Science.gov

Sample records for age-matched healthy control

  1. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference “creatinine independent” GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys. PMID:27651734

  2. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference “creatinine independent” GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys.

  3. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control.

    PubMed

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-09-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference "creatinine independent" GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys. PMID:27651734

  4. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  5. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  6. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals.

  7. Age-Matched, Case-Controlled Comparison of Clinical Indicators for Development of Entropion and Ectropion

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Kevin S.; Czyz, Craig N.; Cahill, Kenneth V.; Foster, Jill A.; Burns, John A.; Everman, Kelly R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze the clinical findings associated with involutional entropion and ectropion and compare them to each other and to age-matched controls. Methods. Prospective, age-matched cohort study involving 30 lids with involutional entropion, 30 lids with involutional ectropion, and 52 age-matched control lids. Results. The statistically significant differences associated with both the entropion and ectropion groups compared to the control group were presence of a retractor dehiscence, presence of a “white line,” occurrence of orbital fat prolapse in the cul-de-sac, decreased lower lid excursion, increased lid laxity by the snapback test, and an increased lower lid distraction. Entropion also differed from the control group with an increased lid crease height and decreased lateral canthal excursion. Statistically significant differences associated with entropion compared to ectropion were presence of a retractor dehiscence, decreased lateral canthal excursion, and less laxity in the snapback test. Conclusion. Entropic and ectropic lids demonstrate clinically and statistically significant anatomical and functional differences from normal, age-matched lids. Many clinical findings associated with entropion are also present in ectropion. Entropion is more likely to develop with a pronounced retractor deficiency. Ectropion is more likely to develop with diminished elasticity as measured by the snapback test. PMID:24734167

  8. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals. PMID:25790831

  9. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  10. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  11. Preserved Learning during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J.; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit–symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol–digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol–digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. Results: The repetition of the same symbol–digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the

  12. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  13. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  14. Oral contraceptive use among female elite athletes and age-matched controls and its relation to low back pain.

    PubMed

    Brynhildsen, J; Lennartsson, H; Klemetz, M; Dahlquist, P; Hedin, B; Hammar, M

    1997-10-01

    Exogenous and endogenous female sex steroids may influence the risk of low back pain. The fact that back pain is a very common symptom during pregnancy supports this theory. Back pain is also more common among female than male athletes. Oral contraceptives have been suggested to increase the risk of low back pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the prevalence of low back pain is higher among oral contraceptive users than non-users and if it differs between women taking part in different sports. A questionnaire was sent to female elite athletes in volleyball (n = 205), basketball (n = 150), and soccer (n = 361) as well as to age-matched controls (n = 113). The questionnaire comprised questions about age, constitution, occupation, parity, and use of contraceptive method as well as previous and current back pain and possible consequences of the back problems. The response rate was 85%. Between 42% and 52% of the women in the different groups used oral contraceptives. The groups were similar in most background variables, except that the volleyball and basketball players were taller. The prevalence of current low back pain was between 21% and 34% in the different athlete groups, with an average of 30%, whereas only 18% of the controls suffered from low back pain (p 0.01). The prevalence of low back pain within each group--athletes as well as controls--was similar in women who used and did not use oral contraceptives. This study does not support the theory that low back pain is affected by the use of oral contraceptives. Instead, constitutional factors and mechanical stress during intense physical activity are probably more important.

  15. Intensively-Managed Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes Consume High-Fat, Low-Fiber Diets Similar to Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sanjeev N.; Volkening, Lisa K.; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n=67), ages 2–12 years, attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared to a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, n=1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared to children participating in NHANES (42% vs. 30%, p=0.04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs. 13%, p=0.03), whole grains (12% vs. 5%, p=0.005), and dairy (55% vs. 36%, p=0.001) compared to NHANES children while similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs. 33%, p=0.2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than NHANES children (14% vs. 12% total energy intake, p=0.0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared to NHANES children, children with T1D had higher HEI-2005 scores (59.6 vs. 49.7, p=0.0006) primarily due to lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable to youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  16. Functional Aspects of Gait in Essential Tremor: A Comparison with Age-Matched Parkinson’s Disease Cases, Dystonia Cases, and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Rao, Ashwini K.

    2015-01-01

    Background An understanding of the functional aspects of gait and balance has wide ramifications. Individuals with balance disorders often restrict physical activity, travel, and social commitments to avoid falling, and loss of balance confidence, itself, is a source of disability. We studied the functional aspects of gait in patients with essential tremor (ET), placing their findings within the context of two other neurological disorders (Parkinson’s disease [PD] and dystonia) and comparing them with age-matched controls. Methods We administered the six-item Activities of Balance Confidence (ABC-6) Scale and collected data on number of falls and near-falls, and use of walking aids in 422 participants (126 ET, 77 PD, 46 dystonia, 173 controls). Results Balance confidence was lowest in PD, intermediate in ET, and relatively preserved in dystonia compared with controls. This ordering reoccurred for each of the six ABC-6 items. The number of near-falls and falls followed a similar ordering. Use of canes, walkers, and wheelchairs was elevated in ET and even greater in PD. Several measures of balance confidence (ABC-6 items 1, 4, 5, and 6) were lower in torticollis cases than in those with blepharospasm, although the two groups did not differ with respect to falls or use of walking aids. Discussion Lower balance confidence, increased falls, and greater need for walking aids are variably features of a range of movement disorder patients compared to age-matched controls. While most marked among PD patients, these issues affected ET patients as well and, to a small degree, some patients with dystonia. PMID:26056611

  17. Semiquantitative proteomic analysis of human hippocampal tissues from Alzheimer’s disease and age-matched control brains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia affecting people over 65 years of age. The hallmarks of AD are the extracellular deposits known as amyloid β plaques and the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, both of which are the principal players involved in synaptic loss and neuronal cell death. Tau protein and Aβ fragment 1–42 have been investigated so far in cerebrospinal fluid as a potential AD biomarkers. However, an urgent need to identify novel biomarkers which will capture disease in the early stages and with better specificity remains. High-throughput proteomic and pathway analysis of hippocampal tissue provides a valuable source of disease-related proteins and biomarker candidates, since it represents one of the earliest affected brain regions in AD. Results In this study 2954 proteins were identified (with at least 2 peptides for 1203 proteins) from both control and AD brain tissues. Overall, 204 proteins were exclusively detected in AD and 600 proteins in control samples. Comparing AD and control exclusive proteins with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) literature-based proteome, 40 out of 204 AD related proteins and 106 out of 600 control related proteins were also present in CSF. As most of these proteins were extracellular/secretory origin, we consider them as a potential source of candidate biomarkers that need to be further studied and verified in CSF samples. Conclusions Our semiquantitative proteomic analysis provides one of the largest human hippocampal proteome databases. The lists of AD and control related proteins represent a panel of proteins potentially involved in AD pathogenesis and could also serve as prospective AD diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:23635041

  18. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  19. Sicca symptoms in Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma: a comparison with age-matched controls and correlation with disease variables.

    PubMed

    Wangkaew, Suparaporn; Kasitanon, Nuntana; Sivasomboon, Chate; Wichainun, Ramjai; Sukitawut, Waraporn; Louthrenoo, Worawit

    2006-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of ocular and oral sicca symptoms in Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and scleroderma (Scl). The ocular symptoms and sign (the Schirmer's 1 test) and the oral sicca symptoms and sign (the Saxon's test) in each of 50 RA, SLE and Scl patients were compared with their age-matched controls. The correlation between the presence of sicca symptoms and signs with their clinical activity was also determined. Ocular sicca symptoms were found more common in patients with RA (38% vs 18%, p < 0.05), SLE (36% vs 14%, p < 0.05) and Scl (54% vs 16%, p < 0.01), and oral sicca symptoms were found more common in SLE (22% vs 0%, p < 0.01), and Scl (16% vs 4%, p < 0.05) than their controls. However, only RA patients had a significantly higher proportion of positive Schimer-1 test compared with their controls (p < 0.01). There was no strong correlation between sicca symptoms or signs and other clinical or laboratory variables (age, disease duration, disease activity, disease severity, and antibody to Ro and La antigens) in these three groups. In conclusion, sicca symptoms were seen significantly more common in Thai patients with connective tissue diseases, but the symptoms did not show a good correlation with the clinical and laboratory variables.

  20. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  1. Comparison of younger and older breast cancer survivors and age-matched controls on specific and overall QoL domains

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Victoria L.; Wagner, Lynne I.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Daggy, Joanne; Smith, Lisa; Cohee, Andrea; Ziner, Kim W.; Haase, Joan E.; Miller, Kathy; Pradhan, Kamnesh; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Cella, David; Ansari, Bilal; Sledge, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Younger survivors (YS) of breast cancer often report more survivorship symptoms such as fatigue, depression, sexual difficulty, and cognitive problems than older survivors (OS). We sought to determine the effect of breast cancer and age at diagnosis on Quality of Life (QoL) by comparing 3 groups: 1) YS diagnosed at age 45 or before, 2) OS diagnosed between 55 and 70, and, 3) for the YS, age-matched controls (AC) of women not diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods Using a large Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) data base, we recruited 505 YS who were ages 45 or younger when diagnosed and 622 OS diagnosed at 55 to 70. YS, OS, and AC were compared on physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and overall QoL variables. Results Compared to both AC and to OS, YS reported more depressive symptoms (p=.005) and fatigue (p<.001), poorer self-reported attention function (p<.001), and poorer sexual function (p<.001) than either comparison group. However, YS also reported a greater sense of personal growth (p<.001) and perceived less social constraint (p<.001) from their partner than AC. Conclusions YS reported worse functioning than AC relative to depression, fatigue, attention, sexual function, and spirituality. Perhaps even more important, YS fared worse than both AC and OS on body image, anxiety, sleep, marital satisfaction, and fear of recurrence, indicating that YS are at greater risk for long term QoL problems than survivors diagnosed at a later age. PMID:24891116

  2. RELN-expressing Neuron Density in Layer I of the Superior Temporal Lobe is Similar in Human Brains with Autism and in Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C.; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. PMID:25067827

  3. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p < 0.05 for the overall physiologic state effect (lactation vs. control), and a within tissue pairwise comparison of p < 0.01. The proportion of false positives, an estimate of the ratio of false positives in the list of differentially expressed genes, was calculated for each tissue. The number of differentially expressed genes was 420 in the liver, 337 in the duodenum, 402 in the jejunum, and 523 in the ileum. The list of differentially expressed genes was in turn analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) to detect biological pathways that were overrepresented. In all tissues, sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-regulated genes involved in cholesterol synthesis showed increased mRNA expression, with the fewest changes detected in the jejunum. We detected increased Scap mRNA in the liver only, suggesting an explanation for the difference in response to lactation between the liver and small intestine. Expression of Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In

  4. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  5. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain.

  6. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  7. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  8. Thigh Muscle Strength in Senior Athletes and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Jean L; Salacinski, Amanda J; Hunt, Sarah E; Greenspan, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is commonly recommended to counteract aging-related muscle weakness. While numerous exercise intervention studies on the elderly have been performed, few have included elite senior athletes, such as those who participate in the National Senior Games. The extent to which participation in highly competitive exercise affects muscle strength is unknown, as well as the extent to which such participation mitigates any aging-related strength losses. The purpose of this study was to examine isometric thigh muscle strength in selected athletes of the National Senior Games and healthy noncompetitive controls of similar age, as well as to investigate strength changes with aging in both groups. In all, 95 athletes of the Games and 72 healthy controls participated. Of the senior athletes, 43 were runners, 12 cyclists, and 40 swimmers. Three trials of isometric knee flexion and extension strength were collected using a load cell affixed to a custom-designed chair. Strength data were normalized to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-obtained lean mass of the leg. A 3-factor multivariate analysis of variance (group × gender × age group) was performed, which included both the extension and flexion variables ([alpha] = 0.05). Athletes exhibited 38% more extension strength and 66% more flexion strength than the controls (p < 0.001). Strength did not decrease with advancing age in either the athletes or the controls (p = 0.345). In conclusion, senior athletes who participate in highly competitive exercise have greater strength than healthy aged-matched individuals who do not. Neither group displayed the expected strength losses with aging. Our subject cohorts, however, were not typical of those over age 65 years because individuals with existing health conditions were excluded from the study. PMID:19972628

  9. Accelerometry reveals differences in gait variability between patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Huisinga, Jessie M; Mancini, Martina; St George, Rebecca J; Horak, Fay B

    2013-08-01

    Variability of movement reflects important information for the maintenance of the health of the system. For pathological populations, changes in variability during gait signal the presence of abnormal motor control strategies. For persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), extensive gait problems have been reported including changes in gait variability. While previous studies have focused on footfall variability, the present study used accelerometers on the trunk to measure variability during walking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the variability of the acceleration pattern of the upper and lower trunk in PwMS compared to healthy controls. We extracted linear and nonlinear measures of gait variability from 30 s of steady state walking for 15 PwMS and 15 age-matched healthy controls. PwMS had altered variability compared to controls with greater Lyapunov exponent in the ML (p < 0.001) and AP (p < 0.001) directions, and greater frequency dispersion in the ML direction (p = 0.034). PwMS also demonstrated greater mean velocity in the ML direction (p = 0.045) and lower root mean square of acceleration in the AP direction (p = 0.040). These findings indicate that PwMS have altered structure of variability of the trunk during gait compared to healthy controls and agree with previous findings related to changes in gait variability in PwMS.

  10. Physical performance of nontransplanted childhood ALL survivors is comparable to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Taskinen, Mervi H; Kurimo, Marita; Kanerva, Jukka; Hovi, Liisa

    2013-05-01

    Physical fitness is an essential feature of overall health. Our objective was to compare the physical performance between nontransplanted acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients (study patients), healthy controls, and ALL patients after stem cell transplantation (SCT). Forty-five ALL patients (median age, 13.3 y) treated without cranial irradiation were compared with 34 ALL patients (12.0 y) treated with SCT and total body irradiation and 522 age-matched and sex-matched controls. Their physical performance was assessed by 6 muscle tests measuring speed and dynamic endurance, flexibility, acceleration, maximal speed, and speed differentiation. The patients were tested at a minimum of 3 years after treatment. The muscle test results of the study patients did not differ from that of the healthy controls. The study patients had normal body mass indexes (BMI). Only 42% of them exercised at least once a week. Those who exercised >3 times a week and those with a BMI below median had better results. SCT patients had inferior results in 4 out of 6 tests. The physical performance of nontransplanted ALL patients did not differ from that of healthy controls. A higher physical exercise activity and a BMI below median positively correlated with better muscle performance, supporting the importance of encouraging ALL survivors to exercise and avoid obesity.

  11. Changes in CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+, and Immunoglobulin M-Positive Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome-Affected Pigs and Age-Matched Uninfected Wasted and Healthy Pigs Correlate with Lesions and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Load in Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Darwich, Laila; Segalés, Joaquim; Domingo, Mariano; Mateu, Enric

    2002-01-01

    Forty-one 8- to 12-week-old wasted pigs were selected from several conventional farms with histories of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and classified into two groups according to their porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection status, as determined by in situ hybridization (ISH). Twenty-four pigs tested positive for PCV2 (PCV2-positive group), while 17 pigs tested negative for PCV2 (PCV2-negative group). In addition, eight uninfected healthy pigs from an experimental farm were used as controls. Heparinized blood samples were taken to obtain peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+ (double-positive [DP]), and immunoglobulin M-positive (IgM+) cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry with appropriate monoclonal antibodies. Histopathological studies were done to evaluate the apparent degrees of lymphocyte depletion in different lymphoid organs (superficial inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, tonsils, and spleen) and to determine the viral load of the PCV2 genome by using an ISH technique. Animals of the PCV2-positive group showed a significant downshift of the CD8+ and DP cell subsets compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, in PCV2-positive pigs, the amount of PCV2 genome in lymphoid tissues was related to the degree of cell depletion in those tissues (P < 0.05) as well as to the relative decrease in IgM+ and CD8+ cells in peripheral blood. These data support the notion that PCV2-positive pigs might have an impaired immune response. PMID:11874858

  12. Neural Circuits for Cognitive Appetite Control in Healthy and Obese Individuals: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tuulari, Jetro J.; Karlsson, Henry K.; Hirvonen, Jussi; Salminen, Paulina; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    The mere sight of foods may activate the brain’s reward circuitry, and humans often experience difficulties in inhibiting urges to eat upon encountering visual food signals. Imbalance between the reward circuit and those supporting inhibitory control may underlie obesity, yet brain circuits supporting volitional control of appetite and their possible dysfunction that can lead to obesity remain poorly specified. Here we delineated the brain basis of volitional appetite control in healthy and obese individuals with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-seven morbidly obese women (mean BMI = 41.4) and fourteen age-matched normal-weight women (mean BMI = 22.6) were scanned with 1.5 Tesla fMRI while viewing food pictures. They were instructed to inhibit their urge to eat the foods, view the stimuli passively or imagine eating the foods. Across all subjects, a frontal cortical control circuit was activated during appetite inhibition versus passive viewing of the foods. Inhibition minus imagined eating (appetite control) activated bilateral precunei and parietal cortices and frontal regions spanning anterior cingulate and superior medial frontal cortices. During appetite control, obese subjects had lower responses in the medial frontal, middle cingulate and dorsal caudate nuclei. Functional connectivity of the control circuit was increased in morbidly obese versus control subjects during appetite control, which might reflect impaired integrative and executive function in obesity. PMID:25658479

  13. Brain activation during neurocognitive testing using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in patients following concussion compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Kontos, A P; Huppert, T J; Beluk, N H; Elbin, R J; Henry, L C; French, J; Dakan, S M; Collins, M W

    2014-12-01

    There is no accepted clinical imaging modality for concussion, and current imaging modalities including fMRI, DTI, and PET are expensive and inaccessible to most clinics/patients. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive, portable, and low-cost imaging modality that can measure brain activity. The purpose of this study was to compare brain activity as measured by fNIRS in concussed and age-matched controls during the performance of cognitive tasks from a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Participants included nine currently symptomatic patients aged 18-45 years with a recent (15-45 days) sport-related concussion and five age-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a computerized neurocognitive test battery while wearing the fNIRS unit. Our results demonstrated reduced brain activation in the concussed subject group during word memory, (spatial) design memory, digit-symbol substitution (symbol match), and working memory (X's and O's) tasks. Behavioral performance (percent-correct and reaction time respectively) was lower for concussed participants on the word memory, design memory, and symbol match tasks than controls. The results of this preliminary study suggest that fNIRS could be a useful, portable assessment tool to assess reduced brain activation and augment current approaches to assessment and management of patients following concussion.

  14. Brain activation during neurocognitive testing using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in patients following concussion compared to healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Huppert, T. J.; Beluk, N. H.; Elbin, R. J.; Henry, L. C.; French, J.; Dakan, S. M.; Collins, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    There is no accepted clinical imaging modality for concussion, and current imaging modalities including fMRI, DTI, and PET are expensive and inaccessible to most clinics/ patients. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive, portable, and low-cost imaging modality that can measure brain activity. The purpose of this study was to compare brain activity as measured by fNIRS in concussed and age-matched controls during the performance of cognitive tasks from a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Participants included nine currently symptomatic patients aged 18–45 years with a recent (15–45 days) sport-related concussion and five age-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a computerized neurocognitive test battery while wearing the fNIRS unit. Our results demonstrated reduced brain activation in the concussed subject group during word memory, (spatial) design memory, digit-symbol substitution (symbol match), and working memory (X’s and O’s) tasks. Behavioral performance (percent-correct and reaction time respectively) was lower for concussed participants on the word memory, design memory, and symbol match tasks than controls. The results of this preliminary study suggest that fNIRS could be a useful, portable assessment tool to assess reduced brain activation and augment current approaches to assessment and management of patients following concussion. PMID:24477579

  15. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  16. Multivariate morphological brain signatures predict chronic abdominal pain patients from healthy control subjects

    PubMed Central

    Labus, Jennifer S.; Van Horn, John D.; Gupta, Arpana; Alaverdyan, Mher; Torgerson, Carinna; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Irimia, Andrei; Hong, Jui-Yang; Naliboff, Bruce; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common chronic visceral pain disorder. The pathophysiology of IBS is incompletely understood, however evidence strongly suggests dysregulation of the brain-gut axis. The aim of this study was to apply multivariate pattern analysis to identify an IBS-related morphometric brain signature which could serve as a central biological marker and provide new mechanistic insights into the pathophysiology of IBS. Parcellation of 165 cortical and subcortical regions was performed using Freesurfer and the Destrieux and Harvard-Oxford atlases. Volume, mean curvature, surface area and cortical thickness were calculated for each region. Sparse partial least squares-discriminant analysis was applied to develop a diagnostic model using a training set of 160 females (80 healthy controls, 80 IBS). Predictive accuracy was assessed in an age matched holdout test set of 52 females (26 health controls, 26 IBS). A two-component classification algorithm comprised of the morphometry of 1) primary somato-sensory and motor regions, and 2) multimodal network regions, explained 36% of the variance. Overall predictive accuracy of the classification algorithm was 70%. Small effect size associations were observed between the somatosensory and motor signature and non-gastrointestinal somatic symptoms. The findings demonstrate the predictive accuracy of a classification algorithm based solely on regional brain morphometry is not sufficient but they do provide support for the utility of multivariate pattern analysis for identifying meaningful neurobiological markers in IBS. Perspective This article presents the development, optimization, and testing of a classification algorithm for discriminating female IBS patients from healthy controls using only brain morphometry data. The results provide support for utility of multivariate pattern analysis for identifying meaningful neurobiological markers in IBS. PMID:25906347

  17. The serum levels of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis during attack, remission and in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Spacek, Jiri; Jilek, Petr; Buchta, Vladimir; Forstl, Miroslav; Hronek, Miloslav; Holeckova, Magdalena

    2005-11-01

    The real cause of recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis (RVVC) is concealed and the etiopathogenesis of this disease remains to be determined. In a cohort study, concentrations of metals in 44 patients with RVVC and 30 healthy age-matched women were measured and compared. The concentrations of serum calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) were measured photometrically, the zinc (Zn) levels were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. For statistical analysis were used the Student's t-tests (paired analysis for attack vs. remission; non-paired analysis for patient vs. control). Although all measured metals were within normal ranges the patients with RVVC had in contrast to the healthy controls significantly lower levels of serum Ca, Mg and Zn and insignificantly higher levels of Fe. These relative changes may contribute to the development of attacks in patients with RVVC. PMID:16262875

  18. Golfers have better balance control and confidence than healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kelly L; Hui-Chan, Christina W Y; Tsang, William W N

    2011-11-01

    In a well-executed golf swing, golfers must maintain good balance and precise control of posture. Golfing also requires prolonged walking over uneven ground such as a hilly course. Therefore, repeated golf practice may enhance balance control and confidence in the golfers. The objective is to investigate whether older golfers had better balance control and confidence than non-golfing older, healthy adults. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted at a University-based rehabilitation center. Eleven golfers and 12 control subjects (all male; mean age: 66.2 ± 6.8 and 71.3 ± 6.6 years, respectively) were recruited. Two balance control tests were administered: (1) functional reach test which measured subjects' maximum forward distance in standing; (2) sensory organization test (SOT) which examined subjects' abilities to use somatosensory, visual, and vestibular inputs to control body sway during stance. The modified Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) determined subject's balance confidence in daily activities. The golfers were found to achieve significantly longer distance in the functional reach test than controls. They manifested significantly better balance than controls in the visual ratio and vestibular ratio, but not the somatosensory ratio of the SOT. The golfers also reported significantly higher balance confidence score ratios. Furthermore, older adults' modified ABC score ratios showed positive correlations with functional reach, visual and vestibular ratios, but not with somatosensory ratio. Golfing is an activity which may enhance both the physical and psychological aspects of balance control. Significant correlations between these measures reveal the importance of the balance control under reduced or conflicting sensory conditions in older adults' balance confidence in their daily activities. Since cause-and-effect could not be established in the present cross-sectional study, further prospective intervention design is warranted. PMID

  19. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  20. Pediatric functional constipation gastrointestinal symptom profile compared with healthy controls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patient-reported outcomes are necessary to evaluate the gastrointestinal symptom profile of patients with functional constipation. Study objectives were to compare the gastrointestinal symptom profile of pediatric patients with functional constipation with matched healthy controls with the Pediatric...

  1. Frontoparietal involvement in passively guided shape and length discrimination: a comparison between subcortical stroke patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Van de Winckel, Ann; Wenderoth, Nicole; De Weerdt, Willy; Sunaert, Stefan; Peeters, Ron; Van Hecke, Wim; Thijs, Vincent; Swinnen, Stephan P; Perfetti, Carlo; Feys, Hilde

    2012-07-01

    Fifty to 85 % of patients with sensorimotor hemiparesis following stroke encounter impaired tactile processing and proprioception. Sensory feedback is, however, paramount for motor recovery. Sensory feedback through passively guided somatosensory discrimination exercises has been used in therapy, but so far, no studies have investigated which brain areas are involved in this process. Therefore, we performed a study with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain areas related to discriminating passively guided shape and length discrimination in stroke patients and evaluate whether they differed from healthy age-matched controls. Eight subcortical stroke patients discriminated different shapes or length based on passive finger movements provided by an fMRI compatible robot. The data were contrasted to a control condition whereby patients discriminated music fragments. Passively guided somatosensory discrimination versus music discrimination elicited activation in similar frontoparietal areas in stroke patients compared to the healthy control group. Still, patients had increased activation in the right angular gyrus, left superior lingual gyrus, and right cerebellar lobule VI compared to healthy volunteers. Conversely, healthy volunteers activated the right precentral gyrus to a greater extent than patients. In both groups, shape discrimination resulted in anterior intraparietal sulcus and premotor activation, while length discrimination elicited a more medially located parietal activation with mainly right-sided premotor activity. The current study is a first step in clarifying brain activations during passively guided shape and length discrimination in subcortical stroke patients. Research into the effects of the use of sensory discrimination exercises on brain reorganization and brain plasticity is encouraged.

  2. 77 FR 75441 - Healthy Home and Lead Hazard Control Grant Programs Data Collection; Progress Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Healthy Home and Lead Hazard Control Grant Programs Data Collection; Progress... progress of Healthy Homes Demonstration Program, Healthy Homes Technical Studies Program, Lead Base paint Hazard Control program, Lead Hazard Reduction Demonstration Program, Lead Outreach Program,...

  3. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  4. An investigation of care-based vs. rule-based morality in frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Carr, Andrew R; Paholpak, Pongsatorn; Daianu, Madelaine; Fong, Sylvia S; Mather, Michelle; Jimenez, Elvira E; Thompson, Paul; Mendez, Mario F

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral changes in dementia, especially behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), may result in alterations in moral reasoning. Investigators have not clarified whether these alterations reflect differential impairment of care-based vs. rule-based moral behavior. This study investigated 18 bvFTD patients, 22 early onset Alzheimer's disease (eAD) patients, and 20 healthy age-matched controls on care-based and rule-based items from the Moral Behavioral Inventory and the Social Norms Questionnaire, neuropsychological measures, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) regions of interest. There were significant group differences with the bvFTD patients rating care-based morality transgressions less severely than the eAD group and rule-based moral behavioral transgressions more severely than controls. Across groups, higher care-based morality ratings correlated with phonemic fluency on neuropsychological tests, whereas higher rule-based morality ratings correlated with increased difficulty set-shifting and learning new rules to tasks. On neuroimaging, severe care-based reasoning correlated with cortical volume in right anterior temporal lobe, and rule-based reasoning correlated with decreased cortical volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that frontotemporal disease decreases care-based morality and facilitates rule-based morality possibly from disturbed contextual abstraction and set-shifting. Future research can examine whether frontal lobe disorders and bvFTD result in a shift from empathic morality to the strong adherence to conventional rules.

  5. Spontaneous Swallowing during All-Night Sleep in Patients with Parkinson Disease in Comparison with Healthy Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Uludag, Irem Fatma; Tiftikcioglu, Bedile Irem; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Spontaneous saliva swallows (SS) appear especially during sleep. The rate of SS was rarely investigated in all-night sleep in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Dysphagia is a frequent symptom in PD, but the rate of SS was never studied with an all-night sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). Methods: A total of 21 patients with PD and 18 age-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Frequencies of SS and coughing were studied in all-night sleep recordings of patients with PD and controls. During all-night sleep, video-EEG 12-channel recording was used including the electromyography (EMG) of the swallowing muscles, nasal airflow, and recording of vertical laryngeal movement using a pair of EEG electrodes over the thyroid cartilage. Results: The total number of SS was increased while the mean duration of sleep was decreased in PD when compared to controls. Sialorrhea and clinical dysphagia, assessed by proper questionnaires, had no effect in any patient group. The new finding was the so-called salvo type of consecutive SS in one set of swallowing. The amount of coughing was significantly increased just after the salvo SS. Conclusions: In PD, the rate of SS was not sufficient to demonstrate the swallowing disorder, such as oropharyngeal dysphagia, but the salvo type of SS was quite frequent. This is a novel finding and may contribute to the understanding of swallowing problems in patients with dysphagic or nondysphagic PD. Citation: Uludag IF, Tiftikcioglu BI, Ertekin C. Spontaneous swallowing during all-night sleep in patients with Parkinson disease in comparison with healthy control subjects. SLEEP 2016;39(4):847–854. PMID:26943467

  6. The "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" randomized controlled trial for girls: study design, protocol, and baseline results.

    PubMed

    Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the study design, protocol, and baseline results of the "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" program. The intervention is being evaluated through a randomized controlled trial in 10 public schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data on the following variables were collected and assessed at baseline and will be reevaluated at 7 and 12 months: body mass index, waist circumference, dietary intake, nutrition, physical activity, social cognitive mediators, physical activity level, sedentary behaviors, self-rated physical status, and overall self-esteem. According to the baseline results, 32.4% and 23.4% of girls were overweight in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and in both groups a higher percentage failed to meet daily recommendations for moderate and vigorous physical activity and maximum screen time (TV, computer, mobile devices). There were no significant differences between the groups for most of the variables, except age (p = 0.000) and waist circumference (p = 0.014). The study showed a gap in the Brazilian literature on protocols for randomized controlled trials to prevent obesity among youth. The current study may thus be an important initial contribution to the field. PMID:26248094

  7. The "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" randomized controlled trial for girls: study design, protocol, and baseline results.

    PubMed

    Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the study design, protocol, and baseline results of the "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" program. The intervention is being evaluated through a randomized controlled trial in 10 public schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data on the following variables were collected and assessed at baseline and will be reevaluated at 7 and 12 months: body mass index, waist circumference, dietary intake, nutrition, physical activity, social cognitive mediators, physical activity level, sedentary behaviors, self-rated physical status, and overall self-esteem. According to the baseline results, 32.4% and 23.4% of girls were overweight in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and in both groups a higher percentage failed to meet daily recommendations for moderate and vigorous physical activity and maximum screen time (TV, computer, mobile devices). There were no significant differences between the groups for most of the variables, except age (p = 0.000) and waist circumference (p = 0.014). The study showed a gap in the Brazilian literature on protocols for randomized controlled trials to prevent obesity among youth. The current study may thus be an important initial contribution to the field.

  8. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Richard A; Pahnke, Aric Q; Johnson, Jeffrey M; Sachse, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06) but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06) and adult (0.91 ± 0.04) myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal that the

  9. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  10. Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids: a controlled evaluation of a comprehensive universal eating disorder prevention program.

    PubMed

    McVey, Gail; Tweed, Stacey; Blackmore, Elizabeth

    2007-06-01

    This study was a controlled evaluation of a comprehensive school-based universal prevention program involving male and female students, parents, teachers, school administrators and local public health professionals. A total of 982 male and female Grades 6 and 7 middle school students (and 91 teachers/school administrators) completed self-report surveys at baseline on measures of body satisfaction, internalization of media ideals, size acceptance, disordered eating, weight-based teasing, weight loss and muscle-gaining behaviours, and perceptions of school climate (teachers only). Eighty-four percent of the students repeated the surveys immediately following the 8-month school-wide intervention and 71% again 6 months later. Repeated measures ANCOVAs revealed that participation in the Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids (HS-HK) program had a positive influence by reducing the internalization of media ideals among male and female students and by reducing disordered eating among female students. The program was also associated with reductions in weight-loss behaviours among the students, although this effect was lost by the 6-month follow-up. When the intervention students were sub-divided into low versus high-risk groups, the high-risk group appeared to benefit most from the intervention with significant reductions in internalization of media ideals, greater body satisfaction, and reduced disordered eating over time. There were no intervention effects for teachers. Challenges of engaging teachers in prevention are discussed. PMID:18089258

  11. Cognitive control, goal maintenance, and prefrontal function in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Jessica L; Barch, Deanna M; Racine, Caroline A; Braver, Todd S

    2008-05-01

    Cognitive control impairments in healthy older adults may partly reflect disturbances in the ability to actively maintain goal-relevant information, a function that depends on the engagement of lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). In 2 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, healthy young and older adults performed versions of a task in which contextual cues provide goal-relevant information used to bias processing of subsequent ambiguous probes. In Study 1, a blocked design and manipulation of the cue-probe delay interval revealed a generalized pattern of enhanced task-related brain activity in older adults but combined with a specific delay-related reduction of activity in lateral PFC regions. In Study 2, a combined blocked/event-related design revealed enhanced sustained (i.e., across-trial) activity but a reduction in transient trial-related activation in lateral PFC among older adults. Further analyses of within-trial activity dynamics indicated that, within these and other lateral PFC regions, older adults showed reduced activation during the cue and delay period but increased activation at the time of the probe, particularly on high-interference trials. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that age-related impairments in goal maintenance abilities cause a compensatory shift in older adults from a proactive (seen in young adults) to a reactive cognitive control strategy. PMID:17804479

  12. Oculomotor tasks affect differently postural control in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette

    2015-11-01

    Eye movements affect postural stability in children. The present study focuses on the effect of different types of eye movements on postural stability in healthy children. Both eye movements and postural stability have been recorded in 51 healthy children from 6.3 to 15.5 years old. Eye movements were recorded binocularly with a video oculography (MobilEBT(®)), and postural stability was measured while child was standing on a force platform (TechnoConcept(®)). Children performed three oculomotor tasks: saccades, pursuits and reading a text silently. We measured the number of saccades made in the three oculomotor tasks, the number of words read, and the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the center of pressure (CoP). According to previous studies, postural control improves with age until 10-12 years. Saccades toward a target as well as during a reading task reduce significantly the CoP displacement and its velocity, while during pursuit eye movements all children increase postural parameters (i.e., the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the CoP). These results suggest the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor control and the postural system. Visual attention to perform saccades (to stationary targets or to words) influences postural stability more than the frequency of saccade triggering does. PMID:26096315

  13. 76 FR 45600 - Order of Succession for the Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for the Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control AGENCY: Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Order of Succession. SUMMARY: In this notice, the Director of the Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control for the Department...

  14. 77 FR 65574 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control Programs Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control Programs Data Collection--Progress Reporting AGENCY: Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control, HUD... Miller, Reports Liaison Officer, Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control, Department of...

  15. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B.; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation. PMID:27732604

  16. Alexithymic Trait and Voluntary Control in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaosi; Liu, Xun; Guise, Kevin G.; Fossella, John; Wang, Kai; Fan, Jin

    2008-01-01

    Background Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions. Recent studies have revealed that alexithymia is associated with less activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region shown to play a role in cognitive and emotional processing. However, few studies have directly investigated the cognitive domain in relation to alexithymia to examine whether alexithymic trait is related to less efficient voluntary control. Methodology/ Principal Findings We examined the relationship between alexithymic trait and voluntary control in a group of healthy volunteers. We used the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) to measure alexithymic trait. Additionally, we examined state and trait voluntary control using the revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R) and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ), respectively. Alexithymic trait was positively correlated with the overall reaction time of the ANT-R, and negatively correlated with the Effortful Control factor of the ATQ. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that alexithymic trait is associated with less efficient voluntary control. PMID:19002254

  17. Lessons from tobacco control for advocates of healthy transport.

    PubMed

    Mindell, J

    2001-06-01

    Many parallels can be drawn between cigarettes and motor vehicles, smoking and car driving, and the tobacco and the auto/oil industries. Those promoting healthy and sustainable transport policies can learn lessons from tobacco control activities over the past 50 years. Evidence-based legislation is more effective than negotiated voluntary agreements between industry and government. Media advocacy is crucial to reframe the issues to allow changes in national policies that facilitate healthier choices. Worthwhile public health policies seen as a threat by multinational companies will be opposed by them but active national and international networks of healthcare professionals, voluntary organizations, charities and their supporters can match the political power of these industries.

  18. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism in hemodialysed patients and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Bloudickova, Silvie; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pikhart, Hynek; Viklicky, Ondrej; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The possible association between the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism was found in some, but not all studies. We have analysed the APOE genotypes in 995 haemodialysed patients (cases) and a sample of 6242 healthy individuals (controls) in the Czech Republic. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequencies of APOE alleles between the cases and controls, with more carriers of the APOE2 allele in ESRD patients (15.9%) than in controls (12.2%) (p=0.005). The odds ratio of ESRD for the APOE2 allele, compared with APOE3E3 homozygotes, was 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.13-1.67). The strength of the association increased with the time spent on haemodialysis: the odds ratios of all-cause ESRD in patients dialysed for 8 or more years, 1-8 years and less than one year (non-survivors) were 1.27 (0.94-1.71), 1.41 (1.09-1.81) and 1.94 (0.88-4.18), respectively. This study suggests that the APOE2 allele is a possible genetic risk factor for all-cause ESRD in Caucasians. PMID:19565203

  19. Development of Postural Control in Healthy Children: A Functional Approach

    PubMed Central

    Assaiante, Christine; Mallau, Sophie; Viel, Sébastien; Jover, Marianne; Schmitz, Christina

    2005-01-01

    From a set of experimental studies showing how intersegmental coordination develops during childhood in various posturokinetic tasks, we have established a repertoire of equilibrium strategies in the course of ontogenesis. The experimental data demonstrate that the first reference frame used for the organization of balance control during locomotion is the pelvis, especially in young children. Head stabilization during posturokinetic activities, particularly locomotion, constitutes a complex motor skill requiring a long time to develop during childhood. When studying the emergence of postural strategies, it is essential to distinguish between results that can be explained by biomechanical reasons strictly and those reflecting the maturation of the central nervous system (CNS). To address this problem, we have studied our young subjects in situations requiring various types of adaptation. The studies dealing with adaptation of postural strategies aimed at testing short and long-term adaptation capacity of the CNS during imposed transient external biomechanical constraints in healthy children, and during chronic internal constraints in children with skeletal pathologies. In addition to maintenance of balance, another function of posture is to ensure the orientation of a body segment. It appears that the control of orientation and the control of balance both require the trunk as an initial reference frame involving a development from egocentric to exocentric postural control. It is concluded that the first step for children consists in building a repertoire of postural strategies, and the second step consists in learning to select the most appropriate postural strategy, depending on the ability to anticipate the consequence of the movement in order to maintain balance control and the efficiency of the task. PMID:16097479

  20. Peripheral and central control of swallowing initiation in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Aida, Seiya; Takeishi, Ryosuke; Magara, Jin; Watanabe, Masahiro; Ito, Kayoko; Nakamura, Yuki; Tsujimura, Takanori; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Inoue, Makoto

    2015-11-01

    We investigated (1) how peripheral inputs might assist central inputs in the control of voluntary evoked swallowing, (2) inter-individual variation in involuntary and voluntary swallowing initiation, and (3) whether natural chewing behavior affects the initiation of involuntary swallowing in healthy humans. Eleven participants completed a repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST), chewing test (CHEW), and rest period (REST). In RSST, participants repetitively swallowed as quickly as possible. In CHEW, subjects chewed gum freely. We delivered pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PEStim) to the laryngopharynx and compared the number of swallows that occurred with and without PEStim. PEStim significantly increased the number of voluntary evoked swallows in RSST, as well as the number of swallows in CHEW and REST trials, although this facilitatory effect was larger in REST trials. We found a positive correlation between the number of swallows at RSST without PEStim and that at REST with PEStim within individuals. Additionally, we found a significant positive correlation between the number of swallows at RSST with PEStim and the sum of that at RSST without PEStim and at REST with PES. Based on the current results, we suggest that (1) peripheral inputs within a certain range appear to facilitate the central inputs that control voluntary swallowing, (2) inter-individual variations in swallowing initiation may arise from differences in the excitability of the common neural network in the lower brainstem, and (3) during chewing, food reduction in the oral cavity is prioritized, such that the neural network associated with chewing may regulate swallowing initiation.

  1. An Investigation of Care-Based vs. Rule-Based Morality in Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Andrew R.; Paholpak, Pongsatorn; Daianu, Madelaine; Fong, Sylvia S.; Mather, Michelle; Jimenez, Elvira E.; Thompson, Paul; Mendez, Mario F.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral changes in dementia, especially behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), may result in alterations in moral reasoning. Investigators have not clarified whether these alterations reflect differential impairment of care-based vs. rule-based moral behavior. This study investigated 18 bvFTD patients, 22 early onset Alzheimer’s disease (eAD) patients, and 20 healthy age-matched controls on care-based and rule-based items from the Moral Behavioral Inventory and the Social Norms Questionnaire, neuropsychological measures, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) regions of interest. There were significant group differences with the bvFTD patients rating care-based morality transgressions less severely than the eAD group and rule-based moral behavioral transgressions more severely than controls. Across groups, higher care-based morality ratings correlated with phonemic fluency on neuropsychological tests, whereas higher rule-based morality ratings correlated with increased difficulty set-shifting and learning new rules to tasks. On neuroimaging, severe care-based reasoning correlated with cortical volume in right anterior temporal lobe, and rule-based reasoning correlated with decreased cortical volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that frontotemporal disease decreases care-based morality and facilitates rule-based morality possibly from disturbed contextual abstraction and set-shifting. Future research can examine whether frontal lobe disorders and bvFTD result in a shift from empathic morality to the strong adherence to conventional rules. PMID:26432341

  2. 76 FR 45592 - Delegation of Authority for the Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Delegation of Authority for the Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control AGENCY... Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992, the Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control (OHHLHC) is authorized to develop, demonstrate, and promote measures to correct lead-based...

  3. Modulation, Adaptation, and Control of Orofacial Pathways in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estep, Meredith E.

    2009-01-01

    Although the healthy adult possesses a large repertoire of coordinative strategies for oromotor behaviors, a range of nonverbal, speech-like movements can be observed during speech. The extent of overlap among sensorimotor speech and nonspeech neural correlates and the role of neuromodulatory inputs generated during oromotor behaviors are unknown.…

  4. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  5. Environmental factors, health-related habits, and serum selenium levels in cancer patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Backović, D; Marinković, J; Jorga, J; Pavlica, M; Maksimović, Z; Nikolić, M

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in Yugoslavia indicated that the concentration of selenium in soil, food items, and serum of the population is very low. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible relationship among environmental, health-related habits, nutrition, and selenium serum levels in cancer patients and the healthy population. The case-control study included a group of cancer patients and a matched group of healthy controls: 57 cancer patients and 41 healthy controls living in Stari Grad (an urban area of Belgrade), as well as 17 cancer patients and 13 healthy controls living in Barajevo (a rural community in the vicinity of Belgrade). The healthy controls were matched to cancer patients in sex and age; they were not blood related. The selenium serum levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Health-related habits and relevant dietary factors ("food frequency" method) that may influence the selenium serum levels were assessed by questionnaires. The differences in average values of selenium serum levels between the cancer patients and healthy controls were not significantly different, but both were below the lowest recorded in referential studies. A significant difference between the values obtained from urban and rural subgroups was noted. The most important factors that influenced the level of selenium included the residence place in the region with selenium deficiency (Barajevo), age, associated chronic diseases, and some dietary factors potentially related to the intake of selenium. The results obtained in this investigation pointed out that use of selenium supplementation in this area should be seriously considered.

  6. Physiological differences between burnout patients and healthy controls: blood pressure, heart rate, and cortisol responses

    PubMed Central

    De Vente, W; Olff, M; Van Amsterdam, J G C; Kamphuis, J; Emmelkamp, P

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate differences between burnout patients and healthy controls regarding basal physiological values and physiological stress responses. Measures of the sympathetic-adrenergic-medullary (SAM) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were examined. Methods: SAM axis and HPA axis activity was compared between 22 burnout patients and 23 healthy controls. SAM axis activity was measured by means of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). HPA axis activity was investigated by means of salivary cortisol levels. Resting levels of HR, BP, and cortisol were determined as well as reactivity and recovery of these measures during a laboratory session involving mental arithmetic and speech tasks. In addition, morning levels of cortisol were determined. Results: Burnout patients showed higher resting HR than healthy controls. BP resting values did not differ between burnout patients and healthy controls, nor did cardiovascular reactivity and recovery measurements during the laboratory session. Basal cortisol levels and cortisol reactivity and recovery measures were similar for burnout patients and healthy controls. However, burnout patients showed elevated cortisol levels during the first hour after awakening in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusions: The findings provided limited proof that SAM axis and HPA axis are disturbed among burnout patients. Elevated HR and elevated early morning cortisol levels may be indicative of sustained activation. PMID:12782748

  7. Candy or apple? How self-control resources and motives impact dietary healthiness in women.

    PubMed

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Strohbach, Stefanie; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2011-06-01

    People can choose between a virtually endless array of food items rising the question, which factors determine healthy or unhealthy food choice. The present study examines the impact of two contrasting motives for food choice (affect regulation and body weight control) and self-regulatory competences on healthy eating within a sample of women (N=761). The data show that a relative lack of self-regulatory resources combined with a high tendency to regulate negative affect through comfort eating was associated with an unfavorable dietary pattern. Accordingly, a healthy dietary pattern requires not only self-regulatory capacities but also a facilitating motive structure. PMID:21296115

  8. Remedial Effects of Motivational Incentive on Declining Cognitive Control In Healthy Aging and Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Harsay, Helga A.; Buitenweg, Jessika I. V.; Wijnen, Jasper G.; Guerreiro, Maria J. S.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2010-01-01

    The prospect of reward may provide a motivational incentive for optimizing goal-directed behavior. Animal work demonstrates that reward-processing networks and oculomotor-control networks in the brain are connected through the dorsal striatum, and that reward anticipation can improve oculomotor control via this nexus. Due perhaps to deterioration in dopaminergic striatal circuitry, goal-directed oculomotor control is subject to decline in healthy seniors, and even more in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we examine whether healthy seniors and PD patients are able to utilize reward prospects to improve their impaired antisaccade performance. Results confirmed that oculomotor control declined in PD patients compared to healthy seniors, and in healthy seniors compared to young adults. However, the motivational incentive of reward expectation resulted in benefits in antisaccade performance in all groups alike. These findings speak against structural and non-modifiable decline in cognitive control functions, and emphasize the remedial potential of motivational incentive mechanisms in healthy as well as pathological aging. PMID:21060805

  9. Hepatic and intramyocellular glycogen stores in adults with type 1 diabetes and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Bally, L; Buehler, T; Dokumaci, A S; Boesch, C; Stettler, C

    2015-07-01

    Glycogen levels in liver and skeletal muscle assessed non-invasively using magnetic resonance spectroscopy after a 48-h pre-study period including a standardized diet and withdrawal from exercise did not differ between individuals with well-controlled Type 1 DM and matched healthy controls.

  10. Computed tomography-guided in vivo cardiac orientation and correlation with ECG in individuals without structural heart disease and in age-matched obese and older individuals.

    PubMed

    Sathananthan, Gnalini; Aggarwal, Gunjan; Zahid, Simmi; Byth, Karen; Chik, William; Friedman, Daniel; Thiagalingam, Aravinda

    2015-05-01

    The cardiac axis in a structurally normal heart is influenced by a number of factors. We investigated the anatomical and electrical cardiac axes in middle-aged individuals without structural heart disease and compared this with age-matched obese and older individuals without structural heart disease. A retrospective study of controls included those between 30 and 60 years old with a normal body mass index (BMI), who were then compared with obese individuals between 30 and 60 years old and with individuals more than 60 years old with a normal BMI. The anatomical cardiac axis was determined along the long axis by cardiac computed tomography (CT) and correlated with the electrical cardiac axis on a surface electrocardiogram (ECG) in the frontal plane. A total of 124 patients were included. In the controls (n = 59), the mean CT axis was 38.1° ± 7.8° whilst the mean ECG axis was 51.8° ± 26.6°, Pearson r value 0.12 (P = 0.365). In the obese (n = 36), the mean CT axis was 25.1° ± 6.2° whilst the mean ECG axis was 20.1° ± 23.9°, Pearson r value 0.05 (P = 0.808). In the older group (n = 29), the mean CT axis was 34.4° ± 9.1° whilst the mean ECG axis was 34.4° ± 30.3°, Pearson r value 0.26 (P = 0.209). Obese individuals have a more leftward rotation of both axes than age-matched normals (P <0.0001), which could be secondary to elevation of the diaphragm. Older individuals have a more leftward rotation only of their electrical cardiac axis (P = 0.01), which could be a normal variant or reflect underlying conduction disturbances in this age group.

  11. 75 FR 45149 - Announcement of Funding Awards for Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control Grant Programs for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Programs (FR-5300-N-06); on September 21, 2009 for the Healthy Homes Demonstration (FR-5300-N-17), Lead Hazard Control Capacity Building (FR-5300-N-31) and Green and Healthy Homes Technical Studies (FR-5300- N-20); and on June 17, 2009 for the Healthy Homes Technical Studies Grant Programs (FR-5300-N-07)....

  12. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults with Parkinson's Disease, Adults with Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stipancic, Kaila L.; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014).…

  13. Gait mechanics are different between healthy controls and patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Huisinga, Jessie M; Schmid, Kendra K; Filipi, Mary L; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes severe gait problems in relatively young individuals, yet there have been limited studies to quantitatively identify the specific gait parameters that are affected. The purpose of this study was to define any differences in biomechanical gait parameters between patients with MS and healthy controls. A total of 31 MS patients and 31 healthy controls were evaluated: joint torques and joint powers were calculated at the ankle, knee, and hip during the stance phase of gait. The self-selected walking velocity was used as a covariate in the analysis to ensure that group differences were not due to differences in walking velocity between the MS and healthy control groups. Reduced angular range, less joint torque, and reduced joint power were seen in patients with MS. We also found significant correlations between biomechanical gait parameters and EDSS score, which provides a clinical rating of disease severity. Our findings provide a quantitative assessment of the gait mechanics employed in patients with MS. The altered lower extremity mechanics observed in patients with MS reflect both a neurological and strength deficit compared with healthy controls during walking.

  14. Attitudes towards and barriers to writing advance directives amongst cancer patients, healthy controls, and medical staff

    PubMed Central

    Sahm, S; Will, R; Hommel, G

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: After years of public discussion too little is still known about willingness to accept the idea of writing an advance directive among various groups of people in EU countries. We investigated knowledge about and willingness to accept such a directive in cancer patients, healthy controls, physicians, and nursing staff in Germany. Methods: Cancer patients, healthy controls, nursing staff, and physicians (n = 100 in each group) were surveyed by means of a structured questionnaire. Results: Only 18% and 19% of the patients and healthy controls respectively, and 10% of the medical staff had written an advance directive. However, 50–81% of those surveyed indicated that they wished to write one. This intention was associated with deteriorating health (p < 0.001). Only 29% of the healthy controls and 43% of the patients knew about the possibility of appointing a health care proxy. A majority in all groups believed that advance directives may influence the course of treatment (79–85%), yet half of those surveyed in all groups fear that patients could be pressurised into writing an advance directive, and 38–65% thought that relatives could abuse such documents. Conclusions: Only a minority of the participants had written an advance directive and knew about the possibility of authorising a health care proxy. Deteriorating health was associated with increasing willingness to make a directive. Despite a majority belief that advance directives may influence treatment at the end of life, other factors limit their employment, such as fear of abuse. PMID:16076965

  15. Reduced Anterior Cingulate Glutamatergic Concentrations in Childhood Ocd and Major Depression Versus Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, David R.; Mirza, Yousha; Russell, Aileen; Tang, Jennifer; Smith, Janet M.; Banerjee, Preeya S.; Bhandari, Rashmi; Rose, Michelle; Ivey, Jennifer; Boyd, Courtney; Moore, Gregory J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine in vivo glutamatergic neurochemical alterations in the anterior cingulate cortex of pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) without major depressive disorder (MDD) versus pediatric patients with MDD without OCD and healthy controls. Method: Single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic examinations…

  16. Classification of essential tremors (ET) disorder and healthy controls using a masking technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Rakshatha P.; Sinha, Neelam; Saini, Jitender; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2014-03-01

    In this study, a novel method is proposed to build a Resting State fMRI (RS fMRI) classifier to discriminate between healthy controls and data of Essential Tremors (ET) disorder. Distinction between healthy controls and diseased subjects data using RS fMRI is more useful in light of the fact that certain patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders may be unable to perform the tasks specified for acquisition. Specifically the neurologic disorder that we consider is ET for the reason that fMRI of this disorder is least explored and hence, functionally affected regions of this disease is not clearly known. Regional Homogeneity (ReHo) feature for healthy controls and ET patients was extracted as a mapping to brain function during resting state. One sample t-test was performed for both normal and patient data and regions with significant ReHo values were procured for both the data. The t-test maps respective to the two data groups, consisting of clusters with significant ReHo values, were used as masks respectively on ReHo maps of each of the groups. These masked ReHo maps were used as features as input to a linear classifier. The performance of the proposed scheme for classification of Healthy controls and ET was evaluated and the resulting generalization rate of the classifier was 100% for a dataset consisting of 11 samples in both the groups. The performance of the proposed masking technique remains to be evaluated with a dataset consisting of a large number of samples for ET and Healthy controls.

  17. Thrombopoietin concentration in umbilical cord blood of healthy term newborns is higher than in adult controls.

    PubMed

    Walka, M M; Sonntag, J; Dudenhausen, J W; Obladen, M

    1999-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) concentrations were determined in umbilical cord plasma of 121 healthy term newborns. The lower detection limit of the enzyme immunoassay employed was 32.5 pg/ml. Median cord plasma TPO concentration was 78 (interquartile range 55-107) pg/ml. 95th percentile was 255 pg/ml. In only 8% (10/121), TPO was below the detection limit compared to 81% of healthy adults (25/31). In cord blood and adult controls, there were no significant correlations of TPO with platelet count or mass.

  18. Mobile phone SMS messages can enhance healthy behaviour: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Orr, Jayne A; King, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Healthy behaviour, such as smoking cessation and adherence to prescribed medications, mitigates illness risk factors but health behaviour change can be challenging. Mobile phone short-message service (SMS) messages are increasingly used to deliver interventions designed to enhance healthy behaviour. This meta-analysis used a random-effects model to synthesise 38 randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of SMS messages to enhance healthy behaviour. Participants (N = 19,641) lived in developed and developing countries and were diverse with respect to age, ethnicity, socioeconomic background and health behaviours targeted for change. SMS messages had a small, positive, significant effect (g = 0.291) on a broad range of healthy behaviour. This effect was maximised when multiple SMS messages per day were used (g = 0.395) compared to using lower frequencies (daily, multiple per week and once-off) (g = 0.244). The low heterogeneity in this meta-analysis (I (2) = 38.619) supports reporting a summary effect size and implies that the effect of SMS messaging is robust, regardless of population characteristics or healthy behaviour targeted. SMS messaging is a simple, cost-effective intervention that can be automated and can reach any mobile phone owner. While the effect size is small, potential health benefits are well worth achieving.

  19. Mobile phone SMS messages can enhance healthy behaviour: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Orr, Jayne A; King, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Healthy behaviour, such as smoking cessation and adherence to prescribed medications, mitigates illness risk factors but health behaviour change can be challenging. Mobile phone short-message service (SMS) messages are increasingly used to deliver interventions designed to enhance healthy behaviour. This meta-analysis used a random-effects model to synthesise 38 randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of SMS messages to enhance healthy behaviour. Participants (N = 19,641) lived in developed and developing countries and were diverse with respect to age, ethnicity, socioeconomic background and health behaviours targeted for change. SMS messages had a small, positive, significant effect (g = 0.291) on a broad range of healthy behaviour. This effect was maximised when multiple SMS messages per day were used (g = 0.395) compared to using lower frequencies (daily, multiple per week and once-off) (g = 0.244). The low heterogeneity in this meta-analysis (I (2) = 38.619) supports reporting a summary effect size and implies that the effect of SMS messaging is robust, regardless of population characteristics or healthy behaviour targeted. SMS messaging is a simple, cost-effective intervention that can be automated and can reach any mobile phone owner. While the effect size is small, potential health benefits are well worth achieving. PMID:25739668

  20. Unilateral Postural Control of the Functionally Dominant and Nondominant Extremities of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Mark; Schrader, John; Applegate, Trent; Koceja, David

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether a difference in unilateral postural stability exists between the functionally dominant and nondominant legs of a healthy population. Design and Setting: The unilateral postural control of both legs of healthy subjects was tested using a force plafform. Before the postural control examination, each subject performed a series of functional tests to determine functional leg dominance. Subjects: Ten healthy young adults with a mean age of 19.2 ± 3.2 years volunteered for this study. Measurements: Functional leg dominance was determined through the use of a battery of tests that included 3 separate evaluations of lower extremity dominance for functional activity. Two measures of postural control, sway area (SA) and sway path length (SPL), were collected for both the dominant and nondominant legs of all subjects. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether a difference in postural control between the 2 legs was present. Results: A subject x leg repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted on both dependent variables, SA and SPL. The SA ANOVA value was not significant. The mean value for the dominant-leg SA measurement was 9737.43 ± 303.36 mm2, whereas the mean SA for the nondominant leg was 9431.74 ± 349.97 mm2. The SPL ANOVA also showed no significant difference in the bilateral comparison. The mean SPL for the dominant leg was 4321.57 ± 630.0 mm, and the mean SPL for the nondominant leg was 4341.88 ± 1,013.31 mm. Conclusions: We found no difference in unilateral postural stability between the functionally dominant and nondominant lower limbs in a healthy population of young adults. This is of particular interest to the clinician who commonly uses singleleg postural control evaluations in the assessment of an athlete's level of progress in the rehabilitation setting. PMID:16558528

  1. Worry as an adaptive avoidance strategy in healthy controls but not in pathological worriers.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Cristina; Borlimi, Rosita; Brighetti, Gianni; Caselli, Gabriele; Favaretto, Ettore; Giardini, Irene; Marzocchi, Camilla; Nucifora, Valeria; Rebecchi, Daniela; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Sassaroli, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    The cognitive avoidance model of worry assumes that worry has the adaptive function to keep under control the physiological arousal associated with anxiety. This study aimed to test this model by the use of a fear induction paradigm in both pathological and healthy individuals. Thirty-one pathological worriers and 36 healthy controls accepted to be exposed to a fear induction paradigm (white noise) during three experimental conditions: worry, distraction, and reappraisal. Skin conductance (SCR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured as indices of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system functioning. Worriers showed increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activation during the worry condition compared to non-worriers. There were no differences between groups for the distraction and reappraisal conditions. SCRs to the white noises during worry were higher in worriers versus controls throughout the entire worry period. Intolerance of uncertainty - but not metacognitive beliefs about worry - was a significant moderator of the relationship between worry and LF/HF-HRV in pathological worriers. Results support the cognitive avoidance model in healthy controls, suggesting that worry is no longer a functional attitude when it becomes the default/automatic and pathological response. PMID:24873888

  2. Worry as an adaptive avoidance strategy in healthy controls but not in pathological worriers.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Cristina; Borlimi, Rosita; Brighetti, Gianni; Caselli, Gabriele; Favaretto, Ettore; Giardini, Irene; Marzocchi, Camilla; Nucifora, Valeria; Rebecchi, Daniela; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Sassaroli, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    The cognitive avoidance model of worry assumes that worry has the adaptive function to keep under control the physiological arousal associated with anxiety. This study aimed to test this model by the use of a fear induction paradigm in both pathological and healthy individuals. Thirty-one pathological worriers and 36 healthy controls accepted to be exposed to a fear induction paradigm (white noise) during three experimental conditions: worry, distraction, and reappraisal. Skin conductance (SCR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured as indices of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system functioning. Worriers showed increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activation during the worry condition compared to non-worriers. There were no differences between groups for the distraction and reappraisal conditions. SCRs to the white noises during worry were higher in worriers versus controls throughout the entire worry period. Intolerance of uncertainty - but not metacognitive beliefs about worry - was a significant moderator of the relationship between worry and LF/HF-HRV in pathological worriers. Results support the cognitive avoidance model in healthy controls, suggesting that worry is no longer a functional attitude when it becomes the default/automatic and pathological response.

  3. Calcium Stone Growth in Urine from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSorley, Anita; Jones, Andrew M.; Webb, A. Kevin; Rao, P. Nagaraj; Kavanagh, John P.

    2007-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased risk of renal stone disease. There is some evidence that this may be related to a different excretory pattern of stone risk factors, but an alternative hypothesis, that the urine of cystic fibrosis patients is deficient in urinary inhibitors of crystallization and stone formation has not been tested. Here we have grown calcium stones, in vitro, in the presence of urine from healthy controls and compared this with growth in the presence of urine from cystic fibrosis patients. A stone farm was used to grow twelve calcium stones simultaneously, firstly in artificial urine for about 200 hours and then in 90% whole human urine for another 500 hours. Six of the stones received urine from healthy controls and six received urine from adult cystic fibrosis patients. There were no significant differences in stone mass at any of the key time points or in the overall growth pattern (p>0.05) between stones destined for, or treated with, urine from CF patients and the controls. Human urine greatly inhibited stone growth in vitro but there was no difference in the growth rate in urine from healthy controls and CF patients. This refutes the hypothesis that a tendency for a higher prevalence of urinary stones in CF patients is related to a deficiency in inhibitory activity.

  4. Enhancing a sustainable healthy working life: design of a clustered randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To improve a sustainable healthy working life, we have developed the intervention 'Staying healthy at work', which endeavours to enhance work participation of employees aged 45 years and older by increasing their problem-solving capacity and stimulating their awareness of their role and responsibility towards a healthy working life. This research study aims to evaluate the process and the effectiveness of the intervention compared with care as usual. Methods/design The study is a cluster-randomized controlled trial design (randomized at the supervisor level), with a 1-year follow-up. Workers aged 45 years and older have been enrolled in the study. Workers in the intervention group are receiving the intervention 'Staying healthy at work'. The main focus of the intervention is to promote a healthy working life of ageing workers by: (1) changing workers awareness and behaviour, by emphasizing their own decisive role in attaining goals; (2) improving the supervisors' ability to support workers in taking the necessary action, by means of enhancing knowledge and competence; and (3) enhancing the use of the human resource professionals and the occupational health tools available within the organization. The supervisors in the intervention group have been trained how to present themselves as a source of support for the worker. Workers in the control group are receiving care as usual; supervisors in the control group have not participated in the training. Measurements have been taken at baseline and will be followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome measures are vitality, work ability and productivity. The secondary outcomes measures include fatigue, job strain, work attitude, self-efficacy and work engagement. A process evaluation will be conducted at both the supervisor and the worker levels, and satisfaction with the content of the intervention will be assessed. Discussion The intervention 'Staying healthy at work' has the potential to provide

  5. Differences Between Psoriasis Patients and Skin-healthy Controls Concerning Appraisal of Touching, Shame and Disgust.

    PubMed

    Lahousen, Theresa; Kupfer, Jörg; Gieler, Uwe; Hofer, Angelika; Linder, M Dennis; Schut, Christina

    2016-08-23

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease associated with high levels of psychological distress and considerable life impact. Feelings of shame and stigmatization can lead to avoidance of social activity and intimacy. In this study, the questionnaire TSD-Q was used to evaluate pleasure in touching oneself and in a partnership, parental touching during childhood and (skin-related) shame and disgust. Skin-related disgust and shame were significantly higher in psoriatic patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, psoriasis-patients scored significantly lower than skin-healthy controls concerning appraisal of self-touching and parental touching. In contrast, psoriasis-patients scored higher concerning appraisal of touching in a partnership. Due to the fact that low self-esteem might enhance the negative evaluation of touch and the feelings of shame and disgust, psychological interventions should be integrated in the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:27282125

  6. Niacin skin flushing in schizophrenic and depressed patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Bosveld-van Haandel, Linda; Knegtering, Rikus; Kluiter, Herman; van den Bosch, Robert J

    2006-08-30

    This study compares the skin reactions to the niacin flushing test of 16 schizophrenic patients with those of 17 depressed patients and 16 healthy controls. Methyl nicotinate (niacin) in a concentration of 0.1 M was applied to the forearm for 5 min. Significant differences could be observed between the group of schizophrenic patients (less flushing) in comparison to the other groups. There were no statistical differences in niacin flushing between patients with depression and healthy controls. Gender, age and the use of antipsychotic agents did not appear to be confounders. The differences in flushing within the group of schizophrenic patients were striking, however. Most patients showed little or no flushing, but some patients reacted strongly. Although the three groups could be differentiated by the niacin flushing test, to develop a reliable clinical application of this test, further research is necessary.

  7. Healthy and Unhealthy Dietary Patterns Are Related to Depression: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Maryam; Majdzadeh, Reza; Nejati, Somayeh; Darabi, Samaneh; Raisi, Firoozeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Sorayani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Major depressive disorder is the leading cause of disability around the world. The relationship between depression and dietary patterns has been reported in a few studies but with controversial results. This study aimed to investigate this relationship in an Iranian population. Methods In our study, 330 depressed patients (cases) and healthy people (controls) (1:2) were individually matched according to age, sex and area of residence. New cases of depression were recruited from two psychiatric clinics in Tehran. Interviewers went to each patient's residential area, and invited qualified individuals to participate in the study as controls. Food intake over the past year was collected using a validated semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were determined by the principal components method. Binary logistic regression was used to test the effect of dietary patterns on depression. Results We identified two major dietary patterns by using factor analysis: the healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns. We categorized the scores of these patterns to quartiles. After adjusting for non-depression drug use, job, marital status, children number, and body mass index, the relations of depression and quartiles of two dietary patterns are significant (p=0.04 & p=0.01, respectively). Compared with participants in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile had significantly lower odds ratio (OR) for depression in healthy dietary pattern, and higher OR for depression in unhealthy dietary pattern. Conclusion This study indicates that healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns may be associated with the risk of depression. The results can be used for developing interventions that aim to promote healthy eating for the prevention of depression. PMID:26508953

  8. Effects of endurance training on brain structures in chronic schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Malchow, Berend; Keeser, Daniel; Keller, Katriona; Hasan, Alkomiet; Rauchmann, Boris-Stephan; Kimura, Hiroshi; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Dechent, Peter; Gruber, Oliver; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Honer, William G; Hillmer-Vogel, Ursula; Schmitt, Andrea; Wobrock, Thomas; Niklas, Andree; Falkai, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this longitudinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study was to examine the effects of endurance training on hippocampal and grey matter volumes in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. 20 chronic schizophrenia patients and 21 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent 3months of endurance training (30min, 3 times per week). 19 additionally recruited schizophrenia patients played table soccer ("foosball" in the USA) over the same period. MR imaging with 3D-volumetric T1-weighted sequences was performed on a 3T MR scanner at baseline, after 6weeks and after the 3-month intervention and 3 additional training-free months. In addition to voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we performed manual and automatic delineation of the hippocampus and its substructures. Endurance capacity and psychopathological symptoms were measured as secondary endpoints. No significant increases in the volumes of the hippocampus or hippocampal substructures were observed in schizophrenia patients or healthy controls. However, VBM analyses displayed an increased volume of the left superior, middle and inferior anterior temporal gyri compared to baseline in schizophrenia patients after the endurance training, whereas patients playing table soccer showed increased volumes in the motor and anterior cingulate cortices. After the additional training-free period, the differences were no longer present. While endurance capacity improved in exercising patients and healthy controls, psychopathological symptoms did not significantly change. The subtle changes in the left temporal cortex indicate an impact of exercise on brain volumes in schizophrenia. Subsequent studies in larger cohorts are warranted to address the question of response variability of endurance training. PMID:25623601

  9. Increased frontal electroencephalogram theta amplitude in patients with anorexia nervosa compared to healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Hestad, Knut A; Weider, Siri; Nilsen, Kristian Bernhard; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø; Sand, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a blind study of quantitative electroencephalogram-band amplitudes in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and healthy controls. Methods Twenty-one patients with AN and 24 controls were examined with eyes-closed 16-channel electroencephalogram. Main variables were absolute alpha, theta, and delta amplitudes in frontal, temporal, and posterior regions. Results There were no significant differences between the AN patients and controls regarding absolute regional band amplitudes in μV. Borderline significance was found for anterior theta (P=0.051). Significantly increased left and right frontal electrode theta amplitude was found in AN patients (F3, P=0.014; F4, P=0.038) compared to controls. Significant differences were also observed for secondary variables: lower values for relative parietooccipital delta and frontocentral alpha activity among AN patients than among controls. Conclusion We observed slight excess frontal theta and lower relative alpha and delta amplitudes among AN patients than among controls. This pattern is possibly related to a slight frontal lobe dysfunction in AN, or it may reflect increased attention/vigilance or another state-related change in patients with AN compared to healthy controls. PMID:27703359

  10. Healthy eating decisions require efficient dietary self-control in children: A mouse-tracking food decision study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Bruce, Amanda S; Pruitt, Stephen W; Cherry, J Bradley C; Smith, T Ryan; Burkart, Dominic; Bruce, Jared M; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-10-01

    Learning how to make healthy eating decisions, (i.e., resisting unhealthy foods and consuming healthy foods), enhances physical development and reduces health risks in children. Although healthy eating decisions are known to be challenging for children, the mechanisms of children's food choice processes are not fully understood. The present study recorded mouse movement trajectories while eighteen children aged 8-13 years were choosing between eating and rejecting foods. Children were inclined to choose to eat rather than to reject foods, and preferred unhealthy foods over healthy foods, implying that rejecting unhealthy foods could be a demanding choice. When children rejected unhealthy foods, mouse trajectories were characterized by large curvature toward an eating choice in the beginning, late decision shifting time toward a rejecting choice, and slowed response times. These results suggested that children exercised greater cognitive efforts with longer decision times to resist unhealthy foods, providing evidence that children require dietary self-control to make healthy eating-decisions by resisting the temptation of unhealthy foods. Developmentally, older children attempted to exercise greater cognitive efforts for consuming healthy foods than younger children, suggesting that development of dietary self-control contributes to healthy eating-decisions. The study also documents that healthy weight children with higher BMIs were more likely to choose to reject healthy foods. Overall, findings have important implications for how children make healthy eating choices and the role of dietary self-control in eating decisions. PMID:27349708

  11. Healthy eating decisions require efficient dietary self-control in children: A mouse-tracking food decision study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Bruce, Amanda S; Pruitt, Stephen W; Cherry, J Bradley C; Smith, T Ryan; Burkart, Dominic; Bruce, Jared M; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-10-01

    Learning how to make healthy eating decisions, (i.e., resisting unhealthy foods and consuming healthy foods), enhances physical development and reduces health risks in children. Although healthy eating decisions are known to be challenging for children, the mechanisms of children's food choice processes are not fully understood. The present study recorded mouse movement trajectories while eighteen children aged 8-13 years were choosing between eating and rejecting foods. Children were inclined to choose to eat rather than to reject foods, and preferred unhealthy foods over healthy foods, implying that rejecting unhealthy foods could be a demanding choice. When children rejected unhealthy foods, mouse trajectories were characterized by large curvature toward an eating choice in the beginning, late decision shifting time toward a rejecting choice, and slowed response times. These results suggested that children exercised greater cognitive efforts with longer decision times to resist unhealthy foods, providing evidence that children require dietary self-control to make healthy eating-decisions by resisting the temptation of unhealthy foods. Developmentally, older children attempted to exercise greater cognitive efforts for consuming healthy foods than younger children, suggesting that development of dietary self-control contributes to healthy eating-decisions. The study also documents that healthy weight children with higher BMIs were more likely to choose to reject healthy foods. Overall, findings have important implications for how children make healthy eating choices and the role of dietary self-control in eating decisions.

  12. Healthy Eating Index in Patients With Cataract: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghanavati, Matin; Behrooz, Maryam; Rashidkhani, Bahram; Ashtray-Larky, Damoon; Zameni, Seyed Davood; Alipour, Meysam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nutritional factors play an important role in cataract disease and the healthy eating index (HEI) is a unique approach to study the relationships between diet and diseases. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate and compare healthy eating index among the patients with cataract and healthy individuals. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 97 patients with cataract and 198 healthy people (as a control group) in Iran. Individuals were selected by the convenience sampling method and the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was completed for them. At first, HEI was calculated and then the HEI scores were compared in cataract patients and healthy individuals. Results: The analysis of FFQ showed that the scores of vegetables (7.81 v. 10), nutritional variation (5.5 v. 7) and sodium (2 v. 6) groups (P < 0.001) were significantly lower among the patients with cataract than the healthy individuals. Also this significant difference was observed in the scores of total HEI and fruits (respectively 73.26 v.79.30 and 7.1 v. 9.8) (P < 0.01). On the other hand, the scores of saturated fatty acids (10 v. 9; P = 0.02), total fat (8 v. 7; P = 0.004) and cereals (10 v. 10; P < 0.001) were higher among the patients with cataract than the healthy individuals. The comparison of dietary intake among all types of cataract shows that the scores of the meat group were significantly higher in the patients with nuclear cataract and mixed cataract than the ones with posterior cataract (respectively 9.4 v. 6.5 and 9 v. 6.5) (P = 0.02). In addition, after adjusting the confounding factors the results showed that the HEI high score was associated with reducing the risk of coming down with cataract (OR = 0.18, CI: 95%, P < 0.001, 0.08 - 0.41). Conclusions: The results of the current study suggest that increasing the quality of the diet calculated according to HEI can reduce the risk of coming down with cataract. PMID:26568860

  13. Healthy Futures Program and Adolescent Sexual Behaviors in 3 Massachusetts Cities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wendy; Doré, Katelyn F.; O’Brien, Michael J.; Heitz, Elizabeth R.; Millock, Rebecca R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the impact of the 3-year Healthy Futures program on reducing sexual behaviors among middle school students. Methods. Fifteen public middle schools in Haverhill, Lowell, and Lynn, Massachusetts, participated in this longitudinal school-cluster randomized controlled trial (2011–2015), which included 1344 boys and girls. We collected student survey data at baseline, immediately after each Nu-CULTURE curriculum (classroom component of Healthy Futures) in the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades, and at a 1-year follow-up in the ninth grade (cohort 1 students only). Results. Healthy Futures did not reduce the overall prevalence of eighth-grade students who reported ever having vaginal sex. In the eighth-grade follow-up, fewer girls in the treatment group than in the control group reported ever having vaginal sex (P = .04), and fewer Hispanic treatment students than Hispanic control students reported ever having vaginal sex (P = .002). Conclusions. There was some evidence of delaying sexual initiation by the end of Nu-CULTURE, for girls and Hispanics, but not for boys. Future research should focus on improving implementation of the supplemental components intended to foster interpersonal and environmental protective factors associated with sustained delays in sexual activity. PMID:27689476

  14. No difference in small bowel microbiota between patients with irritable bowel syndrome and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Dlugosz, Aldona; Winckler, Björn; Lundin, Elin; Zakikhany, Katherina; Sandström, Gunnar; Ye, Weimin; Engstrand, Lars; Lindberg, Greger

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that colonic microbiota may exhibit important differences between patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy controls. Less is known about the microbiota of the small bowel. We used massive parallel sequencing to explore the composition of small bowel mucosa-associated microbiota in patients with IBS and healthy controls. We analysed capsule biopsies from the jejunum of 35 patients (26 females) with IBS aged 18-(36)-57 years and 16 healthy volunteers (11 females) aged 20-(32)-48 years. Sequences were analysed based on taxonomic classification. The phyla with the highest total abundance across all samples were: Firmicutes (43%), Proteobacteria (23%), Bacteroidetes (15%), Actinobacteria (9.3%) and Fusobacteria (7.0%). The most abundant genera were: Streptococcus (19%), Veillonella (13%), Prevotella (12%), Rothia (6.4%), Haemophilus (5.7%), Actinobacillus (5.5%), Escherichia (4.6%) and Fusobacterium (4.3%). We found no difference among major phyla or genera between patients with IBS and controls. We identified a cluster of samples in the small bowel microbiota dominated by Prevotella, which may represent a common enterotype of the upper small intestine. The remaining samples formed a gradient, dominated by Streptococcus at one end and Escherichia at the other. PMID:25687743

  15. Effects of nicotine on attention and inhibitory control in healthy nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Wignall, Nicholas D; de Wit, Harriet

    2011-06-01

    Nicotine improves cognitive functioning in smokers and psychiatric populations, but its cognitive-enhancing effects in healthy nonsmokers are less well understood. Nicotine appears to enhance certain forms of cognition in nonsmokers, but its specificity to subtypes of cognition is not known. This study sought to replicate and extend previous findings on the effects of nicotine on cognitive performance in healthy nonsmokers. Healthy young adults (N = 40, 50% women) participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, repeated measures experiment examining the effects of 7 mg transdermal nicotine or placebo. Participants completed tests of attention (Attention Network Test), behavioral inhibition (stop signal task, Stroop test), reward responsiveness (signal detection task), and risk-taking behavior (Balloon Analogue Risk Task). Physiological (heart rate, blood pressure) and subjective (Profile of Mood States, Drug Effects Questionnaire) measures were also obtained. Nicotine significantly improved performance only on the Stroop test, but it impaired performance on one aspect of the Attention Network Test, the orienting effect. Nicotine produced its expected effects on physiologic and subjective measures within the intended time course. The findings of this study contribute to a growing literature indicating that nicotine differentially affects specific subtypes of cognitive performance in healthy nonsmokers. PMID:21480731

  16. Comparison of acute non-visual bright light responses in patients with optic nerve disease, glaucoma and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Münch, M; Léon, L; Collomb, S; Kawasaki, A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of optic nerve disease, hence retinal ganglion cell loss, on non-visual functions related to melanopsin signalling. Test subjects were patients with bilateral visual loss and optic atrophy from either hereditary optic neuropathy (n = 11) or glaucoma (n = 11). We measured melatonin suppression, subjective sleepiness and cognitive functions in response to bright light exposure in the evening. We also quantified the post-illumination pupil response to a blue light stimulus. All results were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22). Both groups of patients showed similar melatonin suppression when compared to their controls. Greater melatonin suppression was intra-individually correlated to larger post-illumination pupil response in patients and controls. Only the glaucoma patients demonstrated a relative attenuation of their pupil response. In addition, they were sleepier with slower reaction times during nocturnal light exposure. In conclusion, glaucomatous, but not hereditary, optic neuropathy is associated with reduced acute light effects. At mild to moderate stages of disease, this is detected only in the pupil function and not in responses conveyed via the retinohypothalamic tract such as melatonin suppression. PMID:26478261

  17. Comparison of acute non-visual bright light responses in patients with optic nerve disease, glaucoma and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Münch, M.; Léon, L.; Collomb, S.; Kawasaki, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of optic nerve disease, hence retinal ganglion cell loss, on non-visual functions related to melanopsin signalling. Test subjects were patients with bilateral visual loss and optic atrophy from either hereditary optic neuropathy (n = 11) or glaucoma (n = 11). We measured melatonin suppression, subjective sleepiness and cognitive functions in response to bright light exposure in the evening. We also quantified the post-illumination pupil response to a blue light stimulus. All results were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22). Both groups of patients showed similar melatonin suppression when compared to their controls. Greater melatonin suppression was intra-individually correlated to larger post-illumination pupil response in patients and controls. Only the glaucoma patients demonstrated a relative attenuation of their pupil response. In addition, they were sleepier with slower reaction times during nocturnal light exposure. In conclusion, glaucomatous, but not hereditary, optic neuropathy is associated with reduced acute light effects. At mild to moderate stages of disease, this is detected only in the pupil function and not in responses conveyed via the retinohypothalamic tract such as melatonin suppression. PMID:26478261

  18. Correlations Between Cardiovascular Autonomic Control Indices During the Two-hour Immobilization Test in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kiselev, A.R.; Shvartz, V.A.; Karavaev, A.S.; Mironov, S.A.; Ponomarenko, V.I.; Gridnev, V.I.; Prokhorov, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the features of dynamics of cardiovascular autonomic indices and correlations between them during the two-hour immobilization test in healthy subjects. Methods: Photoplethysmogram (PPG) and electrocardiogram were recorded simultaneously during the two-hour immobilization test in 14 healthy subjects (5 men and 9 women) aged 29±5 years (mean±SD). Dynamics of heart rate variability (HRV) power spectrum in high-frequency and low-frequency ranges (in ms2 and percents of total spectral power), mean heart rate (HR), and index S of synchronization between 0.1-Hz rhythms in PPG and HR were analyzed. Results: Individual dynamics of all studied cardiovascular autonomic indices during the two-hour immobilization test was unique in each healthy subject. Two groups of healthy subjects were identified basing on individual features of autonomic control. The group with initial low level of index S maintained the low level of S during the two-hour immobilization test. The group with initial high index S maintained the high level of S only during the first 100 minutes of test. During the last 20 minutes of test, index S was similar in both groups. Many cardiovascular autonomic indices correlate between themselves for an individual subject, but they do not correlate between the subjects. Multiple regression analysis in each subject has shown a high correlation between mean HR and all other studied autonomic parameters in 57% of subjects (multiple R>0.9, P<0.05). For 204 records analyzed without taking into account the individual features of subjects, the above mentioned correlation was smaller (multiple R=0.45, P<0.001). Index S was found out to be the most independent one among the autonomic indices. Conclusion: Cardiovascular autonomic control is characterized by a pronounced variability among healthy subjects and stability in time in each subject. We have not found any regularity in variation of cardiovascular autonomic

  19. Gait comparison of unicompartmental and total knee arthroplasties with healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Jones, G. G.; Kotti, M.; Wiik, A. V.; Collins, R.; Brevadt, M. J.; Strachan, R. K.; Cobb, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To compare the gait of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients with healthy controls, using a machine-learning approach. Patients and Methods 145 participants (121 healthy controls, 12 patients with cruciate-retaining TKA, and 12 with mobile-bearing medial UKA) were recruited. The TKA and UKA patients were a minimum of 12 months post-operative, and matched for pattern and severity of arthrosis, age, and body mass index. Participants walked on an instrumented treadmill until their maximum walking speed was reached. Temporospatial gait parameters, and vertical ground reaction force data, were captured at each speed. Oxford knee scores (OKS) were also collected. An ensemble of trees algorithm was used to analyse the data: 27 gait variables were used to train classification trees for each speed, with a binary output prediction of whether these variables were derived from a UKA or TKA patient. Healthy control gait data was then tested by the decision trees at each speed and a final classification (UKA or TKA) reached for each subject in a majority voting manner over all gait cycles and speeds. Top walking speed was also recorded. Results 92% of the healthy controls were classified by the decision tree as a UKA, 5% as a TKA, and 3% were unclassified. There was no significant difference in OKS between the UKA and TKA patients (p = 0.077). Top walking speed in TKA patients (1.6 m/s; 1.3 to 2.1) was significantly lower than that of both the UKA group (2.2 m/s; 1.8 to 2.7) and healthy controls (2.2 m/s; 1.5 to 2.7; p < 0.001). Conclusion UKA results in a more physiological gait compared with TKA, and a higher top walking speed. This difference in function was not detected by the OKS. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B(10 Suppl B):16–21. PMID:27694511

  20. The healthy worker effect in major league baseball revisited.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the "healthy worker effect" (HWE) in major league baseball. Ages of death of major league baseball players who debuted between 1900 and 1939 were obtained and differences between those ages and age-adjusted life expectancies were examined to determine if longevity increased with career length, controlling for decade in which a player debuted, player position, and handedness. Major league baseball players (N = 4,492) lived an average of 4.8 (+/- 15.0 Standard deviation [SD]) years longer than age-matched controls from the general public. Career length significantly and incrementally increased longevity of players from an average of 4.1 years for players playing one season to 7.4 years for players playing 11 or more years. None of the other factors, nor any of the interactions, was statistically significant. These data provide strong support for the HWE in professional baseball.

  1. Metabolomics of bronchoalveolar lavage differentiate healthy HIV-1-infected subjects from controls.

    PubMed

    Cribbs, Sushma K; Park, Youngja; Guidot, David M; Martin, Greg S; Brown, Lou Ann; Lennox, Jeffrey; Jones, Dean P

    2014-06-01

    Despite antiretroviral therapy, pneumonias from pathogens such as pneumococcus continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in HIV-1-infected individuals. Respiratory infections occur despite high CD4 counts and low viral loads; therefore, better understanding of lung immunity and infection predictors is necessary. We tested whether metabolomics, an integrated biosystems approach to molecular fingerprinting, could differentiate such individual characteristics. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf ) was collected from otherwise healthy HIV-1-infected individuals and healthy controls. A liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry method was used to detect metabolites in BALf. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses used false discovery rate (FDR) and orthogonally corrected partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to identify groupwise discriminatory factors as the top 5% of metabolites contributing to 95% separation of HIV-1 and control. We enrolled 24 subjects with HIV-1 (median CD4=432) and 24 controls. A total of 115 accurate mass m/z features from C18 and AE analysis were significantly different between HIV-1 subjects and controls (FDR=0.05). Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed clusters of metabolites, which discriminated the samples according to HIV-1 status (FDR=0.05). Several of these did not match any metabolites in metabolomics databases; mass-to-charge 325.065 ([M+H](+)) was significantly higher (FDR=0.05) in the BAL of HIV-1-infected subjects and matched pyochelin, a siderophore-produced Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Metabolic profiles in BALf differentiated healthy HIV-1-infected subjects and controls. The lack of association with known human metabolites and inclusion of a match to a bacterial metabolite suggest that the differences could reflect the host's lung microbiome and/or be related to subclinical infection in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:24417396

  2. Unsupported eyes closed sitting and quiet standing share postural control strategies in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Grangeon, Murielle; Gauthier, Cindy; Duclos, Cyril; Lemay, Jean-Francois; Gagnon, Dany

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to (1) compare postural stability between sitting and standing in healthy individuals and (2) define center-of-pressure (COP) measures during sitting that could also explain standing stability. Fourteen healthy individuals randomly maintained (1) two short-sitting positions with eyes open or closed, with or without hand support, and (2) one standing position with eyes open with both upper limbs resting alongside the body. Thirty-six COP measures based on time and frequency series were computed. Greater COP displacement and velocity along with lower frequency measures were found for almost all directional components during standing compared with both sitting positions. The velocity, 95% confidence ellipse area, and centroidal frequency were found to be correlated between unsupported sitting and standing. Despite evidenced differences between sitting and standing, similarities in postural control were highlighted when sitting stability was the most challenging. These findings support further investigation between dynamic sitting and standing balance. PMID:24718916

  3. Sanguinate's effect on pial arterioles in healthy rats and cerebral oxygen tension after controlled cortical impact.

    PubMed

    Mullah, Saad H; Abutarboush, Rania; Moon-Massat, Paula F; Saha, Biswajit K; Haque, Ashraful; Walker, Peter B; Auker, Charles R; Arnaud, Francoise G; McCarron, Richard M; Scultetus, Anke H

    2016-09-01

    Sanguinate, a polyethylene glycol-conjugated carboxyhemoglobin, was investigated for cerebral vasoactivity in healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (Study 1) and for its ability to increase brain tissue oxygen pressure (PbtO2) after controlled cortical impact (CCI) - traumatic brain injury (TBI) (Study 2). In both studies ketamine-acepromazine anesthetized rats were ventilated with 40% O2. In Study 1, a cranial window was used to measure the diameters of medium - (50-100μm) and small-sized (<50μm) pial arterioles before and after four serial infusions of Sanguinate (8mL/kg/h, cumulative 16mL/kg IV), volume-matched Hextend, or normal saline. In Study 2, PbtO2 was measured using a phosphorescence quenching method before TBI, 15min after TBI (T15) and then every 10min thereafter for 155min. At T15, rats received either 8mL/kg IV Sanguinate (40mL/kg/h) or no treatment (saline, 4mL/kg/h). Results showed: 1) in healthy rats, percentage changes in pial arteriole diameter were the same among the groups, 2) in TBI rats, PbtO2 decreased from 36.5±3.9mmHg to 19.8±3.0mmHg at T15 in both groups after TBI and did not recover in either group for the rest of the study, and 3) MAP increased 16±4mmHg and 36±5mmHg after Sanguinate in healthy and TBI rats, respectively, while MAP was unchanged in control groups. In conclusion, Sanguinate did not cause vasoconstriction in the cerebral pial arterioles of healthy rats but it also did not acutely increase PbtO2 when administered after TBI. Sanguinate was associated with an increase in MAP in both studies.

  4. Postural Control of Healthy Elderly Individuals Compared to Elderly Individuals with Stroke Sequelae.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, Fábio Marcon; Riberto, Marcelo; Lopes, José Augusto Fernandes; Filippo, Thais Raquel; Imamura, Marta; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2016-01-01

    A stroke and aging process can modify the postural control. We aimed to compare the postural control of health elderly individuals to that of individuals with stroke sequelae. This cross-sectional transversal study was made with individuals capable of walking without any assistance and that were considered clinically stable. The study had 18 individuals in the group with stroke sequelae (SG) and 34 in the healthy elderly control group (CG). The participants were evaluated for the timed up and go test (TUG) and force platform. The SG showed the worst results in relation to the time of execution of the TUG and the force platform evaluation. The displacement of center of pressure was worse for both groups in the eyes-closed situation, especially in the anteroposterior direction for the CG. The GS showed worse results in the static and dynamic postural control. The healthy elderly showed more dependence on sight to maintain their static balance and there was no difference in the balance tests in relation to the side affected by the stroke.

  5. Inhibitory control in otherwise healthy overweight 10-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, S; Peirano, P; Peigneux, P; Lozoff, B; Algarin, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preventing obesity is a worldwide public health priority. In vulnerable children living in obesogenic environments, with easy access to high-caloric food, alterations in inhibitory control functions might favor excessive food intake and affect energy regulation. We hypothesized that overweight/obese children would present lower inhibitory control in comparison to normal weight children. METHODS We measured inhibitory control functions in 93 otherwise healthy overweight/obese and 92 normal weight 10-year-old children using the Stroop test and the Go/No-Go task. Event-related potentials were recorded during the Go/No-Go task. RESULTS Overweight/obese children showed slower reaction times (1248.6 ms (95% confidence interval (CI): 1182.9–1314.3) vs 1149.0 ms (95% CI: 1083.0–1215.1)) on the Stroop test, higher reaction time variability (0.25 (95% CI: 0.22–0.27) vs 0.21 (95% CI: 0.19–0.24)) on the Go/No-Go task and decreased P300 amplitude (4.1 µV (95% CI: 3.0–5.2) vs 6.4 µV (95% CI: 5.2–7.6)) on event-related potentials compared with normal weight children. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate altered inhibitory control functions in otherwise healthy overweight/obese children, which might contribute to their excessive food consumption. PMID:25869603

  6. Inhibitory Control in anxious and healthy adolescents is modulated by incentive and incidental affective stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Michael G.; Mandell, Darcy; Mueller, Sven C.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2009-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are characterized by elevated, sustained responses to threat, that manifest as threat attention biases. Recent evidence also suggests exaggerated responses to incentives. How these characteristics influence cognitive control is under debate and is the focus of the present study. Methods Twenty-five healthy adolescents and 25 adolescents meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder were compared on a task of response inhibition. Inhibitory control was assayed with an antisaccade task that included both incentive (monetary reward) and incidental emotion (facial expression) cues presented prior to the execution of inhibitory behavior. Results Inhibitory control was enhanced following exposure to threat cues (fear faces) only in adolescent patients, and following exposure to positive cues (happy faces) only in healthy adolescents. Results also revealed a robust performance improvement associated with monetary incentives. This incentive effect did not differ by group. No interaction between incentives and emotional cues was detected. Conclusions These findings suggest that biased processing of threat in anxious adolescents affects inhibitory control, perhaps by raising arousal prior to behavioral performance. The absence of normalization of performance in anxious adolescents following exposure to positive emotional cues is a novel finding and will require additional exploration. Future studies will need to more specifically examine how perturbations in positive emotion processes contribute to the symptomatology and the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. PMID:19573033

  7. A Serious Game to Increase Healthy Food Consumption in Overweight or Obese Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing global issue that is linked to cognitive and psychological deficits. Objective This preliminary study investigated the efficacy of training to improve inhibitory control (IC), a process linked to overeating, on consumption and cognitive control factors. Methods This study utilized a multisession mobile phone–based intervention to train IC in an overweight and obese population using a randomized waitlist-control design. A combination of self-assessment questionnaires and psychophysiological measures was used to assess the efficacy of the intervention in terms of improved general IC and modified food consumption after training. Attitudes toward food were also assessed to determine their mediating role in food choices. A total of 58 participants (47 female) completed 2 assessment sessions 3 weeks apart, with 2 weeks of intervention training for the training group during this time. The groups did not differ in baseline demographics including age, body mass index, and inhibitory control. Results Inhibitory control ability improved across the training sessions, with increases in P3 amplitude implying increased cognitive control over responses. Inhibitory control training was associated with increased healthy and reduced unhealthy food consumption in a taste test and in the week following training, as measured by the Healthy Eating Quiz and the food consumption test. Cognitive restraint was enhanced after training for the training but not the waitlist condition in the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, implying that attempts to avoid unhealthy foods in the future will be easier for the training group participants. Conclusions Inhibitory control training delivered via a purpose-designed mobile phone app is easy to complete, is convenient, and can increase cognitive restraint and reduce unhealthy food consumption. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616000263493; http

  8. 77 FR 19305 - Announcement of Funding Awards: Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control Grant Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Lead Based Paint Hazard Control and Lead Hazard Reduction Demonstration Programs (FR-5415-N-11); on October 4, 2010 for the Healthy Homes Production Program (FR-5415-N-18); on October 4, 2010 for Lead Technical Studies and Healthy Homes Technical Studies Programs (FR-5415-N-13); and on October 4, 2010...

  9. 77 FR 19306 - Announcement of Funding Awards: Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control Grant Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Based Paint Hazard Control and Lead Hazard Reduction Demonstration Programs (FR- 5500-N-02); on May 18, 2011 for the Healthy Homes Production Program (FR-5500-N-03); on May 9, 2011 for Lead Technical Studies and Healthy Homes Technical Studies Programs (FR-5500-N-15); and on May 20, 2011 for Asthma in...

  10. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf): protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf) study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1) a skill-building intervention; (2) price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3) a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4) a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the first internationally to

  11. Platelet aggregation responses vary over a period of time in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Refaai, Majed A; Frenkel, Eugene; Sarode, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Platelet aggregation study is performed to investigate platelet function abnormality. A normal healthy control sample is usually run with the patient sample as a quality control measure. At our institution, we observed variations in platelet aggregation responses in our normal repeat controls. Therefore, we analysed aggregation parameters in these controls. Whole blood aggregation studies were performed with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA), collagen and ristocetin. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion was also measured simultaneously by leuciferin-leuciferase reaction. During a 5-year period, a total of 86 studies were performed on seven controls. Aggregations were within the acceptable range in 67% of the time. Collagen was the most affected agonist in our study. On five occasions, four controls had subnormal aggregations with two agonists. All abnormal responses were hypoaggregation except for two who had hyperaggregation with collagen and AA. Only one out of seven controls was always normal. In the presence of a subnormal control result, a new control was run before releasing the patient's platelet aggregation results. These findings suggest that many physiological factors, other than medications, may affect platelet function even in normal individuals. Therefore, a repeat study at a later date to demonstrate a reproducible abnormality would be prudent before labeling a patient's platelets abnormal.

  12. Effects of pregnancy on slow cortical potentials in migraine patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Darabaneanu, S; Kropp, P; Niederberger, U; Strenge, H; Gerber, W-D

    2008-10-01

    Increased negative amplitudes and lack of habituation of contingent negative variation (CNV) in migraine are well established and are supposed to reflect an altered cortical excitability level. Migraine attacks occur less during pregnancy but often relapse after delivery. We investigated the effect of pregnancy on slow cortical potentials and reaction time in migraine patients and healthy controls. Four groups were examined: 14 pregnant migraine patients, 12 non-pregnant migraine patients, 15 pregnant healthy women and 16 non-pregnant healthy women aged 19-38 years. Two recordings were performed in the pregnant subjects: in the 36th week of gestation and 4 weeks after delivery. The non-pregnant subjects were recorded at the same time interval of 8 weeks. Pregnant migraine patients showed significantly fewer migraine days during the third trimester of pregnancy and returned to nearly the former level 4 weeks post delivery. Non-pregnant migraine patients demonstrated a significant reduction of migraine days at the second measurement. There was no effect of pregnancy on CNV amplitudes, but there was an effect of pregnancy on the habituation coefficient and reaction time of migraine patients. Faster habituation from a higher preactivation level was found. As an explanation for the changed habituation level we favour the model of correlation between preactivation level and habituation level, the so-called law of initial value. We found a correlation between preactivation level and habituation. Our study confirms a specific effect of pregnancy on slow cortical potentials in migraine patients. PMID:18624798

  13. Serum vitamin D in hypertensive patients versus healthy controls is there an association?

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Roghayeh; Adelani, Bahram; Ghadimi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Both vitamin D deficiency and hypertension are prevalent in the general population. Several observations indicate an association between vitamin D deficiency and high blood pressure. The present case-control study aimed to compare serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in hypertensive patients versus healthy controls. Methods: One hundred patients aged 30-60 years with hypertension (HTN) and 100 healthy controls without history of hypertention were compared regarding serum 25-OHD. Blood pressure was measured using standard method and the systolic and diastolic blood pressure more than140 mmHg and 90 mmHg respectively were considered as HTN. Patients and controls with coexistent morbidities, vitamin D supplementation were excluded. The serum levels of 25-OHD, PTH and calcium were measured after obtaining a written informed consent from the patients and taking their blood pressure under standard conditions. In statistical analysis, the two groups were compared using independent t test and chi-square test using SPSS Version 18. Results: The mean age of patients and controls was comparable (53.7±6.4 vs 52.3±7.54 years, P=0.17). Serum 25-OHD in HTN was significantly higher than controls (P=0.001). Conclusion: In the present study, serum 25-OHD level in hypertension was higher than controls. The results contradict with earlier studies indicating an association of HTN with vitamin D deficiency. This issue warrants further investigations in particular the follow-up of serum 25-OHD deficient and sufficient subjects with regard to the development of HTN.

  14. Comparison of serum Concentration of Se, Pb, Mg, Cu, Zn, between MS patients and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Anahita; Mehrpour, Omid; Nikkhah, Karim; Bayat, Golnaz; Espandani, Mahsa; Golzari, Alireza; Jarahi, Lida; Foroughipour, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is defined as one of the inflammatory autoimmune disorders and is common. Its exact etiology is unclear. There are some evidences on the role of environmental factors in susceptible genetics. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible role of Selenium, Zinc, Copper, Lead and Magnesium metals in Multiple Sclerosis patients. Methods In the present analytical cross-sectional study, 56 individuals including 26 patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in the evaluation. The serum level of Se, Zn, Cu, Pb were quantified in graphite furnace conditions and flame conditions by utilizing an atomic absorption Perkin Elmer spectrophotometer 3030. The serum levels of Mg were measured by auto analyzer 1500 BT. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls by using independent-samples t-test for normal distribution and Mann-Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. All statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 11.0. Results As well as the Zn, Cu, and Se, there was no significant difference between MS patients and healthy individuals in Pb concentrations (p-value = 0.11, 0.14, 0.32, 0.20 respectively) but the level of Mg was significantly different (p= 0.001). Conclusion All serum concentrations of Zn, Pb, Se, Cu in both groups were in normal ranges and there was no difference in MS patients compared with the healthy group who were matched in genetics. Blood level of Mg was significantly lower in MS patients. But it should be noted that even with the low level of serum magnesium in MS patients, this value is still in the normal range. PMID:27757186

  15. Sexual Functioning, Desire, and Satisfaction in Women with TBI and Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Strizzi, Jenna; Olabarrieta Landa, Laiene; Pappadis, Monique; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Valdivia Tangarife, Edgar Ricardo; Fernandez Agis, Inmaculada; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can substantially alter many areas of a person's life and there has been little research published regarding sexual functioning in women with TBI. Methods. A total of 58 women (29 with TBI and 29 healthy controls) from Neiva, Colombia, participated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in sociodemographic characteristics. All 58 women completed the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoL), Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI), Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI), and the Sexual Satisfaction Index (ISS). Results. Women with TBI scored statistically significantly lower on the SQoL (p < 0.001), FSFI subscales of desire (p < 0.05), arousal (p < 0.05), lubrication (p < 0.05), orgasm (p < 0.05), and satisfaction (p < 0.05), and the ISS (p < 0.001) than healthy controls. Multiple linear regressions revealed that age was negatively associated with some sexuality measures, while months since the TBI incident were positively associated with these variables. Conclusion. These results disclose that women with TBI do not fare as well as controls in these measures of sexual functioning and were less sexually satisfied. Future research is required to further understand the impact of TBI on sexual function and satisfaction to inform for rehabilitation programs.

  16. Sexual Functioning, Desire, and Satisfaction in Women with TBI and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Strizzi, Jenna; Olabarrieta Landa, Laiene; Pappadis, Monique; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Valdivia Tangarife, Edgar Ricardo; Fernandez Agis, Inmaculada; Perrin, Paul B.; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can substantially alter many areas of a person's life and there has been little research published regarding sexual functioning in women with TBI. Methods. A total of 58 women (29 with TBI and 29 healthy controls) from Neiva, Colombia, participated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in sociodemographic characteristics. All 58 women completed the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoL), Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI), Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI), and the Sexual Satisfaction Index (ISS). Results. Women with TBI scored statistically significantly lower on the SQoL (p < 0.001), FSFI subscales of desire (p < 0.05), arousal (p < 0.05), lubrication (p < 0.05), orgasm (p < 0.05), and satisfaction (p < 0.05), and the ISS (p < 0.001) than healthy controls. Multiple linear regressions revealed that age was negatively associated with some sexuality measures, while months since the TBI incident were positively associated with these variables. Conclusion. These results disclose that women with TBI do not fare as well as controls in these measures of sexual functioning and were less sexually satisfied. Future research is required to further understand the impact of TBI on sexual function and satisfaction to inform for rehabilitation programs. PMID:26556951

  17. Sexual Functioning, Desire, and Satisfaction in Women with TBI and Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Strizzi, Jenna; Olabarrieta Landa, Laiene; Pappadis, Monique; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Valdivia Tangarife, Edgar Ricardo; Fernandez Agis, Inmaculada; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can substantially alter many areas of a person's life and there has been little research published regarding sexual functioning in women with TBI. Methods. A total of 58 women (29 with TBI and 29 healthy controls) from Neiva, Colombia, participated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in sociodemographic characteristics. All 58 women completed the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoL), Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI), Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI), and the Sexual Satisfaction Index (ISS). Results. Women with TBI scored statistically significantly lower on the SQoL (p < 0.001), FSFI subscales of desire (p < 0.05), arousal (p < 0.05), lubrication (p < 0.05), orgasm (p < 0.05), and satisfaction (p < 0.05), and the ISS (p < 0.001) than healthy controls. Multiple linear regressions revealed that age was negatively associated with some sexuality measures, while months since the TBI incident were positively associated with these variables. Conclusion. These results disclose that women with TBI do not fare as well as controls in these measures of sexual functioning and were less sexually satisfied. Future research is required to further understand the impact of TBI on sexual function and satisfaction to inform for rehabilitation programs. PMID:26556951

  18. Multiple sclerosis patients have a distinct gut microbiota compared to healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Chia, Nicholas; Kalari, Krishna R.; Yao, Janet Z.; Novotna, Martina; Soldan, M. Mateo Paz; Luckey, David H.; Marietta, Eric V.; Jeraldo, Patricio R.; Chen, Xianfeng; Weinshenker, Brian G.; Rodriguez, Moses; Kantarci, Orhun H.; Nelson, Heidi; Murray, Joseph A.; Mangalam, Ashutosh K.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease, the etiology of which involves both genetic and environmental factors. The exact nature of the environmental factors responsible for predisposition to MS remains elusive; however, it’s hypothesized that gastrointestinal microbiota might play an important role in pathogenesis of MS. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate whether gut microbiota are altered in MS by comparing the fecal microbiota in relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) (n = 31) patients to that of age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n = 36). Phylotype profiles of the gut microbial populations were generated using hypervariable tag sequencing of the V3–V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Detailed fecal microbiome analyses revealed that MS patients had distinct microbial community profile compared to healthy controls. We observed an increased abundance of Psuedomonas, Mycoplana, Haemophilus, Blautia, and Dorea genera in MS patients, whereas control group showed increased abundance of Parabacteroides, Adlercreutzia and Prevotella genera. Thus our study is consistent with the hypothesis that MS patients have gut microbial dysbiosis and further study is needed to better understand their role in the etiopathogenesis of MS. PMID:27346372

  19. Keeping the herds healthy and alert: Implications of predator control for infectious disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Packer, Craig; Holt, Robert D.; Hudson, Peter J.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dobson, Andrew P.

    2003-01-01

    Predator control programmes are generally implemented in an attempt to increase prey population sizes. However, predator removal could prove harmful to prey populations that are regulated primarily by parasitic infections rather than by predation. We develop models for microparasitic and macroparasitic infection that specify the conditions where predator removal will (a) increase the incidence of parasitic infection, (b) reduce the number of healthy individuals in the prey population and (c) decrease the overall size of the prey population. In general, predator removal is more likely to be harmful when the parasite is highly virulent, macroparasites are highly aggregated in their prey, hosts are long-lived and the predators select infected prey.

  20. A Novel 154-bp Deletion in the Human Mitochondrial DNA Control Region in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Behar, Doron M.; Blue-Smith, Jason; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Tzur, Shay; Hadid, Yarin; Bormans, Concetta; Moen, Alexander; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Wells, R. Spencer

    2009-01-01

    The biological role of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region in mtDNA replication remains unclear. In a worldwide survey of mtDNA variation in the general population, we have identified a novel large control region deletion spanning positions 16154 to 16307 (m.16154_16307del154). The population prevalence of this deletion is low, since it was only observed in 1 out of over 120,000 mtDNA genomes studied. The deletion is present in a nonheteroplasmic state, and was transmitted by a mother to her two sons with no apparent past or present disease conditions. The identification of this large deletion in healthy individuals challenges the current view of the control region as playing a crucial role in the regulation of mtDNA replication, and supports the existence of a more complex system of multiple or epigenetically-determined replication origins. PMID:18629826

  1. Pain facilitation and pain inhibition during conditioned pain modulation in fibromyalgia and in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Stéphane; Marchand, Serge

    2016-08-01

    Although fibromyalgia (FM) is associated with a deficit in inhibitory conditioned pain modulation (CPM), the discriminative power of CPM procedures is unknown. Moreover, the high intersubject heterogeneity in CPM responses in FM raises the possibility that a sizeable subgroup of these patients may experience pain facilitation during CPM, but the phenomenon has not been explicitly studied. To address these issues, 96 patients with FM and 71 healthy controls were recruited. Thermal stimuli were used to measure pain thresholds. Pain inhibition was elicited using a tonic thermal test (Peltier thermode) administered before and after activation of CPM mechanisms using a cold pressor test. Thermal pain thresholds were lower in patients with FM than in healthy controls. Pain ratings during the cold pressor test were higher in patients with FM, relative to controls. The CPM inhibitory efficacy was lower in patients with FM than in controls. The CPM procedure had good specificity (78.9%) but low sensitivity (45.7%), whereas a composite pain index had good sensitivity (75.0%) and specificity (78.9%). Finally, the rate of patients with FM who reported pain facilitation during the CPM procedure was found to be significantly increased compared with that of controls (41.7% vs 21.2%). The good discriminative power of the composite pain index highlights the need for further validation studies using mechanistically relevant psychophysical procedures in FM. The low sensitivity of the CPM procedure, combined with the large proportion of patients with FM experiencing pain facilitation during CPM, strongly suggests that endogenous pain inhibition mechanisms are deeply impaired in patients with FM, but only in a subgroup of them. PMID:27045524

  2. Pain facilitation and pain inhibition during conditioned pain modulation in fibromyalgia and in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Stéphane; Marchand, Serge

    2016-08-01

    Although fibromyalgia (FM) is associated with a deficit in inhibitory conditioned pain modulation (CPM), the discriminative power of CPM procedures is unknown. Moreover, the high intersubject heterogeneity in CPM responses in FM raises the possibility that a sizeable subgroup of these patients may experience pain facilitation during CPM, but the phenomenon has not been explicitly studied. To address these issues, 96 patients with FM and 71 healthy controls were recruited. Thermal stimuli were used to measure pain thresholds. Pain inhibition was elicited using a tonic thermal test (Peltier thermode) administered before and after activation of CPM mechanisms using a cold pressor test. Thermal pain thresholds were lower in patients with FM than in healthy controls. Pain ratings during the cold pressor test were higher in patients with FM, relative to controls. The CPM inhibitory efficacy was lower in patients with FM than in controls. The CPM procedure had good specificity (78.9%) but low sensitivity (45.7%), whereas a composite pain index had good sensitivity (75.0%) and specificity (78.9%). Finally, the rate of patients with FM who reported pain facilitation during the CPM procedure was found to be significantly increased compared with that of controls (41.7% vs 21.2%). The good discriminative power of the composite pain index highlights the need for further validation studies using mechanistically relevant psychophysical procedures in FM. The low sensitivity of the CPM procedure, combined with the large proportion of patients with FM experiencing pain facilitation during CPM, strongly suggests that endogenous pain inhibition mechanisms are deeply impaired in patients with FM, but only in a subgroup of them.

  3. Low-dose decitabine promotes megakaryocyte maturation and platelet production in healthy controls and immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai; Hou, Yu; Liu, Xuena; Qiu, Jihua; Feng, Qi; Wang, Yawen; Zhang, Xu; Min, Yanan; Shao, Linlin; Liu, Xinguang; Li, Guosheng; Li, Lizhen; Yang, Lei; Xu, Shuqian; Ni, Heyu; Peng, Jun; Hou, Ming

    2015-05-01

    Impaired megakaryocyte maturation and insufficient platelet production have been shown to participate in the pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Our previous study demonstrated that low expression of tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in megakaryocytes contributed to impaired platelet production in ITP. Decitabine (DAC), a demethylating agent, is known to promote cell differentiation and maturation at low doses. However, whether decitabine is potential in promoting megakaryocyte maturation and platelet release in ITP is unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of DAC on megakaryocyte maturation and platelet release in the presence of ITP plasma that has been shown to cause impaired megakaryocyte maturation and platelet production. We observed that low-dose DAC (10 nM) could significantly increase the number of mature polyploid (≥ 4N) megakaryocytes in cultures with plasma from healthy controls and more than one-half of ITP patients in vitro. Furthermore, the number of platelets released from these megakaryocytes significantly increased compared with those untreated with DAC. In these megakaryocytes, DAC significantly enhanced TRAIL expression via decreasing its promoter methylation status. These findings demonstrate that low-dose DAC can promote megakaryocyte maturation and platelet production and enhance TRAIL expression in megakaryocytes in healthy controls and ITP. The potential therapeutic role of low-dose DAC may be beneficial for thrombocytopenic disorders.

  4. Robust efficiency and actuator saturation explain healthy heart rate control and variability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Cruz, Jerry; Chien, Chenghao Simon; Sojoudi, Somayeh; Recht, Benjamin; Stone, David; Csete, Marie; Bahmiller, Daniel; Doyle, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The correlation of healthy states with heart rate variability (HRV) using time series analyses is well documented. Whereas these studies note the accepted proximal role of autonomic nervous system balance in HRV patterns, the responsible deeper physiological, clinically relevant mechanisms have not been fully explained. Using mathematical tools from control theory, we combine mechanistic models of basic physiology with experimental exercise data from healthy human subjects to explain causal relationships among states of stress vs. health, HR control, and HRV, and more importantly, the physiologic requirements and constraints underlying these relationships. Nonlinear dynamics play an important explanatory role––most fundamentally in the actuator saturations arising from unavoidable tradeoffs in robust homeostasis and metabolic efficiency. These results are grounded in domain-specific mechanisms, tradeoffs, and constraints, but they also illustrate important, universal properties of complex systems. We show that the study of complex biological phenomena like HRV requires a framework which facilitates inclusion of diverse domain specifics (e.g., due to physiology, evolution, and measurement technology) in addition to general theories of efficiency, robustness, feedback, dynamics, and supporting mathematical tools. PMID:25092335

  5. White matter structural integrity differs between people with schizophrenia and healthy groups as a function of cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, David J; Rodrigue, Amanda L; Burton, Courtney R; Pierce, Jordan E; Unsworth, Nash; Clementz, Brett A; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2015-12-01

    A behavioral hallmark of schizophrenia is poor cognitive control. Recent evidence suggests that problems with cognitive control in schizophrenia are related to disconnectivity along major white matter fibers. Although deficits of cognitive control are common in schizophrenia, a proportion of otherwise healthy subjects show poor cognitive control performance. The present study sought to address this potential confound by comparing white matter integrity between a group with schizophrenia and otherwise healthy individuals with either high or low levels of cognitive control (based on working memory span performance). Diffusion tensor imaging was used to evaluate white matter integrity in 24 participants with schizophrenia, 24 healthy participants with high cognitive control (HCC), and 25 healthy participants with low cognitive control (LCC). To test for differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) across major white matter fiber tracts, a voxelwise region of interest analysis was conducted in standardized brain space. In a separate analysis, regions of interest were manually drawn in native brain space to isolate superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), a tract implicated in cognitive control performance. The voxelwise analysis demonstrated widespread lower FA in the schizophrenia group compared to the HCC group. With a high degree of concordance, the manual ROI analysis revealed lower FA in the schizophrenia group compared to the HCC group. Taken together, these results provide evidence to suggest that structural differences identified between healthy groups and schizophrenia may not be entirely specific to the disease process and can vary as a function of cognitive control capacity in the comparison group.

  6. Exercise performance in children with asthma: is it different from that of healthy controls?

    PubMed

    Santuz, P; Baraldi, E; Filippone, M; Zacchello, F

    1997-06-01

    Exercise tolerance and possible limitation in work capacity of asthmatic children is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to compare ventilation and gas exchange response to exercise of asthmatic children with that of healthy controls. Exercise performance was evaluated in 80 children with mild-to-moderate asthma, aged 7-15 yrs, and in 80 healthy controls matched for age, height, weight and habitual level of physical activity. The children performed a maximal exercise test on a treadmill, during which oxygen uptake (V'O2), carbon dioxide output (V'CO2) and minute ventilation (V'E) were measured continuously. No premedication was given to the asthmatic children. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at rest was 93+/-11% of predicted in asthmatic children and 95+/-9% pred in controls. After the run, the mean fall in FEV1 was 13.9% (range 0-57%) and 1.6% (0-9%), respectively (p<0.001). The two groups achieved similar maximum oxygen uptake (V'O2,max) ((mean+/-SD) 40.3+/-8.4 and 42.6+/-9.6 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1) in asthmatics and controls, respectively; NS) and maximum minute ventilation output (V'E,max) (42.9+/-14.8 and 45.7+/-14.9 L x min(-1) respectively; NS). The kinetics of V'O2, V'CO2 and V'E during the test revealed no differences between the two populations. Moreover, anaerobic threshold and oxygen pulse were the same in the two groups. Asthmatics showed a ventilatory pattern with lower respiratory frequencies and greater tidal volumes during the run. These results suggest that asthmatic children can achieve a level of exercise performance similar to that of healthy children, provided that they have a comparable level of habitual physical activity. The only difference found concerned the ventilatory pattern of the asthmatic children, which was characterized by a reduced respiratory frequency and greater tidal volume at the same minute ventilation. The level of physical conditioning was found to be the main determinant of exercise tolerance

  7. A comparative study of the working memory multicomponent model in psychosis and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Elosúa, M Rosa; Lorente-Omeñaca, Ruth; Moreno-Izco, Lucía; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2015-08-01

    Working memory deficits are considered nuclear deficits in psychotic disorders. However, research has not found a generalized impairment in all of the components of working memory. We aimed to assess the components of the Baddeley and Hitch working memory model: the temporary systems-the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad and the episodic buffer (introduced later by Baddeley)-and the central executive system, which includes four executive functions: divided attention, updating, shifting and inhibition. We assessed working memory performance in a sample of 21 patients with a psychotic disorder and 21 healthy controls. Patients also underwent a clinical assessment. Both univariate and repeated measures ANOVAs were applied to analyze performance in the working memory components between groups. Patients with a psychotic disorder underperformed compared to the controls in all of the working memory tasks, but after controlling for age and premorbid IQ, we only found a difference in performance in the N-Back task. Repeated measures ANCOVAs showed that patients also underperformed compared to the controls in the Digit span test and the TMT task. Not all of the components of working memory were impaired in the patients. Specifically, patients' performance was impaired in the tasks selected to assess the phonological loop and the shifting executive function. Patients' also showed worse performance than controls in the N-Back task, representative of the updating executive function. However, we did not find higher impairment in the patients' performance respect to controls when increasing the loading of the task. PMID:26073063

  8. Active vision task and postural control in healthy, young adults: Synergy and probably not duality.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Baudry, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    In upright stance, individuals sway continuously and the sway pattern in dual tasks (e.g., a cognitive task performed in upright stance) differs significantly from that observed during the control quiet stance task. The cognitive approach has generated models (limited attentional resources, U-shaped nonlinear interaction) to explain such patterns based on competitive sharing of attentional resources. The objective of the current manuscript was to review these cognitive models in the specific context of visual tasks involving gaze shifts toward precise targets (here called active vision tasks). The selection excluded the effects of early and late stages of life or disease, external perturbations, active vision tasks requiring head and body motions and the combination of two tasks performed together (e.g., a visual task in addition to a computation in one's head). The selection included studies performed by healthy, young adults with control and active - difficult - vision tasks. Over 174 studies found in Pubmed and Mendeley databases, nine were selected. In these studies, young adults exhibited significantly lower amplitude of body displacement (center of pressure and/or body marker) under active vision tasks than under the control task. Furthermore, the more difficult the active vision tasks were, the better the postural control was. This underscores that postural control during active vision tasks may rely on synergistic relations between the postural and visual systems rather than on competitive or dual relations. In contrast, in the control task, there would not be any synergistic or competitive relations.

  9. Neovascularization Capacity of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells From Critical Limb Ischemia Patients Is Equivalent to Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Gremmels, Hendrik; Teraa, Martin; Quax, Paul HA; den Ouden, Krista; Fledderus, Joost O; Verhaar, Marianne C

    2014-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is often poorly treatable by conventional management and alternatives such as autologous cell therapy are increasingly investigated. Whereas previous studies showed a substantial impairment of neovascularization capacity in primary bone-marrow (BM) isolates from patients, little is known about dysfunction in patient-derived BM mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). In this study, we have compared CLI-MSCs to healthy controls using gene expression profiling and functional assays for differentiation, senescence and in vitro and in vivo pro-angiogenic ability. Whereas no differentially expressed genes were found and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation did not significantly differ between groups, chondrogenic differentiation was impaired in CLI-MSCs, potentially as a consequence of increased senescence. Migration experiments showed no differences in growth factor sensitivity and secretion between CLI- and control MSCs. In a murine hind-limb ischemia model, recovery of perfusion was enhanced in MSC-treated mice compared to vehicle controls (71 ± 24% versus 44 ± 11%; P < 1 × 10−6). CLI-MSC- and control-MSC–treated animals showed nearly identical amounts of reperfusion (ratio CLI:Control = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.82–1.14), meeting our criteria for statistical equivalence. The neovascularization capacity of MSCs derived from CLI-patients is not compromised and equivalent to that of control MSCs, suggesting that autologous MSCs are suitable for cell therapy in CLI patients. PMID:25174586

  10. The influence of peripheral vision induced by moving people on postural control in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Han; Park, Du-Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of the peripheral vision (PV) induced by moving people on postural control in healthy adults. The subjects consisted of 12 healthy adult volunteers (5 males, 7 females) who had been informed of the study purpose and procedure. The visual interventions were composed of three types. PV1 and PV2 were stimulated using a one-way vertical striped pattern and a two-way vertical striped pattern, respectively. To embody the features of moving people reflected in the mirrors, researchers recorded movements of people or objects provided by mirrors on video image. In this study, this was named PV3. The subjects were exposed to each of the visual stimuli for 3 min in a random order, and their postural control was then evaluated. All the subjects were allowed to practice once prior to performing the one leg stand test, functional reaching test and body sway test. All the evaluations were made before and after the visual intervention, and the subjects rested for 30 min between each intervention. PV3 ranked second in before and after differences of trace length and velocity and had no significant difference from PV2, demonstrating that the PV3, as well as PV2, affected the amount and velocity of body sway. In addition, the standard deviation velocity, trace length and velocity values of PV3 were higher than the PV1 values. Therefore, the treatment of those who have difficulty with postural control and balance maintenance should take place in a controlled therapeutic environment. PMID:27807518

  11. Parental bonding in subjects with pathological gambling disorder compared with healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Villalta, Laia; Arévalo, Rubén; Valdepérez, Ana; Pascual, Juan C; de los Cobos, J Pérez

    2015-03-01

    The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-V) includes pathological gambling disorder (PGD) in the subgroup of "Addiction and Related Disorders" due to the similarities between PGD and substance-based addictions in neurobiological, psychological, and social risk factors. Family factors as parental rearing attitudes play a crucial role in the development of substance use disorders and PGD. The aim of the present study was to assess the parental bonding during childhood perceived for adults with PGD compared with healthy controls. Twenty males with PGD and 20 control subjects answered the parental bonding instrument, which measures subjects' recollections of parenting on dimensions of care and protection. Subjects with PGD showed significantly lower maternal and paternal care (p = 0.016 and p = 0.031, respectively) than controls, and higher paternal protection (p = 0.003). The most common parental pattern for PGD subjects was the affectionless control (50% for the father and 60% for the mother). Preliminary results suggest that, as previously reported for substance use disorders, an affectionless control parenting style is associated with PGD. PMID:25447192

  12. Pineal gland volume in primary insomnia and healthy controls: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Bumb, Jan M; Schilling, Claudia; Enning, Frank; Haddad, Leila; Paul, Franc; Lederbogen, Florian; Deuschle, Michael; Schredl, Michael; Nolte, Ingo

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the relation between pineal volume and insomnia. Melatonin promotes sleep processes and, administered as a drug, it is suitable to improve primary and secondary sleep disorders in humans. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that human plasma and saliva melatonin levels are partially determined by the pineal gland volume. This study compares the pineal volume in a group of patients with primary insomnia to a group of healthy people without sleep disturbance. Pineal gland volume (PGV) was measured on the basis of high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in 23 patients and 27 controls, matched for age, gender and educational status. Volume measurements were performed conventionally by manual delineation of the pineal borders in multi-planar reconstructed images. Pineal gland volume was significantly smaller (P < 0.001) in patients (48.9 ± 26.6 mm(3) ) than in controls (79 ± 30.2 mm(3) ). In patients PGV correlated negatively with age (r = -0.532; P = 0.026). Adjusting for the effect of age, PGV and rapid eye movement (REM) latency showed a significant positive correlation (rS  = 0.711, P < 0.001) in patients. Pineal volume appears to be reduced in patients with primary insomnia compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to clarify whether low pineal volume is the basis or the consequence of functional sleep changes to elucidate the molecular pathology for the pineal volume loss in primary insomnia.

  13. Comparison of the postural control between football players following ACL reconstruction and healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pahnabi, Gholamreza; Akbari, Mohammad; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Mardani, Mahmoud; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Rostami, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rupture of the Anterior Cruciate Ligment (ACL) is a common knee injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the balance control in football players with and without ACL reconstruction in posture of injury. Methods: Sway of the center of gravity of 15 patients with ACL reconstruction was compared with 15 healthy, age and sex-matched subjects as the control group. All tests were done unilaterally in the posture of injury, using a kistler force plate with the open and -closed eye conditions. Results: The knee of the operated side of the case group showed more displacement of the center of gravity when compared to the non-operated side in the same subject for all variables of the force plate. The operated side of the case group showed more displacement of the center of gravity for all variables of the force plate in comparison with the dominant side of knees in control group. There were significant differences between the non-operated side in the case group and the dominant side of the control group. Conclusion: All together, postural control in the operated side of the case group was weaker than the nonoperated side of the same group and the dominant limb of the control group, which might have resulted from poor proprioception. The postural control was even weaker in the non-operated side of the case group as compared with the dominant limb of the control group, which can justify the hypo mobility of limb for several months after the surgery. PMID:25664302

  14. Healthy shiftwork, healthy shiftworks.

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    2001-12-01

    Reflecting diversifying shift systems, extensive effort is put into managing shiftwork and reducing safety and health risks. It is accepted that shiftworkers are exposed to particular risks inherent in their irregular work schedules. This raises the question of how and to what extent we can ensure healthy work life for shiftworkers. In answering the question, we need to identify effective measures to improve both shiftworking conditions and the health of shiftworkers. Based on recent experiences in managing shiftwork, we note three directions of such measures: (a) comprehensive action to avoid risk-enhancing conditions based on general guidelines, (b) risk control as to workload, worksite ergonomics and risk reduction, and (c) support for flexible and restful working life. International standards are obviously relevant to these three aspects. Our own experiences in applying a set of ergonomic checkpoints to plant maintenance shiftwork demonstrate the usefulness of focusing on flexible work schedules and on multiple job-related factors such as night workload, ergonomic environment, resting conditions and training. There is a strong need for participatory planning and implementation of multi-area improvements as well as for relying on flexible schedules and autonomic teamwork. We may conclude that healthy shiftwork and healthy shiftworkers are compatible with each other only when certain conditions are met. In achieving this end, we need to combine (a) comprehensive measures to improve work schedules and job life, (b) strict risk management and (c) locally adjusted participatory steps for continual improvement.

  15. The 2D:4D ratio of the hand and schizotypal personality traits in schizophrenia patients and healthy control persons.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi-Kang; Li, Chun-Bo; Jin, Jin; Wang, Ji-Jun; Lachmann, Bernd; Sariyska, Rayna; Montag, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Prenatal estrogen/testosterone exposure is known to be involved in early brain development. In this context, the ratio of the index finger to ring finger length (2D:4D) has been put forward as an indicator of the intrauterine sex hormonal level. A previous study by Collinson et al. (2010) examined 2D:4D ratios in Asian patients with schizophrenia and found an increased 2D:4D pattern in male patients compared to male healthy controls. In the current study, we tried to replicate the result of this study on the 2D:4D ratio in schizophrenia patients and controls in a Chinese sample. Moreover, we investigated the link between 2D:4D ratios and schizotypal personality traits in the participants of the study. No significant difference between cases and controls in 2D:4D ratios for both hands could be observed. However, a positive association between right 2D:4D ratio and schizotypal personality traits was found in healthy controls (both in the male and female subsamples) suggesting that a high 2D:4D ratio could represent a vulnerability factor for schizophrenia in healthy males and females. Same results were observed for the digit ratio of the left hand and the SPQ in the healthy total and healthy female subsample. Therefore, the inclusion of personality measures to study the link between the digit ratio and schizophrenia might help to provide insights in a potential continuum from healthy to schizophrenic behavior.

  16. Clinical trial: assessment of regional gut transit times in healthy controls and patients with gastroparesis using wireless motility technology

    PubMed Central

    Sarosiek, I.; Selover, K. H.; Katz, L. A.; Semler, J. R.; Wilding, G. E.; Lackner, J. M.; Sitrin, M. D.; Kuo, B.; Chey, W. D.; Hasler, W. L.; Koch, K. L.; Parkman, H. P.; Sarosiek, J; Mccallum, R. W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Wireless pH and pressure motility capsule (wireless motility capsule) technology provides a method to assess regional gastrointestinal transit times. AIMS Data from a multi-center study of gastroparetic patients and healthy controls was analyzed to: compare regional transit times measured by wireless motility capsule in healthy controls and gastroparetics (GP). METHODS 66 healthy controls and 34 patients with GP [15 diabetic and 19 idiopathic] swallowed wireless motility capsule together with standardized meal (255 kcal). Gastric emptying time (GET), small bowel transit time (SBTT), colon transit time (CTT), and whole gut transit time (WGTT) were calculated using the wireless motility capsule. RESULTS GET, CTT and WGTT but not SBTT were significantly longer in GP than in controls. Eighteen percent of gastroparetic patients had delayed WGTT. Both diabetic and idiopathic etiologies of gastroparetics had significantly slower WGTT (p<0.0001) in addition to significantly slower GET than healthy controls. Diabetic gastroparetics additionally had significantly slower CTT than healthy controls (p = 0.0054). CONCLUSIONS 1) In addition to assessing gastric emptying, regional transit times can be measured using wireless motility capsule. 2) The prolongation of CTT in gastroparetic patients indicates dysmotility beyond the stomach in GP is present and could be contributing to symptom presentation. PMID:19814743

  17. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. PMID:25819172

  18. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child.

  19. B cells contribute to heterogeneity of IL-17 producing cells in rheumatoid arthritis and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Paul Martin; Steiert, Ingeborg; Kötter, Ina; Müller, Claudia A

    2013-01-01

    Secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is the hallmark of a unique lineage of CD4 T cells designated Th17 cells, which may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and many autoimmune diseases. Recently, IL-17-producing cells other than T cells have been described, including diverse innate immune cells. Here, we show that the cellular sources of IL-17A in RA include a significant number of non-T cells. Multicolour fluorescence analysis of IL-17-expressing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) revealed larger proportions of IL-17(+)CD3(-) non-T cells in RA patients than in healthy controls (constitutive, 13.6% vs. 8.4%, and after stimulation with PMA/ionomycin 17.4% vs. 7.9% p < 0.001 in both cases). The source of IL-17 included CD3(-)CD56(+) NK cells, CD3(-)CD14(+) myeloid cells as well as the expected CD3(+)CD4(+) Th17 cells and surprisingly a substantial number of CD3(-)CD19(+) B cells. The presence of IL-17A-expressing B cells was confirmed by specific PCR of peripheral MACS-sorted CD19(+) B cells, as well as by the analysis of different EBV-transformed B cell lines. Here we report for the first time that in addition to Th17 cells and different innate immune cells B cells also contribute to the IL-17A found in RA patients and healthy controls.

  20. Metabolic Pathway Signatures Associated with Urinary Metabolite Biomarkers Differentiate Bladder Cancer Patients from Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok Joong; Yan, Chunri; Jeong, Pildu; Kim, Ye Hwan; Lee, Il-Seok; Kang, Ho-Won; Park, Sunghyouk; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our previous high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry study identified bladder cancer (BCA)-specific urine metabolites, including carnitine, acylcarnitines, and melatonin. The objective of the current study was to determine which metabolic pathways are perturbed in BCA, based on our previously identified urinary metabolome. Materials and Methods A total of 135 primary BCA samples and 26 control tissue samples from healthy volunteers were analyzed. The association between specific urinary metabolites and their related encoding genes was analyzed. Results Significant alterations in the carnitine-acylcarnitine and tryptophan metabolic pathways were detected in urine specimens from BCA patients compared to those of healthy controls. The expression of eight genes involved in the carnitine-acylcarnitine metabolic pathway (CPT1A, CPT1B, CPT1C, CPT2, SLC25A20, and CRAT) or tryptophan metabolism (TPH1 and IDO1) was assessed by RT-PCR in our BCA cohort (n=135). CPT1B, CPT1C, SLC25A20, CRAT, TPH1, and IOD1 were significantly downregulated in tumor tissues compared to normal bladder tissues (p<0.05 all) of patients with non-muscle invasive BCA, whereas CPT1B, CPT1C, CRAT, and TPH1 were downregulated in those with muscle invasive BCA (p<0.05), with no changes in IDO1 expression. Conclusion Alterations in the expression of genes associated with the carnitine-acylcarnitine and tryptophan metabolic pathways, which were the most perturbed pathways in BCA, were determined. PMID:27189278

  1. Efficacy of a child-centred and family-based program in promoting healthy weight and healthy behaviors in Chinese American children: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Weiss, Sandra; Heyman, Melvin B.; Lustig, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of an interactive, child-centred and family-based program in promoting healthy weight and healthy lifestyles in Chinese American children. Design A randomized controlled study of a culturally sensitive behavioral intervention. Subjects Sixty-seven Chinese American children (ages, 8–10 years; normal weight and overweight) and their families. Measurements Anthropometry, blood pressure, measures of dietary intake, physical activity, knowledge and self-efficacy regarding physical activity and diet at baseline and 2, 6 and 8 months after baseline assessment. Results Linear mixed modeling indicated a significant effect of the intervention in decreasing body mass index, diastolic blood pressure and fat intake while increasing vegetable and fruit intake, actual physical activity and knowledge about physical activity. Conclusion This interactive child-centred and family-based behavioral program appears feasible and effective, leading to reduced body mass index and improved overweight-related health behaviors in Chinese American children. This type of program can be adapted for other minority ethnic groups who are at high risk for overweight and obesity and have limited access to programs that promote healthy lifestyles. PMID:19933120

  2. T-wave morphology can distinguish healthy controls from LQTS patients.

    PubMed

    Immanuel, S A; Sadrieh, A; Baumert, M; Couderc, J P; Zareba, W; Hill, A P; Vandenberg, J I

    2016-09-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inherited disorder associated with prolongation of the QT/QTc interval on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) and a markedly increased risk of sudden cardiac death due to cardiac arrhythmias. Up to 25% of genotype-positive LQTS patients have QT/QTc intervals in the normal range. These patients are, however, still at increased risk of life-threatening events compared to their genotype-negative siblings. Previous studies have shown that analysis of T-wave morphology may enhance discrimination between control and LQTS patients. In this study we tested the hypothesis that automated analysis of T-wave morphology from Holter ECG recordings could distinguish between control and LQTS patients with QTc values in the range 400-450 ms. Holter ECGs were obtained from the Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW) database. Frequency binned averaged ECG waveforms were obtained and extracted T-waves were fitted with a combination of 3 sigmoid functions (upslope, downslope and switch) or two 9th order polynomial functions (upslope and downslope). Neural network classifiers, based on parameters obtained from the sigmoid or polynomial fits to the 1 Hz and 1.3 Hz ECG waveforms, were able to achieve up to 92% discrimination between control and LQTS patients and 88% discrimination between LQTS1 and LQTS2 patients. When we analysed a subgroup of subjects with normal QT intervals (400-450 ms, 67 controls and 61 LQTS), T-wave morphology based parameters enabled 90% discrimination between control and LQTS patients, compared to only 71% when the groups were classified based on QTc alone. In summary, our Holter ECG analysis algorithms demonstrate the feasibility of using automated analysis of T-wave morphology to distinguish LQTS patients, even those with normal QTc, from healthy controls.

  3. T-wave morphology can distinguish healthy controls from LQTS patients.

    PubMed

    Immanuel, S A; Sadrieh, A; Baumert, M; Couderc, J P; Zareba, W; Hill, A P; Vandenberg, J I

    2016-09-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inherited disorder associated with prolongation of the QT/QTc interval on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) and a markedly increased risk of sudden cardiac death due to cardiac arrhythmias. Up to 25% of genotype-positive LQTS patients have QT/QTc intervals in the normal range. These patients are, however, still at increased risk of life-threatening events compared to their genotype-negative siblings. Previous studies have shown that analysis of T-wave morphology may enhance discrimination between control and LQTS patients. In this study we tested the hypothesis that automated analysis of T-wave morphology from Holter ECG recordings could distinguish between control and LQTS patients with QTc values in the range 400-450 ms. Holter ECGs were obtained from the Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW) database. Frequency binned averaged ECG waveforms were obtained and extracted T-waves were fitted with a combination of 3 sigmoid functions (upslope, downslope and switch) or two 9th order polynomial functions (upslope and downslope). Neural network classifiers, based on parameters obtained from the sigmoid or polynomial fits to the 1 Hz and 1.3 Hz ECG waveforms, were able to achieve up to 92% discrimination between control and LQTS patients and 88% discrimination between LQTS1 and LQTS2 patients. When we analysed a subgroup of subjects with normal QT intervals (400-450 ms, 67 controls and 61 LQTS), T-wave morphology based parameters enabled 90% discrimination between control and LQTS patients, compared to only 71% when the groups were classified based on QTc alone. In summary, our Holter ECG analysis algorithms demonstrate the feasibility of using automated analysis of T-wave morphology to distinguish LQTS patients, even those with normal QTc, from healthy controls. PMID:27510854

  4. Mood regulation in seasonal affective disorder patients and healthy controls studied in forced desynchrony.

    PubMed

    Koorengevel, Kathelijne M; Beersma, Domien G M; den Boer, Johan A; van den Hoofdakker, Rutger H

    2003-01-25

    In healthy subjects, both the duration of wakefulness and the circadian pacemaker have been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of mood. Some features of affective disorders suggest that these two factors also play a role in the dysregulation of mood. In particular, disturbances of the circadian pacemaker have been proposed to be a pathogenetic factor in Seasonal Affective Disorder, winter type (SAD). This report presents a test of this proposition. To this end seven SAD patients and matched controls were subjected to a 120-h forced desynchrony protocol, in which they were exposed to six 20-h days. This protocol enables us to discriminate the extent to which the course of mood is determined by the imposed 20-h sleep-wake cycle from the influence of the circadian pacemaker on that course. Patients participated during a depressive episode, after recovery upon light therapy and in summer. Controls were studied in winter and in summer. Between SAD patients and controls no significant differences were observed in the period length nor in the timing of the endogenous circadian temperature minimum. In both groups, sleep-wake cycle- and pacemaker-related components were observed in the variations of mood, which were not significantly different between conditions.

  5. The influence of age and weight status on cardiac autonomic control in healthy children: a review.

    PubMed

    Eyre, E L J; Duncan, M J; Birch, S L; Fisher, J P

    2014-12-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analyses can provide a non-invasive evaluation of cardiac autonomic activity. How autonomic control normally develops in childhood and how this is affected by obesity remain incompletely understood. In this review we examine the evidence that childhood age and weight status influence autonomic control of the heart as assessed using HRV. Electronic databases (Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library) were searched for studies examining HRV in healthy children from birth to 18 years who adhered to the Task Force (1996) guidelines. Twenty-four studies met our inclusion criteria. Seven examined childhood age and HRV. A reduction in 24-hour LF:HF was reported from birth to infancy (1 year), while overall HRV (SDNN) showed a marked and progressive increase. From infancy to early-to-late childhood (from 12 months to 15 years) LF:HF ratio was reported to decline further albeit at a slower rate, while RMSSD and SDNN increased. Twenty studies examined the effects of weight status and body composition on HRV. In a majority of studies, obese children exhibited reductions in RMSSD (n = 8/13), pNN50% (n = 7/9) and HF power (n = 14/18), no difference was reported for LF (n = 10/18), while LF:HF ratio was elevated (n = 10/15). HRV changes during childhood are consistent with a marked and progressive increase in cardiac parasympathetic activity relative to sympathetic activity. Obesity disrupts the normal maturation of cardiac autonomic control.

  6. Comparison of Resting Energy Expenditure Between Cancer Subjects and Healthy Controls: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Yen Vi; Batterham, Marijka J; Edwards, Cheree

    2016-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence surrounding the extent of changes in resting energy expenditure (REE) in cancer. This meta-analysis aimed to establish the mean difference in REE, as kilojoules per kilogram fat-free mass, among cancer patients when compared to healthy control subjects. The secondary aim was to determine differences among different cancer types. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and ProQuest Central were searched from the earliest records until March 2014. Studies were included if measured REE was reported as kilojoules or kilocalories per kilogram fat-free mass (FFM) in adult subjects with cancer. Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Fourteen studies included both cancer (n = 1453) and control (n = 1145) groups. The meta-analysis shows an average increase in REE of 9.66 (95% confidence interval: 3.34, 15.98) kJ/kgFFM/day in cancer patients when compared to control subjects. Heterogeneity was detected (P < 0.001) which suggest variations in REE among cancer types. Elevations are most noticeable in patients with cancers of metabolically demanding organs.

  7. Impact of a Healthy Nails Program on Nail-Biting in Turkish Schoolchildren: A Controlled Pretest-Posttest Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergun, Ayse; Toprak, Rumeysa; Sisman, Fatma Nevin

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a healthy nails program on nail-biting in Turkish schoolchildren. This quasi-experimental study was of pretest-posttest control group design. A total of 50 students of a primary school formed the intervention group, while 53 students from the same school formed the control group. Data were…

  8. Lactate: brain fuel in human traumatic brain injury: a comparison with normal healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Thomas C; Martin, Neil A; Horning, Michael A; McArthur, David L; Hovda, David A; Vespa, Paul; Brooks, George A

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that lactate shuttling helps support the nutritive needs of injured brains. To that end, we utilized dual isotope tracer [6,6-(2)H2]glucose, that is, D2-glucose, and [3-(13)C]lactate techniques involving arm vein tracer infusion along with simultaneous cerebral (arterial [art] and jugular bulb [JB]) blood sampling. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with nonpenetrating brain injuries (n=12) were entered into the study following consent of patients' legal representatives. Written and informed consent was obtained from control volunteers (n=6). Patients were studied 5.7±2.2 (mean±SD) days post-injury; during periods when arterial glucose concentration tended to be higher in TBI patients. As in previous investigations, the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgluc, i.e., net glucose uptake) was significantly suppressed following TBI (p<0.001). However, lactate fractional extraction, an index of cerebral lactate uptake related to systemic lactate supply, approximated 11% in both healthy control subjects and TBI patients. Further, neither the CMR for lactate (CMRlac, i.e., net lactate release), nor the tracer-measured cerebral lactate uptake differed between healthy controls and TBI patients. The percentages of lactate tracer taken up and released as (13)CO2 into the JB accounted for 92% and 91% for control and TBI conditions, respectively, suggesting that most cerebral lactate uptake was oxidized following TBI. Comparisons of isotopic enrichments of lactate oxidation from infused [3-(13)C]lactate tracer and (13)C-glucose produced during hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis (GNG) showed that 75-80% of (13)CO2 released into the JB was from lactate and that the remainder was from the oxidation of glucose secondarily labeled from lactate. Hence, either directly as lactate uptake, or indirectly via GNG, peripheral lactate production accounted for ∼70% of carbohydrate (direct lactate uptake+uptake of glucose from lactate) consumed by the

  9. (-)-Epicatechin administration and exercising skeletal muscle vascular control and microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Copp, Steven W; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; White, Michael J; Hirai, Daniel M; Ferguson, Scott K; Holdsworth, Clark T; Sims, Gabrielle E; Poole, David C; Musch, Timothy I

    2013-01-15

    Consumption of the dietary flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EPI) is associated with enhanced endothelial function and augmented skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial volume density. The potential for EPI to improve peripheral vascular function and muscle oxygenation during exercise is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EPI administration in healthy rats would improve treadmill exercise performance secondary to elevated skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance [VC, blood flow/mean arterial pressure (MAP)] and improved skeletal muscle microvascular oxygenation. Rats received water (control, n = 12) or 4 mg/kg EPI (n = 12) via oral gavage daily for 24 days. Exercise endurance capacity and peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2) peak) were measured via treadmill runs to exhaustion. MAP (arterial catheter) and blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres) were measured and VC was calculated during submaximal treadmill exercise (25 m/min, 5% grade). Spinotrapezius muscle microvascular O(2) pressure (Po(2mv)) was measured (phosphorescence quenching) during electrically induced twitch (1 Hz) contractions. In conscious rats, EPI administration resulted in lower (↓~5%) resting (P = 0.03) and exercising (P = 0.04) MAP. There were no differences in exercise endurance capacity, Vo(2) peak, total exercising hindlimb blood flow (control, 154 ± 13; and EPI, 159 ± 8 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1), P = 0.68), or VC (control, 1.13 ± 0.10; and EPI, 1.24 ± 0.08 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)·mmHg(-1), P = 0.21) between groups. Following anesthesia, EPI resulted in lower MAP (↓~16%) but did not impact resting Po(2mv) or any kinetics parameters (P > 0.05 for all) during muscle contractions compared with control. EPI administration (4 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) improved modestly cardiovascular function (i.e., ↓MAP) with no impact on exercise performance, total exercising skeletal muscle blood flow and VC, or contracting muscle microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats.

  10. Lactate: Brain Fuel in Human Traumatic Brain Injury: A Comparison with Normal Healthy Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Neil A.; Horning, Michael A.; McArthur, David L.; Hovda, David A.; Vespa, Paul; Brooks, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the hypothesis that lactate shuttling helps support the nutritive needs of injured brains. To that end, we utilized dual isotope tracer [6,6-2H2]glucose, that is, D2-glucose, and [3-13C]lactate techniques involving arm vein tracer infusion along with simultaneous cerebral (arterial [art] and jugular bulb [JB]) blood sampling. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with nonpenetrating brain injuries (n=12) were entered into the study following consent of patients' legal representatives. Written and informed consent was obtained from control volunteers (n=6). Patients were studied 5.7±2.2 (mean±SD) days post-injury; during periods when arterial glucose concentration tended to be higher in TBI patients. As in previous investigations, the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgluc, i.e., net glucose uptake) was significantly suppressed following TBI (p<0.001). However, lactate fractional extraction, an index of cerebral lactate uptake related to systemic lactate supply, approximated 11% in both healthy control subjects and TBI patients. Further, neither the CMR for lactate (CMRlac, i.e., net lactate release), nor the tracer-measured cerebral lactate uptake differed between healthy controls and TBI patients. The percentages of lactate tracer taken up and released as 13CO2 into the JB accounted for 92% and 91% for control and TBI conditions, respectively, suggesting that most cerebral lactate uptake was oxidized following TBI. Comparisons of isotopic enrichments of lactate oxidation from infused [3-13C]lactate tracer and 13C-glucose produced during hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis (GNG) showed that 75–80% of 13CO2 released into the JB was from lactate and that the remainder was from the oxidation of glucose secondarily labeled from lactate. Hence, either directly as lactate uptake, or indirectly via GNG, peripheral lactate production accounted for ∼70% of carbohydrate (direct lactate uptake+uptake of glucose from lactate) consumed by the

  11. Gender differences in interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sandra E; Degen, Bigna; Petitjean, Sylvie; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Walter, Marc

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women) after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women) were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64). Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and were subtyped according to Lesch's Alcohol Typology (LAT). There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.

  12. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  13. Differences in Facial Emotion Recognition between First Episode Psychosis, Borderline Personality Disorder and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez de Artaza, Maider; Bustamante, Sonia; Orgaz, Pablo; Osa, Luis; Angosto, Virxinia; Valverde, Cristina; Bilbao, Amaia; Madrazo, Arantza; van Os, Jim; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Background Facial emotion recognition (FER) is essential to guide social functioning and behaviour for interpersonal communication. FER may be altered in severe mental illness such as in psychosis and in borderline personality disorder patients. However, it is unclear if these FER alterations are specifically related to psychosis. Awareness of FER alterations may be useful in clinical settings to improve treatment strategies. The aim of our study was to examine FER in patients with severe mental disorder and their relation with psychotic symptomatology. Materials and Methods Socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected. Alterations on emotion recognition were assessed in 3 groups: patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) (n = 64), borderline personality patients (BPD) (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 137), using the Degraded Facial Affect Recognition Task. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Structured Interview for Schizotypy Revised and Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences scales were used to assess positive psychotic symptoms. WAIS III subtests were used to assess IQ. Results Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed a significant difference between groups on the FER of neutral faces score between FEP, BPD patients and controls and between FEP patients and controls in angry face recognition. No significant differences were found between groups in the fear or happy conditions. There was a significant difference between groups in the attribution of negative emotion to happy faces. BPD and FEP groups had a much higher tendency to recognize happy faces as negatives. There was no association with the different symptom domains in either group. Conclusions FEP and BPD patients have problems in recognizing neutral faces more frequently than controls. Moreover, patients tend to over-report negative emotions in recognition of happy faces. Although no relation between psychotic symptoms and FER alterations was found, these deficits could contribute to a

  14. Higher diversity in fungal species discriminates children with type 1 diabetes mellitus from healthy control

    PubMed Central

    Kowalewska, Beata; Zorena, Katarzyna; Szmigiero-Kawko, Małgorzata; Wąż, Piotr; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct qualitative and quantitative assessment of yeast-like fungi in the feces of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with respect to their metabolic control and duration of the disease. Materials and methods The studied materials included samples of fresh feces collected from 53 children and adolescents with T1DM. Control group included 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Medical history was taken and physical examination was conducted in the two study arms. Prevalence of the yeast-like fungi in the feces was determined as well as their amounts, species diversity, drug susceptibility, and enzymatic activity. Results The yeast-like fungi were found in the samples of feces from 75.4% of T1DM patients and 70% controls. In the group of T1DM patients, no correlation was found between age (Rs=0.253, P=0.068), duration of diabetes (Rs=−0.038, P=0.787), or body mass index (Rs=0.150, P=0.432) and the amount of the yeast-like fungi isolated in the feces. Moreover, no correlation was seen between the amount of the yeast-like fungi and glycated hemoglobin (Rs=0.0324, P=0.823), systolic blood pressure (Rs=0.102, P=0.483), or diastolic blood pressure (Rs=0.271, P=0.345). Conclusion Our research has shown that children and adolescents with T1DM show higher species diversity of the yeast-like fungi, with Candida albicans being significantly less prevalent versus control subjects. Moreover, fungal species in patients with T1DM turn out to be more resistant to antifungal treatment. PMID:27143864

  15. Arterial Structure and Function in Ambulatory Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy Are Not Different from Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Audra A.; Cotie, Lisa M.; Timmons, Brian W.; Gorter, Jan Willem; MacDonald, Maureen J.

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity in youth with cerebral palsy (CP) places them at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The current study assessed indices of arterial health in adolescents with CP, classified as levels I-II of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) (n = 11, age 13.2 ± 2.1 yr), in comparison to age- and sex-matched controls (n = 11, age 12.4 ± 2.3 yr). Groups were similar in anthropometric measurements, resting blood pressures, and heart rates. There were no group differences in brachial flow-mediated dilation (11.1 ± 7.8 versus 6.1 ± 3.6), carotid intima-media thickness (0.42 ± 0.04 versus 0.41 ± 0.03 mm), and distensibility (0.008 ± 0.002 versus 0.008 ± 0.002 mmHg) or central (4.3 ± 0.6 versus 4.1 ± 0.9 m/s) and peripheral pulse wave velocity (7.1 ± 1.7 versus 7.6 ± 1.1 m/s); CP versus healthy controls, respectively. Vigorous intensity physical activity (PA) was lower in the CP group (CP: 38 ± 80 min versus controls: 196 ± 174 min); groups were similar in light and moderate intensity PA levels. Arterial health of ambulatory youth with CP is not different from a control group despite lower vigorous PA levels. Similar studies need to examine individuals with more pronounced mobility limitations (GMFCS level III–V). PMID:22778755

  16. Associations of pineal volume, chronotype and symptom severity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Bumb, Jan Malte; Mier, Daniela; Noelte, Ingo; Schredl, Michael; Kirsch, Peter; Hennig, Oliver; Liebrich, Luisa; Fenske, Sabrina; Alm, Barbara; Sauer, Carina; Leweke, Franz Markus; Sobanski, Esther

    2016-07-01

    The pineal gland, as part of the human epithalamus, is the main production site of peripheral melatonin, which promotes the modulation of sleep patterns, circadian rhythms and circadian preferences (morningness vs. eveningness). The present study analyses the pineal gland volume (PGV) and its association with circadian preferences and symptom severity in adult ADHD patients compared to healthy controls. PGV was determined manually using high-resolution 3T MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in medication free adult ADHD patients (N=74) compared to healthy controls (N=86). Moreover, the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), the ADHD Diagnostic Checklist and the Wender-Utah Rating Scale were conducted. PGV differed between both groups (patients: 59.9±33.8mm(3); healthy controls: 71.4±27.2mm(3), P=0.04). In ADHD patients, more eveningness types were revealed (patients: 29%; healthy controls: 17%; P=0.05) and sum scores of the MEQ were lower (patients: 45.8±11.5; healthy controls 67.2±10.1; P<0.001). Multiple regression analyses indicated a positive correlation of PGV and MEQ scores in ADHD (β=0.856, P=0.003) but not in healthy controls (β=0.054, P=0.688). Patients' MEQ scores (β=-0.473, P=0.003) were negatively correlated to ADHD symptoms. The present results suggest a linkage between the PGV and circadian preference in adults with ADHD and an association of the circadian preference to symptom severity. This may facilitate the development of new chronobiological treatment approaches for the add-on treatment in ADHD. PMID:27150337

  17. Short- and Long-Term Sleep Stability in Insomniacs and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Jordan; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Basta, Maria; Pejovic, Slobodanka; He, Fan; Bixler, Edward O.

    2015-01-01

    classifying one's sleep duration. Citation: Gaines J, Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Basta M, Pejovic S, He F, Bixler EO. Short- and long-term sleep stability in insomniacs and healthy controls. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1727–1734. PMID:26237768

  18. Facilitating myoelectric-control with transcranial direct current stimulation: a preliminary study in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    during 'proportional EMG control’ when compared to M1 anodal and sham tDCS. Conclusions The preliminary results from healthy subjects showed specific, and at least partially antagonistic effects, of M1 and cerebellar anodal tDCS on motor performance during myoelectric control. These results are encouraging, but further studies are necessary to better define how tDCS over particular regions of the cerebellum may facilitate learning of myoelectric control for brain machine interfaces. PMID:24507410

  19. Diagnostic, prognostic and predictive value of MicroRNA-21 in breast cancer patients, their daughters and healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Usmani, Ambreen; Shoro, Amir Ali; Memon, Zahida; Hussain, Mehvish; Rehman, Rehana

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) located on 17q23.1 expressed in breast cancer has anti-apoptotic ability and causes tumor cell growth. It is also involved in functions such as signal transduction pathways effecting normal cell growth and differentiation. The primary objective of the study was to identify presence of miR-21 in the serum levels of stage III invasive ductal carcinoma patients and compare its expression with age matched healthy individuals and daughters of index cases. The secondary objective was to evaluate the significance of serum miR-21 gene expression with histologically proven estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) proteins. A total of 132 subjects were recruited: 50 (cases) of stage III invasive ductal carcinoma patients who had not undergone any chemotherapy or surgery were randomly picked with exclusion of females with other types of breast carcinoma. Age-matched, 50 healthy individuals (control A) were selected by purposive sampling after confirmation of no palpable lump/s in their breasts together with 32 daughters of index cases (control B). Serum tests were run on Real Time quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR, threshold cycle was determined and fold change calculated.Normality of continuous variables was assessed by Shapiro-Wilk’s test, groups compared by student t-test, Mann-Whitney test and Fisher exact test, P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. We observed that miR-21 was significantly higher in cases as compared to control A and B (P = 0.001) however control B showed significant gene expression as compared to control A (P = 0.001). The cases were also divided as positive or negative for ER, PR and HER2. High expression of miR-21 in females with stage III invasive ductal carcinoma had been calculated as compared to its age matched healthy subjects. It was observed that triple negative cases showed a greater expression of gene as compared to other groups (P = 0

  20. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  1. Comparing dietary patterns of depressed patients versus healthy people in a case control protocol

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Maryam; Sotoudeh, Gity; Raisi, Firoozeh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Foroughifar, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Major depressive disorder is the leading cause of disability around the world. Because of the high rate of medication discontinuation by patients and the risk of recurrence, factors such as nutrition could be useful for the prevention or treatment of depression. The relationship between depression and dietary patterns has been reported in a few studies but with controversial results. Therefore, we have decided to study the possible effects of cultural, social, racial, geographic and environmental conditions on this relationship in an Iranian population. Methods and analysis In our case control protocol, 110 cases and 220 controls will be individually matched based on age, sex and area of residence. New cases of depression, based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), will be recruited from two psychiatric clinics in Tehran. Interviewers will then go to each patient's home and invite qualified individuals to participate in the study as controls. Food intakes of all participants will be obtained by semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires covering the past year; these will be transformed into actual food intake (g/day). Dietary patterns will be determined by the principal components method. Conditional logistic regression, as a multivariate analysis, will be used for assessing the relationship between dietary patterns and depression, taking into consideration the potential role of different variables. The results may help to identify differences in dietary patterns between depressed and healthy people. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by ethics committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. At the beginning of the study, a written informed consent form will be signed and dated by subjects and investigators. The results will be published in due time. PMID:24525387

  2. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... please turn Javascript on. 7 Smart Steps to Aging Well 1. Control Blood Pressure You can have ...

  3. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults With Parkinson's Disease, Adults With Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014). Method Speakers read Harvard sentences in habitual, clear, loud, and slow conditions. Sentence stimuli were equated for peak intensity and mixed with multitalker babble. A total of 50 listeners orthographically transcribed sentences. Procedures were identical to those for a VAS reported in Tjaden, Sussman, and Wilding (2014). Results The percent correct scores from transcription were significantly higher in magnitude than the VAS scores. Multivariate linear modeling indicated that the pattern of findings for transcription and VAS was virtually the same with respect to differences among groups and speaking conditions. Correlation analyses further indicated a moderately strong, positive relationship between the two metrics. The majority of these correlations were significant. Last, intrajudge and interjudge listener reliability metrics for the two intelligibility tasks were comparable. Conclusion Results suggest that there may be instances when the less time-consuming VAS task may be a viable substitute for an orthographic transcription task when documenting intelligibility in mild dysarthria. PMID:26556727

  4. Healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns are related to pre-diabetes: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoun; Koohdani, Fariba; Mahaki, Behzad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Yavari, Parvaneh; Shaibu, Osman Mohammed; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2016-09-01

    Pre-diabetes increases the risk of diabetes and CVD. Several studies have investigated the relationship between food intake and pre-diabetes morbidity, but the dietary patterns of pre-diabetes subjects were not taken into consideration. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between dietary patterns and pre-diabetes. In this regard, 150 pre-diabetic subjects and 150 healthy controls, who attended the diabetes screening centre in Shahreza, Iran, were matched for age group and sex. The weight, height, waist circumference, physical activity, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and blood glucose levels of all participants were measured. Dietary information was collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Using factor analysis, two dietary patterns were identified: the vegetables, fruits and legumes (VFL) dietary pattern and the sweet, solid fat, meat and mayonnaise (SSMM) dietary pattern. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between pre-diabetes and dietary patterns. After adjusting for age, education, physical activity, BMI and energy intake, the VFL dietary pattern was found to be negatively associated with lower pre-diabetes (OR 0·16; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·26). Furthermore, the SSMM dietary pattern was positively associated with pre-diabetes (OR 5·45; 95 % CI 3·22, 9·23). In conclusion, the VFL dietary pattern is inversely related to pre-diabetes, whereas the SSMM dietary pattern is associated with increased risk of pre-diabetes. PMID:27451983

  5. Sleep variability in military-related PTSD: a comparison to primary insomnia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Straus, Laura D; Drummond, Sean P A; Nappi, Carla M; Jenkins, Melissa M; Norman, Sonya B

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disturbances are prevalent in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are associated with a number of adverse health consequences. Few studies have used comprehensive assessment methods to characterize sleep in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) veterans with PTSD. OEF/OIF/OND veterans with PTSD and sleep disturbance (n = 45) were compared to patients with primary insomnia (n = 25) and healthy control subjects (n = 27). Participants were assessed using questionnaire-based measures as well as daily subjective and objective measures of sleep. The 3 groups were compared with regard to (a) group means, (b) intraindividual (i.e., night-to-night) variability of sleep, and (c) interindividual (i.e., within-group) variability of sleep. In terms of group means, only objective sleep efficiency was significantly worse with PTSD than with primary insomnia (d = 0.54). Those with PTSD differed from those with primary insomnia on measures of intraindividual as well as interindividual variability (d = 0.48-0.73). These results suggested sleep symptoms in OEF/OIF/OND veterans with PTSD are more variable across nights and less consistent across patients relative to sleep symptoms in insomnia patients without PTSD. These findings have implications for research, as well as for personalizing treatment for individuals with PTSD.

  6. Different Serum Free Fatty Acid Profiles in NAFLD Subjects and Healthy Controls after Oral Fat Load

    PubMed Central

    Gambino, Roberto; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Rosso, Chiara; Mezzabotta, Lavinia; Pinach, Silvia; Alemanno, Natalina; Saba, Francesca; Cassader, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism can impact on metabolic conditions, such as obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This work studied the increase in total FFA shown in NAFLD subjects to possibly characterize which fatty acids significantly accounted for the whole increase. Methods: 21 patients with NAFLD were selected according to specified criteria. The control group consisted of nine healthy subjects. All subjects underwent an oral standard fat load. Triglycerides; cholesterol; FFA; glucose and insulin were measured every 2 h with the determination of fatty acid composition of FFA. Results: higher serum FFA levels in NAFLD subjects are mainly due to levels of oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids at different times. Significant increases were shown for docosahexaenoic acid, linolenic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, and arachidonic acid, although this was just on one occasion. In the postprandial phase, homeostatic model assessment HOMA index positively correlated with the ω3/ω6 ratio in NAFLD patients. Conclusions: the higher serum levels of FFA in NAFLD subjects are mainly due to levels of oleic and palmitic acids which are the most abundant circulating free fatty acids. This is almost exactly corresponded with significant increases in linoleic acid. An imbalance in the n-3/n-6 fatty acids ratio could modulate postprandial responses with more pronounced effects in insulin-resistant subjects, such as NAFLD patients. PMID:27043543

  7. Interactions between beta-2 adrenoceptor gene variation, cardiovascular control and dietary sodium in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Eisenach, John H; Schroeder, Darrell R; Pavey, Emily S; Penheiter, Alan R; Knutson, Jean N; Turner, Stephen T; Joyner, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Dietary sodium affects function of the beta-2 adrenoceptor (ADRB2). We tested the hypothesis that haplotype variation in the ADRB2 gene would influence the cardiovascular and regional vasodilator responses to sympathoexcitatory manoeuvres following low, normal and high sodium diets, and ADRB2-mediated forearm vasodilation in the high sodium condition. Seventy-one healthy young adults were grouped by double homozygous haplotypes: Arg16+Gln27 (n = 31), the rare Gly16+Gln27 (n = 10) and Gly16+Glu27 (n = 30). Using a randomized cross-over design, subjects were studied following 5 days of controlled low, normal and high sodium with 1 month or longer between diets (and low hormone phase of the menstrual cycle). All three visits utilized ECG and finger plethysmography for haemodynamic measures, and the high sodium visit included a brachial arterial catheter for forearm vasodilator responses to isoprenaline with plethysmography. Lymphocytes were sampled for ex vivo analysis of ADRB2 density and binding conformation. We found a main effect of haplotype on ADRB2 density (P = 0.03) with the Gly16+Glu27 haplotype having the greatest density (low, normal, high sodium: 12.9 ± 0.9, 13.5 ± 0.9 and 13.6 ± 0.8 fmol mg(-1) protein, respectively) and Arg16+Gln27 having the least (9.3 ± 0.6, 10.1 ± 0.5 and 10.3 ± 0.6  fmol mg(-1) protein, respectively), but there were no sodium or haplotype effects on receptor binding conformation. In the mental stress trial, there was a main effect of haplotype on cardiac output (P = 0.04), as Arg16+Gln27 had the lowest responses. Handgrip and forearm vasodilation yielded no haplotype differences, and no correlations were present for ADRB2 density and haemodynamics. Our findings support cell-based evidence that ADRB2 haplotype influences ADRB2 protein expression independent of dietary sodium, yet the haemodynamic consequences appear modest in healthy humans.

  8. Six-Year Training Improves Everyday Memory in Healthy Older People. Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Requena, Carmen; Turrero, Agustín; Ortiz, Tomás

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Everyday memory of older persons does not improve with intensive memory training programs. This study proposes a change in these programs based on a time-extended and massive intervention format. Design and Methods: The sample of 1007 healthy older persons (mean age 71.85; SD = 5.12) was randomized into 2 groups. The experimental group followed an extended 6 years of training (192 sessions over 192 weeks) whereas the control group received an intensive training (3 sessions per week for a total of 32 sessions in 11 weeks). The program included cognitive and emotional content whose effects were assessed with the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) and with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Both groups were evaluated initially, after 32 sessions, and again after 6 years. Results: The relative improvements measured with Blom’s derivative showed that everyday memory and mental status of the experimental group were significantly better both in the short (Δ% 8.31 in RBMT and Δ% 1.51 in MMSE) and in the long term (Δ% 12.54 in RBMT and Δ% 2.56 in MMSE). For everyday memory and mental level, the overall gain estimate representing the mean difference in pre-post change between time-extended and intensive groups was 0.27 (95% CI: 0.13–0.40) and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.40–0.67), respectively. Time-extended programs have significantly improved everyday memory in contrast with the usual intensive programs whose effects decay with time. There are also significant increases in mental level scores while daily life functionality is preserved in all subjects who completed the training. Implications: These results suggest that it is possible to preserve everyday memory in the long term with continuous training and practice. Massive and time-extended formats may contribute in the future to a paradigm shift in memory programs for healthy older people. PMID:27375479

  9. Reduced stress and inflammatory responsiveness in experienced meditators compared to a matched healthy control group.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Melissa A; Lutz, Antoine; Perlman, David M; Bachhuber, David R W; Schuyler, Brianna S; MacCoon, Donal G; Davidson, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    Psychological stress is a major contributor to symptom exacerbation across many chronic inflammatory conditions and can acutely provoke increases in inflammation in healthy individuals. With the rise in rates of inflammation-related medical conditions, evidence for behavioral approaches that reduce stress reactivity is of value. Here, we compare 31 experienced meditators, with an average of approximately 9000 lifetime hours of meditation practice (M age=51years) to an age- and sex-matched control group (n=37; M age=48years) on measures of stress- and inflammatory responsivity, and measures of psychological health. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used to induce psychological stress and a neurogenic inflammatory response was produced using topical application of capsaicin cream to forearm skin. Size of the capsaicin-induced flare response and increase in salivary cortisol and alpha amylase were used to quantify the magnitude of inflammatory and stress responses, respectively. Results show that experienced meditators have lower TSST-evoked cortisol (62.62±2.52 vs. 70.38±2.33; p<.05) and perceived stress (4.18±.41 vs. 5.56±.30; p<.01), as well as a smaller neurogenic inflammatory response (81.55±4.6 vs. 96.76±4.26; p<.05), compared to the control group. Moreover, experienced meditators reported higher levels of psychological factors associated with wellbeing and resilience. These results suggest that the long-term practice of meditation may reduce stress reactivity and could be of therapeutic benefit in chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by neurogenic inflammation. PMID:26970711

  10. Pancreatic carcinoma, pancreatitis, and healthy controls: metabolite models in a three-class diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Leichtle, Alexander Benedikt; Ceglarek, Uta; Weinert, Peter; Nakas, Christos T; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc; Kase, Julia; Conrad, Tim; Witzigmann, Helmut; Thiery, Joachim; Fiedler, Georg Martin

    2013-06-01

    Metabolomics as one of the most rapidly growing technologies in the "-omics" field denotes the comprehensive analysis of low molecular-weight compounds and their pathways. Cancer-specific alterations of the metabolome can be detected by high-throughput mass-spectrometric metabolite profiling and serve as a considerable source of new markers for the early differentiation of malignant diseases as well as their distinction from benign states. However, a comprehensive framework for the statistical evaluation of marker panels in a multi-class setting has not yet been established. We collected serum samples of 40 pancreatic carcinoma patients, 40 controls, and 23 pancreatitis patients according to standard protocols and generated amino acid profiles by routine mass-spectrometry. In an intrinsic three-class bioinformatic approach we compared these profiles, evaluated their selectivity and computed multi-marker panels combined with the conventional tumor marker CA 19-9. Additionally, we tested for non-inferiority and superiority to determine the diagnostic surplus value of our multi-metabolite marker panels. Compared to CA 19-9 alone, the combined amino acid-based metabolite panel had a superior selectivity for the discrimination of healthy controls, pancreatitis, and pancreatic carcinoma patients [Formula: see text] We combined highly standardized samples, a three-class study design, a high-throughput mass-spectrometric technique, and a comprehensive bioinformatic framework to identify metabolite panels selective for all three groups in a single approach. Our results suggest that metabolomic profiling necessitates appropriate evaluation strategies and-despite all its current limitations-can deliver marker panels with high selectivity even in multi-class settings. PMID:23678345

  11. Neuropsychology, social cognition and global functioning among bipolar, schizophrenic patients and healthy controls: preliminary data

    PubMed Central

    Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo A.; Fiorentini, Alessio; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Serati, Marta; Orsenigo, Giulia; Grillo, Paolo; Zago, Stefano; Caldiroli, Alice; Prunas, Cecilia; Giusti, Francesca; Consonni, Dario; Altamura, A. Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD), schizophrenic (SKZ) patients and healthy controls (HC). The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan; it includes stabilized SKZ patients (n = 30), euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18) and HC (n = 18). Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB) that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however, the differences did not influence the results. BD patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to SKZ patients, even in “ecological” tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p < 0.0038) and BACS symbol coding (p < 0.0043). Regarding the ESCB tests, in the Hotel task SKZ patients completed significantly less tasks (p < 0.001), showed a greater number of errors in Multiple Errands Test (MET-HV) (p < 0.0248) and a worse performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tests (p < 0.001 for the Eyes test and Faux pas test). Both patients' groups performed significantly worse than HC. Finally, significant differences were found between the two groups in GAF scores, being greater among BD subjects (p < 0.001). GAF was correlated with BACS and ESCB scores showing the crucial role of cognitive and ecological performances in patients' global functioning. PMID:24146642

  12. Effects of cortisol on hippocampal subfields volumes and memory performance in healthy control subjects and patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Travis, Scott G; Coupland, Nicholas J; Hegadoren, K; Silverstone, Peter H; Huang, Yushan; Carter, Rawle; Fujiwara, Esther; Seres, Peter; Malykhin, Nikolai V

    2016-09-01

    Overactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depressive disorder (MDD) is among the most consistently replicated biological findings in psychiatry. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have consistently demonstrated that hippocampal (HC) volume is decreased in patients with MDD. The improved spatial resolution of high field strength MRI has recently enabled measurements of HC subfield volumes in vivo. The main goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between cortisol concentrations over a day and HC subfield volumes in patients with MDD compared to healthy controls and to investigate whether diurnal cortisol measures are related to memory performance. Fourteen MDD patients with moderate or severe episodes were recruited, together with 14 healthy controls. Imaging was performed using a 4.7T whole-body imaging system. HC subfields and subregions were segmented manually using previously defined protocol. Memory performance was assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale IV. The salivary cortisol levels were measured over the course of one day. We found that cortisol awakening response to 8h (CAR-8h) was higher in MDD patients compared to controls and that this increase in CAR-8h in MDD patients correlated negatively with left total Cornu Ammonis (CA)1-3 and left HC head volume. In healthy controls mean cortisol levels were negatively associated with right total CA1-3, right HC head, and right total HC volume. In addition, in healthy controls higher CAR-8h was related to worse performance on the immediate content memory. These results provide the first in vivo evidence of the negative associations between cortisol level, CA1-3 HC subfield volume and memory performance in patients with MDD and healthy controls. PMID:27162154

  13. Differences in performance on the functional movement screen between chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Ko, Min-Joo; Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] Differences in scores on the Functional Movement Screen between patients with chronic lower back pain and healthy control subjects were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] In all, 20 chronic lower back pain patients and 20 healthy control subjects were recruited. Chronic lower back pain patients and healthy controls performed the Functional Movement Screen (deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability pushup, and rotary stability). The Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze differences in Functional Movement Screen scores between the two groups. [Results] Chronic lower back pain patients scored lower on the Functional Movement Screen total composite compared with healthy control subjects. Chronic lower back pain patients scored lower on Functional Movement Screen subtests including the deep squat, hurdle step, active straight leg raise, and rotary stability tests. [Conclusion] The deep squat, hurdle step, active straight leg raise, and rotary stability tasks of the Functional Movement Screen can be recommended as a functional assessment tools to identify functional deficits in chronic lower back pain patients. PMID:27512272

  14. 1H-NMR METABONOMICS ANALYSIS OF SERA DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MAMMARY TUMOR-BEARING MICE AND HEALTHY CONTROLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global analysis of 1H-NMR spectra of serum is an appealing approach for the rapid detection of cancer. To evaluate the usefulness of this method in distinguishing between mammary tumor-bearing mice and healthy controls, we conducted 1H-NMR metabonomic analyses on serum samples ob...

  15. A randomized, controlled study of a healthy corner store initiative on the purchases of urban, low-income youth

    PubMed Central

    Lent, Michelle R.; Veur, Stephanie S. Vander; McCoy, Tara A.; Wojtanowski, Alexis C.; Sandoval, Brianna; Sherman, Sandy; Komaroff, Eugene; Foster, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although many initiatives exist to improve the availability of healthy foods in corner stores, few randomized trials have assessed their effects. This study evaluated, in a randomized, controlled trial, the effects of a first-generation healthy corner store intervention on students’ food and beverage purchases over a two-year period. Design and Methods Participants (n=767) were 4th-6th grade students. Ten schools and their nearby corner stores (n=24) were randomly assigned to the healthy corner store intervention or an assessment-only control. Intercept surveys directly assessed the nutritional characteristics of students’ corner store purchases at baseline, 1 and 2 years. Students’ weight and heights were measured at baseline, 1 and 2 years. Results There were no differences in energy content per intercept purchased from control or intervention schools at year 1 (p=0.12) or 2 (p=0.58). There were no differences between control and intervention students in BMI-z score (year 1, p=0.83; year 2, p=0. 98) or obesity prevalence (year 1, p=0.96; year 2, p=0.58). Conclusions A healthy corner store initiative did not result in significant changes in the energy content of corner store purchases or in continuous or categorical measures of obesity. These data will help to inform future interventions. PMID:25311881

  16. Differences in performance on the functional movement screen between chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Min-Joo; Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Differences in scores on the Functional Movement Screen between patients with chronic lower back pain and healthy control subjects were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] In all, 20 chronic lower back pain patients and 20 healthy control subjects were recruited. Chronic lower back pain patients and healthy controls performed the Functional Movement Screen (deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability pushup, and rotary stability). The Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze differences in Functional Movement Screen scores between the two groups. [Results] Chronic lower back pain patients scored lower on the Functional Movement Screen total composite compared with healthy control subjects. Chronic lower back pain patients scored lower on Functional Movement Screen subtests including the deep squat, hurdle step, active straight leg raise, and rotary stability tests. [Conclusion] The deep squat, hurdle step, active straight leg raise, and rotary stability tasks of the Functional Movement Screen can be recommended as a functional assessment tools to identify functional deficits in chronic lower back pain patients. PMID:27512272

  17. Exercise therapy, cardiorespiratory fitness and their effect on brain volumes: a randomised controlled trial in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Scheewe, Thomas W; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Sarkisyan, Gayane; Schnack, Hugo G; Brouwer, Rachel M; de Glint, Maria; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Backx, Frank J G; Kahn, René S; Cahn, Wiepke

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine exercise effects on global brain volume, hippocampal volume, and cortical thickness in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Irrespective of diagnosis and intervention, associations between brain changes and cardiorespiratory fitness improvement were examined. Sixty-three schizophrenia patients and fifty-five healthy controls participated in this randomised controlled trial. Global brain volumes, hippocampal volume, and cortical thickness were estimated from 3-Tesla MRI scans. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a cardiopulmonary ergometer test. Subjects were assigned exercise therapy or occupational therapy (patients) and exercise therapy or life-as-usual (healthy controls) for six months 2h weekly. Exercise therapy effects were analysed for subjects who were compliant at least 50% of sessions offered. Significantly smaller baseline cerebral (grey) matter, and larger third ventricle volumes, and thinner cortex in most areas of the brain were found in patients versus controls. Exercise therapy did not affect global brain and hippocampal volume or cortical thickness in patients and controls. Cardiorespiratory fitness improvement was related to increased cerebral matter volume and lateral and third ventricle volume decrease in patients and to thickening in the left hemisphere in large areas of the frontal, temporal and cingulate cortex irrespective of diagnosis. One to 2h of exercise therapy did not elicit significant brain volume changes in patients or controls. However, cardiorespiratory fitness improvement attenuated brain volume changes in schizophrenia patients and increased thickness in large areas of the left cortex in both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.

  18. Epitope Mapping of Antibodies to Alpha-Synuclein in LRRK2 Mutation Carriers, Idiopathic Parkinson Disease Patients, and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Castelao, Beatriz; Gorostidi, Ana; Ruíz-Martínez, Javier; López de Munain, Adolfo; Castaño, José G.

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (Snca) plays a major role in Parkinson disease (PD). Circulating anti-Snca antibodies has been described in PD patients and healthy controls, but they have been poorly characterized. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of anti-Snca reactivity in human subjects carrying the LRRK2 mutation, idiopathic PD (iPD) patients, and healthy controls and to map the epitopes of the anti-Snca antibodies. Antibodies to Snca were detected by ELISA and immunoblotting using purified recombinant Snca in plasma from individuals carrying LRRK2 mutations (104), iPD patients (59), and healthy controls (83). Epitopes of antibodies were mapped using recombinant protein constructs comprising different regions of Snca. Clear positive anti-Snca reactivity showed no correlation with age, sex, years of evolution, or the disability scores for PD patients and anti-Snca reactivity was not prevalent in human patients with other neurological or autoimmune diseases. Thirteen of the positive individuals were carriers of LRRK2 mutations either non-manifesting (8 out 49 screened) or manifesting (5 positive out 55), three positive (out of 59) were iPD patients, and five positive (out of 83) were healthy controls. Epitope mapping showed that antibodies against the N-terminal (a.a. 1–60) or C-terminal (a.a. 109–140) regions of Snca predominate in LRRK2 mutation carriers and iPD patients, being N122 a critical amino acid for recognition by the anti-C-terminal directed antibodies. Anti-Snca circulating antibodies seem to cluster within families carrying the LRRK2 mutation indicating possible genetic or common environmental factors in the generation of anti-Snca antibodies. These results suggest that case-controls’ studies are insufficient and further studies in family cohorts of patients and healthy controls should be undertaken, to progress in the understanding of the possible relationship of anti-Snca antibodies and PD pathology. PMID:25076905

  19. Basal and postprandial change in serum fibroblast growth factor-21 concentration in type 1 diabetic mellitus and in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Zibar, Karin; Blaslov, Kristina; Bulum, Tomislav; Ćuća, Jadranka Knežević; Smirčić-Duvnjak, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) appears to have an important role in glucose and lipid metabolism. FGF-21 secretion is mainly determined by nutritional status. The aim of this study was to measure basal and postprandial FGF-21 and postprandial change of FGF-21 concentration in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients and in healthy controls, and to investigate the differences between the groups. The cross-sectional study included 30 C-peptide negative T1DM patients, median age 37 years (20-59), disease duration 22 years (3-45), and nine healthy controls, median age 30 years (27-47). Basal and postprandial FGF-21 concentrations were measured by ELISA. The associations of FGF-21 with glucose, lipids, and insulin were analyzed. Individuals with T1DM showed significantly lower basal FGF-21 concentration (P=0.046) when compared with healthy controls (median value 28.2 vs 104 pg/mL) and had significantly different postprandial change (∆ 30'-0') of FGF-21 (P=0.006) in comparison with healthy controls (median value -1.1 vs -20.5 pg/mL). The glucose and lipid status did not correlate with FGF-21. In healthy controls, postprandial insulin level correlated with basal FGF-21 (ρ=0.7, P=0.036). Multiple regression analysis showed that they are independently associated after adjustment for confounding factors (β=1.824, P=0.04). We describe the pathological pattern of basal and postprandial change of FGF-21 secretion not associated with glucose, lipid levels, or insulin therapy in patients with T1DM. Since FGF-21 has numerous protective metabolic effects in the experimental model, the lower basal FGF-21 concentration in T1DM patients opens the question about the potential role of recombinant FGF-21 therapy. PMID:25194937

  20. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... to meet federal regulations or agency policies, financial audits, regulatory review and award closeout for the OLHCHH's ... offers introductory information and guidance for consumers by teaching the “Principles of a Healthy Home”. For those ...

  1. High-Resolution (1)H NMR Spectroscopy Discriminates Amniotic Fluid of Fetuses with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia from Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Croitor-Sava, Anca; Beck, Veronika; Sandaite, Inga; Van Huffel, Sabine; Dresselaers, Tom; Claus, Filip; Himmelreich, Uwe; Deprest, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Lung hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a life-threatening birth defect. Severe cases can be offered tracheal occlusion to boost prenatal lung development, although defining those to benefit remains challenging. Metabonomics of (1)H NMR spectra collected from amniotic fluid (AF) can identify general changes in diseased versus healthy fetuses. AF embodies lung secretions and hence might contain pulmonary next to general markers of disease in CDH fetuses. AF from 81 healthy and 22 CDH fetuses was collected. NMR spectroscopy was performed at 400 MHz to compare AF from fetuses with CDH against controls. Several advanced feature extraction methods based on statistical tests that explore spectral variability, similarity, and dissimilarity were applied and compared. This resulted in the identification of 30 spectral regions, which accounted for 80% variability between CDH and controls. Combination with automated classification discriminates AF from CDH versus healthy fetuses with up to 92% accuracy. Within the identified spectral regions, isoleucine, leucine, valine, pyruvate, GABA, glutamate, glutamine, citrate, creatine, creatinine, taurine, and glucose were the most concentrated metabolites. As the metabolite pattern of AF changes with fetal development, we have excluded metabolites with a high age-related variability and repeated the analysis with 12 spectral regions, which has resulted in similar classification accuracy. From this analysis, it was possible to distinguish between AF from CDH fetuses versus healthy controls independent of gestational age. PMID:26348471

  2. APOE-by-sex interactions on brain structure and metabolism in healthy elderly controls

    PubMed Central

    de Leon, Mony J; Alcolea, Daniel; Pegueroles, Jordi; Montal, Victor; Carmona-Iragui, María; Sala, Isabel; Sánchez-Saudinos, María-Belén; Antón-Aguirre, Sofía; Morenas-Rodríguez, Estrella; Camacho, Valle; Falcón, Carles; Pavía, Javier; Ros, Domènec; Clarimón, Jordi; Blesa, Rafael; Lleó, Alberto; Fortea, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Background The APOE effect on Alzheimer Disease (AD) risk is stronger in women than in men but its mechanisms have not been established. We assessed the APOE-by-sex interaction on core CSF biomarkers, brain metabolism and structure in healthy elderly control individuals (HC). Methods Cross-sectional study. HC from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative with available CSF (n = 274) and/or 3T-MRI (n = 168) and/or a FDG-PET analyses (n = 328) were selected. CSF amyloid-β1–42 (Aβ1–42), total-tau (t-tau) and phospho-tau (p-tau181p) levels were measured by Luminex assays. We analyzed the APOE-by-sex interaction on the CSF biomarkers in an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). FDG uptake was analyzed by SPM8 and cortical thickness (CTh) was measured by FreeSurfer. FDG and CTh difference maps were derived from interaction and group analyses. Results APOE4 carriers had lower CSF Aβ1–42 and higher CSF p-tau181p values than non-carriers, but there was no APOE-by-sex interaction on CSF biomarkers. The APOE-by-sex interaction on brain metabolism and brain structure was significant. Sex stratification showed that female APOE4 carriers presented widespread brain hypometabolism and cortical thinning compared to female non-carriers whereas male APOE4 carriers showed only a small cluster of hypometabolism and regions of cortical thickening compared to male non-carriers. Conclusions The impact of APOE4 on brain metabolism and structure is modified by sex. Female APOE4 carriers show greater hypometabolism and atrophy than male carriers. This APOE-by-sex interaction should be considered in clinical trials in preclinical AD where APOE4 status is a selection criterion. PMID:26397226

  3. Sleep and Body Mass Index in Depressed Children and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Wojnar, Julita; Brower, Kirk J.; Dopp, Richard; Wojnar, Marcin; Emslie, Graham; Rintelmann, Jeanne; Hoffmann, Robert F.; Armitage, Roseanne

    2011-01-01

    Objective Higher body mass index (BMI) has been associated with more sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms, but the combined effects of depression and BMI on sleep have not been studied in children. This study evaluated the relationship between BMI and polysomnography in children with major depressive disorder (MDD), compared to healthy controls (HCs). Method The sample of 104 subjects included 72 children, 8–17 years old, with MDD and 32 similarly aged HCs with no personal or family history of psychopathology. BMI was adjusted using the CDC formula for percentiles by age. Subjects were categorized as 1) normal weight (5th to 84th percentile) or 2) high weight, which included at risk of overweight and overweight (≥ 85th percentile). All analyses were adjusted for sex and Tanner maturational stage scores. Results In the MDD group only, higher BMI was significantly correlated with decreased sleep efficiency, decreased percentage of rapid eye movement sleep (REM%), and higher percentage of time spent awake-and-movement moving (TSPAM). In the HC group only, higher BMI correlated with higher total sleep time. Multivariate analyses revealed significant interactions between the BMI and diagnostic groups for several REM sleep parameters, such that high-weight children from the HC and MDD groups had increases and decreases in REM sleep, respectively. TSPAM increased in the high-weight MDD group, but decreased in the high-weight HC group. Conclusions Although limited by small sample size, these findings suggest that children and adolescents with MDD and a high BMI have more fragmented sleep than other children. The increased REM sleep patterns observed with MDD in this and other studies normalized in high-weight children with MDD. Prevention and treatment strategies should target both sleep and weight as factors that can potentially influence the development and course of MDD. PMID:20138579

  4. Hippocampal volume in healthy controls given 3-day stress doses of hydrocortisone.

    PubMed

    Brown, E Sherwood; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Lu, Hanzhang; Jamadar, Rhoda; Issac, Sruthy; Shad, Mujeeb; Denniston, Daren; Tamminga, Carol; Nakamura, Alyson; Thomas, Binu P

    2015-03-13

    In animal models, corticosterone elevations are associated with hippocampal changes that can be prevented with phenytoin. In humans, Cushing's syndrome and long-term prescription corticosteroid use are associated with a reduction in the hippocampal volume. However, little is known about the effects of short-term corticosteroid administration on the hippocampus. The current report examines changes in the hippocampal volume during a brief hydrocortisone exposure and whether volumetric changes can be blocked by phenytoin. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover study was conducted in healthy adults (n=17). Participants received hydrocortisone (160 mg/day)/placebo, phenytoin/placebo, both medications together, or placebo/placebo, with 21-day washouts between the conditions. Structural MRI scans and cortisol levels were obtained following each medication condition. No significant difference in the total brain volume was observed with hydrocortisone. However, hydrocortisone was associated with a significant 1.69% reduction in the total hippocampal volume compared with placebo. Phenytoin blocked the volume reduction associated with hydrocortisone. Reduction in hippocampal volume correlated with the change in cortisol levels (r=-0.58, P=0.03). To our knowledge, this is the first report of structural hippocampal changes with brief corticosteroid exposure. The correlation between the change in hippocampal volume and cortisol level suggests that the volume changes are related to cortisol elevation. Although the findings from this pilot study need replication, they suggest that the reductions in hippocampal volume occur even during brief exposure to corticosteroids, and that hippocampal changes can, as in animal models, be blocked by phenytoin. The results may have implications both for understanding the response of the hippocampus to stress as well as for patients receiving prescription corticosteroids.

  5. Mechanism of action of whole milk and its components on glycemic control in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Kubant, Ruslan; Akhavan, Tina; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-11-01

    Milk reduces post-meal glycemia when consumed either before or within an ad libitum meal. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of each of the macronutrient components and their combination with whole milk on postprandial glycemia, glucoregulatory and gastrointestinal hormones and gastric emptying in healthy young men. In a randomized, crossover study, 12 males consumed beverages (500 ml) of whole milk (3.25% M.F.) (control), a simulated milk beverage based on milk macronutrients, complete milk protein (16 g), lactose (24 g) or milk fat (16 g). Whole and simulated milk was similar in lowering postprandial glycemia and slowing gastric emptying while increasing insulin, C-peptide, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK), but simulated milk resulted in higher (41%) glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and lower (43%) ghrelin areas under the curve (AUC) than whole milk (P=.01 and P=.04, respectively). Whole and simulated milk lowered glucose (P=.0005) more than predicted by the sum of AUCs for their components. Adjusted for energy content, milks produced lower glucose and hormone responses than predicted from the sum of their components. The effect of protein/kcal on the AUCs was higher than fat/kcal for insulin, C-peptide, insulin secretion rate, GLP-1, CCK and paracetamol (P<.0001), but similar to lactose except for CCK and paracetamol, which were lower. The response in PYY and ghrelin was similar per unit of energy for each macronutrient. In conclusion, milk lowers postprandial glycemia by both insulin and insulin-independent mechanisms arising from interactions among its macronutrient components and energy content.

  6. Aerobic Exercise As a Potential Way to Improve Self-Control after Ego-Depletion in Healthy Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhiling; Liu, Yang; Xie, Jing; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether aerobic exercise can help build self-control stamina in healthy female young adults. Stamina in this context is defined as the capability to endure ego depletion, which can be measured with a self-control task following another activity also requiring self-control. Methods: Forty-five healthy undergraduate women were randomized to either an experimental group or control group. Participants in the experimental group were required to run in their campus running field for 30 min for a period of 5 weeks. Individuals in the control group were required to do diary entries regarding self-control in their daily lives, also for a period of 5 weeks. Before and after the 5-week intervention, participants completed a pain threshold test, a color word Stroop task and the following Cold Pressor Task (CPT) (with and without a distraction component). Results: There was significant decrease of pain tolerance in session 2 relative to session 1 in the control group, but no such decline was found in the experimental group (though the improvement of pain tolerance was not significant), possibly suggesting successful self-control against this kind of decline. Conclusions: Five weeks of aerobic exercise increased self-control after ego depletion in terms of pain tolerance. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise may serve as a potential effective intervention for enhancing self-control in a college female population. PMID:27148113

  7. The Impact of a Web-Based App (eBalance) in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Madar, Zecharia; R Shahar, Danit

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of Web-based apps to promote a healthy lifestyle is increasing, although most of these programs were not assessed using suitable epidemiological methods. We evaluated the effectiveness of a newly developed Web-based app in promoting a healthy lifestyle and educating adults on such lifestyles. We also analyzed predictors for success in acquiring and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Objective Our aim was to compare people receiving a new Web-based app with people who got an introductory lecture alone on healthy lifestyle, weight change, nutritional knowledge, and physical activity, and to identify predictors of success for maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Methods Subjects were recruited from the community and were randomized into intervention and control groups. The intervention subjects received access to the app without any face-to-face support; the control subjects continued their standard lifestyle. Measurements were taken by the researcher at baseline and after 14 weeks and included weight and waist circumference. Nutritional knowledge, diet quality, and physical activity duration were obtained using online questionnaires. The new Web-based app was developed based on current US Department of Agriculture and Israel Ministry of Health recommendations for healthy lifestyle. The app provides tools for monitoring diet and physical activity while instructing and encouraging healthy diet and physical activity. Results Out of 99 subjects who were randomized into app and control groups, 85 participants (86%) completed the study, 56 in the intervention and 29 in the control group. The mean age was 47.9 (SD 12.3) years, and mean Body Mass Index was 26.2 (SD 3.9). Among the intervention group only, frequency of app use was 2.7 (SD 1.9) days/week. The mean change in physical activity was 63 (SD 20.8) minutes in the app group and -30 (SD 27.5) minutes in the control group (P=.02). The mean weight change was -1.44 (SD 0.4) kg in the app group and -0.128 (SD

  8. Growth hormone response to catecholamine depletion in unmedicated, remitted subjects with major depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Homan, Philipp; Drevets, Wayne C; Hasler, Gregor

    2013-10-01

    We investigated whether the human growth hormone (HGH) response to catecholamine depletion differs between fully remitted patients with major depressive disorder and healthy control subjects. Fourteen unmedicated subjects with remitted major depressive disorder (RMDD) and 11 healthy control subjects underwent catecholamine depletion with oral α-methylparatyrosine (AMPT) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study. The main outcome measure was the serum level of HGH. The diagnosis × drug interaction for HGH serum concentration was significant (F₁,₂₃ = 7.66, P < 0.02). This interaction was attributable to the HGH level increasing after AMPT administration in the RMDD subjects but not in the healthy subjects. In the RMDD sample, the AMPT-induced increase in HGH concentration correlated inversely with AMPT-induced anxiety symptoms as assessed using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (r = -0.63, P < 0.02). There was a trend toward an inverse correlation of the AMPT-induced HGH concentration changes with AMPT-induced depressive symptoms as measured by the BDI (r = -0.53, P = 0.05). Following catecholamine depletion, the RMDD subjects were differentiated from control subjects by their HGH responses. This finding, together with the negative correlation between HGH response and AMPT-induced anxiety symptoms in RMDD subjects, suggests that AMPT administration results in a deeper nadir in central catecholaminergic transmission, as reflected by a greater disinhibition of HGH secretion, in RMDD subjects versus control subjects.

  9. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get ...

  10. To determine the frequency of Factor V Leiden in cases of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Anjum; Sumreen; Kashif, Muhammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Factor V Leiden in cases of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Healthy controls. Methods: This case control study was performed in Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Rawalpindi, From 21st March to 25th September 2013. One hundred patients with diagnostic evidence of Deep vein thrombosis on Doppler ultrasound/Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan were included in the study through non probability convenient sampling and compared with 100 matched healthy controls. DNA was extracted from the blood sample by kit method. In order to identify Factor V Leiden mutation, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was utilized combined with the Amplification refractory mutation system. Data was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 17. Results: In 100 patients of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), frequency of Factor V Leiden (FVL) was 13% and it is was 2% in healthy control group. A significant association was found between FVL and DVT with odds ratio of 7.32 and with P value (P = 0.003). Conclusion: FVL was found to be highly prevalent among patients of DVT, Signifying strong association between the two. PMID:26649017

  11. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Damgaard, Christian; Jensen, Lars J.; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Background The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. Methods Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically with LysC and trypsin. The resulting peptide mixtures were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction and separated online with 2 h gradients by nano-scale C18 reversed-phase chromatography connected to a mass spectrometer through an electrospray source. The eluting peptides were analyzed on a tandem mass spectrometer operated in data-dependent acquisition mode. Results We identified a total of 35,664 unique peptides from 4,161 different proteins, of which 1,946 and 2,090 were of bacterial and human origin, respectively. The human protein profiles displayed significant overexpression of the complement system and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. Conclusions Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease status. Similar bacterial proteomes in healthy and diseased individuals suggests that the salivary microbiota predominantly thrives in a planktonic state expressing no disease-associated characteristics of metabolic activity.

  12. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Damgaard, Christian; Jensen, Lars J.; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Background The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. Methods Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically with LysC and trypsin. The resulting peptide mixtures were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction and separated online with 2 h gradients by nano-scale C18 reversed-phase chromatography connected to a mass spectrometer through an electrospray source. The eluting peptides were analyzed on a tandem mass spectrometer operated in data-dependent acquisition mode. Results We identified a total of 35,664 unique peptides from 4,161 different proteins, of which 1,946 and 2,090 were of bacterial and human origin, respectively. The human protein profiles displayed significant overexpression of the complement system and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. Conclusions Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease status. Similar bacterial proteomes in healthy and diseased individuals suggests that the salivary microbiota predominantly thrives in a planktonic state expressing no disease-associated characteristics of metabolic activity. PMID:27672500

  13. Skin Cooling and Force Replication at the Ankle in Healthy Individuals: A Crossover Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haupenthal, Daniela Pacheco dos Santos; de Noronha, Marcos; Haupenthal, Alessandro; Ruschel, Caroline; Nunes, Guilherme S.

    2015-01-01

    Context Proprioception of the ankle is determined by the ability to perceive the sense of position of the ankle structures, as well as the speed and direction of movement. Few researchers have investigated proprioception by force-replication ability and particularly after skin cooling. Objective To analyze the ability of the ankle-dorsiflexor muscles to replicate isometric force after a period of skin cooling. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Twenty healthy individuals (10 men, 10 women; age = 26.8 ± 5.2 years, height = 171 ± 7 cm, mass = 66.8 ± 10.5 kg). Intervention(s) Skin cooling was carried out using 2 ice applications: (1) after maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) performance and before data collection for the first target force, maintained for 20 minutes; and (2) before data collection for the second target force, maintained for 10 minutes. We measured skin temperature before and after ice applications to ensure skin cooling. Main Outcome Measure(s) A load cell was placed under an inclined board for data collection, and 10 attempts of force replication were carried out for 2 values of MVIC (20%, 50%) in each condition (ice, no ice). We assessed force sense with absolute and root mean square errors (the difference between the force developed by the dorsiflexors and the target force measured with the raw data and after root mean square analysis, respectively) and variable error (the variance around the mean absolute error score). A repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. Results The absolute error was greater for the ice than for the no-ice condition (F1,19 = 9.05, P = .007) and for the target force at 50% of MVIC than at 20% of MVIC (F1,19 = 26.01, P < .001). Conclusions The error was greater in the ice condition and at 50% of MVIC. Skin cooling reduced the proprioceptive ability of the ankle-dorsiflexor muscles to replicate isometric

  14. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair: a controlled alcohol-dosing study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    L Crunelle, Cleo; Cappelle, Delphine; Yegles, Michel; De Doncker, Mireille; Michielsen, Peter; Dom, Geert; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Maudens, Kristof E; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2016-03-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor phase II metabolite of alcohol that accumulates in hair. It has been established as a sensitive marker to assess the retrospective consumption of alcohol over recent months using a cut-off of ≥7 pg/mg hair to assess repeated alcohol consumption. The primary aim was to assess whether amounts of alcohol consumed correlated with EtG concentrations in hair. Additionally, we investigated whether the current applied cut-off value of 7 pg/mg hair was adequate to assess the regular consumption of low-to-moderate amounts of alcohol. A prospective controlled alcohol-dosing study in 30 healthy individuals matched on age and gender. Individuals were instructed to drink no alcohol (N = 10), 100 g alcohol per week (N = 10) or 150 g alcohol per week (N = 10) for 12 consecutive weeks, before and after which hair was collected. Throughout the study, compliance to daily alcohol consumption was assessed by analyzing urine EtG three times weekly. Participants in the non-drinking group had median EtG concentrations of 0.5 pg/mg hair (interquartile range (IQR) 1.7 pg/mg; range < 0.21-4.5 pg/mg). Participants consuming 100 and 150 g alcohol per week showed median EtG concentrations of 5.6 pg/mg hair (IQR 4.7 pg/mg; range 2.0-9.8 pg/mg) and 11.3 pg/mg hair (IQR 5.0 pg/mg; range 7.7-38.9 pg/mg), respectively. Hair EtG concentrations between the three study groups differed significantly from one another (p < 0.001). Hair EtG concentrations can be used to differentiate between repeated (low-to-moderate) amounts of alcohol consumed over a long time period. For the assessment of repeated alcohol use, we propose that the current cut-off of 7 pg/mg could be re-evaluated. PMID:26549114

  15. Efficacy of Escitalopram for Hot Flashes in Healthy Menopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Ellen W.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Caan, Bette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Cohen, Lee S.; Joffe, Hadine; Carpenter, Janet S.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Larson, Joseph C.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Reed, Susan; Newton, Katherine M.; Sherman, Sheryl; Sammel, Mary D.; La Croix, Andrea Z.

    2011-01-01

    Context Concerns for the risks of hormone therapy have resulted in its decline and a demand for non-hormonal treatments with demonstrated efficacy for hot flashes. Objective Determine the efficacy and tolerability of 10–20 mg/day escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in alleviating the frequency, severity and bother of menopausal hot flashes. Design, Setting and Patients Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm trial for 8 weeks in a sample stratified by race (African American n=95; white n=102) and conducted at 4 MsFlash network sites between July 2009 and June 2010. Of 205 women randomized, 194 (95%) completed week 8 (intervention endpoint), and 183 completed post-treatment follow-up. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were the frequency and severity of hot flashes assessed by prospective daily diaries. Secondary outcomes were hot flash "bother" recorded on daily diaries and clinical improvement (hot flash frequency >=50% decrease from baseline). Results Hot flash frequency was 9.78/day (SD 5.60) at baseline. At week 8, reduction in hot flash frequency was greater in the escitalopram group versus placebo (−4.60, SD 4.28 and −3.20, SD 4.76, respectively, P=0.004). Fifty-five percent of the escitalopram group (versus 36% of the placebo group) reported >=50% decreases in hot flash frequency (P=0.009). Differences in decreases in the severity and bother of hot flashes were significant (P=0.003 and P=0.013, respectively), paralleling the decreases in hot flash frequency. Three weeks after treatment ended, hot flash frequency increased in the escitalopram group to the level of the placebo group, which remained stable in the follow-up interval (P=0.020). Overall discontinuation due to side effects was 4% (7 drug, 2 placebo). Conclusion Escitalopram 10–20 mg/day provides non-hormonal off-label treatment for menopausal hot flashes that is effective and well-tolerated in healthy women. PMID:21245182

  16. How to Respond to a Paranoid Thought: A Comparison of Patients With Clinically Relevant Delusions and Healthy Controls in Chile.

    PubMed

    Wüsten, Caroline; Lincoln, Tania M

    2015-09-01

    Although paranoid thoughts occur frequently in the population, most people do not develop clinically relevant delusions. The main purpose of the study was to explore whether participants without a mental disorder will respond in a more functional way to paranoid thoughts and be more flexible in their cognitive processes than patients with clinically relevant delusions. The Responses to Paranoid Thoughts Scale was translated into Spanish and was completed by patients (n = 36) and healthy controls (n = 39) in Chile (South America). The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale was used to assess cognitive insight. The patients responded in a more depressive, physical, and concealing way to paranoid thoughts than the healthy controls. Moreover, they showed significantly less cognitive insight and self-reflectiveness. Higher cognitive insight and self-reflectiveness were associated with more normalizing and communicative responses to paranoid thoughts.

  17. Sex differences in face recognition memory in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, patients with generalized epilepsy, and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Bengner, T; Fortmeier, C; Malina, T; Lindenau, M; Voges, B; Goebell, E; Stodieck, S

    2006-12-01

    The influence of sex on face recognition memory was studied in 49 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, 20 patients with generalized epilepsy, and 32 healthy controls. After learning 20 faces, serially presented for 5 seconds each, subjects had to recognize the 20 among 40 faces (including 20 new faces) immediately and 24 hours later. Women had better face recognition than men, with no significant differences between groups. Women's advantage was due mainly to superior delayed recognition. Taken together, the results suggest that sex has a similar impact on face recognition in patients with epilepsy and healthy controls, and that testing delayed face recognition raises sensitivity for sex differences. The influence of sex on face recognition in patients with epilepsy should be acknowledged when evaluating individuals or comparing groups.

  18. Difference between healthy children and ADHD based on wavelet spectral analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Gómez, Dulce I.; Moreno Barbosa, E.; Martínez Hernández, Mario Iván; Ramos Méndez, José; Hidalgo Tobón, Silvia; Dies Suarez, Pilar; Barragán Pérez, Eduardo; De Celis Alonso, Benito

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of this project was to create a computer algorithm based on wavelet analysis of region of homogeneity images obtained during resting state studies. Ideally it would automatically diagnose ADHD. Because the cerebellum is an area known to be affected by ADHD, this study specifically analysed this region. Male right handed volunteers (infants with ages between 7 and 11 years old) were studied and compared with age matched controls. Statistical differences between the values of the absolute integrated wavelet spectrum were found and showed significant differences (p<0.0015) between groups. This difference might help in the future to distinguish healthy from ADHD patients and therefore diagnose ADHD. Even if results were statistically significant, the small size of the sample limits the applicability of this methods as it is presented here, and further work with larger samples and using freely available datasets must be done.

  19. Difference between healthy children and ADHD based on wavelet spectral analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance images

    SciTech Connect

    González Gómez Dulce, I. E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Moreno Barbosa, E. E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Hernández, Mario Iván Martínez E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Méndez, José Ramos E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Silvia, Hidalgo Tobón; Pilar, Dies Suarez E-mail: neurodoc@prodigy.net.mx; Eduardo, Barragán Pérez E-mail: neurodoc@prodigy.net.mx; Benito, De Celis Alonso

    2014-11-07

    The main goal of this project was to create a computer algorithm based on wavelet analysis of region of homogeneity images obtained during resting state studies. Ideally it would automatically diagnose ADHD. Because the cerebellum is an area known to be affected by ADHD, this study specifically analysed this region. Male right handed volunteers (infants with ages between 7 and 11 years old) were studied and compared with age matched controls. Statistical differences between the values of the absolute integrated wavelet spectrum were found and showed significant differences (p<0.0015) between groups. This difference might help in the future to distinguish healthy from ADHD patients and therefore diagnose ADHD. Even if results were statistically significant, the small size of the sample limits the applicability of this methods as it is presented here, and further work with larger samples and using freely available datasets must be done.

  20. Guidelines for school health programs to promote lifelong healthy eating. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    1996-06-14

    Healthy eating patterns in childhood and adolescence promote optimal childhood health, growth, and intellectual development; prevent immediate health problems, such as iron deficiency anemia, obesity, eating disorders, and dental caries; and may prevent long-term health problems, such as coronary heart disease, cancer, and stroke. School health programs can help children and adolescents attain full educational potential and good health by providing them with the skills, social support, and environmental reinforcement they need to adopt long-term, healthy eating behaviors. This report summarizes strategies most likely to be effective in promoting healthy eating among school-age youths and provides nutrition education guidelines for a comprehensive school health program. These guidelines are based on a review of research, theory, and current practice, and they were developed by CDC in collaboration with experts from universities and from national, federal, and voluntary agencies. The guidelines include recommendations on seven aspects of a school-based program to promote healthy eating: school policy on nutrition, a sequential, coordinated curriculum, appropriate instruction for students, integration of school food service and nutrition education, staff training; family and community involvement, and program evaluation.

  1. Characterization of the effects of oxytocin on fear recognition in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Shofty, Meytal; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who suffer from schizophrenia often show a marked deficit in recognition of emotional facial expressions, as part of broader impairment of social cognition. Research has shown that recognition of negative emotions, specifically fear recognition, is particularly impaired among patients with schizophrenia. Recently we reported that intranasal administration of OT (IN OT) increased the ability to correctly recognize fear in a group of healthy men. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of IN OT administration on fear recognition among patients with schizophrenia. Based on previous research, we also sought to examine a possible selective effect of OT dependent on baseline performance, hypothesizing that IN OT would have a greater enhancement effect on less proficient individuals. It was thus hypothesized that patients will show more improvement in fear recognition following the administration of IN OT as compared to controls. Sixty six participants (31 schizophrenia patients, 35 healthy controls) were enrolled in the current study. All participants received treatment of a single dose of 24 IU IN OT and an equivalent amount of placebo, 1 week apart. The participants' ability to accurately recognize fear and happiness was evaluated using a face morphing task. Overall, as a group, both patients and healthy control participants were more accurate in recognizing fearful facial expressions, but not happy faces, following IN OT administration, as compared to their performance following placebo. IN OT did not differentially affect emotion recognition in patients and healthy controls. Yet, the results indicated a selective effect for IN OT, in which the hormone improves fear recognition only among individuals whose baseline performance was below the median, regardless of their psychiatric status. PMID:23882178

  2. Characterization of the effects of oxytocin on fear recognition in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Fischer-Shofty, Meytal; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G.; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who suffer from schizophrenia often show a marked deficit in recognition of emotional facial expressions, as part of broader impairment of social cognition. Research has shown that recognition of negative emotions, specifically fear recognition, is particularly impaired among patients with schizophrenia. Recently we reported that intranasal administration of OT (IN OT) increased the ability to correctly recognize fear in a group of healthy men. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of IN OT administration on fear recognition among patients with schizophrenia. Based on previous research, we also sought to examine a possible selective effect of OT dependent on baseline performance, hypothesizing that IN OT would have a greater enhancement effect on less proficient individuals. It was thus hypothesized that patients will show more improvement in fear recognition following the administration of IN OT as compared to controls. Sixty six participants (31 schizophrenia patients, 35 healthy controls) were enrolled in the current study. All participants received treatment of a single dose of 24 IU IN OT and an equivalent amount of placebo, 1 week apart. The participants' ability to accurately recognize fear and happiness was evaluated using a face morphing task. Overall, as a group, both patients and healthy control participants were more accurate in recognizing fearful facial expressions, but not happy faces, following IN OT administration, as compared to their performance following placebo. IN OT did not differentially affect emotion recognition in patients and healthy controls. Yet, the results indicated a selective effect for IN OT, in which the hormone improves fear recognition only among individuals whose baseline performance was below the median, regardless of their psychiatric status. PMID:23882178

  3. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  4. Associations between chronotype, sleep quality, suicidality, and depressive symptoms in patients with major depression and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Selvi, Yavuz; Aydin, Adem; Boysan, Murat; Atli, Abdullah; Agargun, Mehmed Yucel; Besiroglu, Lutfullah

    2010-10-01

    Research interest concerning associations between sleep characteristics and suicidality in psychopathology has been growing. However, possible linkages of suicidality to sleep characteristics in terms of sleep quality and chronotypes among depressive patients have not been well documented. In the current study, the authors investigated the possible effects of sleep quality and chronotype on the severity of depressive symptoms and suicide risk in patients with depressive disorder and healthy controls. The study was conducted on 80 patients clinically diagnosed with major depression and 80 healthy subjects who were demographically matched with the patient group. All participants completed a questionnaire package containing self-report measures, including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), and Suicide Ideation Scale (SIS), and subjects were interviewed with the suicidality section of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Results are as follows: (a) logistic regression analyses revealed that poor sleep quality and depression symptom severity significantly predicted onset of major depression; (b) morningness-type circadian rhythm may play as a significant relief factor after onset of major depression; (c) sleep variables of chronotype and sleep quality did not significantly predict suicide ideation after controlling for depressive symptoms in the major depression group; and (d) suicide ideation and poor sleep quality were antecedents of depression symptom severity in patients with major depression, and in healthy controls. Findings are discussed under the theoretical assumptions concerning possible relations between chronotype, sleep quality, depression, and suicidality. PMID:20969525

  5. Frequent self-weighing as part of a constellation of healthy weight control practices in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Rena R.; Tate, Deborah; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Gorin, Amy A.; Erickson, Karen; Robichaud, Erica Ferguson; Perdue, Letitia; Bahnson, Judy; Espeland, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Frequent self-weighing is linked with weight management success but concern has been raised about its possible association with unhealthy practices. We examined the association of self-weighing with other weight control behaviors in a sample for whom frequent weighing might be questioned—namely normal weight or overweight (BMI of 21–29.9) young adults (age 18–35). Design and Methods Participants (N=583; mean [SD] age= 27.7 [4.4]; BMI=25.4 [2.6]) entering the Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention (SNAP) completed objective measures of weight and physical activity and self-reported weight history, use of healthy and unhealthy weight control strategies, depressive symptoms, and dietary intake. Results Daily self-weighing was reported by 11% of participants and 23% weighed several times per week. Frequent weighing was not associated with current BMI, gender or age, but was associated with being further below one’s highest weight, history of dieting, and perceived difficulty maintaining weight. Frequent weighing was associated with number of healthy weight management strategies but not with unhealthy practices or depressive symptoms. Conclusions In this sample, frequent self-weighing appears to be part of a constellation of healthy weight control behaviors used to counteract a perceived tendency toward weight gain. SNAP follow-up will determine whether frequent self-weighing helps prevent weight gain. PMID:25865175

  6. Meta-Analysis of Facial Emotion Recognition in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia: Comparison With Alzheimer Disease and Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Bora, Emre; Velakoulis, Dennis; Walterfang, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Behavioral disturbances and lack of empathy are distinctive clinical features of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) in comparison to Alzheimer disease (AD). The aim of this meta-analytic review was to compare facial emotion recognition performances of bvFTD with healthy controls and AD. The current meta-analysis included a total of 19 studies and involved comparisons of 288 individuals with bvFTD and 329 healthy controls and 162 bvFTD and 147 patients with AD. Facial emotion recognition was significantly impaired in bvFTD in comparison to the healthy controls (d = 1.81) and AD (d = 1.23). In bvFTD, recognition of negative emotions, especially anger (d = 1.48) and disgust (d = 1.41), were severely impaired. Emotion recognition was significantly impaired in bvFTD in comparison to AD in all emotions other than happiness. Impairment of emotion recognition is a relatively specific feature of bvFTD. Routine assessment of social-cognitive abilities including emotion recognition can be helpful in better differentiating between cortical dementias such as bvFTD and AD. PMID:27056068

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Single-Dose Dolutegravir in HIV-Seronegative Subjects With Moderate Hepatic Impairment Compared to Healthy Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ivy H; Borland, Julie; Savina, Paul M; Chen, Shuguang; Patel, Parul; Wajima, Toshihiro; Peppercorn, Amanda F; Piscitelli, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dolutegravir pharmacokinetics (PK) in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment compared to matched, healthy controls. In this open-label, parallel-group study, eight adult subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Score 7–9) and eight healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and body mass index received a single dolutegravir 50-mg dose. Following dosing, 72-hour PK sampling was performed to determine total and unbound dolutegravir concentrations. PK parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. Geometric least squares mean ratios (GMR) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) in subjects with hepatic impairment versus healthy subjects were generated by analysis of variance. Results showed that PK parameters of total plasma dolutegravir were similar between subject groups. The unbound fraction was higher in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment than in healthy subjects with GMR (90% CI) of 2.20 (1.62, 2.99) for unbound fraction at 3 hours post-dose and 1.76 (1.23, 2.51) for unbound fraction at 24 hours post-dose; this correlated with lower serum albumin concentrations and was not considered clinically significant. Dolutegravir was well tolerated in both groups; all adverse events were reported as minor. Although free fraction was increased, no dose adjustment is required for patients treated with dolutegravir who have mild to moderate hepatic impairment. PMID:26097786

  8. Physical Exercise Keeps the Brain Connected: Biking Increases White Matter Integrity in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Svatkova, Alena; Mandl, René C.W.; Scheewe, Thomas W.; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that learning a new skill leads to structural changes in the brain. However, it is unclear whether it is the acquisition or continuous practicing of the skill that causes this effect and whether brain connectivity of patients with schizophrenia can benefit from such practice. We examined the effect of 6 months exercise on a stationary bicycle on the brain in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Biking is an endemic skill in the Netherlands and thus offers an ideal situation to disentangle the effects of learning vs practice. The 33 participating patients with schizophrenia and 48 healthy individuals were assigned to either one of two conditions, ie, physical exercise or life-as-usual, balanced for diagnosis. Diffusion tensor imaging brain scans were made prior to and after intervention. We demonstrate that irrespective of diagnosis regular physical exercise of an overlearned skill, such as bicycling, significantly increases the integrity, especially of motor functioning related, white matter fiber tracts whereas life-as-usual leads to a decrease in fiber integrity. Our findings imply that exercise of an overlearned physical skill improves brain connectivity in patients and healthy individuals. This has important implications for understanding the effect of fitness programs on the brain in both healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, the outcome may even apply to the nonphysical realm. PMID:25829377

  9. Physical Exercise Keeps the Brain Connected: Biking Increases White Matter Integrity in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Svatkova, Alena; Mandl, René C W; Scheewe, Thomas W; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that learning a new skill leads to structural changes in the brain. However, it is unclear whether it is the acquisition or continuous practicing of the skill that causes this effect and whether brain connectivity of patients with schizophrenia can benefit from such practice. We examined the effect of 6 months exercise on a stationary bicycle on the brain in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Biking is an endemic skill in the Netherlands and thus offers an ideal situation to disentangle the effects of learning vs practice. The 33 participating patients with schizophrenia and 48 healthy individuals were assigned to either one of two conditions, ie, physical exercise or life-as-usual, balanced for diagnosis. Diffusion tensor imaging brain scans were made prior to and after intervention. We demonstrate that irrespective of diagnosis regular physical exercise of an overlearned skill, such as bicycling, significantly increases the integrity, especially of motor functioning related, white matter fiber tracts whereas life-as-usual leads to a decrease in fiber integrity. Our findings imply that exercise of an overlearned physical skill improves brain connectivity in patients and healthy individuals. This has important implications for understanding the effect of fitness programs on the brain in both healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, the outcome may even apply to the nonphysical realm.

  10. Effect of verbal persuasion on self-efficacy for pain-related diagnostic sensory testing in individuals with chronic neck pain and healthy controls - a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Söderlund, Anne; Sterling, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in cold pain threshold (CTh), pressure pain threshold (PPT), cold pain tolerance (CPTo) tests, and the level of self-efficacy when self-efficacy for diagnostic sensory testing was manipulated by verbal persuasion before a testing situation in persons with neck pain and in healthy controls. A randomized experimental design was used. Twenty-one healthy volunteers and 22 individuals with either traumatic or nontraumatic chronic neck pain were recruited to participate in the study. The intervention consisted of two experimental verbal persuasion conditions: Increase self-efficacy and Decrease self-efficacy. The PPT was measured using a pressure algometer, the CTh was measured using a thermo test system, and CPTo was measured by submerging the participant's hand in ice water up to the elbow joint. On three occasions, the participants reported their self-efficacy level in performing the sensory tests. In the chronic neck pain group, there were no differences in pain threshold or tolerance. There was a difference in the self-efficacy level after verbal persuasion between the experimental conditions. In the healthy control group, the CThs increased following the condition that aimed to increase self-efficacy. No other differences were observed in the healthy controls. A short verbal persuasion in the form of manipulative instructions seems to have a marginal effect on the individual's self-efficacy levels in the chronic neck pain group and a slight influence on the results of sensory testing in healthy controls. PMID:27022298

  11. Regulatory B and T cell responses in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Birte

    2016-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur due to faulty self-tolerance. Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) are classic examples of organ-specific autoimmune diseases. GD is an auto-antibody-mediated disease where autoantibodies are produced against the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR). HT is primarily a T-cell mediated disease, and whether B cells play a pathogenic role in the pathogenesis is still unclear. Both GD and HT are characterized by infiltration of the thyroid gland by self-reactive T cells and B cells. In the first paper of this thesis, the role of regulatory B cells (Bregs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were investigated in the context of GD and HT. First, we studied the role of the thyroid self-antigen, thyroglobulin (TG) in healthy donors. The self-antigen TG, but not the foreign recall antigen tetanus toxoid (TT), was able to induce interleukin 10 (IL-10) secretion by B cells and CD4+ T cells. These IL-10 producing B cells (B10 cells) from healthy donors were enriched with the CD5+ and CD24hi phenotype. In addition, TG was able to induce IL-6 production by B cells. In contrast, TT induced production of Th1-type pro-inflammatory cytokines including interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and IL-2. In the second paper, the frequency and phenotype of B10 was investigated in healthy donors and patients with GD or HT.  The frequencies of B10 cells were similar in the three groups, irrespective of whether IL-10 was induced by a combination of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin, by CpG oligodeoxynucletodies (ODN) 2006, or by TG. Several phenotypes have been associated with B10 cells such as CD5+, CD25+, TIM-1+, CD24hiCD38hi and CD27+CD43+. We found that larger proportions of B10 cells in patients with GD or HT were CD25+ and TIM-1+ than B10 cells in healthy donors. In healthy donors, B10 cells were CD24hiCD38-, whereas for HT patients these cells were primarily CD24intCD38int. For GD patients, we found lower proportions of B10 cells

  12. Neural Correlates of the Appraisal of Attachment Scenes in Healthy Controls and Social Cognition-An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Labek, Karin; Viviani, Roberto; Gizewski, Elke R; Verius, Michael; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The human attachment system is activated in situations of danger such as potential separation, threats of loss of a significant other and potential insecurity on the availability of the attachment figure. To date, however, a precise characterization of the neural correlates of the attachment system in healthy individuals is lacking. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aims at characterizing the distinctive neural substrates activated by the exposure to attachment vs. non-attachment scenes. Healthy participants (N = 25) were presented scenes from the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), a validated set of standardized attachment-related pictures extended by a control picture stimulus set consisting of scenes without attachment-related content. When compared to the control neutral pictures, attachment scenes activated the inferior parietal lobes (IPLs), the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These areas are associated with reasoning about mental representations, semantic memory of social knowledge, and social cognition. This neural activation pattern confirms the distinctive quality of this stimulus set, and suggests its use as a potential neuroimaging probe to assess social cognition/mentalizing related to attachment in healthy and clinical populations.

  13. Sustained attention in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and healthy controls: enhanced sensitivity with dual-task load.

    PubMed

    Dockree, Paul M; Bellgrove, Mark A; O'Keeffe, Fiadhnait M; Moloney, Pauline; Aimola, Lina; Carton, Simone; Robertson, Ian H

    2006-01-01

    Poor sustained attention or alertness is a common consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and has a considerable impact on the recovery and adjustment of TBI patients. Here, we describe the development of a sensitive laboratory task in healthy subjects (Experiment 1) and its enhanced sensitivity to sustained attention errors in TBI patients (Experiment 2). The task involves withholding a key press to an infrequent no-go target embedded within a predictable sequence of numbers (primary goal) and detecting grey-coloured targets within the sequence (secondary goal). In Experiment 1, we report that neurologically healthy subjects are more likely to experience a lapse of attention and neglect the primary task goal, despite ceiling performance on the secondary task. Further, attentional lapses on the task correlated with everyday attentional failures and variability of response time. In Experiment 2, the task discriminates between TBI patients and controls with a large effect size. The dual-task yields more errors in both groups than a simple task involving only the primary goal that is commonly used to detect sustained attention deficits in neurologically impaired groups. TBI patients' errors also correlated with everyday cognitive failures and variability of response time. This was not the case in the simple version of the task. We conclude that the dual-task demand associated with this task enhances its sensitivity as a measure of sustained attention in TBI patients and neurologically healthy controls that relates to everyday slips of attention.

  14. Lateralization effects of image-guided 31P magnetoresonance spectroscopic parameters in the frontal lobe of schizophrenics and healthy controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Gabriele; Volz, Hans-Peter; Riehemann, Stefan; Wenda, Berit; Roessger, Grit; Rzanny, Reinhard; Sauer, Heinrich

    1999-05-01

    Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) has gained much interest in schizophrenia research in the last years since it allows the non-invasive measurement of high- energy phosphates and phospholipids in vivo. We investigated hemispherical differences of the concentrations of different phosphorus compounds in the frontal lobes. For this purpose, well defined volumes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of 32 healthy controls and 51 schizophrenic patients were examined. Schizophrenic patients showed significant lateralization effects of phosphodiesters (PDE) and the intracellular pH-value. Differences in the lateralization of 31P-MRS parameters between patients and healthy volunteers were only detected for the pH-value. While healthy controls exhibit lower pH-values in the left frontal lobe (6.96), in schizophrenic patients we found lower pH-values in the right (6.89). Detailed examinations showed that this effect is mainly based on the subgroup of schizophrenics who received atypical neuroleptic medication.

  15. Neural Correlates of the Appraisal of Attachment Scenes in Healthy Controls and Social Cognition—An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Labek, Karin; Viviani, Roberto; Gizewski, Elke R.; Verius, Michael; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The human attachment system is activated in situations of danger such as potential separation, threats of loss of a significant other and potential insecurity on the availability of the attachment figure. To date, however, a precise characterization of the neural correlates of the attachment system in healthy individuals is lacking. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aims at characterizing the distinctive neural substrates activated by the exposure to attachment vs. non-attachment scenes. Healthy participants (N = 25) were presented scenes from the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), a validated set of standardized attachment-related pictures extended by a control picture stimulus set consisting of scenes without attachment-related content. When compared to the control neutral pictures, attachment scenes activated the inferior parietal lobes (IPLs), the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These areas are associated with reasoning about mental representations, semantic memory of social knowledge, and social cognition. This neural activation pattern confirms the distinctive quality of this stimulus set, and suggests its use as a potential neuroimaging probe to assess social cognition/mentalizing related to attachment in healthy and clinical populations. PMID:27458363

  16. Do Healthy Preterm Children Need Neuropsychological Follow-Up? Preschool Outcomes Compared with Term Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dall'Oglio, Anna M.; Rossiello, Barbara; Coletti, Maria F.; Bultrini, Massimiliano; De Marchis, Chiara; Rava, Lucilla; Caselli, Cristina; Paris, Silvana; Cuttini, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. Method : A total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33…

  17. A single consumption of curry improved postprandial endothelial function in healthy male subjects: a randomized, controlled crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Curry, one of the most popular foods in Japan, contains spices that are rich in potentially antioxidative compounds, such as curcumin and eugenol. Oxidative stress is thought to impair endothelial function associated with atherosclerosis, a leading cause of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single consumption of curry meal would improve endothelial function in healthy men. Methods Fourteen healthy male subjects (BMI 23.7 ± 2.7 kg/m2; age 45 ± 9 years) were given a single serving of curry meal or spice-free control meal (180 g of curry or control and 200 g of cooked rice; approximately 500 kcal in total) in a randomized, controlled crossover design. Before and 1 hr after the consumption, fasting and postprandial flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) responses and other parameters were measured. Results The consumption of the control meal decreased FMD from 5.8 ± 2.4% to 5.1 ± 2.3% (P = 0.039). On the other hand, the consumption of the curry meal increased FMD from 5.2 ± 2.5% to 6.6 ± 2.0% (P = 0.001), and the postprandial FMD after the curry meal was higher than that after the control meal (P = 0.002). Presence of spices in the curry did not alter significantly the systemic and forearm hemodynamics, or any biochemical parameters including oxidative stress markers measured. Conclusions These findings suggest that the consumption of curry ameliorates postprandial endothelial function in healthy male subjects and may be beneficial for improving cardiovascular health. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry 000012012. PMID:24972677

  18. Biomarker for Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Expression of SMN in Peripheral Blood of SMA Patients and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Czech, Christian; Tang, Wakana; Bugawan, Teodorica; Mano, Calvin; Horn, Carsten; Iglesias, Victor Alejandro; Fröhner, Stefanie; Zaworski, Phillip G.; Paushkin, Sergey; Chen, Karen; Kremer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by a functional deletion of SMN1 on Chromosome 5, which leads to a progressive loss of motor function in affected patients. SMA patients have at least one copy of a similar gene, SMN2, which produces functional SMN protein, although in reduced quantities. The severity of SMA is variable, partially due to differences in SMN2 copy numbers. Here, we report the results of a biomarker study characterizing SMA patients of varying disease severity. SMN copy number, mRNA and Protein levels in whole blood of patients were measured and compared against a cohort of healthy controls. The results show differential regulation of expression of SMN2 in peripheral blood between patients and healthy subjects. PMID:26468953

  19. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  20. Intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid temperature analysis using MR diffusion-weighted imaging thermometry in Parkinson's disease patients, multiple system atrophy patients, and healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, Kaoru; Sato, Noriko; Ota, Miho; Sakai, Koji; Nippashi, Yasumasa; Sone, Daichi; Yokoyama, Kota; Ito, Kimiteru; Maikusa, Norihide; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kei; Murata, Miho; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the temperature of the intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid (Tv) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and those with multiple system atrophy (MSA) in comparison with healthy subjects, and we examined normal changes in this temperature with aging. Methods Tv was estimated by magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) thermometry in 36 PD patients (19 males, 17 females), 34 MSA patients (17 males, 17 females), 64 age-matched controls (27 men, 37 women), and 114 all-age adult controls (47 men, 67 women; 28–89 years old). The volume of lateral ventricles was also estimated using FreeSurfer in all subjects. Tv and ventricular volume data were compared among the PD and MSA patients and age-matched controls. We also evaluated the relationship between Tv and age in the 114 all-age controls, controlling for ventricular volume. Men and women were analyzed separately. Results The male PD and MSA patients had significantly higher Tv values compared to the male controls, with no significant difference in ventricular volume among them. There was no significant difference in Tv between the female patients and controls. In the all-age male controls, there was a significant negative correlation between Tv and age controlling for ventricular volume, and this was not observed in the women. Conclusion DWI thermometry is a useful and easy method for demonstrating an altered intracranial environment in male patients and healthy controls, but not in females. DWI thermometry can thus be used to help to explore the pathophysiology of Parkinsonian syndromes and to differentiate individuals affected by neurodegenerative disease with autonomic dysfunction from those without it. PMID:26085965

  1. Glucose uptake heterogeneity of the leg muscles is similar between patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls during walking

    PubMed Central

    Kindred, John H.; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B.; Rudroff, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Background Difficulties in ambulation are one of the main problems reported by patients with multiple sclerosis. A previous study by our research group showed increased recruitment of muscle groups during walking but the influence of skeletal muscle properties, such as muscle fiber activity, has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this investigation was to use the novel method of calculating glucose uptake heterogeneity in the leg muscles of patients with multiple sclerosis and compare these results to healthy controls. Methods Eight patients with multiple sclerosis (4 men) and 8 healthy controls (4 men) performed 15 min of treadmill walking at a comfortable self-selected speed following muscle strength tests. Participants were injected with ≈8 millicuries of [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose during walking after which positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging was performed. Findings No differences in muscle strength were detected between multiple sclerosis and control groups (P > 0.27). Within the multiple sclerosis group differences in muscle volume existed between the stronger and weaker legs in the vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus (P < 0.03). Glucose uptake heterogeneity between the groups was not different for any muscle group or individual muscle of the legs (P > 0.16, P ≥ 0.05). Interpretations Patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls showed similar muscle fiber activity during walking. Interpretations of these results, with respect to our previous study, suggest that walking difficulties in patients with multiple sclerosis may be more associated with altered central nervous system motor patterns rather than alterations in skeletal muscle properties. PMID:25541392

  2. Bone Density in Patients with Cervical Cancer or Endometrial Cancer in comparison with Healthy Control; According to the stages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yubin; Kim, Ari; Kim, Heung Yeol; Eo, Wan Kyu; Lee, Eun Sil; Chun, Sungwook

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and femur in postmenopausal women with cervical cancer and endometrial cancer without bone metastasis in comparison with that in healthy control postmenopausal women, and to assess the loss of BMD according to the cancer stage. Materials and methods: We analyzed the BMD of the lumbar spine and femur using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 218 patients with cervical cancer, 85 patients with endometrial cancer, and 259 healthy controls. The serum levels of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), osteocalcin (OSC), and total alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and urine deoxypyridinoline(DPL) were measured in all participants. Results: Age, body mass index, parity, and time since menopause were not significantly different between the three groups. Serum Ca level was higher in the cervical cancer group (p = 0.000), however, urine DPL was lower in endometrial cancer group (p = 0.000). The T-scores of basal BMD at the second and fourth lumbar vertebra (L2, L4) were significantly lower in patients with cervical cancer (p = 0.038, 0.000, respectively) compared to those in the healthy control groups. Additionally, the incidence of osteoporosis and osteopenia basal status of bone mass was significantly higher in patients with cervical cancer compared to that in controls (p = 0.016). No differences in basal BMD of the lumbar spine and femur were observed between patients with cervical cancer according to their stages. Conclusion: Our results suggest that postmenopausal women with cervical cancer have a lower BMD and are at increased risk of osteoporosis in the lumbar spine before receiving anticancer treatment compared with postmenopausal women with endometrial cancer. PMID:26185529

  3. Specificity of Affective Instability in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder Compared to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Bulimia Nervosa, and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Santangelo, Philip; Mussgay, Lutz; Sawitzki, Günther; Trull, Timothy J.; Reinhard, Iris; Steil, Regina; Klein, Christoph; Bohus, Martin; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2014-01-01

    Affective instability is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The use of advanced assessment methodologies and appropriate statistical analyses has led to consistent findings that indicate a heightened instability in patients with BPD compared with healthy controls. However, few studies have investigated the specificity of affective instability among patients with BPD with regard to relevant clinical control groups. In this study, 43 patients with BPD, 28 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 20 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 28 healthy controls carried e-diaries for 24 hours and were prompted to rate their momentary affective states approximately every 15 minutes while awake. To quantify instability, we used 3 state-of-the-art indices: multilevel models for squared successive differences (SSDs), multilevel models for probability of acute changes (PACs), and aggregated point-by-point changes (APPCs). Patients with BPD displayed heightened affective instability for emotional valence and distress compared with healthy controls, regardless of the specific instability indices. These results directly replicate earlier studies. However, affective instability did not seem to be specific to patients with BPD. With regard to SSDs, PACs, and APPCs, patients with PTSD or BN showed a similar heightened instability of affect (emotional valence and distress) to that of patients with BPD. Our results give raise to the discussion if affective instability is a transdiagnostic or a disorder-specific mechanism. Current evidence cannot answer this question, but investigating psychopathological mechanisms in everyday life across disorders is a promising approach to enhance validity and specificity of mental health diagnoses. PMID:24661176

  4. Comparison of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels in patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Padma; Nera, Mahipal; Pavalura, Aravind Kumar; Medandrao, Nagasree; Kumar, S Chetan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine if glycosylated hemoglobin is elevated in patients with chronic periodontitis who have not been diagnosed with diabetes and also to compare the HbA1c levels that were obtained with lab and chairside test kit. Materials and Methods: A Case control study was designed. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was assessed using a chairside kit and laboratory method in 70 subjects without diabetes but with chronic periodontitis [having at least 10 teeth (at least one site around each tooth) with probing depth (PD) ≥ 5 mm, bleeding on probing (BOP) ≥15% and clinical attachment level (CAL) ≥ 1 mm] and 70 healthy controls (PD ≤ 4 mm and BOP ≤ 15%). Groups were compared using the t-test and multiple linear regression model analysis. Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to compare the relationship between different variables. Results: In this case control study HbA1c (Lab and Kit) were slightly higher and statistically significant in chronic periodontitis cases than in healthy controls. Conclusion: Chronic periodontitis is associated with a slight elevation in glycosylated hemoglobin (lab and chair side kit) and that the clinical significance of this difference remains to be determined. This preliminary finding is consistent with earlier reports that chronic periodontitis is associated with elevated blood glucose in adults without diabetes and may increase one's risk for type-2 diabetes. PMID:24019810

  5. Role of Frontotemporal Fiber Tract Integrity in Task-Switching Performance of Healthy Controls and Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kucukboyaci, N. Erkut; Girard, H.M.; Hagler, D.J.; Kuperman, J.; Tecoma, E.S.; Iragui, V.J.; Halgren, E.; McDonald, C.R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationships among frontotemporal fiber tract compromise and task-switching performance in healthy controls and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) on 30 controls and 32 patients with TLE (15 left TLE). Fractional anisotropy (FA) was calculated for four fiber tracts [uncinate fasciculus (UncF), arcuate fasciculus (ArcF), dorsal cingulum (CING), and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF)]. Participants completed the Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B) and Verbal Fluency Category Switching (VFCS) test. Multivariate analyses of variances (MANOVAs) were performed to investigate group differences in fiber FA and set-shifting performances. Canonical correlations were used to examine the overall patterns of structural-cognitive relationships and were followed by within-group bivariate correlations. We found a significant canonical correlation between fiber FA and task-switching performance. In controls, TMT-B correlated with left IFOF, whereas VFCS correlated with FA of left ArcF and left UncF. These correlations were not significant in patients with TLE. We report significant correlations between frontotemporal fiber tract integrity and set-shifting performance in healthy controls that appear to be absent or attenuated in patients with TLE. These findings suggest a breakdown of typical structure-function relationships in TLE that may reflect aberrant developmental or degenerative processes. PMID:22014246

  6. Implicit and explicit self-associations in bipolar disorder: a comparison with healthy controls and unipolar depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Jabben, Nienke; de Jong, Peter J; Kupka, Ralph W; Glashouwer, Klaske A; Nolen, Willem A; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-02-28

    According to cognitive theory, negative self-schemas are involved in the occurrence of depression. Whereas implicit depressive self-associations have been found in unipolar depression, it is unknown whether impaired associations with regard to the self are also involved in Bipolar Disorder (BD). This study investigated whether a bias in self-associations is a characteristic of bipolar disorder and whether discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-evaluations may be relevant for understanding bipolar psychopathology. Implicit and explicit self-associations were assessed in patients with BD (n=99), in patients with depressive disorder (n=1236), and healthy controls (n=387). Analyses of variance and correlation analyses were used to compare bipolar patients to controls and unipolar patients on implicit self-associations and the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-associations. Similar to unipolar patients, patients with BD showed stronger implicit depressive self-associations than controls. Specifically for bipolar patients there was no significant correlation between implicit and explicit depressive self-associations. In a similar vein, discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-associations were relatively pronounced in symptomatic bipolar patients as compared to both healthy controls and unipolar depressed patients. Thus automatic depressive self-associations were characteristic for all mood disorders whereas a lack of concordance between implicit and explicit self-associations was specific for BD. PMID:24365387

  7. Striatal Dopamine D2/D3 Receptor Availability Is Associated with Executive Function in Healthy Controls but Not Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Michael E.; Dean, Andy C.; Mandelkern, Mark A.; London, Edythe D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the striatum has been linked with executive function in healthy individuals, and is below control levels among drug addicts, possibly contributing to diminished executive function in the latter group. This study tested for an association of striatal D2/D3 receptor availability with a measure of executive function among research participants who met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine dependence. Methods Methamphetamine users and non-user controls (n = 18 per group) completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride. Results The methamphetamine users displayed significantly lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability on average than controls after controlling for age and education (p = 0.008), but they did not register greater proportions of either perseverative or non-perseverative errors when controlling for education (both ps ≥ 0.622). The proportion of non-perseverative, but not perseverative, errors was negatively correlated with striatal D2/D3 receptor availability among controls (r = -0.588, p = 0.010), but not methamphetamine users (r = 0.281, p = 0.258), and the group-wise interaction was significant (p = 0.030). Conclusions These results suggest that cognitive flexibility, as measured by perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, is not determined by signaling through striatal D2/D3 receptors in healthy controls, and that in stimulant abusers, who have lower D2/D3 receptor availability, compensation can effectively maintain other executive functions, which are associated with D2/D3 receptor signaling in controls. PMID:26657223

  8. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J.; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. PMID:26506378

  9. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. PMID:26506378

  10. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-21

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.

  11. 'To preserve the skin in health': drainage, bodily control and the visual definition of healthy skin 1835-1900.

    PubMed

    te Hennepe, Mieneke

    2014-07-01

    The concept of a healthy skin penetrated the lives of many people in late-nineteenth-century Britain. Popular writings on skin and soap advertisements are significant for pointing to the notions of the skin as a symbolic surface: a visual moral ideal. Popular health publications reveal how much contemporary understanding of skin defined and connected ideas of cleanliness and the visual ideals of the healthy body in Victorian Britain. Characterised as a 'sanitary commissioner' of the body, skin represented the organ of drainage for body and society. The importance of keeping the skin clean and purging it of waste materials such as sweat and dirt resonated in a Britain that embraced city sanitation developments, female beauty practices, racial identities and moral reform. By focusing on the popular work by British surgeon and dermatologist Erasmus Wilson (1809-84), this article offers a history of skin through the lens of the sanitary movement and developments in the struggle for control over healthy skin still in place today.

  12. Comparing Prefrontal Gray and White Matter Contributions to Intelligence and Decision Making in Schizophrenia and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Nestor, Paul G.; Kubicki, Marek; Nakamura, Motoaki; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; McCarley, Robert W.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between neuropsychological performance and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the cingulum bundle (CB) within groups of patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants. We analyzed data from subjects, who had participated in prior MRI, DTI, and neuropsychological studies (Nakamura et al., 2008; Nestor et al., 2008). In comparison to healthy participants, patients showed the expected reductions across CB fractional anisotropy (white matter) and OFC gray matter volume as well as lower neuropsychological scores. In addition, in comparison to healthy participants, patients showed a very different pattern of functional-anatomical correlates. For patients, CB white matter but not OFC gray matter correlated with various aspects of intelligence, including general abilities and working memory. For controls, OFC gray matter but not CB white matter correlated with scores on tests of intelligence and decision making. These results point to the potentially important role of CB white matter in the neuropsychological disturbance in schizophrenia. PMID:20063953

  13. Altruism, personal benefit, and anxieties: a phenomenological study of healthy volunteers' experiences in a placebo‐controlled trial of duloxetine

    PubMed Central

    Kwakye, Isaac N.; Garner, Matthew; Baldwin, David S.; Bamford, Susan; Pinkney, Verity

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to develop an in‐depth understanding of healthy volunteers' experiences of mental health trials. Methods A qualitative study was nested within a healthy volunteer placebo‐controlled trial of duloxetine, a psychotropic drug used for treating patients with major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Eight participants were interviewed, and data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results Interviewees described volunteering for the trial because they were interested in research, wanted the monetary incentive, wanted to help researchers, and wanted to be part of something. On entering the trial, participants considered the possible risks and described feeling anxious, excited, and determined; they had some clear expectations and some loosely held hopes about what would happen. During the trial, participants were curious about whether they were taking duloxetine or placebo, self‐monitored their bodies' reactions, and guessed which treatment they received. On being un‐blinded to treatment allocation after completing the trial, some participants' guesses were confirmed, but others were surprised, and a few were disappointed. Conclusions Small changes to advertising/consent materials to reflect volunteers' motivations could improve recruitment rates to similar trials; “active” placebos might be particularly useful for maintaining blinding in healthy volunteer trials; and sensitive procedures are needed for un‐blinding participants to treatment allocation. © 2016 The Authors. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27378326

  14. 'To preserve the skin in health': drainage, bodily control and the visual definition of healthy skin 1835-1900.

    PubMed

    te Hennepe, Mieneke

    2014-07-01

    The concept of a healthy skin penetrated the lives of many people in late-nineteenth-century Britain. Popular writings on skin and soap advertisements are significant for pointing to the notions of the skin as a symbolic surface: a visual moral ideal. Popular health publications reveal how much contemporary understanding of skin defined and connected ideas of cleanliness and the visual ideals of the healthy body in Victorian Britain. Characterised as a 'sanitary commissioner' of the body, skin represented the organ of drainage for body and society. The importance of keeping the skin clean and purging it of waste materials such as sweat and dirt resonated in a Britain that embraced city sanitation developments, female beauty practices, racial identities and moral reform. By focusing on the popular work by British surgeon and dermatologist Erasmus Wilson (1809-84), this article offers a history of skin through the lens of the sanitary movement and developments in the struggle for control over healthy skin still in place today. PMID:25045181

  15. Quantitative sensory testing and pain-evoked cytokine reactivity: comparison of patients with sickle cell disease to healthy matched controls.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Claudia M; Carroll, C Patrick; Kiley, Kasey; Han, Dingfen; Haywood, Carlton; Lanzkron, Sophie; Swedberg, Lauren; Edwards, Robert R; Page, Gayle G; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder associated with significant morbidity, which includes severe episodic pain, and, often, chronic pain. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with SCD report enhanced sensitivity to thermal detection and pain thresholds and have altered inflammatory profiles, yet no studies to date have examined biomarker reactivity after laboratory-induced pain. We sought to examine this relationship in patients with SCD compared to healthy control participants. We completed quantitative sensory testing in 83 patients with SCD and sequential blood sampling in 27 of them, whom we matched (sex, age, race, body mass index, and education) to 27 healthy controls. Surprisingly, few quantitative sensory testing differences emerged between groups. Heat pain tolerance, pressure pain threshold at the trapezius, thumb, and quadriceps, and thermal temporal summation at 45°C differed between groups in the expected direction, whereas conditioned pain modulation and pain ratings to hot water hand immersion were counterintuitive, possibly because of tailoring the water temperature to a perceptual level; patients with SCD received milder temperatures. In the matched subsample, group differences and group-by-time interactions were observed in biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, and neuropeptide Y. These findings highlight the utility of laboratory pain testing methods for understanding individual differences in inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest amplified pain-evoked proinflammatory cytokine reactivity among patients with SCD relative to carefully matched controls. Future research is warranted to evaluate the impact of enhanced pain-related cytokine response and whether it is predictive of clinical characteristics and the frequency/severity of pain crises in patients with SCD.

  16. Microscopic Particles in Two Fractions of Fresh Cerebrospinal Fluid in Twins with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder and in Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Viktoria; Nybom, Rolf; Wetterberg, Lennart; Hultman, Christina M.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Johansson, Anette G. M.; Ekman, Carl Johan; Landén, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Background Using scanning electron microscopy, microscopic structures have been identified in fresh cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but only rarely in control subjects. However, it has not been determined whether these microscopic particles represent state or trait markers, i.e. if their presence is related to clinical manifestations of the disease or if they also can be found in as yet asymptomatic individuals with a genetic liability. This question can be addressed by studying twins discordant or concordant for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated microscopic structures in CSF in 102 individuals: 21 monozygotic and 16 dizygotic twins affected or not affected with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder and in 65 healthy singleton controls. A first and a second fraction of CSF was freshly applied on filters and examined by scanning electron microscopy technique. Spherical particles with lipid appearance averaging between 0.1 to 8.0 µm in diameter were detected in the center of the filter as well as located in the margins of larger aggregates binding in a viscous state. Structures were found in 12 of 17 probands, 5 of 12 healthy co-twins and 3 of 73 healthy controls. Thus, a positive microscopic finding significantly increased the likelihood of belonging to the proband group (OR = 48, 95% CL: 8.2–550, p<0.0001) and the co-twin-group (OR = 16, 95% CL: 2.0–218, p = 0.006). Age, sex, history of alcohol abuse or anxiety syndrome, somatic disorder and markers of acute inflammatory activity did not account for group differences; nor did exposure to psychotropic medication. Conclusion Presence of microscopic particles in CSF may possibly reflect trait dependent genetic or environmental vulnerability in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder. PMID:23049916

  17. ROC analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top) in female coronary heart disease patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Sandra Johanna; Horejsi, Renate; Zweiker, Robert; Watzinger, Norbert; Möller, Reinhard; Schnedl, Wolfgang Johann; Schauenstein, Konrad; Tafeit, Erwin

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top) is different in female CHD patients (n=26) and healthy controls (n=36) matched to age, body size, weight, and BMI. The thicknesses of SAT layers were measured by LIPOMETER at 15 specified body sites. To calculate the power of the different body sites to discriminate between CHD women and healthy controls, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. For each parameter, sensitivity and specificity were calculated at different cutoff points. CHD women showed a significant decrease to 78.36% (p=0.012) at body site 11-front thigh, 73.10% (p=0.012) at 12-lateral thigh, 72.20% (p=0.009) at 13-rear thigh, 66.43% (p<0.001) at 14-inner thigh, and 49.19% (p<0.001) at 15-calf. The best discriminators analysed by ROC curves between female CHD patients and healthy controls turned out to be calf and inner thigh (optimal cut off values: calf: 3.85 mm and inner thigh: 11.15 mm). Stepwise discriminant analysis identified the body sites calf, lateral chest, and inner thigh as significant. In conclusion, information was obtained on the extent to which SAT thickness at each measured body site is able to discriminate between the two subject groups. The good discrimination results obtained for the present dataset are encouraging enough to recommend applying LIPOMETER SAT-Top measurements in further studies to investigate individual risks for CHD. PMID:18832782

  18. Quantitative sensory testing and pain-evoked cytokine reactivity: comparison of patients with sickle cell disease to healthy matched controls.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Claudia M; Carroll, C Patrick; Kiley, Kasey; Han, Dingfen; Haywood, Carlton; Lanzkron, Sophie; Swedberg, Lauren; Edwards, Robert R; Page, Gayle G; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder associated with significant morbidity, which includes severe episodic pain, and, often, chronic pain. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with SCD report enhanced sensitivity to thermal detection and pain thresholds and have altered inflammatory profiles, yet no studies to date have examined biomarker reactivity after laboratory-induced pain. We sought to examine this relationship in patients with SCD compared to healthy control participants. We completed quantitative sensory testing in 83 patients with SCD and sequential blood sampling in 27 of them, whom we matched (sex, age, race, body mass index, and education) to 27 healthy controls. Surprisingly, few quantitative sensory testing differences emerged between groups. Heat pain tolerance, pressure pain threshold at the trapezius, thumb, and quadriceps, and thermal temporal summation at 45°C differed between groups in the expected direction, whereas conditioned pain modulation and pain ratings to hot water hand immersion were counterintuitive, possibly because of tailoring the water temperature to a perceptual level; patients with SCD received milder temperatures. In the matched subsample, group differences and group-by-time interactions were observed in biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, and neuropeptide Y. These findings highlight the utility of laboratory pain testing methods for understanding individual differences in inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest amplified pain-evoked proinflammatory cytokine reactivity among patients with SCD relative to carefully matched controls. Future research is warranted to evaluate the impact of enhanced pain-related cytokine response and whether it is predictive of clinical characteristics and the frequency/severity of pain crises in patients with SCD. PMID:26713424

  19. Kiwifruit-derived supplements increase stool frequency in healthy adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Juliet; Butts, Christine A; Paturi, Gunaranjan; Eady, Sarah L; Wallace, Alison J; Hedderley, Duncan; Gearry, Richard B

    2015-05-01

    The worldwide growth in the incidence of gastrointestinal disorders has created an immediate need to identify safe and effective interventions. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we examined the effects of Actazin and Gold, kiwifruit-derived nutritional ingredients, on stool frequency, stool form, and gastrointestinal comfort in healthy and functionally constipated (Rome III criteria for C3 functional constipation) individuals. Using a crossover design, all participants consumed all 4 dietary interventions (Placebo, Actazin low dose [Actazin-L] [600 mg/day], Actazin high dose [Actazin-H] [2400 mg/day], and Gold [2400 mg/day]). Each intervention was taken for 28 days followed by a 14-day washout period between interventions. Participants recorded their daily bowel movements and well-being parameters in daily questionnaires. In the healthy cohort (n = 19), the Actazin-H (P = .014) and Gold (P = .009) interventions significantly increased the mean daily bowel movements compared with the washout. No significant differences were observed in stool form as determined by use of the Bristol stool scale. In a subgroup analysis of responders in the healthy cohort, Actazin-L (P = .005), Actazin-H (P < .001), and Gold (P = .001) consumption significantly increased the number of daily bowel movements by greater than 1 bowel movement per week. In the functionally constipated cohort (n = 9), there were no significant differences between interventions for bowel movements and the Bristol stool scale values or in the subsequent subgroup analysis of responders. This study demonstrated that Actazin and Gold produced clinically meaningful increases in bowel movements in healthy individuals.

  20. Gut microbiota in children with type 1 diabetes differs from that in healthy children: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A recent study using a rat model found significant differences at the time of diabetes onset in the bacterial communities responsible for type 1 diabetes modulation. We hypothesized that type 1 diabetes in humans could also be linked to a specific gut microbiota. Our aim was to quantify and evaluate the difference in the composition of gut microbiota between children with type 1 diabetes and healthy children and to determine the possible relationship of the gut microbiota of children with type 1 diabetes with the glycemic level. Methods A case-control study was carried out with 16 children with type 1 diabetes and 16 healthy children. The fecal bacteria composition was investigated by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results The mean similarity index was 47.39% for the healthy children and 37.56% for the children with diabetes, whereas the intergroup similarity index was 26.69%. In the children with diabetes, the bacterial number of Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, and the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio were all significantly decreased, with the quantity of Bacteroidetes significantly increased with respect to healthy children. At the genus level, we found a significant increase in the number of Clostridium, Bacteroides and Veillonella and a significant decrease in the number of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Blautia coccoides/Eubacterium rectale group and Prevotella in the children with diabetes. We also found that the number of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, and the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio correlated negatively and significantly with the plasma glucose level while the quantity of Clostridium correlated positively and significantly with the plasma glucose level in the diabetes group. Conclusions This is the first study showing that type 1 diabetes is associated with compositional changes in gut microbiota. The significant differences in the number of

  1. Decreasing Internal Focus of Attention Improves Postural Control during Quiet Standing in Young Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafati, Gilel; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate whether and how decreasing the amount of attentional focus invested in postural control could affect bipedal postural control. Twelve participants were asked to stand upright as immobile as possible on a force platform in one control condition and one cognitive condition. In the latter condition, they…

  2. Effect of a tart cherry juice supplement on arterial stiffness and inflammation in healthy adults: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Anthony; Mathew, Shilpa; Moore, Chris T; Russell, Jean; Robinson, Emma; Soumpasi, Vithleem; Barker, Margo E

    2014-06-01

    Tart cherries are a particularly rich source of anthocyanins. Evidence indicates that dietary intake of anthocyanins is inversely associated with arterial stiffness. We conducted an open-label randomised placebo controlled study to determine whether a tart cherry juice concentrate (Cherry Active) reduced arterial stiffness, inflammation and risk markers for cardiovascular disease in 47 healthy adults (30-50 years). Participants consumed 30 ml of cherry concentrate diluted to a volume of 250 ml with water or the same volume of an energy matched control drink daily for six weeks. Measurements were taken at baseline and at the end of the intervention. There was no effect of the intervention on arterial stiffness (P = 0.218), c-reactive protein (P = 0.220), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.163), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.121), total cholesterol (P = 0.342) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.127). At the end of the intervention, plasma antioxidant capacity (measured as the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)) was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control group (P = 0.012). We conclude that a tart cherry juice concentrate rich in anthocyanins has no effect on arterial stiffness, c-reactive protein and risk markers for cardiovascular disease, but evokes a minor increase in antioxidant status in healthy adults. PMID:24570273

  3. Chocolate cake. Guilt or celebration? Associations with healthy eating attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and weight-loss.

    PubMed

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A

    2014-03-01

    Food and eating are often associated with ambivalent feelings: pleasure and enjoyment, but also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, but may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. This study firstly examined whether a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake) was related to differences in attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and intentions in relation to healthy eating, and secondly whether the default association was related to weight change over an 18month period (and short term weight-loss in a subsample of participants with a weight-loss goal). This study did not find any evidence for adaptive or motivational properties of guilt. Participants associating chocolate cake with guilt did not report more positive attitudes or stronger intentions to eat healthy than did those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Instead, they reported lower levels of perceived behavioural control over eating and were less successful at maintaining their weight over an 18month period. Participants with a weight-loss goal who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight over a 3month period compared to those associating chocolate cake with celebration. PMID:24275670

  4. Delayed effect of Kinesio Taping on neuromuscular performance, balance, and lower limb function in healthy individuals: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lins, Caio A. A.; Borges, Daniel T.; Macedo, Liane B.; Costa, Karinna S. A.; Brasileiro, Jamilson S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Kinesio Taping (KT) is an elastic bandage that aims to improve neuromuscular performance, although there is no consensus as to its benefits. Objective To analyze the immediate and delayed effects of KT on the neuromuscular performance of the femoral quadriceps, on balance, and lower limb function in healthy subjects. Method This is a randomized controlled trial. Thirty-six women with a mean age of 22.2±3.6 years and BMI of 22.5±2.3 Kg/m2 were divided into three groups: control, with ten minutes of rest (control, n=12), application of Kinesio Taping without tension (placebo, n=12) and with tension (KT, n=12) on the quadriceps. The primary outcome was isokinetic performance, while secondary outcomes were the single-hop test, one-footed static balance, and electromyographic activity. The evaluations were carried out in five stages: 1) before application of KT, 2) immediately after the application of KT, 3) after 24h, 4) after 48h, and 5) after 72h. Mixed ANOVA was used to determine differences between groups. Results There was no change in one-footed static balance, electromyographic activity of the VL in the lower limb function, nor in isokinetic performance between groups. Conclusion KT promotes neither immediate nor delayed changes in neuromuscular performance of the femoral quadriceps in healthy women. PMID:27437714

  5. Subcortical brain volume abnormalities in 2028 individuals with schizophrenia and 2540 healthy controls via the ENIGMA consortium.

    PubMed

    van Erp, T G M; Hibar, D P; Rasmussen, J M; Glahn, D C; Pearlson, G D; Andreassen, O A; Agartz, I; Westlye, L T; Haukvik, U K; Dale, A M; Melle, I; Hartberg, C B; Gruber, O; Kraemer, B; Zilles, D; Donohoe, G; Kelly, S; McDonald, C; Morris, D W; Cannon, D M; Corvin, A; Machielsen, M W J; Koenders, L; de Haan, L; Veltman, D J; Satterthwaite, T D; Wolf, D H; Gur, R C; Gur, R E; Potkin, S G; Mathalon, D H; Mueller, B A; Preda, A; Macciardi, F; Ehrlich, S; Walton, E; Hass, J; Calhoun, V D; Bockholt, H J; Sponheim, S R; Shoemaker, J M; van Haren, N E M; Hulshoff Pol, H E; Pol, H E H; Ophoff, R A; Kahn, R S; Roiz-Santiañez, R; Crespo-Facorro, B; Wang, L; Alpert, K I; Jönsson, E G; Dimitrova, R; Bois, C; Whalley, H C; McIntosh, A M; Lawrie, S M; Hashimoto, R; Thompson, P M; Turner, J A

    2016-04-01

    The profile of brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia is still not fully understood, despite decades of research using brain scans. To validate a prospective meta-analysis approach to analyzing multicenter neuroimaging data, we analyzed brain MRI scans from 2028 schizophrenia patients and 2540 healthy controls, assessed with standardized methods at 15 centers worldwide. We identified subcortical brain volumes that differentiated patients from controls, and ranked them according to their effect sizes. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia had smaller hippocampus (Cohen's d=-0.46), amygdala (d=-0.31), thalamus (d=-0.31), accumbens (d=-0.25) and intracranial volumes (d=-0.12), as well as larger pallidum (d=0.21) and lateral ventricle volumes (d=0.37). Putamen and pallidum volume augmentations were positively associated with duration of illness and hippocampal deficits scaled with the proportion of unmedicated patients. Worldwide cooperative analyses of brain imaging data support a profile of subcortical abnormalities in schizophrenia, which is consistent with that based on traditional meta-analytic approaches. This first ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group study validates that collaborative data analyses can readily be used across brain phenotypes and disorders and encourages analysis and data sharing efforts to further our understanding of severe mental illness. PMID:26033243

  6. Chocolate cake. Guilt or celebration? Associations with healthy eating attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and weight-loss.

    PubMed

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A

    2014-03-01

    Food and eating are often associated with ambivalent feelings: pleasure and enjoyment, but also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, but may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. This study firstly examined whether a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake) was related to differences in attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and intentions in relation to healthy eating, and secondly whether the default association was related to weight change over an 18month period (and short term weight-loss in a subsample of participants with a weight-loss goal). This study did not find any evidence for adaptive or motivational properties of guilt. Participants associating chocolate cake with guilt did not report more positive attitudes or stronger intentions to eat healthy than did those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Instead, they reported lower levels of perceived behavioural control over eating and were less successful at maintaining their weight over an 18month period. Participants with a weight-loss goal who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight over a 3month period compared to those associating chocolate cake with celebration.

  7. Salacia Extract Improves Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Response: A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Crossover Study in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Jeykodi, Shankaranarayanan; Deshpande, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-five healthy subjects were randomly assigned to different doses of Salacia chinensis extract (200 mg, 300 mg, and 500 mg SCE) capsules and compared with placebo. It is a placebo controlled randomized crossover design study. Subjects were given oral sucrose solution along with capsules and plasma glucose and insulin responses were analyzed. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes after administration. AUC insulin significantly lowered after ingestion of SCE. No significant adverse events were observed. Reducing glucose and insulin is very important in reducing postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:27803937

  8. Fear and physiological arousal during a virtual height challenge--effects in patients with acrophobia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Diemer, Julia; Lohkamp, Nora; Mühlberger, Andreas; Zwanzger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy is becoming increasingly established, but the mode of action is not well understood. One potential efficacy factor might be physiological arousal. To investigate arousal during VR exposure, we exposed 40 patients with acrophobia and 40 matched healthy controls to a VR height challenge and assessed subjective (fear ratings) and physiological (heart rate, skin conductance level, salivary cortisol) fear reactions. Patients experienced a significant increase of subjective fear, heart rate and skin conductance level. Unexpectedly, controls, who reported no subjective fear, also showed an increase in heart rate and skin conductance. There was no increase in salivary cortisol levels in either group. Physiological arousal in acrophobic patients, in contrast to subjective fear, might not be stronger than that of controls confronted with height cues in VR, indicating marked discordance across symptom domains. The lack of a cortisol response in a clearly stressful paradigm warrants further study.

  9. Quality of life and emotional state in vitiligo in an Estonian sample: comparison with psoriasis and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Karelson, Maire; Silm, Helgi; Kingo, Külli

    2013-07-01

    The impact of vitiligo on quality of life is controversial. The aim of this study was to observe the impairment of quality of life and emotional state in adults with vitiligo compared with subjects with psoriasis and unaffected controls. The study group comprised 54 subjects with vitiligo, 57 with psoriasis and 57 unaffected controls. All subjects were examined and interviewed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and Emotional State questionnaires. The total mean DLQI score in vitiligo was 4.7, compared with 0.6 in healthy controls (p<0.001) and 13.1 in psoriasis (p<0.001). In vitiligo, females experienced a greater impact on feelings and men experienced a greater impact on relationships. Lower quality of life in vitiligo was associated with active stage of the disease, extension of pigment loss, depigmentation on the hands, and earlier onset of disease. The results demonstrate that vitiligo has less impact on quality of life than psoriasis.

  10. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study

    PubMed Central

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD. PMID:27672476

  11. Comparing the PPAT Drawings of Boys with AD/HD and Age-Matched Controls Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munley, Maripat

    2002-01-01

    Explores whether children with AD/HD respond differently to a specific art directive. Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale to evaluate the drawings, results indicate three elements that would most accurately predict the artists into the AD/HD group: color prominence, details of objects and environments, and line quality. (Contains 29…

  12. Processing Words Varying in Personal Familiarity (Based on Reading and Spelling) by Poor Readers and Age-Matched and Reading-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Evelyne; Willows, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether performance differences between good and poor readers relate to reading-specific cognitive factors that result from engaging in reading activities and other experiential factors, the authors gave students in Grades 4 and 6 a perceptual identification test of words not only drawn from their personal lexicon but also varying in…

  13. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study

    PubMed Central

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD.

  14. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study.

    PubMed

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie; Krantic, Slavica

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD. PMID:27672476

  15. Prediction of "fear" acquisition in healthy control participants in a de novo fear-conditioning paradigm.

    PubMed

    Otto, Michael W; Leyro, Teresa M; Christian, Kelly; Deveney, Christen M; Reese, Hannah; Pollack, Mark H; Orr, Scott P

    2007-01-01

    Studies using fear-conditioning paradigms have found that anxiety patients are more conditionable than individuals without these disorders, but these effects have been demonstrated inconsistently. It is unclear whether these findings have etiological significance or whether enhanced conditionability is linked only to certain anxiety characteristics. To further examine these issues, the authors assessed the predictive significance of relevant subsyndromal characteristics in 72 healthy adults, including measures of worry, avoidance, anxious mood, depressed mood, and fears of anxiety symptoms (anxiety sensitivity), as well as the dimensions of Neuroticism and Extraversion. Of these variables, the authors found that the combination of higher levels of subsyndromal worry and lower levels of behavioral avoidance predicted heightened conditionability, raising questions about the etiological significance of these variables in the acquisition or maintenance of anxiety disorders. In contrast, the authors found that anxiety sensitivity was more linked to individual differences in orienting response than differences in conditioning per se. PMID:17179530

  16. The topical niacin sensitivity test: an inter- and intra-rater reliability study in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Melissa; Cotton, Sue; Proffitt, Tina; McConchie, Mirabel; Markulev, Connie; Smesny, Stefan; McGorry, Patrick; Berger, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    Topical application of nicotinic acid results in erythema, and in some cases oedema of the skin, supporting a strong relationship between niacin sensitivity and prostaglandin D2. The aim of this study was to examine the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of a 12-min niacin sensitivity test in healthy adults. Three raters assessed the skin reaction of 12 volunteers, over 3-min intervals across four niacin concentrations (0.1, 0.01, 0.001, and 0.0001), and over six sessions. Inter-rater reliability estimates ranged from 0.85 to 0.97 for the total niacin sensitivity score. Similar inter-rater reliability estimates were found for niacin sensitivity ratings by concentration and time. Intra-rater reliability estimates ranged from 0.63 to 0.93 for the total niacin sensitivity score. These data indicate that the 12-min topical niacin sensitivity test has excellent reliability.

  17. Less pronounced response to exercise in healthy relatives to type 2 diabetic subjects compared with controls.

    PubMed

    Ekman, C; Elgzyri, T; Ström, K; Almgren, P; Parikh, H; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Rönn, T; Manderson Koivula, Fiona; Ling, C; Tornberg, Å B; Wollmer, P; Eriksson, K F; Groop, L; Hansson, O

    2015-11-01

    Healthy first-degree relatives with heredity of type 2 diabetes (FH+) are known to have metabolic inflexibility compared with subjects without heredity for diabetes (FH-). In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that FH+ individuals have an impaired response to exercise compared with FH-. Sixteen FH+ and 19 FH- insulin-sensitive men similar in age, peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2 peak), and body mass index completed an exercise intervention with heart rate monitored during exercise for 7 mo. Before and after the exercise intervention, the participants underwent a physical examination and tests for glucose tolerance and exercise capacity, and muscle biopsies were taken for expression analysis. The participants attended, on average, 39 training sessions during the intervention and spent 18.8 MJ on exercise. V̇o2 peak/kg increased by 14%, and the participants lost 1.2 kg of weight and 3 cm waist circumference. Given that the FH+ group expended 61% more energy during the intervention, we used regression analysis to analyze the response in the FH+ and FH- groups separately. Exercise volume had a significant effect on V̇o2 peak, weight, and waist circumference in the FH- group, but not in the FH+ group. After exercise, expression of genes involved in metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and cellular respiration increased more in the FH- compared with the FH+ group. This suggests that healthy, insulin-sensitive FH+ and FH- participants with similar age, V̇o2 peak, and body mass index may respond differently to an exercise intervention. The FH+ background might limit muscle adaptation to exercise, which may contribute to the increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in FH+ individuals. PMID:26338460

  18. Dual role of cerebral blood flow in regional brain temperature control in the healthy newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Sachiko; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Robertson, Nicola J; Iwata, Osuke

    2014-10-01

    Small shifts in brain temperature after hypoxia-ischaemia affect cell viability. The main determinants of brain temperature are cerebral metabolism, which contributes to local heat production, and brain perfusion, which removes heat. However, few studies have addressed the effect of cerebral metabolism and perfusion on regional brain temperature in human neonates because of the lack of non-invasive cot-side monitors. This study aimed (i) to determine non-invasive monitoring tools of cerebral metabolism and perfusion by combining near-infrared spectroscopy and echocardiography, and (ii) to investigate the dependence of brain temperature on cerebral metabolism and perfusion in unsedated newborn infants. Thirty-two healthy newborn infants were recruited. They were studied with cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy, echocardiography, and a zero-heat flux tissue thermometer. A surrogate of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using superior vena cava flow adjusted for cerebral volume (rSVC flow). The tissue oxygenation index, fractional oxygen extraction (FOE), and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen relative to rSVC flow (CMRO₂ index) were also estimated. A greater rSVC flow was positively associated with higher brain temperatures, particularly for superficial structures. The CMRO₂ index and rSVC flow were positively coupled. However, brain temperature was independent of FOE and the CMRO₂ index. A cooler ambient temperature was associated with a greater temperature gradient between the scalp surface and the body core. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and perfusion were monitored in newborn infants without using tracers. In these healthy newborn infants, cerebral perfusion and ambient temperature were significant independent variables of brain temperature. CBF has primarily been associated with heat removal from the brain. However, our results suggest that CBF is likely to deliver heat specifically to the superficial brain. Further studies are required to assess the

  19. Mass spectrometric quantification of salivary metanephrines – a pilot study in healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Osinga, Thamara E; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk NA; van Faassen, Martijn; Kerstens, Michiel N; Dullaart, Robin PF; Pacak, Karel; Links, Thera P; Kema, Ido P

    2016-01-01

    Determination of metanephrine (MN), normetanephrine (NMN) and 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) in saliva could be of diagnostic value in patients with pheochromocytoma. This preliminary study was set out to determine metanephrine concentrations in saliva from healthy subjects compared to their simultaneously measured plasma levels. In addition, we studied the possible influence of pre-analytical conditions such as a collection device, awakening, position, and eating on the salivary metanephrine levels. We included 11 healthy volunteers. Fasting blood and saliva samples were collected in seated position and after 30 minutes of horizontal rest. Saliva samples 30 minutes after eating were also collected. Saliva was collected with and without the use of a polyethylene salivette. Plasma and salivary MN, NMN and 3-MT concentrations were determined using a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography tandem mass spectrometric technique (LC-MS/MS) with automated solid phase extraction sample preparation. Metanephrines were detectable in saliva from all participants both in seated and the supine position. We found no significant correlation between the MN, NMN and 3-MT concentrations in saliva and plasma in the seated or supine position. In addition, there was no difference between MN, NMN and 3-MT concentrations collected with or without a collection device. Plasma MN, NMN, 3-MT and salivary NMN concentrations collected in seated position were significantly higher compared concentrations of samples collected in supine position (all P<.05). In conclusion, salivary metanephrines can be detected with LC-MS/MS with sufficient sensitivity and precision. Our findings warrant evaluation of salivary metanephrine measurement in the work-up of patients who are suspected to harbor pheochromocytoma. PMID:26874200

  20. Exploring Parental Bonding in BED and Non-BED Obesity Compared with Healthy Controls: Clinical, Personality and Psychopathology Correlates.

    PubMed

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2016-05-01

    Early inadequate attachment experiences are relevant co-factors in the development of obesity and Binge Eating Disorder (BED), which often concurs with obesity. The relationship of parental bonding with personality and psychopathology may influence treatment strategies for obese subjects, either affected or not with BED. In this study, 443 obese women (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), including 243 with and 200 without BED, and 158 female controls were assessed with regards to attachment, personality and eating psychopathology measures. Clusters obtained using the scores of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were compared with each other and with a control subjects' group. Lower scores of parental bonding distinguished obese subjects with respect to healthy controls. The cluster analysis revealed two clusters of parenting among obese subjects. The larger one displayed intermediate care and overprotection between controls and the smaller cluster, with the exception of paternal overprotection which is similar to controls. This larger cluster was characterized by low persistence and levels of psychopathology which are intermediate between healthy controls and the smaller cluster. The smaller cluster displayed lower care and higher overcontrol from both parents. It also displays more extreme personality traits (high novelty seeking and harm avoidance, and lower self-directedness and cooperativeness) and more severe eating and general psychopathology. Different parenting dynamics relate to different personality patterns and eating psychopathology of obese subjects, but not to binge eating conducts. Personality differences between parenting clusters are more extensive than those between BED and non-BED subgroups. The two different typologies of obese subjects based on parenting may be relevant for treatment personalization. PMID:26603379

  1. Exploring Parental Bonding in BED and Non-BED Obesity Compared with Healthy Controls: Clinical, Personality and Psychopathology Correlates.

    PubMed

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2016-05-01

    Early inadequate attachment experiences are relevant co-factors in the development of obesity and Binge Eating Disorder (BED), which often concurs with obesity. The relationship of parental bonding with personality and psychopathology may influence treatment strategies for obese subjects, either affected or not with BED. In this study, 443 obese women (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), including 243 with and 200 without BED, and 158 female controls were assessed with regards to attachment, personality and eating psychopathology measures. Clusters obtained using the scores of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were compared with each other and with a control subjects' group. Lower scores of parental bonding distinguished obese subjects with respect to healthy controls. The cluster analysis revealed two clusters of parenting among obese subjects. The larger one displayed intermediate care and overprotection between controls and the smaller cluster, with the exception of paternal overprotection which is similar to controls. This larger cluster was characterized by low persistence and levels of psychopathology which are intermediate between healthy controls and the smaller cluster. The smaller cluster displayed lower care and higher overcontrol from both parents. It also displays more extreme personality traits (high novelty seeking and harm avoidance, and lower self-directedness and cooperativeness) and more severe eating and general psychopathology. Different parenting dynamics relate to different personality patterns and eating psychopathology of obese subjects, but not to binge eating conducts. Personality differences between parenting clusters are more extensive than those between BED and non-BED subgroups. The two different typologies of obese subjects based on parenting may be relevant for treatment personalization.

  2. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  3. Impaired Postural Control in Healthy Men at Moderate Altitude (1630 M and 2590 M): Data from a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stadelmann, Katrin; Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Lo Cascio, Christian M.; Clark, Ross A.; Huber, Reto; Kohler, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intact postural control is essential for safe performance of mountain sports, operation of machinery at altitude, and for piloting airplanes. We tested whether exposure to hypobaric hypoxia at moderate altitude impairs the static postural control of healthy subjects. Methods In 51 healthy men, median age 24 y (quartiles 20;28), static control was evaluated on a balance platform in Zurich, 490 m, and during a 4-day sojourn in Swiss mountain villages at 1630 m and 2590 m, 2 days each. The order of altitude exposure was randomized. Total center of pressure path length (COPL) and sway amplitude measured in two directions by a balance platform, and pulse oximetry were recorded. Data were compared between altitudes. Results Median (quartiles) COPL during standing on both legs with eyes open at 490 m and in the evenings on the first and second days at 1630 and 2590 m, respectively were: 50 (45;57), 55 (48;62), 56 (49;61), 53 (47;59), 54 (48;60) cm, P<0.001 ANOVA. Corresponding arterial oxygen saturation was 97% (96;97), 95% (94;96), 95%(94;96), 92%(90;93), 93%(91;93), P<0.001. Anterior-posterior sway amplitudes were larger at 1630 and 2590 m compared to 490 m, P<0.001. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed that higher altitudes (1630 and 2590m) were independently associated with increased COPL when controlled for the order of altitude exposure and age (P=0.001). Conclusions Exposure to 1630 and 2590m was associated with impaired static postural control even when visual references were available. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01130948. PMID:25723529

  4. Esophageal Acid Clearance During Random Swallowing Is Faster in Patients with Barrett’s Esophagus Than in Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Lottrup, Christian; Krarup, Anne L; Gregersen, Hans; Ejstrud, Per; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Impaired esophageal acid clearance may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of Barrett’s esophagus. However, few studies have measured acid clearance as such in these patients. In this explorative, cross-sectional study, we aimed to compare esophageal acid clearance and swallowing rate in patients with Barrett’s esophagus to that in healthy controls. Methods A total of 26 patients with histology-confirmed Barrett’s esophagus and 12 healthy controls underwent (1) upper endoscopy, (2) an acid clearance test using a pH-impedance probe under controlled conditions including controlled and random swallowing, and (3) an ambulatory pH-impedance measurement. Results Compared with controls and when swallowing randomly, patients cleared acid 46% faster (P = 0.008). Furthermore, patients swallowed 60% more frequently (mean swallows/minute: 1.90 ± 0.74 vs 1.19 ± 0.58; P = 0.005), and acid clearance time decreased with greater random swallowing rate (P < 0.001). Swallowing rate increased with lower distal esophageal baseline impedance (P = 0.014). Ambulatory acid exposure was greater in patients (P = 0.033), but clearance times assessed from the ambulatory pH-measurement and acid clearance test were not correlated (all P > 0.3). Conclusions More frequent swallowing and thus faster acid clearance in Barrett’s esophagus may constitute a protective reflex due to impaired mucosal integrity and possibly acid hypersensitivity. Despite these reinforced mechanisms, acid clearance ability seems to be overthrown by repeated, retrograde acid reflux, thus resulting in increased esophageal acid exposure and consequently mucosal changes. PMID:27557545

  5. Attentional bias in restrictive eating disorders. Stronger attentional avoidance of high-fat food compared to healthy controls?

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Esther M; de Jong, Peter J

    2012-02-01

    A striking feature of the restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa (AN) is that these patients are extremely successful in restricting their food intake. Possibly, they are highly efficient in avoiding attentional engagement of food cues, thereby preventing more elaborate processing of food cues and thus subsequent craving. This study examined whether patients diagnosed with restrictive eating disorders ('restricting AN-like patients'; N=88) indeed show stronger attentional avoidance of visual food stimuli than healthy controls (N=76). Attentional engagement and disengagement were assessed by means of a pictorial exogenous cueing task, and (food and neutral) pictures were presented for 300, 500, or 1000 ms. In the 500 ms condition, both restricting AN-like patients and healthy controls demonstrated attentional avoidance of high-fat food as indexed by a negative cue-validity effect and impaired attentional engagement with high-fat food, whereas no evidence was found for facilitated disengagement from high-fat food. Within the group of restricting AN-like patients, patients with relatively severe eating pathology showed relatively strong attentional engagement with low-fat food. There was no evidence for attentional bias in the 300 and 1000 ms condition. The pattern of findings indicate that attentional avoidance of high-fat food is a common phenomenon that may become counterproductive in restricting AN-like patients, as it could facilitate their restricted food intake.

  6. Expectation-induced placebo responses fail to accelerate wound healing in healthy volunteers: results from a prospective controlled experimental trial.

    PubMed

    Vits, Sabine; Dissemond, Joachim; Schadendorf, Dirk; Kriegler, Lisa; Körber, Andreas; Schedlowski, Manfred; Cesko, Elvir

    2015-12-01

    Placebo responses have been shown to affect the symptomatology of skin diseases. However, expectation-induced placebo effects on wound healing processes have not been investigated yet. We analysed whether subjects' expectation of receiving an active drug accelerates the healing process of experimentally induced wounds. In 22 healthy men (experimental group, n = 11; control group, n = 11) wounds were induced by ablative laser on both thighs. Using a deceptive paradigm, participants in the experimental group were informed that an innovative 'wound gel' was applied on one of the two wounds, whereas a 'non-active gel' was applied on the wound of the other thigh. In fact, both gels were identical hydrogels without any active components. A control group was informed to receive a non-active gel on both wounds. Progress in wound healing was documented via planimetry on days 1, 4 and 7 after wound induction. From day 9 onwards wound inspections were performed daily accompanied by a change of the dressing and a new application of the gel. No significant differences could be observed with regard to duration or process of wound healing, either by intraindividual or by interindividual comparisons. These data document no expectation-induced placebo effect on the healing process of experimentally induced wounds in healthy volunteers. PMID:24373522

  7. In vitro activation of peripheral mononuclear cells by zinc in HIV-infected patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed Central

    Harrer, T; Wolf, B; Näger, W; Schwarz, W; Bergner, D; Kalden, J R

    1992-01-01

    Zinc is a mitogen for peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The optimal mitogenic concentration was found to be 0.05 mmol/l (327 micrograms/dl), four times higher than physiological serum levels. Maximal proliferation was observed after 6 days. Limited dilution technique revealed a frequency of zinc reactive cells of 1:3467 (median; range 1:1628-1:6235). Cord blood mononuclear cells from four of six healthy children could be stimulated to proliferate by zinc. A normal zinc-induced proliferative response could be demonstrated in all six HIV-infected patients in the Walter-Reed-stage I, in nine of 11 patients in Walter-Reed II and in only two of five patients in Walter-Reed III. In Walter-Reed IV to VI all eight patients showed a weak response to zinc (less than 50% of the healthy day control). Decreased zinc serum levels were found in 10 of 28 patients and in one of 16 controls. There was a significant correlation of a diminished zinc-induced proliferation with lower serum levels of zinc and a reduced proportion of CD4 helper cells in HIV-1-infected men. Because of a suppression of mitogenesis by high dose of zinc an excessive intake of zinc as used by some HIV-1-infected patients can presently not be recommended. The value of zinc-induced proliferation for monitoring HIV-infected patients has still to be established. PMID:1638772

  8. Expectation-induced placebo responses fail to accelerate wound healing in healthy volunteers: results from a prospective controlled experimental trial.

    PubMed

    Vits, Sabine; Dissemond, Joachim; Schadendorf, Dirk; Kriegler, Lisa; Körber, Andreas; Schedlowski, Manfred; Cesko, Elvir

    2015-12-01

    Placebo responses have been shown to affect the symptomatology of skin diseases. However, expectation-induced placebo effects on wound healing processes have not been investigated yet. We analysed whether subjects' expectation of receiving an active drug accelerates the healing process of experimentally induced wounds. In 22 healthy men (experimental group, n = 11; control group, n = 11) wounds were induced by ablative laser on both thighs. Using a deceptive paradigm, participants in the experimental group were informed that an innovative 'wound gel' was applied on one of the two wounds, whereas a 'non-active gel' was applied on the wound of the other thigh. In fact, both gels were identical hydrogels without any active components. A control group was informed to receive a non-active gel on both wounds. Progress in wound healing was documented via planimetry on days 1, 4 and 7 after wound induction. From day 9 onwards wound inspections were performed daily accompanied by a change of the dressing and a new application of the gel. No significant differences could be observed with regard to duration or process of wound healing, either by intraindividual or by interindividual comparisons. These data document no expectation-induced placebo effect on the healing process of experimentally induced wounds in healthy volunteers.

  9. An updated version of the Weigl discriminates adults with dementia from those with mild impairment and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Beglinger, Leigh J; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Beristain, Xabier; Kareken, David

    2008-03-01

    Dementia screening batteries often fall short on measures of executive functioning. The Weigl Color Form Sorting Test (WCFST) is a candidate for inclusion in such batteries, but can be insensitive to mild disturbance. The WCFST consists of 12 colored geometric shapes and requires the patient to sort the pieces by color or form, and then shift to the other sorting principle unassisted. We created a modified version of the WCFST (the Weigl-R) with increased conceptual complexity by adding two stimulus dimensions (texture and central shapes). The range of scores was also increased by adding the extent of examiner assistance required to achieve a correct sort, ability to verbalize conceptual strategy, and number of perseverations. We administered the Weigl-R to a group of 30 patients with mixed dementias, 34 adults with cognitive impairment without dementia, and 21 healthy controls. The new measure discriminated well between healthy controls and older adults with either cognitive impairment without dementia, or dementia. The Weigl-R may be a useful adjunct to brief dementia batteries but requires further validation.

  10. Voluntary control of corticomuscular coherence through neurofeedback: a proof-of-principle study in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    von Carlowitz-Ghori, K; Bayraktaroglu, Z; Waterstraat, G; Curio, G; Nikulin, V V

    2015-04-01

    Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) relates to synchronization between activity in the motor cortex and the muscle activity. The strength of CMC can be affected by motor behavior. In a proof-of-principle study, we examined whether independent of motor output parameters, healthy subjects are able to voluntarily modulate CMC in a neurofeedback paradigm. Subjects received visual online feedback of their instantaneous CMC strength, which was calculated between an optimized spatial projection of multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) in an individually defined target frequency range. The neurofeedback training consisted of either increasing or decreasing CMC strength using a self-chosen mental strategy while performing a simple motor task. Evaluation of instantaneous coherence showed that CMC strength was significantly larger when subjects had to increase than when to decrease CMC; this difference between the two task conditions did not depend on motor performance. The exclusion of confounding factors such as motor performance, attention and task complexity in study design provides evidence that subjects were able to voluntarily modify CMC independent of motor output parameters. Additional analysis further strengthened the assumption that the subjects' response was specifically shaped by the neurofeedback. In perspective, we suggest that CMC-based neurofeedback could provide a therapeutic approach in clinical conditions, such as motor stroke, where CMC is altered.

  11. Muscle histology changes after short term vibration training in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Schoser, Benedikt

    2015-12-01

    In search for additional counter measures of muscle atrophy vibration exercise training may have substantial effort for patients with neuromuscular disorders. To cover safety aspects and obtain muscle morphology data, a pilot study was performed in eleven healthy men. Countermovement jump, squat jump, drop jump and one repetition maximum test (1RM) were performed on a force platform before and after a 6 week training period. No severe side effects were found. Repeated needle muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle revealed a selective pre- to post-training type-2 myofiber hypertrophy of up to 50 %. The hypertrophy factors were 160 and 310, for type-2 myofibers. The mechanography system showed a significant increase in the 1RM maximum weight lifted (pre: 111,8 kg ± 11,5; post: 140,9 kg ± 13,00; p < 0,001). Vibration exercise is a safe and effective technique which desires further approval as counter measure in different types of neuromuscular atrophy. PMID:27199541

  12. The effect of γ-tACS on working memory performance in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Kate E; Bailey, Neil; Arnold, Sara; Windsor, Kirstyn; John, Joshua; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2015-12-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been widely investigated for its potential to enhance cognition, and in particular working memory, however to date standard approaches to stimulation have shown only modest effects. Alternative, more specialised, forms of current delivery may be better suited to cognitive enhancement. One such method is transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) which delivers stimulation at a specific frequency and has been shown to entrain endogenous cortical oscillations which underlie cognitive functioning. To date there has been no comparison of the effects of tACS to those of tDCS on cognitive enhancement. In a randomised repeated-measures study design we assessed the effect of gamma (γ)-tACS, tDCS and sham tDCS on working memory in 18 healthy participants who attended three sessions held at least 72h apart. Pre- and post-stimulation working memory performance was assessed using the 2 and 3-back. Our findings indicated the presence of a selective improvement in performance on the 3-back task following γ-tACS compared with tDCS and sham stimulation. The current findings provide support for further and more detailed investigation of the role of γ-tACS as a more specialised approach to neuromodulation. PMID:26580743

  13. Muscle histology changes after short term vibration training in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Schoser, Benedikt

    2015-12-01

    In search for additional counter measures of muscle atrophy vibration exercise training may have substantial effort for patients with neuromuscular disorders. To cover safety aspects and obtain muscle morphology data, a pilot study was performed in eleven healthy men. Countermovement jump, squat jump, drop jump and one repetition maximum test (1RM) were performed on a force platform before and after a 6 week training period. No severe side effects were found. Repeated needle muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle revealed a selective pre- to post-training type-2 myofiber hypertrophy of up to 50 %. The hypertrophy factors were 160 and 310, for type-2 myofibers. The mechanography system showed a significant increase in the 1RM maximum weight lifted (pre: 111,8 kg ± 11,5; post: 140,9 kg ± 13,00; p < 0,001). Vibration exercise is a safe and effective technique which desires further approval as counter measure in different types of neuromuscular atrophy.

  14. Effect of DISC1 SNPs on brain structure in healthy controls and patients with a history of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Kähler, Anna K; Rimol, Lars M; Brown, Andrew Anand; Djurovic, Srdjan; Hartberg, Cecilie B; Melle, Ingrid; Dale, Anders M; Andreassen, Ole A; Agartz, Ingrid

    2012-09-01

    Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has been suggested as a susceptibility locus for a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Risk variants have been associated with brain structural changes, which overlap alterations reported in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. We used genome-wide genotyping data for a Norwegian sample of healthy controls (n = 171) and patients with a history of psychosis (n = 184), to investigate 61 SNPs in the DISC1 region for putative association with structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) measures (hippocampal volume; mean cortical thickness; and total surface area, as well as cortical thickness and area divided into four lobar measures). SNP rs821589 was associated with mean temporal and total brain cortical thickness in controls (P(adjusted) = 0.009 and 0.02, respectively), but not in patients. SNPs rs11122319 and rs1417584 were associated with mean temporal cortical thickness in patients (P(adjusted) = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively), but not in controls, and both SNPs have previously been highly associated with DISC1 gene expression. There were significant genotype ×  case-control interactions. There was no significant association between SNPs and cortical area or hippocampal volume in controls, or with any of the structural measures in cases, after correction for multiple comparisons. In conclusion, DISC1 SNPs might impact brain structural variation, possibly differently in psychosis patients versus controls, but independent replication will be needed to confirm our findings. PMID:22815203

  15. Nano-structural, compositional and micro-architectural signs of cortical bone fragility at the superolateral femoral neck in elderly hip fracture patients vs. healthy aged controls.

    PubMed

    Milovanovic, Petar; Rakocevic, Zlatko; Djonic, Danijela; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Hahn, Michael; Nikolic, Slobodan; Amling, Michael; Busse, Bjoern; Djuric, Marija

    2014-07-01

    To unravel the origins of decreased bone strength in the superolateral femoral neck, we assessed bone structural features across multiple length scales at this cortical fracture initiating region in postmenopausal women with hip fracture and in aged-matched controls. Our combined methodological approach encompassed atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization of cortical bone nano-structure, assessment of mineral content/distribution via quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI), measurement of bone material properties by reference point indentation, as well as evaluation of cortical micro-architecture and osteocyte lacunar density. Our findings revealed a wide range of differences between the fracture group and the controls, suggesting a number of detrimental changes at various levels of cortical bone hierarchical organization that may render bone fragile. Namely, mineral crystals at external cortical bone surfaces of the fracture group were larger (65.22nm±41.21nm vs. 36.75nm±18.49nm, p<0.001), and a shift to a higher mineral content and more homogenous mineralization profile as revealed via qBEI were found in the bone matrix of the fracture group. Fracture cases showed nearly 35% higher cortical porosity and showed significantly reduced osteocyte lacunar density compared to controls (226±27 vs. 247±32#/mm(2), p=0.05). Along with increased crystal size, a shift towards higher mineralization and a tendency to increased cortical porosity and reduced osteocyte lacunar number delineate that cortical bone of the superolateral femoral neck bears distinct signs of fragility at various levels of its structural organization. These results contribute to the understanding of hierarchical bone structure changes in age-related fragility.

  16. Local cold exposure test with a new arterial photoplethysmographic sensor in healthy controls and patients with secondary Raynaud's phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Hahn, M; Hahn, C; Jünger, M; Steins, A; Zuder, D; Klyscz, T; Büchtemann, A; Rassner, G; Blazek, V

    1999-03-01

    Local cold exposure tests are used to diagnose cold-induced vasospastic disorders and to evaluate therapeutic success. We investigated the pulsatile signal detected with a newly developed arterial photoplethysmography (APPG) method and the signal change induced by local cold exposure using a temperature-controlled finger holder, comparing it with laser Doppler flux (red and green laser, rLDF and gLDF) and red blood cell velocity measured in nailfold capillaries (CBV). Ten healthy volunteers and 10 age- and sex-matched patients suffering from Raynaud's phenomenon due to systemic sclerosis were investigated using a moderate cooling temperature of 16 degrees C for 5 min. All signals were recorded simultaneously. The results show a significant reduction of CBV (P < 0.0001), rLDF (P < 0.0003), and gLDF (P = 0.0214) during cooling and characteristic changes in the APPG signal (for instance a decrease in pulse wave amplitude; P < 0.0001). Significant differences in the APPG amplitude could be detected under resting conditions; at cooling temperatures there were also significant differences in CBV and APPG. The temperature-controlled finger holder with its built-in APPG probe appears to be a useful tool for evaluating the effect of local cooling on finger skin perfusion and differentiating between healthy controls and patients with secondary Raynaud's phenomenon due to systemic sclerosis. The gLDF signal was rather weak, limiting its value in cold stress tests. The differences between controls and patients in CBV were somewhat smaller than in previous studies, suggesting the advantage of lower local cooling temperatures, e.g., 12 degrees C.

  17. Brain Oscillatory Correlates of Altered Executive Functioning in Positive and Negative Symptomatic Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Barbara; Minarik, Tamas; Griesmayr, Birgit; Stelzig-Schoeler, Renate; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Sauseng, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Working Memory and executive functioning deficits are core characteristics of patients suffering from schizophrenia. Electrophysiological research indicates that altered patterns of neural oscillatory mechanisms underpinning executive functioning are associated with the psychiatric disorder. Such brain oscillatory changes have been found in local amplitude differences at gamma and theta frequencies in task-specific cortical areas. Moreover, interregional interactions are also disrupted as signified by decreased phase coherence of fronto-posterior theta activity in schizophrenia patients. However, schizophrenia is not a one-dimensional psychiatric disorder but has various forms and expressions. A common distinction is between positive and negative symptomatology but most patients have both negative and positive symptoms to some extent. Here, we examined three groups—healthy controls, predominantly negative, and predominantly positive symptomatic schizophrenia patients—when performing a working memory task with increasing cognitive demand and increasing need for executive control. We analyzed brain oscillatory activity in the three groups separately and investigated how predominant symptomatology might explain differences in brain oscillatory patterns. Our results indicate that differences in task specific fronto-posterior network activity (i.e., executive control network) expressed by interregional phase synchronization are able to account for working memory dysfunctions between groups. Local changes in the theta and gamma frequency range also show differences between patients and healthy controls, and more importantly, between the two patient groups. We conclude that differences in oscillatory brain activation patterns related to executive processing can be an indicator for positive and negative symptomatology in schizophrenia. Furthermore, changes in cognitive and especially executive functioning in patients are expressed by alterations in a task

  18. Reduced Right Ventricular Native Myocardial T1 in Anderson-Fabry Disease: Comparison to Pulmonary Hypertension and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Joseph J.; Chow, Kelvin; Khan, Aneal; Michelakis, Evangelos; Paterson, Ian; Oudit, Gavin Y.; Thompson, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is characterized by progressive multiorgan accumulation of intracellular sphingolipids due to α-galactosidase A enzyme deficiency, resulting in progressive ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, arrhythmias, and death. Decreased native (non-contrast) left ventricular (LV) T1 (longitudinal relaxation time) with MRI discriminates AFD from healthy controls or other presentations of concentric hypertrophy, but the right ventricle (RV) has not been studied. The aims of the current study were to evaluate native RV T1 values in AFD, with a goal of better understanding the pathophysiology of RV involvement. Methods and Results Native T1 values were measured in the inferior RV wall (RVI), interventricular septum (IVS), and inferior LV (LVI) in patients with AFD, patients with pulmonary hypertension, who provided an alternative RV pathological process for comparison, and healthy controls. A minimum wall thickness of 4 mm was selected to minimize partial volume errors in tissue T1 analysis. T1 analysis was performed in 6 subjects with AFD, 6 subjects with PH, and 21 controls. Native T1 values were shorter (adjusted p<0.05 for all comparisons), independent of location, in subjects with AFD (RVI-T1 = 1096±49 ms, IVS-T1 = 1053±41 ms, LVI-T1 = 1072±44 ms) compared to both PH (RVI-T1 = 1239±41 ms, IVS-T1 = 1280±123 ms, LVI-T1 = 1274±57 ms) and HC (IVS-T1 = 1180±60 ms, LVI-T1 = 1183±45 ms). RVI measurements were not possible in controls due to insufficient wall thickness. Conclusion Native T1 values appear similarly reduced in the left and right ventricles of individuals with AFD and RV wall thickening, suggesting a common pathology. In contrast, individuals with PH and thickened RVs showed increased native T1 values in both ventricles, suggestive of fibrosis. PMID:27305064

  19. Chromosome painting and the accumulation of stable cytogenetic damage with age in healthy controls

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J.D.; Ramsey, M.J.; Lee, D.A.

    1995-11-01

    Chromosome painting is now routinely used to identify induced stable chromosomal rearrangements, which are difficult and expensive to analyze with classical cytogenetic methods. Theoretically the inherent stability of translocations, in contrast to unstable dicentrics, enables their use as a biodosimeter for chronic and temporally-displaced exposure. To quantify the effects of adverse exposure, it is important that the baseline frequency of stable aberrations be well understood. Recently we have used chromosome painting to show that translocations accumulate with age. We have now extended this study to nearly 100 subjects ranging in age from newborns (umbilical cord bloods, n=14) to adults aged 19-79 years. All subjects were healthy, had not received chemo- or radiotherapy, and had not been occupationally or accidentally exposed to radiation or chemicals. We scored the equivalent of 1000 metaphase cells for each subject, and observed an overall average of 1.36 stable aberrations per 100 cells. Stable aberrations increased significantly with age, and were observed at frequencies of 0.19{plus_minus}0.04, 0.77{plus_minus}0.07, and 2.39{plus_minus}0.24 per 100 cells in cord blood, adults aged 19 to 49, and adults over age 50, respectively. To understand the extent that lifestyle factors influence the frequency of stable aberrations, each subject (or one parent of each newborn) completed a comprehensive questionnaire inquiring about lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary habits. No smoking effect is apparent in adults, however newborns whose mothers smoked during pregnancy had a 2.6-fold increase in stable aberration frequencies (p=0.033). Repeat samples from a subset of the adults suggest that individual translocation frequencies change little over a period of -3 years.

  20. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls

    PubMed Central

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G.; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T.; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D.; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L.; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69–80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18–34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0–180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P < 0.05). In summary, despite having slower gastric emptying, elderly men exhibited blunted protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men. PMID:26290103

  1. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2015-10-15

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69-80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18-34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0-180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P < 0.05). In summary, despite having slower gastric emptying, elderly men exhibited blunted protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men.

  2. Effects of unilateral leg muscle fatigue on balance control in perturbed and unperturbed gait in healthy elderly.

    PubMed

    Toebes, Marcel J P; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Dekker, Joost; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed effects of unilateral leg muscle fatigue (ULMF) on balance control in gait during the stance and swing phases of the fatigued leg in healthy elderly, to test the assumption that leg muscle strength limits balance control during the stance-phase. Ten subjects (aged 63.4, SD 5.5 years) walked on a treadmill in 4 conditions: unperturbed unfatigued, unperturbed fatigued, perturbed unfatigued, and perturbed fatigued. The perturbations were lateral trunk pulls just before contralateral heel contact. ULMF was evoked by unilateral squat exercise until task failure. Isometric knee extension strength was measured to verify the presence of muscle fatigue. Between-stride standard deviations and Lyapunov exponents of trunk kinematics were used as indicators of balance control. Required perturbation force and the deviation of trunk kinematics from unperturbed gait were used to assess perturbation responses. Knee extension strength decreased considerably (17.3% SD 8.6%) as a result ULMF. ULMF did not affect steady-state gait balance. Less force was required to perturb subjects when the fatigued leg was in the stance-phase compared to the swing-phase. Subjects showed a faster return to the unperturbed gait pattern in the fatigued than in the unfatigued condition, after perturbations in swing and stance of the fatigued leg. The results of this study are not in line with the hypothesized effects of leg muscle fatigue on balance in gait. The healthy elderly subjects were able to cope with substantial ULMF during steady-state gait and demonstrated faster balance recovery after laterally directed mechanical perturbations in the fatigued than in the unfatigued condition.

  3. A Full-Brain, Bootstrapped Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Robustly Differentiates Parkinson Disease from Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Spetsieris, P. G.; Anthony, T.; Cutter, G. R.; von Deneen, K. M.; Liu, Y.; White, K. D.; Heilman, K. M.; Myers, J.; Standaert, D. G.; Lahti, A. C.; Eidelberg, D.; Ulug, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    There is a compelling need for early, accurate diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Various magnetic resonance imaging modalities are being explored as an adjunct to diagnosis. A significant challenge in using MR imaging for diagnosis is developing appropriate algorithms for extracting diagnostically relevant information from brain images. In previous work, we have demonstrated that individual subject variability can have a substantial effect on identifying and determining the borders of regions of analysis, and that this variability may impact on prediction accuracy.In this paper we evaluate a new statistical algorithm to determine if we can improve accuracy of prediction using a subjects left-out validation of a DTI analysis. Twenty subjects with PD and 22 healthy controls were imaged to evaluate if a full brain diffusion tensor imaging-fractional anisotropy (DTI-FA) map might be capable of segregating PD from controls. In this paper, we present a new statistical algorithm based on bootstrapping. We compare the capacity of this algorithm to classify the identity of subjects left out of the analysis with the accuracy of other statistical techniques, including standard cluster-thresholding. The bootstrapped analysis approach was able to correctly discriminate the 20 subjects with PD from the 22 healthy controls (area under the receiver operator curve or AUROC 0.90); however the sensitivity and specificity of standard cluster-thresholding techniques at various voxel-specific thresholds were less effective (AUROC 0.72–0.75). Based on these results sufficient information to generate diagnostically relevant statistical maps may already be collected by current MRI scanners. We present one statistical technique that might be used to extract diagnostically relevant information from a full brain analysis. PMID:24974315

  4. Psilocybin-induced deficits in automatic and controlled inhibition are attenuated by ketanserin in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Quednow, Boris B; Kometer, Michael; Geyer, Mark A; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-02-01

    The serotonin-2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and related inhibitory gating and behavioral inhibition deficits of schizophrenia patients. The hallucinogen psilocybin disrupts automatic forms of sensorimotor gating and response inhibition in humans, but it is unclear so far whether the 5-HT(2A)R or 5-HT(1A)R agonist properties of its bioactive metabolite psilocin account for these effects. Thus, we investigated whether psilocybin-induced deficits in automatic and controlled inhibition in healthy humans could be attenuated by the 5-HT(2A/2C)R antagonist ketanserin. A total of 16 healthy participants received placebo, ketanserin (40 mg p.o.), psilocybin (260 μg/kg p.o.), or psilocybin plus ketanserin in a double-blind, randomized, and counterbalanced order. Sensorimotor gating was measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. The effects on psychopathological core dimensions and behavioral inhibition were assessed by the altered states of consciousness questionnaire (5D-ASC), and the Color-Word Stroop Test. Psilocybin decreased PPI at short lead intervals (30 ms), increased all 5D-ASC scores, and selectively increased errors in the interference condition of the Stroop Test. Stroop interference and Stroop effect of the response latencies were increased under psilocybin as well. Psilocybin-induced alterations were attenuated by ketanserin pretreatment, whereas ketanserin alone had no significant effects. These findings suggest that the disrupting effects of psilocybin on automatic and controlled inhibition processes are attributable to 5-HT(2A)R stimulation. Sensorimotor gating and attentional control deficits of schizophrenia patients might be due to changes within the 5-HT(2A)R system.

  5. Fixation patterns, not clinical diagnosis, predict body size over‐estimation in eating disordered women and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Cornelissen, Katri K.; Cornelissen, Piers L.; Hancock, Peter J. B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective A core feature of anorexia nervosa (AN) is an over‐estimation of body size. Women with AN have a different pattern of eye‐movements when judging bodies, but it is unclear whether this is specific to their diagnosis or whether it is found in anyone over‐estimating body size. Method To address this question, we compared the eye movement patterns from three participant groups while they carried out a body size estimation task: (i) 20 women with recovering/recovered anorexia (rAN) who had concerns about body shape and weight and who over‐estimated body size, (ii) 20 healthy controls who had normative levels of concern about body shape and who estimated body size accurately (iii) 20 healthy controls who had normative levels of concern about body shape but who did over‐estimate body size. Results Comparisons between the three groups showed that: (i) accurate body size estimators tended to look more in the waist region, and this was independent of clinical diagnosis; (ii) there is a pattern of looking at images of bodies, particularly viewing the upper parts of the torso and face, which is specific to participants with rAN but which is independent of accuracy in body size estimation. Discussion Since the over‐estimating controls did not share the same body image concerns that women with rAN report, their over‐estimation cannot be explained by attitudinal concerns about body shape and weight. These results suggest that a distributed fixation pattern is associated with over‐estimation of body size and should be addressed in treatment programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:507–518). PMID:26996142

  6. Right atrial morphology and function in patients with systemic sclerosis compared to healthy controls: a two-dimensional strain study.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Antonello; D'Alto, Michele; Di Maio, Marco; Vettori, Serena; Benjamin, Nicola; Cocchia, Rosangela; Argiento, Paola; Romeo, Emanuele; Di Marco, Giovanni; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Valentini, Gabriele; Calabrò, Raffaele; Bossone, Eduardo; Grünig, Ekkehard

    2016-07-01

    Enlargement and dysfunction of the right atrium might be an early sign for pulmonary hypertension in systemic sclerosis (SSc). This is the first study to analyse right atrial morphology and function in SSc patients compared to healthy controls by speckle-tracking two-dimensional strain echocardiography (2DSE) at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, right atrial function was correlated with further clinical findings. Adult patients with SSc for >3 years (n = 90) and 55 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent a panel of non-invasive assessments including transthoracic echocardiography, pulsed Doppler myocardial imaging and 2DSE at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, serological tests and high-resolution chest computed tomography were performed. SSc patients showed significant impairment of right atrial function and the right atrial enlargement, measured by 2DSE at rest and during exercise compared to controls (both p < 0.001). These findings were more evident in SSc patients with pulmonary fibrosis (p < 0.001) and in patients with high pulmonary artery systolic pressures (PAPs) during exercise. In the SSC patients, right atrial lateral strain was significantly associated with PAPs during effort, right atrial area, left ventricle stroke volume and inferior vena cava diameter using multivariable analysis. The findings of this study suggest that a high proportion of SSc patients reveal right atrial dysfunction even without manifest pulmonary hypertension. Impaired right atrial function occurred mostly in patients with pulmonary fibrosis and/or elevated PAPs during exercise, was independently associated with prognostic factors and may therefore be useful for risk stratification. Further studies are needed to analyse if right atrial dysfunction assessed by 2DSE may help to improve early diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension.

  7. No Evidence for True Training and Transfer Effects after Inhibitory Control Training in Young Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enge, Sören; Behnke, Alexander; Fleischhauer, Monika; Küttler, Lena; Kliegel, Matthias; Strobel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies reported that training of working memory may improve performance in the trained function and beyond. Other executive functions, however, have been rarely or not yet systematically examined. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of inhibitory control (IC) training to produce true training-related function improvements…

  8. Inhibitory Control in Anxious and Healthy Adolescents Is Modulated by Incentive and Incidental Affective Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Michael G.; Mandell, Darcy; Mueller, Sven C.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are characterized by elevated, sustained responses to threat, that manifest as threat attention biases. Recent evidence also suggests exaggerated responses to incentives. How these characteristics influence cognitive control is under debate and is the focus of the present study. Methods: Twenty-five healthy…

  9. Methylphenidate blocks effort-induced depletion of regulatory control in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sripada, Chandra; Kessler, Daniel; Jonides, John

    2014-06-01

    A recent wave of studies--more than 100 conducted over the last decade--has shown that exerting effort at controlling impulses or behavioral tendencies leaves a person depleted and less able to engage in subsequent rounds of regulation. Regulatory depletion is thought to play an important role in everyday problems (e.g., excessive spending, overeating) as well as psychiatric conditions, but its neurophysiological basis is poorly understood. Using a placebo-controlled, double-blind design, we demonstrated that the psychostimulant methylphenidate (commonly known as Ritalin), a catecholamine reuptake blocker that increases dopamine and norepinephrine at the synaptic cleft, fully blocks effort-induced depletion of regulatory control. Spectral analysis of trial-by-trial reaction times revealed specificity of methylphenidate effects on regulatory depletion in the slow-4 frequency band. This band is associated with the operation of resting-state brain networks that produce mind wandering, which raises potential connections between our results and recent brain-network-based models of control over attention.

  10. The Effectiveness of Healthy Start Home Visit Program: Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Heung, Kitty

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study reported the effectiveness of a home visit program for disadvantaged Chinese parents with preschool children, using cluster randomized controlled trial design. Method: Participants included 191 parents and their children from 24 preschools, with 84 dyads (12 preschools) in the intervention group and 107 dyads (12 preschools) in…

  11. Classifications of Vocalic Segments from Articulatory Kinematics: Healthy Controls and Speakers with Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunusova, Yana; Weismer, Gary G.; Lindstrom, Mary J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors classified vocalic segments produced by control speakers (C) and speakers with dysarthria due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or Parkinson's disease (PD); classification was based on movement measures. The researchers asked the following questions: (a) Can vowels be classified on the basis of selected…

  12. Novel Form of Curcumin Improves Endothelial Function in Young, Healthy Individuals: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Stoner, Lee; Rowlands, David S; Caldwell, Aaron R; Sanders, Elizabeth; Kreutzer, Andreas; Mitchell, Joel B; Purpura, Martin; Jäger, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a turmeric extract, may protect against cardiovascular diseases by enhancing endothelial function. In this randomized controlled double-blind parallel prospective study, fifty-nine healthy adults were assigned to placebo, 50 mg (50 mg), or 200 mg (200 mg) curcumin, for 8 weeks. The higher curcumin (200 mg) supplementation produced a dose-mediated improvement in endothelial function measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The outcome was a clinically substantial 3.0% increase (90% CI 0.7 to 5.3%, p = 0.032; benefit : harm odds ratio 546 : 1) with the 200 mg dose, relative to placebo. The 50 mg dose also increased FMD relative to placebo by 1.7% (-0.6 to 4.0%, p = 0.23; 25 : 1), but the outcome was not clinically decisive. In apparently healthy adults, 8 weeks of 200 mg oral curcumin supplementation resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in endothelial function as measured by FMD. Oral curcumin supplementation may present a simple lifestyle strategy for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This trial was registered at ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN90184217). PMID:27630772

  13. Prolonged use of Kinesiotaping does not enhance functional performance and joint proprioception in healthy young males: Randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Igor; Bottaro, Martim; Freitas, João R.; Carmo, Jake; Matheus, João P. C.; Carregaro, Rodrigo L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous (48-hour) use of Kinesiotaping (KT) on functional and proprioceptive performance in healthy, physically active men. Method Twenty-six healthy, physically active men (21.8±2.2 years old) were randomly allocated into two groups: 1) Kinesiotaping group (KG, tape applied with 40% tension for rectus femoris activation); 2) Control (CG, tape applied over rectus femoris without additional tension). Subjects attended the laboratory on five separate occasions: 1) familiarization; 2) baseline measurement without tape (BL); 3) immediately post-tape application (T0); 4) 24h (T24); and 5) 48h (T48) post-tape application. The outcomes were distance in the single (SHT) and triple hop tests (THT), vertical jump height (VJH), vertical jump power (VJP), and rate of force development (RFD). A mixed-model ANOVA was applied to verify differences between and within groups. Results No significant (p >0.05) differences were found in the SHT and THT between groups and moments. Likewise, the main effects for VJH, VJP, and RFD were not significant (p >0.05). Conclusion The present study demonstrated no significant immediate or prolonged (48h) effects of KT on functional and proprioceptive performance. PMID:27437712

  14. Novel Form of Curcumin Improves Endothelial Function in Young, Healthy Individuals: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Lee; Rowlands, David S.; Caldwell, Aaron R.; Sanders, Elizabeth; Kreutzer, Andreas; Mitchell, Joel B.; Purpura, Martin; Jäger, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a turmeric extract, may protect against cardiovascular diseases by enhancing endothelial function. In this randomized controlled double-blind parallel prospective study, fifty-nine healthy adults were assigned to placebo, 50 mg (50 mg), or 200 mg (200 mg) curcumin, for 8 weeks. The higher curcumin (200 mg) supplementation produced a dose-mediated improvement in endothelial function measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The outcome was a clinically substantial 3.0% increase (90% CI 0.7 to 5.3%, p = 0.032; benefit : harm odds ratio 546 : 1) with the 200 mg dose, relative to placebo. The 50 mg dose also increased FMD relative to placebo by 1.7% (−0.6 to 4.0%, p = 0.23; 25 : 1), but the outcome was not clinically decisive. In apparently healthy adults, 8 weeks of 200 mg oral curcumin supplementation resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in endothelial function as measured by FMD. Oral curcumin supplementation may present a simple lifestyle strategy for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This trial was registered at ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN90184217). PMID:27630772

  15. Tissue Damage Markers after a Spinal Manipulation in Healthy Subjects: A Preliminary Report of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Achalandabaso, A.; Plaza-Manzano, G.; Lomas-Vega, R.; Martínez-Amat, A.; Camacho, M. V.; Gassó, M.; Hita-Contreras, F.; Molina, F.

    2014-01-01

    Spinal manipulation (SM) is a manual therapy technique frequently applied to treat musculoskeletal disorders because of its analgesic effects. It is defined by a manual procedure involving a directed impulse to move a joint past its physiologic range of movement (ROM). In this sense, to exceed the physiologic ROM of a joint could trigger tissue damage, which might represent an adverse effect associated with spinal manipulation. The present work tries to explore the presence of tissue damage associated with SM through the damage markers analysis. Thirty healthy subjects recruited at the University of Jaén were submitted to a placebo SM (control group; n = 10), a single lower cervical manipulation (cervical group; n = 10), and a thoracic manipulation (n = 10). Before the intervention, blood samples were extracted and centrifuged to obtain plasma and serum. The procedure was repeated right after the intervention and two hours after the intervention. Tissue damage markers creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), troponin-I, myoglobin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and aldolase were determined in samples. Statistical analysis was performed through a 3 × 3 mixed-model ANOVA. Neither cervical manipulation nor thoracic manipulation did produce significant changes in the CPK, LDH, CRP, troponin-I, myoglobin, NSE, or aldolase blood levels. Our data suggest that the mechanical strain produced by SM seems to be innocuous to the joints and surrounding tissues in healthy subjects. PMID:25609853

  16. Novel Form of Curcumin Improves Endothelial Function in Young, Healthy Individuals: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Stoner, Lee; Rowlands, David S; Caldwell, Aaron R; Sanders, Elizabeth; Kreutzer, Andreas; Mitchell, Joel B; Purpura, Martin; Jäger, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a turmeric extract, may protect against cardiovascular diseases by enhancing endothelial function. In this randomized controlled double-blind parallel prospective study, fifty-nine healthy adults were assigned to placebo, 50 mg (50 mg), or 200 mg (200 mg) curcumin, for 8 weeks. The higher curcumin (200 mg) supplementation produced a dose-mediated improvement in endothelial function measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The outcome was a clinically substantial 3.0% increase (90% CI 0.7 to 5.3%, p = 0.032; benefit : harm odds ratio 546 : 1) with the 200 mg dose, relative to placebo. The 50 mg dose also increased FMD relative to placebo by 1.7% (-0.6 to 4.0%, p = 0.23; 25 : 1), but the outcome was not clinically decisive. In apparently healthy adults, 8 weeks of 200 mg oral curcumin supplementation resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in endothelial function as measured by FMD. Oral curcumin supplementation may present a simple lifestyle strategy for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This trial was registered at ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN90184217).

  17. Novel Form of Curcumin Improves Endothelial Function in Young, Healthy Individuals: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Lee; Rowlands, David S.; Caldwell, Aaron R.; Sanders, Elizabeth; Kreutzer, Andreas; Mitchell, Joel B.; Purpura, Martin; Jäger, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a turmeric extract, may protect against cardiovascular diseases by enhancing endothelial function. In this randomized controlled double-blind parallel prospective study, fifty-nine healthy adults were assigned to placebo, 50 mg (50 mg), or 200 mg (200 mg) curcumin, for 8 weeks. The higher curcumin (200 mg) supplementation produced a dose-mediated improvement in endothelial function measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The outcome was a clinically substantial 3.0% increase (90% CI 0.7 to 5.3%, p = 0.032; benefit : harm odds ratio 546 : 1) with the 200 mg dose, relative to placebo. The 50 mg dose also increased FMD relative to placebo by 1.7% (−0.6 to 4.0%, p = 0.23; 25 : 1), but the outcome was not clinically decisive. In apparently healthy adults, 8 weeks of 200 mg oral curcumin supplementation resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in endothelial function as measured by FMD. Oral curcumin supplementation may present a simple lifestyle strategy for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This trial was registered at ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN90184217).

  18. Resistance to the impact of interruptions during multitasking by healthy adults and dysexecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Law, Anna S; Logie, Robert H; Pearson, David G; Cantagallo, Anna; Moretti, Eva; Dimarco, Francesca

    2004-07-01

    Two experiments (one with healthy adult volunteers and the other with controls and dysexecutive patients) assessed the impact of interruptions on a novel test of multitasking. The test involved switching repeatedly between four tasks (block construction, bead threading, paper folding, alphabetical searching) over a 10 min period. In Experiment 1, there were four groups of 20 healthy participants. One group attempted multitasking with no interruption, a second group was interrupted early in the test, a third group late in the test and a fourth group was interrupted both early and late. Interruption involved carrying out a fifth, unexpected task for a period of 1 min before returning to the four main tasks. There was no difference in multitasking performance between the groups. In Experiment 2 the participants were seven dysexecutive patients and 14 age-matched controls. A repeated measures approach was employed to assess the impact of two interruptions (early and late) for both groups. Contrary to predictions, the patients as well as controls were resistant to the effects of interruptions, despite their clearly impaired multitasking performance. These results suggest that the ability to deal with interruptions may be separable from the ability to organise and execute multiple tasks within a limited time frame.

  19. Knee Joint Loading during Gait in Healthy Controls and Individuals with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Manal, Kurt T.; Rudolph, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective People with knee osteoarthritis (OA) are thought to walk with high loads at the knee which are yet to be quantfied using modeling techniques that account for subject specific EMG patterns, kinematics and kinetics. The objective was to estimate medial and lateral loading for people with knee OA and controls using an approach that is sensitive to subject specific muscle activation patterns. Methods 16 OA and 12 control (C) subjects walked while kinematic, kinetic and EMG data were collected. Muscle forces were calculated using an EMG-Driven model and loading was calculated by balancing the external moments with internal muscle and contact forces Results OA subjects walked slower and had greater laxity, static and dynamic varus alignment, less flexion and greater knee adduction moment (KAM). Loading (normalized to body weight) was no different between the groups but OA subjects had greater absolute medial load than controls and maintained a greater %total load on the medial compartment. These patterns were associated with body mass, sagittal and frontal plane moments, static alignment and close to signficance for dynamic alignment. Lateral compartment unloading during mid-late stance was observed in 50% of OA subjects. Conclusions Loading for control subjects was similar to data from instrumented prostheses. Knee OA subjects had high medial contact loads in early stance and half of the OA cohort demonstared lateral compartment lift-off. Results suggest that interventions aimed at reducing body weight and dynamic malalignment might be effective in reducing medial compartment loading and establishing normal medio-lateral load sharing patterns. PMID:23182814

  20. Impact of stearic acid and oleic acid on hemostatic factors in the context of controlled diets consumed by healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, S K; Tracy, R P; Baer, D J

    2014-09-01

    The effects of stearic acid (STA) on cardiovascular disease risk beyond lipid and lipoprotein risk factors, including hemostasis, are unclear, particularly when compared with unsaturated fatty acids. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of STA with those of oleic acid (OL) on markers of hemostasis. In a randomized crossover study, 50 men consumed six controlled diets for 5 weeks each (39% energy from fat, 15% energy from protein, 46% energy from carbohydrate (CHO)). Fat (8% energy) was replaced across diets by: STA, OL, CHO (control), trans fatty acids (TFAs), TFA/STA and 12:0-16:0 saturated fatty acids. Factor VIIc, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and plasmin alpha-2-antiplasmin complex concentrations were not different between OL and STA (P>0.05). Compared with control, OL increased factor VIIc and PAI-1 (P≤0.05), whereas there were no differences with STA (P>0.05). STA and OL similarly affect markers of hemostasis in healthy men, within the context of a highly controlled diet.

  1. Comparison of personality traits in pedophiles, abstinent opiate addicts, and healthy controls: considering pedophilia as an addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lisa J; Grebchenko, Yuli F; Steinfeld, Matthew; Frenda, Steven J; Galynker, Igor I

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the model of pedophilia as a disorder of addictive behavior, pedophiles and chemically addicted individuals were compared on personality traits potentially associated with impaired behavioral inhibition. Twenty-nine pedophiles, 25 opiate addicts (OA's), and 27 healthy controls were administered the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-V for Axis-II. OA's scored higher than either pedophiles or controls on the Barratt. Pedophiles and OA's scored higher than controls on all 3 Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores but OA's scored marginally higher than pedophiles on factor 2 (behavioral) and total scores. On Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-V for Axis-II, pedophiles scored higher than controls on paranoid and schizoid scores whereas OA's did so on paranoid scores. Thus, both pedophiles and OA's may have elevated psychopathic traits and propensity toward cognitive distortions, as reflected in cluster A traits. Such similarities support the conceptualization of pedophilia as a behavioral addiction. Pedophiles may be less impulsive than OA's, however, and more prone toward cognitive distortions.

  2. Neural correlates of visuospatial working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    van Ewijk, Hanneke; Weeda, Wouter D; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Luman, Marjolein; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Faraone, Stephen V; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2015-08-30

    Impaired visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is suggested to be a core neurocognitive deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the underlying neural activation patterns are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent age and gender effects may play a role in VSWM-related brain abnormalities in ADHD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 109 individuals with ADHD (60% male) and 103 controls (53% male), aged 8-25 years, during a spatial span working memory task. VSWM-related brain activation was found in a widespread network, which was more widespread compared with N-back tasks used in the previous literature. Higher brain activation was associated with higher age and male gender. In comparison with controls, individuals with ADHD showed greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the lateral frontal pole during memory load increase, effects explained by reduced activation on the low memory load in the IFG pars triangularis and increased activation during high load in the IFG pars opercularis. Age and gender effects did not differ between controls and individuals with ADHD. Results indicate that individuals with ADHD have difficulty in efficiently and sufficiently recruiting left inferior frontal brain regions with increasing task difficulty.

  3. [Electroencephalograpic Parameters of Healthy Persons with Different Successfulness of Dual-Task Performance (Postural Control and Calculation)].

    PubMed

    Zhavoronkova, L A; Kushnir, E M; Zharikova, A V; Kuptsova, S V; Shevtsova, T P; Koulikov, M A; Voronov, V G

    2015-01-01

    Complex electroencephalographic (EEG), stabilographic and psychological study was executed during the number dual tasks performance--postural control and calculation in 25 healthy volunteers (age 25 ± 0.7). Successful performances of dual tasks required a high usage of cognitive resources, such as memory and attention as well as good motor command and low level of anxiety. Two EEG-markers of successful dual tasks performance were revealed. An increase of EEG coherence for long diagonal pairs of leads between frontal and parieto-occipital areas was observed. Additionally a decrease of EEG coherence for short pairs of leads was revealed. The poor performance of dual tasks was accompanied by an increase of EEG coherence between local pairs of leads for different spectral bands. PMID:26860002

  4. Large-Scaled Metabolic Profiling of Human Dermal Fibroblasts Derived from Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum Patients and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kuzaj, Patricia; Kuhn, Joachim; Michalek, Ryan D.; Karoly, Edward D.; Faust, Isabel; Dabisch-Ruthe, Mareike; Knabbe, Cornelius; Hendig, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the ABC transporter ABCC6 were recently identified as cause of Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a rare genetic disorder characterized by progressive mineralization of elastic fibers. We used an untargeted metabolic approach to identify biochemical differences between human dermal fibroblasts from healthy controls and PXE patients in an attempt to find a link between ABCC6 deficiency, cellular metabolic alterations and disease pathogenesis. 358 compounds were identified by mass spectrometry covering lipids, amino acids, peptides, carbohydrates, nucleotides, vitamins and cofactors, xenobiotics and energy metabolites. We found substantial differences in glycerophospholipid composition, leucine dipeptides, and polypeptides as well as alterations in pantothenate and guanine metabolism to be significantly associated with PXE pathogenesis. These findings can be linked to extracellular matrix remodeling and increased oxidative stress, which reflect characteristic hallmarks of PXE. Our study could facilitate a better understanding of biochemical pathways involved in soft tissue mineralization. PMID:25265166

  5. The COPE healthy lifestyles TEEN randomized controlled trial with culturally diverse high school adolescents: Baseline characteristics and methods

    PubMed Central

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O’Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents’ healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79%(n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance. PMID:23748156

  6. Differences in pain-related fear acquisition and generalization: an experimental study comparing patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Meulders, Ann; Jans, Anne; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2015-01-01

    Anomalies in fear learning, such as failure to inhibit fear to safe stimuli, lead to sustained anxiety, which in turn may augment pain. In the same vein, stimulus generalization is adaptive as it enables individuals to extrapolate the predictive value of 1 stimulus to similar stimuli. However, when fear spreads in an unbridled way to novel technically safe stimuli, stimulus generalization becomes maladaptive and may lead to dysfunctional avoidance behaviors and culminate in severe pain disability. In a voluntary movement conditioning paradigm, we compared the acquisition and generalization of pain-related fear in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and healthy controls. During acquisition, participants received predictable pain in 1 context (ie, 1 movement predicts pain, whereas another does not), and unpredictable pain in another (ie, pain never contingent upon movement). Fear generalization to novel movements (resembling the original painful or nonpainful movement) was tested in both contexts. Results indicated that the FM group showed slower differential acquisition of pain-related fear in the predictable context, and more contextual pain-related fear in the unpredictable context. Fear of movement-related pain spreads selectively to novel movements similar to the original painful movement, and not to those resembling the nonpainful movement in the healthy controls, but nondifferential fear generalization was observed in FM. As expected, in the unpredictable context, we also observed nondifferential fear generalization; this effect was more pronounced in FM. Given the status of overgeneralization as a plausible transdiagnostic pathogenic marker, we believe that this research might increase our knowledge about pathogenesis of musculoskeletal widespread pain. PMID:25599307

  7. The COPE healthy lifestyles TEEN randomized controlled trial with culturally diverse high school adolescents: baseline characteristics and methods.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents' healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79% (n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see Table 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance.

  8. Differences in pain-related fear acquisition and generalization: an experimental study comparing patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Meulders, Ann; Jans, Anne; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2015-01-01

    Anomalies in fear learning, such as failure to inhibit fear to safe stimuli, lead to sustained anxiety, which in turn may augment pain. In the same vein, stimulus generalization is adaptive as it enables individuals to extrapolate the predictive value of 1 stimulus to similar stimuli. However, when fear spreads in an unbridled way to novel technically safe stimuli, stimulus generalization becomes maladaptive and may lead to dysfunctional avoidance behaviors and culminate in severe pain disability. In a voluntary movement conditioning paradigm, we compared the acquisition and generalization of pain-related fear in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and healthy controls. During acquisition, participants received predictable pain in 1 context (ie, 1 movement predicts pain, whereas another does not), and unpredictable pain in another (ie, pain never contingent upon movement). Fear generalization to novel movements (resembling the original painful or nonpainful movement) was tested in both contexts. Results indicated that the FM group showed slower differential acquisition of pain-related fear in the predictable context, and more contextual pain-related fear in the unpredictable context. Fear of movement-related pain spreads selectively to novel movements similar to the original painful movement, and not to those resembling the nonpainful movement in the healthy controls, but nondifferential fear generalization was observed in FM. As expected, in the unpredictable context, we also observed nondifferential fear generalization; this effect was more pronounced in FM. Given the status of overgeneralization as a plausible transdiagnostic pathogenic marker, we believe that this research might increase our knowledge about pathogenesis of musculoskeletal widespread pain.

  9. Effect of Guava in Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Rakavi, R; Mangaraj, Manaswini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The fruit of Psidium guajava (P.guajava) is known to contain free sugars yet the fruit juice showed hypoglycaemic effect. Hypoglycaemic activity of guava leaves has been well documented but not for guava fruit. Aim So we aimed to evaluate the effect of ripe guava (with peel and without peel) fruit supplementation on blood glucose and lipid profile in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods Randomized Controlled study undertaken in: 1) Baseline; 2) 6 weeks supplementation phase. Forty five healthy MBBS students were included and randomly enrolled into Group A, Group B and Group C. In Baseline phase: Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and serum lipid profile was done in all 3 groups. Group A were supplemented with 400g of ripe guava with peel and group B without peel, for 6 weeks. Rest 15 treated as control i.e., Group C. Result Supplementation of ripe guava fruit with peel reduced BMI as well as blood pressure (p<0.05) in group A, whereas the FPG, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides were found significantly increased (p<0.05). Group B registered a significant fall (p<0.05) in BMI as well as blood pressure. Fall in FPG level after guava pulp supplementation was not significant. Serum Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLc) levels decreased significantly (p<0.05) indicating that guava pulp without peel may have a favourable effect on lipid levels and blood sugar as well. Conclusion Guava fruit without peel is more effective in lowering blood sugar as well as serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDLc. It increases HDLc levels also. PMID:27790420

  10. Interleukin-10 and interleukin-5 balance in patients with active asthma, those in remission, and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Tomiita, Minako; Campos-Alberto, Eduardo; Shima, Masayuki; Namiki, Masanobu; Sugimoto, Kazuo; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Hiroko; Sekine, Kunio; Nishimuta, Toshiyuki; Kohno, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Background The immunological mechanisms of asthma remission remain unclear although several reports have suggested that balance between T helper (Th) 2 cytokines and regulatory cytokines is related. Objective To study the balance between interleukin (IL) 10 and IL-5 in asthma clinical remission. Methods We measured the numbers of IL-5 and IL-10 producing cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with mite antigen obtained from patients with active asthma (group A, n = 18), patients in clinical remission (group R, n = 15) and nonatopic healthy controls (group H, n = 14). Results The numbers of IL-5 producing cells in groups A and R were significantly higher than in group H. The number of IL-5 producing cells was lower in group R than in group A, although the difference was not statistically significant. The number of IL-10 producing cells was higher in group R than in group A, although again the difference was not statistically significant. There was a significant difference in the number of IL-10 producing cells between groups A and H but not between groups R and H. The ratio of the number of IL-10 to IL-5 producing cells was highest in group H followed by groups R and A, and the differences were statistically significant for each pair of groups. Conclusion Our study suggests that the IL-10/IL-5 balance is related to clinical asthma. The balance differs between patients in clinical remission and healthy controls, suggesting that allergic inflammation may continue even after clinical asthma remission. PMID:26539403

  11. A Novel Magnetic Stimulator Increases Experimental Pain Tolerance in Healthy Volunteers - A Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Kortekaas, Rudie; Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; van Wijhe, Marten; Aleman, André; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    The ‘complex neural pulse’TM (CNP) is a neuromodulation protocol employing weak pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF). A pioneering paper reported an analgesic effect in healthy humans after 30 minutes of CNP-stimulation using three nested whole head coils. We aimed to devise and validate a stimulator with a novel design entailing a multitude of small coils at known anatomical positions on a head cap, to improve applicability. The main hypothesis was that CNP delivery with this novel device would also increase heat pain thresholds. Twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled in this double-blind, sham-controlled, crossover study. Thirty minutes of PEMF (CNP) or sham was applied to the head. After one week the other treatment was given. Before and after each treatment, primary and secondary outcomes were measured. Primary outcome was heat pain threshold (HPT) measured with thermal quantitative sensory testing. Other outcomes were warmth detection threshold, and aspects of cognition, emotion and motor performance. As hypothesized heat pain threshold was significantly increased after the PEMF stimulation. All other outcomes were unaltered by the PEMF but there was a trend level reduction of cognitive performance after PEMF stimulation as measured by the digit-symbol substitution task. Results from this pilot study suggest that our device is able to stimulate the brain and to modulate its function. This is in agreement with previous studies that used similar magnetic field strengths to stimulate the brain. Specifically, pain control may be achieved with PEMF and for this analgesic effect, coil design does not appear to play a dominant role. In addition, the flexible configuration with small coils on a head cap improves clinical applicability. Trial Registration Dutch Cochrane Centre NTR1093 PMID:23620795

  12. Impulsive personality traits in male pedophiles versus healthy controls: is pedophilia an impulsive-aggressive disorder?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lisa J; Gans, Sniezyna Watras; McGeoch, Pamela G; Poznansky, Olga; Itskovich, Yelena; Murphy, Sean; Klein, Erik; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor I

    2002-01-01

    Pedophilia is characterized by sexual attraction to prepubescent children. Despite the extensive literature documenting the pervasive and pernicious effects of childhood sexual abuse, there is surprisingly little psychiatric literature on pedophilia and its etiology remains enigmatic. In recent years, the psychiatric literature on the phenomenology, neurobiology, and treatment of impulsive-aggressive disorders has grown significantly. As some investigators have conceptualized pedophilia as an impulsive-aggressive disorder, it is of interest whether recent advances in the study of impulsive-aggressive disorders might shed light on pathological mechanisms underlying pedophilia. In the following study, 20 male subjects with a DSM-IV diagnosis of pedophilia, heterosexual type were recruited from an outpatient facility for sexual offenders and compared to 24 demographically similar control subjects. Groups were compared on three personality instruments--the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Impairment-Questionnaire (DAPI-Q)--to assess for select impairment in impulsive-aggressive personality traits. Pedophiles showed severe and pervasive personality impairment relative to controls. Although there was evidence of impulsivity, the findings do not suggest a predominance of impulsive-aggressive traits, and in fact provide evidence of inhibition, passive-aggression, and harm avoidance. The notion of "compulsive-aggression" in pedophilia is proposed.

  13. 18F-Fallypride binding potential in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Douglas S.; Christian, Bradley T.; Kirbas, Cemil; Chiang, Meicheng; Sidhu, Shawn; Short, Holly; Wang, Binquan; Shi, Bingzhi; Chu, King-Wai; Merrill, Brian; Buchsbaum, Monte S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Molecular imaging of dopaminergic parameters has contributed to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, expanding our understanding of pathophysiology, clinical phenomenology and treatment. Our aim in this study was to compare 18F-fallypride binding potential BPND in a group of patients with schizophrenia-spectrum illness vs. controls, with a particular focus on the cortex and thalamus. Methods We acquired 18F-fallypride positron emission tomography images on 33 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (28 with schizophrenia; 5 with schizoaffective disorder) and 18 normal controls. Twenty-four patients were absolutely neuroleptic naïve and nine were previously medicated, although only four had a lifetime neuroleptic exposure of greater than two weeks. Parametric images of 18F-fallypride BPND were calculated to compare binding across subjects. Results Decreased BPND was observed in the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus, prefrontal cortex, lateral temporal lobe and primary auditory cortex. These findings were most marked in subjects who had never previously received medication. Conclusions The regions with decreased BPND tend to match brain regions previously reported to show alterations in metabolic activity and blood flow and areas associated with the symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:20655709

  14. The heart healthy lenoir project-an intervention to reduce disparities in hypertension control: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Racial disparities in blood pressure control are well established; however the impact of low health literacy (LHL) on blood pressure has garnered less attention. Office based interventions that are created with iterative patient, practice and community stakeholder input and are rolled out incrementally, may help address these disparities in hypertension control. This paper describes our study protocol. Methods/design Using a community based participatory research (CBPR) approach, we designed and implemented a cohort study that includes both a practice level and patient level intervention to enhance the care and support of patients with hypertension in primary care practices in a rural region of eastern North Carolina. The study is divided into a formative phase and an ongoing 2.5 year implementation phase. Our main care enhancement activities include the integration of a community health coach, using home blood pressure monitoring in clinical decision making, standardizing care delivery processes, and working to improve medication adherence. Main outcomes include overall blood pressure change, the differential change in blood pressure by race (African American vs. White) and health literacy level (low vs. higher health literacy). Discussion Using a community based participatory approach in primary care practice settings has helped to engage patients and practice staff and providers in the research effort and in making practice changes to support hypertension care. Practices have engaged at varying levels, but progress has been made in implementing and iteratively improving upon the interventions to date. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01425515. PMID:24156629

  15. The Healthy Worker Project: a work-site intervention for weight control and smoking cessation.

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, R W; Forster, J L; French, S A; Kelder, S H; Lando, H A; McGovern, P G; Jacobs, D R; Baxter, J E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. A randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a work-site health promotion program in reducing obesity and the prevalence of cigarette smoking. METHODS. Thirty-two work sites were randomized to treatment or no treatment for 2 years. Treatment consisted of health education classes combined with a payroll-based incentive system. Evaluation was based on cohort and cross-sectional surveys. RESULTS. Of 10,000 total employees in treatment work sites, 2041 and 270 participated in weight control and smoking cessation programs, respectively. Weight losses averaged 4.8 lbs, and 43% of smoking participants quit. Net 2-year reductions in smoking prevalence in treatment vs control work sites were 4.0% and 2.1% in cross-sectional and cohort surveys, respectively. No treatment effect was found for weight. Treatment effects for smoking prevalence and weight were both positively correlated with participation rates in the intervention programs (r = .45 for smoking and r = .55 for weight). CONCLUSIONS. This work-site health promotion program was effective in reducing smoking prevalence at a cost that is believed to make the investment worthwhile. PMID:8438979

  16. Taste preferences for nutritional supplements: comparison of cancer patients and healthy controls using a wine-tasting scale.

    PubMed

    Brown, R O; Schlegel, K; Hall, N H; Bernard, S; Heizer, W D

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-nine cancer patients (Ca) and 37 age-and sex-matched healthy controls (Co) evaluated 11 commercially available enteral supplements using a modified wine-tasting scale. The cancer patients were 19 males with lung cancer and 20 females with breast cancer, and their controls consisted of 17 males and 20 females, respectively. Mean evaluation scores for the individual supplements revealed no significant differences (NS) between lung cancer patients and controls. Ensure Plus (strawberry) received the highest score from both groups (Ca 16.0 +/- 3.0 vs Co 17.1 +/- 2.6, N.S.) while Vital received the lowest (Ca 6.3 +/- 4.8 vs Co 4.9 +/- 4.2, NS). Similar results were obtained for breast cancer patients and their controls except that chocolate Sustacal was rated significantly higher by breast cancer patients than by controls (16.6 +/- 2.6 vs 13.3 +/- 4.3, p less than 0.01). Again, Ensure Plus (strawberry) received the highest score from both groups (Ca 17.0 +/- 3.5 vs Co 17.8 +/- 2.3, NS), while Vital was rated lowest by both groups (Ca 5.6 +/- 4.7 vs Co 4.3 +/- 5.0, NS). The modified wine-tasting scale provides a method for quantitating taste preference for various dietary supplements. We report here the numerical rating of 11 supplements by patients with lung cancer and patients with breast cancer as well as their age- and sex-matched controls. PMID:3761524

  17. The effects of exercise on dynamic sleep morphology in healthy controls and patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Akifumi; Togo, Fumiharu; Cook, Dane B; Klapholz, Marc; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Rapoport, David M; Natelson, Benjamin H

    2013-11-01

    Effects of exercise on dynamic aspects of sleep have not been studied. We hypothesized exercise altered dynamic sleep morphology differently for healthy controls relative to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients. Sixteen controls (38 ± 9 years) and 17 CFS patients (41 ± 8 years) underwent polysomnography on baseline nights and nights after maximal exercise testing. We calculated transition probabilities and rates (as a measure of relative and temporal transition frequency, respectively) between sleep stages and cumulative duration distributions (as a measure of continuity) of each sleep stage and sleep as a whole. After exercise, controls showed a significantly greater probability of transition from N1 to N2 and a lower rate of transition from N1 to wake than at baseline; CFS showed a significantly greater probability of transition from N2 to N3 and a lower rate of transition from N2 to N1. These findings suggest improved quality of sleep after exercise. After exercise, controls had improved sleep continuity, whereas CFS had less continuous N1 and more continuous rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. However, CFS had a significantly greater probability and rate of transition from REM to wake than controls. Probability of transition from REM to wake correlated significantly with increases in subjective fatigue, pain, and sleepiness overnight in CFS - suggesting these transitions may relate to patient complaints of unrefreshing sleep. Thus, exercise promoted transitions to deeper sleep stages and inhibited transitions to lighter sleep stages for controls and CFS, but CFS also reported increased fatigue and continued to have REM sleep disruption. This dissociation suggests possible mechanistic pathways for the underlying pathology of CFS.

  18. Cortisol/DHEA ratio and hippocampal volume: A pilot study in major depression and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rowen O; Mason, Sara; Mellon, Synthia H; Epel, Elissa S; Reus, Victor I; Mahan, Laura; Rosser, Rebecca L; Hough, Christina M; Burke, Heather M; Mueller, Susanne G; Wolkowitz, Owen M

    2016-10-01

    Structural imaging studies investigating the relationship between hippocampal volume (HCV) and peripheral measures of glucocorticoids (GCs) have produced conflicting results in both normal populations and in individuals with MDD, raising the possibility of other modulating factors. In preclinical studies, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester (DHEAS; together abbreviated, DHEA(S)) have been shown to antagonize the actions of GCs on the central nervous system. Therefore, considering the relationship of HCV to both of these hormones simultaneously may be important, although it has rarely been done in human populations. Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the present pilot study examined the relationship between morning serum cortisol, DHEA(S), and HCV in nineteen normal controls and eighteen unmedicated subjects with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Serum cortisol and DHEA(S) were not significantly correlated with HCV across all subjects (cortisol: r=-0.165, p=0.33; DHEA: r=0.164, p=0.35; DHEAS: r=0.211, p=0.22, respectively). However, the ratios of cortisol/DHEA(S) were significantly negatively correlated with HCV in combined group (Cortisol/DHEA: r=-0.461, p=0.005; Cortisol/DHEAS: r=-0.363, p=0.03). Significant or near-significant correlations were found between some hormonal measurements and HCV in the MDDs alone (DHEA: r=0.482, p=0.059; DHEAS: r=0.507, p=0.045; cort/DHEA: r=-0.589, p=0.02; cort/DHEAS: r=-0.424p=0.10), but not in the controls alone (DHEA: r=0.070, p=0.79; DHEAS: r=0.077, p=0.77; cort/DHEA: r=-0.427, p=0.09; cort/DHEAS: r=-0.331, p=0.19). However, Group (MDDs vs controls) did not have a significant effect on the relationship between cortisol, DHEA(S), and their ratios with HCV (p>0.475 in all analyses). Although the exact relationship between serum and central steroid concentrations as well as their effects on the human hippocampus remains not known, these preliminary results suggest that the ratio of cortisol to

  19. Autonomic Effects of Controlled Fine Particulate Exposure in Young Healthy Adults: Effect Modification by Ozone

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Asghar A.; Ilic, Ljubomir M.; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Urch, Bruce; Silverman, Frances; Gold, Diane R.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Human controlled-exposure studies have assessed the impact of ambient fine particulate matter on cardiac autonomic function measured by heart rate variability (HRV), but whether these effects are modified by concomitant ozone exposure remains unknown. Objective In this study we assessed the impact of O3 and particulate matter exposure on HRV in humans. Methods In a crossover design, 50 subjects (19–48 years of age) were randomized to 2-hr controlled exposures to filtered air (FA), concentrated ambient particles (CAPs), O3, or combined CAPs and ozone (CAPs + O3). The primary end point was change in HRV between the start and end of exposure. Secondary analyses included blood pressure (BP) responses, and effect modification by asthmatic status. Results Achieved mean CAPs and O3 exposure concentrations were 121.6 ± 48.0 μg/m3 and 113.9 ± 6.6 ppb, respectively. In a categorical analysis, exposure had no consistent effect on HRV indices. However, the dose–response relationship between CAPs mass concentration and HRV indices seemed to vary depending on the presence of O3. This heterogeneity was statistically significant for the low-frequency component of HRV (p = 0.02) and approached significance for the high-frequency component and time-domain measures of HRV. Exposure to CAPs + O3 increased diastolic BP by 2.0 mmHg (SE, 1.2; p = 0.02). No other statistically significant changes in BP were observed. Asthmatic status did not modify these effects. Conclusion The potentiation by O3 of CAPs effects on diastolic BP and possibly HRV is of small magnitude in young adults. Further studies are needed to assess potential effects in more vulnerable populations. PMID:19672410

  20. Effects of hip abductor muscle fatigue on gait control and hip position sense in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Arvin, Mina; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Burger, Bart J; Rispens, Sietse M; Verschueren, Sabine M P; van Dieën, Jaap H; Pijnappels, Mirjam

    2015-10-01

    We experimentally investigated whether unilateral hip abductor muscle fatigue affected gait control and hip position sense in older adults. Hip abductor muscles were fatigued unilaterally in side-lying position in 17 healthy older adults (mean age 73.2 SD 7.7 years). Hip joint position sense was assessed by an active-active repositioning test while standing and was expressed as absolute and relative errors. Participants walked on a treadmill at their preferred walking speed, while 3D linear accelerations were collected by an inertial sensor at the lower back. Gait parameters, including step and stride time, local divergence exponents and harmonic ratio were quantified. In fatigued gait, stride time variability and step-to-step asymmetry in the frontal plane were significantly increased. Also a significantly slower mediolateral trunk movement in fatigued leg late stance toward the non-fatigued leg was observed. Despite these temporal and symmetry changes, gait stability in terms of the local divergence exponents was not affected by fatigue. Hip position sense was also affected by fatigue, as indicated by an increased relative error of 0.7° (SD 0.08) toward abduction. In conclusion, negative effects of fatigue on gait variability, step-to-step symmetry, mediolateral trunk velocity control and hip position sense indicate the importance of hip abductor muscles for gait control.

  1. A Stress-Coping Profile of Opioid Dependent Individuals Entering Naltrexone Treatment: A Comparison with Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Scott M.; Hong, Kwang-Ik A.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Dabre, Zubaida; Comegys, Allison D.; Kimmerling, Anne; Sinha, Rajita

    2009-01-01

    Background Stress is known to increase addiction vulnerability and risk of relapse to substance use. Purpose & Method We compared opioid dependent individuals entering naltrexone treatment (n = 57) with healthy controls (n = 75) on measures of stress, coping, and social support and examined the relative contribution of group membership, coping and social support to stress within the sample. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA), and stepwise multiple regression were conducted. Results Compared with controls, opioid dependent subjects reported greater stress, less use of adaptive coping, but comparable use of maladaptive/avoidant coping. No group differences were found with respect to social support. Perceived stress was predicted by group membership, low social support and greater use of maladaptive/avoidant coping, and the prediction by social support and maladaptive/avoidant coping did not differ by group. Conclusion Opioid dependent individuals entering naltrexone treatment experience higher levels of stress and report less use of adaptive coping strategies when compared with controls. Group membership, maladaptive/avoidant coping and social support independently contribute to perceived stress. Findings suggest that novel treatment approaches that decrease maladaptive/avoidant coping and improve social support are important aspects of decreasing stress during early recovery from opioid addiction. PMID:20025367

  2. Cognitive functions in adults with β-thalassemia major: before and after blood transfusion and comparison with healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Raz, Sivan; Koren, Ariel; Dan, Orrie; Levin, Carina

    2016-07-01

    While β-thalassemia major (β-TM)-related physiological complications have been well established, less is known about implications for neuropsychological and cognitive function. The few existing studies have focused almost exclusively on children. We evaluated cognitive function in adult β-TM patients compared to healthy controls (study 1) and in β-TM patients before and after blood transfusion (study 2). Performance intelligence quotient (IQ) was evaluated with four subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III). Attention functions were evaluated using the online continuous performance test (OCPT). The results of study 1 revealed poorer performance of β-TM patients on three of the four intelligence subtests, with significantly lower total performance IQ scores compared with controls. The percentage of participants with abnormal performance IQ (<85) was almost five times higher in the β-TM group (58%) than in the control group (12%). In study 2, significant differences were found in OCPT performance as a function of blood transfusion. Before transfusion, patients had higher rates of omission and commission errors, slower response times (RTs), and lower RT consistency than after transfusion. As β-TM patients' life expectancy is increasing, assessment and treatment of neurocognitive functions should become an integral part of appropriate follow-up to improve patients' quality of life. PMID:27447535

  3. Cognitive functions in adults with β-thalassemia major: before and after blood transfusion and comparison with healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Raz, Sivan; Koren, Ariel; Dan, Orrie; Levin, Carina

    2016-07-01

    While β-thalassemia major (β-TM)-related physiological complications have been well established, less is known about implications for neuropsychological and cognitive function. The few existing studies have focused almost exclusively on children. We evaluated cognitive function in adult β-TM patients compared to healthy controls (study 1) and in β-TM patients before and after blood transfusion (study 2). Performance intelligence quotient (IQ) was evaluated with four subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III). Attention functions were evaluated using the online continuous performance test (OCPT). The results of study 1 revealed poorer performance of β-TM patients on three of the four intelligence subtests, with significantly lower total performance IQ scores compared with controls. The percentage of participants with abnormal performance IQ (<85) was almost five times higher in the β-TM group (58%) than in the control group (12%). In study 2, significant differences were found in OCPT performance as a function of blood transfusion. Before transfusion, patients had higher rates of omission and commission errors, slower response times (RTs), and lower RT consistency than after transfusion. As β-TM patients' life expectancy is increasing, assessment and treatment of neurocognitive functions should become an integral part of appropriate follow-up to improve patients' quality of life.

  4. Insular neural system controls decision-making in healthy and methamphetamine-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Nakamura, Akihiro; Wang, Tian; Nagai, Taku; Sato, Jun; Sawada, Makoto; Ohira, Hideki; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2015-01-01

    Patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders such as substance-related and addictive disorders exhibit altered decision-making patterns, which may be associated with their behavioral abnormalities. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying such impairments are largely unknown. Using a gambling test, we demonstrated that methamphetamine (METH)-treated rats chose a high-risk/high-reward option more frequently and assigned higher value to high returns than control rats, suggestive of changes in decision-making choice strategy. Immunohistochemical analysis following the gambling test revealed aberrant activation of the insular cortex (INS) and nucleus accumbens in METH-treated animals. Pharmacological studies, together with in vivo microdialysis, showed that the insular neural system played a crucial role in decision-making. Moreover, manipulation of INS activation using designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug technology resulted in alterations to decision-making. Our findings suggest that the INS is a critical region involved in decision-making and that insular neural dysfunction results in risk-taking behaviors associated with altered decision-making. PMID:26150496

  5. Insular neural system controls decision-making in healthy and methamphetamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Nakamura, Akihiro; Wang, Tian; Nagai, Taku; Sato, Jun; Sawada, Makoto; Ohira, Hideki; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2015-07-21

    Patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders such as substance-related and addictive disorders exhibit altered decision-making patterns, which may be associated with their behavioral abnormalities. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying such impairments are largely unknown. Using a gambling test, we demonstrated that methamphetamine (METH)-treated rats chose a high-risk/high-reward option more frequently and assigned higher value to high returns than control rats, suggestive of changes in decision-making choice strategy. Immunohistochemical analysis following the gambling test revealed aberrant activation of the insular cortex (INS) and nucleus accumbens in METH-treated animals. Pharmacological studies, together with in vivo microdialysis, showed that the insular neural system played a crucial role in decision-making. Moreover, manipulation of INS activation using designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug technology resulted in alterations to decision-making. Our findings suggest that the INS is a critical region involved in decision-making and that insular neural dysfunction results in risk-taking behaviors associated with altered decision-making.

  6. Dissociative Symptoms and Reported Trauma Among Patients with Spirit Possession and Matched Healthy Controls in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nijenhuis, Ellert; Komproe, Ivan H.; Gernaat, Hajo B. P. E.; de Jong, Joop T.

    2010-01-01

    Spirit possession is a common, worldwide phenomenon with dissociative features. Studies in Europe and the United States have revealed associations among psychoform and somatoform dissociation and (reported) potential traumatic events. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among spirit possession, dissociative symptoms and reported potentially traumatizing events in Uganda. One hundred nineteen persons with spirit possession, diagnosed by traditional healers, were compared to a matched control group of 71 nonpossessed persons. Assessments included demographic items and measures of dissociation and potentially traumatizing events. Compared to the nonpossessed group, the possessed group reported more severe psychoform dissociation and somatoform dissociation and more potentially traumatizing events. The associations between these events and both types of dissociation were significant. Yet, consistent with the cultural perception of dissociative symptoms, the participants subjectively did not associate dissociative symptoms with potentially traumatizing events. In conclusion, spirit possession deserves more interest as a possible idiom of distress and a culture-specific expression of dissociation related to potential traumatizing events. PMID:20401630

  7. Insular neural system controls decision-making in healthy and methamphetamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Nakamura, Akihiro; Wang, Tian; Nagai, Taku; Sato, Jun; Sawada, Makoto; Ohira, Hideki; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2015-07-21

    Patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders such as substance-related and addictive disorders exhibit altered decision-making patterns, which may be associated with their behavioral abnormalities. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying such impairments are largely unknown. Using a gambling test, we demonstrated that methamphetamine (METH)-treated rats chose a high-risk/high-reward option more frequently and assigned higher value to high returns than control rats, suggestive of changes in decision-making choice strategy. Immunohistochemical analysis following the gambling test revealed aberrant activation of the insular cortex (INS) and nucleus accumbens in METH-treated animals. Pharmacological studies, together with in vivo microdialysis, showed that the insular neural system played a crucial role in decision-making. Moreover, manipulation of INS activation using designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug technology resulted in alterations to decision-making. Our findings suggest that the INS is a critical region involved in decision-making and that insular neural dysfunction results in risk-taking behaviors associated with altered decision-making. PMID:26150496

  8. Dynamic Three-Dimensional Ultrasound to Evaluate Scapular Movement Among Manual Wheelchair Users and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-Sheng; Koontz, Alicia M.; Boninger, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A large percentage of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) report shoulder pain that can limit independence and quality of life. The pain is likely related to the demands placed on the shoulder by transfers and propulsion. Shoulder pathology has been linked to altered scapular mechanics; however, current methods to evaluate scapular movement are invasive, require ionizing radiation, are subject to skin-based motion artifacts, or require static postures. Objective: To investigate the feasibility of applying 3-dimensional ultrasound methods, previously used to look at scapular position in static postures, to evaluate dynamic scapular movement. Method: This study evaluated the feasibility of the novel application of a method combining 2-dimensional ultrasound and a motion capture system to determine 3-dimensional scapular position during dynamic arm elevation in the scapular plane with and without loading. Results: Incremental increases in scapular rotations were noted for extracted angles of 30°, 45°, 60°, and 75° of humeral elevation. Group differences were evaluated between a group of 16 manual wheelchair users (MWUs) and a group of age- and gender-matched able-bodied controls. MWUs had greater scapular external rotation and baseline pathology on clinical exam. MWUs also had greater anterior tilting, with this difference further accentuated during loading. The relationship between demographics and scapular positioning was also investigated, revealing that increased age, pathology on clinical exam, years since injury, and body mass index were correlated with scapular rotations associated with impingement (internal rotation, downward rotation, and anterior tilting). Conclusion: Individuals with SCI, as well as other populations who are susceptible to shoulder pathology, may benefit from the application of this imaging modality to quantitatively evaluate scapular positioning and effectively target therapeutic interventions. PMID:26689695

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial Targeting Obesity-Related Behaviors: Better Together Healthy Caswell County

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jennie L.; Grier, Karissa; Chau, Clarice; Kopec, Donna; Price, Bryan; Dunn, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Collaborative and multilevel interventions to effectively address obesity-related behaviors among rural communities with health disparities can be challenging, and traditional research approaches may be unsuitable. The primary objective of our 15-week randomized controlled pilot study, which was guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles, was to determine the effectiveness of providing twice-weekly access to group fitness classes, with and without weekly nutrition and physical activity education sessions, in Caswell County, North Carolina, a rural region devoid of medical and physical activity resources. Methods Participants were randomly divided into 2 groups: group 1 was offered fitness sessions and education in healthful eating and physical activity; group 2 was offered fitness sessions only. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and immediately after the intervention. Standardized assessment procedures, validated measures, and tests for analysis of variance were used. Results Of 91 enrolled participants, most were African American (62%) or female (91%). Groups were not significantly different at baseline. Group 1 experienced significantly greater improvements in body mass index (F = 15.0, P < .001) and waist circumference (F = 7.0, P = .01), compared with group 2. Both groups significantly increased weekly minutes of moderate physical activity (F = 9.4, P < .003). Participants in group 1 also had significantly greater weight loss with higher attendance at the education (F = 14.7, P < .001) and fitness sessions (F = 18.5, P < .001). Conclusion This study offers effective programmatic strategies that can reduce weight and increase physical activity and demonstrates feasibility for a larger scale CBPR obesity trial targeting underserved residents affected by health disparities. This study also signifies successful collaboration among community and academic partners engaged in a CBPR coalition. PMID:23764345

  10. Aberrant levels of natural IgM antibodies in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis patients in comparison to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tue G; McKelvey, Kelly J; March, Lyn M; Hunter, David J; Xue, Meilang; Jackson, Christopher J; Morris, Jonathan M

    2016-02-01

    Natural IgM antibodies (nIgM) are polyreactive autoantibodies that have diverse roles in regulating autoimmunity, systemic inflammation and removal of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL). We hypothesized that aberrant states of nIgM may exist in persons with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Herein, we characterized and compared the levels of nIgM specific for phosphorylcholine (anti-PC), double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), and galactosyl (anti-Gal) in persons with OA, RA and healthy controls (HC). Levels of anti-PC nIgM in OA patients were significantly lower than both HC and RA patients in an age-adjusted analysis (P<0.05). In contrast, anti-Gal nIgM levels were significantly higher in RA patients than OA patients (P<0.05) and markedly increased in comparison to HC. Anti-PC nIgM significantly correlated with anti-dsDNA and anti-Gal nIgM levels in HC and RA (P<0.05) but not in OA patients. Elevated CRP levels were associated with RA conditions and old ages in general. There was no significant correlation between anti-PC nIgM and CRP or oxLDL levels. Our study highlights for the first time the evidence of aberrant state of nIgM in human OA compared to healthy individuals that implicates a deficiency in immune responses to oxLDL which may contribute to the metabolic syndromes in the development of OA.

  11. The effects of Kinesio taping on muscle tone in healthy subjects: a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Aparicio-García, Carlos; Ruiz-Lázaro, Pilar; Simón-Martínez, Cristina; Bravo-Esteban, Elisabeth; Fernández-Rodríguez, José Manuel

    2014-04-01

    Kinesio taping (KT) has been proposed to modulate muscle tone. However no studies have systematically studied the efficacy of KTon this primary outcome measure. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Kinesio taping (KT) applied over the gastrocnemius muscles on muscle tone, extensibility, electromyography (EMG) and strength. Nineteen healthy subjects were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo controlled crossover trial. KT and sham-tape were applied onto the gastrocnemius muscles of all subjects in two randomized sessions. Measurements before, at 10 min and 24 h after the intervention were taken. Outcome measurements included passive resistive torque to ankle dorsiflexion, dorsiflexion passive range of motion (PROM), surface Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) EMG and maximal isometric voluntary force (MIVF). No significant differences were found between the sham-tape and KT groups for passive resistive torque, PROM nor maximal plantarflexion isometric voluntary force. A short-term increase of GM EMG activity was found in the KT group during the PROM mobilization, which was not maintained at 24 h following treatment. A short-term decrease in dorsiflexion force was produced 10 min after KT with respect to sham-tape application. These results demonstrate that the application of KT in the gastrocnemius muscles has no effect on healthy muscle tone, extensibility nor strength. However a short-term increase of GM EMG activity after KT treatment suggests the activation of central nervous system mechanisms, although without a therapeutic implication. Further studies with more appropriate designs are needed to clarify the physiological and therapeutic effects of this taping technique.

  12. Randomized, Controlled, Thorough QT/QTc Study Shows Absence of QT Prolongation with Luseogliflozin in Healthy Japanese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Yuji; Hasunuma, Tomoko; Sakai, Soichi; Ochiai, Hidekazu; Samukawa, Yoshishige

    2015-01-01

    Luseogliflozin is a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. To evaluate the cardiac safety of luseogliflozin, a thorough QT/QTc study was conducted in healthy Japanese subjects. The effects of moxifloxacin on QT prolongation in Japanese subjects were also evaluated. In this double-blind, placebo- and open-label positive-controlled, 4-way crossover study, 28 male and 28 female subjects received a single dose of luseogliflozin 5 mg (therapeutic dose), luseogliflozin 20 mg (supratherapeutic dose), placebo, and moxifloxacin 400 mg. Serial triplicate digital 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded before and after dosing, and results were analyzed using the Fridericia correction (QTcF) method. Serial blood sampling was performed for pharmacokinetic analyses of luseogliflozin and moxifloxacin to analyze the relationship between QTcF interval and plasma concentration. The upper limits of the two-sided 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for baseline and placebo-adjusted QTcF intervals (ΔΔQTcF) in the 5 mg and 20 mg luseogliflozin groups were less than 10 ms at all time points. No correlation between plasma luseogliflozin concentrations and ΔΔQTcF was observed. In the moxifloxacin group, the lower limits of the two-sided 90% CIs for ΔΔQTcF were greater than 5 ms at all time points. A positive relationship was observed between plasma moxifloxacin concentration and change in ΔΔQTcF. Luseogliflozin was well tolerated at both dose levels. The majority of adverse events were mild in severity, and no serious or life-threatening adverse events occurred. Neither therapeutic (5 mg) nor supratherapeutic (20 mg) doses of luseogliflozin affected QT prolongation in healthy Japanese subjects. PMID:26444986

  13. Immediate processing of erotic stimuli in paedophilia and controls: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most neuroimaging studies investigating sexual arousal in paedophilia used erotic pictures together with a blocked fMRI design and long stimulus presentation time. While this approach allows the detection of sexual arousal, it does not enable the assessment of the immediate processing of erotically salient stimuli. Our study aimed to identify neuronal networks related to the immediate processing of erotic stimuli in heterosexual male paedophiles and healthy age-matched controls. Methods We presented erotic pictures of prepubescent children and adults in an event related fMRI-design to eight paedophilic subjects and age-matched controls. Results Erotic pictures of females elicited more activation in the right temporal lobe, the right parietal lobe and both occipital lobes and erotic pictures of children activated the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in both groups. An interaction of sex, age and group was present in the right anteriolateral oribitofrontal cortex. Conclusions Our event related study design confirmed that erotic pictures activate some of the brain regions already known to be involved in the processing of erotic pictures when these are presented in blocks. In addition, it revealed that erotic pictures of prepubescent children activate brain regions critical for choosing response strategies in both groups, and that erotically salient stimuli selectively activate a brain region in paedophilic subjects that had previously been attributed to reward and punishment, and that had been shown to be implicated in the suppression of erotic response and deception. PMID:23510246

  14. Salivary cortisol patterns and cognitive speed in major depression: a comparison with allergic rhinitis and healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    den Hartog, H M; Nicolson, N A; Derix, M M A; van Bemmel, A L; Kremer, B; Jolles, J

    2003-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between cortisol and cognitive functions other than memory in depression. This study investigated daily salivary cortisol patterns (basal cortisol levels at 08:00, 16:00, and 21:00 h and flatness of the diurnal curve) in relation to cognitive speed and memory. Twenty-seven unmedicated outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) were compared with 36 healthy controls and with 20 allergic rhinitis patients, to determine whether effects should be ascribed to MDD or to more general disease-related processes. MDD patients were characterised by a flatter diurnal cortisol curve and by reduced cognitive speed. Flatter cortisol curves were associated with cognitive slowness. However, this relationship is unlikely to be causal; after control for depressive symptoms and group membership, flatness of the diurnal cortisol curve was no longer a significant predictor of cognitive slowness. Thus, MDD and related depressive symptoms appeared to be independently associated with altered cortisol secretory patterns and with decrements in cognitive speed.

  15. Adaptive style and physiological reactivity during a laboratory stress paradigm in children with cancer and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Williams, Natalie A; Allen, Michael T; Phipps, Sean

    2011-10-01

    Repressive adaptation has been conceptualized as one pathway to psychological resilience in children with cancer, but the physiological costs of maintaining a repressive adaptive style are currently unknown. The goal of this study was to examine physiological functioning as a function of adaptive style in children with cancer (N = 120) and healthy controls (N = 120). Children completed self-report measures of state anxiety and defensiveness prior to participating in three verbal stress tasks while monitoring blood pressure, electrocardiogram, and electrodermal response, and rated their anxiety following each task. Findings indicated no consistent differences in baseline indices and physiological reactivity as a function of adaptive style or health status (cancer vs. control). In addition, children identified as having a repressive adaptive style did not exhibit greater verbal-autonomic discrepancy than low-anxious children. In contrast to findings with adults, children with a repressive adaptive style do not appear to experience adverse effects of this coping style in terms of physiological reactivity.

  16. Proton MR Spectroscopy: Higher Right Anterior Cingulate N-Acetylaspartate/Choline Ratio in Asperger Syndrome Compared with Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Oner, O.; Devrimci-Ozguven, H.; Oktem, F.; Yagmurlu, B.; Baskak, B.; Munir, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE One former study reported higher prefrontal N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in patients with Asperger syndrome (AS). The objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that patients with AS would have higher dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex NAA/creatine (Cr) and that NAA/Cr would be correlated with symptom severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS NAA/choline (Cho), NAA/Cr, and Cho/Cr values revealed by 1H-MR spectroscopy in 14 right-handed male patients with AS (6 medicated with risperidone), 17–38 years of age, diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria were compared with those of 21 right-handed male controls frequency-matched by age and intelligence quotient scores. RESULTS Patients with AS had significantly higher anterior cingulate NAA/Cho levels (z = –2.18, P = .028); there was a statistical trend for higher anterior cingulate NAA/Cr (z = –1.81, P = .069) that was significant when only the unmedicated patients with AS were taken into account (z = –1.95, P = .050). There were no significant differences in dorsolateral prefrontal MR spectroscopy values. CONCLUSIONS Our findings show that individuals with AS had higher NAA/Cho levels in the right anterior cingulate compared with healthy controls and that higher anterior cingulate NAA/Cho levels were correlated with higher Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale total scores. PMID:17846198

  17. Spanish validation of the Brief Assessment in Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Segarra, N; Bernardo, M; Gutierrez, F; Justicia, A; Fernadez-Egea, E; Allas, M; Safont, G; Contreras, F; Gascon, J; Soler-Insa, P A; Menchon, J M; Junque, C; Keefe, R S E

    2011-03-01

    Neurocognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia and is closely associated with functional outcome. The importance of cognitive assessment is broadly accepted today, and an easy-to-use, internationality validated cognitive assessment tool is needed by researchers and in daily clinical practice. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) has been validated in English, French, Japanese and Italian. It is as sensitive to cognitive dysfunction as a standard test battery, with the advantage of requiring less than 35minutes to complete. In our study, we tested the psychometric characteristics of a Spanish version of the BACS in 117 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and 36 healthy controls. All BACS cognitive subtests discriminated between patients and controls (P<.001), and the concurrent validity between the BACS and a traditional neuropsychological test battery was similar to that reported in other languages. We conclude that the BACS can facilitate the comparison of the cognitive performance of patients with schizophrenia in many different countries. PMID:20435446

  18. Neurotrophins and cognitive functions in T1D compared with healthy controls: effects of a high-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Tonoli, Cajsa; Heyman, Elsa; Buyse, Luk; Roelands, Bart; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Bailey, Stephen; Pattyn, Nathalie; Berthoin, Serge; Meeusen, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is known to have beneficial effects on cognitive function. This effect is greatly favored by an exercise-induced increase in neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), especially with high-intensity exercises (HIE). As a complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D), a cognitive decline may occur, mostly ascribed to hypoglycaemia and chronic hyperglycaemia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute HIE on cognitive function and neurotrophins in T1D and matched controls. Ten trained T1D (8 males, 2 females) participants and their matched (by age, sex, fitness level) controls were evaluated on 2 occasions after familiarization: a maximal test to exhaustion and an HIE bout (10 intervals of 60 s at 90% of their maximal wattage followed by 60 s at 50 W). Cognitive tests and analyses of serum BDNF, IGF-1, and free insulin were performed before and after HIE and following 30 min of recovery. At baseline, cognitive performance was better in the controls compared with the T1D participants (p < 0.05). After exercise, no significant differences in cognitive performance were detected. BDNF levels were significantly higher and IGF-1 levels were significantly lower in T1D compared with the control group (p < 0.05) at all time points. Exercise increased BDNF and IGF-1 levels in a comparable percentage in both groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, although resting levels of serum BDNF and IGF-1 were altered by T1D, comparable increasing effects on BDNF and IGF-1 in T1D and healthy participants were found. Therefore, regularly repeating acute HIE could be a promising strategy for brain health in T1D.

  19. Neurotrophins and cognitive functions in T1D compared with healthy controls: effects of a high-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Tonoli, Cajsa; Heyman, Elsa; Buyse, Luk; Roelands, Bart; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Bailey, Stephen; Pattyn, Nathalie; Berthoin, Serge; Meeusen, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is known to have beneficial effects on cognitive function. This effect is greatly favored by an exercise-induced increase in neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), especially with high-intensity exercises (HIE). As a complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D), a cognitive decline may occur, mostly ascribed to hypoglycaemia and chronic hyperglycaemia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute HIE on cognitive function and neurotrophins in T1D and matched controls. Ten trained T1D (8 males, 2 females) participants and their matched (by age, sex, fitness level) controls were evaluated on 2 occasions after familiarization: a maximal test to exhaustion and an HIE bout (10 intervals of 60 s at 90% of their maximal wattage followed by 60 s at 50 W). Cognitive tests and analyses of serum BDNF, IGF-1, and free insulin were performed before and after HIE and following 30 min of recovery. At baseline, cognitive performance was better in the controls compared with the T1D participants (p < 0.05). After exercise, no significant differences in cognitive performance were detected. BDNF levels were significantly higher and IGF-1 levels were significantly lower in T1D compared with the control group (p < 0.05) at all time points. Exercise increased BDNF and IGF-1 levels in a comparable percentage in both groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, although resting levels of serum BDNF and IGF-1 were altered by T1D, comparable increasing effects on BDNF and IGF-1 in T1D and healthy participants were found. Therefore, regularly repeating acute HIE could be a promising strategy for brain health in T1D. PMID:25525862

  20. "Children with cerebral palsy experience greater levels of loading at the low back during gait compared to healthy controls".

    PubMed

    Kiernan, D; Malone, A; O'Brien, T; Simms, C K

    2016-07-01

    Excessive trunk motion has been shown to be characteristic of cerebral palsy (CP) gait. However, the associated demands on the lower spine are unknown. This study investigated 3-dimensional reactive forces and moments at the low back in CP children compared to healthy controls. In addition, the impact of functional level of impairment was investigated (GMFCS levels). Fifty-two children with CP (26 GMFCS I and 26 GMFCS II) and 26 controls were recruited to the study. Three-dimensional thorax kinematics and reactive forces and moments at the low back (L5/S1 spine) were examined. Discrete kinematic and kinetic parameters were assessed between groups. Thorax movement demonstrated increased range for CP children in all 3 planes while L5/S1 reactive forces and moments increased with increasing level of functional impairment. Peak reactive force data were increased by up to 57% for GMFCS I and 63% for GMFCS II children compared to controls. Peak moment data were increased by up to 21% for GMFCS II children compared to GMFCS I and up to 90% for GMFCS II compared to control. In addition, a strong correlation was demonstrated between thorax side flexion and L5/S1 lateral bend moment (r=0.519, p<0.01) and medial/lateral force (r=0.352, p<0.01). Children with CP demonstrated increased lower spinal loading compared to TD. Furthermore, GMFCS II children demonstrated significantly more involvement. Intervention should be aimed at reducing excessive thorax movement, especially in the coronal plane, in order to reduce abnormal loading on the spine in this population.

  1. Neurological soft signs and cognitive functions: Amongst euthymic bipolar I disorder cases, non-affected first degree relatives and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Srikant; Bhatia, Triptish; Mazumdar, Sati; Deshpande, Smita N

    2016-08-01

    Both neurological soft signs (NSS) and cognitive deficits are present among euthymic bipolar patients. NSS could be related to neurocognitive performance, but this is not explored thoroughly. Healthy relatives of patients may also suffer from similar deficits. This study compared NSS and cognitive functions in euthymic Bipolar I Disorder (BPI) cases to their non-affected first degree relatives and healthy controls. We also investigated the association between NSS and cognitive functions in these three groups. NSS were assessed in three groups using Neurological Evaluation Scale-revised (NES-r). Eight cognitive domains were assessed in 31 euthymic BPI cases, their 30 non-affected first degree relatives and 30 healthy controls using Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB). Euthymic BPI patients had significantly more NSS than non-affected first degree relatives on 5/7 tests (p-value ranges from 0.042 to p=0.0001) and healthy controls on all tests (p-value from 0.042 to <0.0001). Non-affected first degree relatives and controls did not have any significant difference. BPI participants performed worse than their non-affected first degree relatives on one neurocognitive domain of CNB (spatial memory accuracy, p=0.03) and healthy controls on four domains (spatial memory accuracy (p=0.04), abstraction and mental flexibility efficiency (p=0.04), spatial memory efficiency (p=0.04), and emotion efficiency (p=0.04). Non-affected relatives and healthy controls were similar on neurocognitive domains. Accuracy and efficiency indices of some specific cognitive domains were negatively associated with AV rating and tap copying NSS ratings. PMID:27520894

  2. Neurological soft signs and cognitive functions: Amongst euthymic bipolar I disorder cases, non-affected first degree relatives and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Srikant; Bhatia, Triptish; Mazumdar, Sati; Deshpande, Smita N.

    2016-01-01

    Both neurological soft signs (NSS) and cognitive deficits are present among euthymic bipolar patients. NSS could be related to neurocognitive performance, but this is not explored thoroughly. Healthy relatives of patients may also suffer from similar deficits. This study compared NSS and cognitive functions in euthymic Bipolar I Disorder (BPI) cases to their non-affected first degree relatives and healthy controls. We also investigated the association between NSS and cognitive functions in these three groups. NSS were assessed in three groups using Neurological Evaluation Scale-revised (NES-r). Eight cognitive domains were assessed in 31 euthymic BPI cases, their 30 non-affected first degree relatives and 30 healthy controls using Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB). Euthymic BPI patients had significantly more NSS than non-affected first degree relatives on 5/7 tests (p-value ranges from 0.042 to p = 0.0001) and healthy controls on all tests (p-value from 0.042 to <0.0001). Non-affected first degree relatives and controls did not have any significant difference. BPI participants performed worse than their non-affected first degree relatives on one neurocognitive domain of CNB (spatial memory accuracy, p = 0.03) and healthy controls on four domains (spatial memory accuracy (p = 0.04), abstraction and mental flexibility efficiency (p = 0.04), spatial memory efficiency (p = 0.04), and emotion efficiency (p = 0.04). Non-affected relatives and healthy controls were similar on neurocognitive domains. Accuracy and efficiency indices of some specific cognitive domains were negatively associated with AV rating and tap copying NSS ratings. PMID:27520894

  3. Early signs of anomalous neural functional connectivity in healthy offspring of parents with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manpreet K; Chang, Kiki D; Kelley, Ryan G; Saggar, Manish; Reiss, Allan; Gotlib, Ian H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with dysfunctional brain connectivity and with family chaos. It is not known whether aberrant connectivity occurs before illness onset, representing vulnerability for developing BD amidst family chaos. We used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine neural network dysfunction in healthy offspring living with parents with BD and healthy comparison youth. Methods Using two complementary methodologies [data-driven independent component analyses (ICA) and hypothesis-driven region-of-interest (ROI)-based intrinsic connectivity], we examined resting state fMRI data in 8–17-year-old healthy offspring of a parent with BD (n = 24, high risk) and age-matched healthy youth without any personal or family psychopathology (n = 25, low risk). Results ICA revealed that relative to low-risk youth, high-risk youth showed increased connectivity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) subregion of the left executive control network (ECN), which includes frontoparietal regions important for emotion regulation. ROI-based analyses revealed that high-risk versus low-risk youth had decreased connectivities between left amygdala and pregenual cingulate, between subgenual cingulate and supplementary motor cortex, and between left VLPFC and left caudate. High-risk youth showed stronger connections in the VLPFC with age and higher functioning, which may be neuroprotective, and weaker connections between the left VLPFC and caudate with more family chaos, suggesting an environmental influence on frontostriatal connectivity. Conclusions Healthy offspring of parents with BD show atypical patterns of prefrontal and subcortical intrinsic connectivity that may be early markers of resilience from or vulnerability for developing BD. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether these patterns predict outcomes. PMID:24938878

  4. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in the healthy oral mucosa of women with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion and of their partners as compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Tatár, Tímea Zsófia; Kis, Andrea; Szabó, Éva; Czompa, Levente; Boda, Róbert; Tar, Ildikó; Szarka, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage rates were investigated in relation to genital HPV carriage in women with HPV-associated cervical lesions and male partner of such women, including several couples, in comparison with healthy individuals. Buccal and lingual mucosa of 60 males and 149 females with healthy oral mucosa and without known genital lesion, genital and oral mucosa of further 40 females with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 34 male sexual partners of women with HSIL (including 20 couples) were sampled. HPV DNA was detected using MY/GP PCR. Genotype was determined by sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Virus copy numbers were determined by real-time PCR. Overall, oral HPV carriage rate was 5.7% (12/209) in healthy individuals; average copy number was 5.8 × 10(2) copies/1 μg DNA; male and female rates were comparable. Oral carriage in women with HSIL was significantly higher, 20.0% (8/40, P = 0.003); males with partners with HSIL showed a carriage rate of 17.6% (6/34), copy numbers were similar to the healthy controls. In contrast, genital carriage rate (52.9%, 18/34 vs. 82.5%, 33/40; P = 0.006) and average copy number were lower in males (5.0 × 10(5) vs. 7.8 × 10(5) copies/1 μg DNA; P = 0.01). Oral copy numbers in these groups and in healthy individuals were comparable. High-risk genotypes were dominant; couples usually had the same genotype in the genital sample. In conclusion, genital HPV carriage is a risk factor of oral carriage for the individual or for the sexual partner, but alone is not sufficient to produce an oral HPV infection in most cases.

  5. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in the healthy oral mucosa of women with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion and of their partners as compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Tatár, Tímea Zsófia; Kis, Andrea; Szabó, Éva; Czompa, Levente; Boda, Róbert; Tar, Ildikó; Szarka, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage rates were investigated in relation to genital HPV carriage in women with HPV-associated cervical lesions and male partner of such women, including several couples, in comparison with healthy individuals. Buccal and lingual mucosa of 60 males and 149 females with healthy oral mucosa and without known genital lesion, genital and oral mucosa of further 40 females with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 34 male sexual partners of women with HSIL (including 20 couples) were sampled. HPV DNA was detected using MY/GP PCR. Genotype was determined by sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Virus copy numbers were determined by real-time PCR. Overall, oral HPV carriage rate was 5.7% (12/209) in healthy individuals; average copy number was 5.8 × 10(2) copies/1 μg DNA; male and female rates were comparable. Oral carriage in women with HSIL was significantly higher, 20.0% (8/40, P = 0.003); males with partners with HSIL showed a carriage rate of 17.6% (6/34), copy numbers were similar to the healthy controls. In contrast, genital carriage rate (52.9%, 18/34 vs. 82.5%, 33/40; P = 0.006) and average copy number were lower in males (5.0 × 10(5) vs. 7.8 × 10(5) copies/1 μg DNA; P = 0.01). Oral copy numbers in these groups and in healthy individuals were comparable. High-risk genotypes were dominant; couples usually had the same genotype in the genital sample. In conclusion, genital HPV carriage is a risk factor of oral carriage for the individual or for the sexual partner, but alone is not sufficient to produce an oral HPV infection in most cases. PMID:25495524

  6. Neuropsychological assessment in HTLV-1 infection: a comparative study among TSP/HAM, asymptomatic carriers, and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Silva, M; Mattos, P; Alfano, A; Araujo, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) can cause tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) and adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma. More recently other diseases such as isolated peripheral polyneuropathy, myopathy, artropathy, and uveitis have been associated with this retrovirus. Only a few uncontrolled studies, without necessary exclusion criteria, have described mild cognitive deficits among TSP/HAM patients. To further clarify this the authors evaluated, through neuropsychological testing patients with TSP/HAM and asymptomatic infected carriers, comparing both groups with healthy controls. Objectives: To verify the presence of cognitive deficits among TSP/HAM patients and asymptomatic HTLV-1 infected carriers. In addition, the authors aimed to investigate if these deficits correlated with the degree of motor impairment in TSP/HAM patients. Methods: From a cohort of 501 HTLV-1 infected people the authors selected, according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 40 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers and 37 TSP/HAM patients. Neuropsychological testing was blindly performed in both groups and their scores were compared with those obtained from controls. Results: Both the HTLV-1 carrier group and the group of patients with TSP/HAM exhibited a lower performance in neuropsychological tests when compared with controls. Asymptomatic infected carriers and TSP/HAM patients did not differ in their cognitive results. Also, there was no relation between the degree of motor disability and cognitive deficits in the TSP/HAM group. Psychomotor slowing and deficits in the some domains characterised the neuropsychological impairment in HTLV-1 infection: verbal and visual memory, attention and visuomotor abilities. Conclusions: TSP/HAM as well as asymptomatic infection can be associated with mild cognitive deficits. This finding, if confirmed by further studies, will permit the inclusion of cognitive impairment among the neurological

  7. The Impact of Healthy Parenting As a Protective Factor for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adulthood: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Adriano R.; Mello, Marcelo F.; Andreoli, Sérgio B.; Fossaluza, Victor; de Araújo, Célia M.; Jackowski, Andrea P.; Bressan, Rodrigo A.; Mari, Jair J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early life social adversity can influence stress response mechanisms and is associated with anxious behaviour and reductions in callosal area later in life. Objective To evaluate the association between perceptions of parental bonding in childhood/adolescence, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response, and callosal structural integrity in adult victims of severe urban violence with and without PTSD. Methods Seventy-one individuals with PTSD and 62 without the disorder were assessed with the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The prednisolone suppression test was administered to assess cortisol levels, and magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the total area of the corpus callosum (CC), as well as the areas of callosal subregions. Results The PBI items related to the perception of ‘not having a controlling mother’ (OR 4.84; 95%CI [2.26–10.3]; p = 0.01), ‘having a caring father’ (OR 2.46; 95'%CI [1.18–5.12]; p = 0.02), and ‘not having controlling parents’ (OR 2.70; 95%CI [1.10–6.63]; p = 0.04) were associated with a lower risk of PTSD. The PTSD group showed a blunted response to the prednisolone suppression test, with lower salivary cortisol levels upon waking up (p = 0.03). Individuals with PTSD had smaller total CC area than those without the disorder, but these differences were not statistically significant (e-value  = 0.34). Conclusions Healthy parental bonding, characterized by the perception of low parental control and high affection, were associated with a lower risk of PTSD in adulthood, suggesting that emotional enrichment and the encouragement of autonomy are protective against PTSD in adulthood. PMID:24489851

  8. Human leukocyte antigen polymorphisms in Italian primary biliary cirrhosis: a multicenter study of 664 patients and 1992 healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Invernizzi, Pietro; Selmi, Carlo; Poli, Francesca; Frison, Sara; Floreani, Annarosa; Alvaro, Domenico; Almasio, Piero; Rosina, Floriano; Marzioni, Marco; Fabris, Luca; Muratori, Luigi; Qi, Lihong; Seldin, Michael F.; Gershwin, M. Eric; Podda, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    Genetic factors are critical in determining susceptibility to primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), but there has not been a clear association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. We performed a multi-center case-control study and analyzed HLA class II DRB1 associations using a large cohort of 664 well-defined cases of PBC and 1,992 controls of Italian ancestry. Importantly, healthy controls were rigorously matched not only by age and gender, but also for the geographical origin of the proband four grandparents (Northern, Central, and Southern Italy). Following correction for multiple testing, DRB1*08 (Odds Ratio–OR, 3.3; 95% Confidence Interval–CI, 2.4−4.5) and DRB1*02 (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.8−1.2) were significantly associated with PBC while alleles DRB1*11 (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.3−0.4) and DRB1*13 (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.6−0.9) were protective. When subjects were stratified according to their grandparental geographical origin, only the associations with DRB1*08 and DRB1*11 were common to all three areas. Associated DRB1 alleles were found only in a minority of patients while an additive genetic model is supported by the gene dosage effect for DRB1*11 allele and the interaction of DRB1*11,*13, and *08. Lastly, no significant associations were detected between specific DRB1 alleles and relevant clinical features represented by the presence of cirrhosis or serum autoantibodies. In conclusion, we confirm the role for HLA to determine PBC susceptibility and suggest that the effect of HLA is limited to patient subgroups. We suggest that a large whole-genome approach is required to identify further genetic elements contributing to the loss of tolerance in this disease. PMID:19003916

  9. Healthy malaria control.

    PubMed

    Mathen, K

    1998-01-01

    According to an article in the May 27, 1998, issue of the Times of India, Dr. Menno Jan Bouma, an epidemiologist from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, has suggested spraying India's cows, goats, and buffaloes with insecticide in a bid to combat malaria. This strategy, however, fails to fully consider what is currently known about insect behavior, insecticides' modes of action, and the interaction between the two in the environment. A population of insects can ultimately develop resistance and adapt to the repeated onslaught of insecticides. Furthermore, each type of insecticide which could potentially be used has its own set of problems with regard to the environment, the products into which they break down, and how they affect wildlife and humans. The once commonplace spraying of livestock in the West led to Mad Cow Disease, Chicken Flu, and other problems. India's meat and dairy products will definitely be contaminated should the country's livestock be sprayed with insecticides. In the long-term interest of humankind, efforts must be made to contain, not eradicate, mosquitoes and malaria. PMID:12348880

  10. Effects of acute tryptophan depletion on mood and cortisol release in first-degree relatives of type I and type II bipolar patients and healthy matched controls.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, S; Honig, A; Nicolson, N A; Riedel, W J

    2002-11-01

    Biological vulnerability for bipolar disorders (BD) in relatives of BD patients has not as yet been established. Serotonergic vulnerability was studied, using acute tryptophan depletion (ATD), in healthy first-degree relatives of BD patients and healthy controls. The effects of ATD on mood and cortisol release in 30 healthy adult, lifetime symptom free, unaffected first-degree relatives of BD patients (Family History; FH) were compared with effects in 15 healthy matched controls in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design. During ATD and placebo, salivary cortisol response was also assessed during a stress-inducing speech task (SIST). First-degree relatives of type II BD patients (FH II) showed an elevation of mood, whereas control subjects and relatives of type I BD patients (FH I) showed a lowering of mood after ATD. ATD was followed by a decrease in cortisol level in both FH subgroups, but not in the controls. The results suggest serotonergic vulnerability that affected mood in FH II subjects and cortisol release in both FH I and FH II subjects.

  11. Thin healthy women have a similar low bone mass to women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, D; Rodríguez, M; García Alemán, J; García-Almeida, J M; Picón, M J; Fernández-Aranda, F; Tinahones, F J

    2009-09-01

    An association between anorexia nerviosa (AN) and low bone mass has been demonstrated. Bone loss associated with AN involves hormonal and nutritional impairments, though their exact contribution is not clearly established. We compared bone mass in AN patients with women of similar weight with no criteria for AN, and a third group of healthy, normal-weight, age-matched women. The study included forty-eight patients with AN, twenty-two healthy eumenorrhoeic women with low weight (LW group; BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) and twenty healthy women with BMI >18.5 kg/m2 (control group), all of similar age. We measured lean body mass, percentage fat mass, total bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density in lumbar spine (BMD LS) and in total (tBMD). We measured anthropometric parameters, leptin and growth hormone. The control group had greater tBMD and BMD LS than the other groups, with no differences between the AN and LW groups. No differences were found in tBMD, BMD LS and total BMC between the restrictive (n 25) and binge-purge type (n 23) in AN patients. In AN, minimum weight (P = 0.002) and percentage fat mass (P = 0.02) explained BMD LS variation (r2 0.48) and minimum weight (r2 0.42; P = 0.002) for tBMD in stepwise regression analyses. In the LW group, BMI explained BMD LS (r2 0.72; P = 0.01) and tBMD (r2 0.57; P = 0.04). We concluded that patients with AN had similar BMD to healthy thin women. Anthropometric parameters could contribute more significantly than oestrogen deficiency in the achievement of peak bone mass in AN patients.

  12. Targeted plasma metabolome response to variations in dietary glycemic load in a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding trial in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Sally; Navarro, Sandi L.; Buas, Matthew F.; Y, Schwarz; Gu, Haiwei; Djukovic, Danijel; Raftery, Daniel; Kratz, Mario; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2015-01-01

    Low versus high glycemic load (GL) diet patterns are inversely associated with obesity and chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These associations persist beyond the protection afforded by increased fiber alone, representing an important gap in our understanding of the metabolic effects of GL. We conducted a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding trial of two 28-day diet periods of high and low GL. Using LC-MS, targeted metabolomics analysis of 155 metabolites was performed on plasma samples from 19 healthy adults aged 18-45 years. Fourteen metabolites differed significantly between diets (P<0.05), with kynurenate remaining significant after Bonferroni correction (P<4×10-4). Metabolites with the largest difference in abundance were kynurenate and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), both significantly higher after consumption of the low GL diet. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed clear separation between the two diets; however no specific pathway was identified in pathway analyses. We found significant differences in 14 plasma metabolites suggesting a differing metabolic response to low and high GL diets. Kynurenate is associated with reduced inflammation, and may be one mechanism through which protective effects of a low GL diet are manifested and warrants further evaluation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00622661. PMID:26165375

  13. Frontal delta event-related oscillations relate to frontal volume in mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Yener, Görsev G; Emek-Savaş, Derya Durusu; Lizio, Roberta; Çavuşoğlu, Berrin; Carducci, Filippo; Ada, Emel; Güntekin, Bahar; Babiloni, Claudio C; Başar, Erol

    2016-05-01

    Amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), but not all MCI subjects progress to dementia of AD type. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cortical and hippocampal atrophy supports early diagnosis of AD in MCI subjects, while frontal event-related oscillations (EROs) at delta frequencies (<4Hz) are appealing markers for this purpose, as they are both cost-effective and largely available. The present study tested the hypothesis that these EROs reflect cortical frontal neurodegeneration in the continuum between normal and amnesic MCI subjects. EROs and volumetric MRI data were recorded in 28 amnesic MCI and in 28 healthy elderly controls (HCs). EROs were collected during a standard visual oddball paradigm including frequent (66.6%) and rare (33.3%; targets to be mentally counted) stimuli. Peak-to-peak amplitude of delta target EROs (<4Hz) was measured. Volume of frontal cortex was estimated from MRIs. Frontal volume was lower in MCI compared to the HC group. Furthermore, widespread delta target EROs were lower in amplitude in the former than in the latter group. Finally, there was a positive correlation between frontal volume and frontal delta target EROs in MCI and HC subjects as a whole group. These results suggest that frontal delta EROs reflect frontal neurodegeneration in the continuum between normal and amnesic MCI subjects. PMID:25660300

  14. Hippocampal structure, metabolism, and inflammatory response after a 6-week intense aerobic exercise in healthy young adults: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Gerd; Herbsleb, Marco; de la Cruz, Feliberto; Schumann, Andy; Brünner, Franziska; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Gussew, Alexander; Puta, Christian; Smesny, Stefan; Gabriel, Holger W; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Interventional studies suggest that changes in physical fitness affect brain function and structure. We studied the influence of high intensity physical exercise on hippocampal volume and metabolism in 17 young healthy male adults during a 6-week exercise program compared with matched controls. We further aimed to relate these changes to hypothesized changes in exercised-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). We show profound improvement of physical fitness in most subjects and a positive correlation between the degree of fitness improvement and increased BDNF levels. We unexpectedly observed an average volume decrease of about 2%, which was restricted to right hippocampal subfields CA2/3, subiculum, and dentate gyrus and which correlated with fitness improvement and increased BDNF levels negatively. This result indicates that mainly those subjects who did not benefit from the exercise program show decreased hippocampal volume, reduced BDNF levels, and increased TNF-α concentrations. While spectroscopy results do not indicate any neuronal loss (unchanged N-acetylaspartate levels) decreased glutamate-glutamine levels were observed in the right anterior hippocampus in the exercise group only. Responder characteristics need to be studied in more detail. Our results point to an important role of the inflammatory response after exercise on changes in hippocampal structure. PMID:26082010

  15. Gonadotropin (LH and FSH) response after submaximal GnRH stimulation in depressed premenopausal women and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, J D; Maislin, G; Rosenzweig, M; Halbrecht, U

    1995-01-01

    Although hormonal response abnormalities in depression have been demonstrated in several hypothalamic-pituitary-target organ axes after a variety of neuroendocrine challenge tests, studies of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function have been inconsistent in their findings. The use of maximal or supramaximal doses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in early studies (150-600 micrograms) may have masked the presence of more subtle disturbances in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) responsiveness in depression. We hypothesized that submaximal doses of GnRH might reveal a more subtle dysregulation in gonadotropin responsiveness in depression, and therefore measured LH and FSH responses after GnRH 10 micrograms and 90 micrograms doses in nine premenopausal depressed women and six healthy controls. There were no statistically significant differences between subject groups for mean basal LH, FSH, and estradiol concentrations, nor for any of the LH and FSH response values after either GnRH stimulation dose. The present observations of an intact HPG axis in depression contrast with findings of disturbances in most other hypothalamic-pituitary axes, and suggest that neuroendocrine dysregulation in depression might not represent a generalized limbic system-hypothalamic-pituitary abnormality, but rather a more restricted lesion sparing the medial preoptic and/or arcuate region of the hypothalamus which regulates gonadotropin secretion.

  16. Erotic Stimulus Processing under Amisulpride and Reboxetine: A Placebo-Controlled fMRI Study in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wiegers, Maike; Metzger, Coraline D.; Walter, Martin; Grön, Georg; Abler, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impaired sexual function is increasingly recognized as a side effect of psychopharmacological treatment. However, underlying mechanisms of action of the different drugs on sexual processing are still to be explored. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we previously investigated effects of serotonergic (paroxetine) and dopaminergic (bupropion) antidepressants on sexual functioning (Abler et al., 2011). Here, we studied the impact of noradrenergic and antidopaminergic medication on neural correlates of visual sexual stimulation in a new sample of subjects. Methods: Nineteen healthy heterosexual males (mean age 24 years, SD 3.1) under subchronic intake (7 days) of the noradrenergic agent reboxetine (4mg/d), the antidopaminergic agent amisulpride (200mg/d), and placebo were included and studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging within a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects design during an established erotic video-clip task. Subjective sexual functioning was assessed using the Massachusetts General Hospital-Sexual Functioning Questionnaire. Results: Relative to placebo, subjective sexual functioning was attenuated under reboxetine along with diminished neural activations within the caudate nucleus. Altered neural activations correlated with decreased sexual interest. Under amisulpride, neural activations and subjective sexual functioning remained unchanged. Conclusions: In line with previous interpretations of the role of the caudate nucleus in the context of primary reward processing, attenuated caudate activation may reflect detrimental effects on motivational aspects of erotic stimulus processing under noradrenergic agents. PMID:25612894

  17. A randomized placebo controlled trial to evaluate the effects of butamirate and dextromethorphan on capsaicin induced cough in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Faruqi, Shoaib; Wright, Caroline; Thompson, Rachel; Morice, Alyn H

    2014-01-01

    Aims The examination of cough reflex sensitivity through inhalational challenge can be utilized to demonstrate pharmacological end points. Here we compare the effect of butamirate, dextromethorphan and placebo on capsaicin-induced cough in healthy volunteers. Methods In this randomized, placebo-controlled, six way crossover study the effect of dextromethrophan 30 mg, four doses of butamirate and placebo was evaluated on incremental capsaicin challenges performed at baseline and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h following dosing. The primary end point was the area under the curve (AUC(0,12h)) of log10 C5 from pre-dose to 12 h after dosing. Plasma butamirate metabolites were analyzed to evaluate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships. Results Thirty-four subjects (13 males, median age 25 years) completed the study. Cough sensitivity decreased from baseline in all arms of the study. Dextromethorphan was superior to placebo (P = 0.01) but butamirate failed to show significant activity with maximum attenuation at the 45 mg dose. There was no apparent relationship between pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters for butamirate. Conclusions We have demonstrated for the first time that dextromethorphan attenuates capsaicin challenge confirming its broad activity on the cough reflex. The lack of efficacy of butamirate could be due to formulation issues at higher doses. PMID:24995954

  18. Hippocampal structure, metabolism, and inflammatory response after a 6-week intense aerobic exercise in healthy young adults: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Gerd; Herbsleb, Marco; de la Cruz, Feliberto; Schumann, Andy; Brünner, Franziska; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Gussew, Alexander; Puta, Christian; Smesny, Stefan; Gabriel, Holger W; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Interventional studies suggest that changes in physical fitness affect brain function and structure. We studied the influence of high intensity physical exercise on hippocampal volume and metabolism in 17 young healthy male adults during a 6-week exercise program compared with matched controls. We further aimed to relate these changes to hypothesized changes in exercised-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). We show profound improvement of physical fitness in most subjects and a positive correlation between the degree of fitness improvement and increased BDNF levels. We unexpectedly observed an average volume decrease of about 2%, which was restricted to right hippocampal subfields CA2/3, subiculum, and dentate gyrus and which correlated with fitness improvement and increased BDNF levels negatively. This result indicates that mainly those subjects who did not benefit from the exercise program show decreased hippocampal volume, reduced BDNF levels, and increased TNF-α concentrations. While spectroscopy results do not indicate any neuronal loss (unchanged N-acetylaspartate levels) decreased glutamate-glutamine levels were observed in the right anterior hippocampus in the exercise group only. Responder characteristics need to be studied in more detail. Our results point to an important role of the inflammatory response after exercise on changes in hippocampal structure.

  19. Consumption of cranberry beverage improved endogenous antioxidant status and protected against bacteria adhesion in healthy humans: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Bridget D; Kimble, Lindsey L; Kaspar, Kerrie L; Khoo, Christina; Chew, Boon P

    2014-05-01

    Consumption of polyphenol-rich foods is associated with lower risk from many chronic diseases. We hypothesized that a single dose of cranberry beverage would improve indices of oxidative stress, inflammation, and urinary antibacterial adhesion activity in healthy humans. Six males and 6 females (18-35 years; body mass index, 19-25 kg/m(2)) consumed placebo, cranberry leaf extract beverage, or low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (LCJC) once in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experimental design trial. The washout period between beverages was 1 week. Blood was collected 0, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after beverage consumption for measuring oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers. Urine was collected at 0, 0 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, 9 to 12, and 24 hours postintervention to assess antibacterial adhesion activity. Consumption of cranberry leaf extract beverage elevated (P < .05) blood glutathione peroxidase activity, whereas LCJC consumption increased (P < .05) glutathione concentrations and superoxide dismutase activity compared with placebo. Cranberry leaf extract beverage and LCJC consumption had no effect on the inflammatory biomarkers measured as compared with placebo. At 0 to 3 hours postconsumption, urine from participants who consumed cranberry beverages had higher (P < .05) ex vivo antiadhesion activity against P-fimbriated Escherichia coli compared with placebo. An acute dose of cranberry beverages improved biomarkers of antioxidant status and inhibition of bacterial adhesion in urine.

  20. Comparison of plasma MicroRNA levels in drug naive, first episode depressed patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Camkurt, Mehmet Akif; Acar, Şenel; Coşkun, Salih; Güneş, Mehmet; Güneş, Serkan; Yılmaz, Mehmet Fatih; Görür, Ayşegül; Tamer, Lülüfer

    2015-10-01

    Major depression is the most common psychiatric disorder. The diagnosis of depression depends on a patient's subjective complaints, and the nature of the heterogeneous disorder. Thus, there is no known biomarker for depression to date. Previous research has indicated that microRNAs are dysregulated in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. We aimed to investigate microRNA dysregulation in plasma samples of patients with major depression. Venous blood samples of 50 depressed patients and 41 healthy controls were collected and the quantification of microRNAs was established using qRT-PCR. We found miR-320a significantly downregulated and miR-451a significantly upregulated in depressed patients. We also found miR-17-5p and miR-223-3p upregulated, but not as significantly as miR-451a. Merging our results with previous published data shows that the blood miR-320 family may be a potential microRNA family dysregulated in major depression. Research should be performed on miR-320-related pathways and their relationship to depression. Additionally, miR-451a could serve as a candidate biomarker for depression based on the acting mechanism of ketamine. Studies targeting miR-451a levels before and after treatment could be helpful. PMID:26343596

  1. Reduced functional segregation between the default mode network and the executive control network in healthy older adults: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kwun Kei; Lo, June C; Lim, Joseph K W; Chee, Michael W L; Zhou, Juan

    2016-06-01

    The effects of age on functional connectivity (FC) of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) have largely been derived from cross-sectional studies. Far less is known about longitudinal changes in FC and how they relate to ageing-related cognitive decline. We evaluated intra- and inter-network FC in 78 healthy older adults two or three times over a period of 4years. Using linear mixed modeling we found progressive loss of functional specialization with ageing, evidenced by a decline in intra-network FC within the executive control (ECN) and default mode networks (DMN). In contrast, longitudinal inter-network FC between ECN and DMN showed a u-shaped trajectory whereby functional segregation between these two networks initially increased over time and later decreased as participants aged. The rate of loss in functional segregation between ECN and DMN was associated with ageing-related decline in processing speed. The observed longitudinal FC changes and their associations with processing speed remained after correcting for longitudinal reduction in gray matter volume. These findings help connect ageing-related changes in FC with ageing-related decline in cognitive performance and underscore the value of collecting concurrent longitudinal imaging and behavioral data.

  2. Expression of HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Busse, Stefan; Steiner, Johann; Alter, Juliane; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Mawrin, Christian; Bogerts, Bernhard; Hartig, Roland; Busse, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Although monocytes and macrophages could serve as new therapeutic targets for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and aging of the human innate immune system, its role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD are only poorly understood. We have addressed this here by determining the number of CD14+ monocytes and the frequency of HLA-DR-, CD80-, and CD86-expression in peripheral blood from healthy volunteers aged 20-79 years, and in AD patients at diagnosis and after 12, 30, and 52 weeks of rivastigmine treatment. While the number of CD14+ monocytes remained constant, the expression of HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 by monocytes increased with age. However, no differences were identified by comparing AD patients with age-matched healthy controls or following treatment of AD patients with rivastigmine. These results indicate that changes in the expression of HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 are caused by immunosenescence rather than by AD pathology or treatment of AD patients with rivastigmine.

  3. Healthy individuals that control a latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis express high levels of Th1 cytokines and the IL-4 antagonist IL-4delta2.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Abebech; Abebe, Markos; Aseffa, Abraham; Rook, Graham; Fletcher, Helen; Zumla, Alimuddin; Weldingh, Karin; Brock, Inger; Andersen, Peter; Doherty, T Mark

    2004-06-01

    The majority of healthy individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis will not develop disease and identifying what constitutes "protective immunity" is one of the holy grails of M. tuberculosis immunology. It is known that IFN-gamma is essential for protection, but it is also apparent that IFN-gamma levels alone do not explain the immunity/susceptibility dichotomy. The controversy regarding correlates of immunity persists because identifying infected but healthy individuals (those who are immune) has been problematic. We have therefore used recognition of the M. tuberculosis virulence factor early secretory antigenic target 6 to identify healthy, but infected individuals from tuberculosis (TB)-endemic and nonendemic regions (Ethiopia and Denmark) and have compared signals for cytokines expressed directly ex vivo with the pattern found in TB patients. We find that TB patients are characterized by decreased levels of Th1 cytokines and increased levels of IL-10 compared with the healthy infected and noninfected community controls. Interestingly, the healthy infected subjects exhibited a selective increase of message for the IL-4 antagonist, IL-4delta2, compared with both TB patients or noninfected individuals. These data suggest that long-term control of M. tuberculosis infection is associated not just with elevated Th1 responses but also with inhibition of the Th2 response.

  4. Comparison of upper extremity function, pain, and tactile sense between the uneffected side of hemiparetic patients and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Balcı, Nilay Comuk; Dogru, Esra; Aytar, Aydan; Gokmen, Ozge; Depreli, Ozde

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the unaffected upper extremity of patients with hemiparesis with that of healthy subjects in terms of function, pain, and tactile sense. [Subjects and Methods] Upper extremity evaluation parameters of 20 patients with hemiparesis were compared with an age-matched control group of 20 healthy subjects. A shorter version of the Disability of Arm and Shoulder Questionnaire, Upper Extremity Functional Index, and Simple Shoulder Test were used to evaluate the upper extremity functionality. The Visual Analog Scale was used to measure pain severity at rest, at night, and during activity. Tactile sensation levels were assessed by Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments at four palmar areas. [Results] A statistically significant difference was found in the upper extremity functionality between the groups. Pain severity at rest was significantly higher in the hemiparetic group. There was no significant difference in night and activity pain severities or tactile sensation levels between the groups. [Conclusion] According to our results, the unaffected side of patients with hemiparesis differs in functionality and pain at rest compared with that of healthy persons. Studies with larger sample size and various evaluation tests are needed to further investigate the unaffected side of patients with hemiparesis. PMID:27512250

  5. Comparison of upper extremity function, pain, and tactile sense between the uneffected side of hemiparetic patients and healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Balcı, Nilay Comuk; Dogru, Esra; Aytar, Aydan; Gokmen, Ozge; Depreli, Ozde

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the unaffected upper extremity of patients with hemiparesis with that of healthy subjects in terms of function, pain, and tactile sense. [Subjects and Methods] Upper extremity evaluation parameters of 20 patients with hemiparesis were compared with an age-matched control group of 20 healthy subjects. A shorter version of the Disability of Arm and Shoulder Questionnaire, Upper Extremity Functional Index, and Simple Shoulder Test were used to evaluate the upper extremity functionality. The Visual Analog Scale was used to measure pain severity at rest, at night, and during activity. Tactile sensation levels were assessed by Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments at four palmar areas. [Results] A statistically significant difference was found in the upper extremity functionality between the groups. Pain severity at rest was significantly higher in the hemiparetic group. There was no significant difference in night and activity pain severities or tactile sensation levels between the groups. [Conclusion] According to our results, the unaffected side of patients with hemiparesis differs in functionality and pain at rest compared with that of healthy persons. Studies with larger sample size and various evaluation tests are needed to further investigate the unaffected side of patients with hemiparesis. PMID:27512250

  6. Neurofeedback of slow cortical potentials: neural mechanisms and feasibility of a placebo-controlled design in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Gevensleben, Holger; Albrecht, Björn; Lütcke, Henry; Auer, Tibor; Dewiputri, Wan Ilma; Schweizer, Renate; Moll, Gunther; Heinrich, Hartmut; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate basic mechanisms underlying neurofeedback we investigated neural mechanisms of training of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) by considering EEG- and fMRI. Additionally, we analyzed the feasibility of a double-blind, placebo-controlled design in NF research based on regulation performance during treatment sessions and self-assessment of the participants. Twenty healthy adults participated in 16 sessions of SCPs training: 9 participants received regular SCP training, 11 participants received sham feedback. At three time points (pre, intermediate, post) fMRI and EEG/ERP-measurements were conducted during a continuous performance test (CPT). Performance-data during the sessions (regulation performance) in the treatment group and the placebo group were analyzed. Analysis of EEG-activity revealed in the SCP group a strong enhancement of the CNV (electrode Cz) at the intermediate assessment, followed by a decrease back to baseline at the post-treatment assessment. In contrast, in the placebo group a continuous but smaller increase of the CNV could be obtained from pre to post assessment. The increase of the CNV in the SCP group at intermediate testing was superior to the enhancement in the placebo group. The changes of the CNV were accompanied by a continuous improvement in the test performance of the CPT from pre to intermediate to post assessment comparable in both groups. The change of the CNV in the SCP group is interpreted as an indicator of neural plasticity and efficiency while an increase of the CNV in the placebo group might reflect learning and improved timing due to the frequent task repetition. In the fMRI analysis evidence was obtained for neuronal plasticity. After regular SCP neurofeedback activation in the posterior parietal cortex decreased from the pre- to the intermediate measurement and increased again in the post measurement, inversely following the U-shaped increase and decrease of the tCNV EEG amplitude in the SCP-trained group

  7. Neurofeedback of slow cortical potentials: neural mechanisms and feasibility of a placebo-controlled design in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Gevensleben, Holger; Albrecht, Björn; Lütcke, Henry; Auer, Tibor; Dewiputri, Wan Ilma; Schweizer, Renate; Moll, Gunther; Heinrich, Hartmut; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate basic mechanisms underlying neurofeedback we investigated neural mechanisms of training of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) by considering EEG- and fMRI. Additionally, we analyzed the feasibility of a double-blind, placebo-controlled design in NF research based on regulation performance during treatment sessions and self-assessment of the participants. Twenty healthy adults participated in 16 sessions of SCPs training: 9 participants received regular SCP training, 11 participants received sham feedback. At three time points (pre, intermediate, post) fMRI and EEG/ERP-measurements were conducted during a continuous performance test (CPT). Performance-data during the sessions (regulation performance) in the treatment group and the placebo group were analyzed. Analysis of EEG-activity revealed in the SCP group a strong enhancement of the CNV (electrode Cz) at the intermediate assessment, followed by a decrease back to baseline at the post-treatment assessment. In contrast, in the placebo group a continuous but smaller increase of the CNV could be obtained from pre to post assessment. The increase of the CNV in the SCP group at intermediate testing was superior to the enhancement in the placebo group. The changes of the CNV were accompanied by a continuous improvement in the test performance of the CPT from pre to intermediate to post assessment comparable in both groups. The change of the CNV in the SCP group is interpreted as an indicator of neural plasticity and efficiency while an increase of the CNV in the placebo group might reflect learning and improved timing due to the frequent task repetition. In the fMRI analysis evidence was obtained for neuronal plasticity. After regular SCP neurofeedback activation in the posterior parietal cortex decreased from the pre- to the intermediate measurement and increased again in the post measurement, inversely following the U-shaped increase and decrease of the tCNV EEG amplitude in the SCP-trained group

  8. Effect of monthly vitamin D3 supplementation in healthy adults on adverse effects of earthquakes: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Florkowski, Christopher M; Chambers, Stephen T; Priest, Patricia C; Stewart, Alistair W; Jennings, Lance C; Livesey, John H; Camargo, Carlos A; Scragg, Robert; Murdoch, David R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether supplementation with vitamin D improves resilience to the adverse effects of earthquakes. Design Opportunistic addition to an established randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Setting Christchurch, New Zealand, where a prolonged series of catastrophic earthquakes beginning on 4 September 2010 occurred, which caused widespread destruction, fatalities, and extensive psychological damage. Participants 322 healthy adults (241 women; 81 men) aged 18-67 who were already participating in the vitamin D and acute respiratory infections study (VIDARIS) between February 2010 and November 2011. Intervention Participants were randomised to receive an oral dose of either 200 000 IU vitamin D3 monthly for two months then 100 000 IU monthly (n=161) or placebo (n=161) for a total of 18 months. Main outcome measure This is a post hoc analysis from the previously published VIDARIS trial. The primary endpoint in the current analysis was the self reported effects and overall adverse impact of the Christchurch earthquakes as assessed by questionnaire four months after the most destructive earthquake on 22 February 2011, which was used as the index event. The secondary end point was the number of “psychological” adverse events that participants reported at their usual monthly appointments as part of the original VIDARIS trial. Results 308 participants completed the earthquake impact questionnaire (n=152 in the vitamin D group and 156 in the placebo group). There was no significant difference in the number of self reported adverse effects between those receiving vitamin D supplementation and those receiving placebo. There was also no difference in the overall adverse impact score between treatment groups (χ2 P=0.44). The exception was that those in the vitamin D group experienced more adverse effects on family relationships (22% v 13%; χ2 P=0.03). The number of psychological adverse events—such as fatigue, stress, anxiety, and insomnia

  9. Higher plasma orexin A levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome compared with healthy unrelated sibling controls.

    PubMed

    Manzardo, Ann M; Johnson, Lisa; Miller, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Daniel J; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-08-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder associated with maladaptive social behavior, hyperphagia, and morbid obesity. Orexin A is a hypothalamic neuropeptide important as a homeostatic regulator of feeding behavior and in energy metabolism through actions in the lateral hypothalamus. Dysregulation of orexin signaling may contribute to behavioral problems and hyperphagia seen in PWS and we sought to assess orexin A levels in PWS relative to controls children. Morning fasting plasma orexin A levels were analyzed in 23 children (aged 5-11 years) with genetically confirmed PWS and 18 age and gender matched healthy unrelated siblings without PWS. Multiplex immune assays utilized the Milliplex Human Neuropeptide Magnetic panel and the Luminex platform. Natural log-transformed orexin A data were analyzed using general linear model adjusting for diagnosis, gender, age, total body fat and body mass index (BMI). Plasma orexin A levels were significantly higher (P < 0.006) in children with PWS (average ±SD = 1028 pg/ml ± 358) compared with unrelated siblings (average ±SD = 609 pg/ml ± 351; P < 0.001). Orexin A levels correlated with age in females and were significantly elevated in PWS even after these effects were controlled. These findings support the hypothesis that dysregulation of orexin signaling may contribute to behavioral problems and hyperphagia in PWS. Further studies are warranted to better understand the complex relationship between orexin A levels and the problematic behaviors consistently found in individuals with PWS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27214028

  10. Higher plasma orexin a levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome compared with healthy unrelated sibling controls.

    PubMed

    Manzardo, Ann M; Johnson, Lisa; Miller, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Daniel J; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder associated with maladaptive social behavior, hyperphagia and morbid obesity. Orexin A is a hypothalamic neuropeptide important as a homeostatic regulator of feeding behavior and in energy metabolism through actions in the lateral hypothalamus. Dysregulation of orexin signaling may contribute to behavioral problems and hyperphagia seen in PWS and we sought to assess orexin A levels in PWS relative to controls children. Morning fasting plasma orexin A levels were analyzed in 23 children (aged 5-11 years) with genetically confirmed PWS and 18 age and gender matched healthy unrelated siblings without PWS. Multiplex immune assays utilized the Milliplex Human Neuropeptide Magnetic panel and the Luminex platform. Natural log-transformed orexin A data were analyzed using general linear model adjusting for diagnosis, gender, age, total body fat, and body mass index (BMI). Plasma orexin A levels were significantly higher (P < 0.006) in children with PWS (average ±SD = 1,028 pg/ml ± 358) compared with unrelated siblings (average ±SD = 609 pg/ml ± 351; P < 0.001). Orexin A levels correlated with age in females and were significantly elevated in PWS even after these effects were controlled. These findings support the hypothesis that dysregulation of orexin signaling may contribute to behavioral problems and hyperphagia in PWS. Further studies are warranted to better understand the complex relationship between orexin A levels and the problematic behaviors consistently found in individuals with PWS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27518917

  11. Artichoke leaf extract (Cynara scolymus) reduces plasma cholesterol in otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bundy, Rafe; Walker, Ann F; Middleton, Richard W; Wallis, Carol; Simpson, Hugh C R

    2008-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the chief causes of death in the UK, and are associated with high circulating levels of total cholesterol in the plasma. Artichoke leaf extracts (ALEs) have been reported to reduce plasma lipids levels, including total cholesterol, although high quality data is lacking. The objective of this trial was to assess the effect of ALE on plasma lipid levels and general well-being in otherwise healthy adults with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. 131 adults were screened for total plasma cholesterol in the range 6.0-8.0 mmol/l, with 75 suitable volunteers randomised onto the trial. Volunteers consumed 1280 mg of a standardised ALE, or matched placebo, daily for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol decreased in the treatment group by an average of 4.2% (from 7.16 (SD 0.62) mmol/l to 6.86 (SD 0.68) mmol/l) and increased in the control group by an average of 1.9% (6.90 (SD 0.49) mmol/l to 7.03 (0.61) mmol/l), the difference between groups being statistically significant (p=0.025). No significant differences between groups were observed for LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol or triglyceride levels. General well-being improved significantly in both the treatment (11%) and control groups (9%) with no significant differences between groups. In conclusion, ALE consumption resulted in a modest but favourable statistically significant difference in total cholesterol after 12 weeks. In comparison with a previous trial, it is suggested that the apparent positive health status of the study population may have contributed to the modesty of the observed response.

  12. Parent weight change predicts child weight change in family-based weight control program for pre-school children (Buffalo healthy tots)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Title: PARENT WEIGHT CHANGE PREDICTS CHILD WEIGHT CHANGE IN FAMILY-BASED WEIGHT CONTROL PROGRAM FOR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN (BUFFALO HEALTHY TOTS), Teresa Quattrin, MOl, James N Roemmich, PhDI, Rocco Paluch, MAl, Jihnhee Yu, PhD2, Leonard H Epstein, PhDI and Michelle A Ecker, RD, CDEI . lpediatrics, Uni...

  13. PedsQL gastrointestinal symptoms scales and gastrointestinal worry scales in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease in comparison with healthy controls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patient-reported outcomes are essential in determining the broad impact of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and treatments from the patient's perspective. The primary study objectives were to compare the gastrointestinal symptoms and worry of pediatric patients with IBD with matched healthy controls...

  14. The Relationship between Adolescents' Locus of Control and Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Its Implications for School Psychologists and Other Health Related Professionals: Results from a Turkish Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabak, Ruhi Selcuk; Piyal, Birgul; Celen, Umit; Karakoc, Serife; Ozen, Yelda

    2009-01-01

    The Concept of Health Locus of Control (HLOC) indicates the personal belief of an individual about who or what affects his/her health. This approach emphasizes the importance of individual responsibility for health, especially in the school years which represent a "critical period" for students to adopt healthy behaviours and lifestyles. The main…

  15. PedsQL gastrointestinal symptoms scales and gastrointestinal worry scales in pediatric patients with functional and organic gastrointestinal diseases in comparison to healthy controls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary objective was to compare the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and worry of pediatric patients with functional GI disorders (FGIDs) and organic GI diseases to healthy controls utilizing the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Worry Scales for patient s...

  16. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p < 0.001), expressed in normalized and absolute unit, and possibly decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency power (p < 0.01); results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p < 0.001) and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing

  17. Rationale and design of the Miami Healthy Heart Initiative: a randomized controlled study of a community health worker intervention among Latino patients with poorly controlled diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Carrasquillo, Olveen; Patberg, Elizabeth; Alonzo, Yisel; Li, Hua; Kenya, Sonjia

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus disproportionately affects the Latino community. Latinos with diabetes are also less likely to have adequate control of cardiovascular risk factors such as cholesterol and blood pressure. Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly being used to address various health disparity conditions, including diabetes. However, evidence of their effectiveness from randomized controlled trials is limited. Methods The Miami Health Heart Initiative is a randomized controlled trial of 300 Latino patients with diabetes. Patients with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥8.0% were recruited from Miami-Dade’s public hospital system. At baseline, all patients underwent phlebotomy, physical examination, and a structured 90-minute research interview. They were then randomized to either usual care or a CHW intervention called Cariño. For participants in the Cariño arm of the study, CHW services included assistance with nonmedical social services, health education, and patient navigation in which the CHWs serve as a bridge between patients and the health care system. These services were delivered through home visits, phone calls, and group visits. At 12 months, all subjects had a follow-up examination. The primary outcomes at 1 year are changes in systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein, and HbA1c. Secondary outcomes include medication adherence, medication intensification, diabetes self-efficacy, physical activity, and self-reported fruit and vegetable intake. Discussion The Miami Healthy Heart Initiative is one of the first rigorously conducted randomized controlled trials to provide evidence on the impact of CHWs on diabetes intermediate outcomes among Latinos. If the data support our primary hypotheses, the study would lend added support to ongoing efforts to incorporate CHWs as part of our national efforts to reduce and ultimately eliminate health disparities. PMID:24600243

  18. Effects of norepinephrine transporter gene variants on NET binding in ADHD and healthy controls investigated by PET

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdardottir, Helen L.; Kranz, Georg S.; Rami‐Mark, Christina; James, Gregory M.; Vanicek, Thomas; Gryglewski, Gregor; Kautzky, Alexander; Hienert, Marius; Traub‐Weidinger, Tatjana; Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Hacker, Marcus; Rujescu, Dan; Kasper, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder with a strong genetic component. The norepinephrine transporter (NET) is a key target for ADHD treatment and the NET gene has been of high interest as a possible modulator of ADHD pathophysiology. Therefore, we conducted an imaging genetics study to examine possible effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the NET gene on NET nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND) in patients with ADHD and healthy controls (HCs). Twenty adult patients with ADHD and 20 HCs underwent (S,S)‐[18F]FMeNER‐D2 positron emission tomography (PET) and were genotyped on a MassARRAY MALDI‐TOF platform using the Sequenom iPLEX assay. Linear mixed models analyses revealed a genotype‐dependent difference in NET BPND between groups in the thalamus and cerebellum. In the thalamus, a functional promoter SNP (−3081 A/T) and a 5′‐untranslated region (5′UTR) SNP (−182 T/C), showed higher binding in ADHD patients compared to HCs depending on the major allele. Furthermore, we detected an effect of genotype in HCs, with major allele carriers having lower binding. In contrast, for two 3′UTR SNPs (*269 T/C, *417 A/T), ADHD subjects had lower binding in the cerebellum compared to HCs depending on the major allele. Additionally, symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity correlated with NET BPND in the cerebellum depending on genotype. Symptoms correlated positively with cerebellar NET BPND for the major allele, while symptoms correlated negatively to NET BPND in minor allele carriers. Our findings support the role of genetic influence of the NE system on NET binding to be pertubated in ADHD. Hum Brain Mapp 37:884–895, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26678348

  19. Brain function during cognitive flexibility and white matter integrity in alcohol-dependent patients, problematic drinkers and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jochem M; van Holst, Ruth J; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Caan, Matthan W A; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive flexibility has been associated with prefrontal white matter (WM) integrity in healthy controls (HCs), showing that lower WM integrity is associated with worse performance. Although both cognitive flexibility and WM integrity have been found to be aberrant in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients, the relationship between the two has never been tested. In this study, we investigated the association between WM tract density and cognitive flexibility in patients with AD (n = 26) and HCs (n = 22). In order to assess the influence of AD severity, we also included a group of problematic drinkers (PrDs; n = 23) who did not meet the AD criteria. Behavioral responses and brain activity during a cognitive flexibility task were measured during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Probabilistic fiber tracking was performed between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia; two crucial regions for task switching. Finally, the task-related functional connectivity between these areas was assessed. There were no significant group differences in the task performance. However, compared with HCs, AD patients and PrDs showed decreased WM integrity and increased prefrontal brain activation during task switching. Evidence is presented for a compensatory mechanism, involving recruitment of additional prefrontal resources in order to compensate for WM and neural function impairments in AD patients and PrDs. Although present in both alcohol groups, the PrDs were more successful in invoking this compensatory mechanism when compared to the AD patients. We propose that this may therefore serve as a protective factor, precluding transition from problematic drinking into alcohol dependence.

  20. Effects of norepinephrine transporter gene variants on NET binding in ADHD and healthy controls investigated by PET.

    PubMed

    Sigurdardottir, Helen L; Kranz, Georg S; Rami-Mark, Christina; James, Gregory M; Vanicek, Thomas; Gryglewski, Gregor; Kautzky, Alexander; Hienert, Marius; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Hacker, Marcus; Rujescu, Dan; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder with a strong genetic component. The norepinephrine transporter (NET) is a key target for ADHD treatment and the NET gene has been of high interest as a possible modulator of ADHD pathophysiology. Therefore, we conducted an imaging genetics study to examine possible effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the NET gene on NET nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND ) in patients with ADHD and healthy controls (HCs). Twenty adult patients with ADHD and 20 HCs underwent (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2 positron emission tomography (PET) and were genotyped on a MassARRAY MALDI-TOF platform using the Sequenom iPLEX assay. Linear mixed models analyses revealed a genotype-dependent difference in NET BPND between groups in the thalamus and cerebellum. In the thalamus, a functional promoter SNP (-3081 A/T) and a 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) SNP (-182 T/C), showed higher binding in ADHD patients compared to HCs depending on the major allele. Furthermore, we detected an effect of genotype in HCs, with major allele carriers having lower binding. In contrast, for two 3'UTR SNPs (*269 T/C, *417 A/T), ADHD subjects had lower binding in the cerebellum compared to HCs depending on the major allele. Additionally, symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity correlated with NET BPND in the cerebellum depending on genotype. Symptoms correlated positively with cerebellar NET BPND for the major allele, while symptoms correlated negatively to NET BPND in minor allele carriers. Our findings support the role of genetic influence of the NE system on NET binding to be pertubated in ADHD.

  1. Effects of dexamphetamine-induced dopamine release on resting-state network connectivity in recreational amphetamine users and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Schrantee, Anouk; Ferguson, Bart; Stoffers, Diederick; Booij, Jan; Rombouts, Serge; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2016-06-01

    Dexamphetamine (dAMPH) is not only used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but also as a recreational drug. Acutely, dAMPH induces release of predominantly dopamine (DA) in the striatum, and in the cortex both DA and noradrenaline. Recent animal studies have shown that chronic dAMPH administration can induce changes in the DA system following long-term exposure, as evidenced by reductions in DA transporters, D2/3 receptors and endogenous DA levels. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of dAMPH in the human brain. We used a combination of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and [(123)I]IBZM single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (to assess baseline D2/3 receptor binding and DA release) in 15 recreational AMPH users and 20 matched healthy controls to investigate the short-, and long-term effects of AMPH before and after an acute intravenous challenge with dAMPH. We found that acute dAMPH administration reduced functional connectivity in the cortico-striatal-thalamic network. dAMPH-induced DA release, but not DA D2/3 receptor binding, was positively associated with connectivity changes in this network. In addition, acute dAMPH reduced connectivity in default mode networks and salience-executive-networks networks in both groups. In contrast to our hypothesis, no significant group differences were found in any of the rs-fMRI networks investigated, possibly due to lack of sensitivity or compensatory mechanisms. Our findings thus support the use of ICA-based resting-state functional connectivity as a tool to investigate acute, but not chronic, alterations induced by dAMPH on dopaminergic processing in the striatum. PMID:26149196

  2. A surface based approach for cortical thickness comparison between PiB+ and PiB- healthy control subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doré, Vincent; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Fripp, Jurgen; Acosta, Oscar; Chetelat, Gael; Szoeke, Cassandra; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Martins, Ralph N.; Villemagne, Victor; Masters, Colin L.; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C.; Salvado, Olivier

    2012-02-01

    β-amyloid has been shown to play a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In vivo β-amyloid imaging using [11C]Pittsburgh compound Β (PiB) positron emission tomography has made it possible to analyze the relationship between β-amyloid deposition and different pathological markers involved in AD. PiB allows us to stratify the population between subjects which are likely to have prodromal AD, and those who don't. The comparison of the cortical thickness in these different groups is important to better understanding and detect the first symptoms of the disease which may lead to an earlier therapeutic care to reduce neurone loss. Several techniques have been developed to compare the cortical volume and/or thickness between AD and HC groups. However due to the noise introduced by the cortical thickness estimation and by the registration, these methods do not allow to unveil any major different when comparing prodromal AD groups with healthy control subjects group. To improve our understanding of where initial Alzheimer neurodegeneration occurs in the cortex we have developed a surface based technique, and have applied it to the discrimination between PIB-positive and PiB-negative HCs. We first identify the regions where AD patients show high cortical atrophy by using an AD/PiB- HC vertex-wise T-test. In each of these discriminating regions, comparison between PiB+ HC, PiB- HC and AD are performed. We found some significant differences between the two HC groups in the hippocampus and in the temporal lobe for both hemisphere and in the precuneus and occipital regions only for the left hemisphere.

  3. Modafinil combined with cognitive training is associated with improved learning in healthy volunteers--a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gilleen, J; Michalopoulou, P G; Reichenberg, A; Drake, R; Wykes, T; Lewis, S W; Kapur, S

    2014-04-01

    Improving cognition in people with neuropsychiatric disorders remains a major clinical target. By themselves pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches have shown only modest effects in improving cognition. In the present study we tested a recently-proposed methodology to combine CT with a 'cognitive-enhancing' drug to improve cognitive test scores and expanded on previous approaches by delivering combination drug and CT, over a long intervention of repeated sessions, and used multiple tasks to reveal the cognitive processes being enhanced. We also aimed to determine whether gains from this combination approach generalised to untrained tests. In this proof of principle randomised-controlled trial thirty-three healthy volunteers were randomised to receive either modafinil or placebo combined with daily cognitive training over two weeks. Volunteers were trained on tasks of new-language learning, working memory and verbal learning following 200 mg modafinil or placebo for ten days. Improvements in trained and untrained tasks were measured. Rate of new-language learning was significantly enhanced with modafinil, and effects were greatest over the first five sessions. Modafinil improved within-day learning rather than between-day retention. No enhancement of gains with modafinil was observed in working memory nor rate of verbal learning. Gains in all tasks were retained post drug-administration, but transfer effects to broad cognitive abilities were not seen. This study shows that combining CT with modafinil specifically elevates learning over early training sessions compared to CT with placebo and provides a proof of principle experimental paradigm for pharmacological enhancement of cognitive remediation.

  4. Generalized Poincaré Plots-A New Method for Evaluation of Regimes in Cardiac Neural Control in Atrial Fibrillation and Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Platiša, Mirjana M.; Bojić, Tijana; Pavlović, Siniša U.; Radovanović, Nikola N.; Kalauzi, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Classical Poincaré plot is a standard way to measure nonlinear regulation of cardiovascular control. In our work we propose a generalized form of Poincaré plot where we track correlation between the duration of j preceding and k next RR intervals. The investigation was done in healthy subjects and patients with atrial fibrillation, by varying j,k ≤ 100. In cases where j = k, in healthy subjects the typical pattern was observed by “paths” that were substituting scatterplots and that were initiated and ended by loops of Poincaré plot points. This was not the case for atrial fibrillation patients where Poincaré plot had a simple scattered form. More, a typical matrix of Pearson's correlation coefficients, r(j,k), showed different positions of local maxima, depending on the subject's health condition. In both groups, local maxima were grouped into four clusters which probably determined specific regulatory mechanisms according to correlations between the duration of symmetric and asymmetric observed RR intervals. We quantified matrices' degrees of asymmetry and found that they were significantly different: distributed around zero in healthy, while being negative in atrial fibrillation. Also, Pearson's coefficients were higher in healthy than in atrial fibrillation or in signals with reshuffled intervals. Our hypothesis is that by this novel method we can observe heart rate regimes typical for baseline conditions and “defense reaction” in healthy subjects. These data indicate that neural control mechanisms of heart rate are operating in healthy subjects in contrast with atrial fibrillation, identifying it as the state of risk for stress-dependent pathologies. Regulatory regimes of heart rate can be further quantified and explored by the proposed novel method. PMID:26909018

  5. Generalized Poincaré Plots-A New Method for Evaluation of Regimes in Cardiac Neural Control in Atrial Fibrillation and Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Platiša, Mirjana M; Bojić, Tijana; Pavlović, Siniša U; Radovanović, Nikola N; Kalauzi, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Classical Poincaré plot is a standard way to measure nonlinear regulation of cardiovascular control. In our work we propose a generalized form of Poincaré plot where we track correlation between the duration of j preceding and k next RR intervals. The investigation was done in healthy subjects and patients with atrial fibrillation, by varying j,k ≤ 100. In cases where j = k, in healthy subjects the typical pattern was observed by "paths" that were substituting scatterplots and that were initiated and ended by loops of Poincaré plot points. This was not the case for atrial fibrillation patients where Poincaré plot had a simple scattered form. More, a typical matrix of Pearson's correlation coefficients, r(j,k), showed different positions of local maxima, depending on the subject's health condition. In both groups, local maxima were grouped into four clusters which probably determined specific regulatory mechanisms according to correlations between the duration of symmetric and asymmetric observed RR intervals. We quantified matrices' degrees of asymmetry and found that they were significantly different: distributed around zero in healthy, while being negative in atrial fibrillation. Also, Pearson's coefficients were higher in healthy than in atrial fibrillation or in signals with reshuffled intervals. Our hypothesis is that by this novel method we can observe heart rate regimes typical for baseline conditions and "defense reaction" in healthy subjects. These data indicate that neural control mechanisms of heart rate are operating in healthy subjects in contrast with atrial fibrillation, identifying it as the state of risk for stress-dependent pathologies. Regulatory regimes of heart rate can be further quantified and explored by the proposed novel method. PMID:26909018

  6. Quantitative sensory testing and pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease compared to healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Werner, Mads U; Dahl, Jørgen B; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Ballegaard, Martin; Hejl, Anne-Mette; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2014-08-01

    Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) report pain less frequently than their cognitively intact peers. It has been hypothesized that pain processing is altered in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate agreement and reliability of 3 pain sensitivity tests and to examine pain threshold and tolerance in patients with AD. We examined 29 patients with mild to moderate AD and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects with quantitative sensory testing, ie, assessments of detection threshold (warmth detection threshold [WDT]) and pain threshold (heat pain threshold [HPT], pressure algometry, cold pressor test), and assessments of tolerance (pressure algometry, cold pressor test). All procedures were done twice on day 1, 1 hour apart, and repeated on day 2. We found no difference between groups for WDT (patient vs control subjects: mean [95% confidence interval]: 35.5°C [33.4°C to 37.6°C] vs 35.4°C [34.3°C to 36.5°C], P=.8) or HPT (41.2°C [40.0°C to 42.4°C] vs 42.3°C [41.1°C to 43.5°C], P=.24). We observed comparable thresholds for pressure algometry (median [25% to 75% interquartile range]: 120 kPa [100 to 142 kPa] vs 131 kPa [113 to 192 kPa], P=.10), but significantly lower tolerance in AD patients (213 kPa [188 to 306 kPa] vs 289 kPa [262 to 360 kPa], P=.008). No differences were found for the cold pressor test. The study demonstrated good replicability of the sensory testing data with comparable data variability, for both groups, which supports the use of these methods in studies of patients with mild to moderate AD. Contrary to previous studies, we observed a reduced pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate AD, which suggests that the reduced report of pain cannot be explained by reduced processing of painful stimuli.

  7. Quantitative sensory testing and pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease compared to healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Werner, Mads U; Dahl, Jørgen B; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Ballegaard, Martin; Hejl, Anne-Mette; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2014-08-01

    Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) report pain less frequently than their cognitively intact peers. It has been hypothesized that pain processing is altered in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate agreement and reliability of 3 pain sensitivity tests and to examine pain threshold and tolerance in patients with AD. We examined 29 patients with mild to moderate AD and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects with quantitative sensory testing, ie, assessments of detection threshold (warmth detection threshold [WDT]) and pain threshold (heat pain threshold [HPT], pressure algometry, cold pressor test), and assessments of tolerance (pressure algometry, cold pressor test). All procedures were done twice on day 1, 1 hour apart, and repeated on day 2. We found no difference between groups for WDT (patient vs control subjects: mean [95% confidence interval]: 35.5°C [33.4°C to 37.6°C] vs 35.4°C [34.3°C to 36.5°C], P=.8) or HPT (41.2°C [40.0°C to 42.4°C] vs 42.3°C [41.1°C to 43.5°C], P=.24). We observed comparable thresholds for pressure algometry (median [25% to 75% interquartile range]: 120 kPa [100 to 142 kPa] vs 131 kPa [113 to 192 kPa], P=.10), but significantly lower tolerance in AD patients (213 kPa [188 to 306 kPa] vs 289 kPa [262 to 360 kPa], P=.008). No differences were found for the cold pressor test. The study demonstrated good replicability of the sensory testing data with comparable data variability, for both groups, which supports the use of these methods in studies of patients with mild to moderate AD. Contrary to previous studies, we observed a reduced pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate AD, which suggests that the reduced report of pain cannot be explained by reduced processing of painful stimuli. PMID:24412285

  8. Cruciferous Vegetables Have Variable Effects on Biomarkers of Systemic Inflammation in a Randomized Controlled Trial in Healthy Young Adults12

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sandi L.; Schwarz, Yvonne; Song, Xiaoling; Wang, Ching-Yun; Chen, Chu; Trudo, Sabrina P.; Kristal, Alan R.; Kratz, Mario; Eaton, David L.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Isothiocyanates in cruciferous vegetables modulate signaling pathways critical to carcinogenesis, including nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), a central regulator of inflammation. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 and GSTT1 metabolize isothiocyanates; genetic variants may result in differences in biologic response. Objective: The objective of this study was to test whether consumption of cruciferous or cruciferous plus apiaceous vegetables altered serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, and soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR) I and II, and whether this response was GSTM1/GSTT1 genotype dependent. Methods: In a randomized crossover trial, healthy men (n = 32) and women (n = 31) aged 20–40 y consumed 4 14-d controlled diets: basal (vegetable-free), single-dose cruciferous (1xC) [7 g vegetables/kg body weight (BW)], double-dose cruciferous (2xC) (14 g/kg BW), and cruciferous plus apiaceous (carrot family) (1xC+A) vegetables (7 and 4 g/kg BW, respectively), with a 21-d washout period between each intervention. Urinary isothiocyanate excretion was also evaluated as a marker of systemic isothiocyanate exposure. Fasting morning blood and urine samples were collected on days 0 and 14 and analyzed. Results: IL-6 concentrations were significantly lower on day 14 of the 2xC and 1xC+A diets than with the basal diet [−19% (95% CI: −30%, −0.1%) and −20% (95% CI: −31%, -0.7%), respectively]. IL-8 concentrations were higher after the 1xC+A diet (+16%; 95% CI: 4.2%, 35.2%) than after the basal diet. There were no effects of diet on CRP, TNF-α, or sTNFRI or II. There were significant differences between GSTM1-null/GSTT1+ individuals for several biomarkers in response to 1xC+A compared with basal diets (CRP: −37.8%; 95% CI: −58.0%, −7.4%; IL-6: −48.6%; 95% CI: −49.6%, −12.0%; IL-8: 16.3%; 95% CI: 6.7%, 57.7%) and with the 2xC diet compared with the

  9. Centenarians’ offspring as a model of healthy aging: a reappraisal of the data on Italian subjects and a comprehensive overview

    PubMed Central

    Cevenini, Elisa; Pini, Elisa; Scurti, Maria; Vitale, Giovanni; Mari, Daniela; Caruso, Calogero; Sansoni, Paolo; Fanelli, Flaminia; Pasquali, Renato; Gueresi, Paola; Franceschi, Claudio; Monti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Within the scenario of an increasing life expectancy worldwide it is mandatory to identify determinants of healthy aging. Centenarian offspring (CO) is one of the most informative model to identify trajectories of healthy aging and their determinants (genetic and environmental), being representative of elderly in their 70th whose lifestyle can be still modified to attain a better health. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the health status of 267 CO (mean age: 70.2 years) and adopts the innovative approach of comparing CO with 107 age-matched offspring of non-long-lived parents (hereafter indicated as NCO controls), recruited according to strict inclusion demographic criteria of Italian population. We adopted a multidimensional approach which integrates functional and cognitive assessment together with epidemiological and clinical data, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, lipid profile, and insulin resistance. CO have a lower prevalence of stroke, cerebral thrombosis-hemorrhage, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and other minor diseases, lower BMI and waist circumference, a better functional and cognitive status and lower plasma level of FT4 compared to NCO controls. We conclude that a multidimensional approach is a reliable strategy to identify the health status of elderly at an age when interventions to modify their health trajectory are feasible. PMID:26979133

  10. Centenarians' offspring as a model of healthy aging: a reappraisal of the data on Italian subjects and a comprehensive overview.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Laura; Ostan, Rita; Cevenini, Elisa; Pini, Elisa; Scurti, Maria; Vitale, Giovanni; Mari, Daniela; Caruso, Calogero; Sansoni, Paolo; Fanelli, Flaminia; Pasquali, Renato; Gueresi, Paola; Franceschi, Claudio; Monti, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Within the scenario of an increasing life expectancy worldwide it is mandatory to identify determinants of healthy aging. Centenarian offspring (CO) is one of the most informative model to identify trajectories of healthy aging and their determinants (genetic and environmental), being representative of elderly in their 70th whose lifestyle can be still modified to attain a better health. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the health status of 267 CO (mean age: 70.2 years) and adopts the innovative approach of comparing CO with 107 age-matched offspring of non-long-lived parents (hereafter indicated as NCO controls), recruited according to strict inclusion demographic criteria of Italian population. We adopted a multidimensional approach which integrates functional and cognitive assessment together with epidemiological and clinical data, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, lipid profile, and insulin resistance. CO have a lower prevalence of stroke, cerebral thrombosis-hemorrhage, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and other minor diseases, lower BMI and waist circumference, a better functional and cognitive status and lower plasma level of FT4 compared to NCO controls. We conclude that a multidimensional approach is a reliable strategy to identify the health status of elderly at an age when interventions to modify their health trajectory are feasible. PMID:26979133

  11. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  12. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be ...

  13. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  14. Is blunted cardiovascular reactivity in depression mood-state dependent? A comparison of major depressive disorder remitted depression and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Kristen; Bylsma, Lauren M; White, Kristi E; Panaite, Vanessa; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    Prior work has repeatedly demonstrated that people who have current major depression exhibit blunted cardiovascular reactivity to acute stressors (e.g., Salomon et al., 2009). A key question regards the psychobiological basis for these deficits, including whether such deficits are depressed mood-state dependent or whether these effects are trait-like and are observed outside of depression episodes in vulnerable individuals. To examine this issue, we assessed cardiovascular reactivity to a speech stressor task and a forehead cold pressor in 50 individuals with current major depressive disorder (MDD), 25 with remitted major depression (RMD), and 45 healthy controls. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure and impedance cardiography were assessed and analyses controlled for BMI and sex. Significant group effects were found for SBP, HR, and PEP for the speech preparation period and HR, CO, and PEP during the speech. For each of these parameters, only the MDD group exhibited attenuated reactivity as well as impaired SBP recovery. Reactivity and recovery in the RMD group more closely resembled the healthy controls. Speeches given by the MDD group were rated as less persuasive than the RMD or healthy controls' speeches. No significant differences were found for the cold pressor. Blunted cardiovascular reactivity and impaired recovery in current major depression may be mood-state dependent phenomena and may be more reflective of motivational deficits than deficits in the physiological integrity of the cardiovascular system.

  15. Comparable Postprandial Glucose Reductions with Viscous Fiber Blend Enriched Biscuits in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Acute Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Alexandra L.; Jenkins, David J.A.; Wolever, Thomas M.S.; Rogovik, Alexander L.; Jovanovski, Elena; Božikov, Velimir; Rahelić, Dario; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Aim To compare the blood glucose-lowering effect of a highly viscous fiber blend (VFB) added to a starchy snack on postprandial glycemia between healthy participants and participants with diabetes mellitus. Methods Ten healthy participants (4 men and 6 women, aged 28 ± 2.6 years, body mass index [BMI], 24.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2) and 9 participants with diabetes mellitus type 2 (3 men and 6 women, aged 68 ± 3.8 years, BMI 28.8 ± 1.2 kg/m2) on four separate occasions took either 50 g available carbohydrates as control biscuits, biscuits with 10 g of highly viscous fiber blend, white bread with 12 g of margarine, or white bread alone. Postprandial blood glucose response, glycemic index (GI), and palatability were determined. Results Mean (95% confidence interval) GI values of the viscous fiber blend biscuits were 26 (16-36) and 37 (27-47) GI units for healthy participants and participants with diabetes mellitus, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those of white bread, white bread with 12 g of margarine, and control biscuits (P < 0.001, paired t test) both in healthy participants (GI 100, 108 [57-159], and 101 [44-158], respectively) and participants with diabetes mellitus (GI 100, 103 [79-127], and 94 [78-110], respectively). Viscous fiber blend significantly reduced the glycemic index by 74% (7.4 GI units/g of fiber) in healthy participants and by 63% (6.3 GI units/g of fiber) in participants with diabetes. The GI did not differ between control meals in both healthy participants and participants with diabetes. There were no significant differences in palatability among the types of meals, although participants with diabetes found the viscous fiber blend biscuits more palatable (P = 0.002, t test). Conclusion Viscous fiber blend is a very potent and palatable soluble fiber addition to a starchy snack, which is able to reduce the glycemic response to a similar extent in both healthy participants and individuals with diabetes

  16. Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Insertion in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients and Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Kim, Tae-Woo; Weinreb, Robert N.; Lee, Eun Ji; Girard, Michaël J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) whether there are differences in the location of the anterior lamina cribrosa insertion (ALI) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and healthy subjects. Methods Fifty three eyes from 53 patients with POAG, and 53 eyes from 53 age-matched healthy subjects were included prospectively in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Twelve radial line B-scans centered on the optic disc in every half-clock-hour meridian were acquired using SS-OCT. The ALI position was assessed by measuring two parameters: (1) ALI distance (ALID)—the distance from the anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO) to the ALI; and (2) marginal anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (mALCSD)—the perpendicular distance from the ASCO plane to the anterior lamina cribrosa surface. These parameters were compared between the two groups for each meridian. Results Both ALID (256±54 vs. 209±37 µm, mean ± SD, p<0.001) and mALCSD (232±63 vs. 187±40 µm, p<0.001) were significantly greater in the POAG group than in the normal group. The largest difference was observed at the 6.5 o′clock and 11.5 o′clock meridians for both ALID and mALCSD. Multiple regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and both ALID and mALCSD in the control group, and a negative correlation between mean deviation of the visual field test and both ALID and mALCSD in the POAG group. Conclusions The ALI was displaced posteriorly in eyes with POAG compared to those of healthy controls. This finding suggests that the posteriorly located lamina cribrosa insertion is an important component of glaucomatous optic nerve excavation. PMID:25531761

  17. Expression and methylation data from SLE patient and healthy control blood samples subdivided with respect to ARID3a levels.

    PubMed

    Ward, Julie M; Ratliff, Michelle L; Dozmorov, Mikhail G; Wiley, Graham; Guthridge, Joel M; Gaffney, Patrick M; James, Judith A; Webb, Carol F

    2016-12-01

    Previously published studies revealed that variation in expression of the DNA-binding protein ARID3a in B lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) correlated with levels of disease activity ("Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus correlates with expression of the transcription factor AT-rich-interactive domain 3A" (J.M. Ward, K. Rose, C. Montgomery, I. Adrianto, J.A. James, J.T. Merrill et al., 2014) [1]). The data presented here compare DNA methylation patterns from SLE peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from samples with high numbers of ARID3a expressing B cells (ARID3a(H)) versus SLE samples with normal numbers of ARID3a(+) B cells (ARID3a(N)). The methylation data is available at the gene expression omnibus (GEO) repository, "Gene Expression Omnibus: NCBI gene expression and hybridization array data repository" (R. Edgar, M. Domrachev, A.E. Lash, 2002) [2]. Isolated B cells from SLE ARID3a(H) and ARID3a(N) B samples were also evaluated via qRT-PCR for Type I interferon (IFN) signature and pathway gene expression levels by qRT-PCR. Similarly, healthy control B cells and B cells stimulated to express ARID3a with the TLR agonist, CpG, were also compared via qRT-PCR. Primers designed to detect 6 IFNa subtype mRNAs were tested in 4 IFNa, Epstein-Barr Virus-transformed B cell lines ("Reduced interferon-alpha production by Epstein-Barr virus transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell lines and lectin-stimulated lymphocytes in congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type I" (S.H. Wickramasinghe, R. Hasan, J. Smythe, 1997) [3]). The data in this article support the publication, "Human effector B lymphocytes express ARID3a and secrete interferon alpha" (J.M. Ward, M.L. Ratliff, M.G. Dozmorov, G. Wiley, J.M. Guthridge, P.M. Gaffney, J.A. James, C.F. Webb, 2016) [4]. PMID:27656675

  18. Immunogenicity and Safety of Influenza Vaccination in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients Compared with Healthy Controls: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Zhengfa; Tang, Hao; Xu, Xiaojia; Liang, Yaping; Xiong, Yongzhen; Ni, Jindong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the immunogenicity and safety of influenza vaccine in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Relevant articles were retrieved from electronic databases. Seroprotection rate, seroconversion rate and factors that increase antibody geometric mean titer (GMT) were used as indices to measure the immunogenicity. The safety of vaccine was assessed through monitoring adverse events, which included side effects and SLE exacerbations. We performed a meta-analysis of influenza vaccine seroprotection, seroconversion and adverse effects. SLE exacerbation after vaccination was comprehensively described. We used the Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP) guidelines to determine whether influenza can induce adequate immunogenicity in patients with SLE. Results Eighteen studies with 1966 subjects met the inclusion criteria. At least 565 of the subjects were patients with low-to-moderate SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score or stable SLE disease. Compared with the general population, seroprotection rate in SLE patients was significantly decreased in patients with H1N1 [odds ratio (OR) = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27–0.50] and H3N2 vaccination (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.24–0.93), but not influenza B vaccination (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.24–1.25). Seroconversion rate also significantly decreased in patients with H1N1 (OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.27–0.57) and influenza B (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.29–0.76) vaccination, but not H3N2 vaccination (OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.21–1.79). However, the immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in SLE patients almost reached that of the CPMP guidelines. The OR for side effects (patients versus healthy controls) was 3.24 (95% CI: 0.62–16.76). Among 1966 patients with SLE, 32 experienced mild exacerbation of SLE and five had serious side effects for other reasons. Conclusion Influenza vaccine has moderate effect on protecting patients with SLE. The side effects of influenza vaccine are not serious

  19. Evaluating the Maintenance of Lifestyle Changes in a Randomized Controlled Trial of the ‘Get Healthy, Stay Healthy’ Program

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Ana D; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian; Maher, Genevieve; Winkler, Elisabeth; Eakin, Elizabeth G

    2016-01-01

    Background Extending contact with participants after initial, intensive intervention may support maintenance of weight loss and related behaviors. Objective This community-wide trial evaluated a text message (short message service, SMS)-delivered, extended contact intervention (‘Get Healthy, Stay Healthy’ (GHSH)), which followed on from a population-level, behavioral telephone coaching program. Methods This study employed a parallel, randomized controlled trial: GHSH compared with no continued contact (standard practice). Participants (n=228) were recruited after completing a 6-month lifestyle telephone coaching program: mean age = 53.4 (standard deviation (SD)=12.3) years; 66.7% (152/228) female; mean body mass index (BMI) upon entering GHSH=29.5 kg/m2 (SD = 6.0). Participants received tailored text messages over a 6-month period. The message frequency, timing, and content of the messages was based on participant preference, ascertained during two tailoring telephone calls. Primary outcomes of body weight, waist circumference, physical activity (walking, moderate, and vigorous sessions/week), and dietary behaviors (fruit and vegetable serves/day, cups of sweetened drinks per day, takeaway meals per week; fat, fiber and total indices from the Fat and Fiber Behavior Questionnaire) were assessed via self-report before (baseline) and after (6-months) extended contact (with moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) also assessed via accelerometry). Results Significant intervention effects, all favoring the intervention group, were observed at 6-months for change in weight (-1.35 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI): -2.24, -0.46, P=.003), weekly moderate physical activity sessions (0.56 sessions/week, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96, P=.008) and accelerometer-assessed MVPA (24.16 minutes/week, 95% CI: 5.07, 43.25, P=.007). Waist circumference, other physical activity outcomes and dietary outcomes, did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions The GHSH extended care

  20. Making Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Policy Practice: Process Evaluation of a Group Randomized Controlled Intervention in Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Hutto, Brent; Saunders, Ruth P.; Moore, Justin B.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Pate, Russell R.; Beighle, Aaron; Freedman, Darcy

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the link between level of implementation and outcomes from an intervention to increase afterschool programs' (ASPs) achievement of healthy eating and physical activity (HE-PA) Standards. Ten intervention ASPs implemented the Strategies-To-Enhance-Practice (STEPs), a multi-component, adaptive intervention framework identifying…

  1. 78 FR 25756 - Announcement of Funding Awards for Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control (OHHLHC) Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5600-FA-04A; Docket No. FR-5600-FA-04B; Docket No. FR- 5600-FA-07... Demonstration Programs (FR-5600-N-04); and on November 30, 2011 for Healthy Homes Technical Studies Programs (FR... Street, Newton, MA 02458- 1283, $699,793; Wayne State University Center for Urban Studies, 5057...

  2. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Ono, Kenjiro; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Iwasa, Kazuo; Nagai, Toshitada; Kobayashi, Shoko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state) and Study 2 (fed state)]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals.

  3. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Ono, Kenjiro; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Iwasa, Kazuo; Nagai, Toshitada; Kobayashi, Shoko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state) and Study 2 (fed state)]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals. Trial Registration Trial Registration: UMIN-CTR UMIN000004997 PMID:25978046

  4. Menopause and menarche in patients with primary blepharospasm: an exploratory case-control study.

    PubMed

    Martino, Davide; Livrea, Paolo; Giorelli, Maurizio; Masi, Gianluca; Aniello, Maria Stella; Defazio, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    We studied the relationships between blepharospasm (BSP) and menopause/menarche in female patients with primary BSP (n = 83) and age-matched healthy (n = 83) and disease controls (n = 83). BSP patients and matched controls had comparable age at menopause, and there was no correlation between age at menopause and age at BSP onset. Thus, menopause probably exerts no significant influence on the age-dependent development of BSP. BSP cases tended to have a later menarche than either group of controls. The association was independent of age, disease duration and education level. Because the higher the age at menarche, the higher the age at BSP onset, later menarche was unlikely to be a risk factor for BSP. Rather, the two conditions may share pathophysiologic mechanisms, for example minor abnormality of neurotransmitter systems controlling both the motor system and the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis responsible for the onset of puberty.

  5. Inverse Effects of Oxytocin on Attributing Mental Activity to Others in Depressed and Healthy Subjects: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, David; Kose, Samet; Arana, Ashley; Johnson, Kevin; Morgan, Paul S.; Borckardt, Jeffrey; Herbsman, Tal; Hardaway, Fran; George, Mark S.; Panksepp, Jaak; Nahas, Ziad

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oxytocin is a stress-attenuating and pro-social neuropeptide. To date, no study has looked at the effects of oxytocin in modulating brain activity in depressed individuals nor attempted to correlate this activity with attribution of mental activity in others. Method: We enrolled 10 unmedicated depressed adults and 10 matched healthy controls in a crossover, double blind placebo controlled fMRI 40 i.u. intra-nasal oxytocin study (20 i.u. per nostril). Each subject performed reading the mind in the eyes task (RMET) before and after inhalation of oxytocin or placebo control for a total of 80 scans. Results: Before oxytocin administration, RMET engaged the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, insula and associative areas. Depressed subjects showed increased anterior ventral activation for the RMET minus gender identification contrast whereas matched controls showed increased dorsal and frontal activity. Compared to placebo, oxytocin in depressed subjects showed increased activity in the superior middle frontal gyrus and insula, while controls exhibited more activity in ventral regions. Oxytocin also led to inverse effects in reaction times on attribution task between groups, with controls getting faster and depressed individuals slower to respond. Conclusion: Depression is associated with increased paralimbic activity during emotional mental attribution of others, appearing to be distinctly modulated by oxytocin when compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to explore long-term exposure to pro-social neuropeptides on mood in depressed populations and assess their clinical relevance. PMID:21423444

  6. Influencing Factors on the Overestimation of Self-Reported Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Low Back Pain Patients and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, Andrea; Rudolf, Kevin; Dejonghe, Lea; Grieben, Christopher; Froboese, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the present study was to determine the closeness of agreement between a self-reported and an objective measure of physical activity in low back pain patients and healthy controls. Beyond, influencing factors on overestimation were identified. Methods. 27 low back pain patients and 53 healthy controls wore an accelerometer (objective measure) for seven consecutive days and answered a questionnaire on physical activity (self-report) over the same period of time. Differences between self-reported and objective data were tested by Wilcoxon test. Bland-Altman analysis was conducted for describing the closeness of agreement. Linear regression models were calculated to identify the influence of age, sex, and body mass index on the overestimation by self-report. Results. Participants overestimated self-reported moderate activity in average by 42 min/day (p = 0.003) and vigorous activity by 39 min/day (p < 0.001). Self-reported sedentary time was underestimated by 122 min/day (p < 0.001). No individual-related variables influenced the overestimation of physical activity. Low back pain patients were more likely to underestimate sedentary time compared to healthy controls. Discussion. In rehabilitation and health promotion, the application-oriented measurement of physical activity remains a challenge. The present results contradict other studies that had identified an influence of age, sex, and body mass index on the overestimation of physical activity. PMID:27298820

  7. HLA-Cw Allele Frequency in Definite Meniere’s Disease Compared to Probable Meniere’s Disease and Healthy Controls in an Iranian Sample

    PubMed Central

    Dabiri, Sasan; Ghadimi, Fatemeh; Firouzifar, Mohammadreza; Yazdani, Nasrin; Mohammad-Amoli, Mahsa; Vakili, Varasteh; Mahvi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several lines of evidence support the contribution of autoimmune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Meniere’s disease. The aim of this study was determining the association between HLA-Cw Alleles in patients with definite Meniere’s disease and patients with probable Meniere’s disease and a control group. Materials and Methods: HLA-Cw genotyping was performed in 23 patients with definite Meniere’s disease, 24 with probable Meniere’s disease, and 91 healthy normal subjects, using sequence specific primers polymerase chain reaction technique. The statistical analysis was performed using stata 8 software. Results: There was a significant association between HLA-Cw*04 and HLA-Cw*16 in both definite and probable Meniere’s disease compared to normal healthy controls. We observed a significant difference in HLA-Cw*12 frequencies between patients with definite Meniere’s disease compared to patients with probable Meniere’s disease (P=0.04). The frequency of HLA-Cw*18 is significantly higher in healthy controls (P=0.002). Conclusion: Our findings support the rule of HLA-Cw Alleles in both definite and probable Meniere’s disease. In addition, differences in HLA-Cw*12 frequency in definite and probable Meniere’s disease in our study’s population might indicate distinct immune and inflammatory mechanisms involved in each condition. PMID:27602337

  8. The characteristics of sleep in patients with manifest bipolar disorder, subjects at high risk of developing the disease and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Philipp S; Marx, Carolin; Lewtschenko, Natalia; Pfeiffer, Steffi; Leopold, Karolina; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Sleep is highly altered during affective episodes in patients with bipolar disorder. There is accumulating evidence that sleep is also altered in euthymic states. A deficit in sleep regulation may be a vulnerability factor with aetiological relevance in the development of the disease. This study aims to explore the objective, subjective and lifetime sleep characteristics of patients with manifest bipolar disorder and persons with an elevated risk of developing the disease. Twenty-two patients with bipolar I and II disorder, nine persons with an elevated risk of developing the disorder and 28 healthy controls were evaluated with a structured interview to characterize subjective and lifetime sleeping habits. In addition, participants wore an actimeter for six nights. Patients with bipolar disorder had longer sleep latency and duration compared with healthy controls as determined by actigraphy. The subjective and lifetime sleep characteristics of bipolar patients differed significantly from healthy controls. The results of participants with an elevated risk of developing the disorder had subjective and lifetime characteristics that were largely analogous to those of patients with manifest bipolar disorder. In particular, both groups described recurring insomnia and hypersomnia, sensitivity to shifts in circadian rhythm, difficulties awakening and prolonged sleep latency. This study provides further evidence that sleep and circadian timing are profoundly altered in patients with bipolar disorder. It may also tentatively suggest that sleep may be altered prior to the first manic episode in subjects at high risk.

  9. Quality of Life and Functional Impairment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A comparison of patients with and without comorbidity, patients in remission, and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Huppert, Jonathan D.; Blair Simpson, H.; Nissenson, Kore J.; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Foa, Edna B.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with interference in quality of life (QOL) and functional impairment. However, these studies did not compare individuals in remission to individuals who continue to have the disorder, predominantly used comparisons with norms and not with a matched normal sample, and did not always consider the impact of comorbidity. We administered multiple measures that assess QOL and functional impairment to 66 OCD patients who had previously consented for a clinical trial, and to 36 age and sex matched individuals who denied any psychiatric history. Results confirm that OCD was associated with significantly lower QOL and functional impairment compared to healthy controls in areas of work, social life, and family life. Individuals with OCD and other comorbid psychiatric diagnoses showed the poorest QOL and functioning, with comorbid depression accounting for much of the variance. The levels of QOL and functioning in individuals in remission tended to lay in between healthy controls and individuals with current OCD: their QOL or functioning did not differ significantly from healthy controls, nor did they consistently differ significantly from who had current OCD. These results suggest that individuals who are in remission have improved levels of QOL and functioning while individuals with OCD are significantly impaired, and individuals with OCD and comorbid disorders are the most impaired. Treatment strategies should be focused on achieving remission of all symptoms in order to have the greatest impact on functioning and QOL. PMID:18800368

  10. Human dermal fibroblasts HDFa can be used as an appropriate healthy control for PMMA nanoparticles-survivin molecular beacon cellular uptake studies.

    PubMed

    Adinolfi, Barbara; Pellegrino, Mario; Baldini, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family (IAPs); besides its inhibitory action on apoptosis, it is also involved in the regulation of cell division. The protein expression is up-regulated in several cancers, being involved in the tumor progression and evasion of apoptosis. In line with its physiological roles, it is expressed also in several healthy tissues. The high expression of survivin in cancer cells correlates to poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapeutic treatment, thus making this protein an attractive target in anticancer therapy. The dual role of survivin in cells, regulation of cell division and inhibition of apoptosis, combined with controversial data concerning the expression in normal tissues, emphasize the need to have an appropriate healthy control for in vitro studies. Aim of this study is to highlight this problem and to clarify the experimental conditions in which HDFa fibroblasts represent a negative control for survivin mRNA expression while ensuring the NPs-MB uptake. In this paper, by using confocal microscopy analysis supported by RT- and real-time-PCR experiments studies, we showed that HDFa fibroblasts represent a healthy negative control for survivin mRNA expression, only at very low cell density or at confluence. At the same time, we demonstrated that HDFa at any cell density are able to internalize NPs-MB after 6h of treatment.

  11. HLA-Cw Allele Frequency in Definite Meniere’s Disease Compared to Probable Meniere’s Disease and Healthy Controls in an Iranian Sample

    PubMed Central

    Dabiri, Sasan; Ghadimi, Fatemeh; Firouzifar, Mohammadreza; Yazdani, Nasrin; Mohammad-Amoli, Mahsa; Vakili, Varasteh; Mahvi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several lines of evidence support the contribution of autoimmune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Meniere’s disease. The aim of this study was determining the association between HLA-Cw Alleles in patients with definite Meniere’s disease and patients with probable Meniere’s disease and a control group. Materials and Methods: HLA-Cw genotyping was performed in 23 patients with definite Meniere’s disease, 24 with probable Meniere’s disease, and 91 healthy normal subjects, using sequence specific primers polymerase chain reaction technique. The statistical analysis was performed using stata 8 software. Results: There was a significant association between HLA-Cw*04 and HLA-Cw*16 in both definite and probable Meniere’s disease compared to normal healthy controls. We observed a significant difference in HLA-Cw*12 frequencies between patients with definite Meniere’s disease compared to patients with probable Meniere’s disease (P=0.04). The frequency of HLA-Cw*18 is significantly higher in healthy controls (P=0.002). Conclusion: Our findings support the rule of HLA-Cw Alleles in both definite and probable Meniere’s disease. In addition, differences in HLA-Cw*12 frequency in definite and probable Meniere’s disease in our study’s population might indicate distinct immune and inflammatory mechanisms involved in each condition.

  12. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C; O'Daly, Owen G

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a "need" state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide some

  13. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C.; O'Daly, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a “need” state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide

  14. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C.; O'Daly, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a “need” state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide

  15. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C; O'Daly, Owen G

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a "need" state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide some

  16. Event related potentials study of aberrations in voice control mechanisms in adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Korzyukov, Oleg; Tapaskar, Natalie; Pflieger, Mark E.; Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Lodhavia, Anjli; Patel, Sona; Robin, Donald A.; Larson, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study was designed to test for neural signs of impulsivity related to voice motor control in young adults with ADHD and healthy control young adults using EEG recordings in a voice pitch perturbation paradigm. Methods Two age-matched groups of young adults were presented with brief pitch shifts of auditory feedback during vocalization. Compensatory behavioral and corresponding bioelectrical brain responses were elicited by the pitch-shifted voice feedback. Results The analysis of bioelectrical responses showed that the ADHD group had shorter peak and onset latency of motor-related bioelectrical brain responses as compared to the controls. Conclusions These results were interpreted to suggest differences in executive functions between ADHD and control participants. Significance We hypothesize that more rapid motor-related bioelectrical responses found in the present study may be a manifestation of impulsiveness in adults with ADHD at the involuntary level of voice control. PMID:25308310

  17. Regional Grey Matter Structure Differences between Transsexuals and Healthy Controls—A Voxel Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Lajos; Kozák, Lajos R.; Simon, Viktória; Czobor, Pál; Unoka, Zsolt; Szabó, Ádám; Csukly, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF) transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM) transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM) obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17) and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females). We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM) structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri). These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender. PMID:24391851

  18. Impact of different food label formats on healthiness evaluation and food choice of consumers: a randomized-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Borgmeier, Ingrid; Westenhoefer, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Background Front of pack food labels or signpost labels are currently widely discussed as means to help consumers to make informed food choices. It is hoped that more informed food choices will result in an overall healthier diet. There is only limited evidence, as to which format of a food label is best understood by consumers, helps them best to differentiate between more or less healthy food and whether these changes in perceived healthiness result in changes of food choice. Methods In a randomised experimental study in Hamburg/Germany 420 adult subjects were exposed to one of five experimental conditions: (1) a simple "healthy choice" tick, (2) a multiple traffic light label, (3) a monochrome Guideline Daily Amount (GDA) label, (4) a coloured GDA label and (5) a "no label" condition. In the first task they had to identify the healthier food items in 28 pair-wise comparisons of foods from different food groups. In the second task they were asked to select food portions from a range of foods to compose a one-day's consumption. Differences between means were analysed using ANOVAs. Results Task I: Experimental conditions differed significantly in the number of correct decisions (p < 0.001). In the condition "no label" subjects had least correct decisions (20.2 ± 3.2), in the traffic light condition most correct decisions were made (24.8 ± 2.4). Task II: Envisaged daily food consumption did not differ significantly between the experimental conditions. Conclusion Different food label formats differ in the understanding of consumers. The current study shows, that German adults profit most from the multiple traffic light labels. Perceived healthiness of foods is influenced by this label format most often. Nevertheless, such changes in perceived healthiness are unlikely to influence food choice and consumption. Attempts to establish the informed consumer with the hope that informed choices will be healthier choices are unlikely to change consumer behaviour and will

  19. Health-related quality of life among adolescents: A comparison between subjects at ultra-high risk for psychosis and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Nitka, Freya; Richter, Julia; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz; Henze, Romy

    2016-01-30

    At risk status for psychosis has been robustly associated with decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adults. However, this relationship has not been examined in adolescents with ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis in comparison to healthy controls. Twenty-seven subjects with UHR and thirty healthy controls (14-18 years of age) were recruited in a multiphase screening and accessed with a HRQoL scale of KIDSCREEN-27. Comparisons indicated that subjects with UHR had poorer mean scores at a statistically significant level in the following scales: physical well-being, psychological well-being and school environment. In a logistic regression analysis, lower scores in the scale school environment explained at risk status for psychosis. Adolescents with UHR show significantly poorer HRQoL scores than healthy peers, identified predominantly by the evaluation of the school environment. These results might be interpreted as a self-perception of early mental and social functioning impairments, which seem to be recognized initially based on school demands. Considering these findings, institutes of education should be a good starting point to promote the awareness of the psychosis-risk state. PMID:26654755

  20. Health-related quality of life among adolescents: A comparison between subjects at ultra-high risk for psychosis and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Nitka, Freya; Richter, Julia; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz; Henze, Romy

    2016-01-30

    At risk status for psychosis has been robustly associated with decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adults. However, this relationship has not been examined in adolescents with ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis in comparison to healthy controls. Twenty-seven subjects with UHR and thirty healthy controls (14-18 years of age) were recruited in a multiphase screening and accessed with a HRQoL scale of KIDSCREEN-27. Comparisons indicated that subjects with UHR had poorer mean scores at a statistically significant level in the following scales: physical well-being, psychological well-being and school environment. In a logistic regression analysis, lower scores in the scale school environment explained at risk status for psychosis. Adolescents with UHR show significantly poorer HRQoL scores than healthy peers, identified predominantly by the evaluation of the school environment. These results might be interpreted as a self-perception of early mental and social functioning impairments, which seem to be recognized initially based on school demands. Considering these findings, institutes of education should be a good starting point to promote the awareness of the psychosis-risk state.

  1. Peripheral blood B lymphocytes derived from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension express a different RNA pattern compared with healthy controls: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Silvia; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laima; Huber, Lars C; Speich, Rudolf; Voelkel, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a progressive and still incurable disease. Research of IPAH-pathogenesis is complicated by the lack of a direct access to the involved tissue, the human pulmonary vasculature. Various auto-antibodies have been described in the blood of patients with IPAH. The purpose of the present work was therefore to comparatively analyze peripheral blood B lymphocyte RNA expression characteristics in IPAH and healthy controls. Methods Patients were diagnosed having IPAH according to WHO (mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥ 25 mmHg, pulmonary capillary occlusion pressure ≤ 15 mmHg, absence of another explaining disease). Peripheral blood B-lymphocytes of patients and controls were immediately separated by density gradient centrifugation and magnetic beads for CD19. RNA was thereafter extracted and analyzed by the use of a high sensitivity gene chip (Affymetrix HG-U133-Plus2) able to analyze 47000 transcripts and variants of human genes. The array data were analyzed by two different softwares, and up-and down-regulations were defined as at least 1.3 fold with standard deviations smaller than fold-changes. Results Highly purified B-cells of 5 patients with IPAH (mean pulmonary artery pressure 51 ± 13 mmHg) and 5 controls were analyzed. Using the two different analyzing methods we found 225 respectively 128 transcripts which were up-regulated (1.3–30.7 fold) in IPAH compared with healthy controls. Combining both methods, there were 33 overlapping up-regulated transcripts and no down-regulated B-cell transcripts. Conclusion Patients with IPAH have a distinct RNA expression profile of their peripheral blood B-lymphocytes compared to healthy controls with some clearly up-regulated genes. Our finding suggests that in IPAH patients B cells are activated. PMID:18269757

  2. A double blind parallel group placebo controlled comparison of sedative and mnesic effects of etifoxine and lorazepam in healthy subjects [corrected].

    PubMed

    Micallef, J; Soubrouillard, C; Guet, F; Le Guern, M E; Alquier, C; Bruguerolle, B; Blin, O

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes the psychomotor and mnesic effects of single oral doses of etifoxine (50 and 100 mg) and lorazepam (2 mg) in healthy subjects. Forty-eight healthy subjects were included in this randomized double blind, placebo controlled parallel group study [corrected]. The effects of drugs were assessed by using a battery of subjective and objective tests that explored mood and vigilance (Visual Analog Scale), attention (Barrage test), psychomotor performance (Choice Reaction Time) and memory (digit span, immediate and delayed free recall of a word list). Whereas vigilance, psychomotor performance and free recall were significantly impaired by lorazepam, neither dosage of etifoxine (50 and 100 mg) produced such effects. These results suggest that 50 and 100 mg single dose of etifoxine do not induce amnesia and sedation as compared to lorazepam. PMID:11468032

  3. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  4. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... easy for kids to choose healthy snacks by keeping fruits and vegetables on hand and ready to eat. ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping ... Award-Winning Cafeteria Recipes Garden-Fresh Lunches Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Kid's Guide ...

  5. Beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive functions in healthy older people: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Results of previous studies have shown that exercise training can improve cognitive functions in healthy older people. Some studies have demonstrated that long-term combination exercise training can facilitate memory function improvement better than either aerobic or strength exercise training alone. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term combination exercise training can improve diverse cognitive functions in healthy older people or not. We investigate the effects of four weeks of short-term combination exercise training on various cognitive functions (executive functions, episodic memory, short-term memory, working memory, attention, reading ability, and processing speed) of healthy older people. Methods A single-blinded intervention with two parallel groups (combination exercise training; waiting list control) is used. Testers are blind to the study hypothesis and the participants’ group membership. Through an advertisement in a local newspaper, 64 healthy older adults are recruited and then assigned randomly to a combination exercise training group or a waiting list control group. Participants in the combination exercise training group must participate in the short-term combination exercise training (aerobic and strength exercise training) three days per week during the four weeks (12 workouts in total). The waiting list group does not participate in the combination exercise training. The primary outcome measure is the Stroop test score: a measure of executive function. Secondary outcome measures are assessments including the Verbal Fluency Task, Logical Memory, First and Second Names, Digit Span Forward, Digit span backward, Japanese Reading Test, Digit Cancellation Task, Digit Symbol Coding, and Symbol Search. We assess these outcome measures before and after the intervention. Discussion This report is the first of a study that investigates the beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive

  6. Kinematic and kinetic evaluation of the stance phase of stair ambulation in persons with stroke and healthy adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Novak, Alison C; Brouwer, Brenda

    2013-08-01

    This study describes and contrasts the kinematics and kinetics of stair ambulation in people with chronic stroke and healthy control subjects. Three-dimensional motion data were collected from 10 persons with stroke (7 males) and 10 sex and age-matched older adults as they ascended and descended an instrumented staircase at self-selected speed with and without a handrail. Ankle, knee and hip joint angle and moment profiles were generated during stance and range of motion and peak moments were contrasted between groups, sides (stroke only) and condition. Cadence was lower in stroke than controls, although the kinematic profiles appeared similar during ascent and decent. Notable differences in joint kinetics were evident as the peak extensor moments were typically lower on the affected side in stroke compared with controls and the less affected side. These differences accounted for the lower magnitude net extensor support moment. The lower affected side hip abductor moments likely limited lateral stability. Handrail use tended to reduce the peak moments on the affected side only leading to more side-to-side differences than occurred without the handrail. The findings reveal differences in task performance between stroke and healthy groups that help inform rehabilitation practice.

  7. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Jong, W J; Cleveringa, A M; Greijdanus, B; Meyer, P; Heineman, E; Hulscher, J B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy human beings is scarce. Studies show that heavy incidental alcohol consumption is a growing problem in modern society. Data on this matter may provide insights into the consequences of this behavior for healthy individuals. In a randomized clinical trial in crossover design, 15 healthy volunteers consumed water one day and alcohol the other. One blood sample was collected pre-consumption, five every hour post-consumption, and one after 24 h. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was used as a marker for enterocyte damage. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were used as markers for hepatocyte damage. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were used as a measure of translocation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used to assess the acute inflammatory response to endotoxemia. Alcohol consumption caused a significant increase in serum I- and L-FABP levels, compared to water consumption. Levels increased directly post-consumption and decreased to normal levels within 4 h. LBP, sCD14, and IL-6 levels were not significantly higher in the alcohol group. Moderate acute alcohol consumption immediately damages the enterocyte but does not seem to cause endotoxemia. PMID:25559494

  8. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Jong, W J; Cleveringa, A M; Greijdanus, B; Meyer, P; Heineman, E; Hulscher, J B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy human beings is scarce. Studies show that heavy incidental alcohol consumption is a growing problem in modern society. Data on this matter may provide insights into the consequences of this behavior for healthy individuals. In a randomized clinical trial in crossover design, 15 healthy volunteers consumed water one day and alcohol the other. One blood sample was collected pre-consumption, five every hour post-consumption, and one after 24 h. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was used as a marker for enterocyte damage. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were used as markers for hepatocyte damage. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were used as a measure of translocation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used to assess the acute inflammatory response to endotoxemia. Alcohol consumption caused a significant increase in serum I- and L-FABP levels, compared to water consumption. Levels increased directly post-consumption and decreased to normal levels within 4 h. LBP, sCD14, and IL-6 levels were not significantly higher in the alcohol group. Moderate acute alcohol consumption immediately damages the enterocyte but does not seem to cause endotoxemia.

  9. Effects of mood and rumination on cortisol levels in daily life: an ambulatory assessment study in remitted depressed patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Huffziger, Silke; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Zamoscik, Vera; Reinhard, Iris; Kirsch, Peter; Kuehner, Christine

    2013-10-01

    The influence of naturally occurring emotional and cognitive experiences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity is still underinvestigated, particularly in clinical populations. The present study examined effects of mood and rumination on cortisol levels in daily life in remitted depressed patients with recurrent episodes or a chronic precourse (n=31) and healthy controls (n=32). Ambulatory assessment of subjective variables (valence, calmness, energetic-arousal, ruminative self-focus), daily stressors, and saliva cortisol samples was performed five times a day on two consecutive workdays, whereby cortisol was collected 20min after the subjective assessments. In addition, depressive symptoms and trait rumination (brooding, reflection) were measured retrospectively. Multilevel models revealed that remitted depressed patients showed lower cortisol activity compared to healthy controls. Depressive symptoms and trait rumination did not predict HPAA activity, whereas, by controlling for daily stressors, higher daily means of ruminative self-focus and lower daily means of valence, energetic arousal and calmness were associated with higher daily cortisol levels. Separate analyses per group revealed that mean daily ruminative self-focus predicted higher cortisol in both samples. In contrast, lower daily means of calmness, but also of valence and energetic arousal, were significantly linked to higher cortisol output only in healthy controls, but not in the patient sample. These findings indicate that naturally occurring rumination and low mood are associated with increased activation of the HPAA in daily life. Moreover, our data revealed a potentially reduced mood-cortisol coupling in remitted recurrent depression, possibly indicating that during the course of recurrent depression HPAA activation might become less responsive toward subtle emotional experiences in natural contexts.

  10. Four weeks of combination exercise training improved executive functions, episodic memory, and processing speed in healthy elderly people: evidence from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-04-01

    Previous reports have described that long-term combination exercise training improves cognitive functions in healthy elderly people. This study investigates the effects of 4 weeks of short-term combination exercise training on various cognitive functions of elderly people. We conducted a single-blinded randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups. Sixty-four healthy older adults were assigned randomly to a combination exercise training group or a waiting list control group. Participants in the combination exercise training group participated in the combination exercise training (aerobic, strength, and stretching exercise trainings) 3 days per week during 4 weeks (12 workouts total). The waiting list control group did not participate in the combination exercise training. Measures of the cognitive functions (executive functions, episodic memory, working memory, reading ability, attention, and processing speed) were conducted before and after training. Results showed that the combination exercise training improved executive functions, episodic memory, and processing speed compared to those attributes of the waiting list control group. This report was the first of a study demonstrating the beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive functions of elderly people. Our study provides important evidence of the short-term combination exercise's effectiveness.

  11. Effect of short-term application of kinesio tape on the flexion-relaxation phenomenon, trunk postural control and trunk repositioning in healthy females.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Sara A; Frost, Lydia R; Vallis, Lori Ann; Brown, Stephen H M

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential effects of kinesio tape on the flexion-relaxation phenomenon, trunk postural control and trunk position sense when applied for a short period (30 min) to the low back of healthy female participants. Twenty-four participants were assigned to one of two groups: kinesio tape applied in either the recommended stretched or non-stretched (control) manner over the low back. Tests were performed at three time points (pre-tape, with tape, post-tape) to assess low-back muscle flexion-relaxation, position sense during active trunk repositioning and trunk postural control during seated balance. Results demonstrated that wearing kinesio tape did not affect the angle at which the erector spinae muscles became silent during trunk flexion (flexion-relaxation). Trunk repositioning error increased when wearing kinesio tape in both the stretched and non-stretched manner, and this increased error persisted after the tape was removed. Seated balance control improved when wearing kinesio tape in both the stretched and non-stretched manner, and these improvements persisted after the tape was removed. In conclusion, these findings do not support the general suggestions that short-term use of kinesio tape on the low-back region alter low-back muscle activation and enhance tasks related to proprioception, at least under these taping conditions in a group of healthy females.

  12. Comparison of Salivary TIMP-1 Levels in Periodontally Involved and Healthy Controls and the Response to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fenol, Angel; Peter, Maya Rajan; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit.

  13. Comparison of Salivary TIMP-1 Levels in Periodontally Involved and Healthy Controls and the Response to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fenol, Angel; Peter, Maya Rajan; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit. PMID:26464855

  14. Sphenopalatine Ganglion Acupuncture Improves Nasal Ventilation and Modulates Autonomic Nervous Activity in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kuiji; Chen, Luquan; Wang, Yang; Wang, Chengshuo; Zhang, Luo

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the effects of Sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) acupuncture on nasal ventilation function and autonomic nervous system in health volunteers. 39 healthy subjects were randomly assigned to either active SPG acupuncture group (AA group) or sham-SPG acupuncture group (SA group). All subjects were assessed for self-reported nasal ventilation, nasal patency (nasal airway resistance (NAR) and nasal cavity volume (NCV), exhaled nasal nitric oxide (nNO), and neuropeptides (substance P(SP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY)) in nasal secretions at baseline, 30 minutes, 2 hours, and 24 hours after acupuncture. Significantly more subjects in AA group reported improvements in nasal ventilation at all time points after acupuncture, compared to SA group. NAR and NCV were also significantly lower in AA group than SA group. The level of nNO in AA group was significantly decreased after 24 hours compared to SA group. The level of NPY was significantly increased in AA group at 30 minutes and 2 hours compared to baseline and SA group. The levels of SP and VIP were not significantly different in the two groups. We concluded that SPG acupuncture could help to improve nasal ventilation by increasing sympathetic nerve excitability in healthy volunteers. PMID:27425415

  15. The influence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on local postural muscle and central sensory feedback balance control.

    PubMed

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Mohler, Jane; Armstrong, David G; Talal, Talal K; Najafi, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control) and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing). DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2) and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2) with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, P<0.01), which suggests a compromised local-control balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, P<0.02), which suggests an adaptation mechanism to reduce the overall body sway in DPN patients. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between central-control rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, P<0.05) and the history of diabetes (rPearson = 0.58-071, P<0.05). Results suggest that in the lack of sensory feedback cueing, DPN participants were highly unstable compared to controls. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation mechanism

  16. The Influence of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy on Local Postural Muscle and Central Sensory Feedback Balance Control

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control) and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing). DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2) and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2) with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, P<0.01), which suggests a compromised local-control balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, P<0.02), which suggests an adaptation mechanism to reduce the overall body sway in DPN patients. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between central-control rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, P<0.05) and the history of diabetes (rPearson = 0.58-071, P<0.05). Results suggest that in the lack of sensory feedback cueing, DPN participants were highly unstable compared to controls. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation mechanism

  17. Effect of verbal persuasion on self-efficacy for pain-related diagnostic sensory testing in individuals with chronic neck pain and healthy controls – a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Söderlund, Anne; Sterling, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in cold pain threshold (CTh), pressure pain threshold (PPT), cold pain tolerance (CPTo) tests, and the level of self-efficacy when self-efficacy for diagnostic sensory testing was manipulated by verbal persuasion before a testing situation in persons with neck pain and in healthy controls. A randomized experimental design was used. Twenty-one healthy volunteers and 22 individuals with either traumatic or nontraumatic chronic neck pain were recruited to participate in the study. The intervention consisted of two experimental verbal persuasion conditions: Increase self-efficacy and Decrease self-efficacy. The PPT was measured using a pressure algometer, the CTh was measured using a thermo test system, and CPTo was measured by submerging the participant’s hand in ice water up to the elbow joint. On three occasions, the participants reported their self-efficacy level in performing the sensory tests. In the chronic neck pain group, there were no differences in pain threshold or tolerance. There was a difference in the self-efficacy level after verbal persuasion between the experimental conditions. In the healthy control group, the CThs increased following the condition that aimed to increase self-efficacy. No other differences were observed in the healthy controls. A short verbal persuasion in the form of manipulative instructions seems to have a marginal effect on the individual’s self-efficacy levels in the chronic neck pain group and a slight influence on the results of sensory testing in healthy controls. PMID:27022298

  18. ‘To Preserve the Skin in Health’: Drainage, Bodily Control and the Visual Definition of Healthy Skin 1835–1900

    PubMed Central

    te Hennepe, Mieneke

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a healthy skin penetrated the lives of many people in late-nineteenth-century Britain. Popular writings on skin and soap advertisements are significant for pointing to the notions of the skin as a symbolic surface: a visual moral ideal. Popular health publications reveal how much contemporary understanding of skin defined and connected ideas of cleanliness and the visual ideals of the healthy body in Victorian Britain. Characterised as a ‘sanitary commissioner’ of the body, skin represented the organ of drainage for body and society. The importance of keeping the skin clean and purging it of waste materials such as sweat and dirt resonated in a Britain that embraced city sanitation developments, female beauty practices, racial identities and moral reform. By focusing on the popular work by British surgeon and dermatologist Erasmus Wilson (1809–84), this article offers a history of skin through the lens of the sanitary movement and developments in the struggle for control over healthy skin still in place today. PMID:25045181

  19. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Cognitive Function Profile of Rupatadine 10, 20 and 40 mg in Healthy Japanese Subjects: A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Täubel, Jörg; Ferber, Georg; Fernandes, Sara; Lorch, Ulrike; Santamaría, Eva; Izquierdo, Iñaki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rupatadine is a marketed second generation antihistamine, with anti-PAF activity, indicated for symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), safety and tolerability of rupatadine in healthy Japanese subjects after single and multiple oral doses. Methods In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 27 male and female healthy Japanese subjects were administered single and multiple escalating rupatadine dose of 10, 20 and 40 mg or placebo. Blood samples were collected at different time points for PK measurements and subjects were assessed for safety and tolerability. The effect of rupatadine on cognitive functioning was evaluated by means of computerized cognitive tests: rapid visual information processing (RVP), reaction time (RT), spatial working memory (SWM) and visual analogue scales (VAS). Results Exposure to rupatadine as measured by Cmax and AUC was found to increase in a dose dependent manner over the dose range of 10–40 mg for both single and multiple dose administration. The safety assessments showed that all treatment related side effects were of mild intensity and there were no serious adverse events (SAEs) or withdrawals due to treatment–emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in this study. The therapeutic dose of rupatadine did not show any CNS impairment in any of the cognitive tests. Conclusions This study demonstrated that rupatadine is safe and well tolerated by Japanese healthy subjects. The PK-PD profile confirmed previous experience with rupatadine. PMID:27632557

  20. Cardiac isoenzymes in healthy Holstein calves and calves with experimentally induced endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Peek, Simon F.; Apple, Fred S.; Murakami, Mary Ann; Crump, Peter M.; Semrad, Susan D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a controlled study designed to establish normal values for cardiac troponins I and T (cTnI and cTnT) and CK-MB mass in healthy newborn Holstein calves, and to compare values for cTnI, cTnT, CK-MB and total creatine kinase (CK) with age-matched calves experiencing experimentally induced endotoxemia. Nineteen healthy Holstein bull calves, 48 to 72 h of age were used. Baseline cTnI, cTnT, CK-MB and total CK measurements were obtained from control (n = 9) and experimental (n = 10) calves. Controls then received physiological saline and experimental calves received endotoxin (O55:B5 Escherichia coli LPS) intravenously after which cardiac biomarkers and total CK were measured at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h post-initiation of infusion. Measured values were analyzed and compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) by repeated measure design, with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. The cardiac biomarker cTnT was not detected in any calf at any time point, and CK-MB was only detected in 5 of 95 samples. The cTnI was significantly increased compared to baseline and controls, 3 h post lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion. Total CK was significantly increased in LPS administered calves at 18 and 24 h post infusion. The mean, standard deviation, and range for cTnI in healthy controls were 0.023 ng/mL (s = 0.01), and 0.01 to 0.05 ng/mL, respectively. In conclusion, LPS administration was associated with rapid and significant increases in cTnI but CK-MB and cTnT were not detected in the plasma of healthy calves. Total CK values increased significantly following LPS administration. Biochemical evidence of myocardial injury occurs within 3 h following LPS administration to neonatal Holstein calves. PMID:18783025

  1. Comparison of cognitive flexibility and planning ability in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, patients with obsessive compulsive personality disorder, and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    PAAST, Negin; KHOSRAVI, Zohreh; MEMARI, Amir Hossein; SHAYESTEHFAR, Monir; ARBABI, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Cognitive functioning in individuals with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and with Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) has not been adequately studied. Aim Examine the cognitive flexibility and planning ability of individuals with OCD and OCPD. Methods Twenty patients with OCD and 25 patients with OCPD who had not taken medication in the previous two weeks were identified in an outpatient psychology clinic in Tehran, and 25 healthy control subjects were identified from the university staff and local community residents. All participants were administered the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Tower of London (TOL) test. Two measures of the WCTS (number of perseverative errors and number of categories completed) were used to assess cognitive flexibility and three measures of the TOL (total number of moves in 12 trials, total response time, and planning time) were used to assess planning ability. Results The level of current psychological distress in the two patient groups was significantly greater than that in the control group. After adjusting for demographic variables and the level of psychological distress, both OCD patients and OCPD patients made more perseverative errors on the WCST than control subjects, and the OCD patients (but not the OCPD patients) completed significantly fewer categories than the control subjects. Both the OCD patients and OCPD patients required significantly more moves than control subjects to complete the 12 TOL tasks and OCD patients took significantly longer than both OCPD patients and control subjects to complete the tasks. Conclusions Individuals with OCD and OCPD have impaired cognitive flexibility and planning ability compared to healthy controls, and there are some differences in these measures of cognitive functioning between OCD and OCPD. Long term follow-up studies of OCD and OCPD that assess changes in cognitive measures as

  2. Do common genotypes of FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) moderate the effects of childhood maltreatment on cognition in schizophrenia and healthy controls?

    PubMed

    Green, Melissa J; Raudino, Alessandra; Cairns, Murray J; Wu, Jingqin; Tooney, Paul A; Scott, Rodney J; Carr, Vaughan J

    2015-11-01

    Common variants of the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene are implicated in psychotic and other disorders, via their role in regulating glucocorticoid receptor (GR) receptor sensitivity and effects on the broader function of the HPA system in response to stress. In this study, the effects of four FKBP5 polymorphisms (rs1360780, rs9470080, rs4713902, rs9394309) on IQ and eight other cognitive domains were examined in the context of exposure to childhood maltreatment in 444 cases with schizophrenia and 292 healthy controls (from a total sample of 617 cases and 659 controls obtained from the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank; ASRB). Participants subjected to any kind of maltreatment (including physical, emotional, or sexual abuse or physical or emotional neglect) in childhood were classified as 'exposed'; cognitive functioning was measured with Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and IQ was estimated with the Weschler Test of Adult Reading. Hierarchical regressions were used to test the main effects of genotype and childhood maltreatment, and their additive interactive effects, on cognitive function. For rs1360870, there were significant main effects of genotype and childhood maltreatment, and a significant interaction of genotype with childhood trauma affecting attention in both schizophrenia and healthy participants (C-homozygotes in both groups showed worse attention in the context of maltreatment); in SZ, this SNP also affected global neuropsychological function regardless of exposure to childhood trauma, with T-homozygotes showing worse cognition than other genotypes. The mechanisms of trauma-dependent effects of FKBP5 following early life trauma deserve further exploration in healthy and psychotic samples, in the context of epigenetic effects and perhaps epistasis with other genes. Study of these processes may be particularly informative in subgroups exposed to various other forms

  3. Brain structure in people at ultra-high risk of psychosis, patients with first-episode schizophrenia, and healthy controls: a VBM study.

    PubMed

    Nenadic, Igor; Dietzek, Maren; Schönfeld, Nils; Lorenz, Carsten; Gussew, Alexander; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaser, Christian; Smesny, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Early intervention research in schizophrenia has suggested that brain structural alterations might be present in subjects at high risk of developing psychosis. The heterogeneity of regional effects of these changes, which is established in schizophrenia, however, has not been explored in prodromal or high-risk populations. We used high-resolution MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM8) to analyze grey matter differences in 43 ultra high-risk subjects for psychosis (meeting ARMS criteria, identified through CAARMS interviews), 24 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients and 49 healthy controls (groups matched for age and gender). Compared to healthy controls, resp., first-episode schizophrenia patients had reduced regional grey matter in left prefrontal, insula, right parietal and left temporal cortices, while the high-risk group showed reductions in right middle temporal and left anterior frontal cortices. When dividing the ultra-high-risk group in those with a genetic risk vs. those with attenuated psychotic symptoms, the former showed left anterior frontal, right caudate, as well as a smaller right hippocampus, and amygdala reduction, while the latter subgroup showed right middle temporal cortical reductions (each compared to healthy controls). Our findings in a clinical psychosis high-risk cohort demonstrate variability of brain structural changes according to subgroup and background of elevated risk, suggesting frontal and possibly also hippocampal/amygdala changes in individuals with genetic susceptibility. Heterogeneity of structural brain changes (as seen in schizophrenia) appears evident even at high-risk stage, prior to potential onset of psychosis.

  4. Effects of Compression Stockings on Elevation of Leg Lymph Pumping Pressure and Improvement of Quality of Life in Healthy Female Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sugisawa, Ryota; Saito, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sano, Masaki; Katahashi, Kazuto; Uranaka, Hironori; Marumo, Tomohiko; Konno, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Lymph is pumped through the collecting lymphatic vessels by both intrinsic and extrinsic forces. The intrinsic pump relies on spontaneous lymphatic contraction, which generates the pumping lymph pressure (Plp). Among healthy people with daily leg edema, a considerable number of cases are accompanied with low leg Plp. Herein, a double-blinded controlled trial was conducted in healthy female volunteers with reduced leg Plp to compare the effectiveness of a 15–29 mmHg compression stocking (Stocking A) and a 8–16 mmHg stocking (Stocking B) on elevating Plp. Method and Results: Among 219 healthy female volunteers who underwent measurement of leg Plp, 80 participants (36.5%) had unilateral or bilateral legs with Plp < 20 mmHg (122 legs with Plp < 20 mmHg and 38 legs with Plp ≧ 20 mmHg). These 80 participants were assigned to wear either Stocking A (n = 40) or Stocking B (n = 40) for 16 weeks. Leg Plp was measured using indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography and an occlusion cuff technique while sitting. At 16 weeks, both Stockings A and B resulted in significantly elevated leg Plp, with the effect on elevating Plp being superior for Stocking A. Only Stocking A resulted in decreased prevalence of leg edema and improved Short Form-36 scores. Conclusion: Compression stockings may represent a therapeutic option to elevate leg Plp and ameliorate leg edema, thereby leading to improved quality of life in healthy females with low leg Plp. PMID:26824795

  5. Effects of Cactus Fiber on the Excretion of Dietary Fat in Healthy Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Uebelhack, Ralf; Busch, Regina; Alt, Felix; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Chong, Pee-Win

    2014-01-01

    Background Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) fiber was shown to promote weight loss in a 3-month clinical investigation. As demonstrated by in vitro studies, cactus fiber binds to dietary fat and its use results in reduced absorption, which in turn leads to reduced energy absorption and ultimately the reduction of body weight. Objective The objective of our study was to elucidate the dietary fat binding capacity of cactus fiber through determination of fecal fat excretion in healthy volunteers. Subjects and Methods This clinical investigation was performed as a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy subjects for a period of approximately 45 days. Twenty healthy volunteer subjects were randomized to receive cactus fiber or placebo, 2 tablets thrice daily with main meals. All subjects were provided with meals during the study period (except washout) according to a standardized meal plan, with 35% of daily energy need coming from fat. Two 24-hour feces samples were collected during both the baseline and treatment periods for analysis of the fat content. Results Cactus fiber showed an increased fecal fat excretion compared with placebo (mean [SD] = 15.79% [5.79%] vs 4.56% [3.09%]; P < 0.001). No adverse events were reported throughout the study period. Conclusions Cactus fiber has been shown to significantly promote fecal fat excretion in healthy adults. The results of our study support the hypothesis that cactus fiber helps in reducing body weight by binding to dietary fat and increasing its excretion, thus reducing dietary fat available for absorption. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01590667. PMID:25067985

  6. The effect of a single, large bolus of vitamin D in healthy adults over the winter and following year: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, MD; Binongo, JNG; Watson, D; Alvarez, JA; Lodin, D; Ziegler, TR; Tangpricha, V

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Although single, high doses of vitamin D effectively maintain vitamin D sufficiency in several populations, no studies have evaluated healthy adults over winter, during which vitamin D status declines. This study investigated whether