elicit these adaptations. Methods: 15 healthy male adults were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG; n=10) and a control group (CG; n=5). The cramp protocol (CP) applied twice a week to one leg of the IG, consisted of 3x6 EIMCs, of 5 s each. Calf muscles of the opposite leg were stimulated equally, but were hindered from cramping by fixating the ankle at 0° plantar flexion (nCP). Results: After six weeks, the cross sectional area of the triceps surae was similarly increased in both the CP (+9.0±3.4%) and the nCP (+6.8±3.7%). By contrast, force of maximal voluntary contractions, measured at 0° and 30° plantar flexion, increased significantly only in nCP (0°: +8.5±8.8%; 30°: 11.7±13.7%). Conclusion: The present data indicate that muscle cramps can induce hypertrophy in calf muscles, though lacking high tension as an important anabolic stimulus. PMID:26032216

  18. Neuroimaging the short- and long-term effects of repeated picture naming in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Anna D; Heath, Shiree; McMahon, Katie L; Nickels, Lyndsey; Angwin, Anthony J; van Hees, Sophia; Johnson, Kori; Copland, David A

    2015-08-01

    Repeated attempts to name pictures can improve subsequent naming for aphasic individuals with anomia, however, the neurocognitive mechanisms responsible for such improvements are unknown. This study investigated repeated picture naming in healthy older adults over a period of minutes (short-term) after one repetition and a period of days (long-term) after multiple repetitions. Compared to unprimed pictures, both repeated conditions showed faster naming latencies with the fastest latencies evident for the short-term condition. Neuroimaging results identified repetition suppression effects across three left inferior frontal gyrus regions of interest: for both the short- and long-term conditions in the pars orbitalis, and for long-term items in the pars triangularis and pars opercularis regions. The whole brain analysis also showed a repetition suppression effect in bilateral pars triangularis regions for the long-term condition. These findings within the inferior frontal gyrus suggest that effects of repeated naming may be driven by a mapping mechanism across multiple levels of representation, possibly reflecting different levels of learning, and lend support to the idea that processing may be hierarchically organised in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The whole brain analysis also revealed repetition suppression for the long-term condition within the posterior portion of bilateral inferior temporal gyri, which may reflect attenuation of integration processes within this region following the learning of task-relevant information.

  19. Effect of food and antacids on the pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone in older healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Rubino, C M; Bhavnani, S M; Ambrose, P G; Forrest, A; Loutit, J S

    2009-08-01

    Pirfenidone is a small, synthetic molecule under investigation for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In an open-label, single-dose crossover study, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of pirfenidone were investigated with or without food and antacids in healthy adult volunteers. Concentrations of pirfenidone and its metabolites in plasma and urine were determined by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and candidate pharmacokinetic models were fit to plasma data using weighted, non-linear regression. The effect of food and antacids on pirfenidone exposure was evaluated by determining 'equivalence' using FDA guidelines. Adverse events were recorded by site personnel and classified by investigators on the basis of severity and relationship to study drug. Sixteen subjects yielded 64 pharmacokinetic profiles. The best fit was achieved using a five-compartment, linear model with an allowance for direct conversion to the primary metabolite (5-carboxy-pirfenidone). Coadministration with food decreased the rate and, to a lesser degree, the extent of pirfenidone absorption of absorption. Analysis of adverse events revealed a correlation between pirfenidone C(max) and the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events, suggesting that food may reduce the risk of certain adverse events associated with pirfenidone. Administration of pirfenidone with food has a modest effect on overall exposure but results in lower peak concentrations, which may improve tolerability.

  20. PREDICTING FOOT PROGRESSION ANGLE DURING GAIT USING TWO CLINICAL MEASURES IN HEALTHY ADULTS, A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Kyle; Kampwerth, Teri; McAfee, Blake; Payne, Lisa; Roeckenhaus, Tara; Ross, Sandy A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The foot progression angle (FPA) is related to the transverse plane rotation of the lower extremities and associated with many lower extremity conditions. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine how two commonly used clinical measures, tibio-fibular torsion (TF) and hip rotation, can be used to predict FPA during gait in healthy adults. Study Design Cross-sectional study design Methods Passive hip internal and external rotation ranges of motion and TF torsion were measured with a 12-inch goniometer while the FPA (degree of toe-in/out) was measured with the GAITRite during midstance in sixty participants. The data was analyzed using a multiple regression model. Results Hip ER was not significant and was therefore excluded from the final model. The final model included passive hip IR and TF torsion (F = 19.64; p < .001; multiple R2 = .41; adjusted R2 = .39). Simple binary correlations showed that hip IR had a moderate negative correlation (r = -.40) with FPA (the greater the hip IR, the greater the in-toeing) while TF torsion had a positive correlation (r = .39) with FPA (the greater the external TF torsion. the greater the out-toeing). Conclusions Greater amount of passive hip IR predicts in-toeing while greater TF torsion predicts out-toeing of the foot during midstance phase of gait. Level of Evidence Level 2 PMID:27274426

  1. Unseen positive and negative affective information influences social perception in bipolar I disorder and healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Erika H.; Purcell, Amanda L.; Earls, Holly A.; Cooper, Gaia; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is fundamentally a disorder of emotion regulation, and associated with explicit processing biases for socially relevant emotional information in human faces. Less is known, however, about whether implicit processing of this type of emotional information directly influences social perception. We thus investigated group-related differences in the influence of unconscious emotional processing on conscious person perception judgments using a continuous flash suppression task among 22 individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (BD; AgeM=30.82, AgeSD=7.04; 68.2% female) compared with 22 healthy adults (CTL; AgeM=20.86, AgeSD=9.91; 72.2% female). Across both groups, participants rated neutral faces as more trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen happy faces as compared to unseen angry and neutral faces; participants rated neutral faces as less trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen angry as compared to neutral faces. These findings suggest that emotion-related disturbances are not explained by early automatic processing stages, and that activity in the dorsal visual stream underlying implicit emotion processing is intact in bipolar disorder. Implications for understanding the etiology of emotion disturbance in BD are discussed. PMID:26745436

  2. Effect of Regular Gum Chewing on Levels of Anxiety, Mood, and Fatigue in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki-Otomaru, Akiyo; Sakuma, Yumiko; Mochizuki, Yoshiko; Ishida, Sadayo; Kanoya, Yuka; Sato, Chifumi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The effect of regular gum chewing on psychological status is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gum chewing for fourteen days on psychological status and physical and mental fatigue in healthy young adults. Methods: We assigned 50 volunteers randomly to an intervention group (n = 26) and a control group (n = 24). Participants in the intervention group were requested to chew the gum twice per a day for fourteen days. The volunteers were required to complete a questionnaire related to lifestyle for baseline assessment. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Profile of Mood State (POMS), the World Health Organization Quality of Life 26, and assessment of physical and mental fatigue by visual analog scale were used at baseline, 2 weeks (after intervention), and 4 weeks (follow-up). Results: At 2 weeks, the score of state anxiety was significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group. The intervention participants’ scores of depression-dejection, fatigue and confusion in POMS were better than the control group scores. Mental fatigue were also relieved after the intervention. At 4 weeks, there were no significant differences between both groups. Conclusion: Fourteen days’ gum chewing may improve the levels of anxiety, mood and fatigue. PMID:21866229

  3. Oral T4-like phage cocktail application to healthy adult volunteers from Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Sarker, Shafiqul Alam; McCallin, Shawna; Barretto, Caroline; Berger, Bernard; Pittet, Anne-Cecile; Sultana, Shamima; Krause, Lutz; Huq, Sayeda; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Bruttin, Anne; Reuteler, Gloria; Bruessow, Harald

    2012-12-20

    The genomic diversity of 99 T4-like coliphages was investigated by sequencing an equimolar mixture with Illumina technology and screening them against different databases for horizontal gene transfer and undesired genes. A 9-phage cocktail was given to 15 healthy adults from Bangladesh at a dose of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} plaque-forming units and placebo respectively. Phages were detected in 64% of the stool samples when subjects were treated with higher titer phage, compared to 30% and 28% with lower-titer phage and placebo, respectively. No Escherichia coli was present in initial stool samples, and no amplification of phage was observed. One percent of the administered oral phage was recovered from the feces. No adverse events were observed by self-report, clinical examination, or from laboratory tests for liver, kidney, and hematology function. No impact of oral phage was seen on the fecal microbiota composition with respect to bacterial 16S rRNA from stool.

  4. Dual N-Back Working Memory Training in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Comparison to Processing Speed Training

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor-Savage, Linette; Goghari, Vina M.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing cognitive ability is an attractive concept, particularly for middle-aged adults interested in maintaining cognitive functioning and preventing age-related declines. Computerized working memory training has been investigated as a safe method of cognitive enhancement in younger and older adults, although few studies have considered the potential impact of working memory training on middle-aged adults. This study investigated dual n-back working memory training in healthy adults aged 30–60. Fifty-seven adults completed measures of working memory, processing speed, and fluid intelligence before and after a 5-week web-based dual n-back or active control (processing speed) training program. Results: Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance failed to identify improvements across the three cognitive composites, working memory, processing speed, and fluid intelligence, after training. Follow-up Bayesian analyses supported null findings for training effects for each individual composite. Findings suggest that dual n-back working memory training may not benefit working memory or fluid intelligence in healthy adults. Further investigation is necessary to clarify if other forms of working memory training may be beneficial, and what factors impact training-related benefits, should they occur, in this population. PMID:27043141

  5. Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Robert L; Brooks, Judith T; Carbone, John W

    2015-06-01

    Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association. Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P < .001) mean total cholesterol, LDL, and TG and increased (P < .001) HDL, independent of changes in body weight, relative to both baseline and the traditional heart-healthy diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

  6. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in healthy adults, foods, food animals, and the environment in selected areas in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Tangkoskul, Teerawit; Seenama, Chrakrapong; Saiyarin, Jatuporn; Tiengrim, Surapee; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, in samples from healthy adults, foods, food animals, and the environment in selected areas of Thailand. Methods: Samples were collected from stool specimens from adult food factory and food animal farm workers, fresh and cooked foods sold at markets, rectal swabs of healthy pigs and chickens, fresh pork meat from slaughterhouses, water samples from canals as well as fish and shrimp farm ponds, and stagnant water sources on pig farms. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disk diffusion or agar dilution methods. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was assayed using a double disk diffusion method. Results: Among 544 healthy adult food factory workers, 75.5% were positive for ESBL producing E. coli, while 77.3% of E. coli isolated from 30 healthy animal farm workers were positive. Amongst healthy food animals, ESBL producing status among E. coli isolates were more commonly detected in pigs (76.7%) than broilers (40%). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli seemed to be more prevalent in fresh meat samples than in fresh vegetables, in fresh foods than in cooked foods, and in water samples collected from the animal farms than those from canals and fish and shrimp ponds. Conclusions: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli isolates are prevalent amongst healthy individuals, foods along the food production chain from farms to consumers, and in the environment in selected areas in Thailand. PMID:25146935

  7. Associations of pineal volume, chronotype and symptom severity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Bumb, Jan Malte; Mier, Daniela; Noelte, Ingo; Schredl, Michael; Kirsch, Peter; Hennig, Oliver; Liebrich, Luisa; Fenske, Sabrina; Alm, Barbara; Sauer, Carina; Leweke, Franz Markus; Sobanski, Esther

    2016-07-01

    The pineal gland, as part of the human epithalamus, is the main production site of peripheral melatonin, which promotes the modulation of sleep patterns, circadian rhythms and circadian preferences (morningness vs. eveningness). The present study analyses the pineal gland volume (PGV) and its association with circadian preferences and symptom severity in adult ADHD patients compared to healthy controls. PGV was determined manually using high-resolution 3T MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in medication free adult ADHD patients (N=74) compared to healthy controls (N=86). Moreover, the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), the ADHD Diagnostic Checklist and the Wender-Utah Rating Scale were conducted. PGV differed between both groups (patients: 59.9±33.8mm(3); healthy controls: 71.4±27.2mm(3), P=0.04). In ADHD patients, more eveningness types were revealed (patients: 29%; healthy controls: 17%; P=0.05) and sum scores of the MEQ were lower (patients: 45.8±11.5; healthy controls 67.2±10.1; P<0.001). Multiple regression analyses indicated a positive correlation of PGV and MEQ scores in ADHD (β=0.856, P=0.003) but not in healthy controls (β=0.054, P=0.688). Patients' MEQ scores (β=-0.473, P=0.003) were negatively correlated to ADHD symptoms. The present results suggest a linkage between the PGV and circadian preference in adults with ADHD and an association of the circadian preference to symptom severity. This may facilitate the development of new chronobiological treatment approaches for the add-on treatment in ADHD.

  8. Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain.

    PubMed

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Fortuna, Michal G; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-11-26

    The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery. To clarify these seemingly opposing outcomes of MMP-activation, we examined the effects of MMP-inhibition on experience-induced plasticity in healthy and stoke-affected adult mice. In healthy animals, 7-day application of MMP-inhibitor prevented visual plasticity. Additionally, treatment with MMP-inhibitor once but not twice following stroke rescued plasticity, normally lost under these conditions. Our data imply that an optimal level of MMP-activity is crucial for adult visual plasticity to occur.

  9. Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain

    PubMed Central

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Fortuna, Michal G; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery. To clarify these seemingly opposing outcomes of MMP-activation, we examined the effects of MMP-inhibition on experience-induced plasticity in healthy and stoke-affected adult mice. In healthy animals, 7-day application of MMP-inhibitor prevented visual plasticity. Additionally, treatment with MMP-inhibitor once but not twice following stroke rescued plasticity, normally lost under these conditions. Our data imply that an optimal level of MMP-activity is crucial for adult visual plasticity to occur. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11290.001 PMID:26609811

  10. Evaluation of the Antigen-Experienced B-Cell Receptor Repertoire in Healthy Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    IJspeert, Hanna; van Schouwenburg, Pauline A.; van Zessen, David; Pico-Knijnenburg, Ingrid; Driessen, Gertjan J.; Stubbs, Andrew P.; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Upon antigen recognition via their B cell receptor (BR), B cells migrate to the germinal center where they undergo somatic hypermutation (SHM) to increase their affinity for the antigen, and class switch recombination (CSR) to change the effector function of the secreted antibodies. These steps are essential to create an antigen-experienced BR repertoire that efficiently protects the body against pathogens. At the same time, the BR repertoire should be selected to protect against responses to self-antigen or harmless antigens. Insights into the processes of SHM, selection, and CSR can be obtained by studying the antigen-experienced BR repertoire. Currently, a large reference data set of healthy children and adults, which ranges from neonates to the elderly, is not available. In this study, we analyzed the antigen-experienced repertoire of 38 healthy donors (HD), ranging from cord blood to 74 years old, by sequencing IGA and IGG transcripts using next generation sequencing. This resulted in a large, freely available reference data set containing 412,890 IGA and IGG transcripts. We used this data set to study mutation levels, SHM patterns, antigenic selection, and CSR from birth to elderly HD. Only small differences were observed in SHM patterns, while the mutation levels increase in early childhood and stabilize at 6 years of age at around 7%. Furthermore, comparison of the antigen-experienced repertoire with sequences from the naive immune repertoire showed that features associated with autoimmunity such as long CDR3 length and IGHV4-34 usage are reduced in the antigen-experienced repertoire. Moreover, IGA2 and IGG2 usage was increased in HD in higher age categories, while IGG1 usage was decreased. In addition, we studied clonal relationship in the different samples. Clonally related sequences were found with different subclasses. Interestingly, we found transcripts with the same CDR1–CDR3 sequence, but different subclasses. Together, these data suggest that

  11. Effect of nighttime aircraft noise exposure on endothelial function and stress hormone release in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Frank P.; Basner, Mathias; Kröger, Gunnar; Weck, Stefanie; Schnorbus, Boris; Muttray, Axel; Sariyar, Murat; Binder, Harald; Gori, Tommaso; Warnholtz, Ascan; Münzel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Aims Aircraft noise disturbs sleep, and long-term exposure has been shown to be associated with increases in the prevalence of hypertension and an overall increased risk for myocardial infarction. The exact mechanisms responsible for these cardiovascular effects remain unclear. Methods and results We performed a blinded field study in 75 healthy volunteers (mean age 26 years), who were exposed at home, in random order, to one control pattern (no noise) and two different noise scenarios [30 or 60 aircraft noise events per night with an average maximum sound pressure level (SPL) of 60 dB(A)] for one night each. We performed polygraphy during each study night. Noise caused a worsening in sleep quality (P < 0.0001). Noise60, corresponding to equivalent continuous SPLs of 46.3 dB (Leq) and representing environmental noise levels associated with increased cardiovascular events, caused a blunting in FMD (P = 0.016). As well, although a direct comparison among the FMD values in the noise groups (control: 10.4 ± 3.8%; Noise30: 9.7 ± 4.1%; Noise60: 9.5 ± 4.3%, P = 0.052) did not reach significance, a monotone dose-dependent effect of noise level on FMD was shown (P = 0.020). Finally, there was a priming effect of noise, i.e. the blunting in FMD was particularly evident when subjects were exposed first to 30 and then to 60 noise events (P = 0.006). Noise-induced endothelial dysfunction (ED) was reversed by the administration of Vitamin C (P = 0.0171). Morning adrenaline concentration increased from 28.3 ± 10.9 to 33.2 ± 16.6 and 34.1 ± 19.3 ng/L (P = 0.0099). Pulse transit time, reflecting arterial stiffness, was also shorter after exposure to noise (P = 0.003). Conclusion In healthy adults, acute nighttime aircraft noise exposure dose-dependently impairs endothelial function and stimulates adrenaline release. Noise-induced ED may be in part due to increased production in reactive oxygen species and may thus be one mechanism contributing to the observed association of

  12. Interactions between beta-2 adrenoceptor gene variation, cardiovascular control and dietary sodium in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Eisenach, John H; Schroeder, Darrell R; Pavey, Emily S; Penheiter, Alan R; Knutson, Jean N; Turner, Stephen T; Joyner, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Dietary sodium affects function of the beta-2 adrenoceptor (ADRB2). We tested the hypothesis that haplotype variation in the ADRB2 gene would influence the cardiovascular and regional vasodilator responses to sympathoexcitatory manoeuvres following low, normal and high sodium diets, and ADRB2-mediated forearm vasodilation in the high sodium condition. Seventy-one healthy young adults were grouped by double homozygous haplotypes: Arg16+Gln27 (n = 31), the rare Gly16+Gln27 (n = 10) and Gly16+Glu27 (n = 30). Using a randomized cross-over design, subjects were studied following 5 days of controlled low, normal and high sodium with 1 month or longer between diets (and low hormone phase of the menstrual cycle). All three visits utilized ECG and finger plethysmography for haemodynamic measures, and the high sodium visit included a brachial arterial catheter for forearm vasodilator responses to isoprenaline with plethysmography. Lymphocytes were sampled for ex vivo analysis of ADRB2 density and binding conformation. We found a main effect of haplotype on ADRB2 density (P = 0.03) with the Gly16+Glu27 haplotype having the greatest density (low, normal, high sodium: 12.9 ± 0.9, 13.5 ± 0.9 and 13.6 ± 0.8 fmol mg(-1) protein, respectively) and Arg16+Gln27 having the least (9.3 ± 0.6, 10.1 ± 0.5 and 10.3 ± 0.6  fmol mg(-1) protein, respectively), but there were no sodium or haplotype effects on receptor binding conformation. In the mental stress trial, there was a main effect of haplotype on cardiac output (P = 0.04), as Arg16+Gln27 had the lowest responses. Handgrip and forearm vasodilation yielded no haplotype differences, and no correlations were present for ADRB2 density and haemodynamics. Our findings support cell-based evidence that ADRB2 haplotype influences ADRB2 protein expression independent of dietary sodium, yet the haemodynamic consequences appear modest in healthy humans.

  13. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lutfi, Mohamed Faisal; Elhakeem, Ramaze Farouke

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown. Aims To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV) derived indices. Subjects and Methods The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln) of total power (LnTP), very low frequency (LnVLF), low frequency (LnLF) and high frequency (LnHF), low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF), normalized low frequency (LF Norm) and high frequency (HF Norm). Results FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031) and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025) and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025) and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035). LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34) ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94) n.u) compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63) ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73) n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively). LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94) n.u and 0.73 (0.53)) compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83) n.u and 0.03 (0.79), P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively). Conclusion The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which

  14. Smartphone-Based Self-Assessment of Stress in Healthy Adult Individuals: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Þórarinsdóttir, Helga; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Background Stress is a common experience in today’s society. Smartphone ownership is widespread, and smartphones can be used to monitor health and well-being. Smartphone-based self-assessment of stress can be done in naturalistic settings and may potentially reflect real-time stress level. Objective The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate (1) the use of smartphones to measure self-assessed stress in healthy adult individuals, (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales, and (3) the association between smartphone-based self-assessed stress and smartphone generated objective data. Methods A systematic review of the scientific literature was reported and conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The scientific databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, IEEE, and ACM were searched and supplemented by a hand search of reference lists. The databases were searched for original studies involving healthy individuals older than 18 years, measuring self-assessed stress using smartphones. Results A total of 35 published articles comprising 1464 individuals were included for review. According to the objectives, (1) study designs were heterogeneous, and smartphone-based self-assessed stress was measured using various methods (e.g., dichotomized questions on stress, yes or no; Likert scales on stress; and questionnaires); (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales was investigated in 3 studies, and of these, only 1 study found a moderate statistically significant positive correlation (r=.4; P<.05); and (3) in exploratory analyses, smartphone-based self-assessed stress was found to correlate with some of the reported smartphone generated objective data, including voice features and data on activity and phone usage. Conclusions Smartphones are being used to measure self-assessed stress in

  15. Effect of oral versus intramuscular Vitamin D replacement in apparently healthy adults with Vitamin D deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nitin; Farooqui, Khalid J.; Batra, Chandar M.; Marwaha, Raman K.; Mithal, Ambrish

    2017-01-01

    Context: A number of controversies exist regarding appropriate treatment strategy for Vitamin D deficiency. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of equivalent doses of oral cholecalciferol (60,000 IU weekly for 5 weeks) versus intramuscular (IM) cholecalciferol (300,000 IU) in correcting Vitamin D deficiency in apparently healthy volunteers working in a hospital. Settings and Design: Prospective randomized open-label single institution study. Subjects and Methods: This study enrolled 40 apparently healthy adults with Vitamin D deficiency into 2 arms. The oral cholecalciferol group (n = 20) received oral cholecalciferol 60,000 IU weekly for 5 weeks while the IM cholecalciferol group (n = 20) received a single injection of cholecalciferol 300,000 IU. The main outcome measure was serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks after the intervention. Statistical Analysis Used: Differences in serum 25OHD and other biochemical parameters at baseline and follow-up were analyzed using general linear model. Results: Mean 25OHD level at baseline was 5.99 ± 1.07 ng/mL and 7.40 ± 1.13 ng/mL (P = 0.332) in the oral cholecalciferol and IM cholecalciferol group, respectively. In the oral cholecalciferol group, serum 25OHD level was 20.20 ± 1.65 ng/mL at 6 weeks and 16.66 ± 1.36 ng/mL at 12 weeks. The corresponding serum 25OHD levels in the IM cholecalciferol group were 20.74 ± 1.81 ng/mL and 25.46 ± 1.37 ng/mL at 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. At 12 weeks, the mean 25OHD levels in IM cholecalciferol group was higher as compared to the oral cholecalciferol group (25.46 ± 1.37 vs. 16.66 ± 1.36 ng/mL; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Both oral and IM routes are effective for the treatment of Vitamin D deficiency. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in the IM cholecalciferol group showed a sustained increase from baseline. PMID:28217512

  16. The Superior Sleep of Healthy Elderly Nuns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Carolyn C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared nocturnal sleep structure of 10 healthy elderly nuns to that of 10 healthy age-matched female controls. The nuns fell asleep more quickly and had less early morning awakening, as well as greater rapid eye movement sleep time. These differences may reflect the more highly entrained life style of the nuns, including modest habitual sleep…

  17. The Effect of Atorvastatin on Habitual Physical Activity among Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Panza, Gregory A.; Taylor, Beth A.; Thompson, Paul D.; Erhard, Liv; Capizzi, Jeffrey A.; Grimaldi, Adam S.; Cole, Stephanie M.; Chipkin, Stuart; Keadle, Justin; White, C. Michael; Pescatello, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Statin therapy can result in muscle pain, cramps, and weakness that may limit physical activity although reports are mixed. We conducted a randomized control trial to examine the effect of atorvastatin on habitual physical activity levels among a large sample of healthy adults. Methods Participants (n=418) were statin-naïve adults [44.0±16.1yr (X±SD)] that were randomized and double-blinded to 80mg per day of atorvastatin or placebo for 6 months. Accelerometers were worn for 96hr before and after drug treatment. Repeated measures analysis tested physical activity levels after versus before drug treatment among groups with age and VO2max as covariates. Results Among the total sample, sedentary behavior increased (19.5±5.1min·d−1), while light (9.1±3.0min·d−1) and moderate intensity (9.7±2.8min·d−1) physical activity decreased, as did total activity counts (17.8±6.3·d−1×10−3) over 6 months (P<0.01), with no differences between groups. The atorvastatin group increased sedentary behavior (19.8±7.4min·d−1), and decreased light (10.7±4.3min·d−1) and moderate (8.5±4.0min·d−1) intensity physical activity (P<0.05); while the placebo group increased sedentary behavior (19.2±7.1min·d−1), and decreased moderate intensity (11.0±3.8min·d−1) and total physical activity counts (−23.8±8.8×10−3·d−1) (p<0.05). Conclusion Time being sedentary increased and physical activity levels decreased among the total sample over 6 months of drug treatment, independent of group assignment. Our results suggest that statins do not influence physical activity levels any differently than placebo, and the lack of inclusion of a placebo condition may provide insight into the inconsistencies in the literature. PMID:26197031

  18. Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Have Comparable Hip Bone Geometry to Age-Matched Control Women.

    PubMed

    McBreairty, Laura E; Zello, Gordon A; Gordon, Julianne J; Serrao, Shani B; Pierson, Roger A; Chizen, Donna R; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2016-12-26

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age manifesting with polycystic ovaries, menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, and insulin resistance. The oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea characteristic to PCOS are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD); conversely, the hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia may elicit a protective effect on BMD. As bone geometric properties provide additional information about bone strength, the objective of this study was to compare measures of hip geometry in women with PCOS to a healthy female population. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, BMD and measures of hip geometry were determined in women with PCOS (n = 60) and healthy controls (n = 60) aged 18-35 years. Clinical biochemical measures were also determined in women with PCOS. Measures of hip geometry, including cross-sectional area, cross-sectional moment of inertia, subperiosteal width (SPW), and section modulus, were similar between groups following correction for body mass index (BMI) (all p > 0.05) with intertrochanter SPW significantly lower in women with PCOS (p < 0.05). BMI-corrected whole body BMD as well as the lumbar spine and regions of proximal femur were also comparable between groups. In women with PCOS, BMI-corrected correlations were found between insulin and femoral shaft SPW (r = 0.322, p < 0.05), glucose and femoral neck (r = 0.301, p < 0.05), and trochanter BMD (0.348, p < 0.05), as well as between testosterone and femoral neck BMD (0.376, p < 0.05) and narrow neck cross-sectional area (0.306, p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that women with PCOS may have compromised intertrochanter SPW while oligomenorrhea appears to have no detrimental effect on bone density or geometry in women with PCOS.

  19. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  20. Responsiveness to healthy advertisements in adults: An experiment assessing beyond brand snack selection and the impact of restrained eating.

    PubMed

    Dovey, Terence M; Torab, Tina; Yen, Dorothy; Boyland, E J; Halford, Jason C G

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the impact of different advertising messages on adults' snack choice. Eighty participants (18-24 years old) were offered the choice between two snack packs following exposure to one of three advertising conditions. The snack packs contained either healthy or high fat, sugar or salt (HFSS) foods. Participants were exposed to commercials containing either non-food products, healthy food products or HFSS food products and their subsequent choice of snack pack was recorded. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to assess the impact of external, restrained and emotional eating behaviour on snack pack selection following exposure to advertisements. The majority of unrestrained participants preferentially choose the HFSS snack pack irrespective of advertisement condition. In contrast, high restrained individuals exposed to the healthy eating advertisement condition preferentially selected the healthy snack pack while those in other advertisement conditions refused to take either snack pack. The healthy eating message, when distributed through mass media, resonated with restrained eaters only. Exposure to healthy food adverts provoked restrained eaters into choosing a snack pack; while exposure to other messages results in restrained eaters refusing to take any foods.

  1. Dual-Task Does Not Increase Slip and Fall Risk in Healthy Young and Older Adults during Walking

    PubMed Central

    Soangra, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    Dual-task tests can identify gait characteristics peculiar to fallers and nonfallers. Understanding the relationship between gait performance and dual-task related cognitive-motor interference is important for fall prevention. Dual-task adapted changes in gait instability/variability can adversely affect fall risks. Although implicated, it is unclear if healthy participants' fall risks are modified by dual-task walking conditions. Seven healthy young and seven healthy older adults were randomly assigned to normal walking and dual-task walking sessions with a slip perturbation. In the dual-task session, the participants walked and simultaneously counted backwards from a randomly provided number. The results indicate that the gait changes in dual-task walking have no destabilizing effect on gait and slip responses in healthy individuals. We also found that, during dual-tasking, healthy individuals adopted cautious gait mode (CGM) strategy that is characterized by reduced walking speed, shorter step length, increased step width, and reduced heel contact velocity and is likely to be an adaptation to minimize attentional demand and decrease slip and fall risk during limited available attentional resources. Exploring interactions between gait variability and cognitive functions while walking may lead to designing appropriate fall interventions among healthy and patient population with fall risk. PMID:28255224

  2. Effects of ambient ozone on respiratory function in healthy adults exercising outdoors

    SciTech Connect

    Spektor, D.M.; Lippmann, M.; Thurston, G.D.; Lioy, P.J.; Stecko, J.; O'Connor, G.; Garshick, E.; Speizer, F.E.; Hayes, C.

    1988-10-01

    The effect of exposure to ozone (O3) in ambient air on respiratory function was studied in 30 healthy adult nonsmokers engaged in a regular daily program of outdoor exercise in Tuxedo, NY during the summer of 1985. Each subject did the same exercise each day, but exercise intensity and duration varied widely between subjects, with minute ventilation ranging from 20 to 153 L and duration ranging from 15 to 55 min. Spirometry was performed immediately before and after each exercise period. O3 concentrations during exercise ranged from 21 to 124 parts per billion (ppb). All measured functional indexes showed significant (p less than 0.01) O3-associated mean decrements with FVC at -2.1 ml/ppb, FEV1 at -1.4 ml/ppb, PEFR at -9.2 ml/s/ppb, FEF25-75 at -6.0 ml/s/ppb, and FEV1/FVC at -0.038%/ppb. Mean decrements were smaller for 10 subjects with minute ventilations greater than 100 L than for 10 other subjects with minute ventilations between 60 and 100 L or for the 10 subjects with minute ventilations below 60 L. Overall, the functional decrements were similar in magnitude to those we have seen in children engaged in supervised recreational programs in summer camps. For 10 subjects with minute ventilations comparable to those used in controlled 1- and 2-h exposures to O3 in purified air in chambers (50 to 80 L), the effects were about twice as large as those reported for the chamber studies.

  3. Effects of ambient ozone on respiratory function in healthy adults exercising outdoors

    SciTech Connect

    Spektor, D.M.; Lippmann, M.; Thurston, G.D.; Lioy, P.J.; Stecko, J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of exposure to ozone (O{sub 3}) in ambient air on respiratory function was studied in 30 healthy adult nonsmokers engaged in a regular daily program of outdoor exercise in Tuxedo, NY during the summer of 1985. Each subject did the same exercise each day, but exercise intensity and duration varied widely between subjects, with minute ventilation ranging from 20 to 153 L and duration ranging from 15 to 55 min. Spirometry was performed immediately before and after each exercise period. O3 concentrations during exercise ranged from 21 to 124 parts per billion (ppb). All measured functional indexes showed significant (p<0.01) O{sub 3}-associated mean decrements with FVC at -2.1 ml/ppb, FEV1 at -1.4 ml/ppb, PEFR at -9.2 ml/s/ppb, FEF25-75 at -6.0 ml/s/ppb, and FEV1/FVC at -0.038%/ppb. Mean decrements were smaller for 10 subjects with minute ventilations >100 L than for 10 other subjects with minute ventilations between 60 and 100 L or for the 10 subjects with minute ventilations below 60 L. Overall, the functional decrements were similar in magnitude to those seen in children engaged in supervised recreational programs in summer camps. For 10 subjects with minute ventilations comparable to those used in controlled 1- and 2-h exposures to O3 in purified air in chambers (50 to 80 L), the effects were about twice as large as those reported for the chamber studies.

  4. Vital capacity in trained and untrained healthy young adults in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Biersteker, M W; Biersteker, P A

    1985-01-01

    Slow inspiratory vital capacity was measured in 226 healthy young adults, aged from 17 to 35 years. The group included 119 men and 107 women, 87 trained subjects, 71 untrained subjects who intended to take part in a training program for competitive rowing, and 68 untrained subjects who never took part in any competitive sport. The vital capacity increased with height, weight, fat-free mass, height X fat-free mass, and height-independent fat-free mass, with men having significantly higher vital capacities than women of the same height or weight. In both males and females vital capacity showed the best relation with height X fat-free mass (correlation coefficients are 0.78 and 0.57 respectively). Multiple regression on vital capacity with height, weight, fat-free mass, height X fat-free mass, height-independent fat-free mass, percentage body fat, and age increased the correlation coefficient only slightly (0.80 and 0.59 respectively). The subjects had vital capacities that were much higher than those predicted for them by equations originating from the USA. There was no difference between the observed vital capacities and those predicted by equations originating from Europe. There is a difference in vital capacity between the European subjects studied and subjects of similar height studied in the USA. This implies that equations derived from subjects in the USA cannot be applied to European subjects. From our results we conclude that vital capacity is not increased by physical activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Evaluation of direct-to-consumer low-volume lab tests in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Brian A.; Hoffman, Gabriel; Zimmerman, Noah; Li, Li; Morgan, Joseph W.; Glowe, Patricia K.; Botwin, Gregory J.; Parekh, Samir; Babic, Nikolina; Doust, Matthew W.; Stock, Gregory B.; Schadt, Eric E.; Dudley, Joel T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Clinical laboratory tests are now being prescribed and made directly available to consumers through retail outlets in the USA. Concerns with these test have been raised regarding the uncertainty of testing methods used in these venues and a lack of open, scientific validation of the technical accuracy and clinical equivalency of results obtained through these services. METHODS. We conducted a cohort study of 60 healthy adults to compare the uncertainty and accuracy in 22 common clinical lab tests between one company offering blood tests obtained from finger prick (Theranos) and 2 major clinical testing services that require standard venipuncture draws (Quest and LabCorp). Samples were collected in Phoenix, Arizona, at an ambulatory clinic and at retail outlets with point-of-care services. RESULTS. Theranos flagged tests outside their normal range 1.6× more often than other testing services (P < 0.0001). Of the 22 lab measurements evaluated, 15 (68%) showed significant interservice variability (P < 0.002). We found nonequivalent lipid panel test results between Theranos and other clinical services. Variability in testing services, sample collection times, and subjects markedly influenced lab results. CONCLUSION. While laboratory practice standards exist to control this variability, the disparities between testing services we observed could potentially alter clinical interpretation and health care utilization. Greater transparency and evaluation of testing technologies would increase their utility in personalized health management. FUNDING. This work was supported by the Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, a gift from the Harris Family Charitable Foundation (to J.T. Dudley), and grants from the NIH (R01 DK098242 and U54 CA189201, to J.T. Dudley, and R01 AG046170 and U01 AI111598, to E.E. Schadt). PMID:27018593

  6. Pharmacokinetics of EDP-420 after Ascending Single Oral Doses in Healthy Adult Volunteers▿

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li-Juan; Wang, Michelle; Or, Yat Sun

    2009-01-01

    EDP-420 (EP-013420, S-013420) is a first-in-class bicyclolide (bridged bicyclic macrolide) currently in clinical development for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. It has good preclinical pharmacokinetic properties across multiple species and potent in vitro and in vivo activity against respiratory tract infection pathogens, including Haemophilus influenzae, atypical organisms (e.g., Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila), and multidrug-resistant streptococci. The safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of an orally administered EDP-420 suspension in 40 healthy adult subjects were assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending single-dose study. Eligible subjects were sequentially randomized into one of five study groups (i.e., 100-, 200-, 400-, 800-, or 1,200-mg dosing groups) consisting of eight subjects (six active and two placebo) each. EDP-420 was well tolerated. There were no serious adverse events reported, nor were there any dose-limiting clinical or laboratory adverse events reported. EDP-420 was rapidly absorbed after a single oral dose. The mean plasma terminal half-life ranged from 15.6 to 20.1 h with low clearance. At the 400-mg dose, the area under the curve was 14.4 μg·h/ml, which well exceeded the required area under the concentration-time curve to cover common respiratory tract infection pathogens based on preclinical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling. The long half-life and high systemic exposure of EDP-420 support once-daily dosing and may allow for shorter treatment durations compared to other macrolide antibiotics. Based on its human pharmacokinetic profiles, taken together with its in vitro/in vivo activity against common respiratory pathogens, EDP-420 warrants efficacy trials for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. PMID:19223626

  7. Age-associated Epstein–Barr virus-specific T cell responses in seropositive healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas Sierra, D; Vélez Colmenares, G; Orfao de Matos, A; Fiorentino Gómez, S; Quijano Gómez, S M

    2014-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is present in 95% of the world's adult population. The immune response participates in immune vigilance and persistent infection control, and this condition is maintained by both a good quality (functionality) and quantity of specific T cells throughout life. In the present study, we evaluated EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte responses in seropositive healthy individuals younger and older than 50 years of age. The assessment comprised the frequency, phenotype, functionality and clonotypic distribution of T lymphocytes. We found that in both age groups a similar EBV-specific T cell response was found, with overlapping numbers of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α+ T lymphocytes (CD4+ and CD8+) within the memory and effector cell compartments, in addition to monofunctional and multi-functional T cells producing interleukin (IL)-2 and/or interferon (IFN)-γ. However, individuals aged more than 50 years showed significantly higher frequencies of IL-2-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes in association with greater production of soluble IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 than subjects younger than 50 years. A polyclonal T cell receptor (TCR)-variable beta region (Vβ) repertoire exists in both age groups under basal conditions and in response to EBV; the major TCR families found in TNF-α+/CD4+ T lymphocytes were Vβ1, Vβ2, Vβ17 and Vβ22 in both age groups, and the major TCR family in TNF-α+/CD8+ T cells was Vβ13·1 for individuals younger than 50 years and Vβ9 for individuals aged more than 50 years. Our findings suggest that the EBV-specific T cell response (using a polyclonal stimulation model) is distributed throughout several T cell differentiation compartments in an age-independent manner and includes both monofunctional and multi-functional T lymphocytes. PMID:24666437

  8. Lower Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Associated with Reduced Diversity of the Colonic Microbiota in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gregory E.; Engen, Phillip A.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Shaikh, Maliha; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Mutlu, Ece; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, there are persistent and widening socioeconomic gaps in morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Although most disparities research focuses on person-level socioeconomic-status, mounting evidence suggest that chronic diseases also pattern by the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases share common pathogenic features, some of which involve alterations in the composition, diversity, and functioning of the gut microbiota. This study examined whether socioeconomic-status was associated with alpha-diversity of the colonic microbiota. Forty-four healthy adults underwent un-prepped sigmoidoscopy, during which mucosal biopsies and fecal samples were collected. Subjects’ zip codes were geocoded, and census data was used to form a composite indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic-status, reflecting household income, educational attainment, employment status, and home value. In unadjusted analyses, neighborhood socioeconomic-status explained 12–18 percent of the variability in alpha-diversity of colonic microbiota. The direction of these associations was positive, meaning that as neighborhood socioeconomic-status increased, so did alpha-diversity of both the colonic sigmoid mucosa and fecal microbiota. The strength of these associations persisted when models were expanded to include covariates reflecting potential demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity) and lifestyle (adiposity, alcohol use, smoking) confounds. In these models neighborhood socioeconomic-status continued to explain 11–22 percent of the variability in diversity indicators. Further analyses suggested these patterns reflected socioeconomic variations in evenness, but not richness, of microbial communities residing in the sigmoid. We also found indications that residence in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic-status was associated with

  9. Adverse Impact of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment on Autonomic Function in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Daniela; Carter, Jason R; Van Cauter, Eve; Leproult, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Insufficient sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances have been each associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in epidemiological studies, but experimental evidence for a causal link is scarce. The present study compares the impact of circadian misalignment (CM) to circadian alignment (CA) on human autonomic function using a nonrandomized parallel group design to achieve the same total sleep time in both conditions. After baseline assessments (3 days with 10-hour bedtimes), 26 healthy young adults were assigned to sleep restriction (SR; eight 5-hour bedtimes) with either fixed nocturnal bedtimes (CA; n=13) or bedtimes delayed by 8.5 hours on 4 of the 8 days (CM; n=13). Daytime ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate (HR; CA, n=11; CM, n=10) and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine levels (CA, n=13; CM, n=13) were assessed at baseline and the end of SR. Nocturnal HR and HR variability were analyzed during sleep at baseline and during the fourth and seventh nights of SR (CA, n=8; CM, n=12). SR resulted in a significant increase in daytime HR in both groups, without changes in blood pressure. SR increased 24-hour urinary norepinephrine in the CM group (30±4 versus 21±2 μg), but not in the circadian alignment group (group×condition, P=0.005). In contrast to the lack of detectable impact of CM on daytime autonomic function, SR with CM elicited greater increases in nocturnal HR, as well as greater reductions in vagal indices of HR variability, than SR without CM (group×condition, P<0.05). In conclusion, SR and CM both result in impaired autonomic function that could lead, under chronic conditions, to enhanced cardiovascular risk.

  10. The common and distinct neural bases of affect labeling and reappraisal in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Burklund, Lisa J.; Creswell, J. David; Irwin, Michael R.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation is commonly characterized as involving conscious and intentional attempts to change felt emotions, such as, for example, through reappraisal whereby one intentionally decreases the intensity of one's emotional response to a particular stimulus or situation by reinterpreting it in a less threatening way. However, there is growing evidence and appreciation that some types of emotion regulation are unintentional or incidental, meaning that affective modulation is a consequence but not an explicit goal. For example, affect labeling involves simply verbally labeling the emotional content of an external stimulus or one's own affective responses without an intentional goal of altering emotional responses, yet has been associated with reduced affective responses at the neural and experiential levels. Although both intentional and incidental emotional regulation strategies have been associated with diminished limbic responses and self-reported distress, little previous research has directly compared their underlying neural mechanisms. In this study, we examined the extent to which incidental and intentional emotion regulation, namely, affect labeling and reappraisal, produced common and divergent neural and self-report responses to aversive images relative to an observe-only control condition in a sample of healthy older adults (N = 39). Affect labeling and reappraisal produced common activations in several prefrontal regulatory regions, with affect labeling producing stronger responses in direct comparisons. Affect labeling and reappraisal were also associated with similar decreases in amygdala activity. Finally, affect labeling and reappraisal were associated with correlated reductions in self-reported distress. Together these results point to common neurocognitive mechanisms involved in affect labeling and reappraisal, supporting the idea that intentional and incidental emotion regulation may utilize overlapping neural processes. PMID:24715880

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity in healthy Faroese adults

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum Halling, Jonrit; Damkier, Per; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Brosen, Kim

    2007-10-15

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is, along with other cytochrome P450 enzymes, involved in the metabolism of environmental pollutants and is highly inducible by these substances. A commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, 1,1,1,-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl), 2-(p'-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT) and 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE) are known to induce CYP3A4 activity through activation of nuclear receptors, such as the pregnane X receptor. However, this induction of CYP3A4 has not yet been investigated in humans. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the variability of the CYP3A4 phenotype in regard to increased concentrations of PCBs and other persistent organohalogen pollutants (POPs) in healthy Faroese adults. In 310 randomly selected Faroese residents aged 18-60 years, the CYP3A4 activity was determined based on the urinary 6{beta}-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6{beta}-OHC/FC) ratio. POP exposures were assessed by measuring their concentrations in serum lipid. The results showed a unimodal distribution of the 6{beta}-OHC/FC ratio with values ranging from 0.58 to 27.38. Women had a slightly higher 6{beta}-OHC/FC ratio than men (p = 0.07). Confounder-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed significant associations between 6{beta}-OHC/FC ratios and {sigma}PCB, PCB-TEQ and p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and HCB, respectively, but the associations were statistically significant for men only.

  12. Effect of nitrogen dioxide exposure on susceptibility to influenza A virus infection in healthy adults

    SciTech Connect

    Goings, S.A.; Kulle, T.J.; Bascom, R.; Sauder, L.R.; Green, D.J.; Hebel, J.R.; Clements, M.L.

    1989-05-01

    The effect of NO/sub 2/ exposure and human susceptibility to respiratory virus infection was investigated in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trial conducted in an environmentally controlled research chamber over 3 yr. Healthy, nonsmoking, young adult volunteers who were seronegative to influenza A/Korea/82 (H/sub 3/N/sub 2/) virus were randomly assigned to breathe either filtered clean air (control group) or NO/sub 2/ for 2 h/day for 3 consecutive days. The NO/sub 2/ concentrations were 2 ppm (Year 1), 3 ppm (Year 2), and 1 or 2 ppm (Year 3). Live, attenuated cold-adapted (ca) influenza A/Korea/82 reassortant virus was administered intranasally to all subjects immediately after the second exposure. Only one of the 152 volunteers had any symptoms; this person had a low grade fever. Pulmonary function measurements and nonspecific airway reactivity to methacholine were unchanged after NO/sub 2/ exposure, virus infection, or both. Infection was determined by virus recovery, a fourfold or greater increase in serum or nasal wash influenza-specific antibody titers, or both. The infection rates of the groups were 12/21 (2 ppm NO/sub 2/) versus 15/23 (clean air) in Year 1, 17/22 (3 ppm NO/sub 2/) versus 15/21 (clean air) in Year 2, and 20/22 (2 ppm) and 20/22 (1 ppm) versus 15/21 (clean air) in Year 3. Each group exposed to 1 or 2 ppm NO2 in the last year became infected more often (91%) than did the control group (71%), but the differences were not statistically significant.

  13. Roles of Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure in Hypertension-Associated Cognitive Decline in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Hajjar, Ihab; Goldstein, Felicia C; Martin, Greg S; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2016-01-01

    Although there is strong evidence that hypertension leads to cognitive decline, especially in the executive domain, the relationship between blood pressure and cognition has been conflicted. Hypertension is characterized by blood pressure elevation and increased arterial stiffness. We aimed at investigating whether arterial stiffness would be superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline and explaining the hypertension-executive decline association. A randomly selected asymptomatic population (n=591, age=49.2 years, 70% women, 27% black, and education=18 years) underwent annual vascular and cognitive assessments. Cognition was assessed using computerized versions commonly used cognitive tests, and principal component analysis was used for deriving cognitive scores for executive function, memory, and working memory. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Higher PWV, but not blood pressure, was associated with a steeper decline in executive (P=0.0002), memory (P=0.05), and working memory (P=0.02) scores after adjusting for demographics, education, and baseline cognitive performance. This remained true after adjusting for hypertension. Hypertension was associated with greater decline in executive score (P=0.0029) and those with combined hypertension and elevated PWV (>7 m/s) had the greatest decline in executive score (P value hypertension×PWV=0.02). PWV explained the association between hypertension and executive function (P value for hypertension=0.0029 versus 0.24 when adjusting for PWV). In healthy adults, increased arterial stiffness is superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline in all domains and in explaining the hypertension-executive function association. Arterial stiffness, especially in hypertension, may be a target in the prevention of cognitive decline.

  14. Effects of buprenorphine on responses to social stimuli in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Bershad, Anya K; Seiden, Jacob A; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its classical role in mediating responses to pain, the opioid system is strongly implicated in the regulation of social behavior. In young laboratory animals, low doses of opioid analgesic drugs reduce responses to isolation distress and increase play behavior. However, little is known about how opioid drugs affect responses to social stimuli in humans. Here we examined the effects of buprenorphine, a mu-opioid partial agonist and kappa-antagonist, on three dimensions of social processing: (i) responses to simulated social rejection, (ii) attention to emotional facial expressions, and (iii) emotional responses to images with and without social content. Healthy adults (N=36) attended two sessions during which they received either placebo or 0.2mg sublingual buprenorphine in randomized order, under double-blind conditions. Ninety minutes after drug administration, they completed three behavioral tasks: (i) a virtual ball-toss game in which they were first included and then excluded by the other players; (ii) an attention task in which they were shown pairs of faces (one emotional and one neutral), while the direction of their gazes was recorded using electrooculography, and (iii) a picture-viewing task, in which they rated standardized images with and without social content. During the ball-toss game, buprenorphine decreased perceived social rejection. During the attention task, the drug reduced initial attention to fearful facial expressions, without influencing attention to angry, happy, or sad faces. Finally, during the picture-viewing task, buprenorphine increased ratings of positivity of images with social content without affecting ratings of nonsocial images. These results suggest that even at low doses, opioid analgesic drugs reduce responses to some types of negative social stimuli while enhancing positive responses to social stimuli. This provides further support for the role of the opioid system in mediating responses to social rejection and

  15. Lycium barbarum (goji) juice improves in vivo antioxidant biomarkers in serum of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Amagase, Harunobu; Sun, Buxiang; Borek, Carmia

    2009-01-01

    Although Lycium barbarum (goji) and active compounds, Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP), have a high in vitro antioxidant score as determined by simple chemical reaction methods, their in vivo antioxidant effects in humans have not been extensively examined. After our earlier report that an LBP-standardized Lycium barbarum preparation (GoChi) helps prevent oxidant stress-related conditions in humans, our present study examined the hypothesis that the antioxidant effects of GoChi result from its ability to enhance endogenous antioxidant factors. We investigated the effects of GoChi in a 30-day randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. The study population included 50 Chinese healthy adults aged 55 to 72 years. In vivo antioxidant markers, consisting of serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and lipid peroxidation (indicated by decreased levels of malondialdehyde, MDA) were examined preintervention and postintervention with GoChi or placebo (120 mL/d). In the GoChi group, antioxidant markers significantly increased by 8.4% for SOD and 9.9% for GSH-Px between the preintervention and postintervention measurements, whereas MDA were significantly decreased by 8.7%. In addition, the SOD, GSH-Px, and MDA levels in the GoChi group were significantly different from those in the placebo group at the postintervention time point, with increases of 8.1% and 9.0% and a decrease of 6.0%, respectively. No significant differences were detected between the preintervention and postintervention time points in the placebo group. These results indicate that GoChi increased antioxidant efficacies in humans by stimulating endogenous factors and suggest that continued use beyond 30 days might help prevent or reduce free radical-related conditions.

  16. Penetration of Ceftaroline into the Epithelial Lining Fluid of Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pushkin, Richard; Jandourek, Alena; Knebel, William; Khariton, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study aimed to (i) evaluate ceftaroline concentrations in human plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and (ii) develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for plasma and ELF to be used in PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) target attainment simulations. Ceftaroline concentrations in ELF and plasma at steady state (day 4) were measured in healthy adult subjects for two dosages: 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) and 600 mg every 8 h (q8h). Both were well tolerated with no serious adverse events. The penetration of free ceftaroline into ELF, assuming 20% protein binding in plasma and no protein binding in ELF, was ≈23%. The population PK model utilized a two-compartment model for both ceftaroline fosamil and ceftaroline. Goodness-of-fit criteria revealed the model was consistent with observed data and no systematic bias remained. At 600 mg q12h and a MIC of 1 mg/liter, 98.1% of simulated patients would be expected to achieve a target free drug concentration above the MIC (fT>MIC) in plasma of 42%, and in ELF 81.7% would be expected to achieve a target fT>MIC of 17%; at 600 mg q8h, 100% were predicted to achieve an fT>MIC in plasma of 42% and 94.7% to achieve an fT>MIC of 17% in ELF. The literature and data suggest the 600 mg q12h dose is adequate for MICs of ≤1 mg/liter. There is a need for clinical data in patients with MRSA pneumonia and data to correlate PK/PD relationships in ELF with clinical outcomes. PMID:27431215

  17. Penetration of Ceftaroline into the Epithelial Lining Fluid of Healthy Adult Subjects.

    PubMed

    Riccobene, Todd A; Pushkin, Richard; Jandourek, Alena; Knebel, William; Khariton, Tatiana

    2016-10-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study aimed to (i) evaluate ceftaroline concentrations in human plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and (ii) develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for plasma and ELF to be used in PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) target attainment simulations. Ceftaroline concentrations in ELF and plasma at steady state (day 4) were measured in healthy adult subjects for two dosages: 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) and 600 mg every 8 h (q8h). Both were well tolerated with no serious adverse events. The penetration of free ceftaroline into ELF, assuming 20% protein binding in plasma and no protein binding in ELF, was ≈23%. The population PK model utilized a two-compartment model for both ceftaroline fosamil and ceftaroline. Goodness-of-fit criteria revealed the model was consistent with observed data and no systematic bias remained. At 600 mg q12h and a MIC of 1 mg/liter, 98.1% of simulated patients would be expected to achieve a target free drug concentration above the MIC (fT>MIC) in plasma of 42%, and in ELF 81.7% would be expected to achieve a target fT>MIC of 17%; at 600 mg q8h, 100% were predicted to achieve an fT>MIC in plasma of 42% and 94.7% to achieve an fT>MIC of 17% in ELF. The literature and data suggest the 600 mg q12h dose is adequate for MICs of ≤1 mg/liter. There is a need for clinical data in patients with MRSA pneumonia and data to correlate PK/PD relationships in ELF with clinical outcomes.

  18. Segmental trunk and head dynamics during frontal plane tilt stimuli in healthy sitting adults.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yen-Hsun; Duncan, Kerian; Saavedra, Sandra; Goodworth, Adam

    2016-09-06

    A more detailed understanding of trunk behavior during upright sitting is needed to create a foundation to address functional posture impairments. Therefore, we characterized the dynamics of the trunk and head during perturbed sitting. A three-link inverted pendulum model of head and trunk segments was used to analyze kinematics of eight healthy sitting adults. Magnetic sensors were placed at the head and two locations of the trunk (C7 and T7). Six surface tilt stimuli (two spontaneous sway tests [no surface stimulus; eyes open, EO/eyes closed, EC] and four tests with continuous pseudorandom surface tilts [2 peak-to peak amplitudes of 2° or 8°; EO/EC]) were applied in the frontal plane. We used frequency-response functions (FRFs) to analyze sway across ~0.045-3Hz and found systematic differences in sway dynamics across segments. Superior segments exhibited larger fluctuations in gain and phase values across frequencies. FRF gains in superior segments were attenuated compared to other segments only at low frequencies but were larger at the higher frequencies. We also tested the influence of stimulus amplitude and visual availability on FRFs. Across all segments, increasing stimulus amplitude and visual availability (EO) resulted in lower gains, however, these effects were most prominent in superior segments. These changes in gain were likely influenced by changes in sensory reliance across test conditions. In conclusion, these results provide a benchmark for future comparisons to segmental responses from individuals with impaired trunk control. We suggest that a frequency-based approach provides detail needed to characterize multi-segment dynamics related to sensorimotor control.

  19. Association of telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number in a community sample of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Tyrka, Audrey R; Carpenter, Linda L; Kao, Hung-Teh; Porton, Barbara; Philip, Noah S; Ridout, Samuel J; Ridout, Kathryn K; Price, Lawrence H

    2015-06-01

    Cellular aging plays a role in longevity and senescence, and has been implicated in medical and psychiatric conditions, including heart disease, cancer, major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Telomere shortening and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to be central to the cellular aging process. The present study examined the association between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and telomere length in a sample of medically healthy adults. Participants (total n=392) were divided into 4 groups based on the presence or absence of early life adversity and lifetime psychopathology: No Adversity/No Disorder, n=136; Adversity/No Disorder, n=91; No Adversity/Disorder, n=46; Adversity/Disorder, n=119. Telomere length and mtDNA copy number were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. There was a positive correlation between mtDNA and telomere length in the entire sample (r=0.120, p<0.001) and in each of the four groups of participants (No Adversity/No Disorder, r=0.291, p=0.001; Adversity/No Disorder r=0.279, p=0.007; No Adversity/Disorder r=0.449, p=0.002; Adversity/Disorder, r=0.558, p<0.001). These correlations remained significant when controlling for age, smoking, and body mass index and establish an association between mtDNA and telomere length in a large group of women and men both with and without early adversity and psychopathology, suggesting co-regulation of telomeres and mitochondrial function. The mechanisms underlying this association may be important in the pathophysiology of age-related medical conditions, such as heart disease and cancer, as well as for stress-associated psychiatric disorders.

  20. Safety and Pharmacokinetics of CD101 IV, a Novel Echinocandin, in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Voon; Lee, Jonathan; Thye, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT CD101 IV is a novel echinocandin with distinctive pharmacokinetic properties that is being developed as a once-weekly treatment for candidemia and invasive candidiasis. CD101 has potent in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy against a broad range of Candida and Aspergillus species. The primary objective of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation studies in healthy adults was to determine the safety and tolerability of CD101 IV. Sequential cohorts of 8 subjects (n = 6, active; n = 2, placebo) were administered single (50, 100, 200, 400 mg) or multiple once-weekly (100 mg given once weekly for two weeks [×2], 200 mg ×2, 400 mg ×3) doses of CD101 IV infused over 1 h. There were no deaths, serious adverse events (SAEs), severe adverse events (AEs), or withdrawals from the study due to an AE. The majority of AEs were mild, and all completely resolved. There was a higher incidence of total AEs and mild transient infusion reactions in the 400-mg ×3 dose group. There were no clinically meaningful trends in postbaseline laboratory abnormalities and no safety issues related to electrocardiograms, vital signs, or physical exams. CD101 showed dose-proportional plasma exposures, minor accumulation (30% to 55%), low apparent clearance (<0.28 liter/h), long half-life (t1/2) (>80 h), and minimal urine excretion. CD101 IV was safe and well tolerated at single and multiple doses of up to 400 mg given once weekly for 3 weeks and exhibited a long t1/2, minimal accumulation over several weeks, negligible renal excretion, and high plasma exposures enabling once-weekly dosing. PMID:27919901

  1. Xanthones in Mangosteen Juice Are Absorbed and Partially Conjugated by Healthy Adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Riedl, Kenneth M.; Suksumrarn, Sunit; Clinton, Steven K.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Failla, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    The proposed health-promoting effects of the pericarp from mangosteen fruit have been attributed to a family of polyphenols referred to as xanthones. The purpose of this study was to determine the bioavailability of xanthones from 100% mangosteen juice in healthy adult participants (n = 10). Pericarp particles accounted for 1% of the mass and 99% of the xanthone concentration in the juice. The juice provided 5.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L total xanthones with α-mangostin, garcinones (C, D, and E), γ-mangostin, gartanins, and other identified xanthones accounting for 58, 2, 6, 4, and 5%, respectively. Participants ingested 60 mL mangosteen juice with a high-fat breakfast. Free and conjugated (glucuronidated/sulfated) xanthones were detected in serum and urine. There was marked variation in the AUC (762–4030 nmol/L × h), maximum concentration (113 ± 107 nmol/L), and time to maximum concentration (3.7 ± 2.4 h) for α-mangostin in sera during the 24-h collection. Similarly, xanthones in 24-h urine ranged from 0.9 to 11.1 μmol and accounted for 2.0 ± 0.3% (range 0.3–3.4%) of the ingested dose. There were no significant differences between female and male participants in mean pharmacokinetic values of α-mangostin in serum and urinary xanthones. Only 15.4 ± 0.7% of total xanthones in pericarp particles in the juice partitioned into mixed micelles during in vitro digestion. These results show that xanthones in mangosteen juice are absorbed when ingested along with a high-fat meal, although release of xanthones from pericarp particles during digestion may be limited. PMID:22399525

  2. Baseline Perfusion Alterations Due to Acute Application of Quetiapine and Pramipexole in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Scherpiet, Sigrid; Stämpfli, Philipp; Herwig, Uwe; Brühl, Annette B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The dopaminergic system is implicated in many mental processes and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacologically, drugs with dopamine receptor antagonistic and agonistic effects are used, but their effects on functional brain metabolism are not well known. Methods: In this randomized crossover, placebo-controlled, and rater-blinded study, 25 healthy adults received an acute dose placebo substance (starch), quetiapine (dopamine receptor antagonist), or pramipexole (dopamine agonist of the nonergoline class) 1 hour before the experiment. Background-suppressed 2D pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling was used to examine whole-brain baseline cerebral blood flow differences induced by the 3 substances. Results: We found that quetiapine reduced perfusion in the occipital (early visual areas) and bilateral cerebellar cortex relative to placebo. In contrast, quetiapine enhanced cerebral blood flow (relative to placebo) in the striatal system (putamen and caudate nucleus) but also in the supplementary motor area, insular-, prefrontal- as well as in the pre- and postcentral cortex. Pramipexole increased cerebral blood flow compared with placebo in the caudate nucleus, putamen, middle frontal, supplementary motor area, and brainstem (substantia nigra), but reduced cerebral blood flow in the posterior thalamus, cerebellum, and visual areas. Pramipexole administration resulted in stronger cerebral blood flow relative to quetiapine in the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and substantia nigra. Conclusions: Our results indicate that quetiapine and pramipexole differentially modulate regional baseline cerebral blood flow. Both substances act on the dopaminergic system, although they affect distinct regions. Quetiapine altered dopaminergic function in frontal, striatal, and motor regions. In contrast, pramipexole affected cerebral blood flow of the nigrostriatal (striatum and substantia nigra) dopaminergic, but less the fronto-insular system. PMID:27466220

  3. Influence of schooling and age on cognitive performance in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Bento-Torres, N V O; Bento-Torres, J; Tomás, A M; Costa, V O; Corrêa, P G R; Costa, C N M; Jardim, N Y V; Picanço-Diniz, C W

    2017-03-23

    Few studies have examined the influence of a low level of schooling on age-related cognitive decline in countries with wide social and economic inequalities by using the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB). The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of schooling on age-related cognitive decline using unbiased cognitive tests. CANTAB allows cognitive assessment across cultures and education levels with reduced interference of the examiner during data acquisition. Using two-way ANOVA, we assessed the influences of age and education on test scores of old adults (61-84 years of age). CANTAB tests included: Visual Sustained Attention, Reaction Time, Spatial Working Memory, Learning and Episodic Memory. All subjects had a minimum visual acuity of 20/30 (Snellen Test), no previous or current history of traumatic brain/head trauma, stroke, language impairment, chronic alcoholism, neurological diseases, memory problems or depressive symptoms, and normal scores on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Subjects were grouped according to education level (1 to 7 and ≥8 years of schooling) and age (60-69 and ≥70 years). Low schooling level was associated with significantly lower performance on visual sustained attention, learning and episodic memory, reaction time, and spatial working memory. Although reaction time was influenced by age, no significant results on post hoc analysis were detected. Our findings showed a significantly worse cognitive performance in volunteers with lower levels of schooling and suggested that formal education in early life must be included in the preventive public health agenda. In addition, we suggest that CANTAB may be useful to detect subtle cognitive changes in healthy aging.

  4. Reference Ranges of Cholesterol Sub-Fractions in Random Healthy Adults in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Koumaré, Alice T. C. R. Kiba; Sakandé, Linda P. L.; Kabré, Elie; Sondé, Issaka; Simporé, Jacques; Sakandé, Jean

    2015-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, the values that serve as clinical chemistry reference ranges are those provided by European manufacturers’ insert sheets based on reference of the Western population. However, studies conducted so far in some African countries reported significant differences in normal laboratory ranges compared with those of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to determine reference values of cholesterol fractions in apparently normal adults in Burkina Faso that could be used to better assess the risks related to cardiovascular diseases. Study population was 279 healthy subjects aged from 15 to 50 years including 139 men and 140 women recruited at the Regional Center of Blood Transfusion of Ouagadougou, capital city of Burkina Faso (West Africa). Exclusion criteria based on history and clinical examination were used for defining reference individuals. The dual-step precipitation of HDL cholesterol sub-fractions using dextran sulfate was performed according to the procedure described by Hirano. The medians were calculated and reference values were determined at 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. The median and upper ranges for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total HDL cholesterol and HDL2 cholesterol were observed to be higher in women in comparison to men (p <0.05). These reference ranges were similar to those derived from other African countries but lower than those recorded in France and in USA. This underscores the need for such comprehensible establishment of reference values for limited resources countries. Our study provides the first cholesterol sub-fractions (HDL2 and HDL3) reference ranges for interpretation of laboratory results for cardiovascular risk management in Burkina Faso. PMID:25611320

  5. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Maekawa, Keiko; Saito, Kosuke; Senoo, Yuya; Urata, Masayo; Murayama, Mayumi; Tajima, Yoko; Kumagai, Yuji; Saito, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1) investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma) that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2) elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3) examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group) of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively) males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum). Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites is important

  6. Progressive Gender Differences of Structural Brain Networks in Healthy Adults: A Longitudinal, Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu; Lee, Renick; Chen, Yu; Collinson, Simon; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Sim, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the brain maturation during childhood and adolescence has been repeatedly documented, which may underlie the differences in behaviors and cognitive performance. However, our understanding of how gender modulates the development of structural connectome in healthy adults is still not entirely clear. Here we utilized graph theoretical analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data over a five-year period to investigate the progressive gender differences of brain network topology. The brain networks of both genders showed prominent economical “small-world” architecture (high local clustering and short paths between nodes). Additional analysis revealed a more economical “small-world” architecture in females as well as a greater global efficiency in males regardless of scan time point. At the regional level, both increased and decreased efficiency were found across the cerebral cortex for both males and females, indicating a compensation mechanism of cortical network reorganization over time. Furthermore, we found that weighted clustering coefficient exhibited significant gender-time interactions, implying different development trends between males and females. Moreover, several specific brain regions (e.g., insula, superior temporal gyrus, cuneus, putamen, and parahippocampal gyrus) exhibited different development trajectories between males and females. Our findings further prove the presence of sexual dimorphism in brain structures that may underlie gender differences in behavioral and cognitive functioning. The sex-specific progress trajectories in brain connectome revealed in this work provide an important foundation to delineate the gender related pathophysiological mechanisms in various neuropsychiatric disorders, which may potentially guide the development of sex-specific treatments for these devastating brain disorders. PMID:25742013

  7. Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Magdalena; O'Mahony, Louise; O'Sullivan, Aifric; Collier, John; Fraser, William D; Gibney, Michael J; Nugent, Anne P; Brennan, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is emerging worldwide and many studies now suggest its role in the development of several chronic diseases. Due to the low level of vitamin D naturally occurring in food there is a need for supplementation and use of vitamin D-enhanced products. The aim of the present study was to determine if daily consumption of vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms increased vitamin D status in free-living healthy adults or affected markers of the metabolic syndrome. A total of ninety volunteers (aged 40-65 years) were randomly assigned to one of two 4-week studies: mushroom study (15 µg vitamin D2 or placebo mushroom powder) and capsule study (15 µg vitamin D3 or placebo capsules). Consumption of vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25(OH)D2) by 128 % from baseline (3·9 (sd 1·9) nmol/l; P < 0·05). Serum 25(OH)D3 increased significantly in the vitamin D3 capsule group (a 55 % increase from a baseline of 44.0 (sd 17·1) nmol/l; P < 0·05). Vitamin D status (25(OH)D) was affected only in the vitamin D3 group. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was lowered by vitamin D2 intake. Vitamin D2 from enhanced mushrooms was bioavailable and increased serum 25(OH)D2 concentration with no significant effect on 25(OH)D3 or total 25(OH)D.

  8. Effects of buprenorphine on responses to social stimuli in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Bershad, Anya K.; Seiden, Jacob A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    In addition to its classical role in mediating responses to pain, the opioid system is strongly implicated in the regulation of social behavior. In young laboratory animals, low doses of opioid analgesic drugs reduce responses to isolation distress and increase play behavior. However, little is known about how opioid drugs affect responses to social stimuli in humans. Here we examined the effects of buprenorphine, a mu-opioid partial agonist and kappa-antagonist, on three dimensions of social processing; i) responses to simulated social rejection, ii) attention to emotional facial expressions, and iii) emotional responses to images with and without social content. Healthy adults (N = 36) attended two sessions during which they received either placebo or 0.2mg sublingual buprenorphine in randomized order, under double-blind conditions. Ninety minutes after drug administration, they completed three behavioral tasks: i) a virtual ball-toss game in which they were first included and then excluded by the other players; ii) an attention task in which they were shown pairs of faces (one emotional and one neutral), while the direction of their gazes was recorded using electrooculography, and iii) a picture-viewing task, in which they rated standardized images with and without social content. During the ball-toss game, buprenorphine decreased perceived social rejection. During the attention task, the drug reduced initial attention to fearful facial expressions, without influencing attention to angry, happy, and sad faces. Finally, during the picture-viewing task, buprenorphine increased ratings of positivity of images with social content, without affecting ratings of nonsocial images. These results suggest that even at low doses, opioid analgesic drugs reduce responses to some types of negative social stimuli, while enhancing positive responses to social stimuli. This provides further support for the role of the opioid system in mediating responses to social rejection and

  9. Influence of vision and posture on grip-lift task parameters in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Dispa, Delphine; Tourbach, Catherine; Thonnard, Jean-Louis; Lejeune, Thierry

    2014-12-01

    The grip-lift task enables a quantitative assessment of grasping ability. Patients are regularly assessed in a supine position, which offers a different view of the grasped object from that in the sitting position. To our knowledge, no data are currently available on the influence of posture and vision on grip-lift task parameters. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of posture and vision on these parameters. Twenty-six healthy right-handed adults performed grip-lift tasks with a manipulandum that measured different temporal and dynamic parameters in four conditions: sitting eyes open, sitting blindfolded, lying down eyes open and lying down blindfolded. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with two factors (vision and position) showed that the absence of vision affected all the parameters measured. The lying down position increased the time between the first contact with the object and the modification of the vertical force as well as the delay between the first increase of the horizontal force and the increase of the vertical force. In addition, there was a lower adaption of the horizontal force, required to squeeze the object, to the vertical force. Finally, the interaction of position and vision was associated with significant differences in the delay between the contact of each digit with the object, the maximum horizontal force and the ratio between the horizontal and vertical force during a static holding period. Both position and vision appear to affect the grip-lift task. Consequently, sequential assessments should be performed in the same condition to obtain reliable data.

  10. Serum levels of organochlorine pesticides in healthy adults from five regions of Spain.

    PubMed

    Jakszyn, Paula; Goñi, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asunción; Millán, Esmeralda; López, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larrañaga, Nerea; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, Laudina; Sánchez, M José; Tormo, M José; González, Carlos A; Agudo, Antonio

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure of serum levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichlorethylene (p,p'-DDE), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in healthy adults in Spain. Furthermore, we also analyzed these levels according to dietary, other lifestyle factors and anthropometric characteristics. We measured the concentrations of such organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in serum samples collected during 1992-1996 from 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, they were residents of five Spanish regions, they were randomly selected from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. OCPs were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The most frequent compound found in serum was p,p'-DDE, present in 98% of the samples, followed by HCB and beta-HCH, found in 89% and 77% of samples, respectively, while p,p'-DDT could be measured only in 26% of subjects. The geometric means of serum concentrations (ng/g lipid) were 822 for p,p'-DDE, 167 for beta-HCH, and 379 for HCB. The concentrations of all OCPs were positively associated with age and body mass index, and decreased along the period of blood collection. No association was found between OCPs levels and dietary factors. The concentrations of p,p'-DDE and beta-HCB were higher in Murcia, one of southern regions, most likely associated with intensive past use of pesticides related to agricultural practices, while higher levels of HCB were found in Navarra, located in the north, maybe due to industrial use rather than agricultural application.

  11. Associations Between Physical Fitness Indices and Working Memory in Breast Cancer Survivors and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Michael J.; Zuniga, Krystle E.; Raine, Lauren B.; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study examined the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness, heart rate recovery, and physical activity on working memory in breast cancer survivors and age-matched controls. Method: Using a case-control design, 32 women who had received a breast cancer diagnosis and completed primary treatment within the past 36-months (11 radiation only; 21 chemotherapy) and 30 age-matched women with no previous cancer diagnosis completed a n-back continuous performance task commonly used as an assessment of working memory. In addition, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery were measured during a submaximal graded exercise test and physical activity was measured using 7-days of accelerometer monitoring. Results: Breast cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy had poorer heart rate recovery (p = .010) and engaged in less physical activity than women who had received radiation only (p = .004) or non-cancer controls (p = .029). Cancer treatment (radiation; chemotherapy) predicted differences in reaction times on the 1-back working memory task (p = .029). However, more rapid heart rate recovery predicted shorter reaction times on the 1-back task in the age-matched control group (p = .002). All participants with greater cardiorespiratory fitness displayed greater accuracy independent of disease status on the 1-back task (p = .017). No significant group differences in reaction times were observed for 2-back target trials between breast cancer survivors and controls. However, greater total physical activity predicted shorter reaction times in breast cancer survivors (radiation, chemotherapy) on the 2-back task (p = .014). In addition, all participants who exhibited more rapid heart rate recovery demonstrated better greater accuracy regardless of disease status (p = .013). Conclusion: These findings support differences in physical activty participation, heart rate recovery, and 1- and 2-back working memory reaction

  12. Linear and angular control of circular walking in healthy older adults and subjects with cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Goodworth, Adam D; Paquette, Caroline; Jones, Geoffrey Melvill; Block, Edward W; Fletcher, William A; Hu, Bin; Horak, Fay B

    2012-05-01

    Linear and angular control of trunk and leg motion during curvilinear navigation was investigated in subjects with cerebellar ataxia and age-matched control subjects. Subjects walked with eyes open around a 1.2-m circle. The relationship of linear to angular motion was quantified by determining the ratios of trunk linear velocity to trunk angular velocity and foot linear position to foot angular position. Errors in walking radius (the ratio of linear to angular motion) also were quantified continuously during the circular walk. Relative variability of linear and angular measures was compared using coefficients of variation (CoV). Patterns of variability were compared using power spectral analysis for the trunk and auto-covariance analysis for the feet. Errors in radius were significantly increased in patients with cerebellar damage as compared to controls. Cerebellar subjects had significantly larger CoV of feet and trunk in angular, but not linear, motion. Control subjects also showed larger CoV in angular compared to linear motion of the feet and trunk. Angular and linear components of stepping differed in that angular, but not linear, foot placement had a negative correlation from one stride to the next. Thus, walking in a circle was associated with more, and a different type of, variability in angular compared to linear motion. Results are consistent with increased difficulty of, and role of the cerebellum in, control of angular trunk and foot motion for curvilinear locomotion.

  13. RBANS Memory Indices Are Related to Medial Temporal Lobe Volumetrics in Healthy Older Adults and Those with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    England, Heather B.; Gillis, M. Meredith; Hampstead, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study (i) determined whether NeuroQuant® volumetrics are reflective of differences in medial temporal lobe (MTL) volumes between healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and (ii) examined the relationship between RBANS indices and MTL volumes. Forty-three healthy older adults and 57 MCI patients completed the RBANS and underwent structural MRI. Hippocampal and inferior lateral ventricle (ILV) volumes were obtained using NeuroQuant®. Results revealed significantly smaller hippocampal and larger ILV volumes in MCI patients. MTL volumes were significantly related to the RBANS Immediate and Delayed Memory and Language indices but not the Attention or Visuoconstruction indices; findings that demonstrate anatomical specificity. Following discriminant function analysis, we calculated a cutpoint that may prove clinically useful for integrating MTL volumes into the diagnosis of MCI. These findings demonstrate the potential clinical utility of NeuroQuant® and are the first to document the relationship between RBANS indices and MTL volumes. PMID:24709384

  14. Necrotizing fasciitis of lower extremity caused by Haemophilus influenzae in a healthy adult with a closed lisfranc injury.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, R Wesley; Casillas, Mark M; Almaguer, Enrique C

    2014-05-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare bacterial infection with an incidence of approximately 0.4 cases per 100,000 population. Although the majority of cases of necrotizing fasciitis are polymicrobial, a systematic review of the literature found only 7 reports of Haemophilus influenzae as the causal agent, and only 1 incidence of H influenzae causing the infection in a healthy adult. This report documents the unusual case of necrotizing fasciitis in a healthy adult with a history of smoking as her only risk factor. The patient presented with a seemingly innocuous low-grade Lisfranc injury. Our case illustrates the importance of early diagnosis and aggressive surgical management and medical treatment of necrotizing fasciitis.

  15. A cognitive training intervention improves modality-specific attention in a randomized controlled trial of healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Long, Ashley B.; Morgan, Ashley R.; Rawley-Payne, Melissa; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Age-related deficits in cognitive and sensory function can result in increased distraction from background sensory stimuli. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of a cognitive training intervention aimed at helping healthy older adults suppress irrelevant auditory and visual stimuli. Sixty-six participants received 8 weeks of either the modality-specific attention training program or an educational lecture control program. Participants who completed the intervention program had larger improvements in modality-specific selective attention following training than controls. These improvements also correlated with reductions in bimodal integration during selective attention. Further, the intervention group showed larger improvements than the control group in non-trained domains such as processing speed and dual-task completion, demonstrating the utility of modality-specific attention training for improving cognitive function in healthy older adults. PMID:19428142

  16. Examining the perceptions, preferences, and practices that influence healthy aging for African American older adults: an ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Waites, Cheryl

    2013-10-01

    This study explored the healthy aging and health promotion perceptions, preferences, and practices of a purposive sample of African American older adults who resided in two communities in the south. An ecological framework was used to capture environmental factors, perceptions regarding access to health promotion resources, and health behavior preferences and practices. A mixed-method approach was used. Health supporting amenities were mapped, focus groups were conducted, and demographic information was obtained. The data were merged to create consolidated themes. The results indicated that health promotion amenities were available, but with some limitations. Convenient access to transportation strongly affected ability to use resources. Older adults were interested in preserving their health and independence, but some had difficulty staying motivated to maintain a healthy lifestyle. They wanted easier access to amenities. Implications for best practice include attention to culturally responsive outreach, motivating with social support and incentives, and developing community-based culturally compatible programming.

  17. The relation of salivary cortisol to patterns of performance on a word list learning task in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Suhr, Julie; Demireva, Petya; Heffner, Kathi

    2008-10-01

    A pattern of performance on a word list learning task known as a reduced primacy effect has been shown to be characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can distinguish AD from depression. Deficits in memory and hippocampal atrophy seen in AD have been associated with hypercortisolism. The present study evaluated whether the reduced primacy effect is associated with elevated salivary cortisol in a sample of 40 healthy older community-dwelling adults participating in a study of memory and stress. We found that primacy, but not recency, was associated with higher salivary cortisol levels. In addition, participants who showed a reduced primacy had higher salivary cortisol levels than those with a normal serial position curve. Results suggest that there may be value to examining both serial position curves and changes to cortisol patterns over time as potential predictors of cognitive decline in healthy older adults.

  18. Texting and walking: effect of environmental setting and task prioritization on dual-task interference in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Prudence; Apple, Sarah; Dowd, Colleen; Keith, Eliza

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that young adults significantly reduce their gait speed and weave more when texting while walking. Previous research has not examined the simultaneous dual-task effects on texting performance, therefore, the attention prioritization strategy used by young adults while texting and walking is not currently known. Moreover, it is not known whether laboratory-based studies accurately reflect texting and walking performance in the real world. This study compared dual-task interference during texting and walking between laboratory and real-world settings, and examined the ability of young adults to flexibly prioritize their attention between the two tasks in each environment. Texting and walking were assessed in single-task and three dual-task conditions (no-priority, gait-priority, texting-priority) in the lab and a University Student Center, in 32 healthy young adults. Dual-task effects on gait speed, texting speed, and texting accuracy were significant, but did not significantly differ between the two environments. Young adults were able to flexibly prioritize their attention between texting and walking, according to specific instruction, and this ability was not influenced by environmental setting. In the absence of instructions, young adults prioritized the texting task in the low-distraction environment, but displayed more equal focus between tasks in the real world. The finding that young adults do not significantly modify their texting and walking behavior in high-distraction environments lends weight to growing concerns about cell phone use and pedestrian safety.

  19. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. Methods One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Results Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Conclusion Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. Trial

  20. Consumption of a Bifidobacterium bifidum Strain for 4 Weeks Modulates Dominant Intestinal Bacterial Taxa and Fecal Butyrate in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gargari, Giorgio; Taverniti, Valentina; Balzaretti, Silvia; Ferrario, Chiara; Gardana, Claudio; Simonetti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Modulation of the intestinal microbial ecosystem (IME) is a useful target to establish probiotic efficacy in a healthy population. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover, and placebo-controlled intervention study to determine the impact of Bifidobacterium bifidum strain Bb on the IME of adult healthy volunteers of both sexes. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the fecal microbiota before and after 4 weeks of daily probiotic cell consumption. The intake of approximately one billion live B. bifidum cells affected the relative abundance of dominant taxa in the fecal microbiota and modulated fecal butyrate levels. Specifically, Prevotellaceae (P = 0.041) and Prevotella (P = 0.034) were significantly decreased, whereas Ruminococcaceae (P = 0.039) and Rikenellaceae (P = 0.010) were significantly increased. We also observed that the probiotic intervention modulated the fecal concentrations of butyrate in a manner dependent on the initial levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). In conclusion, our study demonstrates that a single daily administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum strain Bb can significantly modify the IME in healthy (not diseased) adults. These findings demonstrate the need to reassess the notion that probiotics do not influence the complex and stable IME of a healthy individual. IMPORTANCE Foods and supplements claimed to contain health-promoting probiotic microorganisms are everywhere these days and mainly intended for consumption by healthy people. However, it is still debated what actual effects probiotic products may have on the healthy population. In this study, we report the results of an intervention trial aimed at assessing the modifications induced in the intestinal microbial ecosystem of healthy adults from the consumption of a probiotic product. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of a probiotic product in the dietary habits of healthy people may significantly modify dominant taxa of

  1. Reference values for the Y Balance Test and the lower extremity functional scale in young healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Alnahdi, Ali H; Alderaa, Asma A; Aldali, Ali Z; Alsobayel, Hana

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish gender-specific reference values for the Y Balance Test (YBT) and the Arabic version of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS-Ar) in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia, and to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Subjects and Methods] Healthy young adults (31 females, 30 males) completed the YBT and LEFS-Ar in 1 test session. Descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval) was used to compute the YBT and LEFS-Ar reference values. Independent t-tests were used to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Results] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the right, left, dominant, and non-dominant leg as well as for the average performance of both the legs. males showed greater YBT normalized reach distances than females did in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions; furthermore, males showed higher YBT composite scores than females did. However, the LEFS-Ar values did not differ between males and females. [Conclusion] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the YBT and LEFS-Ar in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia. males performed better than females did in the YBT. However, no gender differences were noted in LEFS-Ar. PMID:26834380

  2. Impact of novelty and type of material on recognition in healthy older adults and persons with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Belleville, Sylvie; Ménard, Marie-Claude; Lepage, Emilie

    2011-08-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of novelty on correct recognition (hit minus false alarms) and on recollection and familiarity processes in normal aging and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Recognition tasks compared well-known and novel stimuli in the verbal domain (words vs. pseudowords) and in the musical domain (well-known vs. novel melodies). Results indicated that novel materials associated with lower correct recognition and lower recollection, an effect that can be related to its lower amenability to elaborative encoding in comparison with well-known items. Results also indicated that normal aging impairs recognition of well-known items, whereas MCI impairs recognition of novel items only. Healthy older adults showed impaired recollection and familiarity relative to younger controls and individuals with MCI showed impaired recollection relative to healthy older adults. The recollection deficit in healthy older adults and persons with MCI and their impaired recognition of well-known items is compatible with the difficulty both groups have in encoding information in an elaborate manner. In turn, familiarity deficit could be related to impaired frontal functioning. Therefore, novelty of material has a differential impact on recognition in persons with age-related memory disorders.

  3. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on the control of finger force during dexterous manipulation in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Pranav J; Cole, Kelly J

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of poor finger force control to age-related decline in manual dexterity is above and beyond ubiquitous behavioral slowing. Altered control of the finger forces can impart unwanted torque on the object affecting its orientation, thus impairing manual performance. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over primary motor cortex (M1) has been shown to improve the performance speed on manual tasks in older adults. However, the effects of anodal tDCS over M1 on the finger force control during object manipulation in older adults remain to be fully explored. Here we determined the effects of anodal tDCS over M1 on the control of grip force in older adults while they manipulated an object with an uncertain mechanical property. Eight healthy older adults were instructed to grip and lift an object whose contact surfaces were unexpectedly made more or less slippery across trials using acetate and sandpaper surfaces, respectively. Subjects performed this task before and after receiving anodal or sham tDCS over M1 on two separate sessions using a cross-over design. We found that older adults used significantly lower grip force following anodal tDCS compared to sham tDCS. Friction measured at the finger-object interface remained invariant after anodal and sham tDCS. These findings suggest that anodal tDCS over M1 improved the control of grip force during object manipulation in healthy older adults. Although the cortical networks for representing objects and manipulative actions are complex, the reduction in grip force following anodal tDCS over M1 might be due to a cortical excitation yielding improved processing of object-specific sensory information and its integration with the motor commands for production of manipulative forces. Our findings indicate that tDCS has a potential to improve the control of finger force during dexterous manipulation in older adults.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of an extended release formulation of alprazolam (Xanax XR) in healthy normal adolescent and adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Glue, Paul; Fang, Annie; Gandelman, Kuan; Klee, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of single doses of an extended release formulation of alprazolam (Xanax XR) in adolescent and adult healthy volunteers. This was a randomized, open-label, single-dose, 2-period crossover study. Twelve adolescent healthy volunteers (13-17 years) and 12 adult healthy volunteers (20-45 years) received single doses of Xanax XR 1 mg or 3 mg tablets. Blood samples were obtained predose and for 48 hours postdose. Plasma samples were assayed for alprazolam and its two active metabolites alpha-hydroxy-alprazolam and 4-hydroxy-alprazolam using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Safety assessments included clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, and adverse event monitoring. At both dose levels, mean plasma concentration-time profiles of alprazolam, alpha-hydroxy-alprazolam, and 4-hydroxy-alprazolam were similar in adolescent and adult subjects. The ratios of estimated geometric means for AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax between adolescents and adults for both dose levels were 115% (95% CI: [93, 143]) and 111% (95% CI: [95, 129]), respectively. An assessment of dose proportionality between the 3 mg and 1 mg alprazolam doses within both age groups indicated that the AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax were both within 80-125% equivalence limits. Parent-metabolite ratios were similar in both age groups and were consistent with those previously reported. Alprazolam was well tolerated by both age groups. The most common adverse event was somnolence, which occurred in a dose-related manner. Based on the similar pharmacokinetic profiles, dosing of Xanax XR should be similar in adolescents and adults.

  5. Are the prevalence and treatment of asthma similar in elite athletes and the aged-matched non-athlete population?

    PubMed

    Locke, S; Marks, G

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma and use of asthma medications in elite athletes compared with an age-matched non-athlete population. Data were collected from the respiratory component of annual medical screening of 424 elite athletes from the Queensland Academy of Sport. Measures included the prevalence of current asthma and ever doctor-diagnosed asthma, and the prevalence of use of treatment for asthma including beta-agonists and inhaled corticosteroid medication. The prevalence of current asthma in athletes aged 18-29 years was 14% (95% CI, 9-19%), which did not differ significantly from the prevalence in the non-athlete control population (11%; 95% CI, 9-12%, P=0.3). Of athletes with current asthma, 27% were not taking any medications for asthma, and 25% were treated with short-acting beta-agonist medications alone and were not taking inhaled corticosteroids. These data indicate that the overall cumulative and period prevalence of asthma in Queensland athletes is similar to that in the general age-matched population. Athletes use beta-agonists with a frequency similar to the general population.

  6. Ageing Is Associated with Decreases in Appetite and Energy Intake--A Meta-Analysis in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Chapman, Ian; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Horowitz, Michael; Soenen, Stijn

    2016-01-07

    It is not well recognized that in the elderly weight loss is more common than weight gain. The aim of this analysis was to determine the effect of ageing on appetite (hunger/fullness) and energy intake, after overnight fasting and in a postprandial state, by meta-analyses of trials that included at least two age groups (>18 years). We hypothesized that appetite and energy intake would be less in healthy older compared with younger adults. Following a PubMed-database systematic search up to 30 June 2015, 59 studies were included in the random-effects-model meta-analyses. Energy intake was 16%-20% lower in older (n = 3574/~70 years/~71 kg/~25 kg/m²) than younger (n = 4111/~26 years/~69 kg/~23 kg/m²) adults (standardized mean difference: -0.77 (95% confidence interval -0.90 to -0.64)). Hunger was 25% (after overnight fasting; weighted mean difference (WMD): -17 (-22 to -13) mm) to 39% (in a postprandial state; WMD: -14 (-19 to -9) mm) lower, and fullness 37% (after overnight fasting; WMD: 6 mm (95% CI: 1 to 11 mm)) greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, appetite and energy intake are less in healthy older than younger adults, suggesting that ageing per se affects food intake.

  7. Social engagement and health in younger, older, and oldest-old adults in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Walker, Erin Jackson; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Volaufova, Julia; LaMotte, Lynn R; Welsh, David A; Su, L Joseph; Jazwinski, S Michal; Ellis, Rebecca; Wood, Robert H; Frisard, Madlyn I

    2013-02-01

    Social support has been shown to influence health outcomes in later life. In this study, we focus on social engagement as an umbrella construct that covers select social behaviors in a life span sample that included oldest-old adults, a segment of the adult population for whom very little data currently exist. We examined relationships among social engagement, positive health behaviors, and physical health to provide new evidence that addresses gaps in the extant literature concerning social engagement and healthy aging in very old adults. Participants were younger (21-59 years), older (60-89 years), and oldest-old (90-97 years) adults (N = 364) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Linear regression analyses indicated that age, gender, and hours spent outside of the house were significantly associated with self-reported health. The number of clubs and hours outside of home were more important factors in the analyses of objective health status than positive health behaviors, after considering age group and education level. These data strongly suggest that social engagement remains an important determinant of physical health into very late adulthood. The discussion focuses on practical applications of these results including social support interventions to maintain or improve late-life health.

  8. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  9. Stool microbiome and metabolome differences between colorectal cancer patients and healthy adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we used stool profiling to identify intestinal bacteria and metabolites that are differentially represented in humans with colorectal cancer (CRC) compared to healthy controls to identify how microbial functions may influence CRC development. Stool samples were collected from healthy a...

  10. Tongue Movements during Water Swallowing in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; Van Lieshout, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the nature and extent of variability in tongue movement during healthy swallowing as a function of aging and gender. In addition, changes were quantified in healthy tongue movements in response to specific differences in the nature of the swallowing task (discrete vs. sequential swallows). Method:…

  11. Barriers and Facilitators of Healthy Diet and Exercise Among Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: Implications for Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jaehee; McClellan, Jessica; Kim, Jonghee; Tian, Tian; Grahmann, Bridget; Kirchhoff, Anne C.; Holton, Avery; Wright, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study uses qualitative methods to identify barriers to and facilitators of exercise and healthy eating among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors (survivors currently aged 18–39 years and diagnosed with cancer anytime in their lives), as reported by survivors and their primary supporters. Methods: Survivors (Mage = 27.6 years, SD = 6.6 years) had completed active cancer therapy. Survivors and supporters (i.e., nominated by survivors as someone who was a main source of support) attended separate focus group sessions (five survivor focus groups, five supporter focus groups) and were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire assessing demographic and cancer history and engagement in exercise and healthy eating. Results: In total, 25 survivors and 19 supporters participated. The three overarching themes identified were barriers to exercise and healthy eating (e.g., lack of resources, negative thoughts and feelings, negative social and environmental influences), facilitators of exercise and healthy eating (e.g., cognitive motivators, tools for health behavior implementation, social relationships), and intervention implications (e.g., informational needs, desire for social support). Conclusion: AYA cancer survivors and their supporters identified barriers to and facilitators of healthy lifestyle behaviors, which should be considered when designing interventions to improve the long-term health of survivors. PMID:26697268

  12. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    McNeely, ME; Duncan, RP; Earhart, GM

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations. PMID:26318265

  13. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    McNeely, M E; Duncan, R P; Earhart, G M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations.

  14. Ventilatory function of healthy, urban, non smoking, Pakistani young adults aged 18-24 years.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, M A; Raza, S N; Malik, M A

    1999-08-01

    Age may have a different contribution to normal lung function values in those aged less than 25 years, as compared to older individuals. We report regression equations predicting ventilatory parameters in this age group, as none have been reported from Pakistan. The study was conducted on students of King Edward Medical College Lahore, Pakistan. Participants had never smoked and reported no respiratory symptoms. In addition to anthropometric data, forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC (FEF50) were measured. Equations predicting normal values of these parameters were derived using SPSS (Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.) P < or = 0.05 was treated as statistically significant. Of the students, 519 took part in the study. All four parameters correlated significantly (P < 0.001) and positively with height. FEF50 had a negative correlation with age in both sexes (P < 0.05). The correlation of other parameters with age was variable and not statistically significant. On multiple regression, height featured as an independent predictor in equations for all parameters. The contribution of age as an independent predictor of ventilatory function was, once again, variable. Independent variables were retained in the raw form as their transformation did not improve the goodness of fit of the derived equations. Only height and age emerged as independent predictors of ventilatory function. Values derived from the equations presented in this study were less than those for height and age matched white Caucasians. Such differences were greater than the 'Asian correction factors'.

  15. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Agnes N; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were included. Out of a total of 5,718 abstracts, 412 full papers were identified as potentially relevant, and after careful scrutiny, 64 papers were quality graded as A (highest), B, or C. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance studies, suggestive for a relationship between increased all-cause mortality risk and long-term low-carbohydrate-high-protein (LCHP) diets; but inconclusive for a relationship between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship between cardiovascular diseases and total protein intake; suggestive for an inverse relationship between blood pressure (BP) and vegetable protein; probable to convincing for an inverse relationship between soya protein intake and LDL cholesterol; inconclusive for a relationship between protein intake and bone health, energy intake, BW control, body composition, renal function, and risk of kidney stones, respectively; suggestive for a relationship between increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and long-term LCHP-high-fat diets; inconclusive for impact of physical training on protein requirement; and suggestive for effect of physical training on whole-body protein retention. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the estimated requirement based on

  16. Water Intake and Hydration Indices in Healthy European Adults: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS)

    PubMed Central

    Malisova, Olga; Athanasatou, Adelais; Pepa, Alex; Husemann, Marlien; Domnik, Kirsten; Braun, Hans; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan F.; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin E.; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males), 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m2 BMI) participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L) than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L) (p = 0.019). Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p < 0.01). Applying urine osmolality cut-offs, approximately 60% of participants were euhydrated and 20% hyperhydrated or dehydrated. Most participants were euhydrated, but a substantial number of people (40%) deviated from a normal hydration level. PMID:27058557

  17. Immune Response of Healthy Adults to the Ingested Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota.

    PubMed

    Harbige, L S; Pinto, E; Allgrove, J; Thomas, L V

    2016-12-01

    Daily ingestion of a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS; 1.3 × 10(10) live cells) by healthy adults for (1) 4-week LcS, (2) 6-week discontinuation of LcS and (3) a final 4 weeks of LcS was investigated. There was a significant increase in expression of the T cell activation marker CD3(+) CD69(+) in ex vivo unstimulated blood cells at weeks 10 and 14, and there was a significant increase in the NK cell marker CD3(+) CD16/56(+) in ex vivo unstimulated blood cells at weeks 4, 10 and 14. Expression of the NK cell activation marker CD16/56(+) CD69(+) in ex vivo unstimulated blood cells was 62% higher at week 10 and 74% higher at week 14. Intracellular staining of IL-4 in ex vivo unstimulated and PMA-/ionomycin-stimulated CD3(+) β7(+) integrin blood cells was significantly lower at weeks 10 and 14. Intracellular staining of IL-12 in ex vivo unstimulated and LPS-stimulated CD14(+) blood cells was significantly lower at weeks 4, 10 and 14. Intracellular staining of TNF-α in LPS-stimulated CD14(+) blood cells was significantly lower at weeks 4, 10 and 14. Mucosal salivary IFN-γ, IgA1 and IgA2 concentrations were significantly higher at week 14, but LcS did not affect systemic circulating influenza A-specific IgA or IgG and tetanus-specific IgG antibody levels. In addition to the decrease in CD3(+) β7(+) integrin cell IL-4 and a reduced CD14(+) cell pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, at week 14 increased expression of activation markers on circulating T cells and NK cells and higher mucosal salivary IgA1 and IgA2 concentration indicated a secondary boosting effect of LcS.

  18. A quantitative systematic review of normal values for short-term heart rate variability in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Nunan, David; Sandercock, Gavin R H; Brodie, David A

    2010-11-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a known risk factor for mortality in both healthy and patient populations. There are currently no normative data for short-term measures of HRV. A thorough review of short-term HRV data published since 1996 was therefore performed. Data from studies published after the 1996 Task Force report (i.e., between January 1997 and September 2008) and reporting short-term measures of HRV obtained in normally healthy individuals were collated and factors underlying discrepant values were identified. Forty-four studies met the pre-set inclusion criteria involving 21,438 participants. Values for short-term HRV measures from the literature were lower than Task Force norms. A degree of homogeneity for common measures of HRV in healthy adults was shown across studies. A number of studies demonstrate large interindividual variations (up to 260,000%), particularly for spectral measures. A number of methodological discrepancies underlined disparate values. These include a systematic failure within the literature (a) to recognize the importance of RR data recognition/editing procedures and (b) to question disparate HRV values observed in normally healthy individuals. A need for large-scale population studies and a review of the Task Force recommendations for short-term HRV that covers the full-age spectrum were identified. Data presented should be used to quantify reference ranges for short-term measures of HRV in healthy adult populations but should be undertaken with reference to methodological factors underlying disparate values. Recommendations for the measurement of HRV require updating to include current technologies.

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version in Healthy Adults and Application to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Robert M.; Lance, Charles E.; Isquith, Peter K.; Fischer, Adina S.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) is a questionnaire measure designed to assess executive functioning in everyday life. Analysis of data from the BRIEF-A standardization sample yielded a two-factor solution (labeled Behavioral Regulation and Metacognition). The present investigation employed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate four alternative models of the factor structure of the BRIEF-A self-report form in a sample of 524 healthy young adults. Results indicated that a three-factor model best fits the data: a Metacognition factor, a Behavioral Regulation factor consisting of the Inhibit and Self-Monitor scales, and an Emotional Regulation factor composed of the Emotional Control and Shift scales. The three factors contributed 14%, 19%, and 24% of unique variance to the model, respectively, and a second-order general factor accounted for 41% of variance overall. This three-factor solution is consistent with recent CFAs of the Parent report form of the BRIEF. Furthermore, although the Behavioral Regulation factor score in the two-factor model did not differ between adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and a matched healthy comparison group, greater impairment on the Behavioral Regulation factor but not the Emotional Regulation factor was found using the three-factor model. Together, these findings support the multidimensional nature of executive function and the clinical relevance of a three-factor model of the BRIEF-A. PMID:23676185

  20. Modulation of impulsivity and reward sensitivity in intertemporal choice by striatal and midbrain dopamine synthesis in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher T.; Wallace, Deanna L.; Dang, Linh C.; Aarts, Esther; Jagust, William J.; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence links individual differences in mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine (DA) to variation in the tendency to choose immediate rewards (“Now”) over larger, delayed rewards (“Later”), or “Now bias.” However, to date, no study of healthy young adults has evaluated the relationship between Now bias and DA with positron emission tomography (PET). Sixteen healthy adults (ages 24–34 yr; 50% women) completed a delay-discounting task that quantified aspects of intertemporal reward choice, including Now bias and reward magnitude sensitivity. Participants also underwent PET scanning with 6-[18F]fluoro-l-m-tyrosine (FMT), a radiotracer that measures DA synthesis capacity. Lower putamen FMT signal predicted elevated Now bias, a more rapidly declining discount rate with increasing delay time, and reduced willingness to accept low-interest-rate delayed rewards. In contrast, lower FMT signal in the midbrain predicted greater sensitivity to increasing magnitude of the Later reward. These data demonstrate that intertemporal reward choice in healthy humans varies with region-specific measures of DA processing, with regionally distinct associations with sensitivity to delay and to reward magnitude. PMID:26683066

  1. Modulation of impulsivity and reward sensitivity in intertemporal choice by striatal and midbrain dopamine synthesis in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christopher T; Wallace, Deanna L; Dang, Linh C; Aarts, Esther; Jagust, William J; D'Esposito, Mark; Boettiger, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Converging evidence links individual differences in mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine (DA) to variation in the tendency to choose immediate rewards ("Now") over larger, delayed rewards ("Later"), or "Now bias." However, to date, no study of healthy young adults has evaluated the relationship between Now bias and DA with positron emission tomography (PET). Sixteen healthy adults (ages 24-34 yr; 50% women) completed a delay-discounting task that quantified aspects of intertemporal reward choice, including Now bias and reward magnitude sensitivity. Participants also underwent PET scanning with 6-[(18)F]fluoro-l-m-tyrosine (FMT), a radiotracer that measures DA synthesis capacity. Lower putamen FMT signal predicted elevated Now bias, a more rapidly declining discount rate with increasing delay time, and reduced willingness to accept low-interest-rate delayed rewards. In contrast, lower FMT signal in the midbrain predicted greater sensitivity to increasing magnitude of the Later reward. These data demonstrate that intertemporal reward choice in healthy humans varies with region-specific measures of DA processing, with regionally distinct associations with sensitivity to delay and to reward magnitude.

  2. Computerized Cognitive Training in Cognitively Healthy Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Effect Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Lampit, Amit; Hallock, Harry; Valenzuela, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background New effective interventions to attenuate age-related cognitive decline are a global priority. Computerized cognitive training (CCT) is believed to be safe and can be inexpensive, but neither its efficacy in enhancing cognitive performance in healthy older adults nor the impact of design factors on such efficacy has been systematically analyzed. Our aim therefore was to quantitatively assess whether CCT programs can enhance cognition in healthy older adults, discriminate responsive from nonresponsive cognitive domains, and identify the most salient design factors. Methods and Findings We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO for relevant studies from the databases' inception to 9 July 2014. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of ≥4 h of CCT on performance in neuropsychological tests in older adults without dementia or other cognitive impairment. Fifty-two studies encompassing 4,885 participants were eligible. Intervention designs varied considerably, but after removal of one outlier, heterogeneity across studies was small (I2 = 29.92%). There was no systematic evidence of publication bias. The overall effect size (Hedges' g, random effects model) for CCT versus control was small and statistically significant, g = 0.22 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.29). Small to moderate effect sizes were found for nonverbal memory, g = 0.24 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.38); verbal memory, g = 0.08 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.15); working memory (WM), g = 0.22 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.35); processing speed, g = 0.31 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.50); and visuospatial skills, g = 0.30 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.54). No significant effects were found for executive functions and attention. Moderator analyses revealed that home-based administration was ineffective compared to group-based training, and that more than three training sessions per week was ineffective versus three or fewer. There was no evidence for the effectiveness of WM training, and

  3. Cultural and Linguistic Adaptation of a Healthy Diet Text Message Intervention for Hispanic Adults Living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Linda D; Durazo, Arturo; Ramírez, A Susana; Corona, Roberto; Ultreras, Mayra; Piva, Sonia

    2017-03-01

    Hispanics represent a critical target for culturally adapted diet interventions. In this formative research, we translated HealthyYouTXT, an mHealth program developed by the U.S. National Cancer Institute, into HealthyYouTXT en Español, a linguistically and culturally appropriate version for Spanish speakers in the United States. We report a three-stage, mixed-methods process through which we culturally adapted the text messages, evaluated their acceptability, and revised the program based on the findings. In Stage 1, we conducted initial translations and adaptations of the text libraries using an iterative, principle-guided process. In Stage 2, we used mixed methods including focus groups and surveys with 109 Hispanic adults to evaluate the acceptability and cultural appropriateness of the program. We used survey data to evaluate whether self-determination theory (SDT) factors (used to develop HealthyYouTXT) of autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation and Hispanic cultural beliefs about familism, fatalism, and destiny predict program interest and its perceived efficacy. Mixed-methods analyses revealed substantial interest in HealthyYouTXT, with most participants desiring to use it and viewing it as highly efficacious. Both cultural beliefs (i.e., beliefs in destiny and, for men, high familism) and SDT motivations (i.e., autonomy) predicted HealthyYouTXT evaluations, suggesting utility in emphasizing them in messages. Higher destiny beliefs predicted lower interest, suggesting that they could impede program use. In Stage 3, we implemented the mixed-methods findings to finalize HealthyYouTXT en Español. The emergent linguistic principles and multistage, multimethods process can be applied in health communication adaptations.

  4. Population structure and uropathogenic virulence-associated genes of faecal Escherichia coli from healthy young and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Vollmerhausen, Tara L; Ramos, Nubia L; Gündogdu, Aycan; Robinson, Wayne; Brauner, Annelie; Katouli, Mohammad

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the population structures of faecal Escherichia coli in 30 healthy young adults (13 males and 17 females) aged between 20 and 45 years and 29 elderly adults (14 females and 15 males) aged between 65 and 77 years. In all, 1566 strains were typed with the PhPlate system and grouped into biochemical phenotypes (BPTs). Strains with shared BPTs were further typed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Forty-four per cent of the strains were shared between two or more age and gender groups. Elders had a significantly higher (P<0.001) number of BPTs (mean±standard error 3.3±0.27) than younger groups (1.82±0.27). Phylogenetic affiliation and virulence-associated genes (VAGs) of the strains showed that more than 80 % of the strains belonging to dominant types belonged to phylogroups B2 and D. Amongst dominant BPTs, phylogenetic group A was significantly associated with females (P<0.0001), and elders were more likely to carry group D (P<0.0124). Elderly males had a higher prevalence of VAGs than young males (P<0.0001) and young females (P<0.0005). We conclude that there is a lower prevalence of E. coli with uropathogenic properties in healthy young adults than in elders.

  5. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rocio I; Low Wang, Cecilia C; Wolfe, Pamela; Havranek, Edward P; Long, Carlin S; Bessesen, Daniel H

    2015-12-22

    Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA) compared to non-Latino whites (NLW). Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.). We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue), insulin sensitivity (IVGTT), and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003), and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R² = 0.42, p < 0.01). Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  6. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Rocio I.; Low Wang, Cecilia C.; Wolfe, Pamela; Havranek, Edward P.; Long, Carlin S.; Bessesen, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA) compared to non-Latino whites (NLW). Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.). We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue), insulin sensitivity (IVGTT), and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003), and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.42, p < 0.01). Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors. PMID:26703682

  7. Resilience after 9/11: Multimodal neuroimaging evidence for stress-related change in the healthy adult brain

    PubMed Central

    Ganzel, Barbara L.; Kim, Pilyoung; Glover, Gary H.; Temple, Elise

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to psychological trauma is common and predicts long-term physical and mental health problems, even in those who initially appear resilient. Here, we used multimodal neuroimaging in healthy adults who were at different distances from the World Trade Center on 9/11/01 to examine the neural mechanisms that may underlie this association. More than three years after 9/11/01, adults with closer proximity to the disaster had lower gray matter volume in amygdala, hippocampus, insula, anterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex, with control for age, gender, and total gray matter volume. Further analysis showed a nonlinear (first-order quadratic) association between total number of traumas in lifetime and amygdala gray matter volume and function in the whole group. Post hoc analysis of subgroups with higher versus lower levels of lifetime trauma exposure revealed systematic associations between amygdala gray matter volume, amygdala functional reactivity, and anxiety that suggest a nonlinear trajectory in the neural response to accumulated trauma in healthy adults PMID:18234524

  8. Child Safety: A Healthy Start. Teacher's Guide. Health Promotion for Adult Literacy Students: An Empowering Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This guide is intended to help adult literacy teachers in New York present a learning module in which an empowering approach is used to provide adult students with information about child-rearing and prevention techniques to keep their children safe. The first half of the guide consists of reading materials concerning the following: home and road…

  9. “Convivência” Groups: Building Active and Healthy Communities of Older Adults in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Tânia R. Bertoldo; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    2012-01-01

    In old age, social groups can be a crucial component for health and well-being. In 2009-2010, a follow-up survey was carried out in Florianópolis, Brazil to understand the impact of a variety of programs established since 2002 that were designed to enhance social activities among the older adult population. This study employed two surveys within the population of older adults in Florianópolis. The first survey interviewed a total of 875 older adults in 2002, and the second survey involved 1,705 older adults between 2009 and 2010. By 2010, many new programs were offered in the community and the enrollment of older adults in social programs followed similar trends. “Convivência” groups stood out as extremely popular social groups among this population. This paper discusses some of the potential outcomes associated with participation in “convivência” groups. PMID:22830022

  10. Accumulation of Iron in the Putamen Predicts its Shrinkage in Healthy Older Adults: A multi-occasion longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, Ana M.; Raz, Naftali

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of non-heme iron is believed to play a major role in neurodegeneration of the basal ganglia. In healthy aging, however, the temporal relationship between change in brain iron content and age-related volume loss is unclear. Here, we present the first long-term longitudinal multi-occasion investigation of changes in iron content and volume in the neostriatum in a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults (N = 32; ages 49–83 years at baseline). Iron content, estimated via R2* relaxometry, increased in the putamen, but not the caudate nucleus. In the former, the rate of accumulation was coupled with change in volume. Moreover, greater baseline iron content predicted faster shrinkage and smaller volumes seven years later. Older age partially accounted for individual differences in neostriatal iron content and volume, but vascular risk did not. Thus, brain iron content may be a promising biomarker of impending decline in normal aging. PMID:26746579

  11. Accumulation of iron in the putamen predicts its shrinkage in healthy older adults: A multi-occasion longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Raz, Naftali

    2016-03-01

    Accumulation of non-heme iron is believed to play a major role in neurodegeneration of the basal ganglia. In healthy aging, however, the temporal relationship between change in brain iron content and age-related volume loss is unclear. Here, we present the first long-term longitudinal multi-occasion investigation of changes in iron content and volume in the neostriatum in a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults (N=32; ages 49-83years at baseline). Iron content, estimated via R2* relaxometry, increased in the putamen, but not the caudate nucleus. In the former, the rate of accumulation was coupled with change in volume. Moreover, greater baseline iron content predicted faster shrinkage and smaller volumes seven years later. Older age partially accounted for individual differences in neostriatal iron content and volume, but vascular risk did not. Thus, brain iron content may be a promising biomarker of impending decline in normal aging.

  12. Prevalence of fecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among healthy adult people in Japan.

    PubMed

    Luvsansharav, Ulzii-Orshikh; Hirai, Itaru; Niki, Marie; Nakata, Arisa; Yoshinaga, Aya; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2011-10-01

    In Japan, the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers in hospital settings has shown an increasing trend. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of the fecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among healthy adults. Stool samples were collected for the phenotypic and genotypic identification of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. We found the prevalence of ESBL producers to be 6.4% by phenotypic identification, and 92.9% of them possessed the bla(CTX-M) gene. Among the CTX-M ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, we identified 11 Escherichia coli and 2 Klebsiella pneumonia strains. The findings suggest that the fecal carriage of CTX-M-type ESBL producers by healthy people is rapidly increasing in Japan. This may be one of the causes of the increased spread of ESBL-producing bacteria in hospitals.

  13. Gm antigenic titres in adults with Down's syndrome (mongolism), non-mongoloid mental defectives and healthy blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Thom, Hazel; McKay, E.

    1972-01-01

    IgG was studied in adults with Down's syndrome, non-mongoloid mental defectives accommodated in the same institution and in healthy blood donors. Total serum IgG concentration was significantly higher in Down's syndrome than in the other two groups. Maximal inhibiting titres of Gm factors 1, 4, 5, 10 and 11 were measured by haemagglutination inhibition tests. Higher Gm titres were found in homozygotes than heterozygotes. In mongols the titres of Gm 4, and to a greater extent, Gm 5, 10 and 11, were higher than would be expected from the rise in total IgG concentration. The findings suggest that in mongolism an uneven increase occurs in the H chain subgroups and allotypes of IgG. In non-mongoloid mental defectives, although total IgG concentration was similar to that found in healthy normal subjects the Gm titre findings more closely resembled those in mongols. PMID:4265431

  14. A standing posture is associated with increased susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion in fall-prone older adults.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, John; Setti, Annalisa; Doheny, Emer P; Kenny, Rose Anne; Newell, Fiona N

    2014-02-01

    Recent research has provided evidence suggesting a link between inefficient processing of multisensory information and incidence of falling in older adults. Specifically, Setti et al. (Exp Brain Res 209:375-384, 2011) reported that older adults with a history of falling were more susceptible than their healthy, age-matched counterparts to the sound-induced flash illusion. Here, we investigated whether balance control in fall-prone older adults was directly associated with multisensory integration by testing susceptibility to the illusion under two postural conditions: sitting and standing. Whilst standing, fall-prone older adults had a greater body sway than the age-matched healthy older adults and their body sway increased when presented with the audio-visual illusory but not the audio-visual congruent conditions. We also found an increase in susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion during standing relative to sitting for fall-prone older adults only. Importantly, no performance differences were found across groups in either the unisensory or non-illusory multisensory conditions across the two postures. These results suggest an important link between multisensory integration and balance control in older adults and have important implications for understanding why some older adults are prone to falling.

  15. Body Composition in Adult Patients with Thalassemia Major.

    PubMed

    Vlychou, Marianna; Alexiou, Evangelos; Thriskos, Paschalis; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Vassiou, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess body composition in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to compare the findings with a group of healthy age-matched controls. Methods. Our study group included sixty-two patients (27 males, mean age 36 years, and 35 females, mean age 36.4 years) and fifteen age-matched healthy controls. All patients had an established diagnosis of thalassemia major and followed a regular blood transfusion scheme since childhood and chelation treatment. Fat, lean, and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ferritin levels and body mass index of all patients and controls were also recorded. Student t-test and Wilcoxon test were performed and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results. BMD and whole body lean mass are lower in both male and female adult patients compared with controls (p < 0.01 in both groups), whereas whole body fat mass was found to have no statistically significant difference compared to controls. Regional trunk fat around the abdomen was found to be lower in male patients compared to controls (p = 0.02). Conclusion. Severe bone loss and diminished lean mass are expected in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major. Fat changes seem to affect mainly male patients.

  16. Body Composition in Adult Patients with Thalassemia Major

    PubMed Central

    Alexiou, Evangelos; Thriskos, Paschalis; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Vassiou, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess body composition in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to compare the findings with a group of healthy age-matched controls. Methods. Our study group included sixty-two patients (27 males, mean age 36 years, and 35 females, mean age 36.4 years) and fifteen age-matched healthy controls. All patients had an established diagnosis of thalassemia major and followed a regular blood transfusion scheme since childhood and chelation treatment. Fat, lean, and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ferritin levels and body mass index of all patients and controls were also recorded. Student t-test and Wilcoxon test were performed and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results. BMD and whole body lean mass are lower in both male and female adult patients compared with controls (p < 0.01 in both groups), whereas whole body fat mass was found to have no statistically significant difference compared to controls. Regional trunk fat around the abdomen was found to be lower in male patients compared to controls (p = 0.02). Conclusion. Severe bone loss and diminished lean mass are expected in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major. Fat changes seem to affect mainly male patients. PMID:27956899

  17. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Salivary Cortisol in Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytical Review.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Kenji; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Alda Díez, Marta; Salas-Valero, Montserrat; Pérez-Yus, María C; Morillo, Héctor; Demarzo, Marcelo M P; García-Toro, Mauro; García-Campayo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on salivary cortisol levels in healthy adult populations. Method: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published between January 1980 and June 2015 in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane library. The PRISMA and Cochrane guidelines were followed. The pooled effect sizes were calculated with the random-effects model, using Hedges' g-values, and heterogeneity was measured using the I(2) statistic. The contribution of different characteristics of participants and programmes were assessed by meta-regression models, using beta coefficients. Results: Five RCTs with 190 participants in total were included in this systematic review. The overall effect size (ES) for improving the state of health related to cortisol levels was moderately low (g = 0.41; p = 0.025), although moderate heterogeneity was found (I(2) = 55; p = 0.063). There were no significant differences between active (g = 0.33; p = 0.202) and passive (g = 0.48; p = 0.279) controls, but significant differences were found when comparing standard (g = 0.81; p = 0.002) and raw (g = 0.03; p = 0.896) measures. The percentage of women in each study was not related to ES. Nevertheless, age (beta = -0.03; p = 0.039), the number of sessions (beta = 0.33; p = 0.007) and the total hours of the MBI (beta = 0.06; p = 0.005) were significantly related to ES, explaining heterogeneity (R(2) = 1.00). Conclusions: Despite the scarce number of studies, our results suggest that MBIs might have some beneficial effect on cortisol secretion in healthy adult subjects. However, there is a need for further RCTs implemented in accordance with standard programmes and measurements of salivary cortisol under rigorous strategies in healthy adult populations.

  18. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Salivary Cortisol in Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytical Review

    PubMed Central

    Sanada, Kenji; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Alda Díez, Marta; Salas-Valero, Montserrat; Pérez-Yus, María C.; Morillo, Héctor; Demarzo, Marcelo M. P.; García-Toro, Mauro; García-Campayo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on salivary cortisol levels in healthy adult populations. Method: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published between January 1980 and June 2015 in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane library. The PRISMA and Cochrane guidelines were followed. The pooled effect sizes were calculated with the random-effects model, using Hedges' g-values, and heterogeneity was measured using the I2 statistic. The contribution of different characteristics of participants and programmes were assessed by meta-regression models, using beta coefficients. Results: Five RCTs with 190 participants in total were included in this systematic review. The overall effect size (ES) for improving the state of health related to cortisol levels was moderately low (g = 0.41; p = 0.025), although moderate heterogeneity was found (I2 = 55; p = 0.063). There were no significant differences between active (g = 0.33; p = 0.202) and passive (g = 0.48; p = 0.279) controls, but significant differences were found when comparing standard (g = 0.81; p = 0.002) and raw (g = 0.03; p = 0.896) measures. The percentage of women in each study was not related to ES. Nevertheless, age (beta = −0.03; p = 0.039), the number of sessions (beta = 0.33; p = 0.007) and the total hours of the MBI (beta = 0.06; p = 0.005) were significantly related to ES, explaining heterogeneity (R2 = 1.00). Conclusions: Despite the scarce number of studies, our results suggest that MBIs might have some beneficial effect on cortisol secretion in healthy adult subjects. However, there is a need for further RCTs implemented in accordance with standard programmes and measurements of salivary cortisol under rigorous strategies in healthy adult populations. PMID:27807420

  19. Suppressive effects of dietary fiber in yogurt on the postprandial serum lipid levels in healthy adult male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shizuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Takahashi, Noritoshi; Miyaji, Kazuhiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Kokubo, Sadayuki

    2004-05-01

    This study assessed the effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) in yogurt on the elevation of postprandial serum lipid levels. Eleven healthy adult male subjects were given yogurt with or without 6 g of PHGG in a fat tolerance test as a crossover study. Supplementation with 6 g of PHGG significantly suppressed the incremental peaks and areas under the incremental curve (AUIC) of postprandial serum remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and triglyceride (TG). The results suggest the potential of PHGG to reduce the risk of hyperlipemia.

  20. Clinical utility of breath ammonia for evaluation of ammonia physiology in healthy and cirrhotic adults.

    PubMed

    Spacek, Lisa A; Mudalel, Matthew; Tittel, Frank; Risby, Terence H; Solga, Steven F

    2015-12-14

    Blood ammonia is routinely used in clinical settings to assess systemic ammonia in hepatic encephalopathy and urea cycle disorders. Despite its drawbacks, blood measurement is often used as a comparator in breath studies because it is a standard clinical test. We sought to evaluate sources of measurement error and potential clinical utility of breath ammonia compared to blood ammonia. We measured breath ammonia in real time by quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectrometry and blood ammonia in 10 healthy and 10 cirrhotic participants. Each participant contributed 5 breath samples and blood for ammonia measurement within 1 h. We calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) for 5 breath ammonia values, reported medians of healthy and cirrhotic participants, and used scatterplots to display breath and blood ammonia. For healthy participants, mean age was 22 years (±4), 70% were men, and body mass index (BMI) was 27 (±5). For cirrhotic participants, mean age was 61 years (±8), 60% were men, and BMI was 31 (±7). Median blood ammonia for healthy participants was within normal range, 10 μmol L(-1) (interquartile range (IQR), 3-18) versus 46 μmol L(-1) (IQR, 23-66) for cirrhotic participants. Median breath ammonia was 379 pmol mL(-1) CO2 (IQR, 265-765) for healthy versus 350 pmol mL(-1) CO2 (IQR, 180-1013) for cirrhotic participants. CV was 17  ±  6%. There remains an important unmet need in the evaluation of systemic ammonia, and breath measurement continues to demonstrate promise to fulfill this need. Given the many differences between breath and blood ammonia measurement, we examined biological explanations for our findings in healthy and cirrhotic participants. We conclude that based upon these preliminary data breath may offer clinically important information this is not provided by blood ammonia.

  1. [Do practices of learning activities improve the cognitive functioning of healthy elderly adults? From the viewpoint of a transfer effect].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hajime; Sun, Qin; Tsuchida, Noriaki; Ohkawa, Ichiro

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined influences of reading aloud and performing simple calculation on the cognitive functioning of healthy elderly adults, based on the findings that these tasks activated the prefrontal lobe. The elderly adults' memory and inhibitory functions were assesed by Short-Term memory, CST, Stroop, and SRC tasks, before and after intervention for 18 months. The study found that the learning group had significant improvement from the pre- to the post-test for the short-term memory, STM, CST, and Stroop tasks. On the other hand, there was significant decline over the 18 months in the control group which was given only the assessment tasks. These results are discussed in terms of the effectiveness of cognitive training.

  2. Right-Hemispheric Cortical Contributions to Language Ability in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene; Ragnehed, Mattias; McAllister, Anita; Lundberg, Peter; Engstrom, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated the correlation between individual linguistic ability based on performance levels and their engagement of typical and atypical language areas in the brain. Eighteen healthy subjects between 21 and 64 years participated in language ability tests, and subsequent functional MRI scans measuring brain activity in response…

  3. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CO-EXPOSURE TO FINE PARTICLES AND NITROGEN DIOXIDE IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects. It is unclear if co-exposure to NO2, a common pollutant gas, potentiates the PM effects. Healthy young volunteers were recruited and exposed to either filtered air (FA), NO2 (0.5 ppm), concentrated Cha...

  4. Healthy Lifestyles for Adults with Intellectual Disability: Knowledge, Barriers, and Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caton, Sue; Chadwick, Darren; Chapman, Melanie; Turnbull, Sue; Mitchell, Duncan; Stansfield, Jois

    2012-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability (ID) are more likely to have health problems than people without disability. Little previous research has investigated health from the perspective of the people with ID themselves. We aimed to focus on what people with ID understand being healthy to mean and what their experiences are of healthy…

  5. Barium versus Nonbarium Stimuli: Differences in Taste Intensity, Chemesthesis, and Swallowing Behavior in Healthy Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Ahmed; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the impact of barium on the perceived taste intensity of 7 different liquid tastant stimuli and the modulatory effect that these differences in perceived taste intensity have on swallowing behaviors. Method: Participants were 80 healthy women, stratified by age group (<40; >60) and genetic taste status…

  6. Baylisascaris procyonis–Associated Meningoencephalitis in a Previously Healthy Adult, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Michael J.; Halabi, Cathra; Wietek, Natalie; LaRiviere, Alejandro; Shah, Maulik; Wilson, Michael R.; Chin-Hong, Peter; Douglas, Vanja; Kazacos, Kevin R.; Babik, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    After severe neurocognitive decline developed in an otherwise healthy 63-year-old man, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed eosinophilic meningoencephalitis and enhancing lesions. The patient tested positive for antibodies to Baylisascaris spp. roundworms, was treated with albendazole and dexamethasone, and showed improvement after 3 months. Baylisascariasis should be considered for all patients with eosinophilic meningitis. PMID:27434260

  7. Interdisciplinary Research Education in Communication and Social Interaction Among Healthy Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scialfa, Charles T.; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen; Spadafora, Pat

    2004-01-01

    An innovative gerontology education program was developed to advance research on aging that is interdisciplinary and promotes the translation of knowledge from lab to life. The program focuses on communication and social interaction in healthy aging. It brings together faculty mentors, graduate students, and post-doctoral fellows from six…

  8. Interdisciplinary Research Education in Communication and Social Interaction among Healthy Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scialfa, Charles; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen; Spadafora, Pat

    2004-01-01

    An innovative gerontology education program was developed to advance research on aging that is interdisciplinary and promotes the translation of knowledge from lab to life. The program focuses on communication and social interaction in healthy aging. It brings together faculty mentors, graduate students, and post-doctoral fellows from six…

  9. Cognitive functioning in relation to brain amyloid-β in healthy adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Sigan L; Handen, Benjamin L; Devenny, Darlynne A; Hardison, Regina; Mihaila, Iulia; Price, Julie C; Cohen, Annie D; Klunk, William E; Mailick, Marsha R; Johnson, Sterling C; Christian, Bradley T

    2014-09-01

    Nearly all adults with Down syndrome show neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease, including amyloid-β deposition, by their fifth decade of life. In the current study, we examined the association between brain amyloid-β deposition, assessed via in vivo assessments of neocortical Pittsburgh compound B, and scores on an extensive neuropsychological battery of measures of cognitive functioning in 63 adults (31 male, 32 female) with Down syndrome aged 30-53 years who did not exhibit symptoms of dementia. Twenty-two of the adults with Down syndrome were identified as having elevated neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention levels. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.62, P < 0.0001) between age and neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention. This robust association makes it difficult to discriminate normative age-related decline in cognitive functioning from any potential effects of amyloid-β deposition. When controlling for chronological age in addition to mental age, there were no significant differences between the adults with Down syndrome who had elevated neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention levels and those who did not on any of the neuropsychological measures. Similarly, when examining Pittsburgh compound B as a continuous variable, after controlling for mental age and chronological age, only the Rivermead Picture Recognition score was significantly negatively associated with neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention. Our findings indicate that many adults with Down syndrome can tolerate amyloid-β deposition without deleterious effects on cognitive functioning. However, we may have obscured true effects of amyloid-β deposition by controlling for chronological age in our analyses. Moreover, our sample included adults with Down syndrome who were most 'resistant' to the effects of amyloid-β deposition, as adults already exhibiting clinical symptoms of dementia symptoms were excluded from the study.

  10. Xylooligosaccharide supplementation alters gut bacteria in both healthy and prediabetic adults: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jieping; Summanen, Paula H.; Henning, Susanne M.; Hsu, Mark; Lam, Heiman; Huang, Jianjun; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Dowd, Scot E.; Finegold, Sydney M.; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that gut microbiota is altered in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients. Objective: This study was to evaluate the effect of the prebiotic xylooligosaccharide (XOS) on the gut microbiota in both healthy and prediabetic (Pre-DM) subjects, as well as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in Pre-DM. Subjects/Methods: Pre-DM (n = 13) or healthy (n = 16) subjects were randomized to receive 2 g/day XOS or placebo for 8-weeks. In Pre-DM subjects, body composition and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done at baseline and week 8. Stool from Pre-DM and healthy subjects at baseline and week 8 was analyzed for gut microbiota characterization using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Results: We identified 40 Pre-DM associated bacterial taxa. Among them, the abundance of the genera Enterorhabdus, Howardella, and Slackia was higher in Pre-DM. XOS significantly decreased or reversed the increase in abundance of Howardella, Enterorhabdus, and Slackia observed in healthy or Pre-DM subjects. Abundance of the species Blautia hydrogenotrophica was lower in pre-DM subjects, while XOS increased its abundance. In Pre-DM, XOS showed a tendency to reduce OGTT 2-h insulin levels (P = 0.13), but had no effect on body composition, HOMA-IR, serum glucose, triglyceride, satiety hormones, and TNFα. Conclusion: This is the first clinical observation of modifications of the gut microbiota by XOS in both healthy and Pre-DM subjects in a pilot study. Prebiotic XOS may be beneficial in reversing changes in the gut microbiota during the development of diabetes. Clinical trial registration: NCT01944904 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01944904). PMID:26300782

  11. Disposition of acetaminophen at 4, 6, and 8 g/day for 3 days in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Gelotte, C K; Auiler, J F; Lynch, J M; Temple, A R; Slattery, J T

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the disposition and tolerability of 1, 1.5, and 2 g acetaminophen every 6 h for 3 days. Group I healthy adults received acetaminophen (4 then 6 g/day) or placebo; Group II received acetaminophen (4 then 8 g/day) or placebo. Acetaminophen and metabolites were measured in plasma and urine. Hepatic aminotransferases were measured daily. At steady state, acetaminophen concentrations were surprisingly lower than predicted from single-dose data, although sulfate formation clearance (fCL) was lower as expected, indicating cofactor depletion with possible sulfotransferase saturation. In contrast, glucuronide fCL was unexpectedly higher, strongly suggesting glucuronosyltransferase induction. This is the first evidence that acetaminophen induces its own glucuronidation. No dose-dependent differences were detected in fCL of thiol metabolites formed via cytochrome P4502E1. Hepatic aminotransferases stayed within reference ranges, and the incidence and frequency of adverse events were similar for acetaminophen and placebo. Although dose-dependence of acetaminophen disposition was reported previously, this study shows a novel finding of time-dependent disposition during repeated dosing. Unexpected increases in glucuronide fCL more than offset decreases in sulfate fCL, thus increasing acetaminophen clearance overall. Thiol metabolite fCL remained constant up to 8 g/day. These findings have important implications in short-term (3 day) tolerability of supratherapeutic acetaminophen doses in healthy adults.

  12. Entorhinal volume, aerobic fitness, and recognition memory in healthy young adults: a voxel-based morphometry study1

    PubMed Central

    Whiteman, Andrew S.; Young, Daniel E.; Budson, Andrew E.; Stern, Chantal E.; Schon, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis effects of aerobic exercise and environmental enrichment are beneficial for cognition, in particular for hippocampus-supported learning and memory. Recent work in humans suggests exercise training induces changes in hippocampal volume, but it is not known if aerobic exercise and fitness also impact the entorhinal cortex. In animal models, aerobic exercise increases expression of growth factors, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This exercise-enhanced expression of growth hormones may boost synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival and differentiation, potentially supporting function and structure in brain areas including but not limited to the hippocampus. Here, using voxel based morphometry and a standard graded treadmill test to determine cardio-respiratory fitness (Bruce protocol; VO2 max), we examined if entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy young adults (N = 33). In addition, we examined if volumes were modulated by recognition memory performance and by serum BDNF, a putative marker of synaptic plasticity. Our results show a positive association between volume in right entorhinal cortex and cardio-respiratory fitness. In addition, average gray matter volume in the entorhinal cortex, bilaterally, was positively associated with memory performance. These data extend prior work on the cerebral effects of aerobic exercise and fitness to the entorhinal cortex in healthy young adults thus providing compelling evidence for a relationship between aerobic fitness and structure of the medial temporal lobe memory system. PMID:26631814

  13. Anxious/depressed symptoms are linked to right ventromedial prefrontal cortical thickness maturation in healthy children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Simon; Albaugh, Matthew D; Hudziak, James J; Botteron, Kelly N; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Truong, Catherine; Evans, Alan C; Karama, Sherif

    2014-11-01

    The relationship between anxious/depressed traits and neuromaturation remains largely unstudied. Characterizing this relationship during healthy neurodevelopment is critical to understanding processes associated with the emergence of child/adolescent onset mood/anxiety disorders. In this study, mixed-effects models were used to determine longitudinal cortical thickness correlates of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Young Adult Self Report Anxious/Depressed scores in healthy children. Analyses included 341 subjects from 4.9 to 22.3 year-old with repeated MRI at up to 3 time points, at 2-year intervals (586 MRI scans). There was a significant "CBCL Anxious/Depressed by Age" interaction on cortical thickness in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), including the medial orbito-frontal, gyrus rectus, and subgenual anterior cingulate areas. Anxious/Depressed scores were negatively associated with thickness at younger ages (<9 years), but positively associated with thickness at older ages (15-22 years), with the shift in polarity occurring around age 12. This was secondary to a slower rate of vmPFC cortical thinning in subjects with higher scores. In young adults (18-22 years), Anxious/Depressed scores were also positively associated with precuneus/posterior cingulate cortical thickness. Potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying this maturation pattern are proposed. These results demonstrate the dynamic impact of age on relations between vmPFC and negative affect in the developing brain.

  14. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population

    PubMed Central

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S.; Kachanathu, Shaji John

    2016-01-01

    Foot biomechanics and core stability (CS) play significant roles in the quality of standing and walking. Minor alterations in body composition may influence base support or CS strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the foot posture index (FPI) and CS in a healthy adult population. A total of 39 healthy adult subjects with a mean age of 24.3±6.4 years and over-weight BMI values between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (27.43±6.1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Foot biomechanics were analyzed using the FPI. CS was assessed using a plank test with a time-to-failure trial. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant correlation between BMI and both the FPI (r=0.504, P=0.001) and CS (r= −0.34, P=0.036). Present study concluded that an overweight BMI influences foot posture alignment and body stability. Consequently, BMI should be considered during rehabilitation management for lower extremity injuries and body balance. PMID:27419113

  15. Automatic scoring of sleep stages and cortical arousals using two electrodes on the forehead: validation in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Djordje; Khoo, Michael; Westbrook, Philip

    2014-04-01

    Accuracy and limitations of automatic scoring of sleep stages and electroencephalogram arousals from a single derivation (Fp1 -Fp2 ) were studied in 29 healthy adults using a portable wireless polysomnographic recorder. All recordings were scored five times: twice by a referent scorer who viewed the standard polysomnographic montage and observed the American Academy of Sleep Medicine rules (referent scoring and blind rescoring); and once by the same scorer who viewed only the Fp1 -Fp2 signal (alternative scoring), by another expert from the same institution, and by the algorithm. Automatic, alternative and independent expert scoring were compared with the referent scoring on an epoch-by-epoch basis. The algorithm's agreement with the reference (81.0%, Cohen's κ = 0.75) was comparable to the inter-rater agreement (83.3%, Cohen's κ = 0.78) or agreement between the referent scoring and manual scoring of the frontopolar derivation (80.7%, Cohen's κ = 0.75). Most misclassifications by the algorithm occurred during uneventful wake/sleep transitions, whereas cortical arousals, rapid eye movement and stable non-rapid eye movement sleep were detected accurately. The algorithm yielded accurate estimates of total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, arousal indices and times spent in different stages. The findings affirm the utility of automatic scoring of stages and arousals from a single frontopolar derivation as a method for assessment of sleep architecture in healthy adults.

  16. Improved Blood Biomarkers but No Cognitive Effects from 16 Weeks of Multivitamin Supplementation in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Elizabeth; Macpherson, Helen; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients may be beneficial for cognition, especially in older adults. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of multivitamin supplementation in older adults on cognitive function and associated blood biomarkers. In a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial, healthy women (n = 68) and men (n = 48) aged 55–65 years were supplemented daily for 16 weeks with women’s and men’s formula multivitamin supplements. Assessments at baseline and post-supplementation included computerised cognitive tasks and blood biomarkers relevant to cognitive aging. No cognitive improvements were observed after supplementation with either formula; however, several significant improvements were observed in blood biomarkers including increased levels of vitamins B6 and B12 in women and men; reduced C-reactive protein in women; reduced homocysteine and marginally reduced oxidative stress in men; as well as improvements to the lipid profile in men. In healthy older people, multivitamin supplementation improved a number of blood biomarkers that are relevant to cognition, but these biomarker changes were not accompanied by improved cognitive function. PMID:25996285

  17. Effects of probiotic supplementation over 5 months on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults.

    PubMed

    Cox, A J; West, N P; Horn, P L; Lehtinen, M J; Koerbin, G; Pyne, D B; Lahtinen, S J; Fricker, P A; Cripps, A W

    2014-11-01

    Use of probiotic-containing foods and probiotic supplements is increasing; however, few studies document safety and tolerability in conjunction with defined clinical end points. This paper reports the effects of 150 days of supplementation with either a single- (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04) or a double-strain (Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07) probiotic on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults. Pre- to post-intervention changes in laboratory measures were determined and compared between supplement and placebo groups. Overall there were few differences in routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures between supplement and placebo groups post-intervention. Exceptions included plasma calcium (P=0.03) and urea (P=0.015); however, observed changes were small and within assay-specific laboratory reference ranges. These data provide evidence supporting the use of these probiotic supplements over a period of 5 months in healthy active adults without obvious safety or tolerability issues.

  18. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population.

    PubMed

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John

    2016-06-01

    Foot biomechanics and core stability (CS) play significant roles in the quality of standing and walking. Minor alterations in body composition may influence base support or CS strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the foot posture index (FPI) and CS in a healthy adult population. A total of 39 healthy adult subjects with a mean age of 24.3±6.4 years and over-weight BMI values between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (27.43±6.1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Foot biomechanics were analyzed using the FPI. CS was assessed using a plank test with a time-to-failure trial. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant correlation between BMI and both the FPI (r=0.504, P=0.001) and CS (r= -0.34, P=0.036). Present study concluded that an overweight BMI influences foot posture alignment and body stability. Consequently, BMI should be considered during rehabilitation management for lower extremity injuries and body balance.

  19. The Effects of Sucrose on Metabolic Health: A Systematic Review of Human Intervention Studies in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Sigrid; Gunn, Pippa; Wittekind, Anna; Cottrell, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We systematically reviewed interventions substituting sucrose for other macronutrients in apparently healthy adults to assess impact on cardiometabolic risk indicators. Multiple databases were searched to January 2012 and abstracts assessed by 2 reviewers. Twenty-five studies (29 papers) met inclusion criteria but varied in quality and duration. Weaknesses included small subject numbers, unclear reporting of allocation, unusual dietary regimes, differences in energy intake, fat composition or fibre between conditions, unhealthy subjects, heterogeneity of results, and selective reporting. Insufficient data were available to draw reliable conclusions except with regard to the substitution of sucrose for starch, where effects on plasma lipids were inconsistent, mostly explicable by other factors, or nonsignificant. Based on fewer studies, there was little evidence for significant effects on plasma glucose or insulin. Sucrose substitution for starch up to 25% energy does not appear to have adverse effects on cardiometabolic risk indicators in apparently healthy adults. Furthermore, there is no consistent evidence that restricting sucrose in an isoenergetic diet would affect risk indicators, except perhaps in people with certain preexisting metabolic abnormalities. Larger, high-quality studies, lasting several months and studying a wider range of outcomes, are needed in order to provide evidence on which to base public health initiatives. PMID:23627502

  20. Anxious/Depressed Symptoms are Linked to Right Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortical Thickness Maturation in Healthy Children and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Simon; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Hudziak, James J.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Truong, Catherine; Evans, Alan C.; Karama, Sherif; Ball, William S.; Byars, Anna Weber; Schapiro, Mark; Bommer, Wendy; Carr, April; German, April; Dunn, Scott; Rivkin, Michael J.; Waber, Deborah; Mulkern, Robert; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Chiverton, Abigail; Davis, Peter; Koo, Julie; Marmor, Jacki; Mrakotsky, Christine; Robertson, Richard; McAnulty, Gloria; Brandt, Michael E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Kramer, Larry A.; Yang, Grace; McCormack, Cara; Hebert, Kathleen M.; Volero, Hilda; Botteron, Kelly; McKinstry, Robert C.; Warren, William; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Almli, C. Robert; Todd, Richard; Constantino, John; McCracken, James T.; Levitt, Jennifer; Alger, Jeffrey; O'Neil, Joseph; Toga, Arthur; Asarnow, Robert; Fadale, David; Heinichen, Laura; Ireland, Cedric; Wang, Dah-Jyuu; Moss, Edward; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Bintliff, Brooke; Bradford, Ruth; Newman, Janice; Evans, Alan C.; Arnaoutelis, Rozalia; Pike, G. Bruce; Collins, D. Louis; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas; Zijdenbos, Alex; Das, Samir; Fonov, Vladimir; Fu, Luke; Harlap, Jonathan; Leppert, Ilana; Milovan, Denise; Vins, Dario; Zeffiro, Thomas; Van Meter, John; Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P.; Botteron, Kelly; Almli, C. Robert; Rainey, Cheryl; Henderson, Stan; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Warren, William; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Dubois, Diane; Smith, Karla; Singer, Tish; Wilber, Aaron A.; Pierpaoli, Carlo; Basser, Peter J.; Chang, Lin-Ching; Koay, Chen Guan; Walker, Lindsay; Freund, Lisa; Rumsey, Judith; Baskir, Lauren; Stanford, Laurence; Sirocco, Karen; Gwinn-Hardy, Katrina; Spinella, Giovanna; McCracken, James T.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Levitt, Jennifer; O'Neill, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between anxious/depressed traits and neuromaturation remains largely unstudied. Characterizing this relationship during healthy neurodevelopment is critical to understanding processes associated with the emergence of child/adolescent onset mood/anxiety disorders. In this study, mixed-effects models were used to determine longitudinal cortical thickness correlates of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Young Adult Self Report Anxious/Depressed scores in healthy children. Analyses included 341 subjects from 4.9 to 22.3 year-old with repeated MRI at up to 3 time points, at 2-year intervals (586 MRI scans). There was a significant “CBCL Anxious/Depressed by Age” interaction on cortical thickness in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), including the medial orbito-frontal, gyrus rectus, and subgenual anterior cingulate areas. Anxious/Depressed scores were negatively associated with thickness at younger ages (<9 years), but positively associated with thickness at older ages (15–22 years), with the shift in polarity occurring around age 12. This was secondary to a slower rate of vmPFC cortical thinning in subjects with higher scores. In young adults (18–22 years), Anxious/Depressed scores were also positively associated with precuneus/posterior cingulate cortical thickness. Potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying this maturation pattern are proposed. These results demonstrate the dynamic impact of age on relations between vmPFC and negative affect in the developing brain. PMID:23749874

  1. Correlation of fractional anisotropy and metabolite concentrations measured using 1H-MRS of cerebral white matter in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sainan; Liu, Qiang; Lv, Yubo; Han, Wenwen; Yu, Ke; Li, Yuchao; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Fractional anisotropy (FA) is currently an ideal index capable of reflecting the white matter structure. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is often used as a noninvasive concentration measurement of important neurochemicals in vivo. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between FA and metabolite concentrations by comparing 1H-MRS of bilateral medium corona radiata in healthy adults. The data of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and 1H-MRS were acquired from 31 healthy adults using a 3.0 T MR system. All subjects were divided into three groups: the total group (mean age=42 years), the junior group (mean age=29 years) and the senior group (mean age=56 years). There was a negative correlation between FA and age in three groups (r=-0.146, r=-0.204, r=-0.162, p<0.05). The positive correlation of FA with corresponding concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) was significant in three groups (r=0.339, r=0.213, r=0.430, respectively, p<0.05). The positive correlation of FA with the corresponding NAA/Cr was only significant difference between the total 353 samples and the junior group (r=0.166, r=0.305, respectively, p<0.05). Combining 1H-MRS with DTI reveals the relationship between structure and metabolic characteristics of white matter.

  2. Entorhinal volume, aerobic fitness, and recognition memory in healthy young adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; Budson, Andrew E; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis effects of aerobic exercise and environmental enrichment are beneficial for cognition, in particular for hippocampus-supported learning and memory. Recent work in humans suggests that exercise training induces changes in hippocampal volume, but it is not known if aerobic exercise and fitness also impact the entorhinal cortex. In animal models, aerobic exercise increases expression of growth factors, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This exercise-enhanced expression of growth hormones may boost synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival and differentiation, potentially supporting function and structure in brain areas including but not limited to the hippocampus. Here, using voxel based morphometry and a standard graded treadmill test to determine cardio-respiratory fitness (Bruce protocol; ·VO2 max), we examined if entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy young adults (N=33). In addition, we examined if volumes were modulated by recognition memory performance and by serum BDNF, a putative marker of synaptic plasticity. Our results show a positive association between volume in right entorhinal cortex and cardio-respiratory fitness. In addition, average gray matter volume in the entorhinal cortex, bilaterally, was positively associated with memory performance. These data extend prior work on the cerebral effects of aerobic exercise and fitness to the entorhinal cortex in healthy young adults thus providing compelling evidence for a relationship between aerobic fitness and structure of the medial temporal lobe memory system.

  3. Effect of a tart cherry juice supplement on arterial stiffness and inflammation in healthy adults: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Anthony; Mathew, Shilpa; Moore, Chris T; Russell, Jean; Robinson, Emma; Soumpasi, Vithleem; Barker, Margo E

    2014-06-01

    Tart cherries are a particularly rich source of anthocyanins. Evidence indicates that dietary intake of anthocyanins is inversely associated with arterial stiffness. We conducted an open-label randomised placebo controlled study to determine whether a tart cherry juice concentrate (Cherry Active) reduced arterial stiffness, inflammation and risk markers for cardiovascular disease in 47 healthy adults (30-50 years). Participants consumed 30 ml of cherry concentrate diluted to a volume of 250 ml with water or the same volume of an energy matched control drink daily for six weeks. Measurements were taken at baseline and at the end of the intervention. There was no effect of the intervention on arterial stiffness (P = 0.218), c-reactive protein (P = 0.220), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.163), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.121), total cholesterol (P = 0.342) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.127). At the end of the intervention, plasma antioxidant capacity (measured as the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)) was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control group (P = 0.012). We conclude that a tart cherry juice concentrate rich in anthocyanins has no effect on arterial stiffness, c-reactive protein and risk markers for cardiovascular disease, but evokes a minor increase in antioxidant status in healthy adults.

  4. Physical Demand but Not Dexterity Is Associated with Motor Flexibility during Rapid Reaching in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Greve, Christian; Hortobàgyi, Tibor; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy humans are able to place light and heavy objects in small and large target locations with remarkable accuracy. Here we examine how dexterity demand and physical demand affect flexibility in joint coordination and end-effector kinematics when healthy young adults perform an upper extremity reaching task. We manipulated dexterity demand by changing target size and physical demand by increasing external resistance to reaching. Uncontrolled manifold analysis was used to decompose variability in joint coordination patterns into variability stabilizing the end-effector and variability de-stabilizing the end-effector during reaching. Our results demonstrate a proportional increase in stabilizing and de-stabilizing variability without a change in the ratio of the two variability components as physical demands increase. We interpret this finding in the context of previous studies showing that sensorimotor noise increases with increasing physical demands. We propose that the larger de-stabilizing variability as a function of physical demand originated from larger sensorimotor noise in the neuromuscular system. The larger stabilizing variability with larger physical demands is a strategy employed by the neuromuscular system to counter the de-stabilizing variability so that performance stability is maintained. Our findings have practical implications for improving the effectiveness of movement therapy in a wide range of patient groups, maintaining upper extremity function in old adults, and for maximizing athletic performance. PMID:25970465

  5. Correlation between vitamin D levels and muscle fatigue risk factors based on physical activity in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with physical activity, obesity, muscle fatigue biomarkers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in healthy older adults. Methods A total of 85 healthy older subjects aged 64–96 years were recruited in this study. Based on estimated energy expenditure scores, the participants were classified into three groups: inactive (n=25), moderate (n=20), and physically active (n=35). Serum 25(OH)D (25-hydroxy vitamin D) levels, metabolic syndrome parameters, TAC activity, muscle fatigue biomarkers (Ca, creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline), physical activity, body fatness, and fatigue score (visual analog scale) were estimated using immunoassay techniques and prevalidated questionnaires, respectively. Results Physical activity was estimated in 64.6% of the participants. Males showed higher physical activity (42.5%) compared to females (26.25%). Compared to participants with lower activity, significant reduction in body mass index, waist circumference, hips, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in moderate and physically active participants. Also, significant increase in the levels of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, calcium, and TAC activity along with reduction in the levels of muscle fatigue biomarkers: creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, and fatigue scores (visual analog scale) were reported in physically active participants compared to those of lower physical activity. In all participants, serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated positively with Ca, TAC, physical activity scores, and negatively with body mass index, lipid profile, fatigue scores (visual analog scale), and muscle fatigue biomarkers. Stepwise regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D concentrations, physical activity, Ca, TAC, and demographic parameters explained

  6. Physical activity and working memory in healthy older adults: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Huang, Chung-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Fu; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the effects of physical activity on working memory in older adults using both behavioral and neuroelectric measures. Older adults were assigned to either a higher or lower physical activity group, and event-related potentials were recorded during assessments of a modified Sternberg task. The results indicated that older adults in the higher physical activity group exhibited shorter response times, independent of the working memory load. Enhanced P3 and N1 amplitudes and a decreased P3 latency were observed in the higher physical activity group. These findings suggested that physical activity facilitates working memory by allocating more attentional resources and increasing the efficiency of evaluating the stimulus during the retrieval phase as well as engaging more attentional resources for the early discriminative processes during the encoding phase of a working memory task.

  7. [Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in healthy adults. Description of 2 new cases].

    PubMed

    Rivero Marcotegui, M; Hidalgo Ovejero, A; Lecumberri, M Cía; Otermin Maya, I; Pereda García, A

    2009-10-01

    The importance of Streptococcus agalactiae as a pathogen in nonpregnant adults has been widely recognized in recent years, especially in the elderly or immunocompromised patients. Two cases of vertebral osteomyelitis caused by S. agalactiae in young patients with no known underlying diseases or predisposing factor to infection are reported. A systematic review of the literature (MEDLINE, 1976-May 2008) was performed, 10 cases previously reported in the literature of vertebral osteomyelitis due to S. agalactiae being found in adults under 65 years of age with no predisposing risk factors for infection, most of which have been reported over the last 10 years. We believe that this microbial etiology should be considered in patients of any age and immunological status. Other factors, other than increasing the number of patients with chronic diseases, explaining the increased rate of S. agalactiae infections in adults need to be studied.

  8. Anticipation of monetary gain but not loss in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Gibbs, Sasha E B; Khanna, Kabir; Nielsen, Lisbeth; Carstensen, Laura L; Knutson, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Although global declines in structure have been documented in the aging human brain, little is known about the functional integrity of the striatum and prefrontal cortex in older adults during incentive processing. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine whether younger and older adults differed in both self-reported and neural responsiveness to anticipated monetary gains and losses. The present study provides evidence for intact striatal and insular activation during gain anticipation with age, but shows a relative reduction in activation during loss anticipation. These findings suggest that there is an asymmetry in the processing of gains and losses in older adults that may have implications for decision-making. PMID:17468751

  9. Neuronal fiber bundle lengths in healthy adult carriers of the ApoE4 allele: A quantitative tractography DTI study

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Peter R.; Lane, Elizabeth M.; Heaps, Jodi M.; Pierce, Kerrie D.; Cabeen, Ryan; Laidlaw, David H.; Akbudak, Erbil; Conturo, Thomas E.; Correia, Stephen; Paul, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The epsilon 4 (e4) isoform of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a known genetic risk factor for suboptimal brain health. Morphometry studies of brains with Alzheimer’s disease have reported significant alterations in temporal lobe brain structure of e4 carriers, yet it remains unclear if the presence of an e4 allele is associated with alterations in the microstructure of white matter fiber bundles in healthy populations. The present study used quantitative tractography based on diffusion tensor imaging (qtDTI) to examine the influence of the e4 allele on temporal lobe fiber bundle lengths (FBLs) in 64 healthy older adults with at least one e4 allele (carriers, N=23) versus no e4 allele (non-carriers, N=41). Subtests from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) were also analyzed to examine memory performance between groups. Analyses revealed shorter FBLs in the left uncinate fasciculus (UF) (p=.038) of e4 carriers compared to non-carriers. By contrast, neither FBLs specific to the temporal lobe nor memory performances differed significantly between groups. Increased age correlated significantly with shorter FBL in the temporal lobe and UF, and with decreased performance on tests of memory. This is the first study to utilize qtDTI to examine relationships between FBL and ApoE genotype. Results suggest that FBL in the UF is influenced by the presence of an ApoE e4 allele (ApoE4) in healthy older adults. Temporal lobe FBLs, however, are more vulnerable to aging than the presence of an e4 allele. PMID:23475756

  10. Effect of Isometric Handgrip Exercise Training on Resting Blood Pressure in Normal Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Varun; Kumar, Avnish; Dhar, Usha; Tripathi, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to study the effect of isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise training on resting blood pressure in normal healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Hand grip spring dynamometer was used for IHG exercise training. A total of 30 normal healthy volunteers in the age group of 20-40 y were enrolled for the study. Exercise training protocol consisted of five 3-min bouts of IHG exercise at 30% of maximum voluntary contraction separated by 5 min rest periods. Exercise was performed 3 times/wk for 10 wk. Subject’s blood pressure was measured before and after exercise. Result: There was a significant reduction in resting blood pressure following 10 wk of exercise training. Both Systolic and Diastolic blood pressure reduced significantly (p<0.001). Conclusion: IHG exercise training might be a simple, effective, inexpensive and non-pharmacological method in lowering blood pressure. PMID:25386422

  11. Effects of lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises on lung capacity in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Shin, Young-Jun

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] To examine the effects of lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises on the lung capacities of healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine healthy subjects with no orthopedic history of the back were recruited. Subjects were randomly assigned to a experimental group and control group. Subjects were allocated to one of two groups; an experimental group that underwent lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises and a control group that underwent treadmill and abdominal drawing-in exercises. Lung capacities were evaluated 4 weeks after exercises. [Results] The experimental group showed significant increments in EV, ERV, IRV, VT vs. pre-intervention results, and the control group showed significant increments in the EVC and IRV. Significant intergroup differences were observed in terms of post-training gains in EVC, IRV, and VT. [Conclusion] Combined application of lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises were found to have a positive effect on lung capacity.

  12. Effects of lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises on lung capacity in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Shin, Young-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To examine the effects of lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises on the lung capacities of healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine healthy subjects with no orthopedic history of the back were recruited. Subjects were randomly assigned to a experimental group and control group. Subjects were allocated to one of two groups; an experimental group that underwent lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises and a control group that underwent treadmill and abdominal drawing-in exercises. Lung capacities were evaluated 4 weeks after exercises. [Results] The experimental group showed significant increments in EV, ERV, IRV, VT vs. pre-intervention results, and the control group showed significant increments in the EVC and IRV. Significant intergroup differences were observed in terms of post-training gains in EVC, IRV, and VT. [Conclusion] Combined application of lumbopelvic sling and abdominal drawing-in exercises were found to have a positive effect on lung capacity. PMID:27630393

  13. Reappraisal and suppression mediate the contribution of regulatory focus to anxiety in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Dolcos, Sanda; Iordan, Alexandru D; Rudolph, Karen D; Dolcos, Florin

    2013-08-01

    Theory and research link regulatory focus (RF) in the form of promotion and prevention goal orientation with internalizing symptoms (e.g., anxiety), but the relevant mechanisms are not well understood. This study investigated the role of two emotion regulation (ER) strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) as possible mediators. Path analysis using data from 179 healthy young participants (110 women, 69 men) revealed that stronger promotion orientation was significantly associated with less anxiety, and that the use of reappraisal and suppression partially mediated this association. Prevention was associated with more suppression but was not directly associated with anxiety. There were no gender differences in these effects. Collectively, these findings suggest that effective ER, through heightened use of reappraisal and dampened use of suppression, serves as a mechanism through which promotion confers protection against anxiety. This research provides empirical support to initiatives aimed at promoting healthy psychological adjustment and preventing anxiety, by optimizing ER strategies with respect to RF goal orientations.

  14. Nonverbal Medical Symptom Validity Test performance of elderly healthy adults and clinical neurology patients.

    PubMed

    Henry, Matthias; Merten, Thomas; Wolf, Simone Andrea; Harth, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to provide independent data on the specificity of the Nonverbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT; Green, 2008 ), a new test that combines conventional decision making based on cutoffs with profile analyses in order to identify invalid test performance and to reduce false positive classifications. The results of 65 bona fide neurological patients (with 21 of them meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, DSM-IV, core criteria for dementia) were compared to 50 healthy volunteers. One patient was wrongly classified as malingering, resulting in a specificity of 98.5% for neurological patients and 100% for controls. A total of 13 patients with dementia (62%), 6 patients without dementia (14%), and 1 healthy participant exhibited a dementia profile in the NV-MSVT. While these results confirm the high specificity of the NV-MSVT for the classification insufficient effort, its sensitivity has to be verified by independent research data.

  15. Hepatitis B infection is associated with an increased incidence of thrombocytopenia in healthy adults without cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Joo, E-J; Chang, Y; Yeom, J-S; Lee, Y-G; Ryu, S

    2017-03-01

    The association between HBV infection and incident thrombocytopenia among subjects without cirrhosis or splenomegaly is unknown. Therefore, we sought to elucidate the association between HBV infection and the development of thrombocytopenia in a large cohort of apparently healthy men and women. A cohort study was performed in 122 200 participants without liver cirrhosis or splenomegaly who underwent comprehensive health examinations and were followed until December 2014. HBV infection was defined by the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) at baseline. Thrombocytopenia was defined as a platelet count <150 000/μL. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident thrombocytopenia. HBsAg was positive in 4857 of 122 200 subjects (4.0%) at baseline. During 883 983 person-years of follow-up, 2037 incident cases of thrombocytopenia were identified (incident rate 2.3 per 1000 person-years). HBsAg-positive subjects had a higher incidence of thrombocytopenia than did healthy controls (11.2 vs 1.9 per 1000 person-years, respectively). The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) for incident thrombocytopenia comparing HBsAg-positive to HBsAg-negative subjects was 5.71 (5.10-6.38). Strong associations between HBsAg positivity and thrombocytopenia were consistently observed across prespecified subgroups. In this large cohort study of an apparently healthy population, HBsAg positivity was strongly and independently associated with incident thrombocytopenia, indicating that mechanisms of thrombocytopenia other than portal hypertension may exist in healthy HBV carriers.

  16. Occurrence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Indian chronic periodontitis patients and periodontally healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Vinayak Mahableshwar; Bhat, Kishore Gajanan; Kugaji, Manohar Suresh; Ingalgi, Preeti Shivaji

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), an important primary periodontal pathogen, is known for its strong virulence characteristics that cause periodontal disease. We investigated Aa occurrence in Indian individuals using culture and 16 s rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with 100 participants each in the healthy and chronic periodontitis (CP) groups was conducted. The subgingival plaque was collected and immediately plated on selective media for Aa. The remaining plaque samples were used for DNA extraction. PCR was performed using specific primers for Aa. Statistical Analysis Used: The detection of bacteria and the clinical parameters between the groups were compared using the Mann–Whitney U-test. For assessing the agreement between the results of anaerobic culture and PCR, Kappa analyses were performed. Results: Aa levels using culture and PCR was 51% and 69% in the CP group and 12% and 30% in the healthy group, respectively. The two groups showed significant differences (P < 0.00001). The detection accuracy of culture and PCR was assessed, and the coefficient of accuracy (k) was highly significant in the healthy (0.3103; P < 0.0001) and CP groups (0.1536; P < 0.0497). Conclusions: Aa was predominantly found in the CP group compared with the healthy group, which is consistent with previous findings. Our results showed that both techniques can be used for detecting Aa. An ideal technique for detecting subgingival microorganisms should be carefully selected depending on the scope of the intended future work. PMID:27143824

  17. The Role of Dopamine in Anticipatory Pursuit Eye Movements: Insights from Genetic Polymorphisms in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is a long history of eye movement research in patients with psychiatric diseases for which dysfunctions of neurotransmission are considered to be the major pathologic mechanism. However, neuromodulation of oculomotor control is still hardly understood. We aimed to investigate in particular the impact of dopamine on smooth pursuit eye movements. Systematic variability in dopaminergic transmission due to genetic polymorphisms in healthy subjects offers a noninvasive opportunity to determine functional associations. We measured smooth pursuit in 110 healthy subjects genotyped for two well-documented polymorphisms, the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and the SLC6A3 3′-UTR-VNTR polymorphism. Pursuit paradigms were chosen to particularly assess the ability of the pursuit system to initiate tracking when target motion onset is blanked, reflecting the impact of extraretinal signals. In contrast, when following a fully visible target sensory, retinal signals are available. Our results highlight the crucial functional role of dopamine for anticipatory, but not for sensory-driven, pursuit processes. We found the COMT Val158Met polymorphism specifically associated with anticipatory pursuit parameters, emphasizing the dominant impact of prefrontal dopamine activity on complex oculomotor control. In contrast, modulation of striatal dopamine activity by the SLC6A3 3′-UTR-VNTR polymorphism had no significant functional effect. Though often neglected so far, individual differences in healthy subjects provide a promising approach to uncovering functional mechanisms and can be used as a bridge to understanding deficits in patients. PMID:28101524

  18. Reliability of plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) from repeated measures in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Citronberg, Jessica S; Wilkens, Lynne R; Lim, Unhee; Hullar, Meredith A J; White, Emily; Newcomb, Polly A; Le Marchand, Loïc; Lampe, Johanna W

    2016-09-01

    Plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a measure of internal exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, has been associated with several chronic conditions and may be a marker of chronic inflammation; however, no studies have examined the reliability of this biomarker in a healthy population. We examined the temporal reliability of LBP measured in archived samples from participants in two studies. In Study one, 60 healthy participants had blood drawn at two time points: baseline and follow-up (either three, six, or nine months). In Study two, 24 individuals had blood drawn three to four times over a seven-month period. We measured LBP in archived plasma by ELISA. Test-retest reliability was estimated by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Plasma LBP concentrations showed moderate reliability in Study one (ICC 0.60, 95 % CI 0.43-0.75) and Study two (ICC 0.46, 95 % CI 0.26-0.69). Restricting the follow-up period improved reliability. In Study one, the reliability of LBP over a three-month period was 0.68 (95 % CI: 0.41-0.87). In Study two, the ICC of samples taken ≤seven days apart was 0.61 (95 % CI 0.29-0.86). Plasma LBP concentrations demonstrated moderate test-retest reliability in healthy individuals with reliability improving over a shorter follow-up period.

  19. A Healthy Old Age: A Sourcebook for Health Promotion with Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FallCreek, Stephanie; Mettler, Molly

    The purpose of this sourcebook is to provide information about health promotion program planning, activities, and resources to people planning wellness programs for older adults. The materials are divided into two parts: background information and resources. The Wallingford Wellness Project is presented as an example of a comprehensive health…

  20. Retrospective Reports by Healthy Intelligent Elderly People of Personal Events of Their Adult Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Dorothy

    Psychologists generally agree on the importance of early events in personality development, yet until now there has not been an opportunity to look at the personal lives of a group of adults over a considerable time. Subjects examined were 16 men and 44 women, parents of the subjects of the Guidance Study, a longitudinal study of the Institute of…

  1. Gender Differences in Views about Cognitive Health and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors among Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bei; Goins, R. Turner; Laditka, James N.; Ignatenko, Valerie; Goedereis, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Research suggests that men and women often differ in knowledge and beliefs about causes and treatments of a variety of diseases. This study examines gender differences in views about cognitive health and behaviors that have been associated with its maintenance, focusing on older adults living in rural areas. Design and Methods: We…

  2. Healthy Behavior Change of Adults with Mental Retardation: Attendance in a Health Promotion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Joshua; Zhou, Huafeng; McDermott, Suzanne; Poston, Mary Beth

    2006-01-01

    Participation in a health promotion program for 192 overweight and obese adults with mental retardation was associated with behavior change resulting in reduction of body mass index--BMI (weight in kg, divided by height in meters, squared) by the end of the program. We analyzed the mediating and intermediate factors contributing to weight…

  3. Association of oxytocin level and less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history among healthy Japanese adults involved with child care

    PubMed Central

    Mizuki, Rie; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxytocin (OT) is known to play a role in stress regulation. The association between childhood maltreatment history and neuropeptide OT concentration is inconsistent due to the varying degrees of severity of childhood maltreatment, among other contributing factors. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history might enhance OT concentrations as a response to coping with social stress within the family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history and OT concentrations among healthy adults. Method: Eighty adults (49 women and 31 men) with 18- to 48-month-old children were recruited using a snowball sample in Tokyo, Japan. Urine samples were collected for OT measurement. Less severe (low and moderate) childhood maltreatment history, including physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse, was assessed using the self-report questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Results: Less severe physical abuse was significantly associated with higher OT concentration after adjusting for age (p = 0.014). Also, less severe forms of physical abuse were independently significantly associated with higher OT concentration after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment (p = 0.027). A positive dose-response association between the number of less severe childhood maltreatment types and OT concentration was observed (p = 0.031). Conclusion: A history of less severe forms of childhood physical abuse was associated with higher OT concentration in healthy adults. Poly-victimization of several types of less severe childhood maltreatment was also associated with higher OT concentrations. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment might enhance OT concentrations in order to cope with social stress. PMID:26157369

  4. CSF T-Tau/Aβ42 predicts white matter microstructure in healthy adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bendlin, Barbara B; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Johnson, Sterling C; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Willette, Auriel A; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Sodhi, Aparna; Ries, Michele L; Birdsill, Alex C; Alexander, Andrew L; Rowley, Howard A; Puglielli, Luigi; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers T-Tau and Aβ(42) are linked with Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet little is known about the relationship between CSF biomarkers and structural brain alteration in healthy adults. In this study we examined the extent to which AD biomarkers measured in CSF predict brain microstructure indexed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and volume indexed by T1-weighted imaging. Forty-three middle-aged adults with parental family history of AD received baseline lumbar puncture and MRI approximately 3.5 years later. Voxel-wise image analysis methods were used to test whether baseline CSF Aβ(42), total tau (T-Tau), phosphorylated tau (P-Tau) and neurofilament light protein predicted brain microstructure as indexed by DTI and gray matter volume indexed by T1-weighted imaging. T-Tau and T-Tau/Aβ(42) were widely correlated with indices of brain microstructure (mean, axial, and radial diffusivity), notably in white matter regions adjacent to gray matter structures affected in the earliest stages of AD. None of the CSF biomarkers were related to gray matter volume. Elevated P-Tau and P-Tau/Aβ(42) levels were associated with lower recognition performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Overall, the results suggest that CSF biomarkers are related to brain microstructure in healthy adults with elevated risk of developing AD. Furthermore, the results clearly suggest that early pathological changes in AD can be detected with DTI and occur not only in cortex, but also in white matter.

  5. Increased alpha-amylase response to an acute psychosocial stress challenge in healthy adults with childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Kuras, Yuliya I; McInnis, Christine M; Thoma, Myriam V; Chen, Xuejie; Hanlin, Luke; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity is highly prevalent and linked to lasting psychological and physiological consequences. A potential mechanism for negative health outcomes is altered stress reactivity. While previous research has addressed associations of childhood adversity with stress system reactivity, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress reactivity is understudied. We therefore set out here to examining salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) reactivity in relation with childhood adversity. Forty-one healthy adult subjects (n = 24 male; n = 17 female) aged 18-34 years underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Saliva for measurement of sAA was collected at three time points; before the TSST, immediately after, and 10 min post-TSST. We found that those with childhood trauma had a higher overall sAA response to the TSST, as seen in a repeated measures ANOVA (CTQ by time interaction: F(1.8,71.5) = 6.46, p = .01) and an independent samples t-test indicating higher sAA baseline to peak response (t = 3.22, p = .003). There was also a positive correlation between sAA reactivity and the CTQ subscales of childhood physical abuse (r = .46, p = .005) and emotional abuse (r = .37, p = .024). Healthy adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity had a heightened sAA response immediately following the stressor. Higher SNS reactivity could be a link to negative health outcomes in adults with early adversity. Future research should address whether altered sAA reactivity is predictive of negative health outcomes in those with childhood adversity.

  6. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Diet Quality in Australian Adults Using the Validated Healthy Eating Index for Australian Adults (HEIFA-2013)

    PubMed Central

    Grech, Amanda; Sui, Zhixian; Siu, Hong Ying; Zheng, Miaobing; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Rangan, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Diet quality indices have been shown to predict cardiovascular disease, cancer, Type 2 Diabetes, obesity and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to determine the socio-demographics of Australian adults with poor diet quality. Diet quality was assessed for participants of the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey aged 18 years or above (n = 9435), with the validated 11-component Healthy Eating Index for Australians (HEIFA-2013), based on the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. Differences in scores by demographics (ANOVA) and regression models for associations between the HEIFA-2013 score and demographic characteristics were conducted. The mean (SD) HEIFA-2013 score was 45.5 (14.7) out of 100 due to poor intakes of vegetables, fruit, grains, dairy and fat and high intakes of added sugar, sodium and discretionary foods. Lower mean HEIFA-2013 scores (SD) were found for males 43.3 (14.7), young-adults 41.6 (14.2) obese 44.1 (14.3), smokers 40.0 (14.2), low socio-economic status 43.7 (14.9) and Australian country-of-birth 44.2 (14.6) (p < 0.05). The overall diet quality of the Australian population is poor and targeted interventions for young-adults, males, obese and those with lower socio-economic status are recommended. PMID:28165394

  7. Prematurely delivered rats show improved motor coordination during sensory-evoked motor responses compared to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Megan E; Brumley, Michele R

    2014-05-10

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat.

  8. Working Memory Training for Healthy Older Adults: The Role of Individual Characteristics in Explaining Short- and Long-Term Gains

    PubMed Central

    Borella, Erika; Carbone, Elena; Pastore, Massimiliano; De Beni, Rossana; Carretti, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore whether individual characteristics such as age, education, vocabulary, and baseline performance in a working memory (WM) task—similar to the one used in the training (criterion task)—predict the short- and long-term specific gains and transfer effects of a verbal WM training for older adults. Method: Four studies that adopted the Borella et al. (2010) verbal WM training procedure were found eligible for our analysis as they included: healthy older adults who attended either the training sessions (WM training group), or alternative activities (active control group); the same measures for assessing specific gains (on the criterion WM task), and transfer effects (nearest on a visuo-spatial WM task, near on short-term memory tasks and far on a measure of fluid intelligence, a measure of processing speed and two inhibitory measures); and a follow-up session. Results: Linear mixed models confirmed the overall efficacy of the training, in the short-term at least, and some maintenance effects. In the trained group, the individual characteristics considered were found to contribute (albeit only modestly in some cases) to explaining the effects of the training. Conclusions: Overall, our findings suggest the importance of taking individual characteristics and individual differences into account when examining WM training gains in older adults. PMID:28381995

  9. Daily Intake of Magnesium and its Relation to Urinary Excretion in Korean Healthy Adults Consuming Self-Selected Diets.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Weaver, Connie M

    2017-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is an essential nutrient as a structural constituent of bone and regulator of >300 enzymes. However, studies on intake and urinary excretion of Mg are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Mg intake and its relation to 24-h urinary excretion in healthy adults. Anthropometric measurements and dietary intake by the 24-h recall method were conducted in 80 adults aged 21-69 (average 44.3) years. Urine was collected for 24 h on the day following the dietary survey. Dietary assessment and 24-h urine collection were repeated 3 days later. Daily intake and urinary excretion of Mg were analyzed using Can-Pro and ICP-OES, respectively. The statistical analysis was conducted using SAS program. Mg intake of the subjects was 319 ± 129 mg/day for men and 277 ± 94 mg/day for women and the proportion of subjects who did not meet the estimated average requirement was 50 and 67.5 % for men and women, respectively. Urinary Mg excretion was 30.3 % of the daily Mg intake. Urinary Mg excretion was not significantly correlated with the daily Mg intake. Korean adults are not meeting the recommended intake of Mg, but its urinary excretion suggests homeostasis is not compromised.

  10. Effects of diurnal variation and caffeine consumption on Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Melissa G; Momjian, Ani J; Wong, Keri K

    2011-03-01

    The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) is a continuous performance test (CPT) that assesses attention, impulsivity, and processing speed. CPTs are used in the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, but more young adults are being assessed for ADHD as well. The TOVA norms are based on a standardization sample that was tested early in the day, and any TOVA administered after 1:00 p.m. will be flagged as potentially invalid. Whereas the testing time recommendations make sense for pediatric samples, it is unclear whether they are appropriate for young adults in college, who typically show significant phase delay in their diurnal rhythms. In addition, many college students consume large amounts of caffeine, and it is unclear how caffeine consumption affects TOVA performance. The current study examined the impact of time of day, self-reported diurnal preference, and caffeine consumption on TOVA performance in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment with healthy college students. There was evidence of diurnal variation on average response time and impulsivity but not on overall ADHD score, with participants tested in the afternoon responding faster but making more commission errors than did participants tested in the morning. Caffeine consumption led to significantly faster response times, but only for participants who typically consumed relatively little caffeine. We conclude that the TOVA can be administered to young adults outside the recommended time constraints without compromising the validity of test score interpretation but that the caffeine consumption of participants should be closely monitored.

  11. A validation study of memory and executive functions indexes in French-speaking healthy young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Alexandra; Caza, Nicole

    2014-03-01

    Medial temporal lobe (MTL)/memory and frontal lobe (FL)/executive functions indexes are used to measure changes related to cognitive aging. These indexes are based on composite scores of neuropsychological tests validated in English-speaking populations, and their use in aging research is growing in popularity. This study aimed at validating the MTL/memory and FL/executive functions indexes in French-speaking adults. Ninety-eight healthy participants (32 young and 66 older adults) were tested on eight neuropsychological tests, three associated with MTL/memory functions and five associated with FL/executive functions. Factor analysis indicated that residual scores independent of age and associated with MTL/memory functions grouped under one factor, and residual scores associated with FL/executive functions grouped under another factor. Bootstrapping analysis with 1,000 resamples confirmed stability for seven neuropsychological tests. This study provides the first validation of the MTL/memory and FL/executive functions composite scores in French-speaking adults, which may be used to assess cognitive changes in aging research.

  12. Amino acid mixture acutely improves the glucose tolerance of healthy overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bei; Kammer, Lynne M; Ding, Zhenping; Lassiter, David G; Hwang, Jungyun; Nelson, Jeffrey L; Ivy, John L

    2012-01-01

    Certain amino acids have been reported to influence carbohydrate metabolism and blood glucose clearance, as well as improve the glucose tolerance in animal models. We hypothesized that an amino acid mixture consisting of isoleucine and 4 additional amino acids would improve the glucose response of healthy overweight men and women to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Twenty-two overweight healthy subjects completed 2 OGTTs after consuming 2 different test beverages. The amino acid mixture beverage (CHO/AA) consisted of 0.088 g cystine 2HCl, 0.043 g methionine, 0.086 g valine, 12.094 g isoleucine, 0.084 g leucine, and 100 g dextrose. The control beverage (CHO) consisted of 100 g dextrose only. Venous blood samples were drawn 10 minutes before the start of ingesting the drinks and 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after the completion of the drinks. Du