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Sample records for age-matched healthy children

  1. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J F; Andersen, T R; Andersen, L J; Randers, M B; Hornstrup, T; Hansen, P R; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG; 68.2 ± 3.2 years). Examinations included measurements of cardiac function, microvascular endothelial function [reactive hyperemic index (RHI)], maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and body composition. In VPG, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume was 20% larger (P < 0.01) and LV ejection fraction was higher (P < 0.001). Tissue Doppler imaging revealed an augmented LV longitudinal displacement, i.e., LV shortening of 21% (P < 0.001) and longitudinal 2D strain was 12% higher (P < 0.05), in VPG. In VPG, resting heart rate was lower (6 bpm, P < 0.05), and VO2max was higher (18%, P < 0.05). In addition, RHI was 21% higher (P < 0.05) in VPG. VPG also had lower body mass index (P < 0.05), body fat percentage, total body fat mass, android fat percentage, and gynoid fat percentage (all P < 0.01). Lifelong participation in football training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  2. Developmental Level and Psychopathology: Comparing Children with Developmental Delays to Chronological and Mental Age Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Barbara; Neece, Cameron L.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    Children with developmental delays (DD) are at heightened risk for developing clinically significant behavioral and emotional difficulties as compared to children with typical development (TD). However, nearly all studies comparing psychopathology in youth with DD employ TD control groups of the same chronological age (CA). It is unclear, then, whether the heightened symptomology found in age-matched children with DD is beyond what would be expected given their developmental level. The present study assessed rates of behavior problems and mental disorder in 35 children with DD at age 9 years. These were compared with rates from 35 children with TD matched for CA at age 9 and also earlier rates for these same children at age 6, when matched for mental age (MA). Children with DD had significantly more behavior problems in 7 of the 17 scales of the CBCL when compared to TD children matched for CA, and 6 of 17 scales when compared to the MA-matched group. Rates of meeting DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric disorder were significantly higher in the DD group than both the CA- and MA-matched TD groups for three and four, respectively, of the seven diagnoses examined. Descriptively, the mean ratings for all variables assessed were higher for the DD group than both TD comparison groups, with the exception of the Anxious/Depressed scale of the CBCL. These findings validate the heightened risk for clinically significant behavior problems and mental disorders in youth with DD above and beyond their developmental functioning. PMID:25498740

  3. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  4. Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee-Oh; O'Sullivan, David; Choi, Bum-Gwon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ± 2.8 years; weight, 48.1 ± 14.1 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ± 2.9 years; weight, 43.6 ± 10 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite(®) system while their plantar pressure was being recorded. [Results] The results showed a reduction in cadence, gait velocity, and step length, and an increase in step width in children with autism. Plantar pressure variables highlight the differences between the active pressure areas, especially in the hindfoot of children with autism. [Conclusion] The results suggest that children with autism have an abnormal gait compared with that of age-matched controls, and thus they need extra attention to correct these abnormal gait patterns.

  5. Impact of Limiting Visual Input on Gait: Individuals with Parkinson Disease, Age-matched Controls and Healthy Young Participants

    PubMed Central

    Pilgram, Laura M.; Earhart, Gammon M.; Pickett, Kristen A.

    2016-01-01

    Normal and limited vision gait was investigated in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD), healthy older and healthy young individuals. Participants walked a GAITRite mat with normal vision or vision of lower limbs occluded. Results indicate individuals with PD walked more slowly, with shorter and wider steps and spent more time in double support with limited vision as compared to full vision. Healthy young and old individuals took shorter steps but were otherwise unchanged between conditions. PMID:26987577

  6. The Long-Term Effect of Radical Prostatectomy on Erectile Function, Urinary Continence, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Comparison to Age-Matched Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ponholzer, Anton; Augustin, Herbert; Madersbacher, Stephan; Pummer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. To analyze the impact of radical prostatectomy (RPE) on erectile function and lower urinary tract function in comparison to age-matched healthy men. Materials and Methods. Patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy completed questionnaires containing the IIEF-5, the Bristol female LUTS questionnaire, and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Results. Patients after RPE were included (n = 363). Age-matched healthy men (n = 363) were included. The mean IIEF-5 of patients aged 61–70 yrs after RPE was 10.4 ± 6.6 versus 18.8 ± 5.3 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs after RPE were 7.2 ± 6.5 versus 13.6 ± 7.7 in the control cohort. Urinary incontinence after RPE was reported in 41.9% (61–70 years) and 37.7% (71–80) versus 7.5% and 15.1% in the control cohort. The mean IPSS of patients after RPE aged 61–70 yrs was 5.0 ± 4.4 versus 5.5 ± 4.9 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs were 6.0 ± 4.9 versus 7.5 ± 5.7 in the healthy cohort. Conclusions. The negative effect of radical prostatectomy on erectile and urinary incontinence remains substantial. The physiologically declining erectile and lower urinary tract function with ageing reduces the difference between healthy men and those after surgery. Healthy men have a higher IPSS presumably due to the presence of bladder outlet obstruction. PMID:28261619

  7. Hypoconnectivity of Resting-State Networks in Persons with Aphasia Compared with Healthy Age-Matched Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Chaleece W.

    2017-01-01

    Aphasia is a language disorder affecting more than one million people in the US. While language function has traditionally been the focus of neuroimaging research, other cognitive functions are affected in this population, which has implications not only for those specific processes but also for the interaction of language and other cognitive functions. Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is a practical and informative way to explore and characterize general cognitive engagement and/or health in this population, but it is currently underutilized. The aim of this study was to explore the functional connectivity in resting state networks (RSNs) and in the semantic network in seven persons with aphasia (PWA) who were at least 6 months post onset compared with 11 neurologically healthy adults (NHA) in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of general cognitive engagement in aphasia. These preliminary results show that PWA exhibit hypoconnectivity in the semantic network and all RSNs except the visual network. Compared with NHA, PWA appear to have fewer cross- and left-hemispheric connections. However, PWA exhibit some stronger connections than NHA within the semantic network, which could indicate compensatory mechanisms. Importantly, connectivity for RSNs appear to increase with decreasing aphasia severity and decrease with increasing lesion size. This knowledge has the potential to improve aphasia therapy by furthering the understanding of lesion effects on the cognitive system as a whole, which can guide treatment target selection and promotion of favorable neural reorganization for optimal recovery of function. PMID:28293185

  8. The fears, phobias and anxieties of children with autism spectrum disorders and Down syndrome: comparisons with developmentally and chronologically age matched children.

    PubMed

    Evans, David W; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant differences emerged across the diagnostic groups on a variety of fears. Children with ASD were reported to have more situation phobias and medical fears, but fewer fears of harm/injury compared to all other groups. The groups also differed in terms of the pattern of correlations between fears, phobias, anxieties and behavior problems. For children with ASD, fears, phobias and anxieties were closely related to problem behaviors, whereas fears, phobias, and anxieties were less related to behavioral symptoms for the other groups of subjects. Such findings suggest that children with ASD exhibit a distinct profile of fear and anxiety compared to other mental age and chronologically age-matched children, and these fears are related to the symptoms associated with ASD.

  9. Healthy Lifestyle: Children's Health

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Children's health You want your child to eat healthy foods, but do you know which nutrients ... 16, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/nutrition-for-kids/art- ...

  10. Phonological whole-word measures in 3-year-old bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers.

    PubMed

    Bunta, Ferenc; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian; Ingram, David

    2009-02-01

    The present study investigated phonological whole-word measures and consonant accuracy in bilingual and monolingual children to investigate how target approximations drive phonological acquisition. The study included eight bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking 3-year-olds and their monolingual peers (eight Spanish and eight American English). Phonological whole-word measures (pMLU and Proximity) and consonant accuracy (PCC) were calculated on elicited single words. Differences were found on each measure between bilinguals and monolinguals in English, but in Spanish, only the PCC displayed differences between bilinguals and monolinguals. Bilinguals displayed language separation on the pMLU and the PCC but not the Proximity, indicating structural phonological differences between the Spanish and English of bilinguals but commensurate target approximations. This suggests that maintaining a consistent level of phonological proximity to the target is an important factor in phonological acquisition. The measures and their relationships are also discussed.

  11. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  12. Do Healthy Preterm Children Need Neuropsychological Follow-Up? Preschool Outcomes Compared with Term Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dall'Oglio, Anna M.; Rossiello, Barbara; Coletti, Maria F.; Bultrini, Massimiliano; De Marchis, Chiara; Rava, Lucilla; Caselli, Cristina; Paris, Silvana; Cuttini, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. Method : A total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33…

  13. The Fears, Phobias and Anxieties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Down Syndrome: Comparisons with Developmentally and Chronologically Age Matched Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, David W.; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant…

  14. Healthy Environments for Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... OUTSIDE, THEY NEED CARE AND AFFECTION IN A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT! ...AT SCHOOL... 2 ...AT HOME... ...EVEN IN THEIR ... CAN WE DO? HOW CAN WE GUARANTEE A HEALTHY FUTURE FOR ... PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT, ESPECIALLY RIVERS AND FORESTS, WE CAN IMPROVE THE ...

  15. Voice Onset Time of Voiceless Bilabial and Velar Stops in 3-Year-Old Bilingual Children and Their Age-Matched Monolingual Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Bunta, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates aspects of voice onset time (VOT) of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in monolingual and bilingual children. VOT poses a special challenge for bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking children because although this VOT distinction exists in both languages, the values differ for the same contrast across Spanish and English.…

  16. Voice onset time of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in 3-year-old bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers

    PubMed Central

    FABIANO-SMITH, LEAH; BUNTA, FERENC

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates aspects of voice onset time (VOT) of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in monolingual and bilingual children. VOT poses a special challenge for bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking children because although this VOT distinction exists in both languages, the values differ for the same contrast across Spanish and English. Twenty-four 3-year-olds participated in this study (8 bilingual Spanish–English, 8 monolingual Spanish and 8 monolingual English). The VOT productions of /p/ and /k/ in syllable-initial stressed singleton position were compared across participants. Non-parametric statistical analyses were performed to examine differences (1) between monolinguals and bilinguals and (2) between English and Spanish. The main findings of the study were that monolingual and bilingual children generally differed on VOT in English, but not in Spanish. No statistically significant differences were found between the Spanish and the English VOT of the bilingual children, but the VOT values did differ significantly for monolingual Spanish-versus monolingual English-speaking participants. Our findings were interpreted in terms of Flege’s Speech Learning Model, finding possible evidence for equivalence classification. PMID:21787142

  17. Voice onset time of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in 3-year-old bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers.

    PubMed

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Bunta, Ferenc

    2012-02-01

    This study investigates aspects of voice onset time (VOT) of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in monolingual and bilingual children. VOT poses a special challenge for bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking children because although this VOT distinction exists in both languages, the values differ for the same contrast across Spanish and English. Twenty-four 3-year-olds participated in this study (8 bilingual Spanish-English, 8 monolingual Spanish and 8 monolingual English). The VOT productions of /p/ and /k/ in syllable-initial stressed singleton position were compared across participants. Non-parametric statistical analyses were performed to examine differences (1) between monolinguals and bilinguals and (2) between English and Spanish. The main findings of the study were that monolingual and bilingual children generally differed on VOT in English, but not in Spanish. No statistically significant differences were found between the Spanish and the English VOT of the bilingual children, but the VOT values did differ significantly for monolingual Spanish- versus monolingual English-speaking participants. Our findings were interpreted in terms of Flege's Speech Learning Model, finding possible evidence for equivalence classification.

  18. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  19. Healthy Children, Healthy Minds: Creating a Brighter Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebrun, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Children struggle with life today. Being children in the 21st century is both taxing and exciting, and yet trying to cope with all of the technology and media that surrounds them. How do we as adults provide good models? Mindfulness, exercise, focus and attention, and healthy living strategies need to play a role in shaping healthy children.…

  20. Colonization by Candida in children with cancer, children with cystic fibrosis, and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Gammelsrud, K W; Sandven, P; Høiby, E A; Sandvik, L; Brandtzaeg, P; Gaustad, P

    2011-12-01

    A longitudinal, prospective study was conducted intermittently in Norway, from 1999 to 2008, to investigate the Candida colonization rates and species distributions in the tonsillopharyngeal and faecal flora in: (i) children with cancer; (ii) children with cystic fibrosis (CF); and (iii) healthy children. The effect of antibiotic treatment on Candida colonization was also studied, and we looked for changes in antifungal susceptibility over time within each child and between the different groups of children. In total, 566 tonsillopharyngeal swabs and 545 faecal samples were collected from 45 children with cancer, 37 children with CF, and 71 healthy, age-matched controls. The overall colonization rate with Candida was not significantly higher in the two groups of children undergoing extensive treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics than in healthy controls. Approximately one-third of the cancer patients had a total lack of Candida colonization or had only one Candida-positive sample, despite multiple samples being taken, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, long hospital stays, and periods with neutropenia. Children with CF had the highest prevalence of Candida albicans. Amoxycillin, azithromycin, third-generation cephalosporins and oral vancomycin resulted in a significantly increased Candida colonization rate. Phenoxymethylpenicillin, second-generation cephalosporins, metronidazole, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, penicillinase-resistant penicillins and inhaled tobramycin or colistin showed minimal effects on the Candida colonization rate. We found no evidence of development of antifungal resistance over time.

  1. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals.

  2. Metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness performance in children with cerebral palsy: A comparison with healthy youth

    PubMed Central

    García, Claudia Cardona; Alcocer-Gamboa, Alberto; Ruiz, Margarita Pérez; Caballero, Ignacio Martínez; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Saiz, Beatriz Moral; Lorenzo, Teresa Martín; Lara, Sergio Lerma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and to compare these findings with typically developing children. 40 children with CP (21 males, 19 females; mean age, 11.0±3.3 yr; range, 6.5–17.1 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels 1 or 2) and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched children completed a test battery that consisted of 8 tests and 28 measures that assessed cardio-respiratory fitness, energy expenditure, anaerobic endurance, muscle strength, agility, stability and flexibility. Children with CP had significantly lower performance (P<0.05) on most cardiorespiratory and metabolic tests than those of healthy children, Differences in neuromuscular measures of muscular strength, speed, agility, anaerobic endurance, and flexibility between groups were most apparent. Grouped differences in cardiorespiratory variables revealed a 25% difference in performance, whereas grouped differences in metabolic and neuromuscular measures were 43% and 60%, respectively. The physical fitness of contemporary children with CP is significantly less than healthy, age-matched children. Significant differences in neuromuscular measures between groups can aid in the identification of specific fitness abilities in need of improvement in this population. PMID:27162775

  3. How Healthy Are Our Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Blum, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The past century has seen vast improvements in our children's health. The infectious diseases that once killed huge numbers of children have largely been conquered. Infant mortality has also fallen markedly, although the United States lags behind other industrialized nations in this and other measures of children's health. Accidents and injuries…

  4. Kingella kingae infection in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Gamble, J G; Rinsky, L A

    1988-01-01

    Kingella kingae is a gram-negative occasional, but normal, inhabitant of the nasopharynx. We present two new cases of this infection that occurred in previously healthy children, and compare and contrast them to other cases reported in the literature. K. kingae osteomyelitis generally has an insidious, subacute onset, whereas septic arthritis has an acute presentation. To date, all strains of K. kingae have been sensitive to penicillin, and no residual damage has been reported following osteomyelitis or septic arthritis, except that residual disk space narrowing did occur after K. kingae discitis.

  5. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  6. Music and Movement for Young Children's Healthy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Morris, Vivian Gunn; Meredith, Cathy D.; Hicks, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Young children enjoy moving around when they hear music. Children take pleasure in physical activities that contribute to their healthy development. Physical activities are vital to retain healthy bodies, and inactivity is one cause of obesity in young children (Dow, 2010; Izumi-Taylor & Morris, 2007). This article describes how teachers and…

  7. Functional residual capacity in healthy preschool children.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, J H; Van Bever, H P; Desager, K N; Willemen, M J; Creten, W L; Van Acker, K J; Vermeire, P A

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of routine functional residual capacity (FRC) measurements in healthy preschool children aged 2.7-6.4 yrs. Furthermore, accuracy and reproducibility were investigated and normal values were collected. A mass-produced closed-circuit helium dilution device (rolling seal) was used. Selection of the 113 healthy children (from the 571 measured) was based on an extensive personal and family history questionnaire and on clinical examination before measurements were performed. With three successive attempts it was possible to achieve at least two reproducible measurements in 73% of the children (repeatability coefficient 95.3 mL). The main problems were leakage at the corner of the mouth and irregular breathing pattern. The mean time to perform a measurement was 113 s. Mean FRC was significantly higher in boys than in girls: 778 versus 739 mL for a body length of 110 cm (p<0.05). FRC correlated with height (H) (r=0.69), weight (W) (r=0.56), age (A) (r=0.62) and all three combined (r=0.70): FRC = -534.89 + 1.84 x W (kg) + 10.07 x H (cm) + 2.51 x A (months). When a power or exponential function was used to describe FRC as a function of height, the results were not superior to the linear regression (r=0.69): FRC (mL) = -766.2 + 13.8 x H (cm) (r=0.69) or FRC (L) = 0.620 x H (m)(2.03) (r=0.69) or FRC (mL)= 99.5 x e(0.018xH (cm)) (r=0.69). Among these, we recommend the power function because it will better fit broader height ranges. Reliable functional residual capacity measurements can be routinely performed in preschool children with a mass-produced device. Reference values were collected for children 95-125 cm in height.

  8. Prevention of influenza in healthy children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y; Shah, Mirat

    2013-01-01

    Healthy children are high transmitters of influenza and can experience poor influenza outcomes. Many questions remain about the efficacy and impect of preventive measures because most existing studies report imprecise proxies of influenza incidence, do not follow subjects throughout the entire influenza season and across multiple influenza seasons, or do not control for important factors such as timing of implementation and social contact patterns. Modeling and simulation are key methodologies to answer questions regarding influenza prevention. While vaccination may be the most efficacious existing intervention, variations in circulating strains and children’s immune systems keep current vaccines from being fully protective, necessitating further clinical and economic studies and technology improvements. Hand hygiene appears to be an important adjunct but improving compliance, standardizing regimens and quantifying its impact remain challenging. Future studies should help better define the specific indications and circumstances for antiviral use and the role of nutritional supplements and nonpharmaceutical interventions. PMID:23199400

  9. Healthy Children, Healthy Lives: The Wellness Guide for Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Sharon; Robertson, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical time in human development. Understanding and supporting children's wellness early on can make the greatest impact on physical, social and emotional, and cognitive health throughout childhood and adulthood. "Healthy Children, Healthy Lives" provides a comprehensive collection of checklists and research ­based…

  10. Tips for Healthy Children and Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ...

  11. Promoting Healthy Weight among Children with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Ruby R.; Camejo, Stephanie T.; Asfour, Lila; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Delamater, Alan; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    An extensive body of research demonstrates a higher prevalence of obesity among children with developmental delays (DD) versus children without delays. This analysis examined the effectiveness of a randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight in a subsample of preschool-age children with DD (n = 71) on the adoption of quality nutrition…

  12. Determinants of healthy eating in children and youth.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jennifer P; Evers, Susan; McKenna, Mary

    2005-01-01

    This review outlines the state of knowledge and research gaps in the area of determinants of healthy eating among children and youth. The article is structured around individual and collective determinants that affect healthy eating in children and youth. We defined healthy eating as "eating practices and behaviours that are consistent with improving, maintaining and/or enhancing health." Relevant databases were searched for papers published between January 1992 and March 2003 that focussed on children or youth and reported at least one factor relevant to healthy eating. Among collective factors, familial factors and the nature of foods available in the physical environment, including at home, schools and in fast-food establishments, stand out as significant influences on healthy eating in children and youth. The media, particularly television, also have an enormous potential influence and can overshadow familial influences. Individual factors identified include knowledge, attitudes and food preferences; only the latter have been identified as a strong determinant of healthy eating in both children and adolescents. The results of the review identified a significant body of literature in the area of determinants of healthy eating in children and youth; however, very little of this research has taken place in Canada. Only a few determinants, such as economic factors and food security, the content of media nutritional messages, and the issue of flavours, neophobia and food preferences, have undergone some examination by Canadian researchers. Research priorities for Canada in the area of determinants of healthy eating and surveillance of eating behaviours are identified.

  13. 'Big, strong and healthy'. Young children's identification of food and drink that contribute to healthy growth.

    PubMed

    Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Hennessy, Eilis; Dean, Moira; Hollywood, Lynsey

    2013-12-01

    Growing awareness of the importance of healthy diet in early childhood makes it important to chart the development of children's understanding of food and drink. This study aimed to document young children's evaluation of food and drink as healthy, and to explore relationships with socioeconomic status, family eating habits, and children's television viewing. Data were gathered from children aged 3-5 years (n=172) in diverse socioeconomic settings in Ireland, and from their parents. Results demonstrated that children had very high levels of ability to identify healthy foods as important for growth and health, but considerably less ability to reject unhealthy items, although knowledge of these increased significantly between ages 3 and 5. Awareness of which foods were healthy, and which foods were not, was not related to family socioeconomic status, parent or child home eating habits, or children's television viewing. Results highlighted the importance of examining young children's response patterns, as many of the youngest showed a consistent 'yes bias'; however, after excluding these responses, the significant findings remained. Findings suggest it is important to teach children about less healthy foods in the preschool years.

  14. Kids: Passing on Healthy Habits to Your Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead healthy lives. The best time to start teaching these lessons to children is when they're ... ADHD)Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a group of behaviors that causes problems with focus and ...

  15. The Healthy Children, Strong Families Intervention: Design and Community Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Alexandra K.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Cronin, Kate A.; Prince, Ronald J.; Wubben, Deborah P.; Parker, Tassy; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy Children, Strong Families (HCSF) is a 2-year, community-driven, family-based randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention conducted in partnership with four Wisconsin American Indian tribes. HCSF is composed of 1 year of targeted home visits to deliver nutritional and physical activity curricula. During Year 1, trained…

  16. Helping Children Develop Healthy Self-Concepts (Preschool - Third Grade).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAnda, Natividad

    This unit of the Flexible Learning System (FLS) is designed to help teachers analyzing the effects of classroom situations on the self-concepts of children in preschool through third grade. Among the questions addressed are: What is a healthy self-concept; How do teaching practices affect children's self-concepts; and When are situations…

  17. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  18. Theme Section: How Healthy Are America's Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Manya; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Fourteen brief articles provide information about health threats to children, covering alcohol and drug abuse, nutrition, arthritis, Lyme Disease, Reye's Syndrome, school bus safety, inner ear disorders, dental health, and toy safety. (CB)

  19. Keep Children Healthy: Prevent and Curb Infections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that child care workers must follow basic health and sanitary practices to minimize the chance of illness and promote good health. Highlights the following strategies: (1) monitoring staff health; (2) maintaining a healthy environment; (3) managing infections; and (4) reporting infectious illnesses. Specifically addresses pregnant staff,…

  20. Homocysteine level in urine of autistic and healthy children.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Michalska, Monika; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Homocysteine is an amino acid which plays several important roles in human physiology and is an important biomarker for possible deficiencies of various vitamins (vitamin B₆ and B₁₂, folic acid). In this work GC-MS method was used to determine the levels of homocysteine in the urine of autistic and healthy children. The levels of homocysteine in urine samples from 34 autistic and 21 healthy children were 2.36 ± 1.24 and 0.76 ± 0.31 (mmol∙mol⁻¹ creatinine), respectively. The higher level of homocysteine in autistic children may indicate deficiencies of folic acid and vitamins B₆ and B₁₂ in nutrition of these children. The results of this work were taken into consideration in the nutrition of autistic children treated in the Navicula Centre of Diagnosis and Therapy of Autism in Łódź (Poland).

  1. Speech-Associated Labiomandibular Movement in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy: A Kinematic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hsieh-Ching; Yang, Fan-pei Gloria; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Chia-Ling; Wong, Alice May-kuen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the speech-associated labiomandibular movement during articulation production in Mandarin-speaking children with spastic quadriplegic (SQ) cerebral palsy (CP). Twelve children with SQ CP (aged 7-11 years) and 12 age-matched healthy children as controls were enrolled for the study. All children underwent…

  2. Healthy Young Children: A Manual for Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Abby Shapiro, Ed.; And Others

    This manual, which was developed as a reference and resource guide for program directors and teachers of young children, describes high standards for health policies. Also provided are information based on current research and recommendations from experts in health and early childhood education. The manual contains 7 sections and 19 chapters.…

  3. Elevated plasma oxytocin levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome compared with healthy unrelated siblings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lisa; Manzardo, Ann M; Miller, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Daniel J; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder associated with distinct abnormal behaviors including hyperphagia, profound social deficits, and obsessive-compulsive tendencies. PWS males showed reduced oxytocin receptor (OTR) gene expression and density in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus that may play a role in PWS psychopathology. Oxytocin is an anorexigenic neuropeptide similar to vasopressin that is associated with social cognition and obsessive-compulsive behavior. To evaluate oxytocin biology in PWS, we examined overnight fasting plasma oxytocin levels in 23 children with PWS (mean ± SD age: 8.2 ± 2.0 year) having genetic confirmation and 18 age matched healthy unrelated siblings without PWS (mean ± SD age: 8.2 ± 2.3 year) and a similar gender ratio under the same clinical assessments, specimen processing and laboratory conditions. Multiplex immune assays were carried out using the Milliplex Human Neuropeptide Magnetic panel and the Luminex system. Natural log-transformed oxytocin levels were analyzed using general linear model adjusting for diagnosis, gender, age and body mass index (BMI). Oxytocin plasma levels were significantly elevated in children with PWS (168 ± 121 pg/ml) compared with unrelated and unaffected siblings without the diagnosis of PWS (64.8 ± 83.8 pg/ml, F = 8.8, P < 0.01) and the diagnosis of PWS predicted oxytocin level (F = 9.5, P < 0.003) in controlled regression analysis with an overall model fit R(2) = 0.33 (P < 0.01). The symptoms of hyperphagia, anxiety and repetitive behaviors classically seen in PWS may be related to the disruption of oxytocin responsivity or feedback in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus possibly influencing vasopressin signaling. Further study is needed to characterize oxytocin function in PWS.

  4. Galactose oxidation using (13)C in healthy and galactosemic children.

    PubMed

    Resende-Campanholi, D R; Porta, G; Ferrioli, E; Pfrimer, K; Ciampo, L A Del; Junior, J S Camelo

    2015-03-01

    Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that occurs mainly as the outcome of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency. The ability to assess galactose oxidation following administration of a galactose-labeled isotope (1-(13)C-galactose) allows the determination of galactose metabolism in a practical manner. We aimed to assess the level of galactose oxidation in both healthy and galactosemic Brazilian children. Twenty-one healthy children and seven children with galactosemia ranging from 1 to 7 years of age were studied. A breath test was used to quantitate (13)CO2 enrichment in exhaled air before and at 30, 60, and 120 min after the oral administration of 7 mg/kg of an aqueous solution of 1-(13)C-galactose to all children. The molar ratios of (13)CO2 and (12)CO2 were quantified by the mass/charge ratio (m/z) of stable isotopes in each air sample by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. In sick children, the cumulative percentage of (13)C from labeled galactose (CUMPCD) in the exhaled air ranged from 0.03% at 30 min to 1.67% at 120 min. In contrast, healthy subjects showed a much broader range in CUMPCD, with values from 0.4% at 30 min to 5.58% at 120 min. The study found a significant difference in galactose oxidation between children with and without galactosemia, demonstrating that the breath test is useful in discriminating children with GALT deficiencies.

  5. Maximal respiratory pressure in healthy Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Miki; Okuno, Yukako; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Kawamura, Kenta; Shoji, Ryosuke; Tomita, Kazuhide

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] Normal values for respiratory muscle pressures during development in Japanese children have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate respiratory muscle pressures in Japanese children aged 3-12 years. [Subjects and Methods] We measured respiratory muscle pressure values using a manovacuometer without a nose clip, with subjects in a sitting position. Data were collected for ages 3-6 (Group I: 68 subjects), 7-9 (Group II: 86 subjects), and 10-12 (Group III: 64 subjects) years. [Results] The values for respiratory muscle pressures in children were significantly higher with age in both sexes, and were higher in boys than in girls. Correlation coefficients were significant at values of 0.279 to 0.471 for each gender relationship between maximal respiratory pressure and age, height, and weight, respectively. [Conclusion] In this study, we showed pediatric respiratory muscle pressure reference value for each age. In the present study, values for respiratory muscle pressures were lower than Brazilian studies. This suggests that differences in respiratory muscle pressures vary with ethnicity.

  6. Maximal respiratory pressure in healthy Japanese children

    PubMed Central

    Tagami, Miki; Okuno, Yukako; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Kawamura, Kenta; Shoji, Ryosuke; Tomita, Kazuhide

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Normal values for respiratory muscle pressures during development in Japanese children have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate respiratory muscle pressures in Japanese children aged 3–12 years. [Subjects and Methods] We measured respiratory muscle pressure values using a manovacuometer without a nose clip, with subjects in a sitting position. Data were collected for ages 3–6 (Group I: 68 subjects), 7–9 (Group II: 86 subjects), and 10–12 (Group III: 64 subjects) years. [Results] The values for respiratory muscle pressures in children were significantly higher with age in both sexes, and were higher in boys than in girls. Correlation coefficients were significant at values of 0.279 to 0.471 for each gender relationship between maximal respiratory pressure and age, height, and weight, respectively. [Conclusion] In this study, we showed pediatric respiratory muscle pressure reference value for each age. In the present study, values for respiratory muscle pressures were lower than Brazilian studies. This suggests that differences in respiratory muscle pressures vary with ethnicity. PMID:28356644

  7. Building healthy communities for children: The transportation link

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, H.

    1995-09-01

    Two concepts are essential to a definition of a healthy community: social justice and ecological sustainability. These principles must be at the heart of creating healthy communities, cities, and regions. Children and young people are an integral part of socially just and ecologically sustainable communities. Transportation and land-use policies are critical tools for shaping healthy communities, cities, and regions. The health impacts of the private automobile and its full cost to society, including public health and environmental damage costs, need to be clearly understood. The developing physiology of children put them at particular risk to medical impacts of automobile emissions and air pollution. The public health impacts of transportation and land-use policies cannot be divorced from the planning and decision-making process. Transit, bicycle, and pedestrian-oriented transportation modes can serve the transportation needs of children and can stimulate land uses more conducive to a healthy social, economic, and environmental quality of life. This article comments on the combined issues of social justice and ecological sustainability for building the best communities for meeting the needs of children and young adults. 3 refs.

  8. Ecological Strategies to Promote Healthy Body Image among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Retta R.; Roy, Jane; Geiger, Brian F.; Werner, Karen A.; Burnett, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personal habits of children and adolescents related to healthy body image (BI) are influenced by various determinants in the micro- and macroenvironment. These include attitudes and behaviors about eating; exercise and physical appearance modeled by parents, teachers, and peers; as well as opportunities to learn new habits and social…

  9. Herpes simplex ulcerative esophagitis in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman A; Fagih, Mosa A

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is a common cause of ulcerative esophagitis in the immunocompromised or debilitated host. Despite a high prevalence of primary and recurrent Herpes simplex virus infection in the general population, Herpes simplex virus esophagitis (HSVE) appears to be rare in the immunocompetent host. We report three cases of endoscopically-diagnosed HSVE in apparently immunocompetent children; the presentation was characterized by acute onset of fever, odynophagia, and dysphagia. In two cases, the diagnosis was confirmed histologically by identification of herpes viral inclusions and culture of the virus in the presence of inflammation. The third case was considered to have probable HSVE based on the presence of typical cold sore on his lip, typical endoscopic finding, histopathological evidence of inflammation in esophageal biopsies and positive serologic evidence of acute Herpes simplex virus infection. Two cases received an intravenous course of acyclovir and one had self-limited recovery. All three cases had normal immunological workup and excellent health on long-term follow-up.

  10. Oculomotor tasks affect differently postural control in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette

    2015-11-01

    Eye movements affect postural stability in children. The present study focuses on the effect of different types of eye movements on postural stability in healthy children. Both eye movements and postural stability have been recorded in 51 healthy children from 6.3 to 15.5 years old. Eye movements were recorded binocularly with a video oculography (MobilEBT(®)), and postural stability was measured while child was standing on a force platform (TechnoConcept(®)). Children performed three oculomotor tasks: saccades, pursuits and reading a text silently. We measured the number of saccades made in the three oculomotor tasks, the number of words read, and the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the center of pressure (CoP). According to previous studies, postural control improves with age until 10-12 years. Saccades toward a target as well as during a reading task reduce significantly the CoP displacement and its velocity, while during pursuit eye movements all children increase postural parameters (i.e., the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the CoP). These results suggest the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor control and the postural system. Visual attention to perform saccades (to stationary targets or to words) influences postural stability more than the frequency of saccade triggering does.

  11. Psychosocial Characteristics of Children with Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence Versus Matched Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Avis, Kristin T.; Shen, Jiabin; Weaver, Patrick; Schwebel, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypersomnia of central origin from narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia (IHS) is characterized by pathological levels of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Central hypersomnia has historically been underdiagnosed and poorly understood, especially with respect to its impact on daytime functioning and quality of life in children. Objective: Describe the psychosocial adjustment of children treated for narcolepsy or IHS on school performance, quality of life, and physical/extracurricular activities. Methods: Using a matched case control design, we compared child self- and parent-reported data from thirty-three 8- to 16-year-olds with an established diagnosis of narcolepsy or IHS, according to ICSD-2 criteria, to that of 33 healthy children matched by age, race/ethnicity, gender, and household income. Assessments evaluated academic performance, quality of life and wellness, sleepiness, and participation in extracurricular activities. Results: Compared to healthy controls, children with central hypersomnia had poorer daytime functioning in multiple domains. Children with hypersomnia missed more days of school and had lower grades than healthy controls. Children with hypersomnia had poorer quality of life by both parent and child report. Children with hypersomnia were significantly sleepier, had higher BMI, and were more likely to report a history of recent injury. Finally, children with hypersomnia engaged in fewer after-school activities than healthy controls. Conclusions: A range of significant psychosocial consequences are reported in children with hypersomnia even after a diagnosis has been made and treatments initiated. Health care professionals should be mindful of the psychosocial problems that may present in children with hypersomnia over the course of treatment. Citation: Avis KT, Shen J, Weaver P, Schwebel DC. Psychosocial characteristics of children with central disorders of hypersomnolence versus matched healthy children. J Clin Sleep Med 2015

  12. Socioeconomic Status and Longitudinal Lung Function of Healthy Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Briseño, David; Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Mendoza-Alvarado, Laura; García-Sancho, Cecilia; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to estimate the longitudinal effect of Socioeconomic status (SES) on lung function growth of Mexican children and adolescents. Materials and Methods A cohort of Mexican children in third grade of primary school was followed with spirometry twice a year for 6 years through secondary school. Multilevel mixed-effects lineal models were fitted for the spirometric variables of 2,641 respiratory-healthy Mexican children. Monthly family income (in 2002 U.S. dollars [USD]) and parents’ years completed at school were used as proxies of SES. Results Individuals with higher SES tended to have greater height for age, and smaller sitting height/standing height and crude lung function. For each 1-year increase of parents’ schooling, Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and Forced vital capacity (FVC) increased 8.5 (0.4%) and 10.6 mL (0.4%), respectively (p <0.05) when models were adjusted for gender. Impact of education on lung function was reduced drastically or abolished on adjusting by anthropometric variables and ozone. Conclusions Higher parental schooling and higher monthly family income were associated with higher lung function in healthy Mexican children, with the majority of the effect likely due to the increase in height-for-age. PMID:26379144

  13. Sleep deprivation induces excess diuresis and natriuresis in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Mahler, B; Kamperis, K; Schroeder, M; Frøkiær, J; Djurhuus, J C; Rittig, S

    2012-01-15

    Urine production is reduced at night, allowing undisturbed sleep. This study was undertaken to show the effect of sleep deprivation (SD) on urine production in healthy children. Special focus was on gender and children at an age where enuresis is still prominent. Twenty healthy children (10 girls) underwent two 24-h studies, randomly assigned to either sleep or SD on the first study night. Diet and fluid intake were standardized. Blood samples were drawn every 4 h during daytime and every 2 h at night. Urine was fractionally collected. Blood pressure and heart rate were noninvasively monitored. Blood was analyzed for plasma antidiuretic hormone (AVP), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), angiotensin II, aldosterone, and renin. Urine was analyzed for aquaporin-2 and PGE(2). Successful SD was achieved in all participants with a minimum of 4 h 50 min, and full-night SD was obtained in 50% of the participants. During SD, both boys and girls produced markedly larger amounts of urine than during normal sleep (477 ± 145 vs. 291 ± 86 ml, P < 0.01). SD increased urinary excretion of sodium (0.17 ± 0.05 vs. 0.10 ± 0.03 mmol·kg(-1)·h(-1)) whereas solute-free water reabsorption remained unchanged. SD induced a significant fall in nighttime plasma AVP (P < 0.01), renin (P < 0.05), angiotensin II (P < 0.001), and aldosterone (P < 0.05) whereas plasma ANP levels remained uninfluenced (P = 0.807). Nighttime blood pressure and heart rate were significantly higher during SD (mean arterial pressure: 78.5 ± 8.0 vs. 74.7 ± 8.7 mmHg, P < 0.001). SD leads to natriuresis and excess diuresis in healthy children. The underlying mechanism could be a reduced nighttime dip in blood pressure and a decrease in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system levels during sleep deprivation.

  14. The Healthy Children, Strong Families Intervention: Design and Community Participation

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Alexandra K.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Cronin, Kate A.; Prince, Ronald J.; Wubben, Deborah P.; Parker, Tassy; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy Children, Strong Families (HCSF) is a 2-year, community-driven, family-based randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention conducted in partnership with four Wisconsin American Indian tribes. HCSF is composed of 1 year of targeted home visits to deliver nutritional and physical activity curricula. During Year 1, trained community mentors work with 2–5-year-old American Indian children and their primary caregivers to promote goal-based behavior change. During Year 2, intervention families receive monthly newsletters and attend monthly group meetings to participate in activities designed to reinforce and sustain changes made in Year 1. Control families receive only curricula materials during Year 1 and monthly newsletters during Year 2. Each of the two arms of the study comprises 60 families. Primary outcomes are decreased child BMI z-score and decreased primary caregiver BMI. Secondary outcomes include: increased fruit/vegetable consumption, decreased TV viewing, increased physical activity, decreased soda/sweetened drink consumption, improved primary caregiver biochemical indices, and increased primary caregiver self-efficacy to adopt healthy behaviors. Using community-based participatory research and our history of university–tribal partnerships, the community and academic researchers jointly designed this randomized trial. This article describes the study design and data collection strategies, including outcome measures, with emphasis on the communities’ input in all aspects of the research. PMID:22956296

  15. Neural Mechanisms of Verb Argument Structure Processing in Agrammatic Aphasic and Healthy Age-Matched Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Fix, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior peri-sylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions on the basis of argument structure complexity. The aim of…

  16. Bacterial flora of the healthy skin in children.

    PubMed

    Herz, G

    1976-01-01

    The normal bacterial flora of the skin of 100 healthy children was studied in a paediatric practice with regard to the germ spectrum and the resistance constellation, by means of abrasion skin samples taken from the upper part of the back. Staphylococcus albus was by far the most predominant bacteria, followed by Sarcina bacteria and Corynebacteria. The high degree of pervasion of this physiological cutaneous flora with antibiotic-resistant strains increases the suspicion that in the case of florid bacterial skin infections in children, subsequent to traumatic or inflammatory changes of the integument, the antibiotic resistance of the normal resident flora can be transferred to the pathogenic flora. In view of the endemic resistance of pathogenic and saprobic strains of bacteria against practically all antibiotics at present used in paediatric practice, it is to be urgently recommended that instead of antibiotics topical braod-spectrum antimicrobial agents (antiseptics), e.g. clioquinol, triclosan, etc., should preferably be used.

  17. Meeting High Expectations: Healthy Thinking, Resiliency, and Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Lisalee D.; LaMarr, Todd; Hossler, Tami; Davenport, Carrie; Crace, Jodee

    2014-01-01

    The authors present a positive outlook for deaf and hard of hearing children in meeting the high expectations set before them. Like all children, deaf and hard of hearing children thrive in environments that support and promote healthy ways of thinking. When individuals have healthy ways of thinking, they have what researchers call a "growth…

  18. IQ Score of Children with Persistent or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Comparison with Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    GHAFFARI, Javad; ABBASKHANIAN, Ali; JALILI, Masumeh; YAZDANI CHARATI, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective Prevalence of allergies is different around the world. Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic disease in children. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an indicator of efficacy and many factors including chronic diseases may affect it. This study compares the IQs of children diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis with healthy children. Material & Methods This was a comparative study that was conducted from June 2011–May 2013 in an academic referral clinic. In this study, 90 patients aged 6- to 14-yearsold who were diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis and were compared to 90 age and gender match healthy patients from their respective families. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children was used to divide and calculate overall IQ, verbal IQ, and practical IQ. The t-test and chi square were used to analyze quantitative variables and qualitative variables, respectively. Results In this study, out of total 180 children, 90 (50%) in the case group and 90 children (50%), the control group participated for IQ comparison. One hundred (57%) were male and 80 (43%) were female. The overall IQ for allergic rhinitis patients and healthy patients was 109.2 and 107.5, respectively. This difference was not considered significant. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the IQ scores of males and females. Conclusion Although allergic rhinitis is a chronic disease and effects quality of life, there were no identifiable negative effects on IQ. PMID:25143773

  19. Dietary adequacy of Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder compared to healthy developing children.

    PubMed

    Meguid, Nagwa A; Anwar, Mona; Bjørklund, Geir; Hashish, Adel; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Hemimi, Maha; Sultan, Eman

    2017-04-01

    Although the etiology and pathology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still poorly understood, a number of environmental, anthropological, neurobiological and genetic factors have been related to the pathophysiology of ASD, even the impact of oxidative stress response related to the environment and nutrition intake. Usual recommended dietary habits are based on the combination of behavioral and dietary or nutraceutical interventions together with pharmacotherapy. Investigations about a reliable relationship between diet and ASD are still lacking. The present study aimed at comparing dietary regimens and habits of normally developing apparently healthy children, without diagnosed ASD, with a pediatric population of individuals affected by autistic disorder. Assessments of nutritional and anthropometric data, in addition to biochemical evaluation for nutrient deficiencies, were performed. A total of 80 children with autistic disorder and 80 healthy, normally developing pediatric individuals were enrolled in the study. Parents were asked to complete the standardized questionnaire regarding the different types of food and the proportion of a serving for their children. Biochemical analysis of micro- and macronutrients were also done. Plotting on the Egyptian sex-specific anthropometric growth (auximetric) chart, absolute weights as well as weight-related for age classes, were significantly higher in cases than healthy controls. No differences between groups were observed in regard to total kilocalories (kcal), carbohydrates, and fat intake. A total of 23.8% of children with autistic disorder vs. 11.3% in the healthy control group had a nutrient intake with features below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of protein. Children with autistic disorder showed low dietary intake of some micronutrients; calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), selenium (Se) and sodium (Na), also they had significantly high intake of potassium (K) and vitamin C compared to healthy

  20. Arm trajectories and writing strategy in healthy children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of elementary writing skills in children is usually obtained with high resolution (and high cost) techniques or with low resolution pen-and-paper tests. In this observational study we tested a quantitative method to obtain normative data to describe arm movement during a writing precursor gesture. Methods We recruited 226 healthy children (mean age 9,1 years [range: 6.3 – 11.4 years]), attending primary schools belonging to the “Istituto Comprensivo” of Rivanazzano Terme (Pavia). We asked to drive a cursor through a polygonal path (labyrinth) projected in front of them using a wireless mouse. Dartfish™ video analysis software was used to elaborate images and Excel™, MedCalc™ and Statistica 7™ to analyze values of shoulder, elbow and wrist ranges of motion, arm trajectories, execution times and gesture accuracy. Results Differences seen in motor strategies, when divided according to attended class, suggest a proximal-distal maturation of motor control. Obtained values were not significantly correlated with variables such as gender, ethnicity or cognitive functioning. Conclusions This type of approach to a study of arm movement during childhood represents a valid alternative to other tests, considering that it can differentiate children who perform similarly in the VMI test and is non-invasive, low-cost and easily reproducible. PMID:23134839

  1. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

  2. Development of Postural Control in Healthy Children: A Functional Approach

    PubMed Central

    Assaiante, Christine; Mallau, Sophie; Viel, Sébastien; Jover, Marianne; Schmitz, Christina

    2005-01-01

    From a set of experimental studies showing how intersegmental coordination develops during childhood in various posturokinetic tasks, we have established a repertoire of equilibrium strategies in the course of ontogenesis. The experimental data demonstrate that the first reference frame used for the organization of balance control during locomotion is the pelvis, especially in young children. Head stabilization during posturokinetic activities, particularly locomotion, constitutes a complex motor skill requiring a long time to develop during childhood. When studying the emergence of postural strategies, it is essential to distinguish between results that can be explained by biomechanical reasons strictly and those reflecting the maturation of the central nervous system (CNS). To address this problem, we have studied our young subjects in situations requiring various types of adaptation. The studies dealing with adaptation of postural strategies aimed at testing short and long-term adaptation capacity of the CNS during imposed transient external biomechanical constraints in healthy children, and during chronic internal constraints in children with skeletal pathologies. In addition to maintenance of balance, another function of posture is to ensure the orientation of a body segment. It appears that the control of orientation and the control of balance both require the trunk as an initial reference frame involving a development from egocentric to exocentric postural control. It is concluded that the first step for children consists in building a repertoire of postural strategies, and the second step consists in learning to select the most appropriate postural strategy, depending on the ability to anticipate the consequence of the movement in order to maintain balance control and the efficiency of the task. PMID:16097479

  3. Use of aspartame by apparently healthy children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Frey, G H

    1976-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects and the differences, if any, resulting from the ingestion of aspartame (sweetener) versus sucrose. A 13-wk, double-blind study was conducted using 126 apparently healthy children and adolescents as panelists. Individuals were randomly assigned in a double-blind design to aspartame or sucrose in each of five age groups; dosage levels were assigned according to age and weight groups. Physical examinations and special eye examinations were performed at the beginning and end of the study. Other parameters determined including laboratory tests of liver and renal function, hematologic status, and plasma levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine. Clinically significant differences in laboratory parameters measured could not be demonstrated; all mean values were within normal limits. No unusual findings were observed in phenylalanine or tyrosine levels. All phenylpyruvic acid and methanol determinations were negative. No important physical changes occurred, and no product-related side effects were reported.

  4. Difference between healthy children and ADHD based on wavelet spectral analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Gómez, Dulce I.; Moreno Barbosa, E.; Martínez Hernández, Mario Iván; Ramos Méndez, José; Hidalgo Tobón, Silvia; Dies Suarez, Pilar; Barragán Pérez, Eduardo; De Celis Alonso, Benito

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of this project was to create a computer algorithm based on wavelet analysis of region of homogeneity images obtained during resting state studies. Ideally it would automatically diagnose ADHD. Because the cerebellum is an area known to be affected by ADHD, this study specifically analysed this region. Male right handed volunteers (infants with ages between 7 and 11 years old) were studied and compared with age matched controls. Statistical differences between the values of the absolute integrated wavelet spectrum were found and showed significant differences (p<0.0015) between groups. This difference might help in the future to distinguish healthy from ADHD patients and therefore diagnose ADHD. Even if results were statistically significant, the small size of the sample limits the applicability of this methods as it is presented here, and further work with larger samples and using freely available datasets must be done.

  5. Difference between healthy children and ADHD based on wavelet spectral analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance images

    SciTech Connect

    González Gómez Dulce, I. E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Moreno Barbosa, E. E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Hernández, Mario Iván Martínez E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Méndez, José Ramos E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Silvia, Hidalgo Tobón; Pilar, Dies Suarez E-mail: neurodoc@prodigy.net.mx; Eduardo, Barragán Pérez E-mail: neurodoc@prodigy.net.mx; Benito, De Celis Alonso

    2014-11-07

    The main goal of this project was to create a computer algorithm based on wavelet analysis of region of homogeneity images obtained during resting state studies. Ideally it would automatically diagnose ADHD. Because the cerebellum is an area known to be affected by ADHD, this study specifically analysed this region. Male right handed volunteers (infants with ages between 7 and 11 years old) were studied and compared with age matched controls. Statistical differences between the values of the absolute integrated wavelet spectrum were found and showed significant differences (p<0.0015) between groups. This difference might help in the future to distinguish healthy from ADHD patients and therefore diagnose ADHD. Even if results were statistically significant, the small size of the sample limits the applicability of this methods as it is presented here, and further work with larger samples and using freely available datasets must be done.

  6. Plasma and urine nitric oxide levels in healthy Turkish children.

    PubMed

    Elli, Murat; Söylemezoglu, Oguz; Erbas, Deniz; Bakkaloglu, Sevcan A; Buyan, Necla; Ozkaya, Ozan; Hasanoglu, Enver

    2005-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important messenger molecule with a wide range of actions in virtually all cell systems and organs. In kidneys it participates in glomerular and medullary hemodynamics, tubuloglomerular feed-back, renin secretion, and extracellular fluid balance. Although the role of NO in regulating renal function in adults is well-established, it has recently been suggested that NO has a more critical role in maintaining basal renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the developing kidney. NO is rapidly metabolized to the stable end products nitrite and nitrate, which are more slowly excreted into the urine. Thus these metabolites can be recommended as useful markers of endogenous NO synthase activity, despite limited data about age-related changes in in-vivo NO production. The aims of this study were to determine age-related normal reference values of serum and urinary NO metabolites and to assess the probable relationship between these metabolites and the GFR. Normal levels of NO end products in blood and urine of 296 healthy children (117 female, 179 male) between the ages of 0 and 16 were investigated, as was whether these values change with age. Serum and urinary nitrate levels did not differ according to sex. Serum nitrate levels are higher in younger children, especially in the newborn period, and decrease with age. Nitrate levels in urine are higher in younger children with a peak in infancy (1 month to 1 year) and decrease with age. It was demonstrated that this decrease in serum and urinary nitrate levels with age parallels the increase in GFR. In conclusion, urinary NO products may be an indirect marker of serum NO levels and NO might have an important regulatory function both in the maintenance of renal function and in the maturation of the developing kidneys.

  7. Child perceptions of parental care and overprotection in children with cancer and healthy children.

    PubMed

    Tillery, Rachel; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2014-06-01

    The primary aims of this study were to: (a) examine child perceptions of overprotection; and (b) explore how these perceptions relate to child health and adjustment. Children with a prior diagnosis of cancer (n = 205) and children without a history of serious illness (n = 76) reported on parental overprotective and caring behaviors. Children with cancer were recruited from one of four strata based on the elapsed time since their cancer diagnosis (1-6 months; 6-24 months; 2-5 years; >5 years) Children also reported on symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. Children with cancer did not differ from healthy children in their perceptions of parental care or overprotection. Child distress was more strongly related to perceptions of care and overprotection than child's health status. Children with cancer do not report their parents approach to care and protection differently than children without a cancer history. These findings mirror prior research examining parental perceptions of overprotection and suggest that, despite the challenges of parenting a child with serious illness, parental protection is not significantly altered.

  8. Experimental pain responses in children with chronic pain and in healthy children: How do they differ?

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Jennie CI; Evans, Subhadra; Seidman, Laura C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extant research comparing laboratory pain responses of children with chronic pain with healthy controls is mixed, with some studies indicating lower pain responsivity for controls and others showing no differences. Few studies have included different pain modalities or assessment protocols. OBJECTIVES: To compare pain responses among 26 children (18 girls) with chronic pain and matched controls (mean age 14.8 years), to laboratory tasks involving thermal heat, pressure and cold pain. Responses to cold pain were assessed using two different protocols: an initial trial of unspecified duration and a second trial of specified duration. METHODS: Four trials of pressure pain and of thermal heat pain stimuli, all of unspecified duration, were administered, as well as the two cold pain trials. Heart rate and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and after completion of the pain tasks. RESULTS: Pain tolerance and pain intensity did not differ between children with chronic pain and controls for the unspecified trials. For the specified cold pressor trial, 92% of children with chronic pain completed the entire trial compared with only 61.5% of controls. Children with chronic pain exhibited a trend toward higher baseline and postsession heart rate and reported more anxiety and depression symptoms compared with control children. CONCLUSIONS: Contextual factors related to the fixed trial may have exerted a greater influence on pain tolerance in children with chronic pain relative to controls. Children with chronic pain demonstrated a tendency toward increased arousal in anticipation of and following pain induction compared with controls. PMID:22518373

  9. The Comparison of Malocclusion Prevalence Between Children with Cerebral Palsy and Healthy Children.

    PubMed

    Bakarcić, Danko; Lajnert, Vlatka; Maricić, Barbara Mady; Jokić, Nataga Ivancić; Vrancić, Zlatka Roksandić; Grzić, Renata; Prpić, Igor

    2015-09-01

    This study sets out to examine the prevalence of malocclusion and habits in a group of children with cerebral palsy and to compare it with a control group of healthy children. The presence of an anterior open bite was statistically significantly higher in the cerebral palsied group. The presence of aposterior crossbite was not significantly different between the examined groups, as was the case for a lingual crossbite. The occurrence of visceral swallowing, incompetent lips and oral respiration was significantly higher in the cerebral palsied group. The current study cannot satisfactorily sustain the issue of a higher prevalence of posterior and lingual crossbite in children with cerebral palsy because of no significant differences between groups, but it certainly can for an anterior openbite. The present study also adds to the evidence that there is an increased prevalence of oral breathing, visceral swallowing and lip incompetence in children with cerebral palsy.

  10. From Diapers to Dating. A Parent's Guide to Raising Sexually Healthy Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra W.

    This step-by-step program for raising sexually healthy children helps parents provide accurate information and communicate their own values to their children. Chapter 1, "The Basics"; includes "Sexually Healthy Families"; "The Key: Finding Teachable Moments"; and "Guidelines for Communication." Chapter 2,…

  11. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either <75th percentile (normal weight) or >95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  12. Perceptions of Healthy Eating: A Qualitative Study of School-Going Children in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaminathan, S.; Thomas, T.; Kurpad, A. V.; Vaz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To document children's views on healthy eating, perceptions of healthy and unhealthy foods and health consequences of consuming unhealthy foods. Design: Baseline data from a three-year longitudinal study. Setting A purposive sample of 307 school children aged 7 to 15 years were recruited from three schools representing various…

  13. Cardiorespiratory and Biomechanical Responses to Simulated Recreational Horseback Riding in Healthy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Brandon R.; Papadakis, Zacharias; Bane, Annie A.; Park, Jin K.; Grandjean, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of cardiorespiratory and pelvic kinematic responses to simulated horseback riding (SHBR) and to characterize responses to SHBR relative to walking in apparently healthy children. Method: Fifteen healthy children (Mage = 9.5 ± 2.6 years) completed SHBR on a commercially available…

  14. [Variations of oral fluid microbiota in healthy children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Davydov, B N; Samoukina, A M; Mikhailova, E S; Gavrilova, O A; Alekseeva, Yu A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the bacterial and viral associations of saliva and the immune resistance in 127 healthy people of different ages. The analysis sorted out three variants of oral fluid microbiota differing by certain combination of indigenous and facultative microflora. It was found that with age there is a significant increase in the number of adolescents with the third variant of the microbiota, characterized by a decrease in the number of indigenous microflora and increase in opportunistic microorganisms and viruses. With an increase in microecological shifts a tendency to decrease the level of lysozyme, an increase in the number of secretory IgA, accompanied by a decrease in antibody was revealed. It has been shown that bacterial and viral component of the microbiota of the oral fluid are in a dynamic relationship with each other, as well as immune resistance and can serve as an indicator of the health level and the selection criteria at the stages of clinical examination of children and adolescents, with the risk of dental disease.

  15. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    PubMed

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight.

  16. Towards Healthy Schools 2015: Progress on America's Environmental Health Crisis for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    States compel children to attend school; in fact, 98% of all school-age children attend schools--irrespective of conditions. Yet the environmental conditions of decayed facilities or facilities close to hazards can damage children's health and ability to learn. At the same time, it is well documented that healthy school facilities can help…

  17. Emerald Dragon Bites vs Veggie Beans: Fun Food Names Increase Children's Consumption of Novel Healthy Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Young, Kathleen M.; Hauser, Jessica C.; Galliger, Courtney; Sommer, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers often struggle with food neophobia on the part of young children. This study examined whether labeling novel healthy foods with fun names would increase children's willingness to try those foods and encourage them to eat more of those foods in a child care setting. Thirty-nine toddler and preschool age children (mean age = 3.9 years)…

  18. Postural finger tremor exhibited by Parkinson patients and age-matched subjects.

    PubMed

    Palmer, S S; Hutton, J T

    1995-09-01

    Physiological correlates of postural tremor of the finger seen in Parkinson's disease patients are different from those seen in age-matched control subjects. A significant correlation between the spectral peak of acceleration and the spectral peak of rectified electromyographic activity from the muscle responsible for finger extension was found in Parkinson's disease patients. This correlation was not seen in age-matched control subjects. Any neural drive imposed on the motoneuron pool from supraspinal levels would enhance the electromyographic activity. Likewise, any feedback effects via spinal stretch reflexes or supraspinal stretch responses would be mediated through the motoneuron pool and electromyographic activity. The results of this research support the theory that Parkinson tremor is a centrally driven rhythm that may be influenced by feedback effects, whereas physiological tremor is due to a complex interaction of central, feedback, and mechanical effects.

  19. [Investigation of TT virus-DNA in multitransfused children and healthy children].

    PubMed

    Yarar, Coşkun; Bör, Ozcan; Us, Tercan; Akgün, Yurdanur; Akgün, Necat A

    2005-01-01

    TT virus (TTV) is a naked, single stranded DNA virus, which has been discovered in the serum of a patient with posttransfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology. TTV is widespread in the population, however, the mode of its transmission is unclear. This study was conducted to search for TTV-DNA positivity rates and its relationship with the clinical outcomes of recipients who underwent multiple blood or blood product transfusion, together with healthy children. TTV-DNA was investigated in 52 multitransfused pediatric patients (age range: 3 mnths - 17.5 yrs, mean age: 9.2 +/- 5.7 years) and 18 healthy children (age range: 1 mnth - 16.5 yrs, mean age: 8.1 +/- 4.9 years), by qualitative in-house semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the primers NG059, NG061 and NG063, generated from ORF1 region of the viral genome. TTV-DNA was found positive in 30.8% of multitransfused, and 16.7% of healthy children. The differences of TTV-DNA positivity rates between the multitransfused and control groups, and ALT values between the patients with positive and negative TTV-DNA, were statistically insignificant (p>0.05). As a result, no relationship was detected between TTV positivity and hepatitis, although there was a statistically insignificant increase of TTV-DNA positivity in multitransfused children. However, since the primers of ORF1 N22 region used in our PCR method did not have enough sensitivity for the detection of TTV-DNA, it has been concluded that more sensitive primers such as UTR primers, should be used for more reliable evaluation of the results.

  20. Parental Encouragement of Healthy Lifestyles for Their Children and Personally Caring about Healthy Lifestyles Is Positively Associated with Children Using Vitamin D Supplements.

    PubMed

    Munasinghe, Lalani L; Yuan, Yan; Faught, Erin L; Willows, Noreen D; Veugelers, Paul J

    2016-09-24

    Supplement users have better vitamin D status, and parenting is key to promoting a child's healthy behaviours. We examined the association of parental encouragement of and caring about healthy lifestyles with children's use of vitamin D supplements and multivitamins. A provincially representative sample of grade 5 students (n = 2686; 10-11 years) and their parents across the province of Alberta, Canada, was surveyed in 2014. Students were asked about use of multivitamins and/or vitamin D supplements. Parents were asked whether they cared about and encouraged healthy lifestyles. Mixed effect multiple logistic regression identified the association of parental responses with children's use of supplements; 29% and 54% of children took vitamin D supplements and multivitamins, respectively. They were more likely to take vitamin D supplements if their parents cared 'very much' vs. 'not at all/a little bit' about eating healthy foods (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.89), cared 'quite a lot' (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.17, 2.04) and 'very much' (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.21) vs. 'not at all/a little bit' about physical activity, and encouraged 'very much' vs. 'not at all/a little bit' their children to eat healthy foods (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.05, 2.17). Children whose parents personally cared for eating healthy foods were more likely to take multivitamins ('quite a lot' and 'very much' compared to 'not at all/a little bit' (OR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.28 and OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.06, respectively). Education and parental encouragement of healthy lifestyles should be part of the public health initiatives to promote supplementation of vitamin D among children.

  1. Supporting parents of preschool children in adopting a healthy lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a public health epidemic. In Canada 21.5% of children aged 2–5 are overweight, with psychological and physical consequences for the child and economic consequences for society. Parents often do not view their children as overweight. One way to prevent overweight is to adopt a healthy lifestyle (HL). Nurses with direct access to young families could assess overweight and support parents in adopting HL. But what is the best way to support them if they do not view their child as overweight? A better understanding of parents’ representation of children’s overweight might guide the development of solutions tailored to their needs. Methods/design This study uses an action research design, a participatory approach mobilizing all stakeholders around a problem to be solved. The general objective is to identify, with nurses working with families, ways to promote HL among parents of preschoolers. Specific objectives are to: 1) describe the prevalence of overweight in preschoolers at vaccination time; 2) describe the representation of overweight and HL, as reported by preschoolers’ parents; 3) explore the views of nurses working with young families regarding possible solutions that could become a clinical tool to promote HL; and 4) try to identify a direction concerning the proposed strategies that could be used by nurses working with this population. First, an epidemiological study will be conducted in vaccination clinics: 288 4–5-year-olds will be weighed and measured. Next, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with 20 parents to describe their representation of HL and their child’s weight. Based on the results from these two steps, by means of a focus group nurses will identify possible strategies to the problem. Finally, focus groups of parents, then nurses and finally experts will give their opinions of these strategies in order to find a direction for these strategies. Descriptive and correlational statistical analyses

  2. Growing Healthy Kids: A School Enrichment Nutrition Education Program to Promote Healthy Behaviors for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vierregger, Alyssa; Hall, Johnna; Sehi, Natalie; Abbott, Mary; Wobig, Karen; Albrecht, Julie A.; Anderson-Knott, Mindy; Koszewski, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    The Growing Healthy Kids Program is a school-based nutrition education program that teaches students in Kindergarten through 2nd grade about healthy eating, physical activity, and how their body uses food. Pre- and post-knowledge data is collected from the students to measure changes in nutrition knowledge. In the first 2 years of the program,…

  3. Child as change agent. The potential of children to increase healthy food purchasing.

    PubMed

    Wingert, Katherine; Zachary, Drew A; Fox, Monica; Gittelsohn, Joel; Surkan, Pamela J

    2014-10-01

    Shoppers make many food choices while buying groceries. Children frequently accompany caregivers, giving them the potential to influence these choices. We aimed to understand low-income shoppers' perceptions of how children influence caregivers' purchasing decisions and how the supermarket environment could be manipulated to allow children to serve as change agents for healthy food purchasing in a primarily African-American community. We conducted thirty in-depth interviews, five follow-up interviews, one supermarket walk-through interview, and four focus groups with adult supermarket shoppers who were regular caregivers for children under age 16. We conducted one focus group with supermarket employees and one in-depth interview with a supermarket manager. Qualitative data were analyzed using iterative thematic coding and memo writing. Caregivers approached grocery shopping with efforts to save money, prevent waste and purchase healthy food for their families, but described children as promoting unplanned, unhealthy food purchases. This influence was exacerbated by the supermarket environment, which participants found to promote unhealthy options and provide limited opportunities for children to interact with healthier foods. Caregivers' suggestions for promoting healthy purchasing for shoppers with children included manipulating the placement of healthy and unhealthy foods and offering opportunities for children to taste and interact with healthy options.

  4. Be a Healthy Role Model for Children: 10 Tips for Setting Good Examples

    MedlinePlus

    10 tips Nutrition Education Series be a healthy role model for children 10 tips for setting good examples You are the ... such as candy or cookies—as replacement foods. 10 be a good food role model Try new ...

  5. Predicting maintenance or achievement of healthy weight in children: the impact of changes in physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Hruby, Adela; Chomitz, Virginia R; Arsenault, Lisa N; Must, Aviva; Economos, Christina D; McGowan, Robert J; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2012-08-01

    Physical fitness is often inversely associated with adiposity in children cross-sectionally, but the effect of becoming fit or maintaining fitness over time on changes in weight status has not been well studied in children. We investigated the impact of changes in fitness over 1-4 years of follow-up on the maintenance or achievement of healthy weight among 2,793 schoolchildren who were first measured as 1st to 7th graders. Students were classified as "fit" or "underfit" according to age- and gender-specific norms in five fitness domains: endurance, agility, flexibility, upper body strength, and abdominal strength. Weight status was dichotomized by BMI percentile: "healthy weight" (<85th percentile) or "overweight/obese" (≥85th percentile). At baseline, of the 38.3% overweight/obese children, 81.9% (N = 875) were underfit. Underfit overweight students were more likely to achieve healthy weight if they achieved fitness (boys: odds ratio (OR) = 2.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-5.77; girls: OR = 4.67, 95%CI = 2.09-10.45). Initially fit overweight children (N = 194) were more likely to achieve healthy weight if they maintained fitness (boys: OR = 11.99, 95%CI = 2.18-65.89; girls: OR = 2.46, 95%CI = 1.04-5.83). Similarly, initially fit healthy-weight children (N = 717) were more likely to maintain healthy weight if they maintained fitness (boys: OR 3.70, 95%CI = 1.40-9.78; girls: OR = 4.14, 95%CI = 1.95-8.78). Overweight schoolchildren who achieve or maintain physical fitness are more likely to achieve healthy weight, and healthy-weight children who maintain fitness are more likely to maintain healthy weight. School-based policies/practices that support physical fitness may contribute to obesity reduction and maintenance of healthy weight among schoolchildren.

  6. Healthy body, healthy mind?: the effectiveness of physical activity to treat ADHD in children.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Jeffrey M; Berwid, Olga G; O'Neill, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    Data from animal studies provide convincing evidence that physical exercise enhances brain development and neurobehavioral functioning in areas believed to be impaired in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To a lesser but still compelling extent, results from studies in typically developing children and adults indicate beneficial effects of exercise on many of the neurocognitive functions that have been shown to be impaired in children with ADHD. Together, these data provide a strong rationale for why a program of structured physical exercise might serve as an effective intervention for children with ADHD.

  7. Preschool Children's Healthy Lifestyles: South African Parents' and Preschool Staff Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…

  8. Healthy Children, Healthy Families: Parents Making a Difference! A Curriculum Integrating Key Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Parenting Practices to Help Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Megan; Hill, Tisa F.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Wolfe, Wendy S.; Dickin, Katherine L.

    2012-01-01

    A new dialogue-based curriculum combines nutrition, active play and parenting practices to help parents and caregivers gain skills that promote healthy habits for themselves and their families and to create healthy environments where children live, learn, and play. Graduates report significant improvements in behaviors that promote healthy weights…

  9. The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' community effectiveness trial: study protocol of a community-based healthy lifestyle program for fathers and their children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' program was designed to help overweight fathers lose weight and positively influence the health behaviors of their children. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the previously established program in a community setting, in a large effectiveness trial. Methods/Design The Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids community trial consists of three stages: (i) Stage 1 - program refinement and resource development (ii) Stage 2 - community randomized controlled trial (iii) Stage 3 - community effectiveness trial. The program will be evaluated in five Local Government Areas in the Hunter Valley Region of NSW, Australia. For the community randomized controlled trial, 50 overweight/obese men (aged 18-65 years) from one Local Government Area with a child aged between 5-12 years of age will be recruited. Families will be randomized to either the program or a 6-month wait-list control group. Fathers and their children will be assessed at baseline, post-intervention (3-months) and 6-months. Inclusion criteria are: body mass index 25-40 kg/m2; no participation in other weight loss programs during the study; pass a health-screening questionnaire; and access to a computer with Internet facilities. In the community trial, the program will be evaluated using a non-randomized, prospective design in five Local Government Areas. The exclusion criteria is body mass index < 25 kg/m2 or lack of doctor's approval. Measures will be collected at baseline, 3-, 6- and 12-months. The program involves fathers attending seven face-to-face group sessions (three with children) over 3-months. Measures: The primary outcome is fathers' weight. Secondary outcomes for both fathers and children include: waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary intake. Father-only measures include portion size, alcohol consumption, parenting for physical activity and nutrition and parental engagement. Process

  10. The Children Should Lead Us: Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made--Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beemyn, Genny

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made: Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children", a thoughtful and practical guide that can help parents, other family members, and therapists better understand and support children and youth whom the author refers to as "gender creative." Ehrensaft's work is at the forefront of a…

  11. Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. Methods The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6) from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control) aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary. Results Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day-1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013). This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days). In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day-1, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007) and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day-1, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027) on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Conclusions Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial results. PMID:22085440

  12. Strategies for promoting healthy weight and healthy lives for children in the Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One in three children in Mississippi have weights that increase their risks for early onset of chronic diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, heart attacks, arthritis, and consequent early disability and death. Children in school today are projected to be the first generation of Americans t...

  13. Strategies for promoting healthy weight and healthy lives for children in the Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One in three children in Mississippi have weights that increase their risks for early onset of chronic diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, heart attacks, arthritis, and consequently early disability and death. Children in school today are projected to be the first generation of Americans...

  14. Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... will help you raise a healthy baby. Topics Breastfeeding Developmental Milestones Fruits & Vegetables Hand Washing Hearing Screening Infant & Toddler Health Maternal and Infant Health Newborn Screening Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Parenting Tips Perchlorate in ...

  15. Concentration of Selected Metals in Whole Blood, Plasma, and Urine in Short Stature and Healthy Children.

    PubMed

    Klatka, Maria; Błażewicz, Anna; Partyka, Małgorzata; Kołłątaj, Witold; Zienkiewicz, Ewa; Kocjan, Ryszard

    2015-08-01

    The short stature in children is defined as height below the third percentile from the mean for age and gender. This problem affects about 3% of young people. More than 20,000 children in Poland have problems with short stature. There is not much information available in the literature on the study of metals in blood, plasma, and urine in children with short stature. The study was conducted on a group of 56 short stature Polish children and 35 healthy children. The content of metals was determined using high-performance ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methods. The study revealed significant differences between the content of selected metals in body fluids between a short stature group and healthy children. There were significant differences in the Fe, Cu, and Ni concentrations between the groups with respect to the hormonal therapy. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the area where the children lived. The results showed no statistically significant differences between metal concentration and age, body weight, and height. The study demonstrated statistically significant differences between the content of metals in body fluids in short stature children compared with the healthy children. It seems that the difference in the concentration of certain elements may also be the result of growth hormone therapy and the interaction between various metals. Both the alterations in the content of metals and their mutual interactions may play an important role in the pathogenesis of short stature children.

  16. 76 FR 59706 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... environment); measurements of children's physical activity levels and dietary practices; and children's and parents' BMIs. Results from the Healthy Communities Study may influence the future development and funding... scientific journals and will be used for the development of future research initiatives targeting...

  17. Children's Self-Documentation and Understanding of the Concepts "Healthy" and "Unhealthy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Suzanne; Bell, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The present paper describes a study in which 13 children aged 9-11 years, of diverse ethnic, linguistic, and socio-economic backgrounds, were asked to use a digital camera and small notebook to document the range of things they consider to be healthy and unhealthy. Using open-ended interview questions, the children were then asked to explain each…

  18. Parents' Agreement to Purchase Healthy Snack Foods Requested by Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Diane E.; Reiboldt, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Research shows that parents agree to purchase their children's food requests 45% to 65% of the time. This study examined an after-school nutrition education intervention in terms of its effects on parents' agreement to purchase healthy snack foods requested by their children. Survey data from 755 parents were analyzed. Of the 67% of parents asked…

  19. Differences in Home Food and Activity Environments between Obese and Healthy Weight Families of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Saelens, Brian E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test a home food and activity instrument to discriminate between the home environments of obese and healthy weight preschool children. Design: A modified questionnaire about home environments was tested as an observation tool. Setting: Family homes. Participants: A total of 35 obese children with at least 1 obese…

  20. How Do Australian Junior Primary School Children Perceive the Concepts of "Healthy" and "Unhealthy?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly; Thompson, Kirrilly; Blunden, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe Australian children's perceptions of healthiness and sources of health knowledge in order to develop an understanding of young children's perceptions, knowledge and sources of influence to guide future behaviour change and health promotion strategies. Design/methodology/approach: One-hour interactive focus…

  1. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17,015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample.

  2. A proteomic study of protein variation between osteopenic and age-matched control bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Christopher D; Dangott, Lawrence J; Rahm, Mark D; Hitt, Kirby D; Stewart, Donald S; Wayne Sampson, H

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this study was to identify changes in protein expression within the bone tissue environment between osteopenic and control bone tissue of human femoral neck patients with osteoarthritis. Femoral necks were compared from osteopenic patients and age-matched controls. A new method of bone protein extraction was developed to provide a swift, clear view of the bone proteome. Relative changes in protein expression between control and osteopenic samples were quantified using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) technology after affinity chromatographic depletion of albumin and IgG. The proteins that were determined to be differentially expressed were identified using standard liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and database searching techniques. In order to rule out blood contamination, blood from age-matched osteoporotic, osteopenic and controls were analyzed in a similar manner. Image analysis of the DIGE gels indicated that 145 spots in the osteopenic bone samples changed at least ± 1.5-fold from the control samples (P < 0.05). Three of the proteins were identified by LC/MS/MS. Of the proteins that increased in the osteopenic femurs, two were especially significant: carbonic anhydrase I and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. Apolipoprotein A-I was the most prominent protein that significantly decreased in the osteopenic femurs. The blood samples revealed no significant differences between groups for any of these proteins. In conclusion, carbonic anhydrase I, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 and apolipoprotein A-I appeared to be the most significant variations of proteins in patients with osteopenia and osteoarthritis.

  3. Interracial Children: Growing Up Healthy in an Unhealthy Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackford, Kate

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes a conference which addressed the needs of children of interracial families. Reports that the lack of support, materials, and information for interracial families was a major concern. Recommends that interracial children be allowed to choose the racial identity they find most comfortable, and presents suggestions for starting a support…

  4. Teaching Healthy Habits to Young Children: Handwashing, Toileting and Toothbrushing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshikanlu, Seyi

    2006-01-01

    Teaching children habits is a routine part of many early childhood program curricula, with teachers never really stopping to think about what or how teaching is affecting their students. Habits are formed with consistent practice. Habits can be taught to children easily when teachers have some creativity to the actions. In this article, the author…

  5. Healthy Young Children: A Manual for Programs, 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S., Ed.

    Noting that the health component of child care should be planned to respond to the developmental patterns of young children, this manual was developed as a reference and resource guide for program directors and teachers of young children and can be used as a textbook for adult learners. The manual, based on national standards and reviewed by…

  6. A Population Health Approach to System Transformation for Children's Healthy Development.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Paul H; Sood, Aradhana Bela

    2016-04-01

    What if the goal of child health services was not "merely" treating, or even preventing, childhood diseases and disorders, but was expanded to that of promoting children's optimal healthy development? Pediatrics has evolved from an exclusive focus on the treatment of illness to the opportunity to promote children's healthy development. This evolution has profound implications for the content of child health services and programs, for system transformation, and for public policy. Enhanced understanding of the impact of social determinants on children's health and developmental outcomes underscores the importance of an evolving framework for system transformation with key policy implications.

  7. Respiratory Cycle-Related Electroencephalographic Changes during Sleep in Healthy Children and in Children with Sleep Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Immanuel, Sarah A.; Pamula, Yvonne; Kohler, Mark; Martin, James; Kennedy, Declan; Saint, David A.; Baumert, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate respiratory cycle-related electroencephalographic changes (RCREC) in healthy children and in children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) during scored event-free (SEF) breathing periods of sleep. Design: Interventional case-control repeated measurements design. Setting: Paediatric sleep laboratory in a hospital setting. Participants: Forty children with SDB and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched children. Interventions: Adenotonsillectomy in children with SDB and no intervention in controls. Measurements and Results: Overnight polysomnography; electroencephalography (EEG) power variations within SEF respiratory cycles in the overall and frequency band-specific EEG within stage 2 nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Within both groups there was a decrease in EEG power during inspiration compared to expiration across all sleep stages. Compared to controls, RCREC in children with SDB in the overall EEG were significantly higher during REM and frequency band specific RCRECs were higher in the theta band of stage 2 and REM sleep, alpha band of SWS and REM sleep, and sigma band of REM sleep. This between-group difference was not significant postadenotonsillectomy. Conclusion: The presence of nonrandom respiratory cycle-related electroencephalographic changes (RCREC) in both healthy children and in children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) during NREM and REM sleep has been demonstrated. The RCREC values were higher in children with SDB, predominantly in REM sleep and this difference reduced after adenotonsillectomy. Citation: Immanuel SA, Pamula Y, Kohler M, Martin J, Kennedy D, Saint DA, Baumert M. Respiratory cycle-related electroencephalographic changes during sleep in healthy children and in children with sleep disordered breathing. SLEEP 2014;37(8):1353-1361. PMID:25083016

  8. Children's meals in restaurants: families need more help to make healthy choices.

    PubMed

    Wootan, Margo G

    2012-02-01

    Helping families make healthier choices when eating out is important because eating out is a growing and significant part of Americans' diets and eating out is associated with obesity. Although a number of restaurants have announced improvements recently, many restaurant children's meals remain high in calories, saturated fat, and sodium, and default options are often fries and sugary drinks. Behavioral economic interventions that make default options healthy make healthy choices easier and mean that individuals must actively work to engage in less desirable behaviors. Providing healthier default options for children's meals supports parents by reducing barriers to feeding their children healthfully. This article outlines a number of ways to help families make the healthy choice the easy and the default choice for children when eating out.

  9. Fresh Food Program Promotes Healthy Eating Habits among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    Communities across the nation are fighting the increased incidence of childhood obesity and Type II diabetes. With funding from USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), a group in Illinois is promoting environmental sustainability and healthy eating habits in young Americans. Seven Generations Ahead's…

  10. Comparison of Brachial Artery Vasoreactivity in Elite Power Athletes and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Michael A.; Blalock, Paul; Credeur, Daniel P.; Parish, Tracie R.

    2013-01-01

    Elite endurance athletes typically have larger arteries contributing to greater skeletal muscle blood flow, oxygen and nutrient delivery and improved physical performance. Few studies have examined structural and functional properties of arteries in power athletes. Purpose To compare the size and vasoreactivity of the brachial artery of elite power athletes to age-matched controls. It was hypothesized brachial artery diameters of athletes would be larger, have less vasodilation in response to cuff occlusion, but more constriction after a cold pressor test than age-matched controls. Methods Eight elite power athletes (age = 23±2 years) and ten controls (age = 22±1 yrs) were studied. High-resolution ultrasonography was used to assess brachial artery diameters at rest and following 5 minutes of forearm occlusion (Brachial Artery Flow Mediated Dilation = BAFMD) and a cold pressor test (CPT). Basic fitness measures included a handgrip test and 3-minute step test. Results Brachial arteries of athletes were larger (Athletes 5.39±1.51 vs. Controls: 3.73±0.71 mm, p<0.05), had greater vasodilatory (BAFMD%: Athletes: 8.21±1.78 vs. Controls: 5.69±1.56%) and constrictor (CPT %: Athletes: -2.95±1.07 vs. Controls: −1.20±0.48%) responses, compared to controls. Vascular operating range (VOR = Peak dilation+Peak Constriction) was also greater in athletes (VOR: Athletes: 0.55±0.15 vs. Controls: 0.25±0.18 mm, p<0.05). Athletes had superior handgrip strength (Athletes: 55.92±17.06 vs. Controls: 36.77±17.06 kg, p<0.05) but similar heart rate responses at peak (Athletes: 123±16 vs. Controls: 130±25 bpm, p>0.05) and 1 minute recovery (Athletes: 88±21 vs. Controls: 98±26 bpm, p>0.05) following the step test. Conclusion Elite power athletes have larger brachial arteries, and greater vasoreactivity (greater vasodilatory and constrictor responses) than age-matched controls, contributing to a significantly greater VOR. These data extend the existence of an

  11. Acute Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Inhibition in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    den Heijer, Anne E.; Groen, Yvonne; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is a passive exercise method known to have beneficial effects on various physical measures. Studies on adults furthermore demonstrated beneficial effects of WBV treatment on cognition (e.g. inhibition). The present study replicated these findings in healthy children and examined acute effects of WBV treatment on inhibition. Methods Fifty-five healthy children (aged 8–13) participated in this within-subject design study. WBV treatment was applied by having the children sit on a chair mounted to a vibrating platform. After each condition (vibration vs. non-vibration), inhibition was measured by using the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test. Repeated measures analyses were applied in order to explore the effects of WBV treatment on inhibition, and correlations were computed between the treatment effect and participant characteristics in order to explore individual differences in treatment sensitivity. Results Three-minute WBV treatments had significant beneficial effects on inhibition in this sample of healthy children. Especially the repeated application (three times) of WBV treatment appeared beneficial for cognition. Stronger WBV treatment effects were correlated with higher intelligence and younger age, but not with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Conclusions This study demonstrates that especially repeated WBV treatment improves inhibition in healthy children. As this cognitive function is often impaired in children with developmental disorders (e.g. ADHD), future studies should further explore the effects, working mechanism and potential applicability of WBV treatment for this target group. PMID:26524188

  12. Nimodipine disposition and haemodynamic effects in patients with cirrhosis and age-matched controls.

    PubMed Central

    Gengo, F M; Fagan, S C; Krol, G; Bernhard, H

    1987-01-01

    Six biopsy proven cirrhotics and five age-matched controls (mean 55.3 vs 52.4 years) were randomly given single 60 mg p.o. and 30 mg s.l. doses of nimodipine. Serum concentrations and blood pressure were measured regularly over the subsequent 24 h period. The clearance of nimodipine was reduced in the patients with cirrhosis. Apparent oral clearance of nimodipine in the cirrhotic group was significantly lower than that observed in the normal group (187 +/- 163 l h-1 vs 469.6 +/- 198.4 l h-1, P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the normal subjects. There were, however, significant reductions in MAP following oral nimodipine in the cirrhotics. These reductions were significantly related to nimodipine concentrations in individual patients (P less than 0.05). PMID:3814462

  13. How about your peers? Cystic fibrosis questionnaire data from healthy children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ) is widely used in research as an instrument to measure quality of life in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In routine patient care however, measuring quality of life is still not implemented in guidelines. One of the reasons might be the lack of consensus on how to interpret CFQ scores of an individual patient, because appropriate reference data are lacking. The question which scores reflect normal functioning and which scores reflect clinically relevant problems is still unanswered. Moreover, there is no knowledge about how healthy children and adolescents report on their quality of life (on the CFQ). With regard to quality of life the effect of normal development should be taken into account, especially in childhood and adolescence. Therefore, it is important to gain more knowledge about how healthy children and adolescents report on their quality of life and if there are any difference in a healthy populations based on age or gender. Without these data we cannot adequately interpret the CFQ as a tool in clinical care to provide patient-tailored care. Therefore this study collected data of the CFQ in healthy children and adolescents with the aim to refer health status of CF youngsters to that of healthy peers. Methods The CFQ was completed by 478 healthy Dutch children and adolescents (aged 6-20) in a cross-sectional study. Results The majority of healthy children (over 65%) did not reach maximum scores on most domains of the CFQ. Median CFQ-scores of healthy children and adolescents ranged from 67 to 100 (on a scale of 0-100) on the different CFQ-domains. Significant differences in quality of life exist among healthy children and adolescents, and these depend on age and gender. Conclusions Reference data of quality of life scores from a healthy population are essential for adequate interpretation of quality of life in young patients with CF. Clinicians should be aware that the perception of health

  14. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress in Parents of Children with Cancer: Are they Elevated Relative to Parents of Healthy Children?

    PubMed Central

    Jurbergs, Nichole; Long, Alanna; Ticona, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in parents of children with cancer as a function of time since diagnosis, treatment status, and relapse history, and as compared to parents of healthy children. Method Participants included parents of 199 children with cancer, comprising a cross-sectional sample of diagnoses and treatment phases, ranging from currently on therapy to long-term survivors, and 108 parents of healthy children obtained via acquaintance control methods. Parents completed a standardized self-report measure of PTSS. Results Within the cancer group, parental report of PTSS differed as a function of treatment status and time since diagnosis. Parents of children on active treatment endorsed similar levels of PTSS as control parents, whereas parents of children off treatment reported significantly lower levels of PTSS than did controls. Similarly, parents of long-term survivors reported significantly lower levels of PTSS than did controls, while parents of recently diagnosed children did not differ from controls on PTSS. In contrast, parents of children who had suffered a relapse reported significantly higher levels of PTSS, and were much more likely to be identified as a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) case. Conclusions As a group, parents of children with cancer did not demonstrate any evidence of increased PTSS relative to parents of healthy children. Time since diagnosis, child treatment status, and relapse history are significant determinants of parent PTSS. Only parents of children who experienced a relapse appear to be at increased risk of PTSD. The current results appear discrepant from the existing literature, and possible explanations for these discrepancies are examined. PMID:18073235

  15. Cytokine levels in healthy and allergic mothers and their children during the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Prokesová, Ludmila; Lodinová-Zádníková, Raja; Zizka, Jan; Kocourková, Ingrid; Novotná, Olga; Petrásková, Petra; Sterzl, Ivan

    2006-05-01

    To assess the regulatory changes of immune system in children genetically pre-disposed to allergic diseases and in their mothers, we tested cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta in 21 healthy and 21 allergic mothers (serum at the time of delivery, colostrum and milk throughout the suckling period) and their children (cord blood, venous blood and stool filtrates) up to 1 yr of age. Samples were taken at the time of delivery, 4 days post-partum and then after 3, 6 and 12 months. Significant differences between the healthy and the allergic group were found in the levels of IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-gamma. The levels of IL-4 in the allergic group were generally higher; the levels in the sera of children of allergic mothers during the post-natal life decreased, reaching levels typical for the healthy group at 1 yr of age. Allergic mothers exhibited markedly higher IL-10 levels in the serum at the time of delivery and in milk 3 months after delivery than healthy mothers while after 6 months the IL-10 levels in all samples from the allergic group were very low. Children from allergic group had lower intestinal content of IL-13 in comparison with the healthy counterparts. At 1 yr of age, the levels of IFN-gamma in sera and stool of children from the allergic group sharply increased. TGF-beta levels in the sera of both groups were high, while in the milk they were relatively low and substantially lower that in the children's stool. TGF-beta of mammary secretions is therefore unlikely to exert a decisive regulatory influence on the children's immunity. Long-term clinical monitoring of the children will be performed to evaluate the potential prognostic significance of these changes for the future development of allergies.

  16. Raising healthy children: Moral and political responsibility for childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Megan

    2010-12-01

    Childhood obesity and chronic disease rates continue to climb, but policy and programme responses are mainly limited to education and awareness activities. These encourage individuals to make responsible lifestyle choices. Regulation and environmental change have a minor role, as they involve more intrusive roles for government, invading traditionally private domains of nutrition and physical activity. But to address children's health needs, today's emphasis on self-management is inappropriate. Children, especially the very young, are dependent and vulnerable. I describe why the current public health strategies, with their political and moral foundations, remain ineffective. The foundations are based primarily upon the traditional liberal understanding of the public/private divide, while neglecting to recognize the legal obligations and implications of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and theories of justice and citizenship as they apply to children.

  17. Parental Encouragement of Healthy Lifestyles for Their Children and Personally Caring about Healthy Lifestyles Is Positively Associated with Children Using Vitamin D Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Munasinghe, Lalani L.; Yuan, Yan; Faught, Erin L.; Willows, Noreen D.; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Supplement users have better vitamin D status, and parenting is key to promoting a child’s healthy behaviours. We examined the association of parental encouragement of and caring about healthy lifestyles with children’s use of vitamin D supplements and multivitamins. A provincially representative sample of grade 5 students (n = 2686; 10–11 years) and their parents across the province of Alberta, Canada, was surveyed in 2014. Students were asked about use of multivitamins and/or vitamin D supplements. Parents were asked whether they cared about and encouraged healthy lifestyles. Mixed effect multiple logistic regression identified the association of parental responses with children’s use of supplements; 29% and 54% of children took vitamin D supplements and multivitamins, respectively. They were more likely to take vitamin D supplements if their parents cared ‘very much’ vs. ‘not at all/a little bit’ about eating healthy foods (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.89), cared ‘quite a lot’ (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.17, 2.04) and ‘very much’ (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.21) vs. ‘not at all/a little bit’ about physical activity, and encouraged ‘very much’ vs. ‘not at all/a little bit’ their children to eat healthy foods (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.05, 2.17). Children whose parents personally cared for eating healthy foods were more likely to take multivitamins (‘quite a lot’ and ‘very much’ compared to ‘not at all/a little bit’ (OR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.28 and OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.06, respectively). Education and parental encouragement of healthy lifestyles should be part of the public health initiatives to promote supplementation of vitamin D among children. PMID:27669295

  18. Tobacco or Healthy Children: The Two Cannot Co-Exist

    PubMed Central

    Pattemore, Philip Keith

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco exposure increases mortality and morbidity of the fetus, the child, the adolescent, and their children in turn. Nearly half the children in the world are exposed. Smoking is not merely personal choice or personal responsibility; those subtle phrases undermine those who have no choice in the matter. Tobacco control must take a multi-pronged attack. Smoking cessation by adults in childbearing years must take center stage of these efforts, because it is the only way to ensure a smoke-free environment for children. Smoke-free parents provide a role model for smoke-free young people, and erode the image of smoking as a desirable adult behavior to emulate. Pediatricians and pediatric pulmonologists have a key role to play here. This goal will reduce morbidity and mortality among adults and children. Legislation regarding taxation, environments, tobacco constituents, product placement and display, packaging, and media education are all key to this core goal. Smoke-free policy must be protected from attack based on trade agreements. Research is needed into more effective ways to attract and help people give up smoking, and into educating and re-deploying tobacco industry workers in emerging and developed countries. PMID:24400266

  19. Exploring Healthy Eating: Activities for Parents and Children Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    This collection of learning units introduces parents to the role of nutrition in their young child's cognitive development. Designed to be easy to read and useful for families with limited resources, the materials help parents teach their young children good eating habits by offering information, feeding tips, creative activities for parents and…

  20. Arkansas Safe Kids Are No Accident! Healthy Children Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Susie, Ed.

    This handbook presents child care providers with fifteen chapters containing the most current information available on child health, illness, and development. Chapter 1 addresses "Child Growth and Development" in the areas of muscle, social, emotional, and intellectual skills. Chapter 2 addresses "Children's Health Histories"…

  1. "Early Sprouts" Establishing Healthy Food Choices for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalich, Karrie A.; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    The preschool years are a critical period for the development of food preferences and lifelong eating habits. Between the ages of 2 and 5, children become increasingly responsive to external cues, such as television commercials that use popular cartoon characters to advertise foods, candy in supermarket checkout aisles, and fast-food restaurants…

  2. [Physical self-concept, anxiety, depression, and self-esteem in children with cancer and healthy children without cancer history].

    PubMed

    Bragado, Carmen; Hernández-Lloreda, Ma José; Sánchez-Bernardos, Ma Luisa; Urbano, Susana

    2008-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to test if children with cancer receiving chemotherapy show a poorer physical self-concept, less self-esteem and more anxiety and depression than healthy children (with no cancer history) within the same age range (9-16 years old) and social condition. Furthermore, the capacity of self-concept and self-esteem to predict emotional distress is analyzed. The Spanish versions of PSDQ, CDI and STAIC were administered to 30 children with cancer and 90 healthy children. Except for the health and flexibility dimensions in the PSDQ, no significant differences between groups were found. Self-esteem was the best predictor of depression, whereas health and self-concept predicted anxiety.

  3. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  4. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Dietary guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Thersea; Johnson, Rachel

    2004-04-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. The health status of American children has generally improved over the past three decades. However, the number of children who are overweight has more than doubled among 2- to 5-year-old children and more than tripled among 6- to 11-year-old children, which has major health consequences. This increase in childhood overweight has broadened the focus of dietary guidance to address children's over consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and physical activity patterns. Health promotion will help reduce diet-related risks of chronic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This position paper reviews what US children are eating and explores trends in food and nutrient intakes as well as the impact of school meals on children's diets. Dietary recommendations and guidelines and the benefits of physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of healthy eating behaviors are highlighted. The American Dietetic Association works with other allied health and food industry professionals to translate dietary recommendations and guidelines into achievable, healthful messages. Specific recommendations to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for dietetics professionals, parents, and caregivers.

  5. Nasopharyngeal bacterial flora in healthy preschool children during winter-spring months.

    PubMed

    Ries, Mihael; Kostić, Mirjana; Zadravec, Dijana; Drvis, Petar; Ajduk, Jakov; Trotić, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The paper aimed to determine the incidence of colonization of Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis in the nasopharynges of healthy children in two preschool institutions during winter and spring months, without using antimicrobial treatment or serotyping of these bacteria. In addition to colonization of the above bacteria, the research that continued for 3 months monitored the length of their persistence in and disappearance from children's nasopharynges, children's health statuses, and provision of adequate medical interventions in children demonstrating clinical signs of disease. The ultimate aim of the paper was based on contributing to clearer and more accurate determination of a medical procedure in case of a positive result for bacteria intended to be found in the nasopharynx of a healthy child who spends time in a preschool institution.

  6. Why pediatricians need lawyers to keep children healthy.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Barry; Sandel, Megan; Smith, Lauren; Lawton, Ellen

    2004-07-01

    Pediatricians recognize that social and nonmedical factors influence child health and that there are many government programs and laws designed to provide for children's basic needs. However, gaps in implementation result in denials of services, leading to preventable poor health outcomes. Physician advocacy in these arenas is often limited by lack of knowledge, experience, and resources to intervene. The incorporation of on-site lawyers into the health care team facilitates the provision of crucial legal services to vulnerable families. Although social workers and case managers play a critical role in assessing family stability and finding appropriate resources for families, lawyers are trained to identify violations of rights and to take the appropriate legal steps to hold agencies, landlords, schools, and others accountable on behalf of families. The incorporation of lawyers in the clinical setting originated at an urban academic medical center and is being replicated at >30 sites across the country. Lawyers can help enhance a culture of advocacy in pediatrics by providing direct legal assistance and case consultation for providers, as well as jointly addressing systemic issues affecting children and families. Until laws to promote health and safety are consistently applied and enforced, pediatricians will need lawyers to effectively care for vulnerable children.

  7. Binding of [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide to serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors and of [(3)H]paroxetine to serotonin uptake sites in platelets from healthy children, adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Sigurdh, J; Spigset, O; Allard, P; Mjörndal, T; Hägglöf, B

    1999-11-01

    Possible age effects on binding of [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([(3)H]LSD) to serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors and of [(3)H]paroxetine to serotonin uptake sites were studied in platelets from healthy children (11-12 years of age), adolescents (16-17 years of age) and adults. Significant overall age effects were found both for the number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]LSD binding (p < 0.001), the affinity constant (K(d)) for [(3)H]LSD binding (p < 0.001), B(max) for [(3)H]paroxetine binding (p < 0.001) and K(d) for [(3)H] paroxetine binding (p = 0.006). In general, there was a decrease in B(max) with increasing age, which predominantly occurred between the ages 11-12 years and 16-17 years for the 5-HT(2A) receptor, and after 16-17 years of age for the serotonin uptake site. These developmental changes might have an impact on the effect of treatment with serotonergic drugs in children and adolescents. When the platelet serotonin variables investigated are employed in studies in children or adolescents, age matching or, alternatively, introduction of age control in the statistical analysis should be performed.

  8. Pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy African-American and Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Jee; Christoph, Kathy; Yu, Zhangsheng; Eigen, Howard; Tepper, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy children primarily focused upon Caucasian (C) subjects. Since lung volumes in African-Americans (AA) are smaller than lung volumes in C subjects of the same height, diffusing capacity values in AA children might be interpreted as low or abnormal using currently available equations without adjusting for race. Healthy AA (N = 151) and C (N = 301) children between 5 and 18 years of age performed acceptable measurements of single breath pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ) and alveolar volume (VA ) according to current ATS/ERS guidelines. The natural log of DLCO and VA were associated with height, gender, age, and race; AA children had lower DLCO and VA compared to C children. Adjustment of DLCO for Hemoglobin (Hgb) resulted in no significant difference in DLCO among these healthy subjects with normal Hgb. In summary, we report prediction equations for DLCO and VA that include adjustment for race (C; AA) demonstrating that AA have lower DLCO and VA compared to C children for the same height, gender, and age.

  9. Infection with Pneumocystis carinii is prevalent in healthy Gambian children.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, A E; Stewart, T J; Moxon, E R; Marsh, K; Hopkin, J M

    1990-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia is rarely identified in the many immunosuppressed individuals with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and malnutrition in Africa. To test whether infection with Pneumocystis carinii occurs in the continent we conducted a comparative serological study, measuring by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibodies to the parasite in 150 healthy young individuals from both Britain and the Gambian savanna. The prevalence of significant titres of antibody to P. carinii steadily increased with age and included more than 70% of both populations by 8 years of age. Infection with P. carinii is, therefore, common in the Gambia. Thus opportunistic pneumocystis pneumonia may be an important but largely unrecognized disease in the continent, though its impact is probably diminished by the prevalence of fatal tuberculous infection, particularly in the AIDS population.

  10. Haematological complications in otherwise healthy children hospitalized for varicella.

    PubMed

    Elena, Bozzola; Anna, Quondamcarlo; Andrzej, Krzysztofiak; Elisabetta, Pandolfi; Laura, Lancella; Alberto, Tozzi

    2011-02-11

    Although varicella is commonly regarded as a mild childhood disease, complications may occur and frequently require hospitalization. The aim of this study was to establish the type and frequency of varicella complications among hospitalized paediatric patients over a 4.5-year period. This analysis included the medical charts of 306 patients admitted to the Infectious Disease Unit, Children Hospital Bambino Gesù, Roma, Italy from 2006 to 2010 for varicella disease. The most common complications were haematological disorders (41.5%) followed by neurological ones (23.5%). Varicella vaccination in childhood immunization program must be increased.

  11. Preserved Learning during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J.; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit–symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol–digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol–digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. Results: The repetition of the same symbol–digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the

  12. Nordic Children's Conceptualizations of Healthy Eating in Relation to School Lunch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Linda; Talvia, Sanna; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Arnfjörð, Unnur Björk; Hörnell, Agneta; Ólafsdóttir, Anna Sigríður; Gunnarsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Wergedahl, Hege; Lagström, Hanna; Waling, Maria; Olsson, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Pupils' perspective should be better taken into account when developing nutrition education at school. The purpose of this paper is to explore Nordic children's perspectives on the healthiness of meals in the context of school lunches. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 78 focus group discussions were conducted with 10-11-year-old…

  13. Perceived Value of Academic and Physical Tasks: A Comparison of Healthy and Chronically Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Christy L.

    Questionnaires were completed by parents and fifth- and sixth-grade children (1,180 healthy, 151 chronically ill, 54 hyperactive, and 54 with severe vision or hearing impairments). The instruments were designed to measure three types of value: utility value (how important success at a task is for achieving future goals); attainment value (the…

  14. The Academic and Psychological Benefits of Exercise in Healthy Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Martin; Laumann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the psychological benefits exercise is connected to in healthy children and adolescents. Studies on the effect of exercise on academic performance, self-esteem, emotions, and mood were examined. Academic performance is found to be maintained when normal academic classes are reduced and replaced by an increase in exercise,…

  15. 77 FR 71426 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Healthy Communities... children), food service personnel, physical education instructors, school liaisons, and physicians or...) 10,560 1 0.08 338 Key Informants 3,168 1 2.25 2,851 Food Service Personnel 1,056 1 0.08 34...

  16. The ABCs of Family Mealtimes: Observational Lessons for Promoting Healthy Outcomes for Children with Persistent Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Winter, Marcia A.; Botti, Joanna C.

    2011-01-01

    Family mealtimes have the potential to promote healthy child development. This observational study of 200 family mealtimes examined the relation between child health in a group of children (ages 5 to 12) with persistent asthma and 3 dimensions of mealtime interaction: Action, Behavior Control, and Communication. Percent time spent in Action and…

  17. Clinically Referred ODD Children with or without CD and Healthy Controls: Comparisons across Contextual Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Bukstein, Oscar; Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    This study compares 6-11-year-old, clinically referred boys and girls diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder, either with (ODD + CD, n = 40) or without Conduct Disorder (ODD only; n = 136), to a matched sample of healthy control children (HC; n = 69). Multiple informants completed intake diagnostic interviews and self-reports to evaluate…

  18. Distinct Distal Gut Microbiome Diversity and Composition in Healthy Children from Bangladesh and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Audrie; Bik, Elisabeth M.; Costello, Elizabeth K.; Dethlefsen, Les; Haque, Rashidul

    2013-01-01

    Background Our current understanding of the composition and stability of the human distal gut microbiota is based largely on studies of infants and adults living in developed countries. In contrast, little is known about the gut microbiota and its variation over time in older children and adolescents, especially in developing countries. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the diversity, composition, and temporal stability of the fecal microbiota of healthy children, ages 9 to 14 years, living in an urban slum in Bangladesh with that of children of the same age range in an upper-middle class suburban community in the United States. We analyzed >8,000 near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences and over 845,000 pyrosequencing reads of the 16S rRNA V1–V3 region. The distal gut of Bangladeshi children harbored significantly greater bacterial diversity than that of U.S. children, including novel lineages from several bacterial phyla. Bangladeshi and U.S. children had distinct fecal bacterial community membership and structure; the microbiota of Bangladeshi children was enriched in Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, and Oscillospira and depleted in Bacteroides relative to U.S. children (although similar to Bangladeshi adults). Furthermore, community membership and structure in Bangladeshi children was significantly less stable month-to-month than U.S. children. Conclusions/Significance Together, these results suggest that differing environmental or genetic factors may shape the microbiota of healthy children in the two countries. Further investigation is necessary to understand the mechanisms and factors that underlie these differences, and to incorporate these findings into new strategies for the prevention and treatment of childhood and adolescent diseases. PMID:23349750

  19. Prospective dynamic balance control in healthy children and adults.

    PubMed

    Austad, Hanne; van der Meer, Audrey L H

    2007-08-01

    Balance control during gait initiation was studied using center of pressure (CoP) data from force plate measurements. Twenty-four participants were divided into four age groups: (1) 2-3 years, (2) 4-5 years, (3) 7-8 years, and (4) adults. Movement in the antero-posterior (CoPy) direction during the initial step was tau-G analyzed, investigating the hypothesis that tau of the CoPy motion-gap (tau(CoPy)), i.e., the time it will take to close the gap at its current closure rate, is tau-coupled onto an intrinsic tau-G guide (tau(G)), by maintaining the relation tau(CoPy )= Ktau(G), for a constant K. Mean percentage of tau-guidance for all groups was >/=99%, resulting in all r(2) exceeding 0.95, justifying an investigation of the regression slope as an estimate of the coupling constant K in the tau-coupling equation. Mean K values decreased significantly with age and were for 2- to 3-year-olds 0.56, for 4- to 5-year-olds 0.50, for 7- to 8-year-olds 0.47, and for adults 0.41. Therefore, the control of dynamic balance develops from the youngest children colliding with the boundaries of the base of support (K > 0.5) to the older children and adults making touch contact (K

  20. Healthy Weights Interventions in Aboriginal Children and Youth: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Towns, Claire; Cooke, Martin; Rysdale, Lee; Wilk, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that Aboriginal children and youth in Canada and elsewhere are at higher risk of obesity and overweight than other children. However, there has been no review of healthy weights interventions specifically aimed at Aboriginal children. A structured search for peer-reviewed articles presenting and evaluating healthy weights interventions for Aboriginal children and youth was conducted. Seventeen articles, representing seven interventions, were reviewed to identify their main characteristics, evaluation design, and evaluation outcomes. Interventions included several large community-based programs as well as several more focused programs that all targeted First Nations or American Indians, rather than Métis or Inuit. Only 1 program served an urban Aboriginal population. None of the published evaluations reported significant reductions in obesity or overweight or sustained increases in physical activity, although some evaluations presented evidence of positive effects on children's diets or on nutrition knowledge or intentions. We conclude that broader structural factors affecting the health of Aboriginal children may limit the effectiveness of these interventions, and that more evidence is required regarding interventions for Aboriginal children in various geographic and cultural contexts in Canada including Inuit and Métis communities.

  1. Inhibitory control in otherwise healthy overweight 10-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, S; Peirano, P; Peigneux, P; Lozoff, B; Algarin, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preventing obesity is a worldwide public health priority. In vulnerable children living in obesogenic environments, with easy access to high-caloric food, alterations in inhibitory control functions might favor excessive food intake and affect energy regulation. We hypothesized that overweight/obese children would present lower inhibitory control in comparison to normal weight children. METHODS We measured inhibitory control functions in 93 otherwise healthy overweight/obese and 92 normal weight 10-year-old children using the Stroop test and the Go/No-Go task. Event-related potentials were recorded during the Go/No-Go task. RESULTS Overweight/obese children showed slower reaction times (1248.6 ms (95% confidence interval (CI): 1182.9–1314.3) vs 1149.0 ms (95% CI: 1083.0–1215.1)) on the Stroop test, higher reaction time variability (0.25 (95% CI: 0.22–0.27) vs 0.21 (95% CI: 0.19–0.24)) on the Go/No-Go task and decreased P300 amplitude (4.1 µV (95% CI: 3.0–5.2) vs 6.4 µV (95% CI: 5.2–7.6)) on event-related potentials compared with normal weight children. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate altered inhibitory control functions in otherwise healthy overweight/obese children, which might contribute to their excessive food consumption. PMID:25869603

  2. A Validation and Reliability Study of the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Christina M.; De Ayala, R. J.; Lebow, Ryan; Hayden, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain validity evidence for the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE). Construct validity evidence identifies four subscales: Goal-Setting for Physical Activity, Goal-Setting for Healthy Food Choices, Decision-Making for Physical Activity, and Decision-Making for Healthy Food…

  3. Parameters of lung inflammation in asthmatic as compared to healthy children in a contaminated city

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of air pollution on the respiratory system has been estimated on the basis of respiratory symptoms and lung function. However; few studies have compared lung inflammation in healthy and asthmatics children exposed to high levels of air pollution. The aim of the study was to elucidate the modulatory effect of air pollution on Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (Cys-LTs) levels in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) among healthy and asthmatic children. Methods We performed a cross-sectional comparative study. Children between 7–12 years of age, asthmatics and non-asthmatics, residents of a city with high levels of PM10 were included. In all cases, forced spirometry, Cys-LTs levels in EBC, and the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire were evaluated. We also obtained average of PM10, CO, SO2 and O3 levels during the period of the study by the State Institute of Ecology. Results We studied 103 children (51 asthmatics and 52 non-asthmatics). Cys-LTs levels were higher in asthmatics than in non-asthmatics (77.3 ± 21.6 versus 60.3 ± 26.8 pg/ml; p = 0.0005). Also, Cys-LTs levels in children with intermittent asthma were lower than in children with persistent asthma (60.4 ± 20.4 versus 84.7 ± 19.2 pg/ml; p = 0.0001). In the multiple regression model, factors associated with levels of Cys-LTs were passive smoking (β = 13.1, p 0.04) and to be asthmatic (β = 11.5, p 0.03). Conclusions Cys-LTs levels are higher in asthmatic children than in healthy children in a contaminated city and its levels are also associated with passive smoking. PMID:25000942

  4. Assessment of Intima-Media Thickness in Healthy Children Aged 1 to 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Baroncini, Liz Andréa Villela; Sylvestre, Lucimary de Castro; Filho, Roberto Pecoits

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been shown to be increased in children and adolescents with traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, compared with those of healthy children. Objective To assess the influence of sex, age and body mass index (BMI) on the CIMT in healthy children and adolescents aged 1 to 15 years. Methods A total of 280 healthy children and adolescents (males, n=175; mean age, 7.49±3.57 years; mean BMI, 17.94±4.1 kg/m2) were screened for CIMT assessment. They were divided into 3 groups according to age: GI, 1 to 5 years [n=93 (33.2%); males, 57; mean BMI, 16±3 kg/m2]; GII, 6 to 10 years [n=127 (45.4%); males, 78; mean BMI, 17.9±3.7 kg/m2], and GIII, 11 to 15 years [n=60 (21.4%); males, 40; mean BMI, 20.9±4.5 kg/m2]. Results There was no significant difference in CIMT values between male and female children and adolescents (0.43±0.06 mm vs. 0.42±0.05 mm, respectively; p=0.243). CIMT correlated with BMI neither in the total population nor in the 3 age groups according to Pearson correlation coefficient. Subjects aged 11 to 15 years had the highest CIMT values (GI vs. GII, p=0.615; GI vs. GIII, p=0.02; GII vs. GIII, p=0.004). Conclusions CIMT is constant in healthy children younger than 10 years, regardless of sex or BMI. CIMT increases after the age of 10 years. PMID:26959401

  5. Cortical maturation and myelination in healthy toddlers and young children.

    PubMed

    Deoni, Sean C L; Dean, Douglas C; Remer, Justin; Dirks, Holly; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan

    2015-07-15

    The maturation of cortical structures, and the establishment of their connectivity, are critical neurodevelopmental processes that support and enable cognitive and behavioral functioning. Measures of cortical development, including thickness, curvature, and gyrification have been extensively studied in older children, adolescents, and adults, revealing regional associations with cognitive performance, and alterations with disease or pathology. In addition to these gross morphometric measures, increased attention has recently focused on quantifying more specific indices of cortical structure, in particular intracortical myelination, and their relationship to cognitive skills, including IQ, executive functioning, and language performance. Here we analyze the progression of cortical myelination across early childhood, from 1 to 6 years of age, in vivo for the first time. Using two quantitative imaging techniques, namely T1 relaxation time and myelin water fraction (MWF) imaging, we characterize myelination throughout the cortex, examine developmental trends, and investigate hemispheric and gender-based differences. We present a pattern of cortical myelination that broadly mirrors established histological timelines, with somatosensory, motor and visual cortices myelinating by 1 year of age; and frontal and temporal cortices exhibiting more protracted myelination. Developmental trajectories, defined by logarithmic functions (increasing for MWF, decreasing for T1), were characterized for each of 68 cortical regions. Comparisons of trajectories between hemispheres and gender revealed no significant differences. Results illustrate the ability to quantitatively map cortical myelination throughout early neurodevelopment, and may provide an important new tool for investigating typical and atypical development.

  6. Managing a "New" Murmur in Healthy Children and Teens.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Lisa J; May, Joseph W

    2017-04-01

    An asymptomatic child with a murmur can be challenging practice management conundrum. Some providers refer all patients with a "new" murmur to a cardiologist, likely resulting in excessive resource utilization and parental anxiety. This study examines whether the prevalence of significant cardiac pathology differs in asymptomatic patients aged 2 to 18 years who were referred for a murmur that was "new" versus those referred for a murmur that was known to exist and followed conservatively during the previous 2 years. Of 473 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 33/473 (7.0%) were diagnosed with cardiac pathology, with 21/357 (5.9%) occurring among "new" murmur referrals and 12/116 (10.3%) occurring among "known" murmur referrals. Notably, 34/357 (9.5%) patients referred for a "new" murmur had no murmur present when assessed by the cardiologist. This study suggests that asymptomatic children with a "new" murmur may be conservatively managed. This may lessen health care resource utilization rates and overall parental anxiety.

  7. Automated sleep-spindle detection in healthy children polysomnograms.

    PubMed

    Causa, Leonardo; Held, Claudio M; Causa, Javier; Estévez, Pablo A; Perez, Claudio A; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Garrido, Marcelo; Algarín, Cecilia; Peirano, Patricio

    2010-09-01

    We present a new methodology to detect and characterize sleep spindles (SSs), based on the nonlinear algorithms, empirical-mode decomposition, and Hilbert-Huang transform, which provide adequate temporal and frequency resolutions in the electroencephalographic analysis. In addition, the application of fuzzy logic allows to emulate expert's procedures. Additionally, we built a database of 56 all-night polysomnographic recordings from children for training and testing, which is among the largest annotated databases published on the subject. The database was split into training (27 recordings), validation (10 recordings), and testing (19 recordings) datasets. The SS events were marked by sleep experts using visual inspection, and these marks were used as golden standard. The overall SS detection performance on the testing dataset of continuous all-night sleep recordings was 88.2% sensitivity, 89.7% specificity, and 11.9% false-positive (FP) rate. Considering only non-REM sleep stage 2, the results showed 92.2% sensitivity, 90.1% specificity, and 8.9% FP rate. In general, our system presents enhanced results when compared with most systems found in the literature, thus improving SS detection precision significantly without the need of hypnogram information.

  8. Cortical maturation and myelination in healthy toddlers and young children

    PubMed Central

    Deoni, Sean C.L.; Dean, Douglas C.; Remer, Justin; Dirks, Holly; O’Muircheartaigh, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The maturation of cortical structures, and the establishment of their connectivity, are critical neurodevelopmental processes that support and enable cognitive and behavioral functioning. Measures of cortical development, including thickness, curvature, and gyrification have been extensively studied in older children, adolescents, and adults, revealing regional associations with cognitive performance, and alterations with disease or pathology. In addition to these gross morphometric measures, increased attention has recently focused on quantifying more specific indices of cortical structure, in particular intracortical myelination, and their relationship to cognitive skills, including IQ, executive functioning, and language performance. Here we analyze the progression of cortical myelination across early childhood, from 1 to 6 years of age, in vivo for the first time. Using two quantitative imaging techniques, namely T1 relaxation time and myelin water fraction (MWF) imaging, we characterize myelination throughout the cortex, examine developmental trends, and investigate hemispheric and gender-based differences. We present a pattern of cortical myelination that broadly mirrors established histological timelines, with somatosensory, motor and visual cortices myelinating by 1 year of age; and frontal and temporal cortices exhibiting more protracted myelination. Developmental trajectories, defined by logarithmic functions (increasing for MWF, decreasing for T1), were characterized for each of 68 cortical regions. Comparisons of trajectories between hemispheres and gender revealed no significant differences. Results illustrate the ability to quantitatively map cortical myelination throughout early neurodevelopment, and may provide an important new tool for investigating typical and atypical development. PMID:25944614

  9. Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A; Hayes, Dayle

    2008-06-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. The health status of American children has generally improved during the past 3 decades. However, the number of children who are overweight has more than doubled among 2- to 5-year-old children and more than tripled among 6- to 11-year-old children, which has major health consequences. This increase in childhood overweight has broadened the focus of dietary guidance to address children's overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and physical activity patterns. Health promotion will help reduce diet-related risks of chronic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This position reviews what US children are eating and explores trends in food and nutrient intakes as well as the impact of school meals on children's diets. Dietary recommendations and guidelines and the benefits of physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of healthful eating behaviors are highlighted. Specific recommendations and sources of nutrition messages to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for food and nutrition professionals

  10. Sugar as part of a balanced breakfast? What cereal advertisements teach children about healthy eating.

    PubMed

    LoDolce, Megan E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-01-01

    Marketing that targets children with energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods is a likely contributor to the childhood obesity crisis. High-sugar ready-to-eat cereals are the packaged food most frequently promoted in child-targeted food advertising on television. The authors combined content analysis of product nutritional quality and messages presented in cereal television advertisements with syndicated data on exposure to those ads. The analysis quantifies children's exposure to specific products and messages that appear in advertisements and compares it with adult exposure. Children viewed 1.7 ads per day for ready-to-eat cereals, and 87% of those ads promoted high-sugar products; adults viewed half as many ads, and ads viewed were equally likely to promote high- and low-sugar cereals. In addition, the messages presented in high-sugar ads viewed by children were significantly more likely to convey unrealistic and contradictory messages about cereal attributes and healthy eating. For example, 91% of high-sugar cereal ads viewed by children ascribed extraordinary powers to these products, and 67% portrayed healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. Given children's vulnerability to the influence of advertising, the emotional and mixed messages used to promote high-sugar cereals are confusing and potentially misleading.

  11. Establishment of Biochemistry Reference Values for Healthy Tanzanian Infants, Children, and Adolescents in Kilimanjaro Region

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Ann M.; Fiorillo, Suzanne P.; Omondi, Michael W.; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Crump, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish common biochemistry reference intervals for Tanzanian infants, children, and adolescents living in the Kilimanjaro Region. Methods We recruited healthy, HIV-uninfected Tanzanian infants, children, and youth between the ages of one month and 17 years from local schools and clinics to participate in this study. Only afebrile children without signs of physical or chronic illness were enrolled. Nonparametric methods were used to determine 95% reference limits and their 90% confidence intervals, with outliers removed by the Tukey method. Results A total of 619 healthy infants, children, and adolescents were enrolled into the study. Twenty-three biochemistry parameters were measured. Compared to U.S. reference intervals, several of the biochemistry parameters showed notable differences; namely, alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, amylase, and lipase. Comparing our data to the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Division of AIDS (DAIDS) grading criteria for classification of adverse events, we found that for select parameters, up to 15% of infants or children in certain age groups would have been categorized as having an adverse event as defined by DAIDS. Conclusions Our study further confirms the need to use locally established reference intervals to define reference laboratory parameters among children in Africa, rather than relying on those derived from U.S. or European populations. To our knowledge, this study provides the first set of locally validated biochemistry reference ranges for a pediatric population in Tanzania. PMID:26224122

  12. Healthy children ready to learn: an essential collaboration between health and education.

    PubMed Central

    Novello, A C; Degraw, C; Kleinman, D V

    1992-01-01

    The "Healthy Children Ready to Learn" initiative starts with the underlying concept that health is a critical partner to optimum education. All children have a right to be healthy. At a minimum, this right assumes promoting optimum use of available and effective preventive measures, such as ensuring compliance with immunization recommendations; promoting measures to prevent injuries; ensuring opportunities to identify disease and disabilities early; and providing prompt treatment when needed. Families must receive the support and assistance they need to raise healthy and educated children. Activities directed toward National Education Goals and the related National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives can advance progress toward school readiness, focus attention and available resources on needed programs and services, and thus help the nation in achieving its goal of having all children arriving at school each day healthy, well nourished, and ready to learn. To realize these goals and objectives, the two critical systems of greatest importance to children, those providing health services and education, need to collaborate, not only among themselves, but also with social services. A range of critical health problems will require our attention if the goals are to be met, such as availability of prenatal care, infant mortality, inadequate nutrition during pregnancy or early childhood, or both, disease prevention by immunization, infants who have been exposed to drugs, fetal alcohol syndrome, and the emotional and mental disorders of early childhood, to name a few. At any one time, any family may be in need of appropriate services. To address the health and well-being of their young children, a continuum of appropriate, accessible services must be available in the community. The first steps toward successful achievement of the readiness goal will require the identification of health, education, and social service programs that serve young children and

  13. Cognitive Outcomes for Congenital Hypothyroid and Healthy Children: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    ORDOOEI, Mahtab; MOTTAGHIPISHEH, Hadi; FALLAH, Razieh; RABIEE, Azar

    2014-01-01

    Objective Early diagnosis and treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and the prevention of developmental retardation is the main goal of public health national screening programs. This study compares the cognitive ability of children with CH diagnosed by neonatal screening with a healthy control group (2007) in Yazd, Iran. Materials & Methods In a case-controlled study, the intelligent quotient (IQ) of 40 five-year-old children with early treated CH and good compliance were evaluated by the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligent test and compared to 40 healthy age and gender matched children as controls. Results 22 boys (55%) and 18 girls (45%) in both groups were evaluated. In children with CH, 19 (47.5%) and 21 (52.5%) persons had transient and permanent hypothyroidism, respectively. Range of TSH and T4 level at the onset of diagnosis were 11.41–81 mu/l and 1.50–14.20 μg/dl, respectively. The intelligence levels of all children with CH were within the average or normal range and IQs ranged from 91–108. Children with CH had lower full-scale IQs (107.25 ± 2. 9 versus 110.50 ± 2.66, p=0.001), verbal IQ (106.95 ± 3.5 versus 109.90 ± 3.44, P-value=0.001) and performance IQ (106.3 ± 3.68 versus 108.87 ± 3.70) than the control group. However, no statistically significant differences were observed for mean IQ scores in permanent and transient CH. Conclusion Children with CH who had early treatment and good compliance had normal cognitive abilities, but may have a decreased IQ relative to the healthy control group. PMID:25657767

  14. ABCB1 genotypes and haplotypes in patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients

    PubMed Central

    Frankfort, Suzanne V; Doodeman, Valerie D; Bakker, Remco; Tulner, Linda R; van Campen, Jos PCM; Smits, Paul HM; Beijnen, Jos H

    2006-01-01

    Amyloid β is an in vitro substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux pump at the blood brain barrier (BBB). The Multi Drug Resistance (ABCB1) gene, encoding for P-gp, is highly polymorphic and this may result in a changed function of P-gp and may possibly interfere with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. This study investigates to what extent ABCB1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs; C1236T in exon 12, G2677T/A in exon 21 and C3435T in exon 26) and inferred haplotypes exist in an elderly population and if these SNPs and haplotypes differ between patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients. ABCB1 genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies were neither significantly different between patients with dementia and age-matched controls, nor between subgroups of different types of dementia nor age-matched controls. This study shows ABCB1 genotype frequencies to be comparable with described younger populations. To our knowledge this is the first study on ABCB1 genotypes in dementia. ABCB1 genotypes are presently not useful as a biomarker for dementia, as they were not significantly different between demented patients and age-matched control subjects. PMID:16999857

  15. Electrophoretic protein patterns and numerical analysis of Candida albicans from the oral cavities of healthy children.

    PubMed

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro; Bernardo, Wagner Luis de Carvalho; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno; Höfling, José Francisco

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the protein polymorphism degree among seventy-five C. albicans strains from healthy children oral cavities of five socioeconomic categories from eight schools (private and public) in Piracicaba city, São Paulo State, in order to identify C. albicans subspecies and their similarities in infantile population groups and to establish their possible dissemination route. Cell cultures were grown in YEPD medium, collected by centrifugation, and washed with cold saline solution. The whole-cell proteins were extracted by cell disruption, using glass beads and submitted to SDS-PAGE technique. After electrophoresis, the protein bands were stained with Coomassie-blue and analyzed by statistics package NTSYS-pc version 1.70 software. Similarity matrix and dendrogram were generated by using the Dice similarity coefficient and UPGMA algorithm, respectively, which made it possible to evaluate the similarity or intra-specific polymorphism degrees, based on whole-cell protein fingerprinting of C. albicans oral isolates. A total of 13 major phenons (clusters) were analyzed, according to their homogeneous (socioeconomic category and/or same school) and heterogeneous (distinct socioeconomic categories and/or schools) characteristics. Regarding to the social epidemiological aspect, the cluster composition showed higher similarities (0.788 < SD < or = 1.0) among C. albicans strains isolated from healthy children independent of their socioeconomic bases (high, medium, or low). Isolates of high similarity were not found in oral cavities from healthy children of social stratum A and D, B and D, or C and E. This may be explained by an absence of a dissemination route among these children. Geographically, some healthy children among identical and different schools (private and public) also are carriers of similar strains but such similarity was not found among other isolates from children from certain schools. These data may reflect a restricted

  16. Urinary recovery of caffeine and its metabolites in healthy African children.

    PubMed

    Akinyinka, O O; Sowunmi, A; Honeywell, R; Renwick, A G

    2001-01-01

    Consumption of caffeine containing products is very popular in African children, particularly during ill health in the belief that caffeine promotes good health. This study aims to define the metabolism of caffeine, which takes place in the liver in a group of healthy Nigerian children. About 100 mg of caffeine was ingested after an overnight fast. Urine was collected before caffeine ingestion and over 12-hour periods for 36 hours in 13 healthy Nigerian children. The percentage of caffeine and metabolites recovered in urine was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The total urinary caffeine and metabolites recovered over the 36-hour sampling period was 63.6%, with only 0.4% of the caffeine dose ingested recovered as unchanged caffeine during the same period. Insignificant amounts of 3,7-dimethyluric acid (0.2%), 3-methyluric acid (0.3%) and 1,3,7-dimethyluric acid (0.4) were recovered in the 36hour urine sample. This study also found that the N3-demethylation pathway was the principal pathway of caffeine metabolism accounting for 83.3% of the total metabolites recovered while C8-hydroxylation accounted for only 0.6% of metabolites recovered. The pattern of urinary metabolites recovered suggested that N3-demethylation is the principal pathway of caffeine metabolism in healthy African children and that small amounts of unchanged caffeine, as well as 3,7-dimethyluric acid, 3-methyluric acid and 1,3,7-dimethyluric acid were recovered during the sampling period.

  17. Emolabeling increases healthy food choices among grade school children in a structured grocery aisle setting.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Gregory J; Phillips, Taylor E; Zuraikat, Faris M; Paque, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Health literacy, the ability to acquire health-related knowledge and make appropriate health-related decisions, is regarded as a key barrier to meaningfully convey health information to children and can impact food choice. Emolabeling is an image-based labeling strategy aimed at addressing this problem by conveying health information using emotional correlates of health using emoticons (happy = healthy; sad = not healthy). To test the utility of such a method to promote healthy food choices among children, 64 children (59% girls, <5% non-White, mean BMI = 52nd percentile) in kindergarten through 5th grade were first given a brief 5-min lesson on how to use the emoticons, then asked to choose any 4 foods in each of 2 aisles structured to mimic a grocery aisle - there were 12 identical foods placed in the same location in each aisle with half being low calorie and half high calorie snacks. Foods were emolabeled in one aisle; no emolabels were used in the other aisle; the order that children were brought in each aisle was counterbalanced. Results showed that adding emolabels increased the number (M ± SD) of healthy foods chosen (3.6 ± 0.7 with vs. 2.3 ± 1.1 without emolabels present [95% CI 1.0, 1.5], R(2) = .67) and reduced the total calories (M ± SD) of foods chosen (193.5 ± 88.5 Cal with vs. 374.3 ± 152.6 Cal without emolabels present [95% CI -212.6, -149.0], R(2) = .70). Hence, adding emolabels was associated with healthier food choices among children, thereby demonstrating one possible strategy to effectively overcome health literacy barriers at these ages.

  18. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  19. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  20. Brand name logo recognition of fast food and healthy food among children.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Elva; Castaneda, Diego; Elder, John P; Slymen, Donald; Dozier, David

    2009-02-01

    The fast food industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition, food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fast food industry is among the leaders in reaching youth and ethnic minorities through their marketing efforts. The primary objective of this study was to determine if young children recognized fast food restaurant logos at a higher rate than other food brands. Methods Children (n = 155; 53% male; 87% Hispanic) ages 4-8 years were recruited from elementary schools and asked to match 10 logo cards to products depicted on a game board. Parents completed a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with a healthy lifestyle in the home. Results Older children and children who were overweight were significantly more likely to recognize fast food restaurant logos than other food logos. Moreover, parents' psychosocial and socio-demographic characteristics were associated with the type of food logo recognized by the children. Conclusions Children's high recognition of fast food restaurant logos may reflect greater exposure to fast food advertisements. Families' socio-demographic characteristics play a role in children's recognition of food logos.

  1. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child.

  2. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  3. Carboxylation of osteocalcin affects its association with metabolic parameters in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Prats-Puig, Anna; Mas-Parareda, Marta; Riera-Pérez, Elena; González-Forcadell, Dolors; Mier, Concepció; Mallol-Guisset, Montserrat; Díaz, Marta; Bassols, Judit; de Zegher, Francis; Ibáñez, Lourdes; López-Bermejo, Abel

    2010-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Osteocalcin (OC), a bone-derived protein, was recently shown to regulate metabolic pathways in mice. Undercarboxylated OC (ucOC), but not carboxylated OC (cOC), increases adiponectin and insulin secretion. It is unclear if carboxylation of OC affects its association with metabolic parameters in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The associations between ucOC, cOC, total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, and insulin secretion (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA]-beta) were investigated in a population-based sample of healthy prepubertal children (n = 103; 49 boys and 54 girls). RESULTS Weight-dependent associations were observed between the different forms of OC and metabolic parameters. Higher cOC was related to lower HMW adiponectin (with a stronger association in leaner children; P < 0.001). Higher ucOC-to-cOC ratio was associated with higher HOMA-beta (P < 0.01) in leaner children and associated with higher HMW adiponectin (P < 0.001) in heavier children. CONCLUSIONS In a weight-dependent manner, cOC and the proportion of ucOC are differentially related to HMW adiponectin and insulin secretion in healthy children.

  4. Carboxylation of Osteocalcin Affects Its Association With Metabolic Parameters in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Prats-Puig, Anna; Mas-Parareda, Marta; Riera-Pérez, Elena; González-Forcadell, Dolors; Mier, Concepció; Mallol-Guisset, Montserrat; Díaz, Marta; Bassols, Judit; de Zegher, Francis; Ibáñez, Lourdes; López-Bermejo, Abel

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Osteocalcin (OC), a bone-derived protein, was recently shown to regulate metabolic pathways in mice. Undercarboxylated OC (ucOC), but not carboxylated OC (cOC), increases adiponectin and insulin secretion. It is unclear if carboxylation of OC affects its association with metabolic parameters in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The associations between ucOC, cOC, total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, and insulin secretion (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA]-β) were investigated in a population-based sample of healthy prepubertal children (n = 103; 49 boys and 54 girls). RESULTS Weight-dependent associations were observed between the different forms of OC and metabolic parameters. Higher cOC was related to lower HMW adiponectin (with a stronger association in leaner children; P < 0.001). Higher ucOC-to-cOC ratio was associated with higher HOMA-β (P < 0.01) in leaner children and associated with higher HMW adiponectin (P < 0.001) in heavier children. CONCLUSIONS In a weight-dependent manner, cOC and the proportion of ucOC are differentially related to HMW adiponectin and insulin secretion in healthy children. PMID:20009098

  5. Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease in Healthy Older Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kie Young

    2012-01-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in otherwise healthy older children and adolescents is commonly encountered in pediatric clinics and poses a complex treatment problem involving changes of diets and lifestyle. After an initial history taking and a physical examination, typical symptoms of GERD in older children and adolescenct are initially treated with the trials of acid suppressants. With an increase of severe cases, more and more GERD children have been evaluated with endoscopy, which helps to delineate an erosive esophagitis from a non-erosive reflux disease as they are presumed to have different pathogenesis. For the pediatric patients without a significant underlying disease, a reflux esophagitis can be treated adequately with acid suppressants. Recently, the rapid increase of children who are taking anti-reflux medication has brought up a serious alarm among pediatricians. Some at risk pediatric patients with recurrent and/or chronic GERD have been linked to adulthood GERD. In this paper, pediatric GERD with and without erosive esophagitis was reviewed along with treatment options and issues specifically for the otherwise healthy older children and adolescents in the primary clinics or the secondary hospitals. PMID:24010091

  6. Depression partially mediates the relationship between alexithymia and somatization in a sample of healthy children

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Laura B.; Lu, Qian; Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Hayes, Loran P.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2011-01-01

    A link between alexithymia and somatization has been widely established, yet little is known about different factors that may influence this relationship. Evidence supporting the idea of psychopathology as a mediator has been presented but not widely tested, particularly in children. The present study examined depressive symptoms as a mediator of alexithymia and somatization in a sample of healthy children in order to better understand the alexithymia-somatization link from a developmental perspective. Results indicated that depression significantly partially mediated this relationship, at least for two facets of alexithymia (difficulty identifying and describing feelings). Possible mechanisms, implications, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21464112

  7. Incidence of dermatophytes and cyclohexamide resistant fungi on healthy children hairs and nails in nurseries.

    PubMed

    Maghazy, S M

    2002-01-01

    In order to estimate the prevalence of dermatophytes and other fungi on healthy children hairs and nails, 92 hair samples and 85 nail samples (groups of 10 finger nails from each child) were collected from 5 nurseries (children aged 9 months up to 4 years) in Assiut city. From hair samples 22 species were collected, Trichophyton (2 species) and Microsporum (2 species) were the only recovered dermatophytes in addition to well known keratinophilic genus Chrysosporium (4 species). From nail samples, 18 species were identified, Trichophyton was represented by 4 species, Microsporum, 2 species and Chrysosporium, 4 species. Also, several other saprophytes and cycloheximide resistant fungi were isolated.

  8. The effect of menaquinone-7 (vitamin K2) supplementation on osteocalcin carboxylation in healthy prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    van Summeren, Marieke J H; Braam, Lavienja A J L M; Lilien, Marc R; Schurgers, Leon J; Kuis, Wietse; Vermeer, Cees

    2009-10-01

    Vitamin K contributes to bone health, probably through its role as cofactor in the carboxylation of osteocalcin. Intervention studies in adults have demonstrated that markedly higher osteocalcin carboxylation is obtained by intakes of vitamin K well above the current recommended dietary intake. However, the relationship between increased vitamin K2 intake and enhanced osteocalcin carboxylation has never been shown in healthy children. The objective was to study the effect of 45 microg menaquinone-7 (MK-7; one of the vitamin K2 species) on the circulating levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) and carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC) in healthy prepubertal children. We hypothesised that MK-7 supplementation will reduce the ucOC:cOC ratio (UCR), indicating an improved vitamin K status. The present study is a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial examining the effect of 8 weeks MK-7 supplementation on the carboxylation of osteocalcin in healthy children (n 55). Serum levels of ucOC, cOC and MK-7 were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks, together with bone markers and coagulation parameters. The UCR was used as an indicator of vitamin K status. In the MK-7-supplemented group (n 28), the circulating concentration of inactive ucOC reduced and the UCR improved whereas the concentration of MK-7 increased. Within the placebo group, ucOC, cOC, UCR and MK-7 did not significantly change over time. In both groups, bone markers and coagulation parameters remained constant over time. These findings demonstrate that in healthy, prepubertal children, modest supplementation with MK-7 increases circulating concentrations of MK-7 and increases osteocalcin carboxylation.

  9. Spatial and temporal postural analysis: a developmental study in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Gouleme, Nathalie; Ezane, Marie Désirée; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore further the development of postural control in healthy children. The novelty of this study was to resort to both spatial and temporal analysis of the center of pressure (CoP). Forty-six healthy children from 4 to 16 years old (mean age: 9.1±3 years) and a group of 13 healthy adults (mean age: 25±3 years) participated to this study. Postural control was tested on both a stable and an unstable platform in three different visual conditions: eyes open fixating a target, under optocinetic stimulation, and eyes closed. Resul*ts showed a significant decrease of both surface area as well as mean velocity of the center of pressure (CoP) during childhood. With the children's increasing age, the spectral power indices decreased significantly and the canceling time increased significantly. Such improvement in postural control could be due to a better use of sensorial inputs and cerebellar integration during development, allowing subjects to achieve more efficient postural control.

  10. Cytokine expression in cord blood cells of children of healthy and allergic mothers.

    PubMed

    Hrdý, J; Zanvit, P; Novotná, O; Kocourková, I; Zižka, J; Prokešová, L

    2010-09-01

    To determine some early signs connected with the increased risk of future allergy development, gene expression and production of selected cytokines were tested in children of allergic mothers and compared with newborns of healthy mothers. Expression of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, TGF-β and EGF was tested in cord blood cells using real-time PCR and production of these cytokines was evaluated in cord sera by ELISA. Gene expression of IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α and TGF-β was decreased and that of IL-10, IL-13 and EGF increased in children of allergic mothers in comparison with those of healthy mothers. Significant differences in sera of healthy and allergic groups were only in IL-10 and EGF. Different relationship among serum cytokine levels reflects the fact that the cytokines are not produced only by blood cells. Significantly decreased production of EGF in newborns of allergic mothers could negatively influence maturation of mucosal membranes of these children and support thus their easier allergization. Allergic phenotype pointing to the bias to T(H)2 response and to possibly impaired intestine maturation was apparent already on the level of cord blood and could serve as a predictive sign of increased allergy risk.

  11. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and adults in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obiandu, C; Okerengwo, A A; Dapper, D V

    2013-06-30

    Serum levels of the immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA and IgM were determined by the single radial immunodiffusion technique of Mancini in a total of 122 apparently healthy subjects consisting of 43 children (20 males; 23 females) aged 5-12 years and 79 adults (39 males; 40 females) aged 18-65 years resident in Port Harcourt, southeastern Nigeria. The effects of age and sex on the serum levels of the various immunoglobulin types were also determined. The mean values and ranges for the various immunoglobulin types are presented for both children and adults. Although, female children were found to have significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male children (p<0.05), there were no significant differences in the mean values of both IgG and IgM between male and female children involved in the present study (p>0.05). However, female adults had significantly higher mean values of IgG and significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male adults (p<0.05); suggesting a significant gender difference in the value of both IgG and IgA amongst adult subjects. No significant differences were observed in the mean values of any of the various types of immunoglobulin between adults and children. The present study reports mean values of the various types of immunoglobulin in apparently healthy children and adults resident in Port Harcourt, southeastern Nigeria. Significant gender differences were observed for some of the immunoglobulin types only amongst adults. Our results suggest that these gender differences amongst adults were apparently a gradual build-up from childhood. The results also confirm suggestions that levels of some immunoglobulin types seen amongst African adults may have possibly been attained during childhood. Our study could be of value since previous reports in this regard have been relatively scanty especially in this part of Nigeria.

  12. Healthy Children: Networking of People Concerned about the Quality of Life of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Patti-Beth; Carlton, M. Patricia

    The move from disease treatment to disease prevention represents an exciting and positive step forward in promoting the health of young children. In modern society, though, health-related messages are part of a broad socialization process in which adults often transmit confusing and contradictory messages to children. To counter this condition,…

  13. The effect of face exploration on postural control in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Goulème, Nathalie; Seassau, Magali; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-07-01

    The objective was to explore how face exploration affects postural control in healthy children. The novelty here is that eye movements and posture were simultaneously recorded. Three groups of children participated in the study: 12 children of 7.8±0.5 years old, 13 children of 10.4±0.5 years old and 12 children of 15.7±0.9 years old. Eye movements were recorded by video-oculography and postural stability was recorded by a platform. Children were invited to explore five emotional faces (neutral, happy, sad fear and angry). Analysis of eye movements was done on saccadic latency, percentage of exploration time spent and number of saccades for each specific region of interest (ROI): eyes, nose and mouth. Analysis of posture was made on surface area, sway length and mean velocity of the center of pressures (CoP). Results showed that visual strategies, exploration and postural control develop during childhood and adolescence. Indeed, after nine years-old, children started to look the eyes ROI firstly, then the nose ROI and finally the mouth ROI. The number of saccades decreased with the age of children. The percentage of exploration time spent in eyes ROI was longer than the others ROIs and greater for unpleasant faces (sad, fear and angry) with respect to pleasant emotional face (happy). We found that in front of sad and happy faces the surface area of the CoP was significantly larger compared to other faces (neutral and angry). These results suggest that visual strategies and postural control change during children's development and can be influenced by the emotional face.

  14. Uncomplicated pneumonia in healthy Canadian children and youth: Practice points for management

    PubMed Central

    Le Saux, Nicole; Robinson, Joan L

    2015-01-01

    Although immunization has decreased the incidence of bacterial pneumonia in vaccinated children, pneumonia remains common in healthy children. Symptoms of bacterial pneumonia frequently overlap those present with viral infections or reactive airway disease. Optimally, the diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia should be supported by a chest radiograph before starting antimicrobials. Factors such as age, vital signs and other measures of illness severity are critical when deciding whether to admit a patient to hospital. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae continues to be the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in children, prescribing amoxicillin or ampicillin for seven to 10 days remains the mainstay of empirical therapy for nonsevere pneumonia. If improvement does not occur, consideration should be given to searching for complications (empyema or lung abscess). Routine chest radiographs at the end of therapy are not recommended unless clinically indicated. PMID:26744558

  15. Active Healthy Kids Canada's Position on Active Video Games for Children and Youth.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Leblanc, Allana G; McFarlane, Allison; Colley, Rachel C; Thivel, David; Biddle, Stuart Jh; Maddison, Ralph; Leatherdale, Scott T; Tremblay, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    The effect of active video games (AVGs) on acute energy expenditure has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) convened an international group of researchers to conduct a systematic review to understand whether AVGs should be promoted to increase physical activity and improve health indicators in children and youth (zero to 17 years of age). The present article outlines the process and outcomes of the development of the AHKC's position on active video games for children and youth. In light of the available evidence, AHKC does not recommend AVGs as a strategy to help children be more physically active. However, AVGs may exchange some sedentary time for light- to moderate-intensity physical activity, and there may be specific situations in which AVGs provide benefit (eg, motor skill development in special populations and rehabilitation).

  16. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity.

  17. Peak expiratory flow rates in healthy Turkish children living in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oneş, Ulker; Somer, Ayper; Sapan, Nihat; Dişçi, Rian; Güler, Nermin

    2004-01-01

    In the evaluation and management of bronchial asthma, simple instruments for measurements of the peak expiratory flow (PEF) rate are needed. The aim of this study was to determine normal PEF values of Turkish children living in Istanbul. This is the largest study conducted in Turkey. In a cross-sectional study, we measured PEF in 2791 healthy schoolchildren (1468 boys and 1323 girls) aged 7-14 years, with a Mini Wright peak flow meter. We entered height, age, and sex into the regression equation. The equation for prediction of PEF in boys was calculated as (3.5 x height [cm]) + (9.2 x age [years]) - 256.5, (p < 0.0001; r = 0.83) and for girls as (3.3 x height [cm]) + (10.2 x age [years]) - 263.7 (p < 0.0001; r = 0.81). We found that PEF values of Turkish children were similar to British and Danish children, but significant differences were noted with Greek Irish, Mexican American, African-American, and white American children. Our results were significantly lower compared with another study conducted in Adana, a small southern city (< 1 million inhabitants) in Turkey. Istanbul being a cosmopolitan big city (> 7 millions inhabitants) can reflect more reliably real PEF values of Turkish children. We concluded that our findings would serve as an important basis for preparing centile curves for normal PEF values for Turkish children.

  18. Relationship between Sleep Habits and Nighttime Sleep among Healthy Preschool Children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lo, Ming Jae

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: We examined the nighttime sleep habits associated with insufficient sleep quantity and poor sleep quality among healthy preschool-aged Taiwanese children. Materials and Methods: The study population of this cross-sectional survey was a stratified random sample of 3 to 6-year-old preschool children from 19 cities and counties in Taiwan. A caregiver-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on preschooler sleep quantity (sleep duration and sleep latency) and sleep quality (sleep disturbances and disruption) and potentially related sleep habits. Results: Of the 1253 children for whom analysable survey data were collected (children's mean age: 5.03 ± 1.27 years), more than half (53.07%) engaged in bedtime television (TV)-viewing, 88.95% required a sleep reminder, 43.85% exhibited bedtime resistance, 93.6% engaged in co-sleeping (bed-sharing or room-sharing), and only 33.72% slept in a well darkened bedroom. Bedtime TV-viewing, co-sleeping, bedroom light exposure, and bedtime resistance were the primary predictors, without a bedtime TV-viewing habit was the strongest predictor analysed; it explained 15.2% and 19.9% of the variance in adequate sleep quantity and improved sleep quality in preschool children. Conclusion: Sleep loss and poor sleep quality in preschool children could be alleviated, at least partly, by curtailing bedtime TV-viewing, limiting light exposure during sleeping, and reducing bed-sharing habit.

  19. Peak expiratory flow rates in healthy Saudi Arabian children living in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    Graff-Lonnevig, V; Harfi, H; Tipirneni, P

    1993-11-01

    The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured in 457 healthy Saudi schoolchildren (235 boys and 222 girls) aged 6 to 16 years, living in Riyadh, using two simple and commercially available airflow meters, Wright peak flow meter and the mini-Wright peak flow meter. All measurements were obtained in the standing position and the best of three trials was recorded. Standing height and age were used as independent variables. The regression equations for PEFR were determined for boys and girls separately. The boys had higher values than the girls at all heights. The difference was not significant. Both boys and girls had lower PEFRs as compared with European children and American children of different racial origin (P < .0001). When age was added to height as the second independent variable the Saudi boys and girls had significantly lower PEFRs than Swedish and British children (P < .0001). One explanation for these differences may be that the Saudi children on the average are shorter and have lower body weights than, eg, American children. The PEFR did not differ when using the Wright peak flow meter or the mini-Wright peak flow meter. These findings will serve as an important basis for preparing charts for normal PEFR values for Saudi children.

  20. Dexa Body Composition Assessment in 10-11 Year Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Doodeman, H. J.; Struijf, E.; Houdijk, A. P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a growing health problem associated with metabolic derangements and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence links the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) to these obesity related health risks in adults. Childhood obesity is associated with a lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease and poses a serious challenge to future health care. In children, there is much less data on the prevalence and gender differences of visceral obesity than in adults. This study aims to provide reference values for VAT in children 10–11 years of age. Methods In a cross-sectional study performed in the north western part of theNetherlands, healthy children of 10–11 years of age, were recruited from primary schools. Anthropometric data consisting of height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI were measured. Body composition was measured using DXA, providing measures for bone mineral content, total fat mass (TFM), lean body mass (LBM) and VAT. Results 217 children were eligible for this study. Girls appeared to have a greater TFM (31.4% vs 27.5% of total body weight (TBW); P < .01) but lower VAT (0.3% vs 0.5% of TBW;P < .01) than boys, whereas boys had higher LBM (65.4% vs 69.3% TBW;P < .01). Median VAT area (cm2) was 41.1 for boys and 22.4 for girls (P < .01). Moderate to strong correlations were found for WC and BMI with VAT (boys: r = .664 and r = .630; Girls r = .699 and r = .546 respectively all P < .001). Discussion This study shows gender specific differences in VAT percentiles in healthy non-obese 10–11 year old children as measured by DXA that may serve as reference values in children. Independent of BMI and WC, girls tend to have more TFM but less VAT and LBM than boys. PMID:27788168

  1. Magazine adverts for healthy and less healthy foods: effects on recall but not hunger or food choice by pre-adolescent children.

    PubMed

    King, Lorraine; Hill, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    The marketing of foods to children has been criticised by parents and academics alike and the control of such advertising is being considered by politicians. Much of the current research focuses on TV advertising. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to printed advertisements for healthy, less healthy and non-food products on children's mood, hunger, food choice and product recall. Accordingly, 309 children (mean age 9.7 years) received booklets in a quasi-random order. Each booklet contained one of the three types of adverts, ratings of current self-perception and a food choice measure. The booklets were presented as a school-based media literacy exercise. Body weight, height and body satisfaction were assessed 1 week later. The three groups did not differ in the effect on current state or end of session food choice. However, children recalled more of the less healthy food products, even when accounting for recent exposure. Greater product recall of less healthy foods is relevant to future consumption but has a number of possible interpretations. The further exploration of non-TV food marketing is warranted at a time when marketing through these channels is increasing, not least as a result of greater TV advertising regulations.

  2. Neurodevelopmental delay among HIV-infected preschool children receiving antiretroviral therapy and healthy preschool children in Soweto, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lowick, Sarah; Sawry, Shobna; Meyers, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental delay has been documented in up to 97.5% of HIV-infected children in Soweto who were not yet on antiretroviral treatment (ART). With growing numbers of children in South Africa being successfully treated with ART, the effects of ART on neurocognitive functioning in children require investigation. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of neurodevelopmental delay in stable HIV-infected preschool children (aged five to six years) receiving ART and compare it to an apparently healthy (unconfirmed HIV-status) group of preschool children. Thirty HIV-infected preschool children (virologically and immunologically stable on ART for more than one year) were conveniently sampled from 350 eligible children on ART at the Harriet Shezi Children's Clinic in Soweto, Johannesburg. The comparison group comprised 30 well-nourished preschool children attending the Lilian Ngoyi Primary Health Care Clinic in Soweto for routine immunizations. Each child was assessed using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales-Extended Revised Version (GMDS-ER), at a single point in time. The overall developmental z-scores on GMDS-ER were <-2 (indicating severe delay) in 27 (90%) children in the HIV-infected group compared to 23 (76%) in the comparison group (p = 0.166). Mental handicap (overall GQ < 70) was evident in 46.7% of children in the HIV-infected group compared to 10% in the comparison group (p = 0.002). There was a 7.88-fold increased likelihood of severe delay in the HIV infected group. The HIV-infected group and comparison group had significantly different (p = 0.001) mean overall GQ scores of 70 (95% CI: 66.0-74.0) and 78 (95% CI: 75.6-80.5), respectively, with lower mean scores in the HIV-infected group in all individual domains. Early initiation of ART in HIV-infected infants may improve cognitive functioning among this group; however, intervention strategies which optimize early cognitive development for all children in the area need to be

  3. High g-Force Rollercoaster Rides Induce Sinus Tachycardia but No Cardiac Arrhythmias in Healthy Children.

    PubMed

    Pieles, Guido E; Husk, Victoria; Blackwell, Teresa; Wilson, Deirdre; Collin, Simon M; Williams, Craig A; Stuart, A Graham

    2017-01-01

    Theme park operators and medical professionals advise children with heart conditions against using rollercoaster rides, but these recommendations are not evidence-based. The underlying assumption is that the combination of adrenergic stimulation through stress and acceleration might trigger arrhythmias in susceptible individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study to assess heart rate and rhythm in healthy children during commercial rollercoaster rides. Twenty healthy children (9 male) aged 11-15 (mean 13.3 ± 1.4) years underwent continuous heart rate and rhythm monitoring (2-lead ECG) from 5 min before until 10 min after each of 4 high speed (>50 km h(-1)), high g-force (>4) commercial rollercoaster rides. Total recording time was 13 h 20 min. No arrhythmic events were detected. Resting heart rate was 81 ± 10 b min(-1) and increased to 158 ± 20 b·min(-1) during rides. The highest mean HR (165 ± 23 b min(-1)) was observed on the ride with the lowest g-force (4.5 g), but one of the highest speeds (100 km h(-1)). Anticipatory tachycardia (126 ± 15 b min(-1)) within 5 min was frequently observed. A 10 min recovery HR (124 ± 17 b min(-1)) was 56 % greater than resting HR. The speed and g-force experienced on roller coasters induce sinus tachycardia but do not elicit pathological arrhythmias in healthy children.

  4. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and kidney disease in Brazilian healthy preschool children

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Adriana Cândida; de Sousa Tavares, Marcelo; Penido, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the prevalence of nutritional parameters of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney diseases in healthy preschool children. METHODS This is an observational cross-sectional study with 60 healthy children, of both genders, aged two to six years old and 56 mothers, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Preschool children and their families with regular activities at public schools were invited to paticipate in the study. The following characteristics were assessed: Socio-demographic condictions, clinical health, anthropometric, biochemical, lifestyle and data on food consumption. The 56 healthy children were divided into two groups, overweight (C1) and non-overweight (C2), as well as their mothers, respectively, in overweight (M1) and non-overweight (M2). Nutritional status was defined according to results obtained through the Anthro® Software for nutritional analysis. RESULTS Thirty-five children were male, with mean age of 4.44 ± 1.0 years old. Eighty-nine percent of them were eutrophic, 86.7% were sedentary and they had five meals a day. Body mass index (BMI) for age and total cholesterol (TC) was higher on C1 (P = 0.0001) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was higher on C2. Mothers were 32.5 ± 7.1 years old, mostly married and employed. Eighty-six percent of them were sedentary and 62.5% were overweight with BMI = 26.38 ± 5.07 kg/m2. Eighteen percent of the overweight mothers had isolated total hypercholesterolemia (TC levels elevated) and 12.5% had low HDL-c levels. The present study showed an association between overweight and obesity during the preschool years and the correspondent mothers’ nutritional status of overweight and obesity (OR = 4.96; 95%CI: 0.558-44.17). There was a positive correlation between the food risk associated with CVD by children and mothers when their consumption was 4 times/wk (P = 0.049; r = 0.516) or daily (P = 0.000008; r = 0.892). CONCLUSION Analyzed children showed high rates of

  5. Suzie's Mommy Is Having a Baby: Don't Freak out! Healthy Sexuality Development in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciaraffa, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Is it the teacher's job to assist children in developing a healthy sexual identity in early childhood? A healthy sexual identity is developed over the course of a lifetime through the "process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs, and values about such important topics as identity, relationships, and intimacy." Teachers may feel…

  6. A Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Delivered by Aspiring Physical Education Teachers to Children from Social Disadvantage: Study Protocol and Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Gavin; Brennan, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design of a school-based healthy lifestyle intervention for eight-year-old to nine-year-old school children from lower socio-economic backgrounds, intended to increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviours, reduce screen-time behaviours, encourage healthy attitudes and behaviours to nutrition, and reduce body mass index.…

  7. [IgG subclasses in healthy children and in children with frequent respiratory tract infections].

    PubMed

    Griese, M; Walda, M; Meuser, M; Reinhardt, D

    1990-10-01

    A group of 130 children presenting with frequent respiratory tract infections was examined for serum levels of IgG-subclasses IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 using radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini. Additionally a control group of 175 children not prone to infections was investigated. Both, low and high levels compared to controls were observed for IgG3 and IgG4. 11.5% of the children with frequent airway infections had IgG3 values below 2 SD below the mean for age compared to 2.8% in the control group (p less than 0.01). Likewise a low IgG4 level was observed more frequently in children prone to airway infections (9.8% versus 2.8% in control; p less than 0.05). IgG4 was undetectable (level less than 3.4 mg/dl) in 5 of the 175 control children. Despite an accumulation of low or undetectable IgG3 or IgG4 levels in children with frequent respiratory tract infections, no correlation between low IgG subclass-levels and the degree of the individual disease could be detected. Based on this lack of a simple causal relationship between frequent respiratory tract infections and the finding of low or undetectable IgG-subclass levels, an immunoglobulin replacement therapy has to be considered with reserve.

  8. Growing healthy children and communities: Children's insights in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    A diverse group of 103 children aged 7-11 years old living in family and residential care in rural and urban settings in two northern provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic participated in group discussions using images and community mapping. Children's identified sources of risk and protection illustrate primary public health and protection concerns and resources. Young children worried about lack of hygiene, unintentional injuries, corporal punishment, and domestic violence. They also expressed concern about gambling and children sleeping in the streets, even if they had never seen any of the latter in their communities. In contrast, food and shelter; artistic, religious, and cultural practices; supportive interpersonal relationships; and schooling largely evoked feelings of safety and belonging. Images that prompted conflicting interpretations surfaced individual and contextual considerations that nuanced analysis. Researchers and decision-makers will benefit from using this developmentally appropriate, context-sensitive child-centred visual method to elicit young children's views of risk and protection. It may also serve as a tool for public health education. Involving young children in the initial selection of images would further enhance the efficiency of the method.

  9. Transgenerational healing: Educating children in genesis of healthy children, with focus on nutrition, emotion, and epigenetic effects on brain development.

    PubMed

    House, Simon H

    2013-01-01

    Although our continuing evolution can never achieve our perfection, we long for our children's birth and health to be near-perfect. Many children are born healthy, though fewer than is possible. Birthing and health rapidly improved generally due to modern housing, sanitation and medicine, as well as birth interventions. Arguably interventions have exceeded the optimal level, without enough regard for natural physical and intuitive resources. Conception, often too easy, receives too little personal preparation unless a couple has problems. Nurturing the health of sperm and ovum seems hard to focus on, yet is needed by both parents - and even by the four grandparents. What are the key factors? Positive: The fields of hormones/emotions and of nutrition/metabolism. Negative: stress, poor nutrition, toxins, diseases; much being due to poverty. Positive and negative both have structural and also epigenetic effects. Interventions, essential or inessential, are seldom without negative side effects. Health can best, and most economically, be generated at the beginning of life, through healthy conception, gestation and birth. Understanding prime needs improves initial health. It also informs therapy of any early-life problems. Healing is therefore more efficient when transgenerational, and much more powerful than individual healing. My vision of healing is safeguarding our evolution in progress. Children's choices - eating, exercise, emotional attitudes and relationships - are already profoundly affecting any children they may have, their mental and physical health. The most practical starting point seems to be educating boys as well as girls. Childhood is therefore the time to educate them in choices. The correction of often unnoticed problems- nutrient deficits, toxins, uro-genital disease - has enabled nearly nine out of ten couples to bear fully healthy babies, even following severe problems - infertility, miscarriages, stillbirths and malformations. Correcting problems

  10. Serum basal tryptase levels in healthy children: correlation between age and gender.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Umit Murat; Yavuz, S Tolga; Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Cavkaytar, Ozlem; Arik Yilmaz, Ebru; Tuncer, Ayfer; Sackesen, Cansin

    2014-01-01

    Tryptase is used as a marker in many clinical conditions such as mast cell activation and systemic anaphylaxis. Normal levels of the serum basal tryptase (sBT) are determined in adulthood; however, data about nonallergic healthy children is limited. This study was designed to determine the normal sBT levels in healthy children. Total sBT levels were measured in 113 sera from healthy nonallergic children, for routine follow-up or diagnosis of illnesses that are not known to induce changes in serum tryptase levels. One hundred thirteen children aged 0.16-9.91 years (male/female subjects, 68/45 [60%/40%]) with a median (interquartile) age of 3.36 years (1.94-5.68 years) were evaluated. The sBT level was determined to be 3.30 ng/mL (2.38-4.36) median (interquartile) for the whole group. There was a tendency of higher sBT levels for boys than girls (3.49 [2.56-4.64 ng/mL] and 2.91 ng/mL [2.16-4.16 ng/mL], respectively); however, these findings were not significant (p = 0.12). The analysis of the whole group revealed that sBT levels were inversely related with age (r = -0.259; p = 0.006); and the decrease of sBT with age was more prominent in girls (r = -0.282; p = 0.02) than in boys. The highest sBT levels were found in the 0- to 1-year age group (all, 4.67 ng/mL [4.04-6.39 ng/mL]; boys, 5.34 ng/mL [4.04-6.39 ng/mL]; girls, 4.48 ng/mL [3.23-16.26 ng/mL]). The sBT levels in healthy children are similar to those in adults except in infancy. Interestingly, sBT levels tend to decrease slightly with age. Although they did not reach significance, sBT levels were found to be higher in boys compared with the girls.

  11. Estimating intracranial volume using intracranial area in healthy children and those with childhood status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Rory J; Yoong, Michael M; Pujar, Suresh; Chin, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Background Correcting volumetric measurements of brain structures for intracranial volume (ICV) is important in comparing volumes across subjects with different ICV. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intracranial area (ICA) reliably predicts actual ICV in a healthy pediatric cohort and in children with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). Methods T1-weighted volumetric MRI was performed on 20 healthy children (control group), 10 with CSE with structurally normal MRI (CSE/MR-), and 12 with CSE with structurally abnormal MRI (CSE/MR+). ICA, using a mid-sagittal slice, and the actual ICV were measured. Results A high Spearman correlation was found between the ICA and ICV measurements in the control (r = 0.96; P < 0.0001), CSE/MR− (r = 0.93; P = 0.0003), and CSE/MR+ (r = 0.94; P < 0.0001) groups. On comparison of predicted and actual ICV, there was no significant difference in the CSE/MR− group (P = 0.77). However, the comparison between predicted and actual ICV was significantly different in the CSE/MR+ (P = 0.001) group. Our Bland–Altman plot showed that the ICA method consistently overestimated ICV in children in the CSE/MR+ group, especially in those with small ICV or widespread structural abnormalities. Conclusions After further validation, ICA measurement may be a reliable alternative to measuring actual ICV when correcting volume measurements for ICV, even in children with localized MRI abnormalities. Caution should be applied when the method is used in children with small ICV and those with multilobar brain pathology. PMID:25365798

  12. Correlations between brain structures and study time at home in healthy children: a longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Michiko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Thyreau, Benjamin; Sassa, Yuko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Like sleeping and eating habits, the study habits adopted by children when they are at home are important contributors to lifestyle and they affect cognitive ability. It has recently been reported that sleeping and eating habits change the brain structure of children. However, no research on the effect of study habits at home on the brain structure of children has been conducted thus far. We investigated the effects of study habits at home on the brain structures of healthy children by examining correlations between study time at home and changes in brain structure over the course of 3 years. Methods We used the brain magnetic resonance images of 229 healthy children aged 5.6–18.4 years and computed the changes (time 2–time 1) in regional gray matter and white matter volume (rWMV) using voxel-based morphometry. Whole-brain multiple regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between study time at home and changes in rWMV in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Behaviorally, we found a significant positive correlation between study time at home and change in the verbal comprehension index (VCI), one of the subscales of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–third edition (WISC–III). Results and Conclusions Given that the SFG is involved in memory control and that the VCI measures abilities related to vocabulary, our results indicate that greater SFG involvement in the memorization component of longer study times may result in greater increases in the number of axons and more axon branching and myelination, causing plastic changes in the neural network involved in memory processes. PMID:25365804

  13. Sleep Cyclic Alternating Pattern in Otherwise Healthy Overweight School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro, Rodrigo; Ferri, Raffaele; Algarín, Cecilia; Garrido, Marcelo; Lozoff, Betsy; Peirano, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare sleep microstructure (cyclic alternating pattern, CAP) characteristics in otherwise healthy overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) children Design: Polysomnographic cross-sectional study Setting: Sleep laboratory Participants: Fifty-eight (26 NW and 32 OW) 10-year-old children Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Participants were part of a longitudinal study beginning in infancy and free of sleep disorders. Groups were based on body-mass index (BMI) z-score. From polysomnographic overnight recordings, sleep-waking states were scored according to international criteria. CAP analysis was performed visually during NREM sleep. Conventional sleep parameters were similar between groups. BMI was positively related to CAP rate and CAP sequences but inversely related to CAP B phase duration. Differences between groups were confined to slow-wave sleep (SWS), with OW children showing higher CAP rate, CAP cycles, and CAP A1 number and index and shorter CAP cycles and B phase duration. They also showed more CAP class intervals shorter than 30 s, and a suggestive trend for fewer intervals longer than 30 s. Conclusions: Cyclic alternating pattern characteristics in children related to nutritional status and were altered in overweight subjects during slow-wave sleep. We suggest that the more frequent oscillatory pattern of electroencephalographic slow activity in overweight subjects might reflect less stable slow-wave sleep episodes. Citation: Chamorro R; Ferri R; Algarin C; Garrido M; Lozoff B; Peirano P. Sleep cyclic alternating pattern in otherwise healthy overweight school-age children. SLEEP 2014;37(3):557-560. PMID:24587578

  14. Systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and activation in clinically healthy children exposed to air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Villarreal-Calderon, R; Valencia-Salazar, G; Henríquez-Roldán, C; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, P; Torres-Jardón, R; Osnaya-Brizuela, N; Romero, L; Torres-Jardón, R; Solt, A; Reed, W

    2008-03-01

    Mexico City children are chronically exposed to significant concentrations of air pollutants and exhibit chronic respiratory-tract inflammation. Epidemiological, controlled human exposures, laboratory-based animal models, and in vitro/in vivo studies have shown that inflammatory, endothelial dysfunction, and endothelial damage mediators are upregulated upon exposure to particulate matter (PM). Endothelial dysfunction is a critical event in cardiovascular disease. The focus of this work was to investigate whether exposure to ambient air pollution including PM(2.5) produces systemic inflammation and endothelial injury in healthy children. We measured markers of endothelial activation, and inflammatory mediators in 52 children age 8.6+/-0.1 yr, residents of Mexico City (n: 28) or of Polotitlán (n: 24), a city with low levels of pollutants. Mexico City children had significant increases in inflammatory mediators and vasoconstrictors, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, prostaglandin (PG) E2, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1beta, and endothelin-1. There was a significant anti-inflammatory response, and a downregulation of vascular adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and -2, and selectins sE and sL. Results from linear regression found TNF a positively associated with 24- and 48-h cumulative levels of PM(2.5), while the 7-d PM(2.5) value was negatively associated with the numbers of white blood cells in peripheral blood in highly exposed children. Systemic subclinical inflammation, increased endothelin- 1, and significant downregulation of soluble adhesion molecules are seen in Mexico City children. Children chronically exposed to fine PM above the standard could be at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, stroke, and other systemic effects later in life.

  15. Decreased Regional Cortical Thickness and Thinning Rate Are Associated with Inattention Symptoms in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Simon; Hudziak, James J.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Karama, Sherif; Evans, Alan C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have delayed cortical maturation, evidenced by regionally specific slower cortical thinning. However, the relationship between cortical maturation and attention capacities in typically developing children is unknown. This study examines cortical thickness correlates of inattention symptoms in a large sample of healthy children. Method Data from 357 healthy subjects (6.0–18.4 years of age) were obtained from the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. In cross-sectional analysis (first visit, n = 257), Child Behavior Checklist Attention Problems (AP) scores were linearly regressed against cortical thickness, controlling for age, gender, total brain volume, and site. For longitudinal data (up to three visits, n = 357/672 scans), similar analyses were performed using mixed-effects linear regressions. Interactions of AP with age and gender were tested. Results A cross-sectional “AP by age” interaction was found in bilateral orbito-frontal cortex, right inferior frontal cortex, bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and several additional attention network regions. The interaction was due to negative associations between AP and thickness in younger subjects (6–10 years of age) that gradually disappeared over time secondary to slower cortical thinning. Similar trends were present in longitudinal analyses. Conclusions Higher AP scores were associated with thinner cortex at baseline and slower cortical thinning with aging in multiple areas involved in attention processes. Similar patterns have been identified in ADHD, suggesting a dimensional component to the link between attention and cortical maturation. The identified association between cortical maturation and attention in healthy development will help to inform studies of neuroimaging biomarkers of ADHD. PMID:22176936

  16. Reference Values for Inspiratory Muscle Endurance in Healthy Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Woszezenki, Cristhiele Taís; Heinzmann-Filho, João Paulo; Vendrusculo, Fernanda Maria; Piva, Taila Cristina; Levices, Isadora; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes

    2017-01-01

    Aims To generate reference values for two inspiratory muscle endurance (IME) protocols in healthy children and adolescents. Materials and methods This is an observational, cross-sectional study, in healthy children and adolescents from 4 to 18 years of age. Weight, height, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and IME were measured using two protocols. A fixed load of 30% of MIP with a 10% increment every 2 minutes was used in the incremental threshold loading protocol. As for the maximal loading protocol, a fixed load of 70% of MIP was used and the time limit (Tlim) achieved until fatigue was measured. Results A total of 462 participants were included, 281 corresponding to the incremental loading protocol and 181 to maximal loading. There were moderate and positive correlations between IME and age, MIP, weight and height in the incremental threshold loading. However, the regression model demonstrated that MIP and age were the best variables to predict the IME. Otherwise, weak and positive correlations with age, weight and height were found in the maximal loading. Only age and height influenced endurance in the regression model. The predictive power (r2) of the incremental threshold loading protocol was 0.65, while the maximal loading was 0.15. The reproducibility measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was higher in the incremental loading (0.96) compared to the maximal loading test (0.69). Conclusion IME in healthy children and adolescents can be explained by age, height and MIP. The incremental threshold loading protocol showed more reliable results and should be the model of choice to evaluate IME in the pediatric age group. PMID:28122012

  17. A comparison of parental views of their pre-school children's 'healthy' versus 'unhealthy' diets. A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jacqueline; Parletta, Natalie; Lynch, John; Campbell, Karen

    2014-05-01

    Despite recommended dietary guidelines, recent population surveys have recorded low fruit and vegetable and high non-core food consumption by Australian children. Young children rely on parents or primary carers to provide their diets; therefore pre-school age is an optimal time to promote and encourage healthy child eating behaviours. Identified contributing factors to a child's eating behaviour and diet in the home environment include parenting style, parent feeding practices and attitudes, parent nutrition knowledge, and home food availability. The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore perceptions, perceived influences, facilitators and barriers when providing healthy foods for young children via focus groups with parents of children with 'healthy' versus 'unhealthy' diets. Thematic analysis identified similarities across both groups including an intention to provide healthy food for their children with most parents involving their child in some level of meal preparation and most families dining together for the evening meal. Main points of difference included parents in the 'healthy' group having more partner support in relation to child diet, a willingness to say 'no' without wavering, and considering their child's daily physical activity when deciding appropriate food options. A majority of parents in the 'unhealthy' group attempted to disguise vegetables and healthy foods for their child and reported experiencing increased levels of stress regarding their child's fussy eating.

  18. Circulating Levels of MicroRNA from Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes and Healthy Controls: Evidence That miR-25 Associates to Residual Beta-Cell Function and Glycaemic Control during Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Lotte B.; Wang, Cheng; Sørensen, Kaspar; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus H.; Hansen, Lars; Andersen, Marie-Louise M.; Hougaard, Philip; Juul, Anders; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Pociot, Flemming; Mortensen, Henrik B.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify key miRNAs in circulation, which predict ongoing beta-cell destruction and regeneration in children with newly diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). We compared expression level of sera miRNAs from new onset T1D children and age-matched healthy controls and related the miRNAs expression levels to beta-cell function and glycaemic control. Global miRNA sequencing analyses were performed on sera pools from two T1D cohorts (n = 275 and 129, resp.) and one control group (n = 151). We identified twelve upregulated human miRNAs in T1D patients (miR-152, miR-30a-5p, miR-181a, miR-24, miR-148a, miR-210, miR-27a, miR-29a, miR-26a, miR-27b, miR-25, miR-200a); several of these miRNAs were linked to apoptosis and beta-cell networks. Furthermore, we identified miR-25 as negatively associated with residual beta-cell function (est.: −0.12, P = 0.0037), and positively associated with glycaemic control (HbA1c) (est.: 0.11, P = 0.0035) 3 months after onset. In conclusion this study demonstrates that miR-25 might be a “tissue-specific” miRNA for glycaemic control 3 months after diagnosis in new onset T1D children and therefore supports the role of circulating miRNAs as predictive biomarkers for tissue physiopathology and potential intervention targets. PMID:22829805

  19. Children's Literacy: Children's Books for Healthy Families/Libros de Ninos Para Familias Saludables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kock, Jo Anne

    2003-01-01

    A 2-year project taught reading methods and provided culturally appropriate books for Spanish-speaking and English-speaking families (year 1, 1,013 families; year 2, 1,408 families). Data from home visits and follow-up surveys (n=207) revealed that positive parent/child interaction and time spent reading to children increased and the number of…

  20. Antimicrobial resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group in faecal microbiota from healthy Danish children.

    PubMed

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Jensen, Betina Hebbelstrup; Petersen, Andreas Munk; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2017-03-30

    The Bacteroides fragilis group constitute a significant portion of the human gut microbiota and comprise a major proportion of anaerobic bacteria isolated in human infections. We established a baseline of antimicrobial susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group in the intestinal tract of relatively antibiotic-naive healthy Danish children. From 174 faecal samples collected from children attending day care, 359 non-duplicate isolates were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of these, 0.0%, 1.9%, 5.0% and 21.2% of isolates were intermediate-susceptible or resistant to metronidazole, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and clindamycin, respectively. Eighteen additional studies reporting susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group bacteria were identified by conducting a literature search. Heterogeneity among results from studies of B. fragilis group antimicrobial susceptibility rates in faecal microbiota exists.

  1. Does vaccination ensure protection? Assessing diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels in a population of healthy children

    PubMed Central

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek; Kałużna, Ewelina; Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Joanna; Michalak, Michał; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vaccination effectiveness is proven when the disease does not develop after a patient is exposed to the pathogen. In the case of rare diseases, vaccination effectiveness is assessed by monitoring specific antibody levels in the population. Such recurrent analyses allow the evaluation of vaccination programs. The primary schedule of diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations is similar in various countries, with differences mainly in the number and timing of booster doses. The aim of the study was to assess diphtheria and tetanus antibody concentrations in a population of healthy children. Diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels were analyzed in a group of 324 children aged 18 to 180 months. All children were vaccinated in accordance with the Polish vaccination schedule. Specific antibody concentrations greater than 0.1 IU/mL were considered protective against tetanus or diphtheria. Levels above 1.0 were considered to ensure long-term protection. Protective levels of diphtheria antibodies were found in 229 patients (70.46%), and of tetanus in 306 patients (94.15%). Statistically significant differences were found in tetanus antibody levels in different age groups. Mean concentrations and the percentage of children with high tetanus antibody titers increased with age. No similar correlation was found for diphtheria antibodies. High diphtheria antibody levels co-occurred in 72% of the children with high tetanus antibody levels; 95% of the children with low tetanus antibody levels had low levels of diphtheria antibodies. The percentage of children with protective diphtheria antibody levels is lower than that in the case of tetanus antibodies, both in Poland and abroad, but the high proportion of children without diphtheria protection in Poland is an exception. This is all the more puzzling when taking into account that Polish children are administered a total of 5 doses containing a high concentration of diphtheria toxoid, at intervals shorter than 5 years. The

  2. The Superior Sleep of Healthy Elderly Nuns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Carolyn C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared nocturnal sleep structure of 10 healthy elderly nuns to that of 10 healthy age-matched female controls. The nuns fell asleep more quickly and had less early morning awakening, as well as greater rapid eye movement sleep time. These differences may reflect the more highly entrained life style of the nuns, including modest habitual sleep…

  3. Targeted Reactivation during Sleep Differentially Affects Negative Memories in Socially Anxious and Healthy Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Groch, Sabine; Preiss, Andrea; McMakin, Dana L; Rasch, Björn; Walitza, Susanne; Huber, Reto; Wilhelm, Ines

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive models propose a negative memory bias as one key factor contributing to the emergence and maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The long-term consolidation of memories relies on memory reactivations during sleep. We investigated in SAD patients and healthy controls the role of memory reactivations during sleep in the long-term consolidation of positive and negative information. Socially anxious and healthy children and adolescents learnt associations between pictures showing ambiguous situations and positive or negative words defining the situations' outcome. Half of the words were re-presented during postlearning sleep (i.e., they were cued). Recall of picture-word associations and subjective ratings of pleasantness and arousal in response to the pictures was tested for cued and uncued stimuli. In the morning after cueing, cueing facilitated retention of positive and negative memories equally well in SAD patients and healthy controls. One week later, cueing led to reduced ratings of pleasantness of negative information in SAD but not in healthy controls. Coincidental to these findings was more pronounced EEG theta activity over frontal, temporal and parietal regions in response to negative stimuli in SAD patients. Our findings suggest that the preferential abstraction of negative emotional information during sleep might represent one factor underlying the negative memory bias in SAD.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We aim to uncover mechanisms underlying the characteristic negative memory bias in social anxiety disorder (SAD). The formation of long-lasting memories-a process referred to as memory consolidation-depends on the reactivation of newly acquired memories during sleep. We demonstrated that experimentally induced memory reactivation during sleep renders long-term memories of negative experiences more negative in SAD patients but not in healthy controls. We also found in SAD patients that the reactivation of negative experiences coincided with more

  4. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Dierckx, Floriane; Vanden Berghe, Lola; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2015-05-01

    The use of kinematics is recommended to quantitatively evaluate upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children. Ninety-three healthy children, aged 3-12 years, participated in this study. Twenty-eight kinematic indices were computed from four tasks. Each task was performed with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-four of the 28 indices showed an improvement during childhood. Indeed, older children showed better upper limb movements. This study was the first to use a robotic device to show the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children.

  5. Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Have Comparable Hip Bone Geometry to Age-Matched Control Women.

    PubMed

    McBreairty, Laura E; Zello, Gordon A; Gordon, Julianne J; Serrao, Shani B; Pierson, Roger A; Chizen, Donna R; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2016-12-26

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age manifesting with polycystic ovaries, menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, and insulin resistance. The oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea characteristic to PCOS are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD); conversely, the hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia may elicit a protective effect on BMD. As bone geometric properties provide additional information about bone strength, the objective of this study was to compare measures of hip geometry in women with PCOS to a healthy female population. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, BMD and measures of hip geometry were determined in women with PCOS (n = 60) and healthy controls (n = 60) aged 18-35 years. Clinical biochemical measures were also determined in women with PCOS. Measures of hip geometry, including cross-sectional area, cross-sectional moment of inertia, subperiosteal width (SPW), and section modulus, were similar between groups following correction for body mass index (BMI) (all p > 0.05) with intertrochanter SPW significantly lower in women with PCOS (p < 0.05). BMI-corrected whole body BMD as well as the lumbar spine and regions of proximal femur were also comparable between groups. In women with PCOS, BMI-corrected correlations were found between insulin and femoral shaft SPW (r = 0.322, p < 0.05), glucose and femoral neck (r = 0.301, p < 0.05), and trochanter BMD (0.348, p < 0.05), as well as between testosterone and femoral neck BMD (0.376, p < 0.05) and narrow neck cross-sectional area (0.306, p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that women with PCOS may have compromised intertrochanter SPW while oligomenorrhea appears to have no detrimental effect on bone density or geometry in women with PCOS.

  6. Characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains Colonizing Upper Respiratory Tract of Healthy Preschool Children in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Korona-Glowniak, Izabela; Malm, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic resistant and invasive pneumococci may spread temporally and locally in day care centers (DCCs). We examined 267 children attending four DCCs located in the same city and 70 children staying at home in three seasons (autumn, winter, and spring) to determine prevalence, serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance patterns, and transmission of pneumococcal strains colonizing upper respiratory tract of healthy children without antipneumococcal vaccination. By pheno- and genotyping, we determined clonality of pneumococci, including drug-resistant strains. The average carriage of pneumococci in three seasons was 38.2%. 73.4% and 80.4% of the isolates belonged to serotypes present in 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine, respectively. Among the pneumococcal strains, 33.3% were susceptible to all antimicrobial tested and 39.2% had decreased susceptibility to penicillin. Multidrug resistance was common (35.7%); 97.5% of drug-resistant isolates represented serotypes included to 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine. According to BOX-PCR, clonality definitely was observed only in case of serotype 14. Multivariate analysis determined DCC attendance as strongly related to pneumococcal colonization in all three seasons, but important seasonal differences were demonstrated. In children attending DCCs, we observed dynamic turnover of pneumococcal strains, especially penicillin nonsusceptible and multidrug resistant, which were mostly distributed among serotypes included to available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. PMID:22927787

  7. Fine and gross motor skills differ between healthy-weight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Gentier, Ilse; D'Hondt, Eva; Shultz, Sarah; Deforche, Benedicte; Augustijn, Mireille; Hoorne, Sofie; Verlaecke, Katja; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2013-11-01

    Within the obesity literature, focus is put on the link between weight status and gross motor skills. However, research on fine motor skills in the obese (OB) childhood population is limited. Therefore, the present study focused on possible weight related differences in gross as well as fine motor skill tasks. Thirty-four OB children (12 ♀ and 22 ♂, aged 7-13 years) were recruited prior to participating in a multidisciplinary treatment program at the Zeepreventorium (De Haan, Belgium). Additionally, a control group of 34 age and gender-matched healthy-weight (HW) children was included in the study. Anthropometric measures were recorded and gross and fine motor skills were assessed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2). Results were analyzed by independent samples t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance, and a chi-squared test. Being OB was detrimental for all subtests evaluating gross motor skill performance (i.e., upper-limb coordination, bilateral coordination, balance, running speed and agility, and strength). Furthermore, OB children performed worse in fine motor precision and a manual dexterity task, when compared to their HW peers. No group differences existed for the fine motor integration task. Our study provides evidence that lower motor competence in OB children is not limited to gross motor skills alone; OB children are also affected by fine motor skill problems. Further investigation is warranted to provide possible explanations for these differences. It is tentatively suggested that OB children experience difficulties with the integration and processing of sensory information. Future research is needed to explore whether this assumption is correct and what the underlying mechanism(s) could be.

  8. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  9. Associations Between Physical Fitness Indices and Working Memory in Breast Cancer Survivors and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Michael J.; Zuniga, Krystle E.; Raine, Lauren B.; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study examined the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness, heart rate recovery, and physical activity on working memory in breast cancer survivors and age-matched controls. Method: Using a case-control design, 32 women who had received a breast cancer diagnosis and completed primary treatment within the past 36-months (11 radiation only; 21 chemotherapy) and 30 age-matched women with no previous cancer diagnosis completed a n-back continuous performance task commonly used as an assessment of working memory. In addition, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery were measured during a submaximal graded exercise test and physical activity was measured using 7-days of accelerometer monitoring. Results: Breast cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy had poorer heart rate recovery (p = .010) and engaged in less physical activity than women who had received radiation only (p = .004) or non-cancer controls (p = .029). Cancer treatment (radiation; chemotherapy) predicted differences in reaction times on the 1-back working memory task (p = .029). However, more rapid heart rate recovery predicted shorter reaction times on the 1-back task in the age-matched control group (p = .002). All participants with greater cardiorespiratory fitness displayed greater accuracy independent of disease status on the 1-back task (p = .017). No significant group differences in reaction times were observed for 2-back target trials between breast cancer survivors and controls. However, greater total physical activity predicted shorter reaction times in breast cancer survivors (radiation, chemotherapy) on the 2-back task (p = .014). In addition, all participants who exhibited more rapid heart rate recovery demonstrated better greater accuracy regardless of disease status (p = .013). Conclusion: These findings support differences in physical activty participation, heart rate recovery, and 1- and 2-back working memory reaction

  10. Parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A

    2013-12-01

    Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and

  11. Sex differences in experimental pain among healthy children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Boerner, Katelynn E; Birnie, Kathryn A; Caes, Line; Schinkel, Meghan; Chambers, Christine T

    2014-05-01

    Sex differences in response to experimental pain are commonly reported in systematic reviews in the adult literature. The objective of the present research was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of sex differences in healthy children's responses to experimental pain (e.g., cold pressor, heat pain, pressure pain) and, where possible, to conduct analyses separately for children and adolescents. A search was conducted of electronic databases for published papers in English of empirical research using experimental pain tasks to examine pain-related outcomes in healthy boys and girls between 0 and 18 years of age. Eighty articles were eligible for inclusion and were coded to extract information relevant to sex differences. The systematic review indicated that, across different experimental pain tasks, the majority of studies reported no significant differences between boys and girls on pain-related outcomes. However, the meta-analysis of available combined data found that girls reported significantly higher cold pressor pain intensity compared to boys in studies where the mean age of participants was greater than 12 years. Additionally, a meta-analysis of heat pain found that boys had significantly higher tolerance than girls overall, and boys had significantly higher heat pain threshold than girls in studies where the mean age of participants was 12 years or younger. These findings suggest that developmental stage may be relevant for understanding sex differences in pain.

  12. Gut Colonization of Healthy Children and Their Mothers With Pathogenic Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gurnee, Emily A.; Ndao, I. Malick; Johnson, James R.; Johnston, Brian D.; Gonzalez, Mark D.; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Hall-Moore, Carla M.; McGhee, Jessica E.; Mellmann, Alexander; Warner, Barbara B.; Tarr, Phillip I.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The reservoir of pathogenic ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli remains unknown. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 80 healthy twins and their mothers to determine the frequency of excretion of ciprofloxacin-resistant, potentially pathogenic E. coli. Stool specimens were cultured selectively for ciprofloxacin-resistant gram-negative bacteria. Isolates were categorized on the basis of additional resistance and virulence profiles. We also prospectively collected clinical metadata. Results. Fifteen children (19%) and 8 mothers (20%) excreted ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli at least once. Overall, 33% of 40 families had at least 1 member whose stool specimen yielded ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli on culture. Fifty-seven submitted stool specimens (2.8%) contained such organisms; clones ST131-H30 and ST405 accounted for 52 and 5 of the positive specimens, respectively. Length of hospital stay after birth (P = .002) and maternal colonization (P = .0001) were associated with subsequent childhood carriage of ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli; antibiotic use, acid suppression, sex, mode of delivery, and maternal perinatal antibiotic use were not. Ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli were usually resistant to additional antibiotic classes, and all had virulence genotypes typical of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Conclusions. Healthy children and their mothers commonly harbor ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli with pathogenic potential. PMID:25969564

  13. A Parental Health Education Model of Children's Food Consumption: Influence on Children's Attitudes, Intention, and Consumption of Healthy and Unhealthy Foods.

    PubMed

    Lwin, May O; Shin, Wonsun; Yee, Andrew Z H; Wardoyo, Reidinar Juliane

    2017-03-31

    This study proposes that parental mediation of television advertising and parental guidance of food consumption differentially influence children's attitude, intention, and behavior toward the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. Structural equation modeling based on a survey of 1,119 children aged 9-12 supported our model, revealing that parental education strategies influence children's food consumption in a complex manner that is highly context-dependent. Parental guidance of food consumption enhanced children's healthy food attitude and intention to consume, while reducing the intention to consume unhealthy food. However, parental mediation of television advertising influenced unhealthy food attitude to a greater extent than healthy food attitude. Implications for health promotion and education, as well as parents and policy makers are discussed.

  14. [Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy children and multidrug resistance].

    PubMed

    Bayer, Müjgan; Aslan, Gönül; Emekdaş, Gürol; Kuyucu, Necdet; Kanik, Arzu

    2008-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae plays an important role for the development of invasive disease and the spread of resistant strains within the community. The aims of this study were to determine the carriage rate of nasopharyngeal S. pneumoniae at healthy school children, to search the susceptibility of the strains to various antibiotics and to evaluate the risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of penicillin-resistant pneumococci. A total of 1440 healthy children (age range: 6-13 years old) attending to three primary schools which were chosen randomly in Mersin province (Mediterranean region of Turkey) were included to the study between April 2003 to March 2004. The isolation and identification of S. pneumoniae strains from nasopharyngeal samples were performed by conventional culture methods. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were done according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute directions by disk diffusion method, and penisilin MIC values were detected by E-test (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden). S.pneumoniae were isolated from 201 (13.9) of the children. The susceptibility rate of the isolates to penicilin was found as 87.1% (n:175), while 12% (n:24) of the strains yielded intermediate and 1% (n:2) yielded high resistance against penicilin. Overall percentages of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and macrolides were 30% and 4%, respectively. Two out of eight erythromycin (E) resistant strains showed inducible MLS(B) (macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B) type while six showed M (due to active efflux system) type of resistance. Resistance to meropenem, vancomycin, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin were not detected. Of S. pneumoniae isolates, 20% were found resistant to only one antibiotic (two strains to penicilin; 39 strains to TMP-SMX), 8.9% to two antibiotics (16 strains to penicillin+TMP-SMX; two strains to penicillin+E) and 2.9% to three or more antibiotics (five strains to penicillin+E+TMP-SMX; one strain to

  15. Lead Assessment in Biological Samples of Children with Different Gastrointestinal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faheem; Ullah, Naeem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Khan, Ajmal; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Khan, Zahid; Farooq, Umar

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) levels have been evaluated in the biological samples of children with different gastrointestinal disorders. Blood, scalp hair, and urine samples of children (of age 4-10 years) complaining about different gastrointestinal disorders were analyzed. For comparison, age matched healthy subjects were also included in this study. Biological samples were digested in a microwave oven prior to Pb determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Significant differences in Pb profile were found between the diseased and referent children. Elevated Pb contents were observed in case of diseased children than WHO permissible limit, while normal results were obtained for healthy referents. The results were compared with those of healthy children having the same age, socioeconomic status, and residential areas.

  16. Subjective - Objective Sleep Comparisons and Discrepancies Among Clinically-Anxious and Healthy Children.

    PubMed

    Alfano, Candice A; Patriquin, Michelle A; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2015-10-01

    We compared subjective and objective sleep patterns and problems, and examined cross-method correspondence across parent reports, child reports, and actigraphy-derived sleep variables in clinically-anxious children and healthy controls. In a multi-site, cross-sectional study, 75 pre-adolescent children (6 to 11 years; M = 8.7 years; SD = 1.4; n = 39/52 % female) were examined including 39 with a diagnosis of primary generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and 36 controls recruited from university-based clinics in Houston, TX and Washington, DC. Structured interviews, validated sleep questionnaires, and 1 week of actigraphy data were utilized. Despite subjective reports of significantly greater sleep problems among anxious children, actigraphy data revealed no significant differences between the groups. All parents estimated earlier bedtimes and greater total sleep duration relative to actigraphy, and all children endorsed more sleep problems than parents. With few exceptions, subjective reports exhibited low and non-significant correspondence with actigraphy-based sleep patterns and problems. Our findings suggest that high rates of sleep complaints found among children with GAD (and their parents) are not corroborated by objective sleep abnormalities, with the exception of marginally prolonged sleep onset latency compared to controls. Objective-subjective sleep discrepancies were observed in both groups but more apparent overall in the GAD group. Frequent complaints of sleep problems and daytime tiredness among anxious youth might more accurately reflect difficulties prior to the actual sleep period, cognitive-affective biases associated with sleep, and/or poor sleep quality. Findings highlight the importance of considering sleep from multiple perspectives.

  17. [Pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline excretion in urine of healthy children--dependence on age].

    PubMed

    Marowska, J; Lukaszkiewicz, J; Kobylińska, M; Matusik, H; Tałajko, A; Lebiedowski, M; Olszaniecka, M; Madej, M; Lorenc, R S

    1993-11-01

    Pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxypyridinoline (DPyr) are crosslinking compounds of bone collagen. Their urinary excretion is considered to be the first sensitive and specific marker of bone resorption in a number of metabolic bone diseases in adults. Application of crosslinks measurements to evaluate bone turnover rate in pediatric patients is so far limited because of lack of reference values. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine urinary excretion of Pyr and DPyr in healthy children aged 3-18 yrs, and to evaluate the possible relationship between the levels of both compounds and body height, weight, BMC, and BMD. Pyr and DPyr levels were determined in first void urine samples obtained from 249 children (124 boys, 125 girls). Urine aliquots were hydrolysed, Pyr and DPyr extracted on CF1 cellulose, and analysed by HPLC with fluorimetric detection. Bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) were measured with Lunar DPX-L apparatus in 205 children (104 boys, 101 girls) from the same population, aged over 5.5 yrs. In prepubertal children, a tendency towards lowering of urinary Pyr and DPyr levels with advancing age was shown. At puberty, urinary excretion of both crosslinks markedly decreased. This phenomenon was observed at various calendar age in girls as compared to boys, reflecting sex-dependent differences. Significant negative correlation (p < 0.0001) between urinary Pyr and DPyr levels and calendar age, body height and weight, BMC and BMD, were also found. The obtained results suggest that references values for Pyr and DPyr excretion in growing children should be related to calendar age, sex, and--in case of adolescents--phase of puberty.

  18. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-12-08

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  19. Epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic characteristics of human rhinovirus infection among otherwise healthy children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ju; Arnold, John C.; Fairchok, Mary P.; Danaher, Patrick J.; McDonough, Erin A.; Blair, Patrick J.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Schofield, Christina; Ottolini, Martin; Mor, Deepika; Ridoré, Michelande; Burgess, Timothy H.; Millar, Eugene V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a major cause of influenza-like illness (ILI) in adults and children. Differences in disease severity by HRV species have been described among hospitalized patients with underlying illness. Less is known about the clinical and virologic characteristics of HRV infection among otherwise healthy populations, particularly adults. Objectives To characterize molecular epidemiology of HRV and association between HRV species and clinical presentation and viral shedding. Study design Observational, prospective, facility-based study of ILI was conducted from February 2010 to April 2012. Collection of nasopharyngeal specimens, patient symptoms, and clinical information occurred on days 0, 3, 7, and 28. Patients recorded symptom severity daily for the first 7 days of illness in a symptom diary. HRV was identified by RT-PCR and genotyped for species determination. Cases who were co-infected with other viral respiratory pathogens were excluded from the analysis. We evaluated the associations between HRV species, clinical severity, and patterns of viral shedding. Results Eighty-four HRV cases were identified and their isolates genotyped. Of these, 62 (74%) were >18y. Fifty-four were HRV-A, 11 HRV-B, and 19 HRV-C. HRV-C infection was more common among children than adults (59% vs. 10%, P<0.001). Among adults, HRV-A was associated with higher severity of upper respiratory symptoms compared to HRV-B (P=0.02), but no such association was found in children. In addition, adults shed HRV-A significantly longer than HRV-C (Ptrend=0.01). Conclusions Among otherwise healthy adults with HRV infection, we observed species-specific differences in respiratory symptom severity and duration of viral shedding. PMID:25728083

  20. Are the prevalence and treatment of asthma similar in elite athletes and the aged-matched non-athlete population?

    PubMed

    Locke, S; Marks, G

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma and use of asthma medications in elite athletes compared with an age-matched non-athlete population. Data were collected from the respiratory component of annual medical screening of 424 elite athletes from the Queensland Academy of Sport. Measures included the prevalence of current asthma and ever doctor-diagnosed asthma, and the prevalence of use of treatment for asthma including beta-agonists and inhaled corticosteroid medication. The prevalence of current asthma in athletes aged 18-29 years was 14% (95% CI, 9-19%), which did not differ significantly from the prevalence in the non-athlete control population (11%; 95% CI, 9-12%, P=0.3). Of athletes with current asthma, 27% were not taking any medications for asthma, and 25% were treated with short-acting beta-agonist medications alone and were not taking inhaled corticosteroids. These data indicate that the overall cumulative and period prevalence of asthma in Queensland athletes is similar to that in the general age-matched population. Athletes use beta-agonists with a frequency similar to the general population.

  1. Interrelations Between Thyrotropin Levels and Iodine Status in Thyroid-Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Johner, Simone A.; Thamm, Michael; Stehle, Peter; Nöthlings, Ute; Kriener, Eugen; Völzke, Henry; Gärtner, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, iodine prophylaxis measures have improved iodine status in populations. Several studies have reported an increase in thyrotropin (TSH) levels coinciding with this prophylaxis. Whether this implies an increased risk for hypothyroidism or simply reflects a physiologic TSH adaptation mechanism is not clear. Methods: Data on iodine and thyroid status of 6–17 year old children and adolescents (n=9175), collected between 2003 and 2006 in the German-wide Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) Study, provided the basis for the analyses of mutual relationships of urinary iodine status (assessed by iodine/creatinine ratio in spot urines), serum TSH levels, and thyroid volume (determined by ultrasound). For data analyses (multivariable linear regression analysis), only those children were included for whom none of the available parameters (including free triiodothyronine [fT3], free thyroxine [fT4], and thyroperoxidase antibody [TPO-Ab] measurements) indicated a potential pathophysiologic thyroid status (n=6101). Results: In this population-based sample of thyroid-healthy children, higher urinary iodine excretion was associated with higher TSH levels (p<0.05), adjusted for sex, age, body surface area, body mass index, fT3/fT4 ratio, and time of blood sampling. Higher TSH levels were not associated with a higher prevalence of TPO-Ab but with lower thyroid volume (p<0.001, fully adjusted). For the present study sample, one-time spot measurements of urinary iodine excretion were not related to thyroid volume, the long-term marker of iodine status. Conclusion: Our findings show for the first time in thyroid-healthy children that smaller thyroid volume is associated with higher normal TSH levels. A decreased thyroid cell mass and cell amount, as induced by an improved iodine status, does presumably require a higher TSH signal to maintain a constant thyroid hormone production, suggesting an underlying physiologic

  2. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  3. Relationship of neuroticism and laboratory pain in healthy children: does anxiety sensitivity play a role?

    PubMed

    Payne, Laura A; Seidman, Laura C; Lung, Kirsten C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K; Tsao, Jennie C I

    2013-01-01

    Both neuroticism, a higher-order, stable personality trait, and anxiety sensitivity (AS), a lower-order pain-related construct, have been associated with pain, although no research exists examining the relationship of both these constructs to acute pain in children. In the current study, 99 healthy children (53 girls) completed self-report measures of neuroticism and AS before undergoing pain tasks involving cold and pressure pain. We hypothesized that both neuroticism and AS would be correlated with acute pain responses, but that AS would at least partially mediate the relationship between neuroticism and pain responses. Results indicated significant correlations between neuroticism, AS, and anticipatory anxiety, pain intensity and pain bother. Mediational models revealed that AS partially mediated relationships between neuroticism and pain intensity/bother, and fully mediated relationships between neuroticism and anticipatory anxiety. These data suggest that, at least in children, neuroticism may be best understood as a vulnerability factor for elevated pain responses, especially when coupled with a fear of bodily sensations.

  4. Quality of life among parents of children with congenital heart disease, parents of children with other diseases and parents of healthy children.

    PubMed

    Lawoko, S; Soares, J J F

    2003-09-01

    We compared quality of life among parents of children with congenital heart disease (PCCHD, n = 1092), parents of children with other diseases (PCOD, n = 112) and parents of healthy children (PHC, n = 293). We also identified determinants of quality of life among the parents. The parents completed a questionnaire about such areas as quality of life and financial situation. The design was cross-sectional and data were collected during 20 consecutive days. The univariate analyses showed that PCCHD tended to report lower quality of life than PHC. Mothers reported lower quality of life than fathers, with the lowest levels among mothers of children with CHD. The multivariate analyses revealed however that variables such as distress, hopelessness and financial situation were more important in explaining the reduced quality of life than parental gender and the presence/severity of the children's heart diseases. We corroborated previous findings and may have provided new insights into the quality of life experiences of parents of children with CHD that may be important when considering interventions to improve their situation.

  5. Effectiveness of brain-based learning and animated cartoons for enhancing healthy habits among school children in Khon Kaen, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Banchonhattakit, Pannee; Duangsong, Rujira; Muangsom, Niramon; Kamsong, Theppamon; Phangwan, Krittiya

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of brain-based learning (BBL) and animated cartoons on video compact discs (VCDs) in enhancing the healthy habits of school children. A representative sample of 1085 school children in the first through the third grades at 16 schools was selected by multistage random sampling. Knowledge of healthy habits and self-reported adoption of practices were assessed by a questionnaire. BBL and VCD, either combined or as single-intervention techniques, led to improved knowledge and practice of healthy behavior, whereas conventional teaching did not. As a single-intervention technique, BBL on its own led to a greater improvement in healthy practices than VCD, but the addition of BBL to VCD made no difference, and there was no difference between BBL and VCD in terms of improvements in knowledge. In conclusion, both BBL and VCD are effective, but VCD requires fewer resources. Recommendations are made for further research.

  6. Evaluation of medical and psychological parameters of quality of life in supraventricular tachyarrhythmia children. A comparison with healthy children

    PubMed Central

    Baszko, Artur; Bukowska-Posadzy, Anna; Moszura, Tomasz; Werner, Bożena; Siwińska, Aldona; Banach, Maciej; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Bobkowski, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are only a few available studies evaluating quality of life (QoL) in pediatric patients with cardiac arrhythmia. The aim of the study was to evaluate medical and psychological parameters of the QoL in children with a diagnosed supraventricular tachyarrhythmia (SVT) and to compare the obtained data with a group of healthy children (HC). Material and methods Inclusion criteria: children aged 7–18 with SVT, treated at Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Cardiology. The evaluation tools were the WHOQOL-BREF instrument and a questionnaire related to the patient's feelings and observations concerning arrhythmia (Pediatric Arrhythmia Related Score – PARS), developed by the authors and adjusted to the group of arrhythmia patients. Results The study included 180 SVT children and 83 HC. On the basis of WHOQOL-BREF the SVT group was found to have lower assessment values of QoL within the physical domain (Phd) (mean ± SD: 65.7 ±15.8 vs. 81.6 ±12.8; p < 0.0001) and psychological domain (Psd) (mean ± SD: 75.8 ±15.2 vs. 81.3 ±14.1; p < 0.005). No significant differences were found within the social relationships domain or the environment domain. On the basis of PARS in the SVT group the patients reported significantly increased symptoms within Phd (mean ± SD: 2.3 ±0.7 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3; p < 0.0001) as well as increased negative feelings within Psd (mean ± SD: 2.3 ±0.7 vs. 2.1 ± 0.6; p < 0.005). Conclusions Medical and psychological parameters of the QoL in SVT children are significantly lower in comparison with HC. A diagnosis of SVT has no influence on the social and environmental areas of QoL. The PARS appears to be a useful tool to supplement the generic questionnaire for QoL evaluation in SVT children. PMID:27695497

  7. [Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents].

    PubMed

    Vio, Fernando; Lera, Lydia; Fuentes-García, Alejandra; Salinas, Judith

    2012-09-01

    Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents. Delphi method applied to get expert consensus about healthy food topics to include in educational materials for preschool and school-age children, their parents and teachers is described. The questionnaire was developed with the results of surveys and focus groups in children, parents and teachers made previously. The questionnaire was mailed to 54 experts in nutrition, education and communication in a first round. The results were analyzed and forwarded in a second round with the subjects without consensus. The cycle was completed by a validation conducted with teachers and parents and were prioritized by audiovisual educational materials on the writings, favoring participatory activities such as cooking workshops, games, activities over the passive (information at parent meetings, delivery of educational materials and conferences of experts). There was consensus on education in health behaviors such as not giving them money to carry to school, make healthy food choices on family outings and recreational activities associated with healthy eating during weekends; prefer healthy food prepared at home instead of the processed food; restrict eating out candy and prefer family meals without watching TV and food instead of taking a snack in the evening. These results are critical to design educational materials on healthy eating plans to change current eating habits that are contributing significantly to increase the childhood obesity.

  8. Depression Risk Predicts Blunted Neural Responses to Gains and Enhanced Responses to Losses in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Luking, Katherine R.; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Maternal major depressive disorder (MDD) increases risk for MDD and predicts reduced reward responding in adolescent offspring. However, it is unclear whether alterations in neural response to reward can be detected in school-aged children at high risk prior to the typical increase in reward response observed in adolescence. Method To assess relationships between neural response to gain/loss feedback, MDD risk, and child depressive symptoms, forty-seven psychiatrically healthy 7–10-year-old children (16 at high-risk given maternal MDD) completed questionnaires and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) card-guessing game where candy was gained and lost. Results High-risk children showed both blunted response to gain and greater deactivation/reduced activation to loss within the ventral striatum and anterior insula. Within the striatum, risk-group differences in response to loss feedback were significantly larger than for gain, with greater deactivation to loss predicting risk-group status above and beyond blunted gain activation. Anhedonia was related to reduced deactivation to loss (i.e. reduced sensitivity to loss), while negative mood was related to enhanced deactivation to loss (i.e. enhanced sensitivity to loss) in the ventral striatum. Conclusion High-risk children showed blunted ventral striatal activation to gain feedback, but ventral striatal deactivation to loss was a stronger predictor of MDD risk. Further, relationships between response to loss and elevated depressive symptoms within the ventral striatum and cingulate differed depending on the type of depressive symptom. Together these results highlight the potentially important role of response to loss of reward in childhood risk for depression. PMID:27015724

  9. Repeatability and reproducibility of the Tekscan HR-Walkway system in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Coda, Andrea; Carline, Tom; Santos, Derek

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the repeatability and reproducibility of the HR Walkway system with regards to peak pressure values (PP) and pressure time integral (PTI) in healthy children, ranging between 5 and 18 years of age. Subjects recruited took part in two non-invasive clinical assessments, at baseline and 1 week later. Gait analysis was carried out using the PP box approach, and plantar foot recording was divided into 10 anatomical areas. The PP and PTI was investigated for the left, right and both feet accounted together. Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) test was adopted for statistical analysis. Overall, 30 healthy patients were recruited and 60 appointments were completed, 53.3% (n=16) were female and 46.7% (n=14) were male. Mean age was 13.3 years (SD=4.5), with an age-range of 5-18.6 years old. Results indicated that for all variables tested the repeatability data were 'good' ICC for 73.8% (n=121) and 'moderate' ICC for 26.2% (n=43). For all variables tested, the reproducibility data showed that 'good' ICC for 70.7% (n=58) and 'moderate' ICC for 29.3% (n=24). In conclusion, the HR Walkway system is able to provide repeatable and reproducible data.

  10. Heart rate variability as a biomarker for autonomic nervous system response differences between children with chronic pain and healthy control children

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Subhadra; Seidman, Laura C; Tsao, Jennie CI; Lung, Kirsten C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K; Naliboff, Bruce D

    2013-01-01

    Studies in adults have demonstrated a relationship between lowered heart rate variability (HRV) and poor health. However, less is known about the role of autonomic arousal in children’s well-being. The aim of the current study was to examine resting HRV in children with chronic pain compared to healthy control children and, further, to examine children’s HRV following a series of acute experimental pain tasks in both groups. Participants included 104 healthy control children and 48 children with chronic pain aged 8–17 years. The laboratory session involved a 5-minute baseline electrocardiogram followed by four pain induction tasks: evoked pressure, cold pressor, focal pressure, and a conditioned pain modulation task. After the tasks were complete, a 5-minute post-task electrocardiogram recording was taken. Spectral analysis was used to capture high-frequency normalized power and the ratio of low-to-high frequency band power, signifying cardiac vagal tone and sympathetic balance, respectively. Results revealed that children with chronic pain had significantly lower resting HRV (signified by low high-frequency normalized power and high ratio of low-to-high frequency band power) compared to healthy children; moreover, a significant interaction between groups and time revealed that children with chronic pain displayed a static HRV response to the pain session compared to healthy children, whose HRV was reduced concomitant with the pain session. These findings suggest that children with chronic pain may have a sustained stress response with minimal variability in response to new acute pain stressors. PMID:23788839

  11. Oropharyngeal Colonization With Neisseria lactamica, Other Nonpathogenic Neisseria Species and Moraxella catarrhalis Among Young Healthy Children in Ahvaz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Raheleh; Amin, Mansour; Rostami, Soodabeh; Shoja, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Nasim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neisseria lactamica as one of the main commensal in oropharynx during the childhood is related to the induction of a natural immunity against meningococcal meningitis. Also Moraxella catarrhalis in oropharynx of children is a predisposing factor for otitis media infection. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the frequency of the N. lactamica, other nonpathogenic Neisseria spp. and M. catarrhalis in the oropharynx of young healthy children in Ahvaz, Iran by the two phenotypic tests and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: A total of 192 oropharyngeal swab samples of the young healthy children were studied during four months. Swabs were plated onto enriched selective media and non-selective media. Gram-negative and oxidase-positive diplococci were identified by several conventional biochemical tests. The PCR and sequencing were used to confirm the accuracy of laboratory diagnosis to identify N. lactamica and M. catarrhalis. Results: Among 192 young healthy children with the mean age of 5.93 ± 2.5903 years, authors identified: N. lactamica (21.9%) in the age group of one to nine years; N. mucosa (6.3%); N. sicca (7.8%); N. cinerea (1.6%); N. subflava (biovar subflava) (4.2%); N. subflava (biovar perflava) (28.1%); N. subflava (biovar flava) (7.3%) and M. catarrhalis (42.7%). Conclusions: The young healthy children screening by colonization of N. lactamica and other nonpathogenic Neisseria spp. in oropharynx was the first report in Ahvaz, Iran. The study results demonstrated the high frequency of colonization of M. catarrhalis in the studied young healthy children other than Neisseria spp. PMID:25964847

  12. [Promotion of healthy life style and growth in primary school children (OKkio alla SALUTE)].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A; Baglio, G; Cattaneo, C; Fontana, G; Lamberti, A

    2008-01-01

    In October 2007, the Italian Ministry of Health, the Centre for Disease Control and the Regions entrusted the National Institute of Health with the coordination of the initiative "Okkio alla Salute"--Promotion of healthy lifestyle and growth in primary school children. This programme is linked to the European programme "Gaining health" and the National Plan for Prevention. The objective of the project was to develop and maintain a monitoring system for both the health services and the schools that could also be used to better target public health interventions. The first national survey to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and to collect information on diet and physical activity has been conducted in close collaboration with the individual regions. In the first nine months of the project, 1025 health workers and approximately 1500 school teachers have received training, and, using standardised methods, they have collected data and weighed and measured nearly 45000 third grade students (median age 8.8 years) in 2000 schools throughout the country. Participation rates have exceeded 95%. The results obtained to date indicate that the methodology is sustainable using existing health and educational resources and can be adopted as a national surveillance system.

  13. The effect of topical atropine on the choroidal thickness of healthy children

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhengwei; Zhou, Yuanting; Xie, Zhifang; Chen, Tiantian; Gu, Yan; Lu, Shui; Wu, Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of topical atropine on choroidal thickness using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. A total of 30 healthy eyes from 30 children were analyzed in this study. A single drop of 1% atropine gel was administered twice daily for a week. Choroidal thickness (CT) was measured using SD-OCT, and changes in CT before and after administration of the eye drops were analyzed at the subfovea and at 1.0-mm intervals (up to 3.0 mm) from the fovea at superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal locations. Pre- and post-cycloplegic axial length (AL) was also measured using the IOLMaster. We observed that administration of 1% atropine gel led to a significant increase in the choroidal thickness under the fovea and at all intervals from the fovea. The greatest change in CT was observed in the inferior meridian, while the nasal meridian exhibited the least change. AL did not significantly differ before and after cycloplegia, and there was no significant correlation between the changes in AL and subfoveal CT. It was concluded that administration of 1% atropine gel can significantly increase CT in the eyes of young Chinese children, albeit with different magnitude at different locations. PMID:27713535

  14. Relationships between Dietary Intake and Cognitive Function in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Seung Wan

    2017-01-01

    Background It has long been theorized that a relatively robust dietary intake impacts cognitive function. The aim of the study was to explore dietary intake and cognitive function in healthy Korean children and adolescents. Methods Three hundred and seventeen healthy children with no previous diagnosis of neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (167 girls and 150 boys with a mean age of 11.8 ± 3.3 years). Analysis indicators including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) consisting of 76 items and neurocognitive tests including symbol digit modalities (SDMT), verbal memory, visual memory, shift attention, reasoning, and digit span (forward and backward) tests were observed and recorded. Results The standard deviation in reaction time was significantly shorter in girls than in boys (p < 0.05). Verbal memory and SDMT percentile results were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.05). Vitamin C and potassium intake showed positive correlation with SDMT results (p < 0.05). Vitamin B1 intake showed positive correlation with the results of digit span forward tasks and SDMT (p < 0.01). Vitamin B6 intake showed positive correlation with the results of digit span forward tasks (p < 0.01). The consumption of noodles showed negative correlation with verbal memory, SDMT, shift attention, and reasoning test results (p < 0.05). The consumption of fast food showed negative correlation with SDMT and reasoning test results (p < 0.05). The consumption of Coca-Cola showed negative correlation with the results of verbal memory tests (p < 0.05). The consumption of mushrooms showed positive correlation with visual memory and reasoning test results (p < 0.05). The consumption of nuts showed positive correlation with SDMT results (p < 0.01). Omission errors were negatively correlated with the intake of protein, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin B6 (p < 0.05), as well as with vitamin D and zinc intake (p < 0.01). Reaction time showed positive correlation

  15. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral microbiota are considered major players in the development of periodontal diseases. Thorough knowledge of intact subgingival microbiomes is required to elucidate microbial shifts from health to disease. Aims: This comparative study investigated the subgingival microbiome of healthy children, possible inter- and intra-individual effects of modified sampling, and basic comparability of subgingival microprints. Methods: In five 10-year-old children, biofilm was collected from the upper first premolars and first molars using sterilized, UV-treated paper-points inserted into the subgingival sulcus at eight sites. After supragingival cleaning using an electric toothbrush and water, sampling was performed, firstly, excluding (Mode A) and, secondly, including (Mode B) cleansing with sterile cotton pellets. DNA was extracted from the pooled samples, and primers targeting 16S rRNA hypervariable regions V5 and V6 were used for 454-pyrosequencing. Wilcoxon signed rank test and t-test were applied to compare sampling modes. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and average agglomerative hierarchical clustering were calculated with unweighted UniFrac distance matrices. Sample grouping was tested with permutational MANOVA (Adonis). Results: Data filtering and quality control yielded 67,218 sequences with an average sequence length of 243bp (SD 6.52; range 231–255). Actinobacteria (2.8–24.6%), Bacteroidetes (9.2–25.1%), Proteobacteria (4.9–50.6%), Firmicutes (16.5–57.4%), and Fusobacteria (2.2–17.1%) were the five major phyla found in all samples. Differences in microbial abundances between sampling modes were not evident. High sampling numbers are needed to achieve significance for rare bacterial phyla. Samples taken from one individual using different sampling modes were more similar to each other than to other individuals' samples. PCoA and hierarchical clustering showed a grouping of the paired samples. Permutational MANOVA did not reveal sample

  16. Gross and fine motor performance in healthy Swedish children aged fifteen and eighteen months.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, A

    1979-02-01

    Gross and fine motor performance have been assessed in thirtynine 15-month-old and thirtynine 18-month-old children selected through systematic sampling from a population of healthy newborns. The performance was estimated with corresponding subscales of Denver Developmental Screening Test and Motor age test. In addition fine motor performance was assessed by the "Drawing test" for which the expected performance at 15 and 18 months is given. Of the 78 children, 83% had crawled on hand and knees, 9% crept on their tummy and 8% shuffled on their bottom before walking. Median age for walking was 11.8 months, the 97th percentile 16.0 months. Of the 15-month-old children, 90% walked with ability to stop and start, and 90% of the 18-month-old were in addition able to walk backwards, run stiffly, climb up and down a standard staircase and seat themselves in an armchair of suitable size. Of the 15-month-old, 90% were able to build a tower of two cubes or more, and 90% of the 18-month-old were able to build a tower of three cubes or more (size 1 1/2 inch). Almost 90% of the 15-month-old and all of the 18-month-old had the cognitive ability to coordinate a crayon and paper. In drawing attempts of the 15 month-old, the weak unstable combination with a top-tong/tong grasp and 1/2 pronated forearm was the dominating hand-grasp fore-arm position. In the 18 month-old a more mature grasp and forearm combination, mainly palmar grasp with or without stablizing index finger + overpronated forearm, was found.

  17. Adolescent Substance Use Outcomes in the Raising Healthy Children Project: A Two-Part Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eric C.; Catalano, Richard F.; Fleming, Charles B.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    Raising Healthy Children (RHC) is a preventive intervention designed to promote positive youth development by targeting developmentally appropriate risk and protective factors. In this study, the authors tested the efficacy of the RHC intervention on reducing adolescent alcohol, marijuana, and cigarette use. Ten public schools, which comprised 959…

  18. Lifestyle Knowledge and Preferences in Preschool Children: Evaluation of the "Get up and Grow" Healthy Lifestyle Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Nicola; Harris, Neil; Lee, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Early childhood is considered a window of opportunity for lifestyle interventions, as this is a critical life-stage at which children accumulate knowledge and skills around behaviours such as eating and physical activity. This study examined how exposure to a settings-based healthy lifestyle programme influences knowledge and preference…

  19. Regulatory fit effects on children's responses to healthy eating promotion: an experiment testing message and celebrity fit.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Benjamin Ka Lun

    2015-01-01

    This study adopts the regulatory fit theory and examines the effects of the celebrity and message fit on children's responses to the promotion of healthy eating. A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted with 87 Hong Kong children ages 11 to 16. The results showed that a regulatory fit between the celebrity focus and the message focus yielded a better affective response. Specifically, children found a poster ad more convincing, liked it more, held more positive feelings, and found the poster ad more interesting in the fit conditions. Implications and future research directions were discussed.

  20. Three Independent Evaluations of Healthy Kids Programs Find Substantial Gains in Children's Dental Health Care. In Brief, September 2008, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Dana; Howell, Embry; Trenholm, Christopher; Hill, Ian; Dubay, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This brief presents highlights from rigorous, independent evaluations of the Healthy Kids programs in three California counties: Los Angeles, San Mateo, and Santa Clara. Launched by Children's Health Initiatives (CHIs) in these counties between 2001 and 2003, the three Healthy Kids programs provide children with comprehensive health insurance…

  1. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong

    2016-09-13

    (1) OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) METHODS: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas-namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang-of China; (3) RESULTS: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children's physical activity (PA) behavior (p < 0.0001). However, an insignificant correlation is observed between preschool children's fruits and vegetables (FV) behavior, screen time (ST) behavior, and maternal social cognition; (4) CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children's PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children's ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children's ST behavior.

  2. Sleep Disturbances in Children with Attention – Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Comparative Study with Healthy Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Sreelakshmi; Shah, Henal; Gayal, Tejas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Sleep disturbances in children with ADHD impact their functioning and overall Quality of Life. This paper’s purpose is to study the occurrence of sleep disturbances in children with ADHD, in comparison to their healthy siblings and further, within the ADHD group, to look for correlation between sleep disturbances and age, severity of symptoms, presentations of ADHD and illness parameters. Methods The parents of 120 children of age group between 5–16 years, (60 children diagnosed with ADHD as per DSM-5 criteria and 60 of their healthy siblings) consecutively enrolled from a hospital’s Child Psychiatry Outpatient services were interviewed using Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and severity of ADHD symptoms was rated using ADHD – RS. Results Sleep disturbances are more prevalent in pharmacologically treated children with ADHD than their healthy siblings, reduce with increasing age and are found more in the Predominantly Hyperactive/impulsive presentation of ADHD. Conclusion Sleep disturbances are more prevalent in pharmacologically treated ADHD, making it an important aspect of ADHD management. PMID:27924144

  3. Intergenerational differences in beliefs about healthy eating among carers of left-behind children in rural China: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Bécares, Laia; Chandola, Tarani; Callery, Peter

    2015-12-01

    China's internal migration has left 61 million rural children living apart from parents and usually being cared for by grandparents. This study aims to explore caregivers' beliefs about healthy eating for left-behind children (LBC) in rural China. Twenty-six children aged 6-12 (21 LBC and 5 non-LBC) and 32 caregivers (21 grandparents, 9 mothers, and 2 uncles/aunts) were recruited in one township in rural China. Children were encouraged to keep food diaries followed by in-depth interviews with caregivers. Distinct intergenerational differences in beliefs about healthy eating emerged: the grandparent generation was concerned about not having enough food and tended to emphasise the importance of starchy foods for children's growth, due to their past experiences during the Great Famine. On the other hand, the parent generation was concerned about food safety and paid more attention to protein-source foods including meat, eggs and milk. Parents appeared to offer children high-energy food, which was viewed as a sign of economic status, rather than as part of a balanced diet. Lack of remittances from migrant parents may compromise LBC's food choices. These findings suggest the potential for LBC left in the care of grandparents, especially with experience of the Great Famine, may be at greater risk of malnutrition than children cared for by parents. By gaining an in-depth understanding of intergenerational differences in healthy eating beliefs for children, our findings could inform for the development of nutrition-related policies and interventions for LBC in rural China.

  4. Platelet monoamine oxidase in healthy 9- and 15-years old children: the effect of gender, smoking and puberty.

    PubMed

    Harro, M; Eensoo, D; Kiive, E; Merenäkk, L; Alep, J; Oreland, L; Harro, J

    2001-11-01

    1. The effect of gender, smoking and pubertal development on platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was described in a randomly selected, large sample of 9- and 15-years old healthy children. 2. Platelet MAO activity was measured in 1129 children by a radioenzymatic method with beta-phenylethylamine as the substrate. Smoking habits were reported in an anonymous questionnaire. Pubertal status was assessed visually using Tanner's stages. 3. Boys, younger children and smokers had significantly lower platelet MAO activity than girls, older children and non-smokers, respectively. Girls in Tanner's stage V for breast and pubic hair development had significantly lower MAO than girls in stage IV. 4. Differences in gender, age, pubertal status and smoking habits must be taken into account if the relationship between platelet MAO activity, personality and psychiatric disorders is studied in children.

  5. Changes in cerebral hemodynamics during a sleep-deprived video-electroencephalogram in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bingwei; Li, Jialing; Wang, Jing; Liang, Xiuqiong; Zheng, Zhiying; Mai, Jianning

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the cerebral hemodynamic changes during a routine sleep-deprived video-electroencephalogram (SD-VEEG) in healthy children. Forty-two children with normal intelligence were examined. The children were 5-14 years of age, and their electroencephalograms (EEGs) were within the normal range. Each subject was deprived of a routine night's sleep and then examined during non-drug-induced sleep in the daytime. The awake and sleep stages were evaluated using EEGs, according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Stable transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) tracings through real-time TCD-VEEG monitoring were recorded. The mean systolic cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), diastolic CBFV, pulsatility index and resistance index of each artery were analyzed for 30 s per stage. A multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to compare the hemodynamic parameters for the awake stage versus light sleep and deep sleep stages. Non-rapid eye movement sleep was associated with an increased CBFV in the middle (164.38  ±  27.28) and anterior cerebral artery (131.81  ±  21.55) during light sleep (stages N1 and N2) (P  =  0.0001), a reduced systolic CBFV in all vascular arteries (LMCA, 138.73  ±  20.64; LACA, 108.33  ±  22.33; LPCA, 83.9  ±  18.6) during deep sleep (stage N3) compared with light sleep (P  =  0.0001), and a sustained increased PI (LMCA, 0.92  ±  0.13; LACA, 0.964  ±  0.18) during deep sleep (P  <  0.05). These findings indicate distinct cerebral hemodynamic alterations during SD-VEEG in children. This study utilized real-time TCD-VEEG monitoring during SD-EEG to further investigate neurovascular coupling in interictal epileptic discharges and understand its potential influence on cognition in the developing brain.

  6. Bacterial Diversity in Oral Samples of Children in Niger with Acute Noma, Acute Necrotizing Gingivitis, and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Stadelmann, Benoît; Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Gizard, Yann; Mombelli, Andrea; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Background Noma is a gangrenous disease that leads to severe disfigurement of the face with high morbidity and mortality, but its etiology remains unknown. Young children in developing countries are almost exclusively affected. The purpose of the study was to record and compare bacterial diversity in oral samples from children with or without acute noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis from a defined geographical region in Niger by culture-independent molecular methods. Methods and Principal Findings Gingival samples from 23 healthy children, nine children with acute necrotizing gingivitis, and 23 children with acute noma (both healthy and diseased oral sites) were amplified using “universal” PCR primers for the 16 S rRNA gene and pooled according to category (noma, healthy, or acute necrotizing gingivitis), gender, and site status (diseased or control site). Seven libraries were generated. A total of 1237 partial 16 S rRNA sequences representing 339 bacterial species or phylotypes at a 98–99% identity level were obtained. Analysis of bacterial composition and frequency showed that diseased (noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis) and healthy site bacterial communities are composed of similar bacteria, but differ in the prevalence of a limited group of phylotypes. Large increases in counts of Prevotella intermedia and members of the Peptostreptococcus genus are associated with disease. In contrast, no clear-cut differences were found between noma and non-noma libraries. Conclusions Similarities between acute necrotizing gingivitis and noma samples support the hypothesis that the disease could evolve from acute necrotizing gingivitis in certain children for reasons still to be elucidated. This study revealed oral microbiological patterns associated with noma and acute necrotizing gingivitis, but no evidence was found for a specific infection-triggering agent. PMID:22413030

  7. Urine volume dependency of specific dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol metabolites in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lijie; Wudy, Stefan A; Maser-Gluth, Christiane; Hartmann, Michaela F; Remer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Urine volume should be considered as a confounder when using urinary free cortisol (UFF) and cortisone (UFE) to assess glucocorticoid (GC) status. We aimed to examine whether adrenal androgen (AA) metabolites may be also affected by urine volume in healthy children. To compare the flow dependence of GC and AA metabolites, specific GC metabolites were examined. In 24-h urine samples of 120 (60 boys) healthy children (4-10 yr), steroid profiles were determined by GC-MS analysis, UFF and UFE by radioimmunoassay. To assess daily AA and GC secretion rates, 7 quantitatively most important AA (∑C19) and GC (∑C21) metabolites were summed. Sum of DHEA and its 16α-hydroxylated metabolites were denoted as DHEA&M. Association of urine volume with AA (∑C19, DHEA&M, DHEA, 16α-hydroxy-DHEA, 3β,16α,17β-androstenetriol) and GC (∑C21, UFF, UFE, 6β-hydroxycortisol, 20α-dihydrocortisol) were examined in linear regression models. Among the examined AA metabolites, 16α-hydroxy-DHEA (β=0.56, p<0.0001) and DHEA (β=0.43, p=0.05) showed relatively strong association with urine volume. A trend was seen for ∑C19 (β=0.23, p=0.08), but not for DHEA&M (p>0.1). Regarding GC metabolites, urine volume showed a stronger association with cortisol's direct metabolites, i.e., cortisone, 6β-hydroxycortisol and 20α-dihydrocortisol (β=0.4-0.6, p<0.01) than with cortisol itself (β=0.28, p<0.05). ∑C21 was not associated with urine volume. In conclusion, like UFF and UFE, renal excretion of DHEA, 16α-hydroxy-DHEA, 6β-hydroxycortisol, and 20α-dihydrocortisol may also depend on urine volume. The intrarenal production of the latter three and cortisone might explain their relative strong water-flow-dependency. Total AA or GC secretion marker appears not to be relevantly confounded by urine volume.

  8. Nasal colonization by four potential respiratory bacteria in healthy children attending kindergarten or elementary school in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Bae, Songmee; Yu, Jae-Yon; Lee, Kwangjun; Lee, Sunhwa; Park, Bohyun; Kang, Yeonho

    2012-05-01

    A longitudinal analysis was carried out of the colonization by four potential respiratory pathogens - Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus - in 165 healthy children (aged 3-7 years) attending three kindergartens and 417 healthy children (aged 7-10 years) attending an elementary school in Seoul, Korea, by four consecutive examinations over 1 year. The prevalence of nasal carriers of one or more of four bacteria was found to be higher in younger children (≤7 years) (mean 68.6%) than that in older children (mean 46.8%). The mean rates of nasal carriage of Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and Staph. aureus were 16.8, 18.9, 20.2 and 18.2%, respectively. Colonization by Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis was higher in pre-school children (28.6, 32.4 and 35.0%, respectively) than in school children (12.2, 13.6 and 14.3%, respectively). Carriage trends differed with age, with Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis colonization decreasing with age but Staph. aureus colonization increasing. Positive associations of co-occurrence between Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were evident, with a significant negative association evident between Staph. aureus and the other three bacteria. A better understanding of the colonization and interaction of potential respiratory pathogens may be important for predicting changes in bacterial ecology and for designing control strategies that target bacterial colonization in upper respiratory tract infections.

  9. Macular Choroidal Thickness and Volume Measured by Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Wook; Song, In Seok; Lee, Ju-hyang; Shin, Yong Un; Lim, Han Woong; Lee, Won June

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the thickness and volume of the choroid in healthy Korean children using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Methods We examined 80 eyes of 40 healthy children and teenagers (<18 years) using swept-source optical coherence tomography with a tunable long-wavelength laser source. A volumetric macular scan protocol using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid was used to construct a choroidal thickness map. We also examined 44 eyes of 35 healthy adult volunteers (≥18 years) and compared adult measurements with the findings in children. Results The mean age of the children and teenagers was 9.47 ± 3.80 (4 to 17) vs. 55.04 ± 12.63 years (36 to 70 years) in the adult group (p < 0.001, Student's t-test). Regarding the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study subfields, the inner temporal subfield was the thickest (247.96 µm). The inner and outer nasal choroid were thinner (p = 0.004, p = 0.002, respectively) than the surrounding areas. The mean choroidal volumes of the inner and outer nasal areas were smaller (p = 0.004, p = 0.003, respectively) than those of all the other areas in each circle. Among the nine subfields, all areas in the children, except the outer nasal subfield, were thicker than those in adults (p < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that age, axial length, and refractive error correlated with subfoveal choroidal thickness (p < 0.05). Conclusions Overall macular choroidal thickness and volume in children and teenagers were significantly greater than in adults. The nasal choroid was significantly thinner than the surrounding areas. The pediatric subfoveal choroid is prone to thinning with increasing age, axial length, and refractive error. These differences should be considered when choroidal thickness is evaluated in children with chorioretinal diseases. PMID:26865801

  10. Serbian KINDL questionnaire for quality of life assessments in healthy children and adolescents: reproducibility and construct validity

    PubMed Central

    Stevanovic, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    Background The KINDL questionnaire is frequently used to evaluate quality of life (QOL) and the impacts of health conditions on children's everyday living. The objectives of this study were to assess the reproducibility and construct validity of the Serbian KINDL for QOL assessments in healthy children and adolescents. Methods Five hundred and sixty-four healthy children and adolescents completed the KINDL. Reproducibility was analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to assess the structure of the KINDL - construct validity. Results The intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.03 to 0.84 for the subscales and total score. A second order CFA model as originally hypothesized was tested: items (24), primary factors (six subscales), and one secondary factor (QOL). The fit indexes derived from a CFA failed to yield appropriate fit between the data and the hypothesized model. Conclusion Majority of the subscales and total KINDL possess appropriate reproducibility for group comparisons. However, a CFA failed to confirm the structure of the original measurement model, indicating that the Serbian version should be revised before wider use for QOL assessments in healthy children and adolescent. PMID:19715576

  11. Automated detection of apnea/hypopnea events in healthy children polysomnograms: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Held, Claudio M; Causa, Leonardo; Jaillet, Fabrice; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Garrido, Marcelo; Algarin, Cecilia; Peirano, Patricio

    2013-01-01

    A methodology to detect sleep apnea/hypopnea events in the respiratory signals of polysomnographic recordings is presented. It applies empirical mode decomposition (EMD), Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), fuzzy logic and signal preprocessing techniques for feature extraction, expert criteria and context analysis. EMD, HHT and fuzzy logic are used for artifact detection and preliminary detection of respiration signal zones with significant variations in the amplitude of the signal; feature extraction, expert criteria and context analysis are used to characterize and validate the respiratory events. An annotated database of 30 all-night polysomnographic recordings, acquired from 30 healthy ten-year-old children, was divided in a training set of 15 recordings (485 sleep apnea/hypopnea events), a validation set of five recordings (109 sleep apnea/hypopnea events), and a testing set of ten recordings (281 sleep apnea/hypopnea events). The overall detection performance on the testing data set was 89.7% sensitivity and 16.3% false-positive rate. The next step is to include discrimination among apneas, hypopneas and respiratory pauses.

  12. Sustainable capacity building among immigrant communities: the raising sexually healthy children program in Canada.

    PubMed

    Narushima, Miya; Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Li, Anda; Sutdhibhasilp, Noulmook

    2014-03-01

    The Raising Sexually Healthy Children (RSHC) program is a peer-to-peer leadership training program for immigrant parents in Toronto, Canada. It was established in 1998 with the goal of promoting family sex education and parent-child communication. This evaluative study examined the developmental processes and outcomes of the RSHC program to identify the strengths, challenges and insights that can be used to improve the program. It employed a multi-case study approach to compare the RSHC programs delivered in the Chinese, Portuguese and Tamil communities. Data collection methods included focus groups, individual interviews and document analysis. The cross-case analysis identified both common and unique capacity building processes and outcomes in the three communities. In this paper, we report factors that have enhanced and hindered sustainable capacity building at the individual, group/organizational and community levels, and the strategies used by these communities to address challenges common to immigrant families. We will discuss the ecological and synergetic, but time-consuming processes of capacity building, which contributed to the sustainability of RSHC as an empowering health promotion program for immigrant communities. We conclude the paper by noting the implications of using a capacity building approach to promote family health in ethno-racial-linguistic minority communities.

  13. Pubertal development in healthy children is mirrored by DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Almstrup, Kristian; Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Busch, Alexander S.; Hagen, Casper P.; Nielsen, John E.; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Juul, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Puberty marks numerous physiological processes which are initiated by central activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, followed by development of secondary sexual characteristics. To a large extent, pubertal timing is heritable, but current knowledge of genetic polymorphisms only explains few months in the large inter-individual variation in the timing of puberty. We have analysed longitudinal genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood samples (n = 102) obtained from 51 healthy children before and after pubertal onset. We show that changes in single methylation sites are tightly associated with physiological pubertal transition and altered reproductive hormone levels. These methylation sites cluster in and around genes enriched for biological functions related to pubertal development. Importantly, we identified that methylation of the genomic region containing the promoter of TRIP6 was co-ordinately regulated as a function of pubertal development. In accordance, immunohistochemistry identified TRIP6 in adult, but not pre-pubertal, testicular Leydig cells and circulating TRIP6 levels doubled during puberty. Using elastic net prediction models, methylation patterns predicted pubertal development more accurately than chronological age. We demonstrate for the first time that pubertal attainment of secondary sexual characteristics is mirrored by changes in DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood. Thus, modulations of the epigenome seem involved in regulation of the individual pubertal timing. PMID:27349168

  14. Prematurely delivered rats show improved motor coordination during sensory-evoked motor responses compared to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Megan E; Brumley, Michele R

    2014-05-10

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat.

  15. Anxious Attachment Style and Salivary Cortisol Dysregulation in Healthy Female Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskis, Andrea; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Clow, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attachment style has been linked with basal cortisol secretion in healthy adult women. We investigated whether dysregulation in basal cortisol secretion may be evident in younger healthy females. Methods: Sixty healthy females aged 9-18 years (mean 14.16, SD [plus or minus] 2.63 years) participated in the Attachment Style Interview…

  16. Healthy eating behaviors and the cognitive environment are positively associated in low-income households with young children.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Joy Rickman; Whaley, Shannon E

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine relationships between eating behaviors and the cognitive environment in primarily Hispanic low-income households with young children receiving WIC benefits in Los Angeles County. Survey data were collected from 3645 low-income families with children age 12-65 mo in Los Angeles County. Eating behaviors were measured through questions about fruit, vegetable, milk, soft drink, and fast food intake. The cognitive environment was evaluated through questions on the home literacy environment (HLE), reading frequency, and preschool enrollment. All healthy eating behaviors measured were significantly and positively associated with reading frequency and HLE scores after adjustment for confounders. HLE and reading frequency scores were 18% and 14% higher, respectively, in children eating two or more servings of fruit per day and 12% and 9% higher, respectively, in children eating three or more servings of vegetables per day. Preschool enrollment was not significantly associated with any eating behavior. Outcomes varied by language-ethnic groups and child sex. Results suggest that healthy eating behaviors are positively associated with stronger cognitive environments in low-income Hispanic families with young children. Interventions to prevent childhood obesity in this group may therefore benefit from including a home literacy component.

  17. Evaluation of the Antigen-Experienced B-Cell Receptor Repertoire in Healthy Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    IJspeert, Hanna; van Schouwenburg, Pauline A.; van Zessen, David; Pico-Knijnenburg, Ingrid; Driessen, Gertjan J.; Stubbs, Andrew P.; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Upon antigen recognition via their B cell receptor (BR), B cells migrate to the germinal center where they undergo somatic hypermutation (SHM) to increase their affinity for the antigen, and class switch recombination (CSR) to change the effector function of the secreted antibodies. These steps are essential to create an antigen-experienced BR repertoire that efficiently protects the body against pathogens. At the same time, the BR repertoire should be selected to protect against responses to self-antigen or harmless antigens. Insights into the processes of SHM, selection, and CSR can be obtained by studying the antigen-experienced BR repertoire. Currently, a large reference data set of healthy children and adults, which ranges from neonates to the elderly, is not available. In this study, we analyzed the antigen-experienced repertoire of 38 healthy donors (HD), ranging from cord blood to 74 years old, by sequencing IGA and IGG transcripts using next generation sequencing. This resulted in a large, freely available reference data set containing 412,890 IGA and IGG transcripts. We used this data set to study mutation levels, SHM patterns, antigenic selection, and CSR from birth to elderly HD. Only small differences were observed in SHM patterns, while the mutation levels increase in early childhood and stabilize at 6 years of age at around 7%. Furthermore, comparison of the antigen-experienced repertoire with sequences from the naive immune repertoire showed that features associated with autoimmunity such as long CDR3 length and IGHV4-34 usage are reduced in the antigen-experienced repertoire. Moreover, IGA2 and IGG2 usage was increased in HD in higher age categories, while IGG1 usage was decreased. In addition, we studied clonal relationship in the different samples. Clonally related sequences were found with different subclasses. Interestingly, we found transcripts with the same CDR1–CDR3 sequence, but different subclasses. Together, these data suggest that

  18. Responsiveness to healthy television (TV) food advertisements/commercials is only evident in children under the age of seven with low food neophobia.

    PubMed

    Dovey, Terence M; Taylor, Lauren; Stow, Rachael; Boyland, Emma J; Halford, Jason C G

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to television advertisements for unhealthy foods has been shown to subsequently increase the amount of snack food consumed in children between the ages of five and eleven. However, it has yet to be elucidated whether healthy food television advertisements have a different effect on subsequent food intake in children. The current study explored the role of food neophobia in 'responsiveness' to food adverts in children between the ages of five and seven. Sixty-six children were exposed to unhealthy food adverts, healthy food adverts and toy adverts embedded into a cartoon in a counterbalanced order on three different occasions. Following the cartoon, children were offered a snack consisting of six food items (chocolate, jelly sweets, potato crisps, Snack-a-Jacks, green seedless grapes and carrot sticks). Food advert exposure, irrespective of content (either unhealthy or healthy food items), increased food intake by 47 kcal (11%) in high food neophobic children. Children who scored lower on the food neophobia scale ate significantly more (63 kcal, 14%) following the unhealthy food adverts only. In the healthy advert condition low food neophobic children consumed less chocolate (p=0.003) but did not increase their consumption of fruit and vegetables. Presentation of healthy foods does not alter food preferences in the short-term. Children with low levels of food neophobia appear to respond to healthy food messages but children with higher levels of food neophobia do not. Instead, high food neophobic children will continue to consume more chocolate following exposure to food adverts irrespective of the healthy or unhealthy message they contain.

  19. Environmental factors: opportunities and barriers for physical activity, and healthy eating among children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, I; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; De Henauw, S

    2010-01-01

    While genetic factors play a role in the development of obesity, the dramatic increase of its prevalence in the past years strongly suggests that environmental factors are largely responsible. The wealth and variety of food supply available 24h/day and throughout the year, the change in dietary habits due to time constraints and the change in physical activity due to technological advances all create a 'toxic' environment responsible for obesity and eating habit disorders. This manuscript describes and discusses the results of a systematic review of environmental opportunities & obstacles for physical activity and dietary intake influencing the obesity epidemic among children and adolescents. Although evidence clearly shows the impact of the environment on obesity related lifestyle factors, evidence for effective strategies combating this obesogenic environment is very scarce. Interventions aiming to change environmental factors in order to reduce obesity may include taxes/subsidies encouraging healthy eating or physical activity, extra provision of sporting facilities, efforts to improve safety and accessibility of walking, cycling or play areas or attempting to influence social meanings/values attached to weight, food or physical activity. It is clear that some level of institutionalization of systems that support the desired changes is required to sustain environmental and social changes in the long-term. At last, it is important to note that better-designed and -conducted research on the true importance of the interaction between environmental factors and psychosocial factors, including the micro- and the macro-level, for obesogenic behavioral change is needed to reassure the success of large-scale environmental change interventions.

  20. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Beth N; Hayes, Dayle

    2014-08-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, maintain healthy weights, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. Rapid increases in the prevalence of childhood obesity during the 1980s and 1990s focused attention on young children's overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and lack of physical activity. While recent data suggest a stabilization of obesity rates, several public health concerns remain. These include the most effective ways to promote healthy weights, the number of children living in food insecurity, the under-consumption of key nutrients, and the early development of diet-related risks for chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This Position Paper reviews what children 2 to 11 years old in the United States are reportedly eating, explores trends in food and nutrient intakes, and examines the impact of federal nutrition programs on child nutrition. Current dietary recommendations and guidelines for physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of life-long healthy eating behaviors are highlighted. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics works with other allied health and food industry professionals to translate dietary recommendations and guidelines into positive, practical health messages. Specific recommendations and sources of science-based nutrition messages to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for food and nutrition practitioners.

  1. Fruit and Vegetable Exposure in Children is Linked to the Selection of a Wider Variety of Healthy Foods at School

    PubMed Central

    Korinek, Elizabeth V.; Bartholomew, John B.; Jowers, Esbelle M.; Latimer, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    Schools often offer healthy fruits and vegetables (FV) and healthy entrées. However, children may resist these efforts due to a lack of familiarity with the offerings. While numerous exposures with a food increase its liking, it may be that an exposure to a variety of FV at home leads to greater willingness to select other foods – even those that are unrelated to those eaten at home. As an initial test of this possibility, this study was designed to examine how self-reports of exposure and consumption of various FV were associated with the selection of FV and lunch entrées at school. Participants (N=59) were a convenience sample of elementary children. A median-split was used to place students into high and low exposure groups for self-reports of both exposure and consumption at home. The primary dependent variables were: self-reports of selecting FV at school; the children’s absolute and relative ratings of eight “healthier” lunch entrées; and self-reports of selecting these entrées. These entrées were recently added to the school menu and, therefore, tended to be less familiar to children. Food ratings were collected through taste exposures conducted at school. Results indicate that children who reported more frequent exposure to FV at home consumed a wider variety of FV at school and were more likely to report selecting “healthier” entrées at school lunch. These data suggest that exposure to and the consumption of a variety of FV may make children more willing to select a wider range of FV and other, healthy entrées. PMID:23557428

  2. Putting Children's Sleep Problems to Bed: Using Behavior Change Theory to Increase the Success of Children's Sleep Education Programs and Contribute to Healthy Development.

    PubMed

    Blunden, Sarah; Benveniste, Tessa; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2016-07-01

    Sleep is critical for the healthy development of children, yet most children simply don't get enough. Whilst school based sleep education programs have been developed for parents and their children, they have had mixed success. We consider how use of behavior change theory in existing school-based sleep education programs can be improved by applying and apply a broader model to these programs. We find that the mixed success of school-based sleep education programs may be due to a plausible but misleading assumption that simply increasing information about the importance of sleep and the risks of insufficient and/or inefficient sleep will necessarily result in improved sleep behaviors. We identify the potential benefits of using behavior change theory in the development of sleep education programs but in particular, there is a need for theories incorporate the multiple biological, environmental and social impacts on children's sleep. Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological model is presented to illustrate how one such behavior change theory could significantly improve the success of sleep education programs and ultimately support the healthy development of children.

  3. Associations between IQ, total and regional brain volumes, and demography in a large normative sample of healthy children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P; Bigler, Erin D; Lainhart, Janet E

    2010-01-01

    In the course of efforts to establish quantitative norms for healthy brain development by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Brain Development Cooperative Group, 2006), previously unreported associations of parental education and temporal and frontal lobe volumes with full scale IQ and its verbal and performance subscales were discovered. Our findings were derived from the largest, most representative MRI sample to date of healthy children and adolescents, ages 4 years 10 months to 18 years 4 months. We first find that parental education has a strong association with IQ in children that is not mediated by total or regional brain volumes. Second, we find that our observed correlations between temporal gray matter, temporal white matter and frontal white matter volumes with full scale IQ, between 0.14 to 0.27 in children and adolescents, are due in large part to their correlations with performance IQ and not verbal IQ. The volumes of other lobar gray and white matter, subcortical gray matter (thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem do not contribute significantly to IQ variation. Third, we find that head circumference is an insufficient index of cerebral volume in typically developing older children and adolescents. The relations between total and regional brain volumes and IQ can best be discerned when additional variables known to be associated with IQ, especially parental education and other demographic measures, are considered concurrently.

  4. Associations Between IQ, Total and Regional Brain Volumes and Demography in a Large Normative Sample of Healthy Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    In the course of efforts to establish quantitative MRI-based norms for healthy brain development (Brain Development Cooperative Group, 2006), previously unreported associations of parental education and temporal and frontal lobe volumes with full scale IQ and its verbal and performance subscales were discovered. Our findings were derived from the largest, most representative MRI sample to date of healthy children and adolescents, ages 4 years 10 months to 18 years 4 months. We first find that parental education has a strong association with IQ in children that is not mediated by total or regional brain volumes. Second, we find that our observed associations between temporal gray matter, temporal white matter and frontal white matter volumes with full scale IQ, between 0.14 to 0.27 in children and adolescents, are due in large part to their correlations with performance IQ and not verbal IQ. The volumes of other lobar gray and white matter, subcortical gray matter (thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus), cerebellum and brainstem do not contribute significantly to IQ variation. Third, we find that head circumference is an insufficient index of cerebral volume in typically developing older children and adolescents. The relations between total and regional brain volumes and IQ can best be discerned when additional variables known to be associated with IQ, especially parental education and other demographic measures, are considered concurrently. PMID:20446134

  5. CD4(+), CD25(+), FOXP3 (+) T Regulatory Cell Levels in Obese, Asthmatic, Asthmatic Obese, and Healthy Children.

    PubMed

    Donma, Metin; Karasu, Erkut; Ozdilek, Burcu; Turgut, Burhan; Topcu, Birol; Nalbantoglu, Burcin; Donma, Orkide

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this prospective case control study is to determine CD4(+), CD25(+), and FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) and T helper cells (Ths) in obese, asthmatic, asthmatic obese, and healthy children. Obese (n = 40), asthmatic (n = 40), asthmatic obese (n = 40), and healthy children (n = 40) were included in this study. Blood samples collected from children were marked with CD4, CD25, ve Foxp3 in order to detect Tregs and Ths by flow cytometric method. Statistical analyses were performed. p ≤ 0.05 was chosen as meaningful threshold. Tregs exhibiting anti-inflammatory nature were significantly lower in obese (0.16 %; p ≤ 0.001), asthmatic (0.25 %; p ≤ 0.01), and asthmatic obese (0.29 %; p ≤ 0.05) groups than control group (0.38 %). Ths were counted higher in asthma group than control (p ≤ 0.01) and obese (p ≤ 0.001) groups. T cell immunity plays important roles in chronic inflammatory diseases such as obesity and asthma pathogeneses. Decreased numbers of Tregs found in obese, asthmatic, and asthmatic obese children might represent a challenge of these cells.

  6. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) — An Overview of and Recommendations Arising from the Conceptualisation and Development of an Innovative Approach to Promoting Healthy Lifestyles for Children and Their Families

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Jenny; Wyatt, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the rise in childhood obesity, there remains a paucity of evidence for effective interventions that engage children and parents sufficiently to make and sustain lifestyle behaviour change. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) is a school-located obesity prevention programme, which has been developed with teachers, families and healthcare professionals. The underpinning assumption in the development of HeLP was to take a relational approach to changing behaviour, building relationships with the schools, children and their families to create supportive environments for healthy lifestyle choices. Thus, HeLP was conceptualised as a complex intervention within a complex system and developed as a dynamic, evolving set of processes to support and motivate children towards healthy behaviours. The delivery methods used are highly interactive and encourage identification with and ownership of the healthy lifestyle messages so that the children are motivated to take them home to their parents and effect change within the family. We have good evidence that HeLP engages schools and children such that they want to participate in the Programme. Results from an exploratory trial showed that the Programme is feasible and acceptable and has the potential to change behaviours and affect weight status. This paper presents an overview of and recommendations arising from the conceptualization; development and evaluation of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme as part of a special issue focusing on novel approaches to the global problem of childhood obesity. PMID:25608589

  7. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP)--an overview of and recommendations arising from the conceptualisation and development of an innovative approach to promoting healthy lifestyles for children and their families.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Jenny; Wyatt, Katrina

    2015-01-20

    Despite the rise in childhood obesity, there remains a paucity of evidence for effective interventions that engage children and parents sufficiently to make and sustain lifestyle behaviour change. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) is a school-located obesity prevention programme, which has been developed with teachers, families and healthcare professionals. The underpinning assumption in the development of HeLP was to take a relational approach to changing behaviour, building relationships with the schools, children and their families to create supportive environments for healthy lifestyle choices. Thus, HeLP was conceptualised as a complex intervention within a complex system and developed as a dynamic, evolving set of processes to support and motivate children towards healthy behaviours. The delivery methods used are highly interactive and encourage identification with and ownership of the healthy lifestyle messages so that the children are motivated to take them home to their parents and effect change within the family. We have good evidence that HeLP engages schools and children such that they want to participate in the Programme. Results from an exploratory trial showed that the Programme is feasible and acceptable and has the potential to change behaviours and affect weight status. This paper presents an overview of and recommendations arising from the conceptualization; development and evaluation of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme as part of a special issue focusing on novel approaches to the global problem of childhood obesity.

  8. Development of Joint Engagement in Young Deaf and Hearing Children: Effects of Chronological Age and Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cejas, Ivette; Barker, David H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Niparko, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate joint engagement (JE) in age-matched children with and without hearing and its relationship to oral language skills. Method: Participants were 180 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss prior to cochlear implant surgery, and 96 age-matched children with normal hearing; all parents were hearing. JE was evaluated in a…

  9. Creating and Sustaining Healthy Community Environments for Children: Lessons from Northern Manhattan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prakash, Swati; Jordan, Jamillah

    2005-01-01

    Children and adults in communities of color and low-income communities face disproportionately high exposures to environmental hazards and, consequently, greater risk of experiencing adverse health impacts from these exposures. Almost two thirds of children under 6 with elevated blood lead levels are children of color living in disadvantaged…

  10. Is Parenting Style Related to Children's Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in Latino Families?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arredondo, Elva M.; Elder, John P.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Campbell, Nadia; Baquero, Barbara; Duerksen, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Parenting styles influence a child's risk for obesity. The goals of this study are to evaluate the influence of (i) parenting style on children's health behaviors (physical activity and dietary intake), (ii) children's sociodemographic characteristics on parenting style and on children's health behaviors and (iii) parents' sociodemographic…

  11. Cholesterol in Children. Healthy Eating is a Family Affair. Parents' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This illustrated guide was designed to help parents understand: (1) how blood cholesterol in children is related to heart disease later in life; (2) which children should get their cholesterol tested and what to expect afterwards; (3) how the whole family can eat in a low-saturated fat, low-cholesterol way; and (4) how to help children follow a…

  12. The Competitiveness and Productivity of Tomorrow's Work Force: Compelling Reasons for Investing in Healthy Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet outlines some demographic trends that are influencing the cost and availability of health care for children and making it increasingly necessary to take action to improve the health of the nation's children. In recent years children, as a group, are more likely to be poor, lack health insurance, have working mothers, receive…

  13. Remission of Depression in Parents: Links to Healthy Functioning in Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Judy; Ciesla, Jeff A.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Diamond, Guy; Schloredt, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether improvement in parents' depression was linked with changes in their children's depressive symptoms and functioning. Participants were 223 parents and children ranging in age from 7 to 17 years old (M = 12.13, SD = 2.31); 126 parents were in treatment for depression and 97 parents were nondepressed. Children were…

  14. Travel Guide to Healthy School Meals: School Menu Planning to Meet Our Children's Nutritional Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    In 1994, Congress passed the Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Act, requiring that Child Nutrition Programs comply with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and meet nutrient standards. In 1995, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) issued new regulations to define how the Dietary Guidelines would be applied to school meals, called the…

  15. A community-based healthy living promotion program improved self-esteem among minority children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving self-esteem, dietary habits, and physical activity is essential for long-term success in childhood obesity prevention. The aim is to evaluate the effects of a healthy living promotion program, Healthy Kids-Houston, on BMI, dietary habits, self-esteem, and physical activity among minority c...

  16. Healthy Buddies[TM] Reduces Body Mass Index Z-Score and Waist Circumference in Aboriginal Children Living in Remote Coastal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronsley, Rebecca; Lee, Andrew S.; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aboriginal children are at increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Healthy Buddies [TM]-First Nations (HB) is a curriculum-based, peer-led program promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and self-esteem. Methods: Although originally designed as a pilot pre-/post-analysis of 3 remote Aboriginal schools that requested and…

  17. The Effects of Acculturation on Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics among Hispanic Fourth-Grade Children in Texas Public Schools, 2004-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Catherine; Mirchandani, Gita G.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Chavez, Noel; Handler, Arden; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a national epidemic that disproportionately affects Hispanic children. Evidence suggests that increased acculturation among this population adversely affects diet and other healthy lifestyle characteristics, leading to higher rates of overweight and obesity. Healthy lifestyle characteristics must be understood in…

  18. Evaluation of Lymphocyte Subgroups in Children With Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Cahide; Doğan, Murat; Başarslan, Fatmagül; Yılmaz, Nebi; Yuca, Sevil; Bulan, Keziban; Kaya, Avni; Çaksen, Hüseyin

    2015-09-01

    In this study, lymphocyte subgroups including blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8, CD19, and CD16.56 values were analyzed in children with Down syndrome (DS). The study includes 85 children with DS, followed at Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Yüzüncü Yil University and 64 healthy age-matched control participants. Blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8, CD19, and CD16.56 values were examined in both the groups. Significantly decreased blood CD3, CD4, and CD19 values were found in the study group (P < .05) when compared with the control group. In conclusion, we would like to emphasize that blood CD3, CD4, and CD19 levels were found to be decreased in children with DS. Based on these finding, we think that these decreased lymphocyte subgroups might be responsible for increased susceptibility to infections in children with DS.

  19. Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Carriage among Healthy Children in Cyprus Post Widespread Simultaneous Implementation of PCV10 and PCV13 Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Efstathiou, Elisavet; Alexandrou, Maria; Panayiotou, Loukia; Zachariadou, Chrystalla; Petrou, Panayiotis; Papaevangelou, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the incidence of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage, serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance profile of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal isolates in healthy children aged 6 to 36 months following the implementation of conjugate vaccines. A nasopharyngeal swab was collected from 1105 healthy children following a stratified random sampling between September 2013 and April 2014. Demographics, vaccination status and data on possible risk factors were recorded. Isolates were serotyped and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. The nasopharyngeal carriage rate was 25.3%. Among 1105 children enrolled, 393 had received PCV13 and 685 PCV10. The prevailing isolated serotypes were: 23A (14.3%), 15A (8.9%), 6C (8.6%), 23B (7.5%), 19A (5.4%) and 15B (5%). The proportion of non-vaccine serotypes, PCV10 serotypes, PCV13 additional serotypes (3, 6A, 19A) was 76.8%, 2.1% and 10.4% respectively. Although children, who were fully or partially vaccinated with PCV13, were 63% less likely to be colonized with additional PCV13 serotypes compared to those vaccinated with PCV10, the difference is not significant (95%Cl = 0.14–1.02, p = 0.053). The highest antibiotic non-susceptible rates were found for erythromycin (28.2%) and penicillin (27.9%). The overall multidrug resistance rate was 13.2%, with serotypes 24F (4/6), 15A (14/25) and 19A (6/15) being the main contributors. Carriage rate was similar between children vaccinated with PCV10 or PCV13. The high incidence of 15A serotype which is also multidrug resistant should be underlined. Ongoing surveillance is needed to monitor the dynamics on nasopharyngeal carriage. PMID:27706247

  20. Latino Family Childcare Providers' Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Promotion of Healthy Behaviors among Preschool Children: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Ana C.; Salkeld, Judith A.; Greaney, Mary L.; Sands, Faith D.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The continuing rise of obesity among Latinos is a public health concern with an immediate need for early prevention. Changes in family structures have increased demand and reliance for child care for young children. Latino children are the fastest-growing segment of the child population in the United States, and research shows that Latino families use preschools and day care centers much less than those of other ethnic groups, apparently because of cultural preferences for family-like care. Objectives. Given that many low income Latino children attend family child care homes (FCCHs), there is a need to explore the role that FCCH providers may play in establishing and reinforcing children's early healthful eating and physical activity behaviors and consequently in the prevention of childhood obesity. Design. Using purposive sampling, six focus groups were conducted in Spanish with licensed Latino FCCH providers (n = 44). Data was analyzed to identify recurrent themes. Results. Latino FCCH providers described how they play an influential role in promoting healthful eating and physical activity behaviors of preschool children in their care. They also identified many barriers and challenges in establishing and maintaining healthful nutrition and physical activity behaviors, including high cost of healthy foods, cold weather, and physical environment of FCCH. Conclusions. Latino FCCH providers can have a strong impact in promoting healthful behaviors in low-income, Latino communities. They may be able to effectively deliver interventions targeting low-income, minority families to promote healthful eating and physical activity behaviors and prevent child obesity. PMID:25874120

  1. Evaluation of the "Sunny Days, Healthy Ways" sun safety CD-ROM program for children in grades 4 and 5.

    PubMed

    Buller, D B; Hall, J R; Powers, P J; Ellsworth, R; Beach, B H; Frank, C A; Maloy, J A; Buller, M K

    1999-06-01

    Computer-based sun safety instruction has many advantages that may be attractive to health educators in schools. An educational multimedia computer program on sun safety was produced on CD-ROM for children in grades 4 and 5, which was based on the "Sunny Days, Healthy Ways" sun safety curriculum (SDHW). Its effects on children's sun safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviour were evaluated with 162 students in 8 fourth and fifth grade classes in a randomized pretest-posttest 2 x 2 factorial design. Children interacting with the CD-ROM program showed significant improvements in knowledge (p = 0.007). The effect on knowledge may have indirectly improved children's sun protection (r = 0.201, p = 0.013), even though the CD-ROM program did not directly increase sun protection (p > .05) or improve attitudes (p > .05). The CD-ROM program may be a cost-effective and administratively acceptable sun safety instructional strategy, however, like many short prevention strategies, it will be most successful at conveying information on sun safety to children.

  2. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    (1) Objective: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) Methods: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas—namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang—of China; (3) Results: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children’s physical activity (PA) behavior (p < 0.0001). However, an insignificant correlation is observed between preschool children’s fruits and vegetables (FV) behavior, screen time (ST) behavior, and maternal social cognition; (4) Conclusions: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children’s PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children’s ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children’s ST behavior. PMID:27649215

  3. Development of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in Mexican school-age children.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Castellanos, Claudia; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Morales-Ruán, María Del Carmen; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Salazar-Coronel, Araceli; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    Mexico has the highest and most alarming rates of childhood obesity worldwide. A study conducted in the State of Mexico revealed that one of every three children presents overweight or obesity. The objective of this paper is to provide a step-by-step description of the design and implementation of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity called "Healthy Recess". The educational intervention was designed using the six stages of the Health Communication Process. This methodological model allowed identifying the needs of school-age children on information and participation in activities. In order to improve the strategy, adjustments were made to the print and audiovisual materials as well as to assessment tools. Typography was modified as well as the color of the images in student's workbook and facilitator's; special effects of the videos were increased; the narration of the radio spots was improved and common words and phrases were included. The Health Communication Process is an effective tool for program planners to design interventions aimed at managing prevalent health problems such as overweight and obesity in school-age children.

  4. The ABC’s of Family Mealtimes: Observational Lessons for Promoting Healthy Outcomes for Children with Persistent Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Winter, Marcia A.; Botti, Joanna C.

    2010-01-01

    Shared family mealtimes have been identified as potential promoters of healthy child development. This observational study of 200 family mealtimes examined the relation between child health indicators in a group of children with persistent asthma and three dimensions of mealtime interaction: Action, Behavior Control, and Communication. Mealtimes lasted, on average, 18 minutes with a range of 2 to 47. Percent of time spent in Action and Positive Communication varied by asthma symptom severity and child quality of life as well as family socio-demographic variables (maternal education, child ethnicity, family structure). Stepwise regression analyses revealed that controlling for maternal education and overall general family functioning, positive communication during family mealtimes predicted child quality of life. Significant interactions between demographic variables and behavior control suggested that higher levels of behavior control affected child quality of life in the context of lower maternal education. Guidance is offered for practitioners and policymakers toward promoting healthy family mealtimes as a public health priority. PMID:21291433

  5. Body image of children and adolescents with chronic illness: a meta-analytic comparison with healthy peers.

    PubMed

    Pinquart, M

    2013-03-01

    This meta-analysis integrates results from 330 studies on differences between body image of children and adolescents with and without chronic physical illness. Young people with a chronic illness had a less positive body image than their healthy peers although the average size of differences was small (g=-.30 standard deviation units). A comparison of diseases showed that young people with obesity (g=-.79), cystic fibrosis (g=-.50), scoliosis (g=-.41), asthma (g=-.37), growth hormone deficits (g=-.35), spina bifida (g=-.23), cancer (g=-.20), and diabetes (g=-.17) evaluated their body less positively than their healthy peers. Furthermore, levels of body dissatisfaction varied by age at onset of the disease, method for assessing body image, ethnicity, year of publication, and comparison group. Recommendations are stated for reducing effects of chronic illness on the body image of people with chronic illness.

  6. The APPLE Project: An Investigation of the Barriers and Promoters of Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in New Zealand Children Aged 5-12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williden, Micalla; Taylor, Rachael W; McAuley, Kirsten A; Simpson, Jean C; Oakley, Maggie; Mann, Jim I

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To use the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework to determine the barriers and promoters of healthy eating and physical activity in children aged 5-12 years, as a basis for the development of a pilot community-based programme for preventing obesity in children (APPLE project: A Pilot Programme for Lifestyle…

  7. Health-related quality of life of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder versus children with diabetes and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Coghill, David; Hodgkins, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is reported to be similar to that of other mental health and physical disorders. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that children with ADHD and children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) would have significantly worse HRQoL compared with healthy children, and that better clinical status in ADHD and T1DM would be associated with better HRQoL. Children were recruited from three outpatient services in Scotland. Responses to two frequently used validated HRQoL instruments, the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and Child Health and Illness Profile-child edition (CHIP-CE), were obtained from parents/carers and children (6-16 years) with/without ADHD or T1DM. Child and parent/carer-completed HRQoL measurements were evaluated for 213 children with ADHD, 58 children with T1DM and 117 healthy children (control group). Significantly lower self and parent/carer ratings were observed across most PedsQL (P < 0.001) and CHIP-CE (P < 0.05) domains (indicating reduced HRQoL) for the ADHD group compared with the T1DM and control groups. Parent/carer and child ratings were significantly correlated for both measures of HRQoL (PedsQL total score: P < 0.001; CHIP-CE all domains: P < 0.001), but only with low-to-moderate strength. Correlation between ADHD severity and HRQoL was significant with both PedsQL and CHIP-CE for all parent/carer (P < 0.01) and most child (P < 0.05) ratings; more ADHD symptoms were associated with poorer HRQoL. These data demonstrate that ADHD has a significant impact on HRQoL (as observed in both parent/carer and child ratings), which seems to be greater than that for children with T1DM.

  8. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  9. Right Anterior Cingulate Cortical Thickness and Bilateral Striatal Volume Correlate with CBCL Aggressive Behavior Scores in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Simon; Hudziak, James J; Botteron, Kelly N; Ganjavi, Hooman; Lepage, Claude; Collins, D Louis; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Evans, Alan C; Karama, Sherif

    2011-01-01

    Background The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and basal ganglia have been implicated in pathological aggression. This study aimed at identifying neuroanatomical correlates of impulsive aggression in healthy children. Methods Data from 193 representative 6–18 year-old healthy children were obtained from the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development after a blinded quality control (1). Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes were obtained with automated software. Aggression levels were measured with the Aggressive Behavior scale (AGG) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). AGG scores were regressed against cortical thickness and basal ganglia volumes using first and second-order linear models while controlling for age, gender, scanner site and total brain volume. ‘Gender by AGG’ interactions were analyzed. Results There were positive associations between bilateral striatal volumes and AGG scores (right: r=0.238, p=0.001; left: r=0.188, p=0.01). A significant association was found with right ACC and subgenual ACC cortical thickness in a second-order linear model (p<0.05, corrected). High AGG scores were associated with a relatively thin right ACC cortex. An ‘AGG by gender’ interaction trend was found in bilateral OFC and ACC associations with AGG scores. Conclusion This study shows the existence of relationships between impulsive aggression in healthy children and the structure of the striatum and right ACC. It also suggests the existence of gender specific patterns of association in OFC/ACC grey matter. These results may guide research on oppositional-defiant and conduct disorders. PMID:21531391

  10. Decreased Regional Cortical Thickness and Thinning Rate Are Associated with Inattention Symptoms in Healthy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducharme, Simon; Hudziak, James J.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Karama, Sherif; Evans, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have delayed cortical maturation, evidenced by regionally specific slower cortical thinning. However, the relationship between cortical maturation and attention capacities in typically developing children is unknown. This study examines cortical thickness correlates of…

  11. Growing Up Healthy: What Local Governments Can Do to Support Young Children and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlakian, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    The first five years of life are a period of profound growth and change as children begin to speak, think, reason, and feel. Brain research has found that both children's experiences and their relationships with others influence this early development in important and lasting ways. For local governments, the first five years represent a critical…

  12. The Role of "Kilimani Sesame" in the Healthy Development of Tanzanian Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borzekowski, Dina L. G.; Macha, Jacob E.

    2010-01-01

    "Kilimani Sesame," a media intervention that employs print, radio, and television, was developed to entertain and educate preschool children in Tanzania. This study examined the effects of a six-week intervention delivering "Kilimani Sesame" material to 223 children in the rural district of Kisarawe and the city of Dar es…

  13. [Functional state of the cardiorespiratory system in healthy children at rest and during the bicycle ergometry test].

    PubMed

    Kassirskiĭ, G I; Zotova, L M; Tatarinova, T N

    1990-01-01

    Altogether 25 healthy untrained children aged 9 to 12 years were examined. There were 11 boys and 14 girls. The following parameters were measured at rest and during bicycle ergometry: the heart rate, oxygen consumption, pulmonary ventilation, metabolic units, the ratio of oxygen consumption increment, oxygen pulse, stroke and cardiac indices, index of the Q-Z interval and work fitness. The ECG was recorded as well. During exercise, adequate reaction of the cardiorespiratory system was characterized by linear growth of the heart rate, cardiac index and oxygen consumption together with a proportional shortening of the Q-Z interval. At all levels of exercise the girls manifested more pronounced chronotropic stimulation, leading to the attainment of the submaximal heart rate (1.5 Watt/kg). On chronotropic delay overtension of inotropic function was demonstrable in children exposed to high loads, which was accompanied by restriction of the cardiac index growth.

  14. Inter -and intraobserver variation of ultrasonographic cartilage thickness assessments in small and large joints in healthy children

    PubMed Central

    Spannow, Anne Helene; Pfeiffer-Jensen, Mogens; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Stenbøg, Elisabeth; Herlin, Troels

    2009-01-01

    Background There is an increasing interest among pediatric rheumatologist for using ultrasonography (US) in the daily clinical examination of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Loss of joint cartilage may be an early feature of destructive disease in JIA. However, US still needs validation before it can be used as a diagnostic bedside tool in a pediatric setting. This study aims to assess the inter- and intraobserver reliability of US measurements of cartilage thickness in the joints of healthy children. Methods 740 joints of 74 healthy Caucasian children (27 girls/47 boys), aged 11.3 (7.11 – 16) years were examined with bilateral US in 5 preselected joints to assess the interobserver variability. In 17 of these children (6 girls/11 boys), aged 10.1(7.11–11.1) years, 170 joints was examined in an intraobserver sub study, with a 2 week interval between the first and second examination. Results In this study we found a good inter- and intraobserver agreement expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV) less than 10% in the knee (CV = 9.5%interobserver and 5.9%intraobservserI, 9.3%intraobserverII respectively for the two intraobserver measurements) and fairly good for the MCP joints (CV = 11.9%interobserver, 12.9%intraobserverI and 11.9%intraobsevrerII). In the ankle and PIP joints the inter- and intraobserver agreement was within an acceptable limit (CV<20%) but not for the wrist joint (CV>26%). We found no difference in cartilage thickness between the left and right extremity in the investigated joints. Conclusion We found a good inter -and intraobserver agreement when measuring cartilage thickness with US. The inter- and intraobserver variation seemed not to be related to joint size. These findings suggest that positioning of the joint and the transducer is of major importance for reproducible US measurements. We found no difference in joint cartilage thickness between the left and right extremity in any of the examined joint of the healthy

  15. Immunogenicity and safety of a pediatric dose of a virosomal hepatitis A vaccine in healthy children in India

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Hemat; Kumavat, Vandana; Singh, Tejinder; Versteilen, Amanda; Sarnecki, Michal

    2014-01-01

    As India is transitioning from high to intermediate hepatitis A endemicity, the need for hepatitis A vaccination programs increases. This study investigated the immunogenicity and safety of a virosomal hepatitis A vaccine (HAVpur Junior) compared with an aluminum-adsorbed hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix 720 Junior) in Indian children. Healthy children aged 18–47 months, stratified by age, were randomized to either HAVpur Junior or Havrix 720 Junior. The first dose of vaccine was administered on Day 1 and the second (booster) dose 6 months later. Antibodies against hepatitis A virus (HAV) were measured using a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. The primary objective assessed non-inferiority of HAVpur Junior to Havrix 720 Junior in terms of seroprotection rates (≥ 10 mIU/mL anti-HAV antibodies) at 1 month after the first vaccination. Non-inferiority was demonstrated if the lower limit of the 90% confidence interval of the group difference was greater than –10%. Local and systemic adverse events were recorded. The seroprotection rate at 1 month was 95.9% in the HAVpur Junior group and 96.6% in the Havrix 720 Junior group. As the lower limit of the 90% confidence interval of the group difference was greater than –10% (–4.7), non-inferiority of HAVpur Junior to Havrix 720 Junior was established. The overall incidence of adverse events (solicited and unsolicited) after each vaccination was similar in both groups. In conclusion, the aluminum-free virosomal vaccine HAVpur Junior induced a similar immune response to Havrix 720 Junior in healthy Indian children aged 18 to 47 months. Both vaccines were well tolerated. The study shows that the low-dose virosomal HAV vaccine is consistently efficacious and well tolerated in children of all age groups and is suitable for inclusion into Indian childhood vaccination schedules. PMID:25424821

  16. Advances in Pediatric Reference Intervals for Biochemical Markers: Establishment of the Caliper Database in Healthy Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Karbasy, Kimiya; Ariadne, Petra; Gaglione, Stephanie; Nieuwesteeg, Michelle; Adeli, Khosrow

    2015-01-01

    Summary Clinical laboratory reference intervals provide valuable information to medical practitioners in their interpretation of quantitative laboratory test results, and therefore are critical in the assessment of patient health and in clinical decision-making. The reference interval serves as a health-associated benchmark with which to compare an individual test result. Unfortunately, critical gaps currently exist in accurate and up-to-date pediatric reference intervals for accurate interpretation of laboratory tests performed in children and adolescents. These critical gaps in the available laboratory reference intervals have the clear potential of contributing to erroneous diagnosis or misdiagnosis of many diseases. To address these important gaps, several initiatives have begun internationally by a number of bodies including the KiGGS initiative in Germany, the Aussie Normals in Australia, the AACC-National Children Study in USA, the NORICHILD Initiative in Scandinavia, and the CALIPER study in Canada. In the present article, we will review the gaps in pediatric reference intervals, challenges in establishing pediatric norms in healthy children and adolescents, and the major contributions of the CALIPER program to closing the gaps in this crucial area of pediatric laboratory medicine. We will also discuss the recently published CALIPER reference interval database (www.caliperdatabase.com) developed to provide comprehensive age and gender specific pediatric reference intervals for a larger number of biochemical markers, based on a large and diverse healthy children cohort. The CALIPER database is based on a multiethnic population examining the influence of ethnicity on laboratory reference intervals. Thus the database has proved to be of global benefit and is being adopted by hospital laboratories worldwide. PMID:28356820

  17. Reference Values for the Six-Minute Walk Test in Healthy Children and Adolescents: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cacau, Lucas de Assis Pereira; de Santana-Filho, Valter Joviniano; Maynard, Luana G.; Gomes Neto, Mansueto; Fernandes, Marcelo; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study is to compare the available reference values and the six-minute walk test equations in healthy children/adolescents. Our systematic review was planned and performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. We included all studies that established reference values for the six-minute walk test in healthy children/adolescents. Methods To perform this review, a research was performed in PubMed, EMBASE (via SCOPUS) and Cochrane (LILACS), Bibliographic Index Spanish in Health Sciences, Organization Collection Pan-American Health Organization, Publications of the World Health Organization and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) via Virtual Health Library until June 2015 without language restriction. Results The initial research identified 276 abstracts. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria and were fully reviewed and approved by both reviewers. None of the selected studies presented sample size calculation. Most of the studies recruited children and adolescents from school. Six studies reported the use of random samples. Most studies used a corridor of 30 meters. All studies followed the American Thoracic Society guidelines to perform the six-minute walk test. The walked distance ranged 159 meters among the studies. Of the 12 included studies, 7 (58%) reported descriptive data and 6 (50%) established reference equation for the walked distance in the six-minute walk test. Conclusion The reference value for the six-minute walk test in children and adolescents ranged substantially from studies in different countries. A reference equation was not provided in all studies, but the ones available took into account well established variables in the context of exercise performance, such as height, heart rate, age and weight. Countries that did not established reference values for the six-minute walk test should be encouraged to do because it would help their clinicians and researchers have a more precise interpretation of the test

  18. Immunogenicity and safety of a pediatric dose of a virosomal hepatitis A vaccine in healthy children in India.

    PubMed

    Jain, Hemat; Kumavat, Vandana; Singh, Tejinder; Versteilen, Amanda; Sarnecki, Michal

    2014-01-01

    As India is transitioning from high to intermediate hepatitis A endemicity, the need for hepatitis A vaccination programs increases. This study investigated the immunogenicity and safety of a virosomal hepatitis A vaccine (HAVpur Junior) compared with an aluminum-adsorbed hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix 720 Junior) in Indian children. Healthy children aged 18-47 months, stratified by age, were randomized to either HAVpur Junior or Havrix 720 Junior. The first dose of vaccine was administered on Day 1 and the second (booster) dose 6 months later. Antibodies against hepatitis A virus (HAV) were measured using a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. The primary objective assessed non-inferiority of HAVpur Junior to Havrix 720 Junior in terms of seroprotection rates (≥ 10 mIU/mL anti-HAV antibodies) at 1 month after the first vaccination. Non-inferiority was demonstrated if the lower limit of the 90% confidence interval of the group difference was greater than -10%. Local and systemic adverse events were recorded. The seroprotection rate at 1 month was 95.9% in the HAVpur Junior group and 96.6% in the Havrix 720 Junior group. As the lower limit of the 90% confidence interval of the group difference was greater than -10% (-4.7), non-inferiority of HAVpur Junior to Havrix 720 Junior was established. The overall incidence of adverse events (solicited and unsolicited) after each vaccination was similar in both groups. In conclusion, the aluminum-free virosomal vaccine HAVpur Junior induced a similar immune response to Havrix 720 Junior in healthy Indian children aged 18 to 47 months. Both vaccines were well tolerated. The study shows that the low-dose virosomal HAV vaccine is consistently efficacious and well tolerated in children of all age groups and is suitable for inclusion into Indian childhood vaccination schedules.

  19. Do thin, overweight and obese children have poorer development than their healthy-weight peers at the start of school? Findings from a South Australian data linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Anna; Scalzi, Daniel; Lynch, John; Smithers, Lisa G.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the holistic development of children who are not healthy-weight when they start school, despite one fifth of preschool-aged children in high income countries being overweight or obese. Further to this, there is a paucity of research examining low body mass index (BMI) in contemporary high-income populations, although evidence from the developing world demonstrates a range of negative consequences in childhood and beyond. We investigated the development of 4–6 year old children who were thin, healthy-weight, overweight, or obese (as defined by BMI z-scores) across the five domains of the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC): Physical Health and Wellbeing, Social Competence, Emotional Maturity, Language and Cognitive Skills, and Communication Skills and General Knowledge. We used a linked dataset of South Australian routinely collected data, which included the AEDC, school enrollment data, and perinatal records (n = 7533). We found that the risk of developmental vulnerability among children who were thin did not differ from healthy-weight children, after adjusting for a range of perinatal and socio-economic characteristics. On the whole, overweight children also had similar outcomes as their healthy-weight peers, though they may have better Language and Cognitive skills (adjusted Risk Ratio [aRR] = 0.73 [95% CI 0.50–1.05]). Obese children were more likely to be vulnerable on the Physical Health and Wellbeing (2.20 [1.69, 2.87]) and Social Competence (1.31 [0.94, 1.83]) domains, and to be vulnerable on one or more domains (1.45 [1.18, 1.78]). We conclude that children who are obese in the first year of school may already be exhibiting some developmental vulnerabilities (relative to their healthy-weight peers), lending further support for strategies to promote healthy development of preschoolers. PMID:27158187

  20. The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bond: focus on children in poverty.

    PubMed

    Milteer, Regina M; Ginsburg, Kenneth R

    2012-01-01

    Play is essential to the social, emotional, cognitive, and physical well-being of children beginning in early childhood. It is a natural tool for children to develop resiliency as they learn to cooperate, overcome challenges, and negotiate with others. Play also allows children to be creative. It provides time for parents to be fully engaged with their children, to bond with their children, and to see the world from the perspective of their child. However, children who live in poverty often face socioeconomic obstacles that impede their rights to have playtime, thus affecting their healthy social-emotional development. For children who are underresourced to reach their highest potential, it is essential that parents, educators, and pediatricians recognize the importance of lifelong benefits that children gain from play.

  1. 76 FR 35452 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... initiatives; community characteristics (e.g., school environment); measurements of children's physical... Communities Study may influence the future development and funding of policies and programs to reduce... the development of future research initiatives targeting childhood obesity. Frequency of...

  2. The association between sleep spindles and IQ in healthy school-age children.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Reut; Wise, Merrill S; Frenette, Sonia; Knäauper, Bärbel; Boom, Alice; Fontil, Laura; Carrier, Julie

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that sleep is associated with IQ measures in children, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. An association between sleep spindles and IQ has been found in adults, but only two previous studies have explored this topic in children. The goal of this study was to examine whether sleep spindle frequency, amplitude, duration and/or density were associated with performance on the perceptual reasoning, verbal comprehension, working memory, and processing speed subscales of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). We recruited 29 typically developing children 7-11 years of age. We used portable polysomnography to document sleep architecture in the natural home environment and evaluated IQ. We found that lower sleep spindle frequency was associated with better performance on the perceptual reasoning and working memory WISC-IV scales, but that sleep spindle amplitude, duration and density were not associated with performance on the IQ test.

  3. The stress-reducing effects of art in pediatric health care: art preferences of healthy children and hospitalized children.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Sarajane L; Ulrich, Roger S; Shepley, Mardelle M; Varni, James W; Sherman, Sandra

    2008-09-01

    Art is assumed to possess therapeutic benefits of healing for children, as part of patient-focused design in health care. Since the psychological and physiological well-being of children in health care settings is extremely important in contributing to the healing process, it is vitally important to identify what type of art supports stress reduction. Based on adult studies, nature art was anticipated to be the most preferred and to have stress-reducing effects on pediatric patients. Nature art refers to art images dominated by natural vegetation, flowers or water. The objective of this study was to investigate what type of art image children prefer, and what type of art image has potentially stress-reducing effects on children in hospitals. This study used a three-phase, multi-method approach with children aged 5-17 years: a focus group study (129 participants), a randomized study (48 participants), and a quasi-experimental study design (48 participants). Findings were evaluated from three phases.

  4. Healthy Hands: Use of alcohol gel as an adjunct to handwashing in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Morton, Jennifer L; Schultz, Alyce A

    2004-06-01

    Elementary school-age children are particularly vulnerable to infections. While handwashing is the best method of preventing infections, many elementary schools are housed in buildings that have barriers to effective hand hygiene. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an alcohol gel as an adjunct to handwashing in reducing absenteeism secondary to infectious illness. Two-hundred and fifty-three elementary school children were randomized by classroom into an experimental or control group. With a crossover design, all children participated in both groups, with a one-week washout period between phases. A 45-minute "Germ Unit" was taught to all children as they started the experimental phase and a standard unit on hand hygiene was taught as they started the control phase. Sixty-nine children were absent due to illness while in the control group. Thirty-nine children became ill while in the experimental group. Alcohol gel as an adjunct to handwashing was shown to be effective in reducing absenteeism due to infectious illness by 43%.

  5. Total body fat content versus BMI in 4-year-old healthy Swedish children.

    PubMed

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P < 0.001) but weak (r = 0.39) correlation between BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group.

  6. Why are some vulnerable children healthy and others stunted? A case study of vulnerability and resilience among very young children in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, K.; Nagle, N.

    2014-12-01

    Stunting, when children are shorter than average for their age, poses serious problems for short- and long-term development of individuals, families and communities. Stunting is linked to increase risk or illness or death, reduced educational attainment, reduced earnings and increases the likelihood (for girls) that the next generation of children will be stunted. Stunting occurs as a result of a culmination of inadequate food/calories, experiences with frequent illness, poor care and low weight at birth. Because almost 40% of children under 5 in the developing world suffer from stunting, understanding the community, household and individual components that lead to stunting are vital as these countries aim to improve children's health and development. We focus this research on childhood stunting in the neighboring countries of Mali and Burkina Faso, two of the poorest and least developed countries in the world. The populations of both countries are heavily reliant on subsistence farming and the share of children under 5 who are stunted hovers around 30%. In this research we aim to explore child stunting with attention to biology, behavior and environment. Specifically we aim to determine why children in some food insecure communities are stunted while others in the same community are healthy and, as an extension, why some low birth weight babies grow into healthy children and others are stunted. Because of the significance of food and nutrition on stunting outcomes, and because no micro-level estimates of food production exist, we use high resolution remotely sensed imagery (~1m) combined with coarser resolution landscape data (rainfall, slope, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to estimate community level food production for each year of the child's life. We construct a multi-level analysis through the linking of food production data to other community features gathered from Demographic and Health Survey and smaller scale community surveys gathered by USAID

  7. Neither Good nor Useful: Looking Ad Vivum in Children's Assessments of Fat and Healthy Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Fat bodies are not, fait accompli, bad. Yet in our international research, we found overwhelmingly that fat functioned as a marker to indicate health or lack of health. A body with fat was simply and conclusively unhealthy. This article reports on how this unbalanced view of fat was tied to assessments of healthy bodies that were achieved by…

  8. Evaluation of a 2-Year Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Intervention in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haerens, Leen; Deforche, Benedicte; Maes, Lea; Cardon, Greet; Stevens, Veerle; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a middle school physical activity and healthy eating intervention, including an environmental and computer-tailored component, and to investigate the effects of parental involvement. A random sample of 15 schools with seventh and eight graders was randomly assigned to one of three…

  9. EEG frontal asymmetry related to pleasantness of music perception in healthy children and cochlear implanted users.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, G; Maglione, A G; Scorpecci, A; Malerba, P; Marsella, P; Di Francesco, G; Vitiello, S; Colosimo, A; Babiloni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Interestingly, the international debate about the quality of music fruition for cochlear implanted users does not take into account the hypothesis that bilateral users could perceive music in a more pleasant way with respect to monolateral users. In this scenario, the aim of the present study was to investigate if cerebral signs of pleasantness during music perception in healthy child are similar to those observed in monolateral and in bilateral cochlear implanted users. In fact, previous observations in literature on healthy subjects have indicated that variations of the frontal EEG alpha activity are correlated with the perceived pleasantness of the sensory stimulation received (approach-withdrawal theory). In particular, here we described differences between cortical activities estimated in the alpha frequency band for a healthy child and in patients having a monolateral or a bilateral cochlear implant during the fruition of a musical cartoon. The results of the present analysis showed that the alpha EEG asymmetry patterns observed in a healthy child and that of a bilateral cochlear implanted patient are congruent with the approach-withdrawal theory. Conversely, the scalp topographic distribution of EEG power spectra in the alpha band resulting from the monolateral cochlear user presents a different EEG pattern from the normal and bilateral implanted patients. Such differences could be explained at the light of the approach-withdrawal theory. In fact, the present findings support the hypothesis that a monolateral cochlear implanted user could perceive the music in a less pleasant way when compared to a healthy subject or to a bilateral cochlear user.

  10. Making tortillas without lard: Latino parents' perspectives on healthy eating, physical activity, and weight-management strategies for overweight Latino children.

    PubMed

    Flores, Glenn; Maldonado, Julio; Durán, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Latinos are among the most overweight racial/ethnic groups of US children. The study aim was to identify parents' perspectives on healthy eating, physical activity, and weight-management strategies for overweight Latino children. Four focus groups were conducted of Mexican immigrant, Mexican-American, Puerto Rican, and other Latino families with overweight children. Parents were asked 33 questions and sampled four healthy substitutes for traditional Latino foods, including multigrain enchiladas and brown rice. Nineteen parents were interviewed in the focus groups. The children?s median body mass index was 23; 60% had a body mass index ?95th percentile. Parents identified 22 themes regarding the most important things parents can do to help overweight children lose weight, including encouragement, not making the child feel left out, the whole family eating healthy, and the parent setting a good example. Parents identified 17 themes regarding the most important things overweight children can do to help themselves lose weight, including eating healthier, limiting portion size and second helpings, drinking more water, increased physical activity, decreased screen time, children educating themselves at school, asking parents for help, and participating in interventions that include the whole family. Challenges to getting kids to exercise included expense, time constraints, and neighborhood safety. Parents were open to integrating healthy substitutes into traditional Latino meals/snacks, and found them palatable. One mother stated, "We have to keep our traditional foods, but realize that we can make them more nutritious." Parents reported their children would accept high-fiber foods and low-fat dairy. In designing effective weight-management interventions for overweight Latino children, the study findings may prove useful in identifying healthy, well-accepted foods and beverages; agreeable physical activities; suitable targets for reducing inactivity; and efficacious

  11. Prevalence of Fracture in Healthy Iranian Children Aged 9–18 Years and Associated Risk Factors; A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Marjan; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Kharmandar, Alireza; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholamhossein; Bakhshayeshkaram, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of fractures and associated risk factors in healthy Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: In this cross sectional population based study, 478 healthy Iranian children and adolescents aged 9–18 years old participated. Baseline data and bone mineral content and density have been determined. One questionnaire was completed for all individuals including previous history of fracture, its location, and level of trauma. Albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and vitamin D levels were measured. Results: We found a prevalence of 12.9% for fracture. (34.5% for girls and 65.5% for boys); about 71% suffered long bone fracture with distal forearm as the most common site. Totally 58% of the boys and 54% of the girls had fracture with low-energy trauma. The fracture group had lower bone mineral apparent density in the lumbar spine (0.19±0.04 vs. 0.20±0.03, p=0.04), lower serum albumin (4.6±0.5 vs 4.8±0.4, p=0.02), and higher serum alkaline phosphatase level (446±174 vs. 361±188, p=0.02) compared with non-fracture subjects. By logistic regression analysis, we found a significant association for sex, and bone mineral content of the lumbar spine with fracture (p=0.003, p=0.039). Conclusion: Compared to other studies, our subjects had lower rate of fracture. We found an association between low bone density and fracture in children and adolescents. This finding has important implications for public health. Further research may contribute to recognition of preventive measures. PMID:28246621

  12. Serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 Levels in Healthy Children Between 0 and 6 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Bilgin; Özbek, M. Nuri; Mungan, Neslihan Önenli; Darendeliler, Feyza; Budan, Bahar; Bideci, Aysun; Çetinkaya, Ergün; Berberoğlu, Merih; Evliyaoğlu, Olcay; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Arslanoğlu, İlknur; Darcan, Şükran; Bundak, Ruveyda; Ercan, Olcay

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Along with growth hormone (GH) levels, measurements of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are used in the diagnosis of GH deficiency and in monitoring the efficacy and safety of long-term GH treatment. The purpose of the present study was to establish reference values for serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in healthy Turkish children less than 6 years of age. Methods: This study was designed as a multicenter project. Five hundred sixty-seven healthy children younger than 6 years of age from different geographical regions of Turkey, with weight and height values between the 10th and 90th percentiles according to the national standards were included in the study. In addition to anthropometric parameters, serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were measured in all subjects. Results: Although not statistically significant, the serum IGF-1 levels in infants at age 6 months were lower than those in infants at age 3 months. The IGF-1 levels showed a slow increase with age. Serum IGF-1 levels were lower in girls as compared to boys only at age 6 months. No correlation was found between either serum IGFBP-3 levels and body mass index (BMI) or serum IGFBP-3 and weight and height standard deviation scores (SDS). A weak correlation was observed between serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 concentrations. Conclusions: The age- and gender-specific reference values for serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 reported in this study will aid in the diagnosis of GH deficiency and in the monitoring of children receiving GH treatment. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21750637

  13. Cytogenetic status of healthy children assessed with the alkaline comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay.

    PubMed

    Gajski, Goran; Gerić, Marko; Oreščanin, Višnja; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2013-01-20

    In the present study the alkaline comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN Cyt) assay were used to evaluate the baseline frequency of cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of 50 healthy children from the general population in Croatia (age, 11.62±1.81 years). Mean values of tail length, tail intensity and tail moment, as comet assay parameters, were 12.92±0.10, 0.73±0.06 and 0.08±0.01, respectively. The mean frequency of micronuclei (MN) for all subjects was 2.32±0.28 per 1000 bi-nucleated cells, while the mean frequency of nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) was 1.72±0.24 and of nuclear buds (NBUDs) 1.44±0.19. The mean nuclear division index (NDI) was 1.70±0.05. When comet-assay parameters were considered, higher mean values for all three were found for the female population. According to the Mann-Whitney U test applied on the results of the comet assay, the only statistically significant difference between the male and female populations was found for tail length. Similar to the results obtained by the comet assay, girls showed higher mean values of all three measured parameters of the CBMN Cyt assay. This difference was statistically significant for total number of NPBs only. In the case of the NDI, a higher mean value was also obtained in girls, but this difference was not statistically significant. The results obtained present background data that could be considered as normal values for healthy children living in urban areas, and can later on serve as baseline values for further toxicological monitoring. Additionally, the usefulness of both techniques in measuring cytogenetic damage during bio-monitoring of children is confirmed.

  14. Six-minute walk test in children and adolescents with renal diseases: tolerance, reproducibility and comparison with healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Flávia Tieme; Koch, Vera Herminia Kalika; Juliani, Regina Celia Turola Passos; Cunha, Maristela Trevisan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate exercise tolerance and the reproducibility of the six-minute walk test in Brazilian children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease and to compare their functional exercise capacities with reference values for healthy children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed the use of the six-minute walk test in children and adolescents aged 6-16 with stage V chronic kidney disease. For statistical analysis of exercise tolerance, including examinations of correlations and comparisons with reference values, the longest walked distances were considered. The reproducibility of the six-minute walk test was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS: A total of 38 patients (14 females and 24 males) were evaluated, including 5 on peritoneal dialysis, 12 on hemodialysis and 21 who had undergone renal transplantation, with a median age of 11.2 years (6.5-16). The median walked distance was 538.5 meters (413-685) and the six-minute walk test was found to be reproducible. The walked distance was significantly correlated with age (r=0.66), weight (r=0.76), height (r=0.82), the height Z score (r=0.41), hemoglobin (r=0.46), hematocrit (r=0.47) and post-test systolic blood pressure (r=0.39). The chronic kidney disease patients predicted walked distance was 84.1% of the reference value according to age, 90.6% according to age-corrected height and 87.4% according to a predictive equation. CONCLUSIONS: The stage V chronic kidney disease patients had a significantly decreased functional exercise capacity, as measured by the six-minute walk test, compared with the healthy pediatric reference values. In addition, the six-minute walk test was shown to be well tolerated, reliable and applicable as a low-cost tool to monitor functional exercise capacity in patients with renal disease. PMID:26872080

  15. Validation of the Actical Accelerometer in Multiethnic Preschoolers: The Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program

    PubMed Central

    Ettienne, Reynolette; Li, Fenfang; Su, Yuhua; McGlone, Katalina; Luick, Bret; Tachibana, Alvin; Carran, Christina; Mercado, Jobel; Novotny, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the Actical accelerometer for measuring physical activity (PA) in preschool children of mixed ethnicity, compared with direct observation via a modified System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) protocol and proxy parental reports (PA Logs). Fifty children in Hawai‘i wore wrist-mounted accelerometers for two 7-day periods with a washout period between each week. Thirty children were concurrently observed using SOFIT. Parents completed PA Logs for three days. Reliability and validity were measured by intra-class correlation coefficient and proportions of agreement concurrently. There was slight agreement (proportion of agreement: 82%; weighted Kappa=.17, P <.001) between the accelerometer and SOFIT as well as between the accelerometer and the PA Logs (proportions of agreement: 40%; weighted Kappa=0.15, P <.001). PA logs underestimated the PA levels of the children, while the Actical was found to be valid and reliable for estimating PA levels of multiethnic, mixed ethnicity preschoolers. These findings suggest that accelerometers can be objective, valid, and accurate physical activity assessment tools compared to conventional PA logs and subjective reports of activity for preschool children of mixed ethnicity. PMID:27099804

  16. Healthy Children 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives Related to Mothers, Infants, Children, Adolescents, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This document is a compendium of approximately 170 national health promotion and disease prevention objectives affecting mothers, infants, children, adolescents, and youth. It offers a vision characterized by reductions of preventable death and disability, enhanced quality of life, and reduced disparities in the health status of the populations in…

  17. Establishing Preventive Services. Healthy Children 2010. Issues in Children's and Families' Lives, Vol. 9. The John & Kelly Hartman Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissberg, Roger P., Ed.; Gullotta, Thomas P., Ed.; Hampton, Robert L., Ed.; Ryan, Bruce A., Ed.; Adams, Gerald R., Ed.

    Young people are facing greater risks to their current and future health and social development, as shown by involvement of younger and younger children in risk-taking behaviors. This volume emphasizes developmentally and contextually appropriate prevention service delivery models and identifies state-of-the-art, empirically based strategies to…

  18. Remission of Depression in Parents: Links to Healthy Functioning in their Children

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Judy; Ciesla, Jeff A.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Diamond, Guy; Schloredt, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether improvement in parents’ depression was linked with changes in their children’s depressive symptoms and functioning. Participants were 223 parents and children ranging in age from 7–17 years old (Mean=12.13, SD=2.31); 126 parents were in treatment for depression and 97 parents were nondepressed. Children were evaluated six times over two years. Changes in parents’ depressive symptoms predicted changes in children’s depressive symptoms over and above the effect of time; children’s symptoms significantly predicted parents’ symptoms. Trajectories of children’s depressive symptoms differed significantly for children of remitted versus nonremitted depressed parents, and these differences were significantly predicted by their parents’ level of depression. The relation between parents’ and children’s depressive symptoms was partially mediated by parental acceptance. PMID:21291439

  19. Healthy casetas: A potential strategy to improve the food environment in low-income schools to reduce obesity in children in Guatemala City.

    PubMed

    Pehlke, Elisa L; Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries have undergone transitions driven by globalization and development, accelerating increases in prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Schools have been identified as effective settings for interventions that target children's dietary behaviors. In Guatemala, public schools commonly have food kiosks (Casetas) that sell products to children. From July through October 2013, observations during recess, in-depth interviews with school principals (n = 4) and caseta vendors (n = 4), and focus groups with children (n = 48) were conducted. This article explores products available to children at casetas. Factors that affect what casetas offer include regulations and enforcement, vendor investment and earnings, vendor resources, product demand, pricing, and children's preferences. These factors influence the products that are available and children's tendency to purchase them. Potential strategies for improvement include healthy food preparation, price manipulation and promotions, raffles and games to encourage healthier choices, and policy to push toward development of healthier products.

  20. How the Arts Help Children to Create Healthy Social Scripts: Exploring the Perceptions of Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouillette, Liane

    2010-01-01

    Although there is widespread recognition that arts experiences enhance children's social-emotional development, the mechanisms through which this process takes place are little understood. This article provides insight into the role of the arts in development, through a review of recent research on child development and interviews with inner-city…

  1. 78 FR 13350 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...), the National Institutes of Health has submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request... 264 communities and over 21,000 elementary and middle school children and their parents will be part... appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms...

  2. Can a Brief Educational Intervention Improve Parents' Knowledge of Healthy Children's Sleep? A Pilot-Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Caroline H. D.; Owens, Judith A.; Pham, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Insufficient and poor quality sleep is prevalent in children, and is a significant public health concern due to the negative consequences for health. Certain sleep-related behaviours are associated with improved sleep, and sleep behaviours are amenable to efforts targeted towards behaviour change. Parental educational interventions have…

  3. Healthy Hands: Use of Alcohol Gel as an Adjunct to Handwashing in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Jennifer L.; Schultz, Alyce A.

    2004-01-01

    Elementary school-age children are particularly vulnerable to infections. While handwashing is the best method of preventing infections, many elementary schools are housed in buildings that have barriers to effective hand hygiene. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an alcohol gel as an adjunct to handwashing in…

  4. Helping Your Child Be Healthy and Fit. With Activities for Children Aged 4 through 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzman, Carol S.; And Others

    This amply illustrated booklet for parents presents activities that help children understand their emotions and build self-esteem, eat the right foods, prevent disease, and build strong bodies. Each of the 18 activities presented includes a list of what supplies are needed, a description of the activity, and the goals of the specific activity. The…

  5. Children's Selection of Fruit and Vegetables in a "Dream versus Healthy" Lunch-Box Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Parker, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Internationally, it is well established that the behaviour, performance, and achievement of schoolchildren is directly linked to the nutritional status of overall diet -- including the contents of their school lunch-boxes. In a previous survey study by the lead authors, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was…

  6. Arkansas Safe Kids Are No Accident! Healthy Children Handbook. (Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Health, Little Rock.

    This handbook gives Arkansas child care providers current information on child and caregiver health, child illness, and development. The 16 chapters are: (1) "Child Growth and Development," on typical development from birth through 6 years; (2) "Children's Health Histories, Physical Exams and Immunizations," including…

  7. Replication: A "Model" Approach to the Healthy Development of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieg, Iris; Lewis, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The authors, directors of the Chicago-based Pritzker Early Childhood Foundation, advocate "replication," the adaptation of a successful model program or practice to new locations or to new populations. Studies have shown that successful replications of early childhood programs that help at-risk children and their families can have long-term,…

  8. Refinement of Speech Breathing in Healthy 4- to 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boliek, Carol A.; Hixon, Thomas J.; Watson, Peter J.; Jones, Patricia B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to offer a better understanding of the development of neuromotor control for speech breathing and provide a normative data set that can serve as a useful standard for clinical evaluation and management of young children with speech disorders involving the breathing subsystem. Method: Speech breathing was…

  9. [Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Detection of carriers among hospitalized children and healthy children from the community].

    PubMed

    Hernández Vadell, Ibis Trinidad; Toraño Peraza, Gilda T; González, Mabel; Bonet, Iliana González

    2003-01-01

    A descriptive punctual study was conducted to search for nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to methycilin (SARM) among sound children attended in nurseries and hospitalized children exposed to one or more risk factors predisposing to the colonization by this type of strains from October, 2000, to February, 2001, in Marianao municipality. For the primary isolation of the SARM strains, it was used the oxacillin-manitol-salt-agar (OMSA) and the sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs was determined in all strains identified as S. aureus by using the Kirby-Bauer method. In order to identify the resistance to oxacillin in the strains recovered from OMSA, the oxacillin salt-agar screening-plate method and the determination of inhibitory minimum concentration (IMC) in agar and broth were applied. The presence of the mecA gene was nvestigated by polymerase chain reaction in those strains with an IMC > or = 4 mg/mL of oxacillin. Of the sound children. 0.35 % and of the hospitalized, 2 %, were nasal carriers of SARM strains. The strains isolated in both study groups showed high indexes of resistance to penicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin by the Kirby-Bauer method. The mecA gene was identified in a SARM strain isolated from a hospitalized nasal carrier and it was defined that its behaviour agreed with the one described for a strain homoresistant to oxacillin.

  10. [Features of brain mechanisms of regulation of the level of wakefulness, organization of cognitive functions and adaptive reactions in children with attention deficit with hyperactivity syndrome and healthy children].

    PubMed

    Iliukhina, V A; Krivoshchapova, M N; Manzhosova, G V

    2011-01-01

    In work results of research of features of infringement superslow cortical-truncal, limbic-reticular and upsegmentary mechanisms of regulation of a level of wakefulness at children of 6-7 years with a syndrome of deficiency of attention and hyperactivity and healthy children, pupils of 1 class of a comprehensive school with different type of psychological adaptation are generalized. At use system-integrativity psychophysiology the approach features are established: a) organization emotional-motivational and cognitive spheres; b) psychophysiology mechanisms of formation of adaptive reactions at tactile interaction about earlier unknown alive object--a dolphin at the surveyed contingent of healthy and ill children.

  11. Negative Associations between Corpus Callosum Midsagittal Area and IQ in a Representative Sample of Healthy Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ganjavi, Hooman; Lewis, John D.; Bellec, Pierre; MacDonald, Penny A.; Waber, Deborah P.; Evans, Alan C.; Karama, Sherif

    2011-01-01

    Documented associations between corpus callosum size and cognitive ability have heretofore been inconsistent potentially owing to differences in sample characteristics, differing methodologies in measuring CC size, or the use of absolute versus relative measures. We investigated the relationship between CC size and intelligence quotient (IQ) in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development sample, a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents (aged six to 18, n = 198) recruited to be representative of the US population. CC midsagittal area was measured using an automated system that partitioned the CC into 25 subregions. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). After correcting for total brain volume and age, a significant negative correlation was found between total CC midsagittal area and IQ (r = −0.147; p = 0.040). Post hoc analyses revealed a significant negative correlation in children (age<12) (r = −0.279; p = 0.004) but not in adolescents (age≥12) (r = −0.005; p = 0.962). Partitioning the subjects by gender revealed a negative correlation in males (r = −0.231; p = 0.034) but not in females (r = 0.083; p = 0.389). Results suggest that the association between CC and intelligence is mostly driven by male children. In children, a significant gender difference was observed for FSIQ and PIQ, and in males, a significant age-group difference was observed for FSIQ and PIQ. These findings suggest that the correlation between CC midsagittal area and IQ may be related to age and gender. PMID:21625542

  12. Asymtomatic carriage of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica in relation to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae colonization in healthy children: apropos of 1400 children sampled.

    PubMed

    Bakir, M; Yagci, A; Ulger, N; Akbenlioglu, C; Ilki, A; Soyletir, G

    2001-01-01

    Meningococcal disease is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality among children in many parts of the world. Main reservoir of carriage and site of meningococcal dissemination appears to be the upper respiratory tract. Colonization of Neisseria meningitidis and lactamica and factors affecting this carriage were determined in a group of healthy children aged 0-10 years. Meningococcus and N. lactamica carriage were detected in 17 (1.23%) and 245 (17.7%) of 1382 subjects, respectively. Number (%) of serogroups for meningococci was 1 (6), 5 (29), 0 (0), 1 (6), 1 (6), and 9 (53) for A, B, C, D, W135, and Y, respectively. Having more than three household members, elementary school attendance, pharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were associated with carriage of meningococci, whereas age less than 24-month was associated with carriage of N. lactamica. There was a reverse carriage rate between N. meningitidis and N. lactamica by age which may suggest a possible protective role of N. lactamica against meningococcal colonization among pre-school children.

  13. Healthy urban environments for children and young people: A systematic review of intervention studies

    PubMed Central

    Audrey, Suzanne; Batista-Ferrer, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review collates, and presents as a narrative synthesis, evidence from interventions which included changes to the urban environment and reported at least one health behaviour or outcome for children and young people. Following a comprehensive search of six databases, 33 primary studies relating to 27 urban environment interventions were included. The majority of interventions related to active travel. Others included park and playground renovations, road traffic safety, and multi-component community-based initiatives. Public health evidence for effectiveness of such interventions is often weak because study designs tend to be opportunistic, non-randomised, use subjective outcome measures, and do not incorporate follow-up of study participants. However, there is some evidence of potential health benefits to children and young people from urban environment interventions relating to road safety and active travel, with evidence of promise for a multi-component obesity prevention initiative. Future research requires more robust study designs incorporating objective outcome measures. PMID:26457624

  14. Investing in heart-healthy children: a primary prevention innovation in Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Yates, Gillian; Cornish, Wanda; Miller, Jennifer; Friesen, C L Hancock

    2009-01-01

    Inactivity and unhealthy eating are precursors to the development of coronary artery disease. In Atlantic Canada, there is a widely recognized escalation of obesity and Type 2 diabetes in children. Our multidisciplinary group developed a three-year program targeting children in grades 4, 5 and 6 in an effort to alter this debilitating life course. This pilot program comprises education, physical activity, evaluation and research. Working in teams, students' physical activity levels and pedometer readings are tracked as they virtually walk across Canada. Monthly motivation assemblies and feature activities are integrated into the program. Evaluation of the education component is provided by pre- and post-tests. Evaluation of the physical activity component is composed of the activity logbooks. Parent and teacher surveys are administered once a year.

  15. Functional ability perceived by individuals following total knee arthroplasty compared to age-matched individuals without knee disability.

    PubMed

    Finch, E; Walsh, M; Thomas, S G; Woodhouse, L J

    1998-04-01

    A comparison of function of individuals 1 year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with healthy control subjects (controls) meaningfully describes outcome in these patients. Perception of function measured by two questionnaires, the Lower Extremity Activity Profile (LEAP) and the Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and walking and stair performance was compared between 29 patients, 1 year after TKA, and 40 controls. There was significantly greater perceived difficulty with function in patients with TKA than in controls. In TKA men, LEAP and WOMAC scores correlated respectively with self-paced walk speed (r = -.71 and -.55) and stair performance time (r = 0.70 and 0.68). In TKA women, LEAP difficulty score correlated with self-paced walk speed (r = -.41) and stair performance time (r = -0.71). By 1 year, TKA subjects regained 80% of the function of controls. Perception of function after TKA can be measured by either questionnaire in men; however, the LEAP is the preferable questionnaire with women.

  16. Exposure to urban air pollution and bone health in clinically healthy six-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Francolira, Maricela; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Peña-Cruz, Bernardo; Palacios-López, Carolina; Zhu, Hongtu; Kong, Linglong; Mendoza-Mendoza, Nicolás; Montesinoscorrea, Hortencia; Romero, Lina; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Kavanaugh, Michael; Frenk, Silvestre

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution induces systemic inflammation, as well as respiratory, myocardial and brain inflammation in children. Peak bone mass is influenced by environmental factors. We tested the hypothesis that six-year-olds with lifetime exposures to urban air pollution will have alterations in inflammatory markers and bone mineral density (BMD) as opposed to low-polluted city residents when matched for BMI, breast feeding history, skin phototype, age, sex and socioeconomic status. This pilot study included 20 children from Mexico City (MC) (6.17 years ± 0.63 years) and 15 controls (6.27 years ± 0.76 years). We performed full paediatric examinations, a history of outdoor exposures, seven-day dietary recalls, serum inflammatory markers and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Children in MC had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 (p=0.001), marked reductions in total blood neutrophils (p= 0.0002) and an increase in monocytes (p=0.005). MC children also had an insufficient Vitamin D intake and spent less time outdoors than controls (p<0.001) in an environment characterized by decreased UV light, with ozone and fine particulates concentrations above standard values. There were no significant differences between the cohorts in DXA Z scores. The impact of systemic inflammation, vitamin D insufficiency, air pollution, urban violence and poverty may have long-term bone detrimental outcomes in exposed paediatric populations as they grow older, increasing the risk of low bone mass and osteoporosis. The selection of reference populations for DXA must take into account air pollution exposures.

  17. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  18. Influence of lower body pressure support on the walking patterns of healthy children and adults.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Max J; Deffeyes, Joan E; Arpin, David J; Karst, Gregory M; Stuberg, Wayne A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a lower body positive pressure support system on the joint kinematics and activity of the lower extremity antigravity musculature of adults and children during walking. Adults (age = 25 ± 4 years) and children (age = 13 ± 2 years) walked at a preferred speed and a speed that was based on the Froude number, while 0-80% of their body weight was supported. Electrogoniometers were used to monitor knee and ankle joint kinematics. Surface electromyography was used to quantify the magnitude of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle activity. There were three key findings: (1) The lower extremity joint angles and activity of the lower extremity antigravity muscles of children did not differ from those of adults. (2) The magnitude of the changes in the lower extremity joint motion and antigravity muscle activity was dependent upon an interaction between body weight support and walking speed. (3) Lower body positive pressure support resulted in reduced activation of the antigravity musculature, and reduced range of motion of the knee and ankle joints.

  19. Prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in children with celiac disease compared to healthy 12-year olds.

    PubMed

    van der Pals, Maria; Ivarsson, Anneli; Norström, Fredrik; Högberg, Lotta; Svensson, Johan; Carlsson, Annelie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have suggested a correlation between untreated celiac disease and risk for other autoimmune diseases. We investigated the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in 12-year-old children (i) with symptomatic celiac disease diagnosed and treated with a gluten-free diet, (ii) with screening-detected untreated celiac disease, and (iii) without celiac disease. Methods. Blood samples from 12632 children were collected. All celiac disease cases, previously diagnosed and newly screening-detected, were identified. Per case, 4 referents were matched. Blood samples were analyzed for autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb). The cut-off value for TPO positivity was set to 100 U/mL. Results. Altogether, 335 celiac disease cases were found. In the entire celiac disease group, 7.2% (24/335) had elevated titers of TPOAb compared to 2.8% (48/1695) of the referents. Among the previously diagnosed celiac disease cases, 7.5% (7/93, OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.4) was TPOAb positive and among screening-detected cases, 7.0% (17/242, OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.6) was TPOAb positive. Conclusion. Children with celiac disease showed a higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity. We could not confirm the hypothesis that untreated celiac disease is associated with increased risk of developing thyroid autoimmunity. Early initiation of celiac disease treatment might not lower the risk for other autoimmune diseases.

  20. Association between Hair Cortisol Concentration and Adiposity Measures among Children and Parents from the “Healthy Start” Study

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Olsen, Nanna J.; Heitmann, Berit L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested a direct association between hair cortisol concentration (HCC) and Body Mass Index (BMI), as well as other adiposity measures. However, these studies have mostly been conducted among adult populations. Objective To examine the association between HCC and different measures of adiposity among a selected group of children predisposed to obesity and their parents. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 363 children and their parents (301 mothers and 231 fathers) participating in the “Healthy Start” study. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations between HCC and adiposity measures while taking into account possible confounding factors. Analyses were performed examining the association between HCC and BMI, fat mass and fat free mass index Z-scores, as well as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio among the children. Likewise, the association between HCC and BMI among the parents was explored. Finally, we examined the association between parental HCC and children’s adiposity measures. Results HCC was directly associated with a higher BMI among the fathers (0.49 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.09, 0.90, P = 0.02] per 100 pg/mg) and the mothers (0.93 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.24, 1.61, P = 0.01] per 100 pg/mg). We found no clear evidence of an association between HCC and adiposity measures among children. However, a high maternal HCC was associated with a high fat mass index and low fat free mass index z-score in the offspring (0.14 SD [95% CI: 0.02, 0.26, P = 0.02] and -0.17 SD [95% CI: -0.30, -0.05, P = 0.01] per 100 pg/mg, respectively). Conclusions Our study found no evidence of an association between HCC and measures of adiposity among children predisposed to obesity. However, HCC may be directly associated with BMI among men and women, and maternal HCC may be related to a higher fat mass and a lower fat free mass among their children. PMID:27662656

  1. Autism-associated gene expression in peripheral leucocytes commonly observed between subjects with autism and healthy women having autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kuwano, Yuki; Kamio, Yoko; Kawai, Tomoko; Katsuura, Sakurako; Inada, Naoko; Takaki, Akiko; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder which has complex pathobiology with profound influences of genetic factors in its development. Although the numerous autism susceptible genes were identified, the etiology of autism is not fully explained. Using DNA microarray, we examined gene expression profiling in peripheral blood from 21 individuals in each of the four groups; young adults with ASD, age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (ASD control), healthy mothers having children with ASD (asdMO), and asdMO control. There was no blood relationship between ASD and asdMO. Comparing the ASD group with control, 19 genes were found to be significantly changed. These genes were mainly involved in cell morphology, cellular assembly and organization, and nerve system development and function. In addition, the asdMO group possessed a unique gene expression signature shown as significant alterations of protein synthesis despite of their nonautistic diagnostic status. Moreover, an ASD-associated gene expression signature was commonly observed in both individuals with ASD and asdMO. This unique gene expression profiling detected in peripheral leukocytes from affected subjects with ASD and unaffected mothers having ASD children suggest that a genetic predisposition to ASD may be detectable even in peripheral cells. Altered expression of several autism candidate genes such as FMR-1 and MECP2, could be detected in leukocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that the ASD-associated genes identified in leukocytes are informative to explore the genetic, epigenetic, and environmental background of ASD and might become potential tools to assess the crucial factors related to the clinical onset of the disorder.

  2. Autism-Associated Gene Expression in Peripheral Leucocytes Commonly Observed between Subjects with Autism and Healthy Women Having Autistic Children

    PubMed Central

    Kuwano, Yuki; Kamio, Yoko; Kawai, Tomoko; Katsuura, Sakurako; Inada, Naoko; Takaki, Akiko; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder which has complex pathobiology with profound influences of genetic factors in its development. Although the numerous autism susceptible genes were identified, the etiology of autism is not fully explained. Using DNA microarray, we examined gene expression profiling in peripheral blood from 21 individuals in each of the four groups; young adults with ASD, age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (ASD control), healthy mothers having children with ASD (asdMO), and asdMO control. There was no blood relationship between ASD and asdMO. Comparing the ASD group with control, 19 genes were found to be significantly changed. These genes were mainly involved in cell morphology, cellular assembly and organization, and nerve system development and function. In addition, the asdMO group possessed a unique gene expression signature shown as significant alterations of protein synthesis despite of their nonautistic diagnostic status. Moreover, an ASD-associated gene expression signature was commonly observed in both individuals with ASD and asdMO. This unique gene expression profiling detected in peripheral leukocytes from affected subjects with ASD and unaffected mothers having ASD children suggest that a genetic predisposition to ASD may be detectable even in peripheral cells. Altered expression of several autism candidate genes such as FMR-1 and MECP2, could be detected in leukocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that the ASD-associated genes identified in leukocytes are informative to explore the genetic, epigenetic, and environmental background of ASD and might become potential tools to assess the crucial factors related to the clinical onset of the disorder. PMID:21935445

  3. Exposure to 'healthy' fast food meal bundles in television advertisements promotes liking for fast food but not healthier choices in children.

    PubMed

    Boyland, Emma J; Kavanagh-Safran, Melissa; Halford, Jason C G

    2015-03-28

    Due to regulatory changes, fast food companies often depict healthy foods in their television advertisements to children. The present study examined how exposure to advertising for 'healthy' meal bundles to children influenced the selection of food in children. A total of fifty-nine children (thirty-seven males) aged 7-10 years (8·8 (SD 0·9) years) took part in the present study. The within-participant, counterbalanced design had two conditions: control (exposure to ten toy adverts across two breaks of five adverts each) and experimental (the middle advert in each break replaced with one for a McDonald's Happy Meal® depicting the meal bundle as consisting of fish fingers, a fruit bag and a bottle of mineral water). Following viewing of the adverts embedded in a cartoon, children completed a hypothetical menu task that reported liking for McDonald's food and fast food, in general. Nutritional knowledge, height and weight of the children were measured. There was no significant difference between the two advert conditions for the nutritional content of the meal bundles selected. However, children's liking for fast food, in general, increased after exposure to the food adverts relative to control (P= 0·004). Compared to children with high nutritional knowledge, those with low scores selected meals of greater energy content (305 kJ) after viewing the food adverts (P= 0·016). Exposure to adverts for 'healthy' meal bundles did not drive healthier choices in children, but did promote liking for fast food. These findings contribute to debates about food advertising to children and the effectiveness of related policies.

  4. Anxious/depressed symptoms are linked to right ventromedial prefrontal cortical thickness maturation in healthy children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Simon; Albaugh, Matthew D; Hudziak, James J; Botteron, Kelly N; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Truong, Catherine; Evans, Alan C; Karama, Sherif

    2014-11-01

    The relationship between anxious/depressed traits and neuromaturation remains largely unstudied. Characterizing this relationship during healthy neurodevelopment is critical to understanding processes associated with the emergence of child/adolescent onset mood/anxiety disorders. In this study, mixed-effects models were used to determine longitudinal cortical thickness correlates of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Young Adult Self Report Anxious/Depressed scores in healthy children. Analyses included 341 subjects from 4.9 to 22.3 year-old with repeated MRI at up to 3 time points, at 2-year intervals (586 MRI scans). There was a significant "CBCL Anxious/Depressed by Age" interaction on cortical thickness in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), including the medial orbito-frontal, gyrus rectus, and subgenual anterior cingulate areas. Anxious/Depressed scores were negatively associated with thickness at younger ages (<9 years), but positively associated with thickness at older ages (15-22 years), with the shift in polarity occurring around age 12. This was secondary to a slower rate of vmPFC cortical thinning in subjects with higher scores. In young adults (18-22 years), Anxious/Depressed scores were also positively associated with precuneus/posterior cingulate cortical thickness. Potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying this maturation pattern are proposed. These results demonstrate the dynamic impact of age on relations between vmPFC and negative affect in the developing brain.

  5. Anxious/Depressed Symptoms are Linked to Right Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortical Thickness Maturation in Healthy Children and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Simon; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Hudziak, James J.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Truong, Catherine; Evans, Alan C.; Karama, Sherif; Ball, William S.; Byars, Anna Weber; Schapiro, Mark; Bommer, Wendy; Carr, April; German, April; Dunn, Scott; Rivkin, Michael J.; Waber, Deborah; Mulkern, Robert; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Chiverton, Abigail; Davis, Peter; Koo, Julie; Marmor, Jacki; Mrakotsky, Christine; Robertson, Richard; McAnulty, Gloria; Brandt, Michael E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Kramer, Larry A.; Yang, Grace; McCormack, Cara; Hebert, Kathleen M.; Volero, Hilda; Botteron, Kelly; McKinstry, Robert C.; Warren, William; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Almli, C. Robert; Todd, Richard; Constantino, John; McCracken, James T.; Levitt, Jennifer; Alger, Jeffrey; O'Neil, Joseph; Toga, Arthur; Asarnow, Robert; Fadale, David; Heinichen, Laura; Ireland, Cedric; Wang, Dah-Jyuu; Moss, Edward; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Bintliff, Brooke; Bradford, Ruth; Newman, Janice; Evans, Alan C.; Arnaoutelis, Rozalia; Pike, G. Bruce; Collins, D. Louis; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas; Zijdenbos, Alex; Das, Samir; Fonov, Vladimir; Fu, Luke; Harlap, Jonathan; Leppert, Ilana; Milovan, Denise; Vins, Dario; Zeffiro, Thomas; Van Meter, John; Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P.; Botteron, Kelly; Almli, C. Robert; Rainey, Cheryl; Henderson, Stan; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Warren, William; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Dubois, Diane; Smith, Karla; Singer, Tish; Wilber, Aaron A.; Pierpaoli, Carlo; Basser, Peter J.; Chang, Lin-Ching; Koay, Chen Guan; Walker, Lindsay; Freund, Lisa; Rumsey, Judith; Baskir, Lauren; Stanford, Laurence; Sirocco, Karen; Gwinn-Hardy, Katrina; Spinella, Giovanna; McCracken, James T.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Levitt, Jennifer; O'Neill, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between anxious/depressed traits and neuromaturation remains largely unstudied. Characterizing this relationship during healthy neurodevelopment is critical to understanding processes associated with the emergence of child/adolescent onset mood/anxiety disorders. In this study, mixed-effects models were used to determine longitudinal cortical thickness correlates of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Young Adult Self Report Anxious/Depressed scores in healthy children. Analyses included 341 subjects from 4.9 to 22.3 year-old with repeated MRI at up to 3 time points, at 2-year intervals (586 MRI scans). There was a significant “CBCL Anxious/Depressed by Age” interaction on cortical thickness in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), including the medial orbito-frontal, gyrus rectus, and subgenual anterior cingulate areas. Anxious/Depressed scores were negatively associated with thickness at younger ages (<9 years), but positively associated with thickness at older ages (15–22 years), with the shift in polarity occurring around age 12. This was secondary to a slower rate of vmPFC cortical thinning in subjects with higher scores. In young adults (18–22 years), Anxious/Depressed scores were also positively associated with precuneus/posterior cingulate cortical thickness. Potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying this maturation pattern are proposed. These results demonstrate the dynamic impact of age on relations between vmPFC and negative affect in the developing brain. PMID:23749874

  6. Birth Weight and Its Relationship with the Cardiac Autonomic Balance in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Livia Victorino; Oliveira, Vanessa; De Meneck, Franciele; Grotti Clemente, Ana Paula; Strufaldi, Maria Wany Louzada; Franco, Maria do Carmo

    2017-01-01

    Several studies indicate that the fetal environment plays a significant role in the development of cardiometabolic disease later in life. However, a few studies present conflicting data about the correlation between birth weight and the impairment of cardiac autonomic modulation. The purpose of the present study was to provide further knowledge to elucidate this contradictory relationship. One hundred children aged 5 and 14 years had anthropometric parameters, body composition and blood pressure levels determined. Heart rate variability (HRV) was evaluated by heart rate monitoring, including measurements of both the time and frequency domains. The results showed inverse correlation between the HRV parameters with BMI (RMSSD: P = 0.047; PNN50: P = 0.021; HF: P = 0.041), systolic (RMSSD: P = 0.023; PNN50: P = 0.032) and diastolic (PNN50: P = 0.030) blood pressure levels. On the other hand, there were consistent positive correlations between the HRV parameters and birth weight (RMSSD: P = 0.001; PNN50: P = 0.001; HF: P = 0.002). To determine the effect of birth weight on HRV parameters, we perform multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for potentially confounding factors (prematurity, gender, age, BMI, physical activity index and SBP levels). These findings were preserved even after adjusting for these confounders. Our results suggested that impaired cardiac autonomic modulation characterized by a reduction in the parasympathetic activity occurs in children with low birth weight. One possible interpretation for these data is that a vagal withdrawal, rather than a sympathetic overactivity, could precede the development of hypertension and other cardiometabolic diseases in children with low birth weight. However, long-term studies should be performed to investigate this possibility. PMID:28095501

  7. Translating Research on Healthy Lifestyles for Children: Meeting the Needs of Diverse Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Christine; Floriani, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis This paper provides two examples of approaches nursing can take to reach diverse populations of children and their families to enhance health lifestyles. First a descriptive summary of a brief after-school intervention program aimed at influencing 8 and 9 year-old children’s media habits and the prevention of negative health behaviors will be presented. Design consideration for translating health lifestyles research findings into a Nurse managed inner city primary care practice will be reviewed in the 2nd example. PMID:18674672

  8. [Bring fruit at school: promotion of healthy food habit in primary school-children].

    PubMed

    Panunzio, M F; Antoniciello, A; Ugolini, G; Dalton, S

    2009-01-01

    The many nutrition education guidelines formulated by different organizations and institutions are the frames for the program actions targeting nutrition awareness in the school-age population. But while the guidelines represent a solid starting block they still need to be backed up by programs giving concrete form to the guiding principles, a program whose efficacy is demonstrated by specific applications studies. The aim of the "Bring Fruit at School" nutrition education program is to encourage elementary school children to change their eating habits for the better. And in particular to eat more fruit, vegetables, legumes, and fish and to cut down on junk-food and sugar-sweetened drink.

  9. Seroprevalence and incidence of Toxoplasma gondii among apparently healthy and visually or hearing disabled children in Taiz City, Yemen.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Madha Mohammed Sheet; AL-Shamiri, Adam Hezam; Qaed, Abeer Ahmed

    2010-03-01

    This cross sectional study was conducted in the city of Taiz, Yemen, during the period from August 2006 to August 2007 in order to investigate the seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis among apparently healthy children (AHC) and visually and/or hearing disabled children (DC). The seroprevalence was 16.0% among AHC compared to 32.5% among DC. The effect of gender was clear as the seroprevalence rate was significantly higher among females (18.3 and 43.8% for AHC and DC, respectively) than males (13.8 and 25% for AHC and DC, respectively). The seroprevalence was proportionally increased with the age, and the highest rates (20.9 and 53.0%) were reported among the oldest age group (> 10-14 years) for AHC and DC groups, respectively. The incidence rate was also higher (4.2%) in DC group compared to AHC group (2.4%) during 1 year period. These data indicate that the seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis are significantly higher in DC group than those of AHC group. We need to check further relationship between toxoplasmosis and visual and/or hearing disability.

  10. Microstructure and compressive mechanical properties of cortical bone in children with osteogenesis imperfecta treated with bisphosphonates compared with healthy children.

    PubMed

    Imbert, Laurianne; Aurégan, Jean-Charles; Pernelle, Kélig; Hoc, Thierry

    2015-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by a change in bone tissue quality, but little data are available to describe the factors involved at the macroscopic scale. To better understand the effect of microstructure alterations on the mechanical properties at the sample scale, we studied the structural and mechanical properties of six cortical bone samples from children with OI treated with bisphosphonates and compared them to the properties of three controls. Scanning electron microscopy, high resolution computed tomography and compression testing were used to assess these properties. More resorption cavities and a higher osteocyte lacunar density were observed in OI bone compared with controls. Moreover, a higher porosity was measured for OI bones along with lower macroscopic Young's modulus, yield stress and ultimate stress. The microstructure was impaired in OI bones; the higher porosity and osteocyte lacunar density negatively impacted the mechanical properties and made the bone more prone to fracture.

  11. Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Healthy Ghanaian Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Dayie, Nicholas T K D; Arhin, Reuben E; Newman, Mercy J; Dalsgaard, Anders; Bisgaard, Magne; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Slotved, Hans-Christian

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the cause of high mortality among children worldwide. Antimicrobial treatment and vaccination are used to control pneumococcal infections. In Ghana, data on antimicrobial resistance and the prevalence of multidrug-resistant pneumococcal clones are scarce; hence, the aim of this study was to determine the antibiogram of S. pneumoniae recovered from Ghanaian children younger than six years of age and to what extent resistances were due to the spread of certain sero- and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) types. The susceptibility of 115 pneumococcal isolates, recovered in a previous study, to six antimicrobials was determined by disk diffusion test. Overall, 90.4% of isolates were intermediate penicillin resistant, 99.1% were trimethoprim resistant, 73.0% were tetracycline resistant, and 33.9% were sulfamethoxazole resistant. Low resistance was recorded for erythromycin (2.6%) and cefotaxime (5.2%). Overall, 72.2% of isolates were resistant to penicillin (I or R) and at least two other antimicrobials. MLST of 20 isolates showing resistance to at least four antimicrobials revealed a high diversity documented by 16 different clones, none of which had previously been associated with multidrug resistance. The resistances found may have emerged due to nonprudent antimicrobial use practices and there is a need to monitor and promote prudent antimicrobial usage in Ghana.

  12. Gut microbiota differs between children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and healthy siblings in taxonomic and functional composition: a metagenomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Rebecca L; Forslund, Kristoffer; Kultima, Jens Roat; Meyer, Claudius U; Kullmer, Ulrike; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Bork, Peer; Gehring, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Current treatment for pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients is often ineffective, with serious side effects. Manipulating the gut microbiota via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging treatment approach but remains controversial. We aimed to assess the composition of the fecal microbiome through a comparison of pediatric IBD patients to their healthy siblings, evaluating risks and prospects for FMT in this setting. A case-control (sibling) study was conducted analyzing fecal samples of six children with Crohn's disease (CD), six children with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 12 healthy siblings by metagenomic sequencing. In addition, lifetime antibiotic intake was retrospectively determined. Species richness and diversity were significantly reduced in UC patients compared with control [Mann-Whitney U-test false discovery rate (MWU FDR) = 0.011]. In UC, bacteria positively influencing gut homeostasis, e.g., Eubacterium rectale and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, were significantly reduced in abundance (MWU FDR = 0.05). Known pathobionts like Escherichia coli were enriched in UC patients (MWU FDR = 0.084). Moreover, E. coli abundance correlated positively with that of several virulence genes (SCC > 0.65, FDR < 0.1). A shift toward antibiotic-resistant taxa in both IBD groups distinguished them from controls [MWU Benjamini-Hochberg-Yekutieli procedure (BY) FDR = 0.062 in UC, MWU BY FDR = 0.019 in CD). The collected results confirm a microbial dysbiosis in pediatric UC, and to a lesser extent in CD patients, replicating associations found previously using different methods. Taken together, these observations suggest microbiotal remodeling therapy from family donors, at least for children with UC, as a viable option.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this sibling study, prior reports of microbial dysbiosis in IBD patients from 16S rRNA sequencing was verified using deep shotgun sequencing and augmented with insights into the abundance of

  13. Effect of a school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles in 7–11 year old children

    PubMed Central

    Gorely, Trish; Nevill, Mary E; Morris, John G; Stensel, David J; Nevill, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is recognised as a public health concern within children and interventions to increase physical activity are needed. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention on physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, body composition, knowledge, and psychological variables. Method A non-randomised controlled study involving 8 primary schools (4 intervention, 4 control). Participants were 589 children aged 7–11 years. The intervention lasted 10 months and comprised a CD-rom learning and teaching resource for teachers; an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; two highlight physical activity events (1 mile school runs/walks); a local media campaign; and a summer activity wall planner and record. Primary outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers) and fruit and vegetable consumption. Secondary outcomes included body mass index, waist circumference, estimated percent body fat, knowledge, psychological variables. Multi-level modelling was employed for the data analysis. Results Relative to children in control schools, those in intervention schools significantly increased their total time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (by 9 minutes/day vs a decrease of 10 minutes/day), their time in MVPA bouts lasting at least one minute (10 minutes/day increase vs no change) and increased daily steps (3059 steps per day increase vs 1527 steps per day increase). A similar pattern of results was seen in a subset of the least active participants at baseline. Older participants in intervention schools showed a significant slowing in the rate of increase in estimated percent body fat, BMI, and waist circumference. There were no differences between groups in fruit and vegetable intake. Extrinsic motivation decreased more in the intervention group. Conclusion The intervention produced positive changes in physical

  14. Prevalence of atopy in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, hepatitis B virus carriers, and healthy children: role of T helper 1 (Th1)-type immune response.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Murat; Akcay, Seker; Karakas, Taner; Gedik, Yusuf; Okten, Aysenur; Orhan, Fazil

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, hay fever, and atopic dermatitis has increased over the past few decades, especially in developed countries. They are characterized by a chronic inflammatory reaction mediated by T helper 2 (Th2) cells. Two common chronic diseases of childhood-an autoimmune disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), and a chronic viral infection, hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers-are associated with a Th1-dominant and Th1-insufficient cytokine profile, respectively. The purpose of this study was to analyze the frequency of allergic disease in patients with type 1 DM and, in HBV carriers, to evaluate the role of Th1-type immune response in atopy and allergic disease. The study included patients with type 1 DM (group I, n = 52), HBV carriers (group III, n = 47), and a healthy control group (group III, n = 209). Participants were screened for allergic disease and atopic sensitization. Symptoms of asthma, eczema, and atopy were found more commonly in HBV carrier children compared with those with DM and healthy controls. This study supports the Th1/Th2 model. The prevalence of allergic disease and atopy is decreased in Th1-mediated autoimmune disease, type 1 DM, and, conversely, is increased in insufficient Th1 response, chronic HBV carriers. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the effect of atopy and allergic diseases in glycemic control and long-term complications in patients with type 1 DM and the effect of atopy on progression of chronic HBV infection.

  15. Parent weight change predicts child weight change in family-based weight control program for pre-school children (Buffalo healthy tots)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Title: PARENT WEIGHT CHANGE PREDICTS CHILD WEIGHT CHANGE IN FAMILY-BASED WEIGHT CONTROL PROGRAM FOR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN (BUFFALO HEALTHY TOTS), Teresa Quattrin, MOl, James N Roemmich, PhDI, Rocco Paluch, MAl, Jihnhee Yu, PhD2, Leonard H Epstein, PhDI and Michelle A Ecker, RD, CDEI . lpediatrics, Uni...

  16. Baseline Results of the First Healthy Schools Evaluation among a Community of Young, Irish, Urban Disadvantaged Children and a Comparison of Outcomes with International Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comiskey, Catherine M.; O'Sullivan, Karin; Quirke, Mary B.; Wynne, Ciara; Hollywood, Eleanor; MGillloway, Sinead

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2008, the Irish Government initiated a pilot Healthy Schools Programme based on the World Health Organization Health Promoting Schools Model among children attending schools officially designated as urban and disadvantaged. We present here the first results on physical and emotional health and the relationship between childhood…

  17. Reliability and validity of the Healthy Home Survey: A tool to measure factors within homes hypothesized to relate to overweight in children

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Maria J; Ward, Dianne S; Hales, Derek; Vaughn, Amber; Tabak, Rachel G; Stevens, June

    2008-01-01

    Background The contribution of the environment to the obesity epidemic is well recognized. Parents have control over their home environment and can, therefore, support healthy dietary and activity habits in their children by manipulating factors such as access to energy-dense foods, availability of physical activity equipment, and restricting screen time. This paper describes the development of the Healthy Home Survey and its reliability and validity. The Healthy Home Survey was designed to assess characteristics of the home environment that are hypothesized to influence healthy weight behaviors in children including diet and physical activity. Methods We recruited 85 families with at least one child between 3–8 years. The Healthy Home Survey was administered to parents via telephone and repeated in a random sample of 45 families after 7 days. In-home observations were performed within 14 days of the first Healthy Home Survey interview. Percent agreement, Kappa statistics, Intra-class correlation coefficients and sensitivity analyses were used to evaluate reliability and validity evidence. Results Reliability and validity estimates for the Healthy Home Survey were varied, but generally high (0.22–1.00 and 0.07–0.96 respectively), with lower scores noted for perishable foods and policy items. Lower scores were likely related to actual change in the perishable foods present and the subjective nature or clarity of policy questions and response categories. Conclusion Initial testing demonstrated that the Healthy Home Survey is a feasible, reliable, and valid assessment of the home environment; however, it has also highlighted areas that need improvement. The Healthy Home Survey will be useful in future research exploring the relationship between the home environment and child weight. PMID:18442392

  18. Will our children be healthy adults? Applying science to public health policy.

    PubMed

    Law, Catherine

    2010-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is predicted to be a leading cause of death and disability worldwide for the foreseeable future. Observational studies link a variety of prevalent early life experiences (for example, smoking in pregnancy, child poverty) to increased risk of adult cardiovascular disease. Experimental animal studies suggest plausible causal relationships. However, there has been little consideration of how to use this wealth of information to benefit children's futures. Policy documents have drawn on research evidence to recognise that early experience influences life chances, the development of human capital, and long-term health. This has led to a general policy emphasis on prevention and early intervention. To date, there are few examples of the evidence base being useful in shaping specific policies, despite potential to do so, and some examples of policy misunderstanding of science. Minor changes to the perspectives of epidemiological research in this area might greatly increase the potential for evidence-based policy.

  19. [Healthy eating and the difficulties faced in making it a reality: perceptions of parents/guardians of pre-school children in Belo Horizonte/MG, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bento, Isabel Cristina; Esteves, Juliana Maria de Melo; França, Thaís Elias

    2015-08-01

    A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted to establish the perceptions of 77 guardians of preschool children enrolled in a Child Day Care Center in Belo Horizonte/Minas Gerais State, regarding what is a healthy diet and the difficulties faced in having a healthy diet. The instrument used was a pretested semi-structured questionnaire containing leading questions obtained in face-to-face interviews. For data analysis, the Collective Subject Discourse technique was used, which elicited data organization of a verbal nature. It was revealed that the guardians have a notion of what healthy diet is, however their answers implied inadequate eating habits. They attributed insufficient financial resources, lack of time and ingrained eating habits as being the main difficulties in having a healthy diet. These three difficulties are the reasons given by some guardians who do not believe they have a healthy diet. The conclusion drawn is that the guardians need to have a better diet, because their eating habits influence their children's eating habits. These findings revealed the need for food and nutrition education strategies to enable the guardians to recognize and have a healthy diet.

  20. Size at birth, morning cortisol and cardiometabolic risk markers in healthy Indian children

    PubMed Central

    GV, Krishnaveni; SR, Veena; A, Dhube; SC, Karat; DIW, Phillips; CHD, Fall

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective Prenatal programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may link reduced fetal growth with higher adult chronic disease risk. South Asians have a high prevalence of low birth weight and a thin-fat phenotype which is associated with subsequent type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Altered HPA activity could be one of the pathological processes underlying this link. Methods Plasma morning cortisol and corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) concentrations were determined in 528 children aged 9.5 years from a prospective birth cohort in India. They had detailed anthropometry at birth, and current measurements of anthropometry, plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and blood pressure. Insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment) and insulin secretion (the 30-minute insulin increment) were also assessed. Results None of the birth measurements were associated with cortisol concentrations, but both birth weight (P=0.03) and length (P=0.004) were inversely associated with CBG concentrations. Cortisol concentrations were inversely associated with current body mass index (P=0.02), and positively associated with glucose (fasting: P<0.001; 30-minute: P=0.002) concentrations, and systolic blood pressure (P=0.005) but not insulin resistance or the insulin increment. Conclusion Higher morning cortisol is associated with higher cardiometabolic risk markers in Indian children. Although cortisol concentrations did not appear to be related to birth size, small size at birth was associated with higher CBG levels, and may be one of the processes by which fetal undernutrition affects adult health. The findings suggest a need for dynamic testing of HPA axis activity (such as measuring stress responses). PMID:23297873

  1. Gait parameters associated with balance in healthy 2- to 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Guffey, Keegan; Regier, Michael; Mancinelli, Corrie; Pergami, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The use of validated measurements of gait and balance are crucial to establish baseline function and assess effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Gait in children changes with motor development requiring frequent observations to effectively track progress. Standardized baseline spatiotemporal measurements and a greater understanding of the relationship between gait and balance would provide important feedback to clinicians regarding the effectiveness of rehabilitation and guide treatment modifications. 84 subjects (2.0-4.9 years) walked along the GAITRite(®), a walkway that records spatiotemporal parameters. The Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) was administered to assess balance. Comparison of spatiotemporal parameter means between age groups showed trends associated with motor development similar to the ones described in the literature such as decreased cadence and increased step/stride length with increasing age. However, no significant differences in normalized spatiotemporal parameters were found between age groups. Age, leg length, cadence, step/stride length, step/stance time, and single/double support time showed significant correlation with balance scores. When the parameters were grouped into spatial, temporal, and age-related components using principal components analysis and included in a multiple regression model, they significantly predicted 51% of the balance score variance. Age-related components most strongly predicted balance outcomes. We suggest that balance can potentially be evaluated by assessment of spatial, temporal, and age-related characteristics of gait such as step length, cadence, and leg length. This suggests the possibility of developing new gait measurement technology that could provide functional assessment and track improvements during rehabilitation regimens. If the same model can be applied to monitor treatment efficacy in children with gait abnormalities remains to be addressed.

  2. Operational Implementation of the Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health.

    PubMed

    John, Lisa V; Gregoriou, Maria; Pate, Russell R; Fawcett, Stephen B; Crawford, Patricia B; Strauss, Warren J; Frongillo, Edward A; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Loria, Catherine M; Kelley, Melinda; Fishbein, Howard A; Arteaga, S Sonia

    2015-10-01

    The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is examining how characteristics of community programs and policies targeting childhood obesity are related to childhood diet, physical activity, and obesity outcomes. The study involves selected districts and public schools in 130 communities; families recruited through schools; and data collected at the community, school, household, and child levels. Data collection took place in two waves-Wave 1 in Spring 2012 and Wave 2 from 2013 to 2015-with analysis to be completed by August 2016. This paper describes operational elements of the HCS, including recruitment activities, field operations, training of data collectors, human subjects protection, and quality assurance and quality control procedures. Experienced trainers oversaw and conducted all training, including training of (1) district and school recruitment staff; (2) telephone interviewers for household screening and recruitment; (3) field data collectors for conducting household data collection; and (4) community liaisons for conducting key informant interviews, document abstraction, and community observations. The study team developed quality assurance and quality control procedures that were implemented for all aspects of the study. Planning and operationalizing a study of this complexity and magnitude, with multiple functional teams, required frequent communication and strong collaboration among all study partners to ensure timely and effective decision making.

  3. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  4. Taxonomic Knowledge of Children with and without Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Dinsmoor, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the taxonomic vocabulary knowledge and organization of children with cochlear implants to (a) children with normal hearing matched for age, and (b) children matched for vocabulary development. Method: Ten children with cochlear implants, 10 age-matched children with normal hearing, and 10…

  5. Different IgG-subclass distributions after whole-cell and acellular pertussis infant primary vaccinations in healthy and pertussis infected children.

    PubMed

    Hendrikx, Lotte H; Schure, Rose-Minke; Oztürk, Kemal; de Rond, Lia G H; de Greeff, S C; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2011-09-16

    The distribution of IgG-subclasses provides insight in the immunological mechanisms of protection against whooping cough. We investigated the effect of Dutch whole-cell pertussis and acellular pertussis vaccines administered in infancy on the IgG-subclass distributions in healthy children aged 12 months, 4 years and 9 years as well as in children who have been infected with Bordetella pertussis. A fluorescent bead-based multiplex immunoassay was used for the measurement of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 responses against pertussis toxin, filamentous heamagglutinin and pertactin. Although IgG1 was the predominant subclass for all pertussis antigens in both healthy and infected children, elevated IgG4 levels were only present in children who had received repeated number of acellular pertussis vaccinations. IgG2 and IgG3 antibodies did not contribute to the IgG response. No differences in IgG-subclasses between healthy vaccinated or infected children were found. The pertussis vaccine used for priming seems to determine the IgG-subclass composition elicited after a secondary antibody response either induced by pertussis vaccination or infection. The pronounced anti-pertussis IgG4 response might reflect the Th2-skewing of the immune response after aP vaccination.

  6. Urinary Metabolic Phenotyping Reveals Differences in the Metabolic Status of Healthy and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Children in Relation to Growth and Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Francois-Pierre; Ezri, Jessica; Cominetti, Ornella; Da Silva, Laeticia; Kussmann, Martin; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Nydegger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Growth failure and delayed puberty are well known features of children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in addition to the chronic course of the disease. Urinary metabonomics was applied in order to better understand metabolic changes between healthy and IBD children. Methods: 21 Pediatric patients with IBD (mean age 14.8 years, 8 males) were enrolled from the Pediatric Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic over two years. Clinical and biological data were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months. 27 healthy children (mean age 12.9 years, 16 males) were assessed at baseline. Urine samples were collected at each visit and subjected to 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Results: Using 1H NMR metabonomics, we determined that urine metabolic profiles of IBD children differ significantly from healthy controls. Metabolic differences include central energy metabolism, amino acid, and gut microbial metabolic pathways. The analysis described that combined urinary urea and phenylacetylglutamine—two readouts of nitrogen metabolism—may be relevant to monitor metabolic status in the course of disease. Conclusion: Non-invasive sampling of urine followed by metabonomic profiling can elucidate and monitor the metabolic status of children in relation to disease status. Further developments of omic-approaches in pediatric research might deliver novel nutritional and metabolic hypotheses. PMID:27529220

  7. Quantification of nucleated cells, CD34-positive cells and CFU-GM colonies in single bone marrow samples and bone marrow harvests derived from healthy children.

    PubMed

    Schündeln, Michael M; Walde, Gabriele; Basu, Oliver; Havers, Werner; Kremens, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Little is known regarding bone marrow (BM) cellularity, CD34+ fraction, and CFU-GM colony formation in relation to age and whether healthy children require a reference range distinct from healthy adults. We therefore analyzed a series of single BM aspirates from 45 healthy children who were evaluated as potential BM donors. Thirty-three of these children subsequently donated BM. We quantified the nucleated cell count, fraction of CD34+ cells, and number of CFU-GM colonies in single aspirates and BM harvests. Single aspirates displayed a mean nucleated cell count of 31.3 × 10(6) cells/mL, a mean fraction of 1.17% CD34+ cells, and a mean colony forming potential of 66.6 CFU-GM/10(5) cells. Harvests yielded the same number of nucleated cells but increased numbers of CD34+ cells and CFU-GM compared with single aspirates. The mean nucleated cell count in BM harvests was 31.1 × 10(6) /mL with a mean fraction of 1.95% CD34+ cells and a mean of 112.4 CFU-GM colonies/10(5) cells. The concentration of nucleated cells was elevated compared with reported adult counts, while CD34+ percentage and CFU-GM counts were similar. In this series of healthy children, the fraction of CD34+ cells, CFU-GM colonies, and nucleated cells decreased with age. We did not identify gender specific differences. To our knowledge, this represents the first comprehensive study of CD34+ cell fraction, CFU-GM counts, and nucleated cell numbers in the BM of healthy children. The findings provide valuable information for practical use for BM transplantation and contribute to the understanding of hematopoiesis from birth to adulthood.

  8. Systolic-diastolic functional coupling in healthy children and in those with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Mark K; Margossian, Renee; Lu, Minmin; Mercer-Rosa, Laura; Henderson, Heather T; Nutting, Arni; Friedman, Kevin; Molina, Kimberly M; Altmann, Karen; Canter, Charles; Sleeper, Lynn A; Colan, Steven D

    2016-06-01

    Systolic and diastolic function affect dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) outcomes. However, systolic-diastolic coupling, as a distinct characteristic, may itself affect function but is poorly characterized. We hypothesized that echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) longitudinal systolic tissue velocities (S') correlate with diastolic longitudinal velocities (E') and that their relationship is associated with ventricular function and that this relationship is impaired in pediatric DCM. We analyzed data from the Pediatric Heart Network Ventricular Volume Variability study, using linear regression and generalized additive modeling to assess relationships between S' and E' at the lateral and septal mitral annulus. We explored relationships between the systolic:diastolic (S:D) coupling ratio (S':E' relative to age) and ventricular function. Up to 4 echocardiograms from 130 DCM patients (mean age: 9.3 ± 6.1 yr) and 1 echocardiogram from each of 591 healthy controls were analyzed. S' and E' were linearly related in controls (r = 0.64, P < 0.001) and DCM (r = 0.83, P < 0.001). In DCM, the magnitude of association between S' and E' was reduced with progressive ventricular remodeling. The S:D ratio was more strongly associated with LV function in controls vs. DCM. The septal S:D ratio was higher (presumed worse) in DCM vs. controls (0.69 ± 0.13 vs. 0.62 ± 0.12, P = 0.001). A higher septal S:D ratio was associated with worse LV dimensions (parameter estimate: 0.0061, P = 0.004), mass (parameter estimate: 0.0074, P = 0.002), ejection fraction (parameter estimate: -0.0303, P = 0.024), and inflow propagation (parameter estimate: -0.3538, P < .001). S:D coupling becomes weaker in DCM with LV remodeling and dysfunction. The S:D coupling ratio may be useful to assess coupling, warranting study in relation to patient outcomes.

  9. Modulating mitochondrial quality in disease transmission: towards enabling mitochondrial DNA disease carriers to have healthy children

    PubMed Central

    Diot, Alan; Dombi, Eszter; Lodge, Tiffany; Liao, Chunyan; Morten, Karl; Carver, Janet; Wells, Dagan; Child, Tim; Johnston, Iain G.; Williams, Suzannah; Poulton, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    One in 400 people has a maternally inherited mutation in mtDNA potentially causing incurable disease. In so-called heteroplasmic disease, mutant and normal mtDNA co-exist in the cells of carrier women. Disease severity depends on the proportion of inherited abnormal mtDNA molecules. Families who have had a child die of severe, maternally inherited mtDNA disease need reliable information on the risk of recurrence in future pregnancies. However, prenatal diagnosis and even estimates of risk are fraught with uncertainty because of the complex and stochastic dynamics of heteroplasmy. These complications include an mtDNA bottleneck, whereby hard-to-predict fluctuations in the proportions of mutant and normal mtDNA may arise between generations. In ‘mitochondrial replacement therapy’ (MRT), damaged mitochondria are replaced with healthy ones in early human development, using nuclear transfer. We are developing non-invasive alternatives, notably activating autophagy, a cellular quality control mechanism, in which damaged cellular components are engulfed by autophagosomes. This approach could be used in combination with MRT or with the regular management, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Mathematical theory, supported by recent experiments, suggests that this strategy may be fruitful in controlling heteroplasmy. Using mice that are transgenic for fluorescent LC3 (the hallmark of autophagy) we quantified autophagosomes in cleavage stage embryos. We confirmed that the autophagosome count peaks in four-cell embryos and this correlates with a drop in the mtDNA content of the whole embryo. This suggests removal by mitophagy (mitochondria-specific autophagy). We suggest that modulating heteroplasmy by activating mitophagy may be a useful complement to mitochondrial replacement therapy. PMID:27528757

  10. Blood Selenium Concentration and Blood Cystatin C Concentration in a Randomly Selected Population of Healthy Children Environmentally Exposed to Lead and Cadmium.

    PubMed

    Gać, Paweł; Pawlas, Natalia; Wylężek, Paweł; Poręba, Rafał; Poręba, Małgorzata; Pawlas, Krystyna

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluation of a relationship between blood selenium concentration (Se-B) and blood cystatin C concentration (CST) in a randomly selected population of healthy children, environmentally exposed to lead and cadmium. The studies were conducted on 172 randomly selected children (7.98 ± 0.97 years). Among participants, the subgroups were distinguished, manifesting marginally low blood selenium concentration (Se-B 40-59 μg/l), suboptimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B: 60-79 μg/l) or optimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B ≥ 80 μg/l). At the subsequent stage, analogous subgroups of participants were selected separately in groups of children with BMI below median value (BMI <16.48 kg/m(2)) and in children with BMI ≥ median value (BMI ≥16.48 kg/m(2)). In all participants, values of Se-B and CST were estimated. In the entire group of examined children no significant differences in mean CST values were detected between groups distinguished on the base of normative Se-B values. Among children with BMI below 16.48 kg/m(2), children with marginally low Se-B manifested significantly higher mean CST values, as compared to children with optimum Se-B (0.95 ± 0.07 vs. 0.82 ± 0.15 mg/l, p < 0.05). In summary, in a randomly selected population of healthy children no relationships could be detected between blood selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration. On the other hand, in children with low body mass index, a negative non-linear relationship was present between blood selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration.

  11. Early-Life Predictors of Higher Body Mass Index in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Molly M.; Dabelea, Dana; Yin, Xiang; Ogden, Lorraine G.; Klingensmith, Georgeanna J.; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, and may increase diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. Prospective analyses may better define the pathways between early life factors and greater childhood body mass index (BMI), a measure of obesity. Methods The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) prospectively follows children from birth that are at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. We examined longitudinal data for 1,178 DAISY subjects (mean age at last follow-up: 6.59 years (range: 2.0–11.5 years). Birth size and diabetes exposure in utero were collected in the enrollment interview. Infant diet information was collected via interviews throughout infancy. Infant weight gain and childhood BMI were measured at clinic visits. Results Female gender, diabetes exposure in utero, larger size for gestational age, shorter breastfeeding duration, and more rapid infant weight gain predicted higher childhood BMI. Formal mediation analysis suggests the effect of shorter breastfeeding duration on childhood BMI may be mediated by more rapid infant weight gain. Also, the effect of diabetes exposure in utero on childhood BMI may be mediated by larger size for gestational age. Conclusion We identified strong interrelationships between early life factors and childhood BMI. Understanding these pathways may aid childhood obesity prevention efforts. PMID:19940472

  12. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men.

    PubMed

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper L; Petersen, Jesper; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Bangsbo, Jens; Saltin, Bengt; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent a testing protocol including measurements of cycle performance, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body composition, and muscle fibre types and capillarisation were determined from m. vastus lateralis biopsy. In SP, time to exhaustion was longer (16.3 ± 2.0 min; P < 0.01) than in UT (+48%) and ST (+41%), but similar to ET (+1%). Fat percentage was lower (P < 0.05) in SP (-6.5% points) than UT but not ET and ST. Heart rate reserve was higher (P < 0.05) in SP (104 ± 16 bpm) than UT (+21 bpm) and ST (+24 bpm), but similar to ET (+2 bpm), whereas VO2max was not significantly different in SP (30.2 ± 4.9 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1)) compared to UT (+14%) and ST (+9%), but lower (P < 0.05) than ET (-22%). The number of capillaries per fibre was higher (P < 0.05) in SP than UT (53%) and ST (42%) but similar to ET. SP had less type IIx fibres than UT (-12% points). In conclusion, the exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile are markedly better for lifelong trained SP than for age-matched UT controls. Incremental exercise capacity and muscle aerobic capacity of SP are also superior to lifelong ST athletes and comparable to endurance athletes.

  13. Association between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and fitness with health related quality of life in healthy children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo-Cantarero, Alberto; Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Torres-Costoso, Ana Isabel; Sánchez-López, Mairena

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is a subjective, multidimensional and changing over time construct. When HRQoL is decreased, a child is less likely to be able to develop normally and mature into a healthy adult. Physical inactivity is a priority public health problem. Evidence suggests how even moderate levels of physical activity or high fitness levels are associated with benefits for the health in children and adolescents. The aims of this systematic review are to examine the evidence about the relationship between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and fitness with HRQoL, and estimate the effects of interventions that have tested the effectiveness of the increase of the physical activity, the improvement of the physical fitness or the avoidance of sedentary behaviors in HRQoL in healthy subjects aged under 18 years old. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis protocol was conducted following the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) statement. To identify relevant studies, the following electronic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Web of Science, and PEDro. Reference lists of relevant studies will be examined for links to potential related articles. The methodological quality of the observational included studies will be scored using a quality assessment checklist. For the intervention studies, the risk of bias will be estimated using The Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. Reviewers will determine whether a meta-analysis is possible when data have been extracted. If it is, subgroup analyses will be carried out by age and socioeconomic status, and by the different dimensions of the HRQoL. If is not possible, a descriptive analysis will be conducted. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this systematic review and meta-analysis will be the first that synthesizes the existing results about the relationship between physical activity

  14. Black-pigmented material in airway macrophages from healthy children: association with lung function and modeled PM10.

    PubMed

    Grigg, Jonathan; Kulkarni, Neeta; Pierse, Nevil; Rushton, Lesley; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Rutman, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies in children suggest that chronic inhalation of carbonaceous particulate matter < or = 10 pm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) attenuates the normal growth of lung function. However, the relation between markers of PM10 exposure and the quantity of particles entering the pediatric airway is unclear. Experimental studies have shown that particles entering the lower airway remain visible in the cytoplasm of airway macrophages (AMs) for several months. We hypothesized that particle loading of AMs, detected as black-pigmented material, reflects individual exposure of healthy children to PM10. In this study, we aimed to establish the relation between the median area of black material in AMs (measured as the two-dimensional area of black material ["black area"] per AM per child) and (1) lung function, and (2) level of primary PM10 at the child's home address as estimated by dispersion modeling (referred to as "modeled primary PM10"). We also performed a series of exploratory analyses assessing the association between the median black area in AMs and (1) variables that could modify individual exposure, and (2) airway inflammation. To achieve these aims, AMs were sampled using induced sputum from children in Leicestershire, United Kingdom, and lung function was determined by spirometry. Data from 64 of 116 children who provided adequate induced sputum samples were analyzed. The area of the black material in AMs was determined by an analysis of digitized light-microscopic images of 100 randomly chosen AMs per child. There was a significant inverse association between size of black area in AMs and lung function: each 1.0-microm2 increase in the area of the black material in AMs was associated with a 17.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6 to 28.4) reduction in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), a 12.9% (95% CI, 0.9 to 24.8) reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC), and a 34.7% (95% CI, 11.3 to 58.1) reduction in forced expiratory flow between

  15. Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children With First Attack of Seizure and on Healthy Control Group: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    FALLAH, Razieh; TIRANDAZI, Behnaz; FERDOSIAN, Farzad; FADAVI, Nafiseh

    2014-01-01

    Objective Seizures are the most common pediatric neurologic problem. Research of the association between iron deficiency and seizures has shown conflicting results. This study evaluates iron status of children with a first seizure attack (febrile seizure (FS) or first unprovoked afebrile seizure (FUS) and healthy control group. Materials & Methods In a cross sectional case control study, iron status of 6–60 month year old admitted children with first seizure to Shahid Sadoughi Hospital from August 2011–December 2012 were evaluated and compared with healthy control children that were referred to primary health care center of Azadshar, Yazd, Iran. Results 150 children were compared in three equal (FS, afebrile seizure, and control) groups. Hemoglobin levels in FUS (11.39 ± 1.07 g/dl) and FS (11.46 ± 1.18 g/dl) were lower than the control group (11.9 ± 0.89 g/dl) group. Serum iron levels in FS (38.52 ± 11.38 μg/dL) and FUS (42.68 ± 14.76 μg/dL) were lower than the control group (54.32 ± 13.46 μg/dL). Serum ferritin level in FUS (46.21 ± 27.63 ng/mL) and FS (48.91 ± 22.96 ng/ mL) was lower than the control group (75.13 ± 35.57 ng/mL). Iron deficiency (48% in FS, 44% in FUS and 28% in control group) and iron deficiency anemia (26% in FUS, 22% in FS, and 10% in healthy children) was more frequent in children with seizures. Conclusion Iron status should be evaluated in children with a first attack of febrile or afebrile seizures. PMID:25143769

  16. Achieving the Dream: Health Care...Healthy Kids. Forum on Children's Issues (Century City, California, April 15, 1994). Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton Family Foundation, Santa Monica, CA.

    This collection contains materials from various sources on the status of children's health, successful children's health programs, and advocacy for children's health. Section 1 contains: (1) the statement by the Children's Defense Fund (CDF) on maternal and child health needs under national health reform; (2) information on uninsured children,…

  17. Evaluation of postural stability in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kenis-Coskun, Ozge; Giray, Esra; Eren, Beyhan; Ozkok, Ozlem; Karadag-Saygi, Evrim

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Postural stability is the ability of to maintain the position of the body within the support area. This function is affected in cerebral palsy. The aim of the present study was to compare static and dynamic postural stability between children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy and healthy controls. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven children between the ages of 5 and 14 diagnosed with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (19 right, 18 left) and 23 healthy gender- and age-matched controls were included in the study. Postural stability was evaluated in both of the groups using a Neurocom Balance. Sway velocity was measured both with the eyes open and closed. Sit to stand and turning abilities were also assessed. [Results] The sway velocities with the eyes open and closed were significantly different between the groups. The weight transfer time in the Sit to Stand test was also significantly slower in children with cerebral palsy. Children with cerebral palsy also showed slower turning times and greater sway velocities during the Step and Quick Turn test on a force plate compared with their healthy counterparts. [Conclusion] Both static and dynamic postural stability parameters are affected in hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Further research is needed to define rehabilitation interventions to improve these parameters in patients. PMID:27313338

  18. High Rate of Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Healthy Children in Gipuzkoa, Northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Reyes, María; Vicente, Diego; Gomariz, María; Esnal, Olatz; Landa, Joseba; Oñate, Eider

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLPE) was studied in stool samples from 125 8- to 16-month-old healthy children. Twenty-four percent of them and 10.7% of the 318 fecal samples studied yielded extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, with the types being SHV-12, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-14, and TEM-52, the most common types of β-lactamases. This high prevalence of ESBLPE in healthy people, which is to our knowledge the highest currently reported in Europe, may represent a risk for increased infections by these organisms in the future. PMID:24395224

  19. Effectiveness of school-based interventions in Europe to promote healthy nutrition in children and adolescents: systematic review of published and 'grey' literature.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Maes, Lea; Spittaels, Heleen; van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the present review was to summarise the existing European published and 'grey' literature on the effectiveness of school-based interventions to promote a healthy diet in children (6-12 years old) and adolescents (13-18 years old). Eight electronic databases, websites and contents of key journals were systematically searched, reference lists were screened, and authors and experts in the field were contacted for studies evaluating school-based interventions promoting a healthy diet and aiming at primary prevention of obesity. The studies were included if they were published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2007 and reported effects on dietary behaviour or on anthropometrics. Finally, forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria: twenty-nine in children and thirteen in adolescents. In children, strong evidence of effect was found for multicomponent interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Limited evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour, and for environmental interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Interventions that specifically targeted children from lower socio-economic status groups showed limited evidence of effect on behaviour. In adolescents, moderate evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour and limited evidence of effect for multicomponent programmes on behaviour. In children and adolescents, effects on anthropometrics were often not measured, and therefore evidence was lacking or delivered inconclusive evidence. To conclude, evidence was found for the effectiveness of especially multicomponent interventions promoting a healthy diet in school-aged children in European Union countries on self-reported dietary behaviour. Evidence for effectiveness on anthropometrical obesity-related measures is lacking.

  20. Gene expression of subunits of the IL-12 family cytokines in moDCs derived in vitro from the cord blood of children of healthy and allergic mothers.

    PubMed

    Hrdý, J; Novotná, O; Kocourková, I; Prokešová, L

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of allergic diseases is steadily increasing an urgent need to clarify the immunologic processes which occur early in life and signal an increased risk of possible future allergy development. The ratio and maturation state of DCs together with the cytokine environment are important in directing and modulating immune responses. The maturation state (presence of CD83) of cord blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) of 52 children of healthy mothers and 58 children of allergic mothers was estimated by flow cytometry. The capacity of moDCs to express genes for subunits of IL-12 family cytokines was monitored using real-time PCR and protein secretion in cell culture supernatants by ELISA. The percentage of CD83+ moDCs was significantly higher in the allergic group after LPS stimulation (43.11 ± 4.41) in comparison to the healthy group (24.85 ± 3.37). Significantly higher gene expression of subunits of IL-12 family members was observed in moDCs of children of allergic mothers, in comparison with children of healthy mothers. The differences were evident mainly after LPS stimulation of moDCs (healthy group: p19: 3.05 ± 1.24; p28: 14.8 ± 6.8; p35: 1.8 ± 0.6; p40: 8.0 ± 3.5; EBI3: 3.0 ± 1.2; allergic group: p19: 6.1 ± 2.7; p28: 61.4 ± 22.2; p35: 14.9 ± 6.5; p40: 36.4 ± 18.8; EBI3: 11.3 ± 3.2), with the exception of p28, whose expression was significantly higher in the allergic group even without stimulation (healthy group: 0.28 ± 0.12, allergic group: 0.87 ± 0.62). No significant difference between the healthy and allergic groups was found at the protein level. The observation of both increased presence of cell surface activation marker on moDCs and higher IL-12 family gene expression in LPS-stimulated moDCs of children of allergic mothers indicates a higher reactivity of these cells.

  1. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  2. FNIRS-based evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-03-01

    Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2 ± 2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger tapping task were quantified before, immediately after, and six months after CIMT. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8 ± 1.3 years old) were also imaged at the same time points to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. In children with CP the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted six months later. In contrast to this longer term improvement in localized activation response, the laterality index that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed six months later.

  3. Geographic access to healthy and unhealthy food sources for children in neighbourhoods and from elementary schools in a mid-sized Canadian city.

    PubMed

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Shah, Tayyab; Bell, Scott; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2014-10-01

    We examined location-related accessibility to healthy and unhealthy food sources for school going children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. We compared proximity to food sources from school sites and from small clusters of homes (i.e., dissemination blocks) as a proxy for home location. We found that (1) unhealthy food sources are more prevalent near schools in lower income than higher income neighbourhoods; (2) unhealthy compared to healthy food sources are more accessible from schools as well as from places of residence; and (3) while some characteristics of neighbourhood low socio-economic status are associated with less accessibility to healthy food sources, there is no consistent pattern of access. Greater access to unhealthy food sources from schools in low-income neighbourhoods is likely a reflection of the greater degree of commercialization. Our spatial examination provides a more nuanced understanding of accessibility through our approach of comparing place of residence and school access to food sources.

  4. Word Learning Processes in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether 3 aspects of the word learning process--fast mapping, retention, and extension--are problematic for children with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: The authors compared responses of 24 children with CIs, 24 age-matched hearing children, and 23 vocabulary-matched hearing children to a novel object noun training episode.…

  5. Spelling of Inflected Verb Morphology in Children with Spelling Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauerwas, Laura Boynton; Walker, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-six children (ages 11-13) with spelling deficits, 31 younger spelling-level-matched children, and 31 age-matched children were asked to spell verbs with past tense and progressive markers in dictated sentences and list form. Children with spelling deficits had significant difficulty with inflections as well as spelling inflections and base…

  6. Quality of Life, Stress, and Mental Health in Parents of Children with Parentally Diagnosed Food Allergy Compared to Medically Diagnosed and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population completed validated measures of QoL, anxiety, depression, and stress. Results. Parents of children with food allergy (PA or MA) reported higher stress, anxiety, and depression than the control group (all p < 0.05). Parents of children with MA reported poorer food allergy related QoL compared to parents of children with PA (p < 0.05); parents of children with PA reported poorer general QoL compared to parents of children with MA (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Parents of children with food allergy have significantly poorer mental health compared to healthy controls, irrespective of whether food allergy is medically diagnosed or not. It is important to encourage parents to have their child medically tested for food allergy and to recognise and refer for psychological support where needed. PMID:27429624

  7. Linear and curvilinear correlations of brain gray matter volume and density with age using voxel-based morphometry with the Akaike information criterion in 291 healthy children.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Thyreau, Benjamin; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Wu, Kai; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-08-01

    We examined linear and curvilinear correlations of gray matter volume and density in cortical and subcortical gray matter with age using magnetic resonance images (MRI) in a large number of healthy children. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region-of-interest (ROI) analyses with the Akaike information criterion (AIC), which was used to determine the best-fit model by selecting which predictor terms should be included. We collected data on brain structural MRI in 291 healthy children aged 5-18 years. Structural MRI data were segmented and normalized using a custom template by applying the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL) procedure. Next, we analyzed the correlations of gray matter volume and density with age in VBM with AIC by estimating linear, quadratic, and cubic polynomial functions. Several regions such as the prefrontal cortex, the precentral gyrus, and cerebellum showed significant linear or curvilinear correlations between gray matter volume and age on an increasing trajectory, and between gray matter density and age on a decreasing trajectory in VBM and ROI analyses with AIC. Because the trajectory of gray matter volume and density with age suggests the progress of brain maturation, our results may contribute to clarifying brain maturation in healthy children from the viewpoint of brain structure.

  8. Unhealthy and healthy food consumption inside and outside of the school by pre-school and elementary school Mexican children in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Lilian; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat

    2013-12-01

    Food from lunch packs (LP) or food available inside and outside of school can play an important role in the development of obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the LP of elementary school (ES) and preschool children (PS) in Tijuana, and the foods available to them inside and outside of school. Eight public schools participated in the study. A random sample of all the groups from a school district was conducted. A questionnaire was administered to children in first through sixth grade (ES) and to the parents of PS. LP and food available inside and outside of the school were classified as healthy, unhealthy, and adequate according to the guidelines set forth by the Secretariat of Health. A total of 2,716 questionnaires were administered and the content of 648 LP was assessed. It was observed that 99% of PS had LP prepared at home, a higher percentage than ES. None of the LP of the ES was classified as healthy, and 1% was classified as adequate. Among PS, 21% of the LP were classified as healthy and 6% as adequate. More than half of the children recognized the brand name of foods high in fat, salt, and added sugar available inside and outside of school grounds. Most of the LP of ES and PS and the foods available inside and outside of school were unhealthy and inadequate. A strategy to prevent the availability of unhealthy and inadequate food in LP and foods available inside and outside schools is recommended.

  9. Deployment and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Building Resilience Sleep Growing Healthy Healthy Children > Healthy Living > Emotional Wellness > Building Resilience > Deployment and Children Healthy Living Listen Español Text ...

  10. Children after fontan have strength and body composition similar to healthy peers and can successfully participate in daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

    PubMed

    Longmuir, Patricia E; Corey, M; Faulkner, G; Russell, J L; McCrindle, B W

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the active lifestyle capacity (daily physical activity, strength, flexibility, body composition) of children after the Fontan procedure; hypothesized to be lower than healthy peers. Participants (n = 64, 25 females) were 9.0 ± 1.7 years of age (range 6.0-11.7 years). Fontan completion occurred at 3.3 ± 1.4 years of age (5.7 ± 2.0 years prior). Canadian Health Measures Survey protocols assessed aerobic endurance (paced walking up/down steps), strength (handgrip), flexibility (sit and reach), body composition (body mass index), and daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (7-day accelerometry). Difference scores compared participant data to published norms (t tests). Linear regression evaluated age/gender/demographic factor associations. Children after Fontan had strength scores similar (mean difference 1.1 kg) to their peers were less likely to be obese (mean difference of body mass index = 1.1 ± 2.5, p = 0.001) and performed 50 min of moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) per day (12 ± 17 min/day below healthy peers, p < 0.001). Estimated peak endurance (61 % of expected) and flexibility (64 % of expected) were lower than peers (p < 0.001). Almost all (60/63) participants demonstrated the capacity to perform at least 20 min of MVPA per day. Difference from norms was smaller among children younger at Fontan completion (4 ± 2 min/year) and taking antithrombotic medication (7 ± 18 and 22 ± 17 min/day for taking/not taking, respectively). Children after Fontan demonstrate the capacity for the daily physical activity associated with optimal health. They have similar strength and good body composition. We recommend that children after Fontan be counselled that they can successfully participate in healthy, active lifestyles and physically active peer play.

  11. Confirming the cognition of rising scores: Fox and Mitchum (2013) predicts violations of measurement invariance in series completion between age-matched cohorts.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mark C; Mitchum, Ainsley L

    2014-01-01

    The trend of rising scores on intelligence tests raises important questions about the comparability of variation within and between time periods. Descriptions of the processes that mediate selection of item responses provide meaningful psychological criteria upon which to base such comparisons. In a recent paper, Fox and Mitchum presented and tested a cognitive theory of rising scores on analogical and inductive reasoning tests that is specific enough to make novel predictions about cohort differences in patterns of item responses for tests such as the Raven's Matrices. In this paper we extend the same proposal in two important ways by (1) testing it against a dataset that enables the effects of cohort to be isolated from those of age, and (2) applying it to two other inductive reasoning tests that exhibit large Flynn effects: Letter Series and Word Series. Following specification and testing of a confirmatory item response model, predicted violations of measurement invariance are observed between two age-matched cohorts that are separated by only 20 years, as members of the later cohort are found to map objects at higher levels of abstraction than members of the earlier cohort who possess the same overall level of ability. Results have implications for the Flynn effect and cognitive aging while underscoring the value of establishing psychological criteria for equating members of distinct groups who achieve the same scores.

  12. Influence of BMI on health-related quality of life: comparison between an obese adult cohort and age-matched population norms.

    PubMed

    Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila; Caterson, Ian D; Leibman, Steven; Smith, Garett S; Sambrook, Phillip N; Fransen, Marlene; March, Lyn M

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine health-related quality of life and fatigue measures in obese subjects and to compare scores with age- and gender-matched population norms. A total of 163 obese subjects were recruited from laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or exercise and diet weight loss programs between March 2006 and December 2007. All subjects completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL), and Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) questionnaires. One-sample t-tests were used to compare transformed scores with age- and gender-matched population norms and controls. Obese subjects have significantly lower SF-36 physical and emotional component scores, significantly lower AQoL utility scores and significantly higher fatigue scores compared to age-matched population norms. Within the study cohort, the SF-36 physical functioning, role physical and bodily pain scores, and AQoL utility index were even lower in subjects with clinical knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, obese individuals without OA still had significantly lower scores compared to population norms. Obesity is associated with impaired health-related quality of life and disability as measured by the SF-36, AQoL, and fatigue score (MAF) compared to matched population norms.

  13. Children with Dyslexia Are Slow Writers Because They Pause More Often and Not Because They Are Slow at Handwriting Execution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Emma; Connelly, Vincent; Barnett, Anna L.

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that children with dyslexia are slower at handwriting than other children. However, evidence of slow handwriting in children with dyslexia is very mixed. Thirty-one children with dyslexia, aged 9 years, were compared to both age-matched children and younger spelling-ability matched children. Participants completed an…

  14. Impact of Air Pollution on Age and Gender Related Increase in Cough Reflex Sensitivity of Healthy Children in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Demoulin-Alexikova, Silvia; Plevkova, Jana; Mazurova, Lenka; Zatko, Tomas; Alexik, Mikulas; Hanacek, Jan; Tatar, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies show higher cough reflex sensitivity (CRS) and cough outcomes in children compared to adults and in females compared to males. Despite close link that exists between cough and environment the potential influence of environmental air pollution on age- and gender -related differences in cough has not been studied yet. Purpose: The purpose of our study was to analyse whether the effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from parental smoking and PM10 from living in urban area are implied in age- and gender-related differences in cough outcomes of healthy, non-asthmatic children. Assessment of CRS using capsaicin and incidence of dry and wet cough was performed in 290 children (mean age 13.3 ± 2.6 years (138 females/152 males). Results: CRS was significantly higher in girls exposed to ETS [22.3 μmol/l (9.8–50.2 μmol/l)] compared to not exposed girls [79.9 μmol/l (56.4–112.2 μmol/l), p = 0.02] as well as compared to exposed boys [121.4 μmol/l (58.2–253.1 μmol/l), p = 0.01]. Incidence of dry cough lasting more than 3 weeks was significantly higher in exposed compared to not exposed girls. CRS was significantly higher in school-aged girls living in urban area [22.0 μmol/l (10.6–45.6 μmol/l)] compared to school-aged girls living in rural area [215.9 μmol/l (87.3–533.4 μmol/l); p = 0.003], as well as compared to teenage girls living in urban area [108.8 μmol/l (68.7–172.9 μmol/l); p = 0.007]. No CRS differences were found between urban and rural boys when controlled for age group. No CRS differences were found between school-aged and teenage boys when controlled for living area. Conclusions: Our results have shown that the effect of ETS on CRS was gender specific, linked to female gender and the effect of PM10 on CRS was both gender and age specific, related to female gender and school-age. We suggest that age and gender related differences in incidence of cough and CRS might be, at least partially

  15. Healthy Living, Healthy Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  16. To What Extent Can Arm-Hand Skill Performance--of Both Healthy Adults and Children-Be Recorded Reliably Using Multiple Bodily Worn Sensor Devices?

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Ryanne J M; Seelen, Henk A M; Timmermans, Annick A A; Schnackers, Marlous L A P; Eerden, Annet; Smeets, Rob J E M; Janssen-Potten, Yvonne J M

    2015-07-01

    Neurological patients often encounter arm-hand problems in daily life. Bodily worn sensors may be used to assess actual performance by quantifying specific movement patterns associated with specific activities. However, signal reliability during activities of daily living should be determined first. The aim is to determine to what extent standardized arm-hand skill performance of both healthy adults and healthy children can be recorded reliably using a combination of multiple sensor devices. Thirty adults (aged > 50 years) and thirty-two children (aged between 6-18 years) performed the activities drinking, eating and combing five times in a standardized setting. Sensor devices, each containing a triaxial accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer were attached to the arms, hands and trunk of the participants. Within-subject and between-subject reliability of the signal patterns amongst skill repetitions was determined by calculating Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs). Median reliability was good to very good for all activities performed (both within and between subjects). Regarding within-subject reliability (instruction-condition), median ICCs ranged between 0.76-0.90 and 0.68-0.92 for the adults and children, respectively. For between-subject reliability (instruction-condition), median ICCs ranged 0.75-0.86 and 0.61-0.90 for the adults and children, respectively. It can be concluded that the above-mentioned sensor system can reliably record activities of daily living in a standardized setting.

  17. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  18. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  19. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  20. Are We Driving Our Kids to Unhealthy Habits? Results of the Active Healthy Kids Canada 2013 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Casey E.; Larouche, Richard; Barnes, Joel D.; Colley, Rachel C.; Cowie Bonne, Jennifer; Arthur, Mike; Cameron, Christine; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Faulkner, Guy; Janssen, Ian; Kolen, Angela M.; Manske, Stephen R.; Salmon, Art; Spence, John C.; Timmons, Brian W.; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the time trends in patterns of school travel mode among Canadian children and youth to inform the Active Transportation (AT) indicator of the 2013 Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. The AT grade was assigned based on a comprehensive synthesis of the 2000 and 2010 Physical Activity Monitor studies from the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute and the 1992, 1998, 2005, and 2010 General Social Survey from Statistics Canada. The results showed that in 2013, AT was graded a D, because less than half of Canadian children and youth used only active modes of transportation to get to and from school. The proportion of Canadian children and youth who used only inactive modes of transportation for school travel increased significantly from 51% to 62% over the last decade. Children and youth from larger communities and those with lower household income levels were significantly more likely to use AT than those living in smaller communities and those in higher income households, respectively. In conclusion, motorized transport for school travel has increased steadily over the last decade across Canada. Regional and socio-demographic disparities should be considered in efforts to increase the number of children using AT. PMID:24905246

  1. Are we driving our kids to unhealthy habits? Results of the active healthy kids Canada 2013 report card on physical activity for children and youth.

    PubMed

    Gray, Casey E; Larouche, Richard; Barnes, Joel D; Colley, Rachel C; Bonne, Jennifer Cowie; Arthur, Mike; Cameron, Christine; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Faulkner, Guy; Janssen, Ian; Kolen, Angela M; Manske, Stephen R; Salmon, Art; Spence, John C; Timmons, Brian W; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-06-05

    This article examines the time trends in patterns of school travel mode among Canadian children and youth to inform the Active Transportation (AT) indicator of the 2013 Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. The AT grade was assigned based on a comprehensive synthesis of the 2000 and 2010 Physical Activity Monitor studies from the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute and the 1992, 1998, 2005, and 2010 General Social Survey from Statistics Canada. The results showed that in 2013, AT was graded a D, because less than half of Canadian children and youth used only active modes of transportation to get to and from school. The proportion of Canadian children and youth who used only inactive modes of transportation for school travel increased significantly from 51% to 62% over the last decade. Children and youth from larger communities and those with lower household income levels were significantly more likely to use AT than those living in smaller communities and those in higher income households, respectively. In conclusion, motorized transport for school travel has increased steadily over the last decade across Canada. Regional and socio-demographic disparities should be considered in efforts to increase the number of children using AT.

  2. Computational skills, working memory, and conceptual knowledge in older children with mathematics learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mabbott, Donald J; Bisanz, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge and skill in multiplication were investigated for late elementary-grade students with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD), typically achieving age-matched peers, low-achieving age-matched peers, and ability-matched peers by examining multiple measures of computational skill, working memory, and conceptual knowledge. Poor multiplication fact mastery and calculation fluency and general working memory discriminated children with MLD from typically achieving age-matched peers. Furthermore, children with MLD were slower in executing backup procedures than typically achieving age-matched peers. The performance of children with MLD on multiple measures of multiplication skill and knowledge was most similar to that of ability-matched younger children. MLD may be due to difficulties in computational skills and working memory. Implications for the diagnosis and remediation of MLD are discussed.

  3. Should healthy children be vaccinated against influenza? A consensus report of the Summits of Independent European Vaccination Experts.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Terho; Booy, Robert; Campins, Magda; Finn, Adam; Olcén, Per; Peltola, Heikki; Rodrigo, Carlos; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef; Schumacher, Fabian; Teo, Stephen; Weil-Olivier, Catherine

    2006-04-01

    Influenza is often regarded as an illness of the elderly portion of the population because most of the excess mortality associated with influenza epidemics occurs in that age group. However, evidence derived from a large number of clinical studies carried out in different countries and various settings has clearly demonstrated that the burden of influenza is also substantial in children. The attack rates of influenza during annual epidemics are consistently highest in children, and young children are hospitalized for influenza-related illnesses at rates comparable to those for adults with high-risk conditions. Especially among children younger than 3 years of age, influenza frequently predisposes the patient to bacterial complications such as acute otitis media. Children also serve as the main transmitters of influenza in the community. A safe and effective vaccine against influenza has been available for decades, but the vaccine is rarely used even for children with high-risk conditions. Despite several existing problems related to influenza vaccination of children, the current evidence indicates that the advantages of vaccinating young children would clearly outweigh the disadvantages. Considering the total burden of influenza in children, children younger than 3 years of age should be regarded as a high-risk group for influenza, analogously with the age-based definition of high risk among persons 65 years of age or older. Annual influenza vaccination should be recommended to all children from 6 months to 3 years of age.

  4. Dietary Protein Intake in Young Children in Selected Low-Income Countries Is Generally Adequate in Relation to Estimated Requirements for Healthy Children, Except When Complementary Food Intake Is Low.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Brown, Kenneth H

    2017-02-15

    Background: Previous research indicates that young children in low-income countries (LICs) generally consume greater amounts of protein than published estimates of protein requirements, but this research did not account for protein quality based on the mix of amino acids and the digestibility of ingested protein.Objective: Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake by young children in LICs, accounting for protein quality.Methods: Seven data sets with information on dietary intake for children (6-35 mo of age) from 6 LICs (Peru, Guatemala, Ecuador, Bangladesh, Uganda, and Zambia) were reanalyzed to estimate protein and amino acid intake and assess adequacy. The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of each child's diet was calculated and multiplied by the original (crude) protein intake to obtain an estimate of available protein intake. Distributions of usual intake were obtained to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake for each cohort according to Estimated Average Requirements.Results: The prevalence of inadequate protein intake was highest in breastfeeding children aged 6-8 mo: 24% of Bangladeshi and 16% of Peruvian children. With the exception of Bangladesh, the prevalence of inadequate available protein intake decreased by age 9-12 mo and was very low in all sites (0-2%) after 12 mo of age. Inadequate protein intake in children <12 mo of age was due primarily to low energy intake from complementary foods, not inadequate protein density.Conclusions: Overall, most children consumed protein amounts greater than requirements, except for the younger breastfeeding children, who were consuming low amounts of complementary foods. These findings reinforce previous evidence that dietary protein is not generally limiting for children in LICs compared with estimated requirements for healthy children, even after accounting for protein quality. However, unmeasured effects of infection and

  5. Memory consolidation of socially relevant stimuli during sleep in healthy children and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder: What you can see in their eyes.

    PubMed

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Förster, Alexandra; Siebenhühner, Nadine; Gesch, Maxime; Wiesner, Christian D; Baving, Lioba

    2017-02-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display deficits in sleep-dependent memory consolidation, and being comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), results in deficits in face processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sleep in recognizing faces in children with ADHD+ODD. Sixteen healthy children and 16 children diagnosed with ADHD+ODD participated in a sleep and a wake condition. During encoding (sleep condition at 8p.m.; wake condition at 8a.m.) pictures of faces were rated according to their emotional content; the retrieval session (12h after encoding session) contained a recognition task including pupillometry. Pupillometry and behavioral data revealed that healthy children benefited from sleep compared to wake with respect to face picture recognition; in contrast recognition performance in patients with ADHD+ODD was not improved after sleep compared to wake. It is discussed whether in patients with ADHD+ODD social stimuli are preferentially consolidated during daytime.

  6. DNA Repair Alterations in Children With Pediatric Malignancies: Novel Opportunities to Identify Patients at Risk for High-Grade Toxicities

    SciTech Connect

    Ruebe, Claudia E.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate, in a pilot study, the phosphorylated H2AX ({gamma}H2AX) foci approach for identifying patients with double-strand break (DSB) repair deficiencies, who may overreact to DNA-damaging cancer therapy. Methods and Materials: The DSB repair capacity of children with solid cancers was analyzed compared with that of age-matched control children and correlated with treatment-related normal-tissue responses (n = 47). Double-strand break repair was investigated by counting {gamma}H2AX foci in blood lymphocytes at defined time points after irradiation of blood samples. Results: Whereas all healthy control children exhibited proficient DSB repair, 3 children with tumors revealed clearly impaired DSB repair capacities, and 2 of these repair-deficient children developed life-threatening or even lethal normal-tissue toxicities. The underlying mutations affecting regulatory factors involved in DNA repair pathways were identified. Moreover, significant differences in mean DSB repair capacity were observed between children with tumors and control children, suggesting that childhood cancer is based on genetic alterations affecting DSB repair function. Conclusions: Double-strand break repair alteration in children may predispose to cancer formation and may affect children's susceptibility to normal-tissue toxicities. Phosphorylated H2AX analysis of blood samples allows one to detect DSB repair deficiencies and thus enables identification of children at risk for high-grade toxicities.

  7. Primary headache pathophysiology in children: the contribution of clinical neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Pro, S; Tarantino, S; Capuano, A; Vigevano, F; Valeriani, M

    2014-01-01

    Although primary headaches are very prevalent also in pediatric age, most neurophysiologic studies in these diseases concerned only the adulthood. The neurophysiologic investigation of the pathophysiological mechanisms subtending migraine and tension-type headache in children and adolescents could be particularly interesting, since during the developmental age the migrainous phenotype is scarcely influenced by many environmental factors that can typically act on adult headache patients. The neurophysiologic abnormality most frequently found in adult migraineurs, that is the reduced habituation of evoked potentials, was confirmed also in migraine children, although it was shown to involve also children with tension-type headache. Some studies showed abnormalities in the maturation of brain functions in migraine children and adolescents. While the visual system maturation seems slowed in young migraineurs, the psychophysiological mechanisms subtending somatosensory spatial attention in migraine children are more similar to those of healthy adults than to those of age-matched controls. There are some still unexplored fields that will have to be subjects of future studies. The nociceptive modality, which has been investigated in adult patients with primary headaches, should be studied also in pediatric migraine. Moreover, the technique of transcranial magnetic stimulation, not yet used in young migraineurs, will possibly provide further elements about brain excitability in migraine children.

  8. Mindfulness-Oriented Meditation for Primary School Children: Effects on Attention and Psychological Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Capurso, Viviana; Furlan, Samantha; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly being used as methods to promote psychological well-being of clinical and non-clinical adult populations. Much less is known, however, on the feasibility of these forms of mental training on healthy primary school students. Here, we tested the effects of a mindfulness-meditation training on a group of 16 healthy children within 7-8 years of age from an Italian primary school. An active control condition focused on emotion awareness was employed on a group of 15 age-matched healthy children from the same school. Both programs were delivered by the same instructors three times per week, for 8 total weeks. The same main teacher of the two classes did not participate in the trainings but she completed questionnaires aimed at giving comprehensive pre-post training evaluations of behavior, social, emotion, and attention regulation skills in the children. A children's self-report measure of mood and depressive symptoms was also used. From the teacher's reports we found a specific positive effect of the mindfulness-meditation training in reducing attention problems and also positive effects of both trainings in reducing children's internalizing problems. However, subjectively, no child in either group reported less depressive symptoms after the trainings. The findings were interpreted as suggestive of a positive effect of mindfulness-meditation on several children's psychological well-being dimensions and were also discussed in light of the discrepancy between teacher and children's reports. More generally, the results were held to speak in favor of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for healthy primary school children.

  9. Can gay and lesbian parents promote healthy development in high-risk children adopted from foster care?

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Waterman, Jill; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2012-10-01

    Adoption is known to promote cognitive and emotional development in children from foster care, but policy debates remain regarding whether children adopted by gay and lesbian parents can achieve these positive outcomes. This study compared the cognitive development and behavior problems at 2, 12, and 24 months postplacement of 82 high-risk children adopted from foster care in heterosexual and gay or lesbian households. On average, children in both household types showed significant gains in cognitive development and maintained similar levels of behavior problems over time, despite gay and lesbian parents raising children with higher levels of biological and environmental risks prior to adoptive placement. Results demonstrated that high-risk children show similar patterns of development over time in heterosexual and gay and lesbian adoptive households.

  10. How to Help Your Children Stay Healthy: Tips to Lower Their Chances of Getting Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy and taste good. Take your kids grocery shopping. Teach them how to read food labels to ... You can also order print materials from our online catalog . Information from NDEP is available by topic: ...

  11. Identifying Low pH Active and Lactate-Utilizing Taxa within Oral Microbiome Communities from Healthy Children Using Stable Isotope Probing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Jeffrey S.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Majors, Paul D.; Mcateer, Kathleen; Allen, Lisa Z.; Shirtliff, Mark E.; Lux, Renate; Shi, Wenyuan

    2012-03-05

    Many human microbial infectious diseases including dental caries are polymicrobial in nature and how these complex multi-species communities evolve from a healthy to a diseased state is not well understood. Although many health- or disease-associated oral microbes have been characterized in vitro, their physiology in vivo in the presence of the complex oral microbiome is difficult to determine with current approaches. In addition, about half of these oral species remain uncultivated to date and little is known except their 16S rRNA sequence. Lacking culture-based physiological analyses, the functional roles of uncultivated microorganisms will remain enigmatic despite their apparent disease correlation. To start addressing these knowledge gaps, we applied a novel combination of in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) with RNA and DNA based Stable Isotope Probing (SIP) to oral plaque communities from healthy children for temporal monitoring of carbohydrate utilization, organic acid production and identification of metabolically active and inactive bacterial species.

  12. Exposure to severe urban air pollution influences cognitive outcomes, brain volume and systemic inflammation in clinically healthy children.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Engle, Randall; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Styner, Martin; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Romero, Lina; Monroy-Acosta, Maria E; Bryant, Christopher; González-González, Luis Oscar; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to severe air pollution produces neuroinflammation and structural brain alterations in children. We tested whether patterns of brain growth, cognitive deficits and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with exposures to severe air pollution. Baseline and 1 year follow-up measurements of global and regional brain MRI volumes, cognitive abilities (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, WISC-R), and serum inflammatory mediators were collected in 20 Mexico City (MC) children (10 with white matter hyperintensities, WMH(+), and 10 without, WMH(-)) and 10 matched controls (CTL) from a low polluted city. There were significant differences in white matter volumes between CTL and MC children - both WMH(+) and WMH(-) - in right parietal and bilateral temporal areas. Both WMH(-) and WMH(+) MC children showed progressive deficits, compared to CTL children, on the WISC-R Vocabulary and Digit Span subtests. The cognitive deficits in highly exposed children match the localization of the volumetric differences detected over the 1 year follow-up, since the deficits observed are consistent with impairment of parietal and temporal lobe functions. Regardless of the presence of prefrontal WMH, Mexico City children performed more poorly across a variety of cognitive tests, compared to CTL children, thus WMH(+) is likely only partially identifying underlying white matter pathology. Together these findings reveal that exposure to air pollution may perturb the trajectory of cerebral development and result in cognitive deficits during childhood.

  13. Sentence Comprehension in Postinstitutionalized School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized (PI) children. The authors compared the performance of these PI children with that of an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. They hypothesized that PI…

  14. Visual Influences on Speech Perception in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iarocci, Grace; Rombough, Adrienne; Yager, Jodi; Weeks, Daniel J.; Chua, Romeo

    2010-01-01

    The bimodal perception of speech sounds was examined in children with autism as compared to mental age--matched typically developing (TD) children. A computer task was employed wherein only the mouth region of the face was displayed and children reported what they heard or saw when presented with consonant-vowel sounds in unimodal auditory…

  15. Lexical-Semantic Organization in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; McGregor, Karla K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) show deficits in lexical-semantic organization and, if so, whether these deficits are commensurate with their delay in vocabulary size and whether the deficits affect all children with SLI. Method: Fourteen children with SLI, 14 age matches (AM), and 14 expressive…

  16. The Impact of "Jalan Sesama" on the Educational and Healthy Development of Indonesian Preschool Children: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borzekowski, Dina L. G.; Henry, Holly K.

    2011-01-01

    "Jalan Sesama" was developed to address the developmental needs of Indonesian children ages 3 to 6 years. Using a randomized experimental research study design, this study examined the effect of a 14-week intervention on 160 children in the Pandeglang District in Indonesia's Banten Province. Results offer solid evidence that early…

  17. Prevalence of exposure to potentially traumatic events in a healthy birth cohort of very young children in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Ford, Julian D; Fraleigh, Lisa; McCarthy, Kimberly; Carter, Alice S

    2010-12-01

    Prevalence estimates of very young children's exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) are limited. The study objective was to estimate the lifetime prevalence and correlates of noninterpersonal PTEs and violence exposure in a representative healthy birth cohort (ages 1-3 years) from an urban-suburban region of the United States (37.8% minority, 20.2% poverty). Parents completed 2 surveys approximately 1-year apart. By 24-48 months of age, the prevalence of exposure was 26.3% (14.5% noninterpersonal, 13.8% violence). Exposure was common among children living in poverty (49.0% overall, 19.7% noninterpersonal, 33.7% violence). The most consistent factors associated with exposure were poverty, parental depressive symptoms, and single parenting. Findings underscore the potential for prevention and intervention in early childhood to advance public health and reduce morbidity.

  18. Does vaccination ensure protection? Assessing diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels in a population of healthy children: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek; Kałużna, Ewelina; Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Joanna; Michalak, Michał; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

    2016-12-01

    Vaccination effectiveness is proven when the disease does not develop after a patient is exposed to the pathogen. In the case of rare diseases, vaccination effectiveness is assessed by monitoring specific antibody levels in the population. Such recurrent analyses allow the evaluation of vaccination programs. The primary schedule of diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations is similar in various countries, with differences mainly in the number and timing of booster doses. The aim of the study was to assess diphtheria and tetanus antibody concentrations in a population of healthy children.Diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels were analyzed in a group of 324 children aged 18 to 180 months. All children were vaccinated in accordance with the Polish vaccination schedule.Specific antibody concentrations greater than 0.1 IU/mL were considered protective against tetanus or diphtheria. Levels above 1.0 were considered to ensure long-term protection.Protective levels of diphtheria antibodies were found in 229 patients (70.46%), and of tetanus in 306 patients (94.15%). Statistically significant differences were found in tetanus antibody levels in different age groups. Mean concentrations and the percentage of children with high tetanus antibody titers increased with age. No similar correlation was found for diphtheria antibodies. High diphtheria antibody levels co-occurred in 72% of the children with high tetanus antibody levels; 95% of the children with low tetanus antibody levels had low levels of diphtheria antibodies.The percentage of children with protective diphtheria antibody levels is lower than that in the case of tetanus antibodies, both in Poland and abroad, but the high proportion of children without diphtheria protection in Poland is an exception. This is all the more puzzling when taking into account that Polish children are administered a total of 5 doses containing a high concentration of diphtheria toxoid, at intervals shorter than 5 years. The decrease in

  19. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

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  20. Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 > Staying Healthy Font: What is Alpha-1? Emphysema Alpha-1 Symptoms Diagnosing Alpha-1 Current Treatments ... Healthy What can people with Alpha-1-related emphysema do to stay as healthy as possible? First ...

  1. High ampicillin resistance in different biotypes and serotypes of Haemophilus influenzae colonizing the nasopharynx of healthy school-going Indian children.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amita; Kumar, Pradeep; Awasthi, Shally

    2006-02-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is one of the main causes of otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis, pneumonia and septicaemia in children, and the development of ampicillin resistance in H. influenzae is a cause of serious concern. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of ampicillin resistance in H. influenzae colonizing the nasopharynx of school-going healthy North Indian children, and to compare the distribution of different biotypes and serotype b in this population. A total of 2400 school-going healthy children from 45 rural and 45 urban schools were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from the children and cultured. H. influenzae was isolated from 1001 (41.7 %) of the 2400 nasopharyngeal swabs collected. All these H. influenzae isolates were biotyped and serotyped, and their antibiotic susceptibility tested. All eight biotypes were present in this population. The most prevalent biotypes were I (19.6 %), II (16.8 %) and III (25.0 %). Of the 1001 isolates, 316 (31.6 %) were H. influenzae type b and 685 (68.4 %) were non-type b H. influenzae, and 22.9 % were resistant to ampicillin, 41.9 % to chloramphenicol, 27.5 % to erythromycin and 67.3 % to co-trimoxazole. Of the 316 H. influenzae type b isolates, 44.0 % were ampicillin resistant, while only 13.1 % non-type b H. influenzae isolates were ampicillin resistant. Of the 229 ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae isolates, 196 (85.6 %) were positive for beta-lactamase; 93.4 % (214/229) were biotypes I, II and III, of which 49 % were biotype I, 27.9 % were type II and 16.6 % were type III. Most of the strains belonging to biotypes III-VIII were ampicillin sensitive. Ampicillin resistance is significantly more common in biotype I and serotype b than in other biotypes and serotypes.

  2. Regional Differences in the Concentrations of Metabolites in the Brain of Healthy Children: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1HMRS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cichocka, Monika; Kozub, Justyna; Karcz, Paulina; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this 1HMRS study was to identify any potential regional differences in the metabolic spectrum in the brains of healthy children. Material/Methods Forty-nine healthy children aged 6–15 years (mean 11.6 years) were examined, including 21 girls and 28 boys. A 1.5T MR system (xi Signa HD 1.5T General Electric) was used in patient examinations. The VOI (Volume of Interest) was defined in 7 locations: the frontal lobe in the right and left hemispheres, the basal ganglia in the right and left hemispheres, hippocampus in the right and left hemispheres and cerebellum. SAGE 7.0 software was used for the analysis of data obtained from the 1HMRS study. Differences in the concentrations of metabolites in various regions of the brain in children were verified using the t-test for independent samples. Results There were significant differences in concentration levels between various brain regions for all the examined metabolites. NAA was the metabolite characterized by the greatest regional variation with significant differences being observed between all locations. Only in the case of Lip/Cr and the ratio of the Lip concentration to the sum of the concentrations of all the metabolites no significant differences could be observed. Concluisons The results of the study show that a child’s brain is inhomogeneous. The results underline the need of the regional differences in the concentrations of metabolites being taken into account when comparing the results of 1HMRS studies in children. PMID:27781072

  3. The computer-based Symbol Digit Modalities Test: establishing age-expected performance in healthy controls and evaluation of pediatric MS patients.

    PubMed

    Bigi, Sandra; Marrie, R A; Till, C; Yeh, E A; Akbar, N; Feinstein, A; Banwell, B L

    2017-04-01

    Decreased information processing speed (IPS) is frequently reported in pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The computerized version of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (c-SDMT) measures IPS over eight consecutive trials per session and additionally captures changes in performance within the session. Here, we establish normative c-SDMT performance and test-retest reliability in healthy children (HC) and explore differences in the overall c-SDMT-performance between HC and MS patients. This cross-sectional study included 478 HC (237 female, 49.5%) divided into five age groups (2 years each), and 27 MS patients (22 female, 81.5%) aged 8-18 years. The average time to complete the c-SDMT increased with age (|r| 0.70, 95% CI -0.74, -0.64). Test-retest reliability was high (ICC = 0.91) in HC. The total time to complete the c-SDMT did not differ between children with MS and sex- and age- matched HC (p = 0.23). However, MS patients were less likely to show faster performance across all the successive eight trials compared to HC (p = 0.0001). Healthy children demonstrate faster IPS with increasing age, as well as during successive trials of the c-SDMT. The inability of pediatric MS patients to maintain the increase in processing speed over successive trials suggests a reduced capacity for procedural learning, possibly resulting from cognitive fatigue.

  4. Analysis of impulse oscillometric measures of lung function and respiratory system model parameters in small airway-impaired and healthy children over a 2-year period

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Is Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS) a valuable tool to measure respiratory system function in Children? Asthma (A) is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease in children. Therefore, early and accurate assessment of respiratory function is of tremendous clinical interest in diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of respiratory conditions in this subpopulation. IOS has been successfully used to measure lung function in children with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to small airway impairments (SAI) and asthma. IOS measures of airway function and equivalent electrical circuit models of the human respiratory system have been developed to quantify the severity of these conditions. Previously, we have evaluated several known respiratory models based on the Mead's model and more parsimonious versions based on fitting IOS data known as extended RIC (eRIC) and augmented RIC (aRIC) models have emerged, which offer advantages over earlier models. Methods IOS data from twenty-six children were collected and compared during pre-bronchodilation (pre-B) and post- bronchodilation (post-B) conditions over a period of 2 years. Results and Discussion Are the IOS and model parameters capable of differentiating between healthy children and children with respiratory system distress? Children were classified into two main categories: Healthy (H) and Small Airway-Impaired (SAI). The IOS measures and respiratory model parameters analyzed differed consistently between H and SAI children. SAI children showed smaller trend of "growth" and larger trend of bronchodilator responses than H children. The two model parameters: peripheral compliance (Cp) and peripheral resistance (Rp) tracked IOS indices of small airway function well. Cp was a more sensitive index than Rp. Both eRIC and aRIC Cps and the IOS Reactance Area, AX, (also known as the "Goldman Triangle") showed good correlations. Conclusions What are the most useful IOS and model parameters? In this work we

  5. Anthropometric and Dental Measurements in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David F.; Dalesio, Nicholas M.; Benke, James R.; Petrone, John A.; Vigilar, Veronica; Cohen, Aliza P.; Ishman, Stacey L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: A number of authors have shown that children with OSA are more likely to have certain physical characteristics than healthy controls. With this in mind, our objectives were to collect normative baseline data and determine if there was a significant difference in anthropometric and dental measurements between children with OSA and age-matched nonsnoring controls. Methods: Children 2 to 12 y of age, in whom OSA was diagnosed by overnight polysomnography, were recruited to our experimental group. Age-matched nonsnoring controls were screened for signs of sleep-disordered breathing. Anthropometric measurements, including waist, neck, and hip circumferences, and waist-hip and neck-waist ratios, were obtained on all study participants preoperatively. Dental casts were acquired to determine intertooth distances and palatal height. Results: Sixty-one children (42 with OSA [69%] and 19 controls [31%]) with a mean age of 4.7 y participated in the study. Waist and hip circumferences were significantly larger in children with OSA (p = 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). However, there was no difference in neck circumference and waist-hip ratios between the two groups. Neck-waist ratio in children with OSA was significantly smaller than in controls (p = 0.001). Intertooth distance for the first (p < 0.0001) and second deciduous (p = 0.0002) and first permanent molars (p = 0.022) were significantly narrowed in children with OSA; however, no difference was seen in palatal height between groups. Body mass index was similar between groups (p = 0.76). Conclusions: Anthropometric and dental measurements were significantly different in children with OSA compared to nonsnorers. Future studies with a large sample size may allow us to determine if these measurements can be used by clinicians to identify children at risk for OSA. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1213. Citation: Smith DF, Dalesio NM, Benke JR, Petrone JA, Vigilar V, Cohen

  6. A model of knowledge translation in health: the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on physical activity for children and youth.

    PubMed

    Colley, Rachel C; Brownrigg, Michelle; Tremblay, Mark S

    2012-05-01

    The health of Canadian children and youth has deteriorated in the past few decades and physical inactivity is a powerful contributor. Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC; www.activehealthykids.ca) is a national not-for-profit organization with a mission to inspire the nation to engage all children and youth in physical activity by providing expertise and direction to policy makers and the public on how to increase and effectively allocate resources and attention toward physical activity for Canadian children and youth. Annually, for the past 7 years, the AHKC Report Card has consolidated and translated research knowledge to drive social action for policy change relating to physical activity among children and youth. Original published articles and key surveillance data from national and regional surveys are reviewed. A group of content experts from across Canada meet semiannually to review the evidence and assign letter grades. The AHKC Report Card has played a key role in informing discussions that have led to action on physical inactivity in Canada. Further evidence of the Report Card's influence is in the replication of the model in several other jurisdictions, including Saskatchewan and Ontario, Canada; Louisiana, United States; South Africa; Mexico; and Kenya.

  7. An accountability evaluation for the industry's responsible use of brand mascots and licensed media characters to market a healthy diet to American children.

    PubMed

    Kraak, V I; Story, M

    2015-06-01

    Corporate strategies that target children are controversial given the link between food marketing and childhood obesity. This case study explored diverse stakeholders' accountability expectations and actions for industry policies and practices that used popular cartoon brand mascots and media characters to promote food products to American children. We reviewed five electronic databases and Internet sources between January 2000 and January 2015. Evidence (n = 90) was selected based upon the Institute of Medicine's LEAD principles (i.e. locate, evaluate, assemble evidence to inform decisions) and organized into two tables: peer-reviewed articles, books and grey-literature reports (n = 34); and media stories, news releases and public testimony (n = 56). A four-step accountability framework was used to evaluate accountability structures. The results showed that moderate progress was achieved by stakeholders to take and share the account, limited progress to hold industry and government to account, and limited progress to strengthen accountability structures. Between 2006 and 2015, the U.S. Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative lacked clear policies for companies to use brand mascots and media characters on food packages, in merchandising, and as toy giveaways and premiums. Government, industry and civil society can substantially strengthen their accountability for these food marketing practices to ensure healthy food environments for children.

  8. The safety and reactogenicity of a reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) booster vaccine in healthy Vietnamese children.

    PubMed

    Anh, Dang Duc; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-08-17

    Despite effective infant immunization against pertussis, the disease continues to circulate due to waning immunity. Booster vaccinations against pertussis beyond infancy are widely recommended. In Vietnam, however, no recommendations for pertussis boosters beyond the second year of life exist. This open-label, single-centre study was designed to assess the safety of a single booster dose of reduced-antigen-content-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis vaccine (dTpa) in 300 healthy Vietnamese children (mean age 7.9years), who had completed primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. Solicited symptoms were recorded for 4days and unsolicited and serious adverse events (SAEs) for 31days post-vaccination. Pain and fatigue were the most common solicited local and general symptoms in 35.0% and 14.0% of children, respectively. Grade 3 swelling occurred in 3 children; no large injection site reactions or SAEs were reported. The dTpa booster vaccine was well tolerated and this study supports its administration in school age Vietnamese children.

  9. [Changes in individual profiles of cerebral hemispheric asymmetry during somatosensory stimulation due to wearing of G-suits by healthy adults and children].

    PubMed

    Iavorskiĭ, A B; Kobrin, V I; Sologubov, E G; Sinel'nikova, A N; Nemkova, S A

    1997-01-01

    Presented are results of the investigations of individual profiles of the brain interhemispheric asymmetry (IPIHA) in healthy grown-ups and children prior to, during, and immediately after somatosensory stimulation. The somatosensory stimulation was performed by one-time wearing of space g-loading suit PENGUIN and its modification ADELIE. IPIHA was studied by the main functional asymmetries including motor hand asymmetry, sensory asymmetry of the visual hemispheres, body mass center asymmetry (BMA) using a computerized stabilimeter indirectly measuring the muscle tone of contralateral extensor. Results demonstrate differences in IPIHA of grown-ups and children, persons with right- and left-hand motor asymmetry. It was shown that peculiar features of standing posture acquisition with and without visual control are original IPIHA and age dependent. Initial stability was higher in grown-ups than children and right-handed grown-ups and left-handed children. IPIHA and stability of the vertical posture can be modified even during single somatosensory stimulation. Unequal effects of the somatosensory stimulation on IPIHA in right- and left-handed subjects of varying age dictate the necessity to allow for these differences when assessing effects of the somatosensory stimulation in grown-ups and developing criteria of effective therapy of patients with CNS pathology, specifically, infantile cerebral paralysis.

  10. Hepatitis B revaccination in healthy non-responder Chinese children: five-year follow-up of immune response and immunologic memory.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Gui-Hua; Yan, Hong; Wang, Xue-Liang; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Wu, Qian; Wang, Li-Rong; Gao, Hai-Yan

    2006-03-15

    To assess persistence of anti-HBs and immunologic memory of non-responders after revaccination, 40 healthy non-responder children were given a three-dose recombinant hepatitis B vaccine revaccination randomly by intramuscular (10 microg per dose) or intradermal (2 microg per dose) route and followed up to five years. All 17 intramuscular and 22 of 23 intradermal children developed a seroprotective antibody response (anti-HBs>or=10 mIU/mL) after revaccination. Children of intramuscular group had significantly higher seroprotection rates and anti-HBs geometric mean titers than the intradermal group. At year 5, 50% of children in intramuscular group, but only 18.2% of intradermal group still maintained seroprotection (P=0.075). By the end of follow-up, a booster dose (5 microg) was given to those who had lost seroprotection. All the eight intramuscular children developed an anamnestic response with increase of anti-HBs level by 215 times, but two of the 18 intradermal children failed to produce seroprotective level. Three-routine-dose intramuscular revaccination was significantly more effective than low-dose intradermal revaccination with the same number of injections. No child seroconverted to HBsAg, and 11 had transient infections indicated by seroconversion to anti-HBc. These results demonstrated that non-responders could benefit from three doses intramuscular revaccination not only in high proportion of anti-HBs conversion but also in long-term persistence of seroprotection, and more importantly in preservation of the immunologic memory years after loss of protective anti-HBs.

  11. Spelling of Derivational and Inflectional Suffixes by Greek-Speaking Children with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamanti, Vassiliki; Goulandris, Nata; Stuart, Morag; Campbell, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the spelling of derivational and inflectional suffixes by 10-13-year-old Greek children. Twenty children with dyslexia (DYS), 20 spelling-level-matched (SA) and 20 age-matched (CA) children spelled adjectives, nouns, and verbs in dictated word pairs and sentences. Children spelled nouns and verbs more accurately than adjectives and…

  12. Food Variety as a Predictor of Nutritional Status among Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Michelle H.; Hart, Laura C.; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Murray, Donna S.; Bing, Nicole M.; Summer, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of selective eating and nutritional deficiency was studied among 22 children with autism and an age matched typically developing control group. Children with autism ate fewer foods on average than typically developing children. (33.5 vs. 54.5 foods, P less than 0.001) As compared to typical controls, children with autism had a higher…

  13. Cognitive State Verbs and Complement Clauses in Children with SLI and Their Typically Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Lin, Shanju

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of cognitive state verbs (CSVs) and complement clauses in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. In Study 1, conversational samples from 23 children with SLI (M = 6;2), 24 age-matched TD children (M = 6;2) and 21 vocabulary-matched TD children (M = 4;9) were…

  14. Children with Autism Illuminate the Role of Social Intention in Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish-Morris, Julia; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2007-01-01

    To what extent do children with autism (AD) versus typically developing children (TD) rely on attentional and intentional cues to learn words? Four experiments compared 17 AD children (M age = 5.08 years) with 17 language- and 17 mental-age-matched TD children (M ages = 2.57 and 3.12 years, respectively) on nonverbal enactment and word-learning…

  15. Parenting and Independent Problem-Solving in Preschool Children With Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Power, Thomas G.; Hahn, Amy L.; Hoehn, Jessica L.; Thompson, Caitlin C.; Herbert, Linda J.; Law, Emily F.; Bollinger, Mary Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine autonomy-promoting parenting and independent problem-solving in children with food allergy. Methods 66 children with food allergy, aged 3–6 years, and 67 age-matched healthy peers and their mothers were videotaped while completing easy and difficult puzzles. Coders recorded time to puzzle completion, children’s direct and indirect requests for help, and maternal help-giving behaviors. Results Compared with healthy peers, younger (3- to 4-year-old) children with food allergy made more indirect requests for help during the easy puzzle, and their mothers were more likely to provide unnecessary help (i.e., explain where to place a puzzle piece). Differences were not found for older children. Conclusions The results suggest that highly involved parenting practices that are medically necessary to manage food allergy may spill over into settings where high levels of involvement are not needed, and that young children with food allergy may be at increased risk for difficulties in autonomy development. PMID:25326001

  16. Depression of platelet counts in apparently healthy children with asymptomatic malaria infection in a Nigerian metropolitan city.

    PubMed

    Jeremiah, Zaccheaus Awortu; Uko, Emmanuel Kufre

    2007-09-01

    Asymptomatic malaria infection is a common feature of malaria endemic regions in the tropics. In this prospective cross sectional survey, involving 240 children aged 1 to 8 years (Boys = 117, Girls = 123; Ratio 1:1.05), the median platelet count was 115 x 10(9)/L (IQR 97.5-190). Thirty-three out of 240 (13.75%) of the children had thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100 x 10(9)/L). Malaria parasite was found to exert significant reduction in platelet count. This reduction was more pronounced in children under 5 years and also at higher parasite counts. An inverse relationship was established between parasite density and platelet count (y = -0.017x + 96.2, r = -0.2). Thrombocytopenia is not only a feature of acute malaria infection but also that of asymptomatic malaria infection in the tropics and might be a useful indicator of malaria in children.

  17. Concurrent validity and interobserver reliability of the EPInfant pediatric perceived exertion rating scale among healthy Chilean children.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Iván; Manterola, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the EPInfant pediatric perceived exertion rating scale among Chilean children. Children aged 8-12 years old were selected; their heart rate, perceived exertion and workload were recorded during two consecutive Chester tests performed with a one week interval. Pearson's r coefficient and the intraclass correlation coefficient were estimated. Thirty-one children (17 boys) were included in the study. A strong correlation was observed between perceived exertion and reference criteria, in addition to a high intraclass correlation coefficient. The average difference between the perceived exertion in each test was 1.4 (95% CI: -1.4 to 4.1) and 0.2 (95% CI: -1.8 to 2.2) for boys and girls, respectively. The EPInfant scale showed an acceptable criterion validity and interobserver reliability among children during an incremental step test.

  18. Chickenpox complications, incidence and financial burden in previously healthy children and those with an underlying disease in Ankara in the pre-vaccination period.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Halil; Candir, Mehmet Onur; Karbuz, Adem; Belet, Nurşen; Tapisiz, Anil; Ciftçi, Ergin; Ince, Erdal

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the complications, financial burden and mortality caused by chickenpox using the data of Ankara, Turkey in the pre-vaccination period. The study was conducted as a retrospective sectional study. Of the 65 patients admitted to our hospital, 34 (52.3%) had been previously healthy, 10 (15.4%) had previous chronic disease and 21 (32.3%) were immunocompromised. The most common complications of chickenpox in those patient groups were skin and soft tissue infections (41.2%), hematological complications (50%) and gastrointestinal complications (38.1%), respectively. We found 10.6/100,000 and 8.7/100,000 rates of hospitalization due to chickenpox in Ankara for all children and for previously healthy children, respectively. The chickenpox-related mortality rate for the 0-17 age group was 3.03/1,000,000 in Ankara. In conclusion, we feel that a national vaccination program for chickenpox will lead to a significant decrease in the overall cost to our country.

  19. Genetic detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-containing Escherichia coli isolates and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in fecal samples of healthy children.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Bruno; Barreto, Angela; Radhouani, Hajer; Figueiredo, Nicholas; Gaspar, Eurico; Rodrigues, Jorge; Torres, Carmen; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2009-09-01

    One hundred twelve fecal samples of healthy children were recovered in Portugal during October 2007 and February 2008 and were tested for extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) containing Escherichia coli isolates and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Three of the 112 fecal samples (2.7%) harbored ESBL-positive E. coli isolates and the bla(CTX-M-1), bla(TEM-52), and bla(SHV-12) genes were identified in these isolates. The bla(TEM-52)-containing isolate showed a phenotype of multiresistance that included fluoroquinolones, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol; sul1, sul3, and cmlA genes were detected in this isolate, in addition to two amino acid changes in GyrA (Ser83Leu + Asp87Asn) and one in ParC protein (Ser80Ile). The ESBL isolates corresponded to phylogroup A (one isolate), B1 (one isolate), and D (one isolate). vanA-containing Escherichia faecium isolates were detected in 13 of the 112 fecal samples (11.6%), and vanC-1 isolates were found in 2 samples. A diversity of resistance genes [(tet(M), tet(L), erm(B), aph(3')-IIIa, ant(6)-Ia, catA, and vat(E)] were found in VRE isolates. These results show that the intestinal tract of healthy children constitutes a reservoir of ESBL-containing E. coli and VRE isolates.

  20. Spatial sequence memory and spatial error monitoring in the Groton Maze Learning Task (GMLT): A validation study of GMLT sub-measures in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Elizabeth; Maruff, Paul; Paul, Jacob; Reeve, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The stepping-stone variant of the hidden pathway maze learning (HPML) task paradigm has been extensively used to investigate cognitive functions in neuropsychology and neuropharmacology. Previous studies have used total error across trials, as well as rule-break errors and learning errors, to define spatial memory and/or executive function in healthy and impaired adults and children. However, the construct validity of performance measures on HPML tasks has not been established in healthy children. To assess the construct validity of measures of exploratory and rule-break errors on the Groton Maze Learning Task (GMLT) measures of spatial sequence memory (Corsi Blocks Task) and spatial error monitoring (Continuous Paired Associate Learning; CPAL) were used. The results indicate that Corsi span predicted GMLT spatial sequence memory and CPAL accuracy predicted GMLT spatial error monitoring. The construct validity of the GMLT as a measure of spatial memory and executive function are discussed with regard to prior research using HPML tasks in neuropsychological contexts.

  1. Quantification of IgG subclasses in sera of normal adults and healthy children between 4 and 12 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    van der Giessen, M; Rossouw, E; van Veen, T A; van Loghem, E; Zegers, B J; Sander, P C

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of the four subclasses of IgG was determined in sera of normal adults and healthy children between 4 and 12 years of age, using the radial immunodiffusion technique. A relation between the concentration of IgG subclasses and Gm type was studied in adults. No influence of Gm type on IgG1 concentration could be shown, except that the group of Gm(fb) individuals had a higher level than the others. The mean concentration of IgG2 was higher in sera positive for Gm(n) than in those lacking this genetic marker. High IgG3 concentrations corresponded to the presence of Gm(b). No clearcut evidence was obtained for a relation between IgG4 concentration and Gm factors, although in general Gm(n) positive individuals had higher and Gm (zag) positive individuals lower concentrations of this subclass in their serum. Quantification of IgG subclasses in sera from healthy children of different ages revealed that the amount of IgG2 rises slowly with age, having not yet reached the adult level at the age of 12 years. This also holds for IgG4, although in a lesser degree. No significant differences from the adult level were found for the concentrations of IgG1 and IgG3. PMID:54236

  2. Generating Innovative Strategies for Healthy Infants and Children. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    In this report of a hearing on infants' and children's health, two factsheets present information on the lack of recent progress in reducing infant mortality rates; the accessibility of prenatal care; low birthweight; nutrition; inadequate child health care; health risks for low-income children; the lack of adequate health insurance; the health…

  3. Identifying Low pH Active and Lactate-Utilizing Taxa within Oral Microbiome Communities from Healthy Children Using Stable Isotope Probing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Jeffrey S.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Majors, Paul D.; McAteer, Kathleen; Allen, Lisa Z.; Shirtliff, Mark E.; Lux, Renate; Shi, Wenyuan

    2012-01-01

    Background Many human microbial infectious diseases including dental caries are polymicrobial in nature. How these complex multi-species communities evolve from a healthy to a diseased state is not well understood. Although many health- or disease-associated oral bacteria have been characterized in vitro, their physiology within the complex oral microbiome is difficult to determine with current approaches. In addition, about half of these species remain uncultivated to date with little known besides their 16S rRNA sequence. Lacking culture-based physiological analyses, the functional roles of uncultivated species will remain enigmatic despite their apparent disease correlation. To start addressing these knowledge gaps, we applied a combination of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) with RNA and DNA based Stable Isotope Probing (SIP) to oral plaque communities from healthy children for in vitro temporal monitoring of metabolites and identification of metabolically active and inactive bacterial species. Methodology/Principal Findings Supragingival plaque samples from caries-free children incubated with 13C-substrates under imposed healthy (buffered, pH 7) and diseased states (pH 5.5 and pH 4.5) produced lactate as the dominant organic acid from glucose metabolism. Rapid lactate utilization upon glucose depletion was observed under pH 7 conditions. SIP analyses revealed a number of genera containing cultured and uncultivated taxa with metabolic capabilities at pH 5.5. The diversity of active species decreased significantly at pH 4.5 and was dominated by Lactobacillus and Propionibacterium species, both of which have been previously found within carious lesions from children. Conclusions/Significance Our approach allowed for identification of species that metabolize carbohydrates under different pH conditions and supports the importance of Lactobacilli and Propionibacterium in the development of childhood caries. Identification of species within healthy subjects that

  4. Beverage Selections and Impact on Healthy Eating Index Scores in Elementary Children's Lunches from School and from Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Ogan, Dana; Watkins, Tracee; Barbee, Mary; Rushing, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purposes of this study were to: 1) analyze beverage selections of elementary students consuming National School Lunch Program meals (NSLP) and lunches brought from home (LBFH), 2) compare overall meal quality (MQ) of NSLP and LBFH by food components using Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), and 3) investigate the impact…

  5. Implementation Process and Acceptance of a Setting Based Prevention Programme to Promote Healthy Lifestyle in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Birgit; Strauss, Angelika; Mayer, Andrea; Duvinage, Kristin; Mitschek, Christine; Koletzko, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the implementation process of a kindergarten-based intervention ("TigerKids") to promote a healthy lifestyle. Design: Questionnaire survey among kindergarten teachers about programme implementation and acceptance. Setting: Kindergartens in Bavaria, Germany. Methods: Two hundred and fifteen kindergartens were…

  6. What practices do parents perceive as effective or ineffective in promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and less sitting in children: parent focus groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To support parents in improving the health of their young children, examples of effective parenting practices for a healthy diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are needed. This study explores perceived effective and ineffective parenting practices in difficult situations concerning raising healthy children and investigates their relationship with Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The current study is formative work to inform the content of a randomized controlled trial. Methods Four focus groups were conducted between June and October 2012 at worksites during lunch break. A total of 21 unrelated parents of primary schoolchildren (6 fathers, 15 mothers) participated. A short written questionnaire introduced typical difficult situations derived from parental anecdotal reports, concerning healthy diet, PA and SB. These situations formed the backbone for the subsequent focus group discussion. In October 2012, discussions were audio-recorded and analyzed in Nvivo to identify key response items using thematic analysis. Results Parents experienced explaining why the child should behave healthily, monitoring, being consistent, offering alternatives, reacting empathetically, modeling, motivating, increasing intrinsic value and availability, and using time-out as effective practices, whereas anger was considered ineffective. Opinions were mixed about the effectiveness of giving as much freedom as possible, obliging, rewarding and punishing, and setting rules and agreements. Parenting practices were consistent with principles from both SDT and SCT. Conclusions Parents identified numerous perceived effective practices to respond to their child’s health-related behavior. Since many of them coincide with the evidence base and the success of a parenting program depends upon the degree to which parents’ concerns and motivations are integrated into the program design, important opportunities are created for future

  7. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p < 0.05 for the overall physiologic state effect (lactation vs. control), and a within tissue pairwise comparison of p < 0.01. The proportion of false positives, an estimate of the ratio of false positives in the list of differentially expressed genes, was calculated for each tissue. The number of differentially expressed genes was 420 in the liver, 337 in the duodenum, 402 in the jejunum, and 523 in the ileum. The list of differentially expressed genes was in turn analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) to detect biological pathways that were overrepresented. In all tissues, sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-regulated genes involved in cholesterol synthesis showed increased mRNA expression, with the fewest changes detected in the jejunum. We detected increased Scap mRNA in the liver only, suggesting an explanation for the difference in response to lactation between the liver and small intestine. Expression of Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In

  8. Abnormal serum IgG subclass pattern in children with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Annerén, G; Magnusson, C G; Lilja, G; Nordvall, S L

    1992-01-01

    Susceptibility to infections is a well known feature of Down's syndrome. The possible relation between this predisposition and the serum concentrations of the IgG subclasses was studied in 38 children with Down's syndrome aged 1-12 years. An age matched group of 50 healthy children served as controls. The serum concentrations of IgG1 and IgG3 were significantly raised among children with Down's syndrome in all three age groups studied (that is 1-2.5, 4-8, and 9-12 years). The serum concentrations of IgG2 were normal in the first two groups but significantly reduced in the third age group. In contrast, the concentrations of IgG4 among children with Down's syndrome were significantly reduced in all three age groups. Moreover, among the children with Down's syndrome aged 4-12 years 68% (15/22) had IgG4 concentrations below 2 SDs of the geometrical mean of the controls. The results may partially explain the proneness of children with Down's syndrome to infections with encapsulated bacteria. Although the underlying cause of these abnormalities is unknown, IgG subclass determination seems relevant in the clinical evaluation of children with Down's syndrome. PMID:1534650

  9. Exploratory Procedures of Tactile Images in Visually Impaired and Blindfolded Sighted Children: How They Relate to Their Consequent Performance in Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinter, Annie; Fernandes, Viviane; Orlandi, Oriana; Morgan, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the types of exploratory procedures employed by children when exploring bidimensional tactile patterns and correlate the use of these procedures with the children's shape drawing performance. 18 early blind children, 20 children with low vision and 24 age-matched blindfolded sighted children aged…

  10. Exposure to Severe Urban Air Pollution Influences Cognitive Outcomes, Brain Volume and Systemic Inflammation in Clinically Healthy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Engle, Randall; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Styner, Martin; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Romero, Lina; Monroy-Acosta, Maria E.; Bryant, Christopher; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis Oscar; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to severe air pollution produces neuroinflammation and structural brain alterations in children. We tested whether patterns of brain growth, cognitive deficits and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with exposures to severe air pollution. Baseline and 1 year follow-up measurements of global and regional brain MRI volumes,…

  11. I'm Chocolate, You're Vanilla: Raising Healthy Black and Biracial Children in a Race-Conscious World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Marguerite A.

    This guide teaches parents and educators of black and biracial children how to reduce racism's impact on a child's development to promote emotional health at preschool, elementary, and secondary levels. The chapters are: (1) "Chocolate and Vanilla: How Preschoolers See Color and Race"; (2) "How Preschoolers Begin To Learn Racial Attitudes"; (3)…

  12. Happiness Is Healthiness. A Special Study Institute in Health Education for Mentally Handicapped Children in Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau for Mentally Handicapped Children.

    Presented are proceedings from a 3-day study institute (1971) to provide teachers of mentally handicapped (MH) students, health profession personnel, and physical education teachers in Schenectady with resource information for implementation of New York state's mandate to provide health education for all children. Included are the program schedule…

  13. Finding Funding: Supporting Making Connections Core Result that Children are Healthy and Prepared to Succeed in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Christianne; Crocker, Jarle; Stewart, Nichole; Torrico, Roxana; Bhat, Soumya; Schmid, William; Ennis, Melissa, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The Annie E. Casey Foundation's "Making Connections" initiative provides support to communities across the country to help improve outcomes for children and families in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The sites, together with local partners, are engaged in a range of strategies and activities, reflecting local conditions and priorities, to ensure…

  14. Neuropsychological profiles and outcomes in children with new onset frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Matricardi, Sara; Deleo, Francesco; Ragona, Francesca; Rinaldi, Victoria Elisa; Pelliccia, Sarah; Coppola, Giangennaro; Verrotti, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) is the second most frequent type of localization-related epilepsy, and it may impact neurocognitive functioning with high variability. The prevalence of neurocognitive impairment in affected children remains poorly defined. This report outlines the neuropsychological profiles and outcomes in children with new onset FLE, and the impact of epilepsy-related factors, such as seizure frequency and antiepileptic drug (AED) load, on the neurocognitive development. Twenty-three consecutive children (15 males and 8 females) with newly diagnosed cryptogenic FLE were enrolled; median age at epilepsy onset was 7 years (6-9.6 years). They underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation and neuropsychological assessment before starting AED treatment (time 0) and after one year of treatment (time 1). Twenty age-matched patients affected by idiopathic generalized epilepsy (10 male and 10 females) and eighteen age-matched healthy subjects (9 males and 9 females) were enrolled as controls and underwent the same assessment. All patients with FLE showed a significant difference in almost all assessed cognitive domains compared with controls, mainly in frontal functions and memory. At time 1, patients were divided into two groups according to epilepsy-related factors: group 1 (9 patients) with persisting seizures despite AED polytherapy, and group 2 (14 patients) with good seizure control in monotherapy. A significant difference was highlighted in almost all subtests in group 1 compared with group 2, both at time 0 and at time 1. In children with FLE showing a broad range of neurocognitive impairments, the epilepsy-related factors mostly related to a worse neurocognitive outcome are poor seizure control and the use of AED polytherapy, suggesting that epileptic discharges may have a negative impact on the functioning of the involved cerebral regions.

  15. Comparing the PPAT Drawings of Boys with AD/HD and Age-Matched Controls Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munley, Maripat

    2002-01-01

    Explores whether children with AD/HD respond differently to a specific art directive. Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale to evaluate the drawings, results indicate three elements that would most accurately predict the artists into the AD/HD group: color prominence, details of objects and environments, and line quality. (Contains 29…

  16. Age-related alterations of the CD19 complex and memory B cells in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Seckin, Ayse Nazli; Ozdemir, Hulya; Ceylan, Ayca; Artac, Hasibe

    2017-02-14

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a high incidence of recurrent respiratory tract infections, leukaemia and autoimmune disorders, suggesting immune dysfunction. The present study evaluated the role of the CD19 complex and memory B cells in the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency in children with DS. The expression levels (median fluorescein intensity-MFI) of CD19, CD21 and CD81 molecules on the surface of B cells and memory B cell subsets were studied in 37 patients and 39 healthy controls. Twenty-nine of the DS group had congenital cardiac disease. The B cell count was significantly low in children with DS compared with healthy age-matched controls for all three age groups (under 2 years; 2-6 years and older than 6 years). The MFI of CD19 was reduced in all the age groups, whereas that of CD21 was increased in those older than 2 years with DS. The expression level of CD81 was significantly increased in those older than 6 years. Age-related changes were also detected in memory B cell subsets. The frequency of CD27(+)IgD(+)IgM(+) natural effector B cells was reduced in children with DS who had needed hospitalisation admission due to infections. The observed intrinsic defects in B cells may be responsible for the increased susceptibility of children with DS to severe respiratory tract infections.

  17. Sensitivity of Four Subtests of the Test of Everyday Attention For Children (TEA-Ch) to Stimulant Medication in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutcliffe, Paul A.; Bishop, Dorothy V.M.; Houghton, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined on four subtests of the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) when on and off stimulant medication. Performance was assessed relative to 18 individually age-matched controls. Children with ADHD performed significantly worse on TEA-Ch measures when off compared…

  18. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  19. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Under Control Nutrition Guide for Toddlers Healthy Food Shopping What Should Preschoolers Drink? Healthy Drinks for Kids ... to Eating Right Learning About Calories Smart Supermarket Shopping Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Quick Guide to ...

  20. Healthy children show gender differences in correlations between nonverbal cognitive ability and brain activation during visual perception.

    PubMed

    Asano, Kohei; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Asano, Michiko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-08-08

    Humans perceive textual and nontextual information in visual perception, and both depend on language. In childhood education, students exhibit diverse perceptual abilities, such that some students process textual information better and some process nontextual information better. These predispositions involve many factors, including cognitive ability and learning preference. However, the relationship between verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during visual perception has not yet been examined in children. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between nonverbal and verbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during nontextual visual perception in large numbers of children. A significant positive correlation was found between nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation in the right temporoparietal junction, which is thought to be related to attention reorienting. This significant positive correlation existed only in boys. These findings suggested that male brain activation differed from female brain activation, and that this depended on individual cognitive processes, even if there was no gender difference in behavioral performance.

  1. [How to set up a family and have healthy children? Plato and Aristotle's formulas for good life].

    PubMed

    Sahaj, Tomasz

    2003-01-01

    The article reconstructs and analyses the views of two great philosophers: Plato and Aristotle. Contrary to general opinions, philosophy busies itself not only with abstract issues, but also with the realistic ones. The thinkers introduced here prove this theory. They went into details discussing matters such as: procreation, behaviour of pregnant women, feeding and bringing up babies, children and teenagers' physical and mental education. Both men treated citizens' health as a matter of paramount importance, the matter of national significance.

  2. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-03-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy 30 October-1 November, 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  3. Bellagio report on healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-02-05

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  4. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.; Bourne, Peter G.; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security. PMID:23385371

  5. [Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People].

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-11-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  6. Safety and preliminary immunogenicity of Cuban pneumococcal conjugate vaccine candidate in healthy children: a randomized phase I clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dotres, Carlos P; Puga, Rinaldo; Ricardo, Yariset; Broño, Carmen R; Paredes, Beatriz; Echemendía, Vladimir; Rosell, Sandra; González, Nadezhda; García-Rivera, Dagmar; Valdés, Yury; Goldblatt, David; Vérez-Bencomo, Vicente

    2014-09-15

    A new heptavalent conjugate vaccine (PCV7-TT) is under development in Cuba. PCV7-TT contains 2 μg of serotypes 1, 5, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F and 4 μg of 6B, each one conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT). This vaccine was designed with the serotypes that cause most invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the safety and explored the immunogenicity of PCV7-TT during a controlled, randomized and double blind clinical trial phase I in 4-5-year-old children. PCV7-TT was well tolerated and as safe as Synflorix used as control vaccine. Following a single-dose vaccination, all individual serotypes included in PCV7-TT induced statistically significant increase of IgG GMC and OPA GMT. These are the first clinical results of PCV7-TT in children and they pave the way toward next clinical trials in children and infants. This clinical trial was published in the Cuban Public Register of Clinical Trials with code RPCEC00000173.

  7. Prebiotics in healthy infants and children for prevention of acute infectious diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lohner, Szimonetta; Küllenberg, Daniela; Antes, Gerd; Decsi, Tamás; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2014-08-01

    Prebiotics, defined as nondigestible dietary ingredients resistant to gastric acidity and fermented by the intestinal flora, are used to positively influence the composition of intestinal flora, thereby promoting health benefits. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of prebiotics in the prevention of acute infectious diseases in children. A systematic literature search was conducted using the Ovid Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library's Central databases. Finally, five randomized controlled trials, all of them investigating infants and children 0-24 months of age, were included in the review. Pooled estimates from three studies revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of infectious episodes requiring antibiotic therapy in the prebiotic group as compared with the placebo group (rate ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.77). Studies available indicate that prebiotics may also be effective in decreasing the rate of overall infections in infants and children 0-24 months of age. Further studies in the age group 3-18 years are required to determine whether prebiotics can be considered for the prevention of acute infectious diseases in the older pediatric population.

  8. The Healthy Start project: a randomized, controlled intervention to prevent overweight among normal weight, preschool children at high risk of future overweight

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research shows that obesity prevention has to start early. Targeting interventions towards subgroups of individuals who are predisposed, but yet normal weight, may prove more effective in preventing overweight than interventions towards unselected normal weight subsets. Finally, interventions focused on other factors than diet and activity are lacking. The objectives were to perform a randomized, controlled intervention aiming at preventing overweight in children aged 2–6 years, who are yet normal weight, but have high predisposition for future overweight, and to intervene not only by improving diet and physical activity, but also reduce stress and improve sleep quality and quantity. Methods/Design Based on information from the Danish National Birth Registry and administrative birth forms, children were selected based on having either a high birth weight, a mother who was overweight prior to pregnancy, or a familial low socioeconomic status. Selected children (n = 5,902) were randomized into three groups; an intervention group, a shadow control group followed in registers exclusively, and a control group examined at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Approximately 21% agreed to participate. Children who presented as overweight prior to the intervention were excluded from this study (n = 92). In the intervention group, 271 children were included, and in the control group 272 were included. Information obtained from the shadow control group is on-going, but it is estimated that 394 children will be included. The intervention took place over on average 1½ year between 2009 and 2011, and consisted of optional individual guidance in optimizing diet and physical activity habits, reducing chronic stress and stressful events and improving sleep quality and quantity. The intervention also included participation in cooking classes and play arrangements. Information on dietary intake, meal habits, physical activity, sleep habits, and

  9. Combination Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella Vaccine in Healthy Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Immunogenicity and Safety.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shu-Juan; Li, Xing; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Yao, A-Ling; Chen, Qing

    2015-11-01

    A combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine is expected to facilitate universal immunization against these 4 diseases. This study was undertaken to synthesize current research findings of the immunogenicity and safety of MMRV in healthy children.We searched PubMed, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and other databases through September 9, 2014. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected and collected independently by 2 reviewers. Meta-analysis was conducted using Stata 12.0 and RevMan 5.3.Twenty-four RCTs were included in qualitative synthesis. Nineteen RCTs compared single MMRV dose with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine with or without varicella vaccine (MMR + V/MMR). Similar seroconversion rates of these 4 viruses were found between comparison groups. There were comparable geometric mean titers (GMTs) against mumps and varicella viruses between MMRV group and MMR + V/MMR group. MMRV group achieved enhanced immune response to measles component, with GMT ratio of 1.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48, 1.86; P < 0.001) for MMRV versus MMR and 1.62 (95% CI 1.51, 1.70; P < 0.001) for MMRV versus MMR + V. Meanwhile, immune response to rubella component in MMRV group was slightly reduced, GMT ratios were 0.81 (95% CI 0.78, 0.85; P < 0.001) and 0.79 (95% CI 0.76, 0.83; P < 0.001), respectively. Well tolerated safety profiles were demonstrated except higher incidence of fever (relative risks 1.12-1.60) and measles/rubella-like rash (relative risks 1.44-1.45) in MMRV groups.MMRV had comparable immunogenicity and overall safety profiles to MMR + V/MMR in healthy children based on current evidence.

  10. A randomised controlled trial and mediation analysis of the ‘Healthy Habits’, telephone-based dietary intervention for preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of non-core foods in childhood is associated with excessive weight gain in childhood. Parents play a vital role in establishing healthy diet behaviours in young children. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a telephone-based intervention in reducing child consumption of non-core foods, and to examine parent and home food environment mediators of change in child consumption. Methods The ‘Healthy Habits’ trial utilised a clustered randomised controlled design. Setting/participants Parents were recruited from 30 preschools (N = 394 participants, mean age 35.2±5.6 years). Parents randomized to the intervention group received four telephone contacts and print materials. Parents allocated to the control condition receive generic print materials only. Non-core food consumption was assessed using a validated child dietary questionnaire at baseline, 2 and 6 months post recruitment in 2010. Results The intervention was effective in reducing child consumption of non-core foods at 2 months (intention to treat analysis: z=-2.83, p<.01), however this effect was not maintained at 6 months. Structural equation modelling using 2 month data indicated that child access to non-core foods in the home and child feeding strategies mediated the effect of the intervention. Conclusion The telephone-based intervention shows promise in improving short term dietary behaviour in preschool age children, however further development is needed to sustain the effect in the long-term. Trial registration Australian Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12609000820202 PMID:23566360

  11. Deaf and Hearing Children: A Comparison of Peripheral Vision Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codina, Charlotte; Buckley, David; Port, Michael; Pascalis, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated peripheral vision (at least 30[degrees] eccentric to fixation) development in profoundly deaf children without cochlear implantation, and compared this to age-matched hearing controls as well as to deaf and hearing adult data. Deaf and hearing children between the ages of 5 and 15 years were assessed using a new,…

  12. Relation of Melatonin to Sleep Architecture in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leu, Roberta M.; Beyderman, Liya; Botzolakis, Emmanuel J.; Surdyka, Kyla; Wang, Lily; Malow, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism often suffer from sleep disturbances, and compared to age-matched controls, have decreased melatonin levels, as indicated by urine levels of the primary melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-SM). We therefore investigated the relationship between 6-SM levels and sleep architecture in children with autism spectrum…

  13. Categorization Skills and Receptive Language Development in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerer, Judy A.; Sigman, Marian

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of category knowledge and receptive language skills of 16 autistic (3-6 years old), mentally retarded, and normal children indicated that the autistic children's knowledge of function, form, and color categories was comparable to that of the mental-age-matched mentally retarded and normal comparison groups. (Author/DB)

  14. Intermodal Matching of Emotional Expressions in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Goldman, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the ability of young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to detect affective correspondences between facial and vocal expressions of emotion using an intermodal matching paradigm. Four-year-old children with ASD (n = 18) and their age-matched normally developing peers (n = 18) were presented pairs of videotaped facial…

  15. Rapid Naming by Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Jeffry A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have reported that children with specific language impairment (SLI) name pictures more slowly than do chronological age-matched (CAM) peers. Rapid naming depends on 2 factors known to be problematic for children with SLI--lexical retrieval and nonlinguistic speed of processing. Although all studies implicate a…

  16. Variability and Diagnostic Accuracy of Speech Intelligibility Scores in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Oakes, Ashley; Allison, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We examined variability of speech intelligibility scores and how well intelligibility scores predicted group membership among 5-year-old children with speech motor impairment (SMI) secondary to cerebral palsy and an age-matched group of typically developing (TD) children. Method: Speech samples varying in length from 1-4 words were…

  17. Phonological and Semantic Priming in Children with Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Keenan, Janice M.

    2008-01-01

    Lexical priming was assessed in children with reading disability (RD) and in age-matched controls (M= 11.5 years), in visual and auditory lexical decision tasks. In the visual task, children with RD were found to have deficits in semantic (SHIP-BOAT), phonological/graphemic (GOAT-BOAT), and combined (FLOAT-BOAT) priming. The same pattern of…

  18. Planum Temporale Volume in Children and Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Donald C.; Camou, Suzanne L.; Reite, Martin L.; Rogers, Sally J.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has revealed a lack of planum temporale (PT) asymmetry in adults with autism. This finding is now extended to children and adolescents with the disorder. MRI scans were obtained from 12 children with autism and 12 gender, handedness and age-matched comparison participants. The volume of gray matter in the PT and Heschl's gyrus…

  19. Healthy People 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, Catherine M.

    2001-01-01

    Major Healthy People (HP) 2000 goals closely tied to prevention were not met nationally: physical activity did not improve; evidence that it actually decreased; obesity did not decrease but instead increased in all groups, actually doubling in children; and incidence of type 2 diabetes did not decrease, but instead evidence showed that it increased in all age groups.

  20. A Comparison of Phonological Processing Skills of Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jungjun; Lombardino, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999), the researchers compared strengths and weaknesses in phonological processing skills in three groups: 21 children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MSNH group), 29 children with dyslexia, and 30 age-matched controls. The MSNH group showed…

  1. Production and Processing Asymmetries in the Acquisition of Tense Morphology by Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chondrogianni, Vasiliki; Marinis, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the production and online processing of English tense morphemes by sequential bilingual (L2) Turkish-speaking children with more than three years of exposure to English. Thirty-nine six- to nine-year-old L2 children and twenty-eight typically developing age-matched monolingual (L1) children were administered the production…

  2. The Perception of Lexical Tone Contrasts in Cantonese Children with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ciocca, Valter; Yung, Sun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the perception of fundamental frequency (f0) patterns by Cantonese children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Participants were 14 five-year-old children with SLI, and 14 age-matched (AM) and 13 four-year-old vocabulary-matched (VM) controls. The children identified a word from familiar word…

  3. Motor Learning of a Bimanual Task in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Ya-Ching; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) have been shown to improve their motor performance with sufficient practice. However, little is known about how they learn goal-oriented tasks. In the current study, 21 children with unilateral CP (age 4-10 years old) and 21 age-matched typically developed children (TDC) practiced a simple bimanual…

  4. Imitation of Body Postures and Hand Movements in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Within the domain-general theory of language impairment, this study examined body posture and hand movement imitation in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and in their age-matched peers. Participants included 40 children with SLI (5 years 3 months to 6 years 10 months of age) and 40 children with typical language development (5…

  5. Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children with SLI: Semantic, Phonological, and Repetition Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Melinda; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to contribute to the current understanding of how children with specific language impairment (SLI) organize their mental lexicons. The study examined semantic and phonological priming in children with and without SLI. Method: Thirteen children (7;0-11;3 [years;months]) with SLI and 13 age-matched children…

  6. Speech Disruptions in the Narratives of English-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ling-yu; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Samelson, Vicki

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the types, frequencies, and distribution of speech disruptions in the spoken narratives of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their age-matched (CA) and language-matched (LA) peers. Method: Twenty 4th-grade children with SLI, 20 typically developing CA children, and 20 younger typically developing LA…

  7. Evidence of a Faster Posterior Dominant EEG Rhythm in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Michael D.; Mandelbaum, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities have been associated with autism. In the course of clinical work, we have observed a posterior dominant EEG rhythm at higher frequency in children with autism. To test this observation, 56 EEG tracings of children with autism were compared to the EEGs of age-matched controls. Children with autism…

  8. The Use of Cohesive Markers in Narratives by Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nancy Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how children and adolescents with Williams syndrome (WS; ages 8 years, 0 months [8;0]-14;5) used referential devices (determiners and pronouns), tense, and connectives to create cohesion in oral narratives based on a storybook compared to typically developing mentally and chronologically age-matched children. WS children used…

  9. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  10. Multidimensional analysis of food-allergic children and adolescents' self-concept: A comparison with a healthy matched sample.

    PubMed

    Polloni, Laura; Baldi, Ileana; Lazzarotto, Francesca; Bonaguro, Roberta; Toniolo, Alice; Gregori, Dario; Muraro, Antonella

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated self-concept in food-allergic youths and matched healthy controls. Global and domain-specific self-concepts were assessed in 154 participants (9-19 years) using the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale. Statistical analysis assessed differences between the two samples and effects of asthma, dermatitis, age, and gender among patients. Significant differences were found for Total Scale score and for Competence and Physical scores. Patients showed clinically problematic self-concepts in Global, Competence, and Family domains. Age was found to be associated with the Total score. Health professionals should consider food-allergic patients' personality development. Further studies could examine disease-specific consequences and interventions.

  11. Characterisation of the Mechanical Loads and Metabolic Intensity of the CAPO Kids Exercise Intervention for Healthy Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Rossana C.; Weeks, Benjamin K.; Beck, Belinda R.

    2015-01-01

    Sedentarism is associated with obesity and other chronic diseases at all ages. Increasing physical activity with in-school interventions, focusing on energy expenditure and bone loading reduces risk of a number of costly chronic diseases. The aim of the current study was to characterise the metabolic and musculoskeletal load intensity of the recent successful CAPO Kids exercise intervention. Pre and early pubertal children (10.4 ± 0.5 years old) from the CAPO Kids trial wore an armband sensor to estimate energy expenditure during a 10-minute CAPO Kids session. Eleven participants performed manoeuvres from the session on a force platform to determine vertical ground reaction forces. In total, 28 boys and 20 girls had armband measures and 11 boys and girls undertook GRF testing. The energy expenditure associated with the 10-minute session was 39.7 ± 9.3 kcal, with an average of 4 kcal·min-1. The intensity of physical activity was ‘vigorous’ to ‘very vigorous’ for 34% of the session. Vertical ground reaction forces of the CAPO Kids manoeuvres ranged from 1.3 ± 0.2 BW (cartwheels) to 5.4 ± 2.3 BW (360° jump). CAPO Kids generates adequate load intensity to stimulate positive health adaptations in both metabolic and musculoskeletal systems of pre and early pubertal children. Key points Energy expenditure of a single bout of CAPO Kids yields 39.7±9.3 kcal and includes activities performed at a vigorous and very vigorous intensity. Mechanical loads associated with CAPO Kids surpass five times bodyweight and more than 140 bodyweights per second. CAPO Kids intervention represents a viable approach to stimulate musculoskeletal and metabolic adaptation in children. PMID:26336343

  12. Characterisation of the Mechanical Loads and Metabolic Intensity of the CAPO Kids Exercise Intervention for Healthy Primary School Children.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Rossana C; Weeks, Benjamin K; Beck, Belinda R

    2015-09-01

    Sedentarism is associated with obesity and other chronic diseases at all ages. Increasing physical activity with in-school interventions, focusing on energy expenditure and bone loading reduces risk of a number of costly chronic diseases. The aim of the current study was to characterise the metabolic and musculoskeletal load intensity of the recent successful CAPO Kids exercise intervention. Pre and early pubertal children (10.4 ± 0.5 years old) from the CAPO Kids trial wore an armband sensor to estimate energy expenditure during a 10-minute CAPO Kids session. Eleven participants performed manoeuvres from the session on a force platform to determine vertical ground reaction forces. In total, 28 boys and 20 girls had armband measures and 11 boys and girls undertook GRF testing. The energy expenditure associated with the 10-minute session was 39.7 ± 9.3 kcal, with an average of 4 kcal·min-1. The intensity of physical activity was 'vigorous' to 'very vigorous' for 34% of the session. Vertical ground reaction forces of the CAPO Kids manoeuvres ranged from 1.3 ± 0.2 BW (cartwheels) to 5.4 ± 2.3 BW (360° jump). CAPO Kids generates adequate load intensity to stimulate positive health adaptations in both metabolic and musculoskeletal systems of pre and early pubertal children. Key pointsEnergy expenditure of a single bout of CAPO Kids yields 39.7±9.3 kcal and includes activities performed at a vigorous and very vigorous intensity.Mechanical loads associated with CAPO Kids surpass five times bodyweight and more than 140 bodyweights per second.CAPO Kids intervention represents a viable approach to stimulate musculoskeletal and metabolic adaptation in children.

  13. Functional brain activation to emotional and nonemotional faces in healthy children: evidence for developmentally undifferentiated amygdala function during the school-age period.

    PubMed

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Gaffrey, Michael S; Belden, Andrew C; Botteron, Kelly N; Harms, Michael P; Barch, Deanna M

    2013-12-01

    The amygdala is a key region in emotion processing. In particular, fMRI studies have demonstrated that the amygdala is active during the viewing of emotional faces. Previous research has consistently found greater amygdala responses to fearful than to neutral faces in adults, convergent with a focus in the animal literature on the amygdala's role in fear processing. Studies have shown that the amygdala also responds differentially to other facial emotion types in adults. Yet the literature regarding when this differential amygdala responsivity develops is limited and mixed. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine amygdala responses to emotional and neutral faces in a relatively large sample of healthy school-age children (N = 52). Although the amygdala was active in response to emotional and neutral faces, the results did not support the hypothesis that the amygdala responds differentially to emotional faces in 7- to 12-year-old children. Nonetheless, amygdala activity was correlated with the severity of subclinical depression symptoms and with emotional regulation skills. Additionally, sex differences were observed in frontal, temporal, and visual regions, as well as effects of pubertal development in visual regions. These findings suggest important differences in amygdala reactivity in childhood.

  14. Project FIT: A School, Community and Social Marketing Intervention Improves Healthy Eating Among Low-Income Elementary School Children.

    PubMed

    Alaimo, Katherine; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Eisenmann, Joey C; Paek, Hye-Jin; Betz, Heather H; Thompson, Tracy; Wen, Yalu; Norman, Gregory J

    2015-08-01

    Project FIT was a two-year multi-component nutrition and physical activity intervention delivered in ethnically-diverse low-income elementary schools in Grand Rapids, MI. This paper reports effects on children's nutrition outcomes and process evaluation of the school component. A quasi-experimental design was utilized. 3rd, 4th and 5th-grade students (Yr 1 baseline: N = 410; Yr 2 baseline: N = 405; age range: 7.5-12.6 years) were measured in the fall and spring over the two-year intervention. Ordinal logistic, mixed effect models and generalized estimating equations were fitted, and the robust standard errors were utilized. Primary outcomes favoring the intervention students were found regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grain bread during year 2. Process evaluation revealed that implementation of most intervention components increased during year 2. Project FIT resulted in small but beneficial effects on consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grain bread in ethnically diverse low-income elementary school children.

  15. Safety and immunogenicity of single dose live attenuated varicella vaccine (VR 795 Oka strain) in healthy Indian children: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Monjori; Faridi, Mma; Ghosh, Apurba; Shah, Nitin; Shah, Raju; Chaterjee, Suparna; Narang, Manish; Bhattacharya, Nisha; Bhat, Gandhali; Choudhury, Harish; Kadhe, Ganesh; Mane, Amey; Roy, Sucheta

    2015-01-01

    Varicella, an acute viral systemic infection that may cause lifelong latent infection with the potential for causing clinical reactivation, may be prevented by immunization. The present study was an open label, randomized, controlled, phase III, multicentre trial, conducted to evaluate and compare the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a freeze dried live attenuated Oka strain Varicella Vaccine (VR 795 Oka strain) with Varilrix (Oka-RIT strain) in children. A total of 268 healthy Indian children aged 12 months to 12 y with baseline VZV IgG antibody (<100 mIU/ mL) were enrolled, and 256 children completed the study. The extent of rise of VZV IgG antibody titer assessed as 3-fold and 4-fold rise from baseline was found to be significantly higher (89.1% and 85.2%) in the test group as compared to control group (73.4% and 61.7%). The post-vaccination GMT of the test group was significantly higher (112.5 mIU/mL) as compared with the control group (67.8 mIU/mL) (P < 0.001). The seroconversion rate considering the 5 gp ELISA units/ml equivalent to 10mIU/ml were similar in the control (96.5%) and the test (98.3%) groups. The adverse events were not different in the control and test groups (P > 0.05). The test live attenuated vaccine was found to be highly immunogenic, safe and comparable to Varilrix used in control arm.

  16. Associations of Milk Consumption and Vitamin B₂ and Β12 Derived from Milk with Fitness, Anthropometric and Biochemical Indices in Children. The Healthy Growth Study.

    PubMed

    Moschonis, George; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Mavrogianni, Christina; Singh-Povel, Cécile M; Leotsinidis, Michalis; Manios, Yannis

    2016-10-13

    The benefits of dairy consumption seem to extend beyond its significant contribution to ensuring nutrient intake adequacy as indicated by the favourable associations with several health outcomes reported by different studies. The aims of the present study were to examine the associations of milk consumption with fitness, anthropometric and biochemical indices in children and further explore whether the observed associations are attributed to vitamins B₂ and B12 derived from milk. A representative subsample of 600 children aged 9-13 years participating in the Healthy Growth Study was examined. Data were collected on children's dietary intake, using 24 h recalls, as well as on fitness, anthropometric and biochemical indices. Regression analyses were performed for investigating the research hypothesis, adjusting for potential confounders and for B-vitamin status indices (i.e., plasma riboflavin, methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine concentrations), dietary calcium intake and plasma zinc concentrations that could possibly act as effect modifiers. Milk consumption was positively associated with the number of stages performed in the endurance run test (ERT) (β = 0.10; p = 0.017) and negatively with body mass index (BMI) (β = -0.10; p = 0.014), after adjusting for several potential confounders and effect modifiers. Dietary intakes of vitamin B₂ and B12 derived from milk were also positively associated with the number of ERT stages (β = 0.10; p = 0.015 and β = 0.10; p = 0.014 respectively). In conclusion, higher intake of milk as well as vitamin B₂ and B12 derived from milk were independently associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness in Greek preadolescents. The key roles of these B-vitamins in substrate oxidation, energy production, haemoglobin synthesis and erythropoiesis could provide a basis for interpreting these associations. However, further research is needed to confirm this potential interpretation.

  17. Bone mineral density in children with Fanconi anemia after hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Petryk, Anna; Polgreen, Lynda E.; Barnum, Jessie L.; Zhang, Lei; Hodges, James S.; Baker, K. Scott; Wagner, John E.; Steinberger, Julia; MacMillan, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited DNA repair disorder associated with short stature and bone marrow failure usually requiring hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). While low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in leukemia patients after HCT, little is known about BMD in FA children after HCT (FA HCT). This study's goals were to compare BMD in FA HCT to BMD in healthy controls, and in children who received HCT for hematologic malignancy (Cancer HCT), and to test for associations between BMD and risk factors for bone loss. This cross-sectional study included 20 FA HCT, 13 Cancer HCT, and 90 healthy controls, age-matched and <18 years old at evaluation. BMD Z-scores for total body (TBMD) and lumbar spine (LBMD) were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and adjusted for height-forage Z-score (HAZ). FA HCT had lower mean TBMDHAZ Z-score (by 0.8 SD) and higher fraction with Z-score ≤ −1 than healthy controls (42% vs. 11%). No LBMD deficits were detected. FA HCT and Cancer HCT groups did not differ significantly in TBMD or LBMD Z-scores. In FA HCT patients, lower BMI and lower percent fat were associated with lower BMD. This study highlights the importance of monitoring BMD to optimize bone health in FA patients. PMID:25591848

  18. Bone mineral density in children with fanconi anemia after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Petryk, Anna; Polgreen, Lynda E; Barnum, Jessie L; Zhang, Lei; Hodges, James S; Baker, K Scott; Wagner, John E; Steinberger, Julia; MacMillan, Margaret L

    2015-05-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited DNA repair disorder associated with short stature and bone marrow failure, usually requiring hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Although low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in leukemia patients after HCT, little is known about BMD in FA children after HCT (FA HCT). This study's goals were to compare BMD in FA HCT to BMD in healthy controls and in children who received HCT for hematologic malignancy (cancer HCT), and to test for associations between BMD and risk factors for bone loss. This cross-sectional study included 20 FA HCT, 13 cancer HCT, and 90 healthy controls, age-matched and <18 years old at evaluation. BMD Z-scores for total body (TBMD) and lumbar spine (LBMD) were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and adjusted for height-for-age Z-score (HAZ). FA HCT had lower mean TBMDHAZ Z-score (by .8 SD) and higher fraction with Z-score ≤ -1 than healthy controls (42% versus 11%). No LBMD deficits were detected. FA HCT and cancer HCT groups did not differ significantly in TBMD or LBMD Z-scores. In FA HCT patients, lower body mass index and lower percent fat were associated with lower BMD. This study highlights the importance of monitoring BMD to optimize bone health in FA patients.

  19. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  20. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-08-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.