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Sample records for age-matched healthy individuals

  1. No consistent difference in gray matter volume between individuals with fibromyalgia and age-matched healthy subjects when controlling for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Michael C; Harris, Richard E; Sundgren, Pia C; Welsh, Robert C; Fernandes, Carlo R; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, David A

    2009-06-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for the presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p< or =.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={-28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=-.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  2. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  3. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  4. Analysis of abstract and concrete word processing in persons with aphasia and age-matched neurologically healthy adults using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Kiran, Swathi

    2014-08-01

    The concreteness effect occurs in both normal and language-disordered populations. Research suggests that abstract and concrete concepts elicit differing neural activation patterns in healthy young adults, but this is undocumented in persons with aphasia (PWA). Three PWA and three age-matched controls were scanned using fMRI while processing abstract and concrete words. Consistent with current theories of abstract and concrete word processing, abstract words elicited activation in verbal areas, whereas concrete words additionally activated multimodal association areas. PWA show greater differences in neural activation than age-matched controls between abstract and concrete words, possibly due to an exaggerated concreteness effect. PMID:23548150

  5. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  6. Secreted proteome profiling in human RPE cell cultures derived from donors with age related macular degeneration and age matched healthy donors.

    PubMed

    An, Eunkyung; Lu, Xiaoning; Flippin, Jessica; Devaney, Joseph M; Halligan, Brian; Hoffman, Eric P; Hoffman, Eric; Strunnikova, Nataly; Csaky, Karl; Hathout, Yetrib

    2006-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by progressive loss of central vision, which is attributed to abnormal accumulation of macular deposits called "drusen" at the interface between the basal surface of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane. In the most severe cases, drusen deposits are accompanied by the growth of new blood vessels that breach the RPE layer and invade photoreceptors. In this study, we hypothesized that RPE secreted proteins are responsible for drusen formation and choroidal neovascularization. We used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in combination with LC-MS/MS analysis and ZoomQuant quantification to assess differential protein secretion by RPE cell cultures prepared from human autopsy eyes of AMD donors (diagnosed by histological examinations of the macula and genotyped for the Y402H-complement factor H variant) and age-matched healthy control donors. In general, RPE cells were found to secrete a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, complement factors, and protease inhibitors that have been reported to be major constituents of drusen (hallmark deposits in AMD). Interestingly, RPE cells from AMD donors secreted 2 to 3-fold more galectin 3 binding protein, fibronectin, clusterin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and pigment epithelium derived factor than RPE cells from age-matched healthy donors. Conversely, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) was found to be down regulated by 2-fold in AMD RPE cells versus healthy RPE cells. Ingenuity pathway analysis grouped these differentially secreted proteins into two groups; those involved in tissue development and angiogenesis and those involved in complement regulation and protein aggregation such as clusterin. Overall, these data strongly suggest that RPE cells are involved in the biogenesis of drusen and the pathology of AMD. PMID:17022631

  7. QT Is Longer in Drug-Free Patients with Schizophrenia Compared with Age-Matched Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Kumiko; Ozeki, Yuji; Okayasu, Hiroaki; Takano, Yumiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Hori, Hiroaki; Orui, Masami; Horie, Minoru; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2014-01-01

    The potassium voltage-gated channel KCNH2 is a well-known gene in which mutations induce familial QT interval prolongation. KCNH2 is suggested to be a risk gene for schizophrenia. Additionally, the disturbance of autonomic control, which affects the QT interval, is known in schizophrenia. Therefore, we speculate that schizophrenic patients have characteristic features in terms of the QT interval in addition to the effect of antipsychotic medication. The QT interval of patients with schizophrenia not receiving antipsychotics (n = 85) was compared with that of patients with schizophrenia receiving relatively large doses of antipsychotics (n = 85) and healthy volunteers (n = 85). The QT interval was corrected using four methods (Bazett, Fridericia, Framingham or Hodges method). In ANCOVA with age and heart rate as covariates, patients not receiving antipsychotic treatment had longer QT intervals than did the healthy volunteers, but antipsychotics prolonged the QT interval regardless of the correction method used (P<0.01). Schizophrenic patients with and without medication had a significantly higher mean heart rate than did the healthy volunteers, with no obvious sex-related differences in the QT interval. The QT interval prolongation may be manifestation of a certain biological feature of schizophrenia. PMID:24887423

  8. Sensorimotor Control of Tracking Movements at Various Speeds for Stroke Patients as Well as Age-Matched and Young Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-yu

    2015-01-01

    There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides) and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals) were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s). The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE), normalized integrated jerk (NIJ) and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS), were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (P<0.01), and the values were ranked in the following order: young controls < age-matched controls

  9. Premature infants display increased noxious-evoked neuronal activity in the brain compared to healthy age-matched term-born infants.

    PubMed

    Slater, Rebeccah; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2010-08-15

    This study demonstrates that infants who are born prematurely and who have experienced at least 40days of intensive or special care have increased brain neuronal responses to noxious stimuli compared to healthy newborns at the same postmenstrual age. We have measured evoked potentials generated by noxious clinically-essential heel lances in infants born at term (8 infants; born 37-40weeks) and in infants born prematurely (7 infants; born 24-32weeks) who had reached the same postmenstrual age (mean age at time of heel lance 39.2+/-1.2weeks). These noxious-evoked potentials are clearly distinguishable from shorter latency potentials evoked by non-noxious tactile sensory stimulation. While the shorter latency touch potentials are not dependent on the age of the infant at birth, the noxious-evoked potentials are significantly larger in prematurely-born infants. This enhancement is not associated with specific brain lesions but reflects a functional change in pain processing in the brain that is likely to underlie previously reported changes in pain sensitivity in older ex-preterm children. Our ability to quantify and measure experience-dependent changes in infant cortical pain processing will allow us to develop a more rational approach to pain management in neonatal intensive care. PMID:20438855

  10. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals. PMID:25790831

  11. Multiple Epstein-Barr virus infections in healthy individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walling, Dennis M.; Brown, Abigail L.; Etienne, Wiguins; Keitel, Wendy A.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    We employed a newly developed genotyping technique with direct representational detection of LMP-1 gene sequences to study the molecular epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in healthy individuals. Infections with up to five different EBV genotypes were found in two of nine individuals studied. These results support the hypothesis that multiple EBV infections of healthy individuals are common. The implications for the development of an EBV vaccine are discussed.

  12. Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Healthy and Unhealthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapp, Georgina S. A.; Hickling, Siobhan; Christian, Hayley E.; Bull, Fiona; Timperio, Anna F.; Boruff, Bryan; Shrestha, Damber; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies use comprehensive ecological approaches considering multilevel factors to understand correlates of healthy (and unhealthy) dietary intake. The aim of this study was to examine the association between individual, social, and environmental factors on composite measures of healthy and unhealthy dietary intake in adults.…

  13. Pain and the Healthy Individual: A Religious Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, David

    1984-01-01

    Discusses secular and religious approaches to pain and suffering in healthy individuals. Suggests that pain itself opens up to wholeness. Through embracing aloneness, one can discover self-identity and the freedom to establish genuine union with others. (JAC)

  14. Object individuation and compensation in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Silvia; Fait, Elisa; Brignani, Debora; Mazza, Veronica

    2016-04-01

    Theories on neural compensation suggest that aged participants overactivate the brain areas involved in a task to compensate for the age-related decline. In this electrophysiological study, we investigated the temporal locus of neural overactivation in aging during multiple target processing. We measured performance and three event-related brain potential responses (N1, N2pc, and contralateral delay activity) in young and old adults, while they enumerated a variable number (1-4) of targets presented in an easy (distractor absent) or difficult (distractor present) condition. The main results indicated that although N2pc (∼200 ms) increased in amplitude in the distractor-present condition in the young group, no modulation occurred for the old group. Old participants were associated with larger N2pc amplitudes than young participants in the distractor-absent condition, where both groups had comparable levels of accuracy. These effects were not present for N1 and contralateral delay activity. Overall, the data suggest that in enumeration, aging is associated with compensatory effects that rely on the selection mechanism responsible for target individuation. PMID:26973114

  15. [Vasomotor Endothelial Function in Healthy Individuals: Contact Types of Character].

    PubMed

    Kirichuk, V F; Olenko, E S; Kodochigova, A I; Barylnik, Y B; Deeva, M A; Bazhenov, V A

    2015-01-01

    We studied the vascular endothelial vasomotor function in healthy young individuals, depending on the type of character accentuation, levels of neuroticism, depression and anxiety. It is shown that the types of character accentuation effect on endothelial vasomotor function in healthy men and women. Personality characteristics of a person can be a significant risk factor for disease, the pathogenesis of which is the starting element of endothelial vasomotor dysfunction. PMID:26237954

  16. Neural Circuits for Cognitive Appetite Control in Healthy and Obese Individuals: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tuulari, Jetro J.; Karlsson, Henry K.; Hirvonen, Jussi; Salminen, Paulina; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    The mere sight of foods may activate the brain’s reward circuitry, and humans often experience difficulties in inhibiting urges to eat upon encountering visual food signals. Imbalance between the reward circuit and those supporting inhibitory control may underlie obesity, yet brain circuits supporting volitional control of appetite and their possible dysfunction that can lead to obesity remain poorly specified. Here we delineated the brain basis of volitional appetite control in healthy and obese individuals with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-seven morbidly obese women (mean BMI = 41.4) and fourteen age-matched normal-weight women (mean BMI = 22.6) were scanned with 1.5 Tesla fMRI while viewing food pictures. They were instructed to inhibit their urge to eat the foods, view the stimuli passively or imagine eating the foods. Across all subjects, a frontal cortical control circuit was activated during appetite inhibition versus passive viewing of the foods. Inhibition minus imagined eating (appetite control) activated bilateral precunei and parietal cortices and frontal regions spanning anterior cingulate and superior medial frontal cortices. During appetite control, obese subjects had lower responses in the medial frontal, middle cingulate and dorsal caudate nuclei. Functional connectivity of the control circuit was increased in morbidly obese versus control subjects during appetite control, which might reflect impaired integrative and executive function in obesity. PMID:25658479

  17. Relationship between Food Intake and Sleep Pattern in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; dos Reis, Bruno Gomes; Diniz, Rafael Marques; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between food intake and sleep patterns in healthy individuals. Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (27 women and 25 men) were recruited to participate in the study. Volunteers underwent sleep evaluation through nocturnal polysomnography and completed a 3-day food diary to evaluate food intake. Results: No differences in sleep patterns were observed in either gender, except in the percentage of stage 1 sleep, which was greater in men. Different correlations were observed between sleep and dietary variables according to gender. The correlation between dietary and sleep variables in men indicated a negative relationship between nocturnal fat intake and the sleep latency, including REM sleep. The percentage of nocturnal fat intake correlated with sleep efficiency, sleep latency, REM latency, stage 2 sleep, REM sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO) in women. The percentage of nocturnal caloric intake correlated with sleep latency and efficiency in women. Conclusions: We conclude that food intake during the nocturnal period is correlated with negative effects on the sleep quality of healthy individuals. Indeed, food intake near the sleeping period (dinner and late night snack) was negatively associated with sleep quality variables. More studies are necessary to elucidate the real effect of food intake on sleep. Citation: Crispim CA; Zimberg IZ; dos Reis BG; Diniz RM; Tufik S; de Mello MT. Relationship between food intake and sleep pattern in healthy individuals. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):659-664. PMID:22171206

  18. Relationship Between Glucocorticoids and Insulin Resistance in Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng-Zhen; Zhu, Yong-Mei; Zou, Guang-Hui; Sun, Yu-Xia; Xiu, Xiao-Lin; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Qun-Hui

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between glucocorticoids (GCs) and insulin resistance (IR) in healthy individuals by conducting a systematic meta-analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS A systematic literature review was conducted using 9 electronic databases. Only case-control studies investigating fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and IR were enrolled based on strictly established selection criteria. Statistical analyses were performed by Stata software, version 12.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA). RESULTS Among 496 initially retrieved articles, only 6 papers published in English were eventually included in this meta-analysis. A total of 201 healthy individuals (105 in GC group and 96 in control group) were included in the 6 studies. In 4 of these 6 studies, dexamethasone was used, and in the other 2 studies prednisolone was given. This meta-analysis revealed that the FPG, fasting insulin (FINS), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels in the GC group were all significantly higher than that in the control group (FPG: SMD=2.65, 95%CI=1.42~3.88, P<0.001; FINS: SMD=2.48, 95%CI=1.01~3.95, P=0.001; HOMA-IR: SMD=38.30, 95%CI=24.38~52.22, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, our present study revealed that therapies using GCs might result in elevated FPG, FINS, and HOMA-IR, and thereby contribute to IR in healthy individuals. PMID:27258456

  19. Relationship Between Glucocorticoids and Insulin Resistance in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Peng-Zhen; Zhu, Yong-Mei; Zou, Guang-Hui; Sun, Yu-Xia; Xiu, Xiao-Lin; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Qun-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between glucocorticoids (GCs) and insulin resistance (IR) in healthy individuals by conducting a systematic meta-analysis. Material/Methods A systematic literature review was conducted using 9 electronic databases. Only case-control studies investigating fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and IR were enrolled based on strictly established selection criteria. Statistical analyses were performed by Stata software, version 12.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA). Results Among 496 initially retrieved articles, only 6 papers published in English were eventually included in this meta-analysis. A total of 201 healthy individuals (105 in GC group and 96 in control group) were included in the 6 studies. In 4 of these 6 studies, dexamethasone was used, and in the other 2 studies prednisolone was given. This meta-analysis revealed that the FPG, fasting insulin (FINS), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels in the GC group were all significantly higher than that in the control group (FPG: SMD=2.65, 95%CI=1.42~3.88, P<0.001; FINS: SMD=2.48, 95%CI=1.01~3.95, P=0.001; HOMA-IR: SMD=38.30, 95%CI=24.38~52.22, P<0.001). Conclusions In conclusion, our present study revealed that therapies using GCs might result in elevated FPG, FINS, and HOMA-IR, and thereby contribute to IR in healthy individuals. PMID:27258456

  20. Attention and Working Memory-Related EEG Markers of Subtle Cognitive Deterioration in Healthy Elderly Individuals.

    PubMed

    Deiber, Marie-Pierre; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Hasler, Roland; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Toma, Simona; Ackermann, Marine; Herrmann, François; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2015-01-01

    Future treatments of Alzheimer's disease need the identification of cases at high risk at the preclinical stage of the disease before the development of irreversible structural damage. We investigated here whether subtle cognitive deterioration in a population of healthy elderly individuals could be predicted by EEG signals at baseline under cognitive activation. Continuous EEG was recorded in 97 elderly control subjects and 45 age-matched mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases during a simple attentional and a 2-back working memory task. Upon 18-month neuropsychological follow-up, the final sample included 55 stable (sCON) and 42 deteriorated (dCON) controls. We examined the P1, N1, P3, and PNwm event-related components as well as the oscillatory activities in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (14-25 Hz) frequency ranges (ERD/ERS: event-related desynchronization/synchronization, and ITC: inter-trial coherence). Behavioral performance, P1, and N1 components were comparable in all groups. The P3, PNwm, and all oscillatory activity indices were altered in MCI cases compared to controls. Only three EEG indices distinguished the two control groups: alpha and beta ERD (dCON >  sCON) and beta ITC (dCON <  sCON). These findings show that subtle cognitive deterioration has no impact on EEG indices associated with perception, discrimination, and working memory processes but mostly affects attention, resulting in an enhanced recruitment of attentional resources. In addition, cognitive decline alters neural firing synchronization at high frequencies (14-25 Hz) at early stages, and possibly affects lower frequencies (4-13 Hz) only at more severe stages. PMID:26401557

  1. EXTENSIVE PRESENTATION OF VERRUCA PLANA IN A HEALTHY INDIVIDUAL

    PubMed Central

    Pavithra, S; Mallya, H; Pai, G S

    2011-01-01

    A 27-year-old healthy man presented with non-itchy hyperpigmented skin lesions involving the trunk of duration 3 years. Examination revealed numerous coalescing, rough, slightly elevated brownish papules involving large areas of back, chest, and abdomen. There were no other cutaneous or systemic findings. Cutaneous biopsy was suggestive of verruca plana, which confirmed our clinical diagnosis. Here, we report this case of verruca plana due to its rare extensive involvement and unusual site in a non-immunocompromised individual. PMID:21772600

  2. Characterization of the Oral Fungal Microbiome (Mycobiome) in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Jurevic, Richard J.; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Cui, Fan; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Naqvi, Ammar; Gillevet, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    The oral microbiome–organisms residing in the oral cavity and their collective genome–are critical components of health and disease. The fungal component of the oral microbiota has not been characterized. In this study, we used a novel multitag pyrosequencing approach to characterize fungi present in the oral cavity of 20 healthy individuals, using the pan-fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) primers. Our results revealed the “basal” oral mycobiome profile of the enrolled individuals, and showed that across all the samples studied, the oral cavity contained 74 culturable and 11 non-culturable fungal genera. Among these genera, 39 were present in only one person, 16 genera were present in two participants, and 5 genera were present in three people, while 15 genera (including non-culturable organisms) were present in ≥4 (20%) participants. Candida species were the most frequent (isolated from 75% of participants), followed by Cladosporium (65%), Aureobasidium, Saccharomycetales (50% for both), Aspergillus (35%), Fusarium (30%), and Cryptococcus (20%). Four of these predominant genera are known to be pathogenic in humans. The low-abundance genera may represent environmental fungi present in the oral cavity and could simply be spores inhaled from the air or material ingested with food. Among the culturable genera, 61 were represented by one species each, while 13 genera comprised between 2 and 6 different species; the total number of species identified were 101. The number of species in the oral cavity of each individual ranged between 9 and 23. Principal component (PCO) analysis of the obtained data set followed by sample clustering and UniFrac analysis revealed that White males and Asian males clustered differently from each other, whereas both Asian and White females clustered together. This is the first study that identified the “basal mycobiome” of healthy individuals, and provides the basis for a detailed characterization of the oral mycobiome

  3. Emotional Intelligence Components in Alcohol Dependent and Mentally Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mohagheghi, Arash; Amiri, Shahrokh; Mousavi Rizi, Seyedreza; Safikhanlou, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Emotional intelligence might play an important role in the onset and persistence of different psychopathologies. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and alcohol dependence. Methods. In this case-control study, participants included alcohol dependent individuals and mentally healthy inpatients. Each group consisted of 40 individuals (male/female: 1). The diagnosis was based on the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV). All the participants completed Bar-On emotional intelligence test. Results. 20 males and 20 females were included in each group. Mean age of alcohol dependent participants and controls was 31.28 ± 7.82 and 34.93 ± 9.83 years in that order. The analyses showed that the alcohol dependent individuals had a significant difference compared with the control group and received lower scores in empathy, responsibility, impulse control, self-esteem, optimism, emotional consciousness, stress tolerance, autonomy, problem-solving, and total score of emotional intelligence components. Conclusion. Patients with alcohol dependence have deficits in components of emotional intelligence. Identifying and targeted training of the individuals with lower scores in components of emotional intelligence may be effective in prevention of alcohol dependence. PMID:25893214

  4. A diary study of action slips in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Jónsdóttir, María K; Adólfsdóttir, Steinunn; Cortez, Rúna Dögg; Gunnarsdóttir, María; Gústafsdóttir, Agústa Hlín

    2007-12-01

    Memory complaints following minor head injury or whiplash are common and often bear similarity to absent mindedness or action slips (Reason, 1979). We replicated Reason's study by asking 189 healthy volunteers to keep diaries of their action slips for a week. The mean number of slips was 6.4 (SD = 4.9). Perceived stress did not correlate with number of slips but there was a weak positive correlation between action slips and scores on a memory failures questionnaire. Memory diaries may be clinically useful when assessing individuals who worry about cognitive sequelae of minor injuries. Diaries clarify the nature of the complaints and may have therapeutic value by demonstrating that the memory slips are less frequent than estimated by the patients. PMID:17853144

  5. Dispositional Mindfulness and Subjective Time in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Luisa; Wittmann, Marc; Bertschy, Gilles; Giersch, Anne

    2016-01-01

    How a human observer perceives duration depends on the amount of events taking place during the timed interval, but also on psychological dimensions, such as emotional-wellbeing, mindfulness, impulsivity, and rumination. Here we aimed at exploring these influences on duration estimation and passage of time judgments. One hundred and seventeen healthy individuals filled out mindfulness (FFMQ), impulsivity (BIS-11), rumination (RRS), and depression (BDI-sf) questionnaires. Participants also conducted verbal estimation and production tasks in the multiple seconds range. During these timing tasks, subjects were asked to read digits aloud that were presented on a computer screen. Each condition of the timing tasks differed in terms of the interval between the presentation of the digits, i.e., either short (4-s) or long (16-s). Our findings suggest that long empty intervals (16-s) are associated with a relative underestimation of duration, and to a feeling that the time passes slowly, a seemingly paradoxical result. Also, regarding more mindful individuals, such a dissociation between duration estimation and passage of time judgments was found, but only when empty intervals were short (4-s). Relatively speaking, more mindful subjects showed an increased overestimation of durations, but felt that time passed more quickly. These results provide further evidence for the dissociation between duration estimation and the feeling of the passage of time. We discuss these results in terms of an alerting effect when empty intervals are short and events are more numerous, which could mediate the effect of dispositional mindfulness. PMID:27303344

  6. Dispositional Mindfulness and Subjective Time in Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Luisa; Wittmann, Marc; Bertschy, Gilles; Giersch, Anne

    2016-01-01

    How a human observer perceives duration depends on the amount of events taking place during the timed interval, but also on psychological dimensions, such as emotional-wellbeing, mindfulness, impulsivity, and rumination. Here we aimed at exploring these influences on duration estimation and passage of time judgments. One hundred and seventeen healthy individuals filled out mindfulness (FFMQ), impulsivity (BIS-11), rumination (RRS), and depression (BDI-sf) questionnaires. Participants also conducted verbal estimation and production tasks in the multiple seconds range. During these timing tasks, subjects were asked to read digits aloud that were presented on a computer screen. Each condition of the timing tasks differed in terms of the interval between the presentation of the digits, i.e., either short (4-s) or long (16-s). Our findings suggest that long empty intervals (16-s) are associated with a relative underestimation of duration, and to a feeling that the time passes slowly, a seemingly paradoxical result. Also, regarding more mindful individuals, such a dissociation between duration estimation and passage of time judgments was found, but only when empty intervals were short (4-s). Relatively speaking, more mindful subjects showed an increased overestimation of durations, but felt that time passed more quickly. These results provide further evidence for the dissociation between duration estimation and the feeling of the passage of time. We discuss these results in terms of an alerting effect when empty intervals are short and events are more numerous, which could mediate the effect of dispositional mindfulness. PMID:27303344

  7. Postural Control of Healthy Elderly Individuals Compared to Elderly Individuals with Stroke Sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Alfieri, Fábio Marcon; Riberto, Marcelo; Lopes, José Augusto Fernandes; Filippo, Thais Raquel; Imamura, Marta; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2016-01-01

    A stroke and aging process can modify the postural control. We aimed to compare the postural control of health elderly individuals to that of individuals with stroke sequelae. This cross-sectional transversal study was made with individuals capable of walking without any assistance and that were considered clinically stable. The study had 18 individuals in the group with stroke sequelae (SG) and 34 in the healthy elderly control group (CG). The participants were evaluated for the timed up and go test (TUG) and force platform. The SG showed the worst results in relation to the time of execution of the TUG and the force platform evaluation. The displacement of center of pressure was worse for both groups in the eyes-closed situation, especially in the anteroposterior direction for the CG. The GS showed worse results in the static and dynamic postural control. The healthy elderly showed more dependence on sight to maintain their static balance and there was no difference in the balance tests in relation to the side affected by the stroke. PMID:27053967

  8. Identifying metabolically healthy but obese individuals in sedentary postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Messier, Virginie; Karelis, Antony D; Prud'homme, Denis; Primeau, Vanessa; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare different methods to identify metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) individuals in a cohort of obese postmenopausal women. We examined the anthropometric and metabolic characteristics of 113 obese (age: 57.3 +/- 4.8 years; BMI: 34.2 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2)), sedentary postmenopausal women. The following methods were used to identify MHO subjects: the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (MHO: upper quartile of glucose disposal rates); the Matsuda index (MHO: upper quartile of the Matsuda index); the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index (MHO: lower quartile of the HOMA index); having 0-1 cardiometabolic abnormalities (systolic/diastolic blood pressure > or =130/85 mm Hg, triglycerides (TG) > or =1.7 mmol/l, glucose > or =5.6 mmol/l, HOMA >5.13, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) >0.1 mg/l, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) <1.3 mmol/l); and meeting four out of five metabolic factors (HOMA < or =2.7, TG < or =1.7 mmol/l, HDL-C > or =1.3 mmol/l, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol < or =2.6 mmol/l, hsCRP < or =3.0 mg/l). Thereafter, we measured insulin sensitivity, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), body fat distribution (computed tomography scan), energy expenditure, plasma lipids, inflammation markers, resting blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness. We found significant differences in body composition (i.e., peripheral fat mass, central lean body mass (LBM)) and metabolic risk factors (i.e., HDL-C, hsCRP) between MHO and at risk individuals using the different methods to identify both groups. In addition, significant differences between MHO subjects using the different methods to identify MHO individuals were observed such as age, TG/HDL, hsCRP, and fasting insulin. However, independently of the methods used, we noted some recurrent characteristics that identify MHO subjects such as TG, apolipoprotein B, and ferritin. In conclusion, the present study shows variations in body composition

  9. Preliminary characterization of human skin microbiome in healthy Egyptian individuals.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, M; Solyman, S; Taha, M; Hanora, A

    2016-01-01

    Human skin is a large, complex ecosystem that harbors diverse microbial communities. The rapid advances in molecular techniques facilitate the exploration of skin associated bacterial populations. The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary characterization of skin associated bacterial populations in Egyptian individuals. Samples were collected from five healthy subjects from two skin sites; Antecubital Fossa (AF) and Popliteal Fossa (PF). Genomic DNA was extracted and used to amplify bacterial 16S rRNA genes which were sequenced on Illumina MiSeq platform. The two sites showed distinct diversity where PF was more diverse than AF. Taxonomic analysis of sequences revealed four main phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus, with Proteobacteria presenting the highest diversity. Klebsiella, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Escherichia were the most predominant genera. Our data suggest that environmental factors can shape the composition of the skin microbiome in certain geographical regions. This study presents a new insight for subsequent analyses of human microbiome in Egypt. PMID:27545210

  10. Age-dependent change in urine proteome of healthy individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrokhotov, Igor; Liudmila Pastushkova, MRS.; Larina, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey

    It was analyzed the protein composition of urine samples obtained from twenty Russian cosmonauts and thirty-eight healthy volunteers, that have been selected for the experiments simulating the physiological effects of microgravity. The special sample preparation was performed, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the minor proteins was performed on a nano-HPLC Agilent 1100 system (Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) in combination with a LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Germany). List of masses derived peptides and they fragments have used for search and identification of proteins by database IPI-human (international index of protein) using the program Mascot (MS version 2.0.04 , UK) according to the following criteria: 1 - enzyme-trypsin; 2 - peptide tol. ± 5 ppm; 3 - MS / MS tol. 0.5Da. From list of proteins obtained as a result Mascot-search it was selected only those proteins that were identified based on 2 or more peptides with the rating more than 24. Analysis of the list of proteins was performed using software developed in the laboratory of VA Ivanisenko (ICG SB RAS) Age of healthy individuals was ranged from 18 to 54 years. Depending on the age, the data were divided into three groups: those relating to the group of persons under 25 years (youth and mature age 1), 25-40 years (mature age 2) and 40-54 years (mature age 3) It was detected reliable changes in the number of proteins among groups depending of the age. It was found that the minimum number of different proteins were detected in the urine of the group of young patients (under 25 years old) , and the maximum - was observed in the group of middle-aged persons (25 to 40 years). When the proteins were compared according to their molecular mass it was revealed that in the older group (40-54 years ) there is noticeably smaller percentage of high molecular weight proteins than in groups of young and middle aged persons. Thus

  11. Fear conditioning induced by interpersonal conflicts in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Tada, Mitsuhiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Takaki; Konishi, Mika; Umeda, Satoshi; Terasawa, Yuri; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Mimura, Masaru; Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Psychophysiological markers have been focused to investigate the psychopathology of psychiatric disorders and personality subtypes. In order to understand neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions, fear-conditioning model has been widely used. However, simple aversive stimuli are too simplistic to understand mechanisms because most patients with psychiatric disorders are affected by social stressors. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a newly-designed conditioning experiment using a stimulus to cause interpersonal conflicts and examine associations between personality traits and response to that stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy individuals underwent the fear conditioning and extinction experiments in response to three types of stimuli: a simple aversive sound, disgusting pictures, and pictures of an actors' face with unpleasant verbal messages that were designed to cause interpersonal conflicts. Conditioned response was quantified by the skin conductance response (SCR). Correlations between the SCR changes, and personality traits measured by the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD) and Revised NEO Personality Inventory were explored. The interpersonal conflict stimulus resulted in successful conditioning, which was subsequently extinguished, in a similar manner as the other two stimuli. Moreover, a greater degree of conditioned response to the interpersonal conflict stimulus correlated with a higher ZAN-BPD total score. Fear conditioning and extinction can be successfully achieved, using interpersonal conflicts as a stimulus. Given that conditioned fear caused by the interpersonal conflicts is likely associated with borderline personality traits, this paradigm could contribute to further understanding of underlying mechanisms of interpersonal fear implicated in borderline personality disorder. PMID:25978817

  12. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Richard A; Pahnke, Aric Q; Johnson, Jeffrey M; Sachse, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06) but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06) and adult (0.91 ± 0.04) myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal that the

  13. Muscle torque of healthy individuals and individuals with spastic hemiparesis after passive static streching.

    PubMed

    Tatsukawa DE Freitas, Sérgio Takeshi; DE Carvalho Abreu, Elizângela Márcia; Dos Reis, Mariane Cecilia; DE Souza Cunha, Bruna; Souza Moreira Prianti, Tamires; Pupio Silva Lima, Fernanda; Oliveira Lima, Mário

    2016-01-01

    Spasticity is one of the main causes of contracture, muscle weakness and subsequent functional incapacity. The passive static stretching can be included as having the purpose of increasing musculoskeletal flexibility, however, it also can influence the muscle torque. The objective is to verify the immediate effect of passive static stretching in the muscle strength of healthy and those who present spastic hemiparesis. There were assessed 20 subjects, 10 spastic hemiparetic (EG) and 10 healthy individuals (CG), including both sexes, aged between 22 and 78 years. The torque of extensor muscles of the knee was analyzed using isokinetic dynamometer. Results have shown that EG has less muscle torque compared to CG ( p < 0.01). In addition, EG presented a decrease in significance of muscle torque after stretching ( p < 0.05), however, it has not shown significant alteration in muscle torque of CG after performing the program that was prescribed. Immediately after the passive stretch, a significant torque decrease can be seen in hypertonic muscle; it is believed that this reduction may be associated with the physiological overlap between actin and myosin filaments and so preventing the muscle to develop a maximum contraction. PMID:27151602

  14. Plantar Pressure Distribution Patterns of Individuals with Prediabetes in Comparison with Healthy Individuals and Individuals with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Caroline Cabral; Balbinot, Luciane Fachin; Silva, Marcelo Faria; Achaval, Matilde; Zaro, Milton Antônio

    2013-01-01

    Background Since elevated mechanical stress along with loss of plantar protective sensation are considered relevant factors in skin breakdown resulting in diabetic foot ulcerations, the assessment of plantar pressure is important for the prevention of diabetic foot complications. Prediabetes subjects are at risk of chronic hyperglycemia complications, among them neuropathy, but information about plantar loading in this population is not available. We aimed to compare baropodometric parameters of individuals with prediabetes versus healthy persons and persons with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods Baropodometric data from 73 subjects (15 with prediabetes (pre-DM), 28 with type 2 DM, 30 healthy) aged between 29 and 69 years of both genders were registered through a pressure platform with self-selected gait speed and first-step protocol. Peak plantar pressure, stance time, percentage of contact time, percentage of contact area and pressure-time integral were assessed in five plantar foot regions: heel, midfoot, metatarsals, hallux, and toes 2 to 5. Groups were compared by one-way analysis of variance with Scheffé post hoc (α = 0.05). Results Age, body mass index, gender, and arch height index did not differ between groups. Pre-DM and DM subjects presented increased peak pressure and pressure-time integral in metatarsals (p = .010; p > .001), as well as increased percentage of contact time in midfoot (p = .006) and metatarsals (p = .004) regions when compared with healthy subjects. Stance time was significantly higher (p = .017) in DM subjects. Conclusions Pre-DM subjects seem to exhibit an altered plantar pressure distribution pattern similar to that often found in DM subjects. PMID:24124936

  15. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage, Antibiotic Resistance and Molecular Pathogenicity among Healthy Individuals Exposed and Not Exposed to Hospital Environment

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Veena; Renushri, Bhadravati Virupaksha; Nagaraj, Elkal Rajappa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthcare workers as well as healthy community-dwelling individuals may be colonised by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Healthcare workers who carry MRSA may transmit it to patients, causing various nosocomial infections. Literature shows that the differences between MRSA isolated from healthcare settings and from community settings, with regard to multi-drug resistance (traditionally exhibited by the former) and possession of pvl genes (traditionally exhibited by the latter), is diminishing due to a large community reservoir and increasing influx of community harboured strains into the hospital. However, there is no literature on the current scenario in India. Aims and Objectives: This study examines the influence of exposure to hospital environment on MRSA carriage, antimicrobial resistance patterns of MRSA, and the presence of genes encoding five extracellular pathogenicity determinants (pvl, sea, seb, tsst-1 and hly a). Materials and Methods: Nasal, throat and palmar swabs were collected from 119 nursing students of the age group 18-23 years (exposed group) and 100 age matched pharmacy students (non-exposed group). S. aureus was identified and antibiogram obtained as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. MRSA was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion test and by growth on oxacillin screen agar as per CLSI guidelines. Conventional PCR was performed for mecA, pvl, sea, seb, tsst-1 and hly a. Results: The differences in carrier rates, antibiotic resistance patterns and expression of extracellular pathogenicity determinants between MRSA isolates from the two study groups were not significant, and pvl was found in all the MRSA isolates. Conclusion: The nursing students carried MRSA strains similar to those carried by the non-exposed group. Our results suggest that healthcare workers could act as a link and transmit MRSA acquired from the community to patients. PMID:25177563

  16. Spatial Compression Impairs Prism Adaptation in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Scriven, Rachel J.; Newport, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Neglect patients typically present with gross inattention to one side of space following damage to the contralateral hemisphere. While prism-adaptation (PA) is effective in ameliorating some neglect behaviors, the mechanisms involved and their relationship to neglect remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that conscious strategic control (SC) processes in PA may be impaired in neglect patients, who are also reported to show extraordinarily long aftereffects compared to healthy participants. Determining the underlying cause of these effects may be the key to understanding therapeutic benefits. Alternative accounts suggest that reduced SC might result from a failure to detect prism-induced reaching errors properly either because (a) the size of the error is underestimated in compressed visual space or (b) pathologically increased error-detection thresholds reduce the requirement for error correction. The purpose of this study was to model these two alternatives in healthy participants and to examine whether SC and subsequent aftereffects were abnormal compared to standard PA. Each participant completed three PA procedures within a MIRAGE mediated reality environment with direction errors recorded before, during and after adaptation. During PA, visual feedback of the reach could be compressed, perturbed by noise, or represented veridically. Compressed visual space significantly reduced SC and aftereffects compared to control and noise conditions. These results support recent observations in neglect patients, suggesting that a distortion of spatial representation may successfully model neglect and explain neglect performance while adapting to prisms. PMID:23675332

  17. Spatial compression impairs prism adaptation in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Scriven, Rachel J; Newport, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Neglect patients typically present with gross inattention to one side of space following damage to the contralateral hemisphere. While prism-adaptation (PA) is effective in ameliorating some neglect behaviors, the mechanisms involved and their relationship to neglect remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that conscious strategic control (SC) processes in PA may be impaired in neglect patients, who are also reported to show extraordinarily long aftereffects compared to healthy participants. Determining the underlying cause of these effects may be the key to understanding therapeutic benefits. Alternative accounts suggest that reduced SC might result from a failure to detect prism-induced reaching errors properly either because (a) the size of the error is underestimated in compressed visual space or (b) pathologically increased error-detection thresholds reduce the requirement for error correction. The purpose of this study was to model these two alternatives in healthy participants and to examine whether SC and subsequent aftereffects were abnormal compared to standard PA. Each participant completed three PA procedures within a MIRAGE mediated reality environment with direction errors recorded before, during and after adaptation. During PA, visual feedback of the reach could be compressed, perturbed by noise, or represented veridically. Compressed visual space significantly reduced SC and aftereffects compared to control and noise conditions. These results support recent observations in neglect patients, suggesting that a distortion of spatial representation may successfully model neglect and explain neglect performance while adapting to prisms. PMID:23675332

  18. The impact of price reductions on individuals' choice of healthy meals away from home.

    PubMed

    Nordström, Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Food high in energy but low in nutritional value is an important contributor to several serious illnesses, and one type of food that is particularly high in energy but low in nutrition is food consumed away from home. In this paper, we examine the demand and willingness to pay for healthy, Keyhole-labelled meals. A Keyhole-labelled meal is particularly low in energy, fat, sugar and salt, but particularly high in fibre. The results suggest that to get the majority of individuals to choose the healthy option regularly it would be necessary to alter the relative price between healthy and less healthy meals. Generally groups of individuals with a poor nutritional intake require a larger compensation (subsidy) before they choose the healthy alternative. About one third of respondents would choose the healthy option regularly if the prices for a healthy and less healthy meal were the same. In particular groups of individuals who already have a relatively good nutritional intake would select the healthy option. Groups with a generally poor nutritional intake (men and individuals with lower education and lower income) would gain health benefits from a subsidy of Keyhole-labelled meals. PMID:25662697

  19. Population Pharmacokinetic Meta-Analysis of Vortioxetine in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Areberg, Johan; Petersen, Kamilla B; Chen, Grace; Naik, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to describe the pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine and evaluate the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the healthy population. Data from 26 clinical pharmacology studies were pooled. A total of 21,758 vortioxetine quantifiable plasma concentrations were collected from 887 subjects with corresponding demography. The doses ranged from 2.5 to 75 mg (single dose) and 2.5–60 mg (multiple QD doses). The pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine was best characterised by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption, lag-time and linear elimination, with interindividual error terms for absorption rate constant, oral clearance and central volume of distribution. The population mean was 32.7 L/hr for oral clearance and 1.97·103 L for the central volume of distribution. The average elimination half-life was 65.8 hr. CYP2D6 inferred metabolic status (ultra, extensive, intermediate or poor metabolisers) and age on oral clearance and height on central volume of distribution were identified as statistically significant covariate–parameter relationships. For CYP2D6 poor metabolisers, CL/F was approximately 50% to that seen in CYP2D6 extensive metabolisers. The impact of height on V2/F and age on CL/F was low and not considered to be clinically relevant. The final model was found to be reliable, stable and predictive. A reliable, stable and predictive pharmacokinetic model was developed to characterise pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine in the healthy population. PMID:24766668

  20. Population pharmacokinetic meta-analysis of vortioxetine in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Areberg, Johan; Petersen, Kamilla B; Chen, Grace; Naik, Himanshu

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to describe the pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine and evaluate the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the healthy population. Data from 26 clinical pharmacology studies were pooled. A total of 21,758 vortioxetine quantifiable plasma concentrations were collected from 887 subjects with corresponding demography. The doses ranged from 2.5 to 75 mg (single dose) and 2.5-60 mg (multiple QD doses). The pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine was best characterised by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption, lag-time and linear elimination, with interindividual error terms for absorption rate constant, oral clearance and central volume of distribution. The population mean was 32.7 L/hr for oral clearance and 1.97∙10(3)  L for the central volume of distribution. The average elimination half-life was 65.8 hr. CYP2D6 inferred metabolic status (ultra, extensive, intermediate or poor metabolisers) and age on oral clearance and height on central volume of distribution were identified as statistically significant covariate-parameter relationships. For CYP2D6 poor metabolisers, CL/F was approximately 50% to that seen in CYP2D6 extensive metabolisers. The impact of height on V2/F and age on CL/F was low and not considered to be clinically relevant. The final model was found to be reliable, stable and predictive. A reliable, stable and predictive pharmacokinetic model was developed to characterise pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine in the healthy population. PMID:24766668

  1. Working memory training improves emotional states of healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) capacity is associated with various emotional aspects, including states of depression and stress, reactions to emotional stimuli, and regulatory behaviors. We have previously investigated the effects of WM training (WMT) on cognitive functions and brain structures. However, the effects of WMT on emotional states and related neural mechanisms among healthy young adults remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated these effects in young adults who underwent WMT or received no intervention for 4 weeks. Before and after the intervention, subjects completed self-report questionnaires related to their emotional states and underwent scanning sessions in which brain activities related to negative emotions were measured. Compared with controls, subjects who underwent WMT showed reduced anger, fatigue, and depression. Furthermore, WMT reduced activity in the left posterior insula during tasks evoking negative emotion, which was related to anger. It also reduced activity in the left frontoparietal area. These findings show that WMT can reduce negative mood and provide new insight into the clinical applications of WMT, at least among subjects with preclinical-level conditions. PMID:25360090

  2. Changes in CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+, and Immunoglobulin M-Positive Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome-Affected Pigs and Age-Matched Uninfected Wasted and Healthy Pigs Correlate with Lesions and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Load in Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Darwich, Laila; Segalés, Joaquim; Domingo, Mariano; Mateu, Enric

    2002-01-01

    Forty-one 8- to 12-week-old wasted pigs were selected from several conventional farms with histories of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and classified into two groups according to their porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection status, as determined by in situ hybridization (ISH). Twenty-four pigs tested positive for PCV2 (PCV2-positive group), while 17 pigs tested negative for PCV2 (PCV2-negative group). In addition, eight uninfected healthy pigs from an experimental farm were used as controls. Heparinized blood samples were taken to obtain peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+ (double-positive [DP]), and immunoglobulin M-positive (IgM+) cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry with appropriate monoclonal antibodies. Histopathological studies were done to evaluate the apparent degrees of lymphocyte depletion in different lymphoid organs (superficial inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, tonsils, and spleen) and to determine the viral load of the PCV2 genome by using an ISH technique. Animals of the PCV2-positive group showed a significant downshift of the CD8+ and DP cell subsets compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, in PCV2-positive pigs, the amount of PCV2 genome in lymphoid tissues was related to the degree of cell depletion in those tissues (P < 0.05) as well as to the relative decrease in IgM+ and CD8+ cells in peripheral blood. These data support the notion that PCV2-positive pigs might have an impaired immune response. PMID:11874858

  3. Non-Linear Dynamical Analysis of EEG Time Series Distinguishes Patients with Parkinson’s Disease from Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Hernandez, Manuel E.; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is known to involve altered patterns of neuronal firing and synchronization in cortical-basal ganglia circuits. One window into the nature of the aberrant temporal dynamics in the cerebral cortex of PD patients can come from analysis of the patients electroencephalography (EEG). Rather than using spectral-based methods, we used data models based on delay differential equations (DDE) as non-linear time-domain classification tools to analyze EEG recordings from PD patients on and off dopaminergic therapy and healthy individuals. Two sets of 50 1-s segments of 64-channel EEG activity were recorded from nine PD patients on and off medication and nine age-matched controls. The 64 EEG channels were grouped into 10 clusters covering frontal, central, parietal, and occipital brain regions for analysis. DDE models were fitted to individual trials, and model coefficients and error were used as features for classification. The best models were selected using repeated random sub-sampling validation and classification performance was measured using the area under the ROC curve A′. In a companion paper, we show that DDEs can uncover hidden dynamical structure from short segments of simulated time series of known dynamical systems in high noise regimes. Using the same method for finding the best models, we found here that even short segments of EEG data in PD patients and controls contained dynamical structure, and moreover, that PD patients exhibited a greater dynamic range than controls. DDE model output on the means from one set of 50 trials provided nearly complete separation of PD patients off medication from controls: across brain regions, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves, A′, varied from 0.95 to 1.0. For distinguishing PD patients on vs. off medication, classification performance A′ ranged from 0.86 to 1.0 across brain regions. Moreover, the generalizability of the model to the second set of

  4. Good Vibrations – Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Attention in Healthy Individuals and Individuals with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Most of the current treatment strategies of ADHD are associated with a number of disadvantages which strengthen the need for alternative or additional approaches for the treatment of ADHD. In this respect, Whole Body Vibration (WBV) might be interesting as it was found to have beneficial effects on a variety of physiological measures. The present study explored the effects of WBV on attention of healthy individuals and adults diagnosed with ADHD. Methods Eighty-three healthy individuals and seventeen adults diagnosed with ADHD participated in the study. WBV treatment was applied passively, while participants were sitting on a chair which was mounted on a vibrating platform. A repeated measure design was employed in order to explore potential effects of WBV treatment on attention within subjects. Attention (i.e. inhibitory control) was measured with a color-word interference paradigm. Results A period of two minutes of WBV treatment had significant beneficial effects of small to medium size on attention of both healthy individuals and adults with ADHD. The effect of WBV treatment on attention did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions WBV was demonstrated to improve cognitive performance of healthy individuals as well as of individuals with ADHD. WBV treatment is relatively inexpensive and easy to apply and might therefore be of potential relevance for clinical use. The application of WBV treatment as a cognitive enhancement strategy and as a potential treatment of cognitive impairments is discussed. PMID:24587412

  5. Adaptation of multijoint coordination during standing balance in healthy young and healthy old individuals.

    PubMed

    Engelhart, D; Pasma, J H; Schouten, A C; Aarts, R G K M; Meskers, C G M; Maier, A B; van der Kooij, H

    2016-03-01

    Standing balance requires multijoint coordination between the ankles and hips. We investigated how humans adapt their multijoint coordination to adjust to various conditions and whether the adaptation differed between healthy young participants and healthy elderly. Balance was disturbed by push/pull rods, applying two continuous and independent force disturbances at the level of the hip and between the shoulder blades. In addition, external force fields were applied, represented by an external stiffness at the hip, either stabilizing or destabilizing the participants' balance. Multivariate closed-loop system-identification techniques were used to describe the neuromuscular control mechanisms by quantifying the corrective joint torques as a response to body sway, represented by frequency response functions (FRFs). Model fits on the FRFs resulted in an estimation of time delays, intrinsic stiffness, reflexive stiffness, and reflexive damping of both the ankle and hip joint. The elderly generated similar corrective joint torques but had reduced body sway compared with the young participants, corresponding to the increased FRF magnitude with age. When a stabilizing or destabilizing external force field was applied at the hip, both young and elderly participants adapted their multijoint coordination by lowering or respectively increasing their neuromuscular control actions around the ankles, expressed in a change of FRF magnitude. However, the elderly adapted less compared with the young participants. Model fits on the FRFs showed that elderly had higher intrinsic and reflexive stiffness of the ankle, together with higher time delays of the hip. Furthermore, the elderly adapted their reflexive stiffness around the ankle joint less compared with young participants. These results imply that elderly were stiffer and were less able to adapt to external force fields. PMID:26719084

  6. Neural Mechanisms of Verb Argument Structure Processing in Agrammatic Aphasic and Healthy Age-Matched Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Fix, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior peri-sylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions on the basis of argument structure complexity. The aim of…

  7. Entraining with another person's speech rhythm: Evidence from healthy speakers and individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Späth, Mona; Aichert, Ingrid; Ceballos-Baumann, Andrés O; Wagner-Sonntag, Edith; Miller, Nick; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    This study examines entrainment of speech timing and rhythm with a model speaker in healthy persons and individuals with Parkinson's. We asked whether participants coordinate their speech initiation and rhythm with the model speaker, and whether the regularity of metrical structure of sentences influences this behaviour. Ten native German speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria following Parkinson's and 10 healthy controls heard a sentence ('prime') and subsequently read aloud another sentence ('target'). Speech material comprised 32 metrically regular and irregular sentences, respectively. Turn-taking delays and alignment of speech rhythm were measured using speech wave analyses. Results showed that healthy participants initiated speech more closely in rhythm with the model speaker than patients. Metrically regular prime sentences induced anticipatory responses relative to metrically irregular primes. Entrainment of speech rhythm was greater in metrically regular targets, especially in individuals with Parkinson's. We conclude that individuals with Parkinson's may exploit metrically regular cues in speech. PMID:26786186

  8. Left anterior cingulate activity predicts intra-individual reaction time variability in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Beth P; Pinar, Ari; Fornito, Alex; Nandam, L Sanjay; Hester, Robert; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    Within-subject, or intra-individual, variability in reaction time (RT) is increasingly recognised as an important indicator of the efficiency of attentional control, yet there have been few investigations of the neural correlates of trial-to-trial RT variability in healthy adults. We sought to determine the neural correlates of intra-individual RT variability during a go/no-go response inhibition task in 27 healthy, male participants. We found that reduced trial-to-trial RT variability (i.e. greater response stability) was significantly associated with greater activation in the left pregenual anterior cingulate. These results support the role of the left anterior cingulate in the dynamic control of attention and efficient response selection. Greater understanding of intra-individual RT variability and top-down attentional control in healthy adults may help to inform disorders that impact executive/attentional control, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:25791710

  9. Common Leukemia- and Lymphoma-Associated Genetic Aberrations in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jianbo; Mercer, Danielle; Hu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Henry; Li, Marilyn M.

    2011-01-01

    Leukemia- and lymphoma-associated (LLA) chromosomal rearrangements are critical in the process of tumorigenesis. These genetic alterations are also important biological markers in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of hematopoietic malignant diseases. To detect the presence or absence of these genetic alterations in healthy individuals, sensitive nested RT-PCR analyses were performed on a large number of peripheral blood samples for selected markers including MLL partial tandem duplications (PTDs), BCR-ABL p190, BCR-ABL p210, MLL-AF4, AML1-ETO, PML-RARA, and CBFB-MYH11. Using nested RT-PCR, the presence of all of these selected markers was detected in healthy individuals at various prevalence rates. No correlation was observed between incidence and age except for BCR-ABL p210 fusion, the incidence of which rises with increasing age. In addition, nested RT-PCR was performed on a large cohort of umbilical cord blood samples for MLL PTD, BCR-ABL p190 and BCR-ABL p210. The results demonstrated the presence of these aberrations in cord blood from healthy neonates. To our knowledge, the presence of PML-RARA and CBFB-MYH11 in healthy individuals has not been previously described. The present study provides further evidence for the presence of LLA genetic alterations in healthy individuals and suggests that these mutations are not themselves sufficient for malignant transformation. PMID:21354057

  10. Adaptation to Leftward-Shifting Prisms Reduces the Global Processing Bias of Healthy Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bultitude, Janet H.; Woods, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    When healthy individuals are presented with peripheral figures in which small letters are arranged to form a large letter, they are faster to identify the global- than the local-level information, and have difficulty ignoring global information when identifying the local level. The global reaction time (RT) advantage and global interference effect…

  11. The Healthy Living Project: An Individually Tailored, Multidimensional Intervention for HIV-Infected Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Weinhardt, Lance S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Kirshenbaum, Sheri B.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Catz, Sheryl L.; Ehrhardt, Anke A.; Remien, Robert H.; Morin, Stephen F.

    2005-01-01

    The NIMH Healthy Living Project (HLP), a randomized behavioral intervention trial for people living with HIV, enrolled 943 individuals, including women, heterosexual men, injection drug users, and men who have sex with men from Los Angeles, Milwaukee, New York, and San Francisco. The intervention, which is based on qualitative formative research…

  12. Differential Activation in Amygdala and Plasma Noradrenaline during Colorectal Distention by Administration of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone between Healthy Individuals and Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yukari; Kanazawa, Motoyori; Kano, Michiko; Morishita, Joe; Hamaguchi, Toyohiro; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Ly, Huynh Giao; Dupont, Patrick; Tack, Jan; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Tashiro, Manabu; Fukudo, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often comorbids mood and anxiety disorders. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, but it is not clear how CRH agonists change human brain responses to interoceptive stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that brain activation in response to colorectal distention is enhanced after CRH injection in IBS patients compared to healthy controls. Brain H215O- positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in 16 male IBS patients and 16 age-matched male controls during baseline, no distention, mild and intense distention of the colorectum using barostat bag inflation. Either CRH (2 μg/kg) or saline (1:1) was then injected intravenously and the same distention protocol was repeated. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum cortisol and plasma noradrenaline levels were measured at each stimulation. At baseline, CRH without colorectal distention induced more activation in the right amygdala in IBS patients than in controls. During intense distention after CRH injection, controls showed significantly greater activation than IBS patients in the right amygdala. Plasma ACTH and serum cortisol secretion showed a significant interaction between drug (CRH, saline) and distention. Plasma noradrenaline at baseline significantly increased after CRH injection compared to before injection in IBS. Further, plasma noradrenaline showed a significant group (IBS, controls) by drug by distention interaction. Exogenous CRH differentially sensitizes brain regions of the emotional-arousal circuitry within the visceral pain matrix to colorectal distention and synergetic activation of noradrenergic function in IBS patients and healthy individuals. PMID:27448273

  13. Differential Activation in Amygdala and Plasma Noradrenaline during Colorectal Distention by Administration of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone between Healthy Individuals and Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yukari; Kanazawa, Motoyori; Kano, Michiko; Morishita, Joe; Hamaguchi, Toyohiro; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Ly, Huynh Giao; Dupont, Patrick; Tack, Jan; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Tashiro, Manabu; Fukudo, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often comorbids mood and anxiety disorders. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, but it is not clear how CRH agonists change human brain responses to interoceptive stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that brain activation in response to colorectal distention is enhanced after CRH injection in IBS patients compared to healthy controls. Brain H215O- positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in 16 male IBS patients and 16 age-matched male controls during baseline, no distention, mild and intense distention of the colorectum using barostat bag inflation. Either CRH (2 μg/kg) or saline (1:1) was then injected intravenously and the same distention protocol was repeated. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum cortisol and plasma noradrenaline levels were measured at each stimulation. At baseline, CRH without colorectal distention induced more activation in the right amygdala in IBS patients than in controls. During intense distention after CRH injection, controls showed significantly greater activation than IBS patients in the right amygdala. Plasma ACTH and serum cortisol secretion showed a significant interaction between drug (CRH, saline) and distention. Plasma noradrenaline at baseline significantly increased after CRH injection compared to before injection in IBS. Further, plasma noradrenaline showed a significant group (IBS, controls) by drug by distention interaction. Exogenous CRH differentially sensitizes brain regions of the emotional-arousal circuitry within the visceral pain matrix to colorectal distention and synergetic activation of noradrenergic function in IBS patients and healthy individuals. PMID:27448273

  14. CACNA1C risk variant affects facial emotion recognition in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Nieratschker, Vanessa; Brückmann, Christof; Plewnia, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Recognition and correct interpretation of facial emotion is essential for social interaction and communication. Previous studies have shown that impairments in this cognitive domain are common features of several psychiatric disorders. Recent association studies identified CACNA1C as one of the most promising genetic risk factors for psychiatric disorders and previous evidence suggests that the most replicated risk variant in CACNA1C (rs1006737) is affecting emotion recognition and processing. However, studies investigating the influence of rs1006737 on this intermediate phenotype in healthy subjects at the behavioral level are largely missing to date. Here, we applied the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test, a facial emotion recognition paradigm in a cohort of 92 healthy individuals to address this question. Whereas accuracy was not affected by genotype, CACNA1C rs1006737 risk-allele carries (AA/AG) showed significantly slower mean response times compared to individuals homozygous for the G-allele, indicating that healthy risk-allele carriers require more information to correctly identify a facial emotion. Our study is the first to provide evidence for an impairing behavioral effect of the CACNA1C risk variant rs1006737 on facial emotion recognition in healthy individuals and adds to the growing number of studies pointing towards CACNA1C as affecting intermediate phenotypes of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26611642

  15. CACNA1C risk variant affects facial emotion recognition in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Nieratschker, Vanessa; Brückmann, Christof; Plewnia, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Recognition and correct interpretation of facial emotion is essential for social interaction and communication. Previous studies have shown that impairments in this cognitive domain are common features of several psychiatric disorders. Recent association studies identified CACNA1C as one of the most promising genetic risk factors for psychiatric disorders and previous evidence suggests that the most replicated risk variant in CACNA1C (rs1006737) is affecting emotion recognition and processing. However, studies investigating the influence of rs1006737 on this intermediate phenotype in healthy subjects at the behavioral level are largely missing to date. Here, we applied the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test, a facial emotion recognition paradigm in a cohort of 92 healthy individuals to address this question. Whereas accuracy was not affected by genotype, CACNA1C rs1006737 risk-allele carries (AA/AG) showed significantly slower mean response times compared to individuals homozygous for the G-allele, indicating that healthy risk-allele carriers require more information to correctly identify a facial emotion. Our study is the first to provide evidence for an impairing behavioral effect of the CACNA1C risk variant rs1006737 on facial emotion recognition in healthy individuals and adds to the growing number of studies pointing towards CACNA1C as affecting intermediate phenotypes of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26611642

  16. Simultaneous traumatic rupture of the patellar tendon and the contralateral quadriceps tendon in a healthy individual

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S; Rachakatla, N; Kerin, C; Kumar, R

    2010-01-01

    A simultaneous traumatic complete rupture of the patellar tendon and the contralateral quadriceps tendon is reported to occur in patients with renal failure and other inflammatory diseases, but is extremely rare in a healthy individual because of the different contributory factors and mechanisms of injury. We present a rare case report of such a combination of injuries in a 48-year-old healthy man. To our knowledge only three such cases have been reported in the English literature. This is an unusual combination and hence there is potential for missed diagnosis leading to suboptimal treatment. PMID:22791858

  17. Assessing Cortisol Reactivity to a Linguistic Task as a Marker of Stress in Individuals with Left-Hemisphere Stroke and Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Heim, Christine M.; Hsu, Yu-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explore a method of measuring physiologic and perceived stress in individuals with aphasia by investigating salivary cortisol reactivity and subjectively perceived stress in response to a standardized linguistic task. Method: Fifteen individuals with aphasia and 15 age-matched healthy controls participated in a…

  18. Cytolytic T-cell response against Epstein-Barr virus in lung cancer patients and healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine whether EBV seropositive patients with lung cancer have an altered virus-specific CTL response, as compared to age-matched healthy controls and whether any variation in this response could be attributed to senescence. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from lung cancer patients, age-matched and younger healthy individuals were used to measure EBV-specific CTLs after in vitro amplification with the GLCTLVAML and RYSIFFDYM peptides followed by HLA-multimer staining. Results Lung cancer patients and aged-matched controls had significantly lesser EBV-specific CTL than younger healthy individuals. Multimer positive populations from either group did not differ with respect to the percentage of multimer positive CTLs and the intensity of multimer binding. Conclusions This study provides evidence that patients with lung cancer exhibit an EBV-specific CTL response equivalent to that of age-matched healthy counterparts. These data warrant the examination of whether young individuals have a more robust anti-tumor response, as is the case with the anti-EBV response. PMID:20525347

  19. Compensatory larger cortical thickness in healthy elderly individuals with electroencephalographic risk for cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Castro-Chavira, Susana A; Barrios, Fernando A; Pasaye, Erick H; Alatorre-Cruz, Graciela C; Fernández, Thalía

    2016-06-15

    Excess theta electroencephalographic (EEG) activity has been described as an accurate predictor for cognitive decline at least 7 years before symptom presentation. To test whether this predictor for cognitive decline correlates with structural changes in the brains of healthy elderly individuals, we compared the magnetic resonance structural images of healthy individuals with excess of theta activity [group with a risk for cognitive decline, risk group (RG); n=14] with healthy controls with normal EEG activity (control group; n=14). Neuropsychological and epidemiological analyses showed significant differences in only two features: more years of education and better performance in the visuospatial process task in the control group. Voxel-based morphometry results were not conclusive, but showed tendencies toward larger volumes in the prefrontal and parietal lobes, and smaller volumes in the right temporal lobe, right occipital lobe, and left cerebellum for the RG; these tendencies are in agreement with those proposed by the posterior-anterior shift in an aging model. Cortical-thickness analyses yielded a significant correlation between cortical thickness and years of education in the prefrontal and inferior-temporal regions, and larger cortical thickness in the RG, independent of age and years of education, in the right superior temporal region. These results suggest changes in the cortical thickness of structures related to memory and visuospatial functions in healthy, cognitively normal individuals before the appearance of cognitive decline. Thus, the performance of healthy elderly individuals with EEG risk may only be slightly different from normal because of compensation mechanisms allowing them to fulfill daily-life tasks, masking structural changes during preclinical neurocognitive disorders. PMID:27171033

  20. Elastins from patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome and healthy individuals differ on the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Andrea; Huertas, Angela C Mora; Schräder, Christoph U; Pankau, Rainer; Gosch, Angela; Schmelzer, Christian E H

    2016-07-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a congenital disorder, which involves the heterozygous deletion of the elastin gene and other genes on chromosome 7. Clinical symptoms that are associated with hemizygosity of the essential extracellular matrix protein elastin include premature aging of the skin and supravalvular aortic stenosis. However, only little is known about the molecular basis of structural abnormalities in the connective tissue of WBS patients. Therefore, for the first time this study aimed to systematically characterize and compare the structure and amount of elastin present in skin and aortic tissue from WBS patients and healthy individuals. Elastin fibers were isolated from tissue biopsies, and it was found that skin of WBS patients contains significantly less elastin compared to skin of healthy individuals. Scanning electron microscopy and mass spectrometric measurements combined with bioinformatics data analysis were used to investigate the molecular-level structure of elastin. Scanning electron microscopy revealed clear differences between WBS and healthy elastin. With respect to the molecular-level structure, it was found that the proline hydroxylation degree differed between WBS and healthy elastin, while the tropoelastin isoform appeared to be the same. In terms of cross-linking, no differences in the content of the tetrafunctional cross-links desmosine and isodesmosine were found between WBS and healthy elastin. However, principal component analysis revealed differences between enzymatic digests of elastin from healthy probands and WBS patients, which indicates differing susceptibility toward enzymatic cleavage. Overall, the study contributes to a better understanding of the correlation between genotypic and elastin-related phenotypic features of WBS patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27311421

  1. Comparison of Plasma Neurosteroid and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Forough; Izadi-mazidi, Maryam; Ghaffari, Ali; Yousefi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background. The present study aimed to compare plasma levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and prolactin in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Method. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia disorder (69 men and 31 women) and 190 healthy individuals (94 men and 96 women) participated in this cross-sectional study. They were tested for hormone levels and completed demographic questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of variance. Results. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in men with schizophrenia than in healthy men. Women with schizophrenia had a significantly higher level of testosterone and lower level of prolactin compared to healthy women. There were no significant differences in hormone levels across various subtypes of schizophrenia. No significant differences also were observed in hormones levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia disorder compared to those in patients with recurrent episodes. Conclusion. This study indicated that abnormal testosterone and prolactin levels might be associated with pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorder. PMID:27293968

  2. Comparison of Plasma Neurosteroid and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Riahi, Forough; Izadi-Mazidi, Maryam; Ghaffari, Ali; Yousefi, Elham; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Background. The present study aimed to compare plasma levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and prolactin in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Method. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia disorder (69 men and 31 women) and 190 healthy individuals (94 men and 96 women) participated in this cross-sectional study. They were tested for hormone levels and completed demographic questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of variance. Results. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in men with schizophrenia than in healthy men. Women with schizophrenia had a significantly higher level of testosterone and lower level of prolactin compared to healthy women. There were no significant differences in hormone levels across various subtypes of schizophrenia. No significant differences also were observed in hormones levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia disorder compared to those in patients with recurrent episodes. Conclusion. This study indicated that abnormal testosterone and prolactin levels might be associated with pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorder. PMID:27293968

  3. Gender, Contraceptives and Individual Metabolic Predisposition Shape a Healthy Plasma Lipidome

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Susanne; Graessler, Juergen; Ciucci, Sara; Al-Atrib, Rania; Vihervaara, Terhi; Schuhmann, Kai; Kauhanen, Dimple; Sysi-Aho, Marko; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bickle, Marc; Cannistraci, Carlo V.; Ekroos, Kim; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Lipidomics of human blood plasma is an emerging biomarker discovery approach that compares lipid profiles under pathological and physiologically normal conditions, but how a healthy lipidome varies within the population is poorly understood. By quantifying 281 molecular species from 27 major lipid classes in the plasma of 71 healthy young Caucasians whose 35 clinical blood test and anthropometric indices matched the medical norm, we provided a comprehensive, expandable and clinically relevant resource of reference molar concentrations of individual lipids. We established that gender is a major lipidomic factor, whose impact is strongly enhanced by hormonal contraceptives and mediated by sex hormone-binding globulin. In lipidomics epidemiological studies should avoid mixed-gender cohorts and females taking hormonal contraceptives should be considered as a separate sub-cohort. Within a gender-restricted cohort lipidomics revealed a compositional signature that indicates the predisposition towards an early development of metabolic syndrome in ca. 25% of healthy male individuals suggesting a healthy plasma lipidome as resource for early biomarker discovery. PMID:27295977

  4. Gender, Contraceptives and Individual Metabolic Predisposition Shape a Healthy Plasma Lipidome.

    PubMed

    Sales, Susanne; Graessler, Juergen; Ciucci, Sara; Al-Atrib, Rania; Vihervaara, Terhi; Schuhmann, Kai; Kauhanen, Dimple; Sysi-Aho, Marko; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bickle, Marc; Cannistraci, Carlo V; Ekroos, Kim; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Lipidomics of human blood plasma is an emerging biomarker discovery approach that compares lipid profiles under pathological and physiologically normal conditions, but how a healthy lipidome varies within the population is poorly understood. By quantifying 281 molecular species from 27 major lipid classes in the plasma of 71 healthy young Caucasians whose 35 clinical blood test and anthropometric indices matched the medical norm, we provided a comprehensive, expandable and clinically relevant resource of reference molar concentrations of individual lipids. We established that gender is a major lipidomic factor, whose impact is strongly enhanced by hormonal contraceptives and mediated by sex hormone-binding globulin. In lipidomics epidemiological studies should avoid mixed-gender cohorts and females taking hormonal contraceptives should be considered as a separate sub-cohort. Within a gender-restricted cohort lipidomics revealed a compositional signature that indicates the predisposition towards an early development of metabolic syndrome in ca. 25% of healthy male individuals suggesting a healthy plasma lipidome as resource for early biomarker discovery. PMID:27295977

  5. Personal Genome Sequencing in Ostensibly Healthy Individuals and the PeopleSeq Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Linderman, Michael D.; Nielsen, Daiva E.; Green, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of ostensibly healthy individuals have had their exome or genome sequenced, but a much smaller number of these individuals have received any personal genomic results from that sequencing. We term those projects in which ostensibly healthy participants can receive sequencing-derived genetic findings and may also have access to their genomic data as participatory predispositional personal genome sequencing (PPGS). Here we are focused on genome sequencing applied in a pre-symptomatic context and so define PPGS to exclude diagnostic genome sequencing intended to identify the molecular cause of suspected or diagnosed genetic disease. In this report we describe the design of completed and underway PPGS projects, briefly summarize the results reported to date and introduce the PeopleSeq Consortium, a newly formed collaboration of PPGS projects designed to collect much-needed longitudinal outcome data. PMID:27023617

  6. Differences in Postural Control During Single-Leg Stance Among Healthy Individuals With Different Foot Types.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Jay; Gay, Michael R; Denegar, Craig R

    2002-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify differences in postural control among healthy individuals with different architectural foot types. DESIGN AND SETTING: We compared postural control during single-leg stance in healthy individuals with cavus, rectus, and planus foot types in our athletic training research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Thirty healthy, young adults (15 men, 15 women; age, 21.9 +/- 2.0 years; mass, 71.6 +/- 16.7 kg; height, 168.4 +/- 13.6 cm) had their feet categorized based on rearfoot and forefoot alignment measures. The right and left feet of a subject could be classified into different categories, and each foot was treated as a subject. There were 19 cavus, 23 rectus, and 18 planus feet. MEASUREMENTS: Subjects performed three 10-second trials of single-leg stance on each leg with eyes open while standing on a force platform. Dependent measures were center-of-pressure (COP) excursion area and velocity. RESULTS: Subjects with cavus feet used significantly larger COP excursion areas than did subjects with rectus feet. However, COP excursion velocities were not significantly different among foot types. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians and researchers assessing postural control in single-leg stance with measures of COP excursion area must be cognizant of preexisting differences among foot types. If individuals' foot types are not taken into account, the results of clinical and research investigations assessing COP excursion area after injury may be confounded. PMID:12937424

  7. Isolation and Detection of Campylobacter concisus from Saliva of Healthy Individuals and Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Budiman, Vanna; Day, Andrew S.; Mitchell, Hazel; Lemberg, Daniel A.; Riordan, Stephen M.; Grimm, Michael; Leach, Steven T.; Ismail, Yazan

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Campylobacter concisus in the saliva of healthy individuals and patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was examined. C. concisus was detected in 97% of the healthy individuals and 100% of the patients with IBD tested. The C. concisus culture positivity rate in younger children was significantly lower than that in the other age groups. PMID:20519479

  8. Isolation and detection of Campylobacter concisus from saliva of healthy individuals and patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Budiman, Vanna; Day, Andrew S; Mitchell, Hazel; Lemberg, Daniel A; Riordan, Stephen M; Grimm, Michael; Leach, Steven T; Ismail, Yazan

    2010-08-01

    The presence of Campylobacter concisus in the saliva of healthy individuals and patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was examined. C. concisus was detected in 97% of the healthy individuals and 100% of the patients with IBD tested. The C. concisus culture positivity rate in younger children was significantly lower than that in the other age groups. PMID:20519479

  9. Effect of visual biofeedback to acquire supraglottic swallow in healthy individuals: a randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Imada, Miho; Kagaya, Hitoshi; Ishiguro, Yuriko; Kato, Miho; Inamoto, Yoko; Tanaka, Takashi; Shibata, Seiko; Saitoh, Eiichi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of visual biofeedback therapy in acquiring supraglottic swallow (SGS) in a randomized-controlled trial with healthy individuals. Eighteen individuals (mean age, 26 years) who could not close or keep closed the vocal folds before and during the swallow in SGS were allocated randomly to either a visual biofeedback group (eight individuals) or a nonbiofeedback group (10 individuals). A videoendoscope was inserted intranasally and an SGS exercise, using 4 ml of green-colored water, was performed 30 times per day up to 5 days. When the participant failed to perform SGS, the result was provided only to the participants in the visual biofeedback group. The median length of time until acquiring SGS was 1.5 days in the visual biofeedback group and 3.5 days in the nonbiofeedback group (P=0.040). We concluded that visual biofeedback effectively enabled participants to acquire SGS earlier. PMID:26795716

  10. Lateral prefrontal model-based signatures are reduced in healthy individuals with high trait impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Deserno, L; Wilbertz, T; Reiter, A; Horstmann, A; Neumann, J; Villringer, A; Heinze, H-J; Schlagenhauf, F

    2015-01-01

    High impulsivity is an important risk factor for addiction with evidence from endophenotype studies. In addiction, behavioral control is shifted toward the habitual end. Habitual control can be described by retrospective updating of reward expectations in ‘model-free' temporal-difference algorithms. Goal-directed control relies on the prospective consideration of actions and their outcomes, which can be captured by forward-planning ‘model-based' algorithms. So far, no studies have examined behavioral and neural signatures of model-free and model-based control in healthy high-impulsive individuals. Fifty healthy participants were drawn from the upper and lower ends of 452 individuals, completing the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. All participants performed a sequential decision-making task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and underwent structural MRI. Behavioral and fMRI data were analyzed by means of computational algorithms reflecting model-free and model-based control. Both groups did not differ regarding the balance of model-free and model-based control, but high-impulsive individuals showed a subtle but significant accentuation of model-free control alone. Right lateral prefrontal model-based signatures were reduced in high-impulsive individuals. Effects of smoking, drinking, general cognition or gray matter density did not account for the findings. Irrespectively of impulsivity, gray matter density in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was positively associated with model-based control. The present study supports the idea that high levels of impulsivity are accompanied by behavioral and neural signatures in favor of model-free behavioral control. Behavioral results in healthy high-impulsive individuals were qualitatively different to findings in patients with the same task. The predictive relevance of these results remains an important target for future longitudinal studies. PMID:26460483

  11. Lateral prefrontal model-based signatures are reduced in healthy individuals with high trait impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Deserno, L; Wilbertz, T; Reiter, A; Horstmann, A; Neumann, J; Villringer, A; Heinze, H-J; Schlagenhauf, F

    2015-01-01

    High impulsivity is an important risk factor for addiction with evidence from endophenotype studies. In addiction, behavioral control is shifted toward the habitual end. Habitual control can be described by retrospective updating of reward expectations in 'model-free' temporal-difference algorithms. Goal-directed control relies on the prospective consideration of actions and their outcomes, which can be captured by forward-planning 'model-based' algorithms. So far, no studies have examined behavioral and neural signatures of model-free and model-based control in healthy high-impulsive individuals. Fifty healthy participants were drawn from the upper and lower ends of 452 individuals, completing the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. All participants performed a sequential decision-making task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and underwent structural MRI. Behavioral and fMRI data were analyzed by means of computational algorithms reflecting model-free and model-based control. Both groups did not differ regarding the balance of model-free and model-based control, but high-impulsive individuals showed a subtle but significant accentuation of model-free control alone. Right lateral prefrontal model-based signatures were reduced in high-impulsive individuals. Effects of smoking, drinking, general cognition or gray matter density did not account for the findings. Irrespectively of impulsivity, gray matter density in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was positively associated with model-based control. The present study supports the idea that high levels of impulsivity are accompanied by behavioral and neural signatures in favor of model-free behavioral control. Behavioral results in healthy high-impulsive individuals were qualitatively different to findings in patients with the same task. The predictive relevance of these results remains an important target for future longitudinal studies. PMID:26460483

  12. Automatic Analysis of Single-Channel Sleep EEG: Validation in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Berthomier, Christian; Drouot, Xavier; Herman-Stoïca, Maria; Berthomier, Pierre; Prado, Jacques; Bokar-Thire, Djibril; Benoit, Odile; Mattout, Jérémie; d'Ortho, Marie-Pia

    2007-01-01

    Study Objective: To assess the performance of automatic sleep scoring software (ASEEGA) based on a single EEG channel comparatively with manual scoring (2 experts) of conventional full polysomnograms. Design: Polysomnograms from 15 healthy individuals were scored by 2 independent experts using conventional R&K rules. The results were compared to those of ASEEGA scoring on an epoch-by-epoch basis. Setting: Sleep laboratory in the physiology department of a teaching hospital. Participants: Fifteen healthy volunteers. Measurements and Results: The epoch-by-epoch comparison was based on classifying into 2 states (wake/sleep), 3 states (wake/REM/NREM), 4 states (wake/REM/stages 1-2/SWS), or 5 states (wake/REM/stage 1/stage 2/SWS). The obtained overall agreements, as quantified by the kappa coefficient, were 0.82, 0.81, 0.75, and 0.72, respectively. Furthermore, obtained agreements between ASEEGA and the expert consensual scoring were 96.0%, 92.1%, 84.9%, and 82.9%, respectively. Finally, when classifying into 5 states, the sensitivity and positive predictive value of ASEEGA regarding wakefulness were 82.5% and 89.7%, respectively. Similarly, sensitivity and positive predictive value regarding REM state were 83.0% and 89.1%. Conclusions: Our results establish the face validity and convergent validity of ASEEGA for single-channel sleep analysis in healthy individuals. ASEEGA appears as a good candidate for diagnostic aid and automatic ambulant scoring. Citation: Berthomier C; Drouot X; Herman-Stoïca M; Berthomier P; Prado J; Bokar-Thire D; Benoit O; Mattout J; d'Ortho MP. Automatic analysis of single-channel sleep EEG: validation in healthy individuals. SLEEP 2007;30(11):1587-1595. PMID:18041491

  13. Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement in Healthy Individuals: A Compensation for Cognitive Deficits or a Question of Personality?

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Larissa J.; Wunderli, Michael D.; Vonmoos, Matthias; Römmelt, Andreas T.; Baumgartner, Markus R.; Seifritz, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing bioethical debate on pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) in healthy individuals is often legitimated by the assumption that PCE will widely spread and become desirable for the general public in the near future. This assumption was questioned as PCE is not equally save and effective in everyone. Additionally, it was supposed that the willingness to use PCE is strongly personality-dependent likely preventing a broad PCE epidemic. Thus, we investigated whether the cognitive performance and personality of healthy individuals with regular nonmedical methylphenidate (MPH) use for PCE differ from stimulant-naïve controls. Twenty-five healthy individuals using MPH for PCE were compared with 39 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls regarding cognitive performance and personality assessed by a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery including social cognition, prosocial behavior, decision-making, impulsivity, and personality questionnaires. Substance use was assessed through self-report in an interview and quantitative hair and urine analyses. Recently abstinent PCE users showed no cognitive impairment but superior strategic thinking and decision-making. Furthermore, PCE users displayed higher levels of trait impulsivity, novelty seeking, and Machiavellianism combined with lower levels of social reward dependence and cognitive empathy. Finally, PCE users reported a smaller social network and exhibited less prosocial behavior in social interaction tasks. In conclusion, the assumption that PCE use will soon become epidemic is not supported by the present findings as PCE users showed a highly specific personality profile that shares a number of features with illegal stimulant users. Lastly, regular MPH use for PCE is not necessarily associated with cognitive deficits. PMID:26107846

  14. Electrophysiological responses to argument structure violations in healthy adults and individuals with agrammatic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kielar, Aneta; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Thompson, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Sentence comprehension requires processing of argument structure information associated with verbs, i.e. the number and type of arguments that they select. Many individuals with agrammatic aphasia show impaired production of verbs with greater argument structure density. The extent to which these participants also show argument structure deficits during comprehension, however, is unclear. Some studies find normal access to verb arguments, whereas others report impaired ability. The present study investigated verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasia by examining event-related potentials associated with argument structure violations in healthy young and older adults as well as aphasic individuals. A semantic violation condition was included to investigate possible differences in sensitivity to semantic and argument structure information during sentence processing. Results for the healthy control participants showed a negativity followed by a positive shift (N400-P600) in the argument structure violation condition, as found in previous ERP studies (Friederici & Frisch, 2000; Frisch, Hahne, & Friederici, 2004). In contrast, individuals with agrammatic aphasia showed a P600, but no N400, response to argument structure mismatches. Additionally, compared to the control groups, the agrammatic participants showed an attenuated, but relatively preserved, N400 response to semantic violations. These data show that agrammatic individuals do not demonstrate normal real-time sensitivity to verb argument structure requirements during sentence processing. PMID:23022079

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation over Broca's region improves phonemic and semantic fluency in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Z; Pisoni, A; Papagno, C

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can be proficiently used to modulate attentional and cognitive functions. For instance, in the language domain there is evidence that tDCS can fasten picture naming in both healthy individuals and aphasic patients, or improve grammar learning. In this study, we investigated whether tDCS can be used to increase healthy subjects' performance in phonemic and semantic fluency tasks, that are typically used in clinical assessment of language. Ten healthy individuals performed a semantic and a phonemic fluency task following anodal tDCS applied over Broca's region. Each participant underwent a real and a sham tDCS session. Participants were found to produce more words following real anodal tDCS both in the phonemic and in the semantic fluency. Control experiments ascertained that this finding did not depend upon unspecific effects of tDCS over levels of general arousal or attention or upon participants' expectations. These data confirm the efficacy of tDCS in transiently improving language functions by showing that anodal stimulation of Broca's region can enhance verbal fluency. Implications of these results for the treatment of language functions in aphasia are considered. PMID:21477637

  16. Specific vulnerability of face perception to noise: A similar effect in schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; McBain, Ryan; Norton, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Face perception plays a foundational role in the social world. This perceptual ability is deficient in schizophrenia. A noise-filtering mechanism is essential for perceptual processing. It remains unclear as to whether a specific noise-filtering mechanism is implicated in the face perception problem or a general noise-filtering mechanism is involved which also mediates non-face visual perception problems associated with this psychiatric disorder. This study examined and compared the effects of external noise on the performance of face discrimination and car discrimination in schizophrenia patients (n=25) and healthy controls (n=27). Superimposing the external visual noise on face or car stimuli elevated perceptual thresholds (i.e. degraded performance levels) for both face and car discrimination. However, the effect of noise was significantly larger on face than on car discrimination, both in patients and controls. This pattern of results suggests specific vulnerability of face processing to noise in healthy individuals and those with schizophrenia. PMID:25500350

  17. Comparative Study of Extracellular Vesicles from the Urine of Healthy Individuals and Prostate Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Bryzgunova, Olga E; Zaripov, Marat M; Skvortsova, Tatyana E; Lekchnov, Evgeny A; Grigor'eva, Alina E; Zaporozhchenko, Ivan A; Morozkin, Evgeny S; Ryabchikova, Elena I; Yurchenko, Yuri B; Voitsitskiy, Vladimir E; Laktionov, Pavel P

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that extracellular vesicles may be the key to timely diagnosis and monitoring of genito-urological malignancies. In this study we investigated the composition and content of extracellular vesicles found in the urine of healthy donors and prostate cancer patients. Urine of 14 PCa patients and 20 healthy volunteers was clarified by low-speed centrifugation and total extracellular vesicles fraction was obtain by high-speed centrifugation. The exosome-enriched fraction was obtained by filtration of total extracellular vesicles through a 0.1 μm pore filter. Transmission electron microscopy showed that cell-free urine in both groups contained vesicles from 20 to 230 nm. Immunogold staining after ultrafiltration demonstrated that 95% and 90% of extracellular vesicles in healthy individuals and cancer patients, respectively, were exosomes. Protein, DNA and RNA concentrations as well as size distribution of extracellular vesicles in both fractions were analyzed. Only 75% of the total protein content of extracellular vesicles was associated with exosomes which amounted to 90-95% of all vesicles. Median DNA concentrations in total extracellular vesicles and exosome-enriched fractions were 18 pg/ml and 2.6 pg/ml urine, correspondingly. Urine extracellular vesicles carried a population of RNA molecules 25 nt to 200 nt in concentration of no more than 290 pg/ml of urine. Additionally, concentrations of miR-19b, miR-25, miR-125b, and miR-205 were quantified by qRT-PCR. MiRNAs were shown to be differently distributed between different fractions of extracellular vesicles. Detection of miR-19b versus miR-16 in total vesicles and exosome-enriched fractions achieved 100%/93% and 95%/79% specificity/sensitivity in distinguishing cancer patients from healthy individuals, respectively, demonstrating the diagnostic value of urine extracellular vesicles. PMID:27305142

  18. Neural loss aversion differences between depression patients and healthy individuals: A functional MRI investigation

    PubMed Central

    Pillai Geethabhavan Rajesh, Purushothaman; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Rappai Mary, Paramban; Seema, Satish; Radhakrishnan, Ashalatha; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2015-01-01

    Neuroeconomics employs neuroscience techniques to explain decision-making behaviours. Prospect theory, a prominent model of decision-making, features a value function with parameters for risk and loss aversion. Recent work with normal participants identified activation related to loss aversion in brain regions including the amygdala, ventral striatum, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. However, the brain network for loss aversion in pathologies such as depression has yet to be identified. The aim of the current study is to employ the value function from prospect theory to examine behavioural and neural manifestations of loss aversion in depressed and healthy individuals to identify the neurobiological markers of loss aversion in economic behaviour. We acquired behavioural data and fMRI scans while healthy controls and patients with depression performed an economic decision-making task. Behavioural loss aversion was higher in patients with depression than in healthy controls. fMRI results revealed that the two groups shared a brain network for value function including right ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and right amygdala. However, the neural loss aversion results revealed greater activations in the right dorsal striatum and the right anterior insula for controls compared with patients with depression, and higher activations in the midbrain region ventral tegmental area for patients with depression compared with controls. These results suggest that while the brain network for loss aversion is shared between depressed and healthy individuals, some differences exist with respect to differential activation of additional areas. Our findings are relevant to identifying neurobiological markers for altered decision-making in the depressed. PMID:25923684

  19. Neural loss aversion differences between depression patients and healthy individuals: A functional MRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar Pammi, V S; Pillai Geethabhavan Rajesh, Purushothaman; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Rappai Mary, Paramban; Seema, Satish; Radhakrishnan, Ashalatha; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2015-04-01

    Neuroeconomics employs neuroscience techniques to explain decision-making behaviours. Prospect theory, a prominent model of decision-making, features a value function with parameters for risk and loss aversion. Recent work with normal participants identified activation related to loss aversion in brain regions including the amygdala, ventral striatum, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. However, the brain network for loss aversion in pathologies such as depression has yet to be identified. The aim of the current study is to employ the value function from prospect theory to examine behavioural and neural manifestations of loss aversion in depressed and healthy individuals to identify the neurobiological markers of loss aversion in economic behaviour. We acquired behavioural data and fMRI scans while healthy controls and patients with depression performed an economic decision-making task. Behavioural loss aversion was higher in patients with depression than in healthy controls. fMRI results revealed that the two groups shared a brain network for value function including right ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and right amygdala. However, the neural loss aversion results revealed greater activations in the right dorsal striatum and the right anterior insula for controls compared with patients with depression, and higher activations in the midbrain region ventral tegmental area for patients with depression compared with controls. These results suggest that while the brain network for loss aversion is shared between depressed and healthy individuals, some differences exist with respect to differential activation of additional areas. Our findings are relevant to identifying neurobiological markers for altered decision-making in the depressed. PMID:25923684

  20. Comparative Study of Extracellular Vesicles from the Urine of Healthy Individuals and Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bryzgunova, Olga E.; Zaripov, Marat M.; Skvortsova, Tatyana E.; Lekchnov, Evgeny A.; Grigor’eva, Alina E.; Morozkin, Evgeny S.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Yurchenko, Yuri B.; Voitsitskiy, Vladimir E.; Laktionov, Pavel P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that extracellular vesicles may be the key to timely diagnosis and monitoring of genito-urological malignancies. In this study we investigated the composition and content of extracellular vesicles found in the urine of healthy donors and prostate cancer patients. Urine of 14 PCa patients and 20 healthy volunteers was clarified by low-speed centrifugation and total extracellular vesicles fraction was obtain by high-speed centrifugation. The exosome-enriched fraction was obtained by filtration of total extracellular vesicles through a 0.1 μm pore filter. Transmission electron microscopy showed that cell-free urine in both groups contained vesicles from 20 to 230 nm. Immunogold staining after ultrafiltration demonstrated that 95% and 90% of extracellular vesicles in healthy individuals and cancer patients, respectively, were exosomes. Protein, DNA and RNA concentrations as well as size distribution of extracellular vesicles in both fractions were analyzed. Only 75% of the total protein content of extracellular vesicles was associated with exosomes which amounted to 90–95% of all vesicles. Median DNA concentrations in total extracellular vesicles and exosome-enriched fractions were 18 pg/ml and 2.6 pg/ml urine, correspondingly. Urine extracellular vesicles carried a population of RNA molecules 25 nt to 200 nt in concentration of no more than 290 pg/ml of urine. Additionally, concentrations of miR-19b, miR-25, miR-125b, and miR-205 were quantified by qRT-PCR. MiRNAs were shown to be differently distributed between different fractions of extracellular vesicles. Detection of miR-19b versus miR-16 in total vesicles and exosome-enriched fractions achieved 100%/93% and 95%/79% specificity/sensitivity in distinguishing cancer patients from healthy individuals, respectively, demonstrating the diagnostic value of urine extracellular vesicles. PMID:27305142

  1. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  2. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for neuroenhancement in healthy individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Repantis, Dimitris; Laisney, Oona; Heuser, Isabella

    2010-06-01

    The term neuroenhancement refers to improvement in the cognitive, emotional and motivational functions of healthy individuals through, inter alia, the use of drugs. Of known interventions, psychopharmacology provides readily available options, such as the anti-dementia drugs, e.g. acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine) and memantine. Based on a systematic review we found that expectations about the potential of these drugs exceed their actual effects, as has been demonstrated in randomised controlled trials. Both single and repeated dose trials were included in the systematic review, however repeated dose trials have only been conducted for donepezil. In six small trials lasting 14-42 days, the following results emerged: donepezil improved the retention of training on complex aviation tasks and verbal memory for semantically processed words. In one study episodic memory was improved, whereas in others it remained unaffected by donepezil. In a sleep deprivation trial, donepezil reduced the memory and attention deficits resulting from 24h of sleep deprivation. Two studies reported even transient negative effects. Regarding the safety profile of donepezil, these studies found that it was rather well tolerated. In any case, since large longitudinal studies are not available no conclusions can be drawn. Seven small studies about the effects of a single dose of memantine, and one study with a single dose of rivastigmine have been reported. Again, these studies are not adequate to answer our research question. If, as here and elsewhere suggested, the concept of pharmaceutical neuroenhancement is not to be rejected in principle, the decision of healthy individuals to take drugs for the purpose of neuroenhancement should be based on exhaustive information. At the moment, the research that would support or oppose the use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for neuroenhancement by healthy individuals has not yet been performed

  3. Asthmatics Exhibit Altered Oxylipin Profiles Compared to Healthy Individuals after Subway Air Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Nording, Malin; Klepczynska-Nyström, Anna; Sköld, Magnus; Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Grunewald, Johan; Svartengren, Magnus; Hammock, Bruce D.; Larsson, Britt-Marie; Eklund, Anders; Wheelock, Åsa M.; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) and oxidants are important factors in causing exacerbations in asthmatics, and the source and composition of pollutants greatly affects pathological implications. Objectives This randomized crossover study investigated responses of the respiratory system to Stockholm subway air in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the distal lung to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators in association with exposure to subway air relative to ambient air. Methods Sixty-four oxylipins representing the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic pathways were screened using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-fluid. Validations through immunocytochemistry staining of BAL-cells were performed for 15-LOX-1, COX-1, COX-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Multivariate statistics were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin and immunocytochemistry data in combination with patient clinical information. Results Asthmatics and healthy individuals exhibited divergent oxylipin profiles following exposure to ambient and subway air. Significant changes were observed in 8 metabolites of linoleic- and α-linolenic acid synthesized via the 15-LOX pathway, and of the COX product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Oxylipin levels were increased in healthy individuals following exposure to subway air, whereas asthmatics evidenced decreases or no change. Conclusions Several of the altered oxylipins have known or suspected bronchoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting a possible reduced anti-inflammatory response in asthmatics following exposure to subway air. These observations may have ramifications for sensitive subpopulations in urban areas. PMID:21897859

  4. Malnutrition in Healthy Individuals Results in Increased Mixed Cytokine Profiles, Altered Neutrophil Subsets and Function.

    PubMed

    Takele, Y; Adem, E; Getahun, M; Tajebe, F; Kiflie, A; Hailu, A; Raynes, J; Mengesha, B; Ayele, T A; Shkedy, Z; Lemma, M; Diro, E; Toulza, F; Modolell, M; Munder, M; Müller, I; Kropf, P

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is commonly associated with increased infectious disease susceptibility and severity. Whereas malnutrition might enhance the incidence of disease as well as its severity, active infection can in turn exacerbate malnutrition. Therefore, in a malnourished individual suffering from a severe infection, it is not possible to determine the contribution of the pre-existing malnutrition and/or the infection itself to increased disease severity. In the current study we focussed on two groups of malnourished, but otherwise healthy individuals: moderately malnourished (BMI: 18.4-16.5) and severely malnourished (BMI <16.5) and compared several immune parameters with those of individuals with a normal BMI (≥18.5). Our results show a similar haematological profile in all three groups, as well as a similar ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We found significant correlations between low BMI and increased levels of T helper (Th) 1 (Interferon (IFN)-γ, (interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12), Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), as well as IL-10, IL-33 and tumor necrosis factor-α, but not IL-8 or C reactive protein. The activities of arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression, were similar in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and neutrophils from all groups and no differences in the expression levels of CD3ζ, a marker of T cell activation, were observed in CD4+ and CD8+T cells. Furthermore, whereas the capacity of neutrophils from the malnourished groups to phagocytose particles was not impaired, their capacity to produce reactive oxygen species was impaired. Finally we evaluated the frequency of a subpopulation of low-density neutrophils and show that they are significantly increased in the malnourished individuals. These differences were more pronounced in the severely malnourished group. In summary, our results show that even in the absence of apparent infections, healthy malnourished individuals display dysfunctional immune responses that might contribute to

  5. Malnutrition in Healthy Individuals Results in Increased Mixed Cytokine Profiles, Altered Neutrophil Subsets and Function

    PubMed Central

    Takele, Y.; Adem, E.; Getahun, M.; Tajebe, F.; Kiflie, A.; Hailu, A.; Raynes, J.; Mengesha, B.; Ayele, T. A.; Shkedy, Z.; Lemma, M.; Diro, E.; Toulza, F.; Modolell, M.; Munder, M.; Müller, I.; Kropf, P.

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is commonly associated with increased infectious disease susceptibility and severity. Whereas malnutrition might enhance the incidence of disease as well as its severity, active infection can in turn exacerbate malnutrition. Therefore, in a malnourished individual suffering from a severe infection, it is not possible to determine the contribution of the pre-existing malnutrition and/or the infection itself to increased disease severity. In the current study we focussed on two groups of malnourished, but otherwise healthy individuals: moderately malnourished (BMI: 18.4–16.5) and severely malnourished (BMI <16.5) and compared several immune parameters with those of individuals with a normal BMI (≥18.5). Our results show a similar haematological profile in all three groups, as well as a similar ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We found significant correlations between low BMI and increased levels of T helper (Th) 1 (Interferon (IFN)-γ, (interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12), Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), as well as IL-10, IL-33 and tumor necrosis factor-α, but not IL-8 or C reactive protein. The activities of arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression, were similar in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and neutrophils from all groups and no differences in the expression levels of CD3ζ, a marker of T cell activation, were observed in CD4+ and CD8+T cells. Furthermore, whereas the capacity of neutrophils from the malnourished groups to phagocytose particles was not impaired, their capacity to produce reactive oxygen species was impaired. Finally we evaluated the frequency of a subpopulation of low-density neutrophils and show that they are significantly increased in the malnourished individuals. These differences were more pronounced in the severely malnourished group. In summary, our results show that even in the absence of apparent infections, healthy malnourished individuals display dysfunctional immune responses that might contribute to

  6. C3 nephritic factor and hypocomplementaemia in a clinically healthy individual.

    PubMed Central

    Gewurz, A T; Imherr, S M; Strauss, S; Gewurz, H; Mold, C

    1983-01-01

    Nephritic factor was detected in an individual whose serum showed a selective decrease in the third component of complement (C3) during and subsequent to an illness resembling disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI). As is characteristic of C3 nephritic factor (C3NeF), its activity was heat stable, was associated with IgG, and enhanced cleavage of normal human serum C3 via the alternative pathway. However, unlike previously reported cases of C3NeF detection in association with glomerulonephritis and/or lipodystrophy, this patient has had no significant disease before or more than 2 years after the apparent DGI. The significance of C3NeF in a healthy individual is unexplained, but this study suggests its occurrence may be more ubiquitous than previously suspected. PMID:6616970

  7. Alpha Band Cortico-Muscular Coherence Occurs in Healthy Individuals during Mechanically-Induced Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Budini, Francesco; McManus, Lara M.; Berchicci, Marika; Menotti, Federica; Macaluso, Andrea; Di Russo, Francesco; Lowery, Madeleine M.; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed at investigating the effects of mechanically amplified tremor on cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) in the alpha band. The study of CMC in this specific band is of particular interest because this coherence is usually absent in healthy individuals and it is an aberrant feature in patients affected by pathological tremors; understanding its mechanisms is therefore important. Thirteen healthy volunteers (23±4 years) performed elbow flexor sustained contractions both against a spring load and in isometric conditions at 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). Spring stiffness was selected to induce instability in the stretch reflex servo loop. 64 EEG channels, surface EMG from the biceps brachii muscle and force were simultaneously recorded. Contractions against the spring resulted in greater fluctuations of the force signal and EMG amplitude compared to isometric conditions (p<.05). During isometric contractions CMC was systematically found in the beta band and sporadically observed in the alpha band. However, during the contractions against the spring load, CMC in the alpha band was observed in 12 out of 13 volunteers. Partial directed coherence (PDC) revealed an increased information flow in the EMG to EEG direction in the alpha band (p<.05). Therefore, coherence in the alpha band between the sensory-motor cortex and the biceps brachii muscle can be systematically induced in healthy individuals by mechanically amplifying tremor. The increased information flow in the EMG to EEG direction may reflect enhanced afferent activity from the muscle spindles. These results may contribute to the understanding of the presence of alpha band CMC in tremor related pathologies by suggesting that the origin of this phenomenon may not only be at cortical level but may also be affected by spinal circuit loops. PMID:25514444

  8. Alpha band cortico-muscular coherence occurs in healthy individuals during mechanically-induced tremor.

    PubMed

    Budini, Francesco; McManus, Lara M; Berchicci, Marika; Menotti, Federica; Macaluso, Andrea; Di Russo, Francesco; Lowery, Madeleine M; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed at investigating the effects of mechanically amplified tremor on cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) in the alpha band. The study of CMC in this specific band is of particular interest because this coherence is usually absent in healthy individuals and it is an aberrant feature in patients affected by pathological tremors; understanding its mechanisms is therefore important. Thirteen healthy volunteers (23±4 years) performed elbow flexor sustained contractions both against a spring load and in isometric conditions at 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). Spring stiffness was selected to induce instability in the stretch reflex servo loop. 64 EEG channels, surface EMG from the biceps brachii muscle and force were simultaneously recorded. Contractions against the spring resulted in greater fluctuations of the force signal and EMG amplitude compared to isometric conditions (p<.05). During isometric contractions CMC was systematically found in the beta band and sporadically observed in the alpha band. However, during the contractions against the spring load, CMC in the alpha band was observed in 12 out of 13 volunteers. Partial directed coherence (PDC) revealed an increased information flow in the EMG to EEG direction in the alpha band (p<.05). Therefore, coherence in the alpha band between the sensory-motor cortex and the biceps brachii muscle can be systematically induced in healthy individuals by mechanically amplifying tremor. The increased information flow in the EMG to EEG direction may reflect enhanced afferent activity from the muscle spindles. These results may contribute to the understanding of the presence of alpha band CMC in tremor related pathologies by suggesting that the origin of this phenomenon may not only be at cortical level but may also be affected by spinal circuit loops. PMID:25514444

  9. Stimulation of the mineralocorticoid receptor improves memory in young and elderly healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Hinkelmann, Kim; Wingenfeld, Katja; Kuehl, Linn K; Fleischer, Juliane; Heuser, Isabella; Wiedemann, Klaus; Otte, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Glucocorticoids play an important role in cognitive function and act on glucocorticoid receptors and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) in the brain. Previously, the blockade of the MR has been shown to impair visuospatial and working memory in healthy young men. Here, we investigated the effects of the MR agonist fludrocortisone on memory in young and elderly healthy individuals. Thirty-one young (mean age 25.4 ± 4.6 years) and 22 elderly (mean age 63.2 ± 8.2 years) healthy participants received the MR agonist fludrocortisone (0.4 mg) or placebo at least 3 days apart in a randomized, double-blind within-subject cross-over design. We measured verbal memory (auditory verbal learning test), nonverbal memory (Rey/Taylor complex figure test), and working memory (digit-span task). As expected, young participants performed significantly better than elderly individuals in visuospatial memory (effect of group: F = 42.7, p < 0.01), verbal memory (F = 33.1, p < 0.01), and working memory (digit-span backward: F = 4.5, p = 0.04). For visuospatial memory (F = 5.0, p = 0.03) and short-term and working memory (digit-span forward: F = 4.2, p = 0.05), we found a significant treatment effect indicating better memory performance after fludrocortisone compared with placebo across groups. In concert with the previous studies, our data suggest a role of the MR in memory function. A cognitive enhancing effect by MR stimulation warrants future studies. PMID:25442112

  10. Relationship between spontaneous sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in healthy young individuals.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Chloe E; Witter, Trevor; El Sayed, Khadigeh; Hissen, Sarah L; Johnson, Aaron W; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2015-11-01

    Low baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk. However, the evidence is based primarily on measurements of cardiac BRS. It cannot be assumed that cardiac or sympathetic BRS alone represent a true reflection of baroreflex control of blood pressure. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between spontaneous sympathetic and cardiac BRS in healthy, young individuals. Continuous measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were made under resting conditions in 50 healthy individuals (18-28 years). Sympathetic BRS was quantified by plotting MSNA burst incidence against diastolic pressure (sympathetic BRSinc), and by plotting total MSNA against diastolic pressure (sympathetic BRStotal). Cardiac BRS was quantified by plotting R-R interval against systolic pressure using the sequence method. Significant sympathetic BRSinc and cardiac BRS slopes were obtained for 42 participants. A significant positive correlation was found between sympathetic BRSinc and cardiac BRS (r = 0.31, P = 0.049). Among this group, significant sympathetic baroreflex slopes were obtained for 39 participants when plotting total MSNA against diastolic pressure. In this subset, a significant positive correlation was observed between sympathetic BRStotal and cardiac BRS (r = 0.40, P = 0.012). When males and females were assessed separately, these modest relationships only remained significant in females. Analysis by gender revealed correlations in the females between sympathetic BRSinc and cardiac BRS (r = 0.49, P = 0.062), and between sympathetic BRStotal and cardiac BRS (r = 0.57, P = 0.025). These findings suggest that gender interactions exist in baroreflex control of blood pressure, and that cardiac BRS is not appropriate for estimating overall baroreflex function in healthy, young populations. This relationship warrants investigation in aging and clinical populations. PMID:26564059

  11. Relationship between spontaneous sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in healthy young individuals

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Chloe E; Witter, Trevor; El Sayed, Khadigeh; Hissen, Sarah L; Johnson, Aaron W; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2015-01-01

    Low baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk. However, the evidence is based primarily on measurements of cardiac BRS. It cannot be assumed that cardiac or sympathetic BRS alone represent a true reflection of baroreflex control of blood pressure. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between spontaneous sympathetic and cardiac BRS in healthy, young individuals. Continuous measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were made under resting conditions in 50 healthy individuals (18–28 years). Sympathetic BRS was quantified by plotting MSNA burst incidence against diastolic pressure (sympathetic BRSinc), and by plotting total MSNA against diastolic pressure (sympathetic BRStotal). Cardiac BRS was quantified by plotting R-R interval against systolic pressure using the sequence method. Significant sympathetic BRSinc and cardiac BRS slopes were obtained for 42 participants. A significant positive correlation was found between sympathetic BRSinc and cardiac BRS (r = 0.31, P = 0.049). Among this group, significant sympathetic baroreflex slopes were obtained for 39 participants when plotting total MSNA against diastolic pressure. In this subset, a significant positive correlation was observed between sympathetic BRStotal and cardiac BRS (r = 0.40, P = 0.012). When males and females were assessed separately, these modest relationships only remained significant in females. Analysis by gender revealed correlations in the females between sympathetic BRSinc and cardiac BRS (r = 0.49, P = 0.062), and between sympathetic BRStotal and cardiac BRS (r = 0.57, P = 0.025). These findings suggest that gender interactions exist in baroreflex control of blood pressure, and that cardiac BRS is not appropriate for estimating overall baroreflex function in healthy, young populations. This relationship warrants investigation in aging and clinical populations. PMID:26564059

  12. Beyond the Sensorimotor Plasticity: Cognitive Expansion of Prism Adaptation in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Carine

    2016-01-01

    Sensorimotor plasticity allows us to maintain an efficient motor behavior in reaction to environmental changes. One of the classical models for the study of sensorimotor plasticity is prism adaptation. It consists of pointing to visual targets while wearing prismatic lenses that shift the visual field laterally. The conditions of the development of the plasticity and the sensorimotor after-effects have been extensively studied for more than a century. However, the interest taken in this phenomenon was considerably increased since the demonstration of neglect rehabilitation following prism adaptation by Rossetti et al. (1998). Mirror effects, i.e., simulation of neglect in healthy individuals, were observed for the first time by Colent et al. (2000). The present review focuses on the expansion of prism adaptation to cognitive functions in healthy individuals during the last 15 years. Cognitive after-effects have been shown in numerous tasks even in those that are not intrinsically spatial in nature. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of a strong link between low-level sensorimotor plasticity and high-level cognitive functions and raise important questions about the mechanisms involved in producing unexpected cognitive effects following prism adaptation. Implications for the functional mechanisms and neuroanatomical network of prism adaptation are discussed to explain how sensorimotor plasticity may affect cognitive processes. PMID:26779088

  13. Comparing the Levels of Trace Elements in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Makhlough, Atieh; Makhlough, Marjan; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Sedighi, Omid; Faghihan, Mansooreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in developed countries. Several trace elements were reported to be changed in diabetic nephropathy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in serum levels of zinc, copper and chromium and their association with the incidence of ESRD in patients with diabetes. Patients and Methods: This study was performed on 70 patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (macro and micro-albuminuria) and 70 healthy individuals. Samples were collected to survey metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data was analyzed by SPSS18 using descriptive and inferential analysis methods. Results: Mean ± SD levels of Zn, Cu and Cr were significantly decreased in blood samples of patients compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.01). Also the mean concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cr in drinking water of Sari were lower than the accepted limit. Only in one case, Cu was higher than the accepted limit, which was the possibility of contamination by water supply pipes. Conclusions: Cu, Zn and Cr play a specific role in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. Meanwhile in these patients, low serum levels of Cu, Zn and Cr were not associated with factors such as drinking water. Possible causes should be sought in other factors like urine, intervention factors in absorption and utilization and individual conditions. PMID:26539418

  14. COMT Val108/158 Met Genotype Affects Neural but not Cognitive Processing in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Need, Anna C.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Waters-Metenier, Sheena; Cirulli, Elizabeth T.; Kragel, James; Goldstein, David B.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between cognition and a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methlytransferase (COMT) gene, val108/158met, is one of debate in the literature. Furthermore, based on the dopaminergic differences associated with the COMT val108/158met genotype, neural differences during cognition may be present, regardless of genotypic differences in cognitive performance. To investigate these issues the current study aimed to 1) examine the effects of COMT genotype using a large sample of healthy individuals (n = 496–1218) and multiple cognitive measures, and using a subset of the sample (n = 22), 2) examine whether COMT genotype effects medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal activity during successful relational memory processing, and 3) investigate group differences in functional connectivity associated with successful relational memory processing. Results revealed no significant group difference in cognitive performance between COMT genotypes in any of the 19 cognitive measures. However, in the subset sample, COMT val homozygotes exhibited significantly decreased MTL and increased prefrontal activity during both successful relational encoding and retrieval, and reduced connectivity between these regions compared with met homozygotes. Taken together, the results suggest that although the COMT val108/158met genotype has no effect on cognitive behavioral measures in healthy individuals, it is associated with differences in neural process underlying cognitive output. PMID:19641018

  15. The effects of strength training on finger strength and hand dexterity in healthy elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    Olafsdottir, Halla B.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 6 wk of strength training on maximal pressing (MVC) force, indexes of finger individuation (enslaving), and performance in accurate force production tests and in functional hand tests in healthy, physically fit, elderly individuals. Twelve participants (average age 76 yr) exercised with both hands. One of the hands exercised by pressing with the proximal phalanges (targeting mainly intrinsic hand muscles), whereas the other hand exercised by pressing with the finger tips (targeting mainly extrinsic hand muscles). Training led to higher MVC forces, higher enslaving indexes, and improved performance on the pegboard grooved test. Changes in an index of multi-finger force stabilizing synergy showed a significant correlation with changes in the index of force variability in the accurate force production test. Strong transfer effects were seen to the site that did not perform strength training exercise within each hand. Effects of exercise at the proximal site were somewhat stronger compared with those of exercise at the finger tips, although the differences did not reach significance level. Control tests showed that repetitive testing by itself did not significantly change the maximal finger force and enslaving. The results suggest that strength training is an effective way to improve finger strength. It can also lead to changes in finger interaction and in performance of accurate force production tasks. Adaptations at a neural level are likely to mediate the observed effects. Overall, the data suggest that strength training can also improve the hand function of less healthy elderly subjects. PMID:18687981

  16. Mindfulness-oriented meditation improves self-related character scales in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Fabio; Crescentini, Cristiano; Urgesi, Cosimo; Fabbro, Franco

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that mindfulness meditation may improve well-being in healthy individuals and be effective in the treatment of mental and neurological disorders. Here, we investigated the effects of an 8-week mindfulness-mediation program on the personality profiles of three groups of healthy individuals with no previous experience with meditation as compared to a control group not enrolled in any training. Personality profiles were obtained through the Temperament and Character Inventory (Cloninger et al., 1993). In the experimental groups, significant increments after the training were obtained in all the three character scales describing the levels of self maturity at the intrapersonal (Self-Directedness), interpersonal (Cooperativeness), and transpersonal (Self-Transcendence) levels. No changes were found in the control group. Strikingly, these effects were significant only in those groups who were engaged in consistent daily meditation practice but not in the group who attended the meditation training but were less consistent in home practice. Since higher scores in the character scales are associated to a lower risk of personality disorder, we propose that the increase of self maturity after the training may be an important mechanism for the effectiveness of mindfulness-oriented meditation in psychotherapeutic contexts. PMID:24746260

  17. Healthy individuals maintain adaptive stimulus evaluation under predictable and unpredictable threat.

    PubMed

    Klinkenberg, Isabelle A G; Rehbein, Maimu A; Steinberg, Christian; Klahn, Anna Luisa; Zwanzger, Peter; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Junghöfer, Markus

    2016-08-01

    The anxiety inducing paradigms such as the threat-of-shock paradigm have provided ample data on the emotional processing of predictable and unpredictable threat, but little is known about the processing of aversive, threat-irrelevant stimuli in these paradigms. We investigated how the predictability of threat influences the neural visual processing of threat-irrelevant fearful and neutral faces. Thirty-two healthy individuals participated in an NPU-threat test, consisting of a safe or neutral condition (N) and a predictable (P) as well as an unpredictable (U) threat condition, using audio-visual threat stimuli. In all NPU-conditions, we registered participants' brain responses to threat-irrelevant faces via magnetoencephalography. The data showed that increasing unpredictability of threat evoked increasing emotion regulation during face processing predominantly in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex regions during an early to mid-latency time interval. Importantly, we obtained only main effects but no significant interaction of facial expression and conditions of different threat predictability, neither in behavioral nor in neural data. Healthy individuals with average trait anxiety are thus able to maintain adaptive stimulus evaluation processes under predictable and unpredictable threat conditions. PMID:27208859

  18. Are Prescription Stimulants "Smart Pills"? The Epidemiology and Cognitive Neuroscience of Prescription Stimulant Use by Normal Healthy Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience…

  19. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging—Statement from an Expert Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Péter, Szabolcs; Saris, Wim H. M.; Mathers, John C.; Feskens, Edith; Schols, Annemie; Navis, Gerjan; Kuipers, Folkert; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status) and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations. PMID:26694458

  20. Universal and individual characteristics of postural sway during quiet standing in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tomohisa; Smith, Charles E; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Tanahashi, Takao; Sakoda, Saburo; Morasso, Pietro; Nomura, Taishin

    2015-01-01

    The time course of the center of pressure (CoP) during human quiet standing, corresponding to body sway, is a stochastic process, influenced by a variety of features of the underlying neuro-musculo-skeletal system, such as postural stability and flexibility. Due to complexity of the process, sway patterns have been characterized in an empirical way by a number of indices, such as sway size and mean sway velocity. Here, we describe a statistical approach with the aim of estimating “universal” indices, namely parameters that are independent of individual body characteristics and thus are not “hidden” by the presence of individual, daily, and circadian variations of sway; in this manner it is possible to characterize the common aspects of sway dynamics across healthy young adults, in the assumption that they might reflect underlying neural control during quiet standing. Such universal indices are identified by analyzing intra and inter-subject variability of various indices, after sorting out individual-specific indices that contribute to individual discriminations. It is shown that the universal indices characterize mainly slow components of sway, such as scaling exponents of power-law behavior at a low-frequency regime. On the other hand, most of the individual-specific indices contributing to the individual discriminations exhibit significant correlation with body parameters, and they can be associated with fast oscillatory components of sway. These results are consistent with a mechanistic hypothesis claiming that the slow and the fast components of sway are associated, respectively, with neural control and biomechanics, supporting our assumption that the universal characteristics of postural sway might represent neural control strategies during quiet standing. PMID:25780094

  1. Determinants of Functional and Structural Properties of Large Arteries in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Tolezani, Elaine Cristina; Costa-Hong, Valéria; Correia, Gustavo; Mansur, Alfredo José; Drager, Luciano Ferreira; Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    Background Changes in the properties of large arteries correlate with higher cardiovascular risk. Recent guidelines have included the assessment of those properties to detect subclinical disease. Establishing reference values for the assessment methods as well as determinants of the arterial parameters and their correlations in healthy individuals is important to stratify patients. Objective To assess, in healthy adults, the distribution of the values of pulse wave velocity, diameter, intima-media thickness and relative distensibility of the carotid artery, in addition to assessing the demographic and clinical determinants of those parameters and their correlations. Methods This study evaluated 210 individuals (54% women; mean age, 44 ± 13 years) with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was measured with a Complior® device. The functional and structural properties of the carotid artery were assessed by using radiofrequency ultrasound. Results The means of the following parameters were: pulse wave velocity, 8.7 ± 1.5 m/s; diameter, 6,707.9 ± 861.6 μm; intima-media thickness, 601 ± 131 μm; relative distensibility, 5.3 ± 2.1%. No significant difference related to sex or ethnicity was observed. On multiple linear logistic regression, the factors independently related to the vascular parameters were: pulse wave velocity, to age (p < 0.01) and triglycerides (p = 0.02); intima-media thickness, to age (p < 0.01); diameter, to creatinine (p = 0.03) and age (p = 0.02); relative distensibility, to age (p < 0.01) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Pulse wave velocity showed a positive correlation with intima media thickness (p < 0.01) and with relative distensibility (p < 0.01), while diameter showed a positive correlation with distensibility (p = 0.03). Conclusion In healthy individuals, age was the major factor related to aortic stiffness, while age and diastolic blood pressure

  2. Cannabis-related episodic memory deficits and hippocampal morphological differences in healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew J; Cobia, Derin J; Reilly, James L; Gilman, Jodi M; Roberts, Andrea G; Alpert, Kathryn I; Wang, Lei; Breiter, Hans C; Csernansky, John G

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with episodic memory (EM) impairments and abnormal hippocampus morphology among both healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects. Considering the hippocampus' role in EM, research is needed to evaluate the relationship between cannabis-related hippocampal morphology and EM among healthy and clinical groups. We examined differences in hippocampus morphology between control and schizophrenia subjects with and without a past (not current) cannabis use disorder (CUD). Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls (CON), 10 subjects with a CUD history (CON-CUD), 28 schizophrenia subjects with no history of substance use disorders (SCZ), and 15 schizophrenia subjects with a CUD history (SCZ-CUD). Large-deformation, high-dimensional brain mapping with MRI produced surface-based representations of the hippocampus that were compared across all four groups and correlated with EM and CUD history. Surface maps of the hippocampus were generated to visualize morphological differences. CON-CUD and SCZ-CUD were characterized by distinct cannabis-related hippocampal shape differences and parametric deficits in EM performance. Shape differences observed in CON-CUD were associated with poorer EM performance, while shape differences observed in SCZ-CUD were associated with a longer duration of CUD and shorter duration of CUD remission. A past history of CUD may be associated with notable differences in hippocampal morphology and EM impairments among adults with and without schizophrenia. Although the results may be compatible with a causal hypothesis, we must consider that the observed cannabis-related shape differences in the hippocampus could also be explained as biomarkers of a neurobiological susceptibility to poor memory or the effects of cannabis. PMID:25760303

  3. Rapid recovery from spontaneous and simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture in an active, healthy individual.

    PubMed

    Gaheer, Rajinder Singh; Hawkins, Amanda

    2010-07-01

    Bilateral spontaneous quadriceps rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and is frequently misdiagnosed. It is rarely seen in healthy, active individuals. This article presents a case of bilateral simultaneous and spontaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a healthy, athletic, active and highly motivated patient with rapid recovery from injury and return to full sport activity within a relatively short period of time. A 65-year-old healthy man felt both knees give way while walking down stairs at home and collapsed, unable to bear weight. He was fit and well, not on any medications and basic laboratory screening was within normal limits. He was an active sportsman, horse rider, swimmer, and long-distance cyclist, and had completed a half marathon 1 month before his injury. He was diagnosed with bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures. An ultrasound of both knees confirmed the diagnosis of full-thickness rupture. Surgical repair of both quadriceps tendons was performed 3 days after the injury. Bilateral locking brace in 10 degrees of flexion was used to immobilize both knees and protect the repair for 6 weeks. The patient remained nonweight bearing for 2 weeks, then gradual weight bearing was commenced, with full weight bearing at 6 weeks. Intensive isometric quadriceps exercises were started on the second postoperative day. Immobilization of both knees was maintained for 6 weeks, after which full active range of motion (ROM) was initiated. At 16 weeks after the injury he had bilateral ROM from 0 degrees to 120 degrees flexion, with no extension lag. He was horse riding, playing golf, swimming, and walking distances up to 2 miles at that time. PMID:20608622

  4. Therapeutic electric stimulation does not affect immune status in healthy individuals – a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuromuscular electric stimulation is widely used for muscle strengthening in clinical practice and for preventative purposes. However, there are few reports on the effects of electric stimulation on the immune response of the organism, and even those mainly describe the changes observed immediately after the electrotherapeutic procedures. The objective of our study was to examine the possible immunological consequences of moderate low-frequency transcutaneous neuromuscular electric stimulation for quadriceps muscle strengthening in healthy individuals. Methods The study included 10 healthy volunteers (5 males, 5 females, mean age 37.5 years). At the beginning and after a two-week electric stimulation program, muscle strength was measured and peripheral blood was collected to analyse white blood cells by flow cytometry for the expression of cell surface antigens (CD3, CD19, CD4, CD8, CD4/8, DR/3, NK, Th reg, CD25 + CD3+, CD25 + CD4+, CD25 + CD8+, CD69 + CD3+, CD69 + CD4+, CD69 + CD8+) and phagocytosis/oxidative killing function. Results Muscle strength slightly increased after the program on the dominant and the nondominant side. No statistically or clinically significant difference was found in any of the measured blood and immune cells parameters as well as phagocytosis and oxidative burst function of neutrophil granulocytes and monocytes one day after the program. Conclusions The program of transcutaneous low-frequency electric stimulation slightly strengthened the quadriceps femoris muscle while producing no changes in measured immunological parameters. Hence, therapeutic low-frequency electric stimulation appears not to be affecting the immune response of healthy persons. PMID:22839574

  5. [Hepatic steatosis, visceral fat and metabolic alterations in apparently healthy overweight/obese individuals].

    PubMed

    Ryder, Elena; Mijac, Volga; Fernández, Erika; Palazzi, Nora; Morales, María Carolina; Connell, Lissette; Parra, Agner; Romero, Marlon; Fernández, Nelson

    2014-03-01

    Clinical observation indicates that many obese individuals do not display important metabolic alterations. Consequently, the objective of this study was to establish whether simple obesity, non concurrent with other important risk factors, was associated with metabolic alterations; or if the phenomenon known as "obesity paradox" was present. A clinical history, measurements of anthropometric and metabolic parameters and estimation of hepatic steatosis and visceral fat, were determined in 30, apparently healthy, individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela, between 20 and 59 years of age and a body mass index (BMI) above 25 kg/m2, and compared to a lean control group of 11 individuals with BMI less than 25 kg/m2. The study demonstrated that only one third of overweight/obese individuals (OW/OB), with high body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), presented elevated values of insulin, HOMA-IR and triglycerides. Nevertheless, the presence of hepatic steatosis was elevated in the OW/OB group (91%) vs. 9% in the control group. The visceral fat in the lean control group was associated with both, WC and glycemia; however, it was not related to the BMI or insulin, HOMA-IR and HDLc. The visceral fat in the OW/OB group, although elevated in relation to the lean group, revealed a loss of these associations. In the OW/OB it was the BMI that was associated with insulin and HOMA-IR. The results emphasize the importance of investigating for the presence of hepatic steatosis, rather than visceral fat, in individuals with OW/OB, to identify subjects with high cardiometabolic risk. PMID:24758097

  6. CACNA1C risk variant affects reward responsiveness in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, T M; Heerey, E A; Mantripragada, K; Linden, D E J

    2014-01-01

    The variant at rs1006737 in the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (alpha 1c subunit) CACNA1C gene is reliably associated with both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. We investigated whether this risk variant affects reward responsiveness because reward processing is one of the central cognitive-motivational domains implicated in both disorders. In a sample of 164 young, healthy individuals, we show a dose-dependent response, where the rs1006737 risk genotype was associated with blunted reward responsiveness, whereas discriminability did not significantly differ between genotype groups. This finding suggests that the CACNA1C risk locus may have a role in neural pathways that facilitate value representation for rewarding stimuli. Impaired reward processing may be a transdiagnostic phenotype of variation in CACNA1C that could contribute to anhedonia and other clinical features common to both affective and psychotic disorders. PMID:25290268

  7. Evaluation of upper limb sense of position in healthy individuals and patients after stroke.

    PubMed

    Cusmano, I; Sterpi, I; Mazzone, A; Ramat, S; Delconte, C; Pisano, F; Colombo, R

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop and evaluate reliability of a quantitative assessment tool for upper limb sense of position on the horizontal plane. We evaluated 15 healthy individuals (controls) and 9 stroke patients. A robotic device passively moved one arm of the blindfolded participant who had to actively move his/her opposite hand to the mirror location in the workspace. Upper-limb's position was evaluated by a digital camera. The position of the passive hand was compared with the active hand's 'mirror' position. Performance metrics were then computed to measure the mean absolute errors, error variability, spatial contraction/expansion, and systematic shifts. No significant differences were observed between dominant and non-dominant active arms of controls. All performance parameters of the post-stroke group differed significantly from those of controls. This tool can provide a quantitative measure of upper limb sense of position, therefore allowing detection of changes due to rehabilitation. PMID:24918181

  8. Background factors in patients with schizoaffective disorder as compared with patients with diabetes and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Nettelbladt, P; Svensson, C; Serin, U

    1996-01-01

    Family history and psychosocial background factors were studied in married patients with a DSM-III diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder (n = 17, partners n = 16), married patients with diabetes (n = 10, partners n = 10) and married healthy individuals (n = 8, partners n = 8). The two latter groups were comparison control groups matched for gender and age to the patients with schizoaffective disorder. Affective disorder, not particularly schizoaffective disorder, was more common in first- and tended to be more common in second-degree relatives of patients with schizoaffective disorder as compared with controls. Poor parental relations, especially to the father, during the formative years were prominent in patients with schizoaffective disorder as compared with the controls. The same patients also more often than others gave a report of sexual encroachment, inside or outside the family, and corporal punishment during the growing-up years. PMID:8832200

  9. Comparison of heart rate variability signal features derived from electrocardiography and photoplethysmography in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Bolanos, M; Nazeran, H; Haltiwanger, E

    2006-01-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) signal is indicative of autonomic regulation of the heart rate (HR). It could be used as a noninvasive marker in monitoring the physiological state of an individual. Currently, the primary method of deriving the HRV signal is to acquire the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal, apply appropriate QRS detection algorithms to locate the R wave and its peak, find the RR intervals, and perform suitable interpolation and resampling to produce a uniformly sampled tachogram. This process could sometimes result in errors in the HRV signal due to drift, electromagnetic and biologic interference, and the complex morphology of the ECG signal. The photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal has the potential to eliminate the problems with the ECG signal to derive the HRV signal. To investigate this point, a PDA-based system was developed to simultaneously record ECG and PPG signals to facilitate accurately controlled sampling and recording durations. Two healthy young volunteers participated in this pilot study to evaluate the applicability of our approach. To improve data quality, ECG and PPG recordings were acquired three times/subject. A comparison between different features of the HRV signals derived from both methods was performed to test the validity of using PPG signals in HRV analysis. We used autoregressive (AR) modeling, Poincare' plots, cross correlation, standard deviation, arithmetic mean, skewness, kurtosis, and approximate entropy (ApEn) to derive and compare different measures from both ECG and PPG signals. This study demonstrated that our PDA-based system was a convenient and reliable means for acquisition of PPG-derived and ECG-derived HRV signals. The excellent agreement between different measures of HRV signals acquired from both methods provides potential support for the idea of using PPGs instead of ECGs in HRV signal derivation and analysis in ambulatory cardiac monitoring of healthy individuals. PMID:17946618

  10. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Genetic Traits in Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Berezina, A.; Belyaeva, O.; Berkovich, O.; Baranova, E.; Karonova, T.; Bazhenova, E.; Brovin, D.; Grineva, E.; Shlyakhto, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess prevalence of metabolically healthy individuals among patients with abdominal obesity (AO) and to determine phenotype and potential genetic traits associated with a benign metabolic status. Methods. 503 AO patients without cardiovascular diseases were examined. Waist circumference (WC), BMI, blood pressure, plasma glucose and serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, and adiponectin (AN) and leptin (LEP) concentrations in serum were measured. Polymorphisms A19G and Q223R of the LEP and LEP receptor gene, and G276T and T45G of the AN gene were investigated. Results. 91.3% of patients were metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO), and 8.7% metabolically healthy obese (MHO). MHO patients were younger, and had lesser BMI and WC, while duration of obesity, frequency, and duration of physical training were greater than MUO patients (p < 0.05). In MHO and MUO patients distribution of the G19G, G19A, and A19A genotypes of the LEP gene and G276G, G276T, and T276T genotypes of AN gene did not differ. The Т45Т genotype was associated with increase of metabolic disorders' risk for patients with АО (OR = 2.331; 95%  CI = 1.121 ÷ 5.132). Conclusions. Prevalence of MHO individuals among patients with AO is low. Benign metabolic status was associated with younger age, lower waist circumference, and higher physical activity, shorter duration of obesity, and G45G adiponectin genotype carriage. PMID:26504811

  11. Retinal Vessel Oxygen Saturation during 100% Oxygen Breathing in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Olafsdottir, Olof Birna; Eliasdottir, Thorunn Scheving; Kristjansdottir, Jona Valgerdur; Hardarson, Sveinn Hakon; Stefánsson, Einar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To detect how systemic hyperoxia affects oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and venules in healthy individuals. Methods Retinal vessel oxygen saturation was measured in 30 healthy individuals with a spectrophotometric retinal oximeter (Oxymap T1). Oximetry was performed during breathing of room air, 100% oxygen (10 minutes, 6L/min) and then again room air (10 minutes recovery). Results Mean oxygen saturation rises modestly in retinal arterioles during 100% oxygen breathing (94.5%±3.8 vs. 92.0%±3.7% at baseline, p<0.0001) and dramatically in retinal venules (76.2%±8.0% vs. 51.3%±5.6%, p<0.0001). The arteriovenous difference decreased during 100% oxygen breathing (18.3%±9.0% vs. 40.7%±5.7%, p<0.0001). The mean diameter of arterioles decreased during 100% oxygen breathing compared to baseline (9.7±1.4 pixels vs. 10.3±1.3 pixels, p<0.0001) and the same applies to the mean venular diameter (11.4±1.2 pixels vs. 13.3±1.5 pixels, p<0.0001). Conclusions Breathing 100% oxygen increases oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and more so in venules and constricts them compared to baseline levels. The dramatic increase in oxygen saturation in venules reflects oxygen flow from the choroid and the unusual vascular anatomy and oxygen physiology of the eye. PMID:26042732

  12. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17 015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample. PMID:26538188

  13. Assessment of East Asian-type cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori using stool specimens from asymptomatic healthy Japanese individuals.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Itaru; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Kimoto, Ai; Fujimoto, Saori; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2009-09-01

    Recent investigations have suggested that CagA, a virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori and known to have multiple genotypes, plays a critical role in the development of stomach cancer. However, the prevalence of cagA-positive H. pylori strains and the cagA genotypes have not been well studied in healthy individuals because of the difficulty in collecting gastric specimens. In the present study, we assessed the prevalence of infection with H. pylori, particularly the strains with the East Asian cagA genotype (which is more potent in causing gastric diseases), among healthy asymptomatic Japanese individuals by a noninvasive method using stool specimens. The H. pylori antigen was detected in 40.3 % of healthy asymptomatic adult individuals (n=186) enrolled in the study. For the detection and genotyping of the cagA gene, DNA was extracted from the stool specimens of these individuals and analysed by PCR. We detected the East Asian cagA genotype in the DNA samples of a significantly high number (63.1 %) of healthy asymptomatic Japanese individuals. These results indicate that a significant number of asymptomatic healthy Japanese individuals were infected with highly virulent H. pylori. PMID:19528144

  14. Implicit and Explicit Learning in Individuals with Agrammatic Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Schuchard, Julia; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2013-01-01

    Implicit learning is a process of acquiring knowledge that occurs without conscious awareness of learning, whereas explicit learning involves the use of overt strategies. To date, research related to implicit learning following stroke has been largely restricted to the motor domain and has rarely addressed implications for language. The present study investigated implicit and explicit learning of an auditory word sequence in 10 individuals with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia and 18 healthy age-matched participants using an adaptation of the Serial Reaction Time task. Individuals with aphasia showed significant learning under implicit, but not explicit, conditions, whereas age-matched participants learned under both conditions. These results suggest significant implicit learning ability in agrammatic aphasia. Furthermore, results of an auditory sentence span task indicated working memory deficits in individuals with agrammatic aphasia, which are discussed in relation to explicit and implicit learning processes. PMID:23532578

  15. Cerebrolysin administration reduces oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes from healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Formichi, Patrizia; Radi, Elena; Battisti, Carla; Di Maio, Giuseppe; Muresanu, Dafin; Federico, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Cerebrolysin is the only drug available for clinical use containing active fragments of some important neurotrophic factors obtained from purified porcine brain proteins, which has long been used for the treatment of dementia and stroke sequels. Cerebrolysin has growth factor-like activities and promotes neuronal survival and sprouting, however, its molecular mechanism still needs to be determined. It has been shown that Cerebrolysin may interact with proteolytic pathways linked to apoptosis. Administration of Cerebrolysin significantly reduces the number of apoptotic neurons after glutamate exposure. Furthermore, it has been reported that Cerebrolysin inhibits free radicals formation and lipid peroxidation. In vitro we evaluated the protective effects of Cerebrolysin towards spontaneous and induced apoptotic death in cells from healthy individuals. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from 10 individuals were used as cell model; 2-deoxy-D-ribose (dRib), a highly reducing sugar, was used as paradigm pro-apoptotic stimulus. Apoptosis was analysed using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Our results showed that Cerebrolysin significantly reduced the number of apoptotic PBLs after dRib treatment, although it had no significative effects on cells cultured in standard conditions. Our work showed a protective effect of Cerebrolysin on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and suggested that PBLs can be used as an easy obtainable and handy cell model to verify Cerebrolysin effects in neurodegenerative pathologies. PMID:22882711

  16. Psychosocial problems and recruitment of incentive neurocircuitry: Exploring individual differences in healthy adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bjork, James M.; Smith, Ashley R.; Chen, Gang; Hommer, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    Maturational differences in brain responsiveness to rewards have been implicated in the increased rates of injury and death in adolescents from behavior-related causes. However, much of this morbidity is related to drug intoxication or other externalizing behaviors, and may be concentrated in a subset of adolescents who are at psychosocial or neurobiological risk. To examine whether individual differences in psychosocial and behavioral symptomatology relate to activation of motivational neurocircuitry, we scanned 26 psychiatrically-healthy adolescents using fMRI as they performed a monetary incentive delay task. Overall Problem Density on the Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI-OPD) correlated positively with activation of ventral mesofrontal cortex (mFC) during anticipation of responding for rewards (versus responding for no incentive). In addition, DUSI-OPD also correlated positively with right ventral striatum recruitment during anticipation of responding to win rewards (versus responding for no incentive or to avoid losses of identical magnitudes). Finally, a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis indicated that increased connectivity between nucleus accumbens and portions of anterior cingulate and mFC as a function of reward prospects also correlated with DUSI-OPD. These findings extend previous reports demonstrating that in adolescents, individual differences in reactivity of motivational neurocircuitry relate to different facets of impulsivity or externalizing behaviors. PMID:21927631

  17. Descriptions of suffering in connection with life values. Healthy individuals' reflections in interviews.

    PubMed

    Graneheim, U H; Lindahl, E; Kihlgren, M

    1997-01-01

    Nine semistructured interviews with attendant questions were conducted with the purpose of elucidating how healthy individuals describe suffering and life values in their reflections upon active euthanasia. In order to find the intended meaning in utterances, the interviews were interpreted step by step. The point of departure was the following question: What expressions of suffering and what expressions of life values can be found in the text? A connection was found between the interviewees' descriptions of suffering and life values in their reflections upon active euthanasia. The interviewees who considered close relations to be a value of life expressed suffering as dependence, compassion, violation, abandonment and feelings of guilt, while those to whom health was a value of life expressed suffering as torment, dependence, physical pain, feebleness, hopelessness and dying. Those who saw autonomy as a value of life expressed suffering as dependence and violation and those to whom doing good was a value of life expressed suffering as compassion. When organizing health care and deciding about the response to suffering, it seems important to strive for a response built upon the individual patient's description of suffering and life values. PMID:9349055

  18. Effect of disease duration on personality type in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy individual

    PubMed Central

    Vesal, Sahar; Dehghani, Leila; Etemadifar, Masoud; Poorazizi, Elahe; Akhavan, Sima; Mazrouei, Samaneh; Mehdizadeh, Nasim; Saraf, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis may have profound emotional consequences. The relation between psychological and physical factors could lead patients toward unforeseen disease. This study focuses on multiple sclerosis (MS) disease duration on personality type A and B in relation to individuals’ behaviors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Isfahan Alzahra hospital in 2013. Three hundred MS patients and 100 healthy individuals were determined. The distributed questionnaires related to MS patients and considering the descriptive statistics such as demographic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 18) based on Chi-square test and independent T-test. Results: Disease duration varied between 1 to 38 years: 30% (1-4 years), 38% (5-10 years), 20% (10-20 years), and 12% (more than 20 years). Significant relationship was observed between disease duration and tendency to type A (higher stress). This relation was positive and significant in Relapsing Remitting MS patients; but negative correlation was seen in Secondary Progressive MS patients. These patients tended to type B (lower stress) when disease duration increased. Conclusions: Individuals with disease duration of one year and less than one year tend to type A personality, while patients with increment of disease duration have tendency to type B. PMID:27099848

  19. PRKCA polymorphism changes the neural basis of episodic remembering in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Catherine A; Donaldson, David I

    2014-01-01

    Everyday functioning relies on episodic memory, the conscious retrieval of past experiences, but this crucial cognitive ability declines severely with aging and disease. Vulnerability to memory decline varies across individuals however, producing differences in the time course and severity of memory problems that complicate attempts at diagnosis and treatment. Here we identify a key source of variability, by examining gene dependent changes in the neural basis of episodic remembering in healthy adults, targeting seven polymorphisms previously linked to memory. Scalp recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were measured while participants remembered words, using an item recognition task that requires discrimination between studied and unstudied stimuli. Significant differences were found as a consequence of a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in just one of the tested genes, PRKCA (rs8074995). Participants with the common G/G variant exhibited left parietal old/new effects, which are typically seen in word recognition studies, reflecting recollection-based remembering. During the same stage of memory retrieval participants carrying a rarer A variant exhibited an atypical pattern of brain activity, a topographically dissociable frontally-distributed old/new effect, even though behavioural performance did not differ between groups. Results replicated in a second independent sample of participants. These findings demonstrate that the PRKCA genotype is important in determining how episodic memories are retrieved, opening a new route towards understanding individual differences in memory. PMID:24842701

  20. SULF2, a heparan sulfate endosulfatase, is present in the blood of healthy individuals and increases in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Mark S.; Phillips, Joanna J.; Lemjabbar-Alaoui, Hassan; Wang, Yang Qing; Wu, Jing; Goldman, Radoslav; Rosen, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Background SULF2 is an extracellular sulfatase that acts on heparan sulfate proteoglycans and modulates multiple signaling pathways. It is normally bound to the cell surface but can be released into the medium of cultured cells. SULF2 is known to be increased in cirrhotic liver compared to healthy liver. We asked whether SULF2 protein was present in the blood of healthy controls and increased in patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods We devised a sandwich ELISA for SULF2 using 2 novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and measured its levels in sera of normal individuals and cirrhosis patients. Results SULF2 was higher in cirrhosis patients (1460 ± 1160 pg/ml, N =34) than healthy individuals (728 ± 400 pg/ml, N =37). SULF2 levels increased with age in both healthy and patient groups. Conclusions SULF2 may be a useful serologic biomarker for liver cirrhosis. PMID:25444749

  1. Acanthamoeba spp. in Contact Lenses from Healthy Individuals from Madrid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Thiago dos Santos; Magnet, Angela; Izquierdo, Fernando; Vaccaro, Lucianna; Redondo, Fernando; Bueno, Sara; Sánchez, Maria Luisa; Angulo, Santiago; Fenoy, Soledad; Hurtado, Carolina; del Aguila, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a painful and potentially blinding corneal infection caused by Acanthamoeba spp. In Madrid, environmental studies have demonstrated a high presence of these free-living amoebae in tap water. Since most of AK cases occur in contact lenses (CL) wearers with inadequate hygiene habits, the presence of Acanthamoeba in discarded CL has been studied and compared with other common etiological agents of keratitis, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods One hundred and seventy-seven healthy individuals from Madrid contributed their discarded CL and answered a questionnaire on hygiene habits. DNA was extracted from the CL solution and analyzed by real-time PCR for Acanthamoeba, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. These CL and their solutions were also cultured on non-nutrient agar to isolate Acanthamoeba. Results Among the 177 samples, Acanthamoeba DNA was detected in 87 (49.2%), P. aeruginosa DNA in 14 (7.9%) and S. aureus DNA in 19 (10.7%). Cultivable amoebae, however, were observed in only one sample (0.6%). This isolate was genotyped as T4. The habits reported by this CL owner included some recognized risk factors for AK, but in this study only the practice of “not cleaning the CL case” presented some statistical significant association with Acanthamoeba DNA presence. Detection of the investigated bacterial DNA did not demonstrate statistical significant association with the studied practices, but the presence of P. aeruginosa revealed a possible inhibition of Acanthamoeba in these samples. Conclusions The PCR results suggest a high presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in healthy CL wearers from Madrid, but we can assume that CL solutions are properly disinfecting the CL since only 1.1% of the positive PCR samples correspond to viable amoebae and, after four years, only one participant reported stronger ocular problems. Nevertheless, more studies are necessary to corroborate this hypothesis. PMID

  2. Brain structures and functional connectivity associated with individual differences in Internet tendency in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Li, Yadan; Yang, Wenjing; Zhang, Qinglin; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Hitchman, Glenn; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Internet addiction (IA) incurs significant social and financial costs in the form of physical side-effects, academic and occupational impairment, and serious relationship problems. The majority of previous studies on Internet addiction disorders (IAD) have focused on structural and functional abnormalities, while few studies have simultaneously investigated the structural and functional brain alterations underlying individual differences in IA tendencies measured by questionnaires in a healthy sample. Here we combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity, rsFC) information to explore the neural mechanisms underlying IAT in a large sample of 260 healthy young adults. The results showed that IAT scores were significantly and positively correlated with rGMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, one key node of the cognitive control network, CCN), which might reflect reduced functioning of inhibitory control. More interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right DLPFC and the medial prefrontal cortex/rostral anterior cingulate cortex (mPFC/rACC, one key node of the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher IAT scores, which might be associated with reduced efficiency of the CCN and DMN (e.g., diminished cognitive control and self-monitoring). Furthermore, the Stroop interference effect was positively associated with the volume of the DLPFC and with the IA scores, as well as with the connectivity between DLPFC and mPFC, which further indicated that rGMV variations in the DLPFC and decreased anticonnections between the DLPFC and mPFC may reflect addiction-related reduced inhibitory control and cognitive efficiency. These findings suggest the combination of structural and functional information can provide a valuable basis for further understanding of the mechanisms and pathogenesis of IA. PMID:25698637

  3. CFTR POLYMORPHISMS OF HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS IN TWO CHINESE CITIES—CHANGCHUN AND NANJING

    PubMed Central

    JIN, CHUN XIANG; FUJIKI, KOTOYO; SONG, YING; PING, ZHANG; NAKAKUKI, MIYUKI; XIN WEI, MU; ZHANG, SU MIN; ISHIGURO, HIROSHI; NARUSE, SATORU

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background and Aim Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which encodes a chloride channel, cause cystic fibrosis. In order to investigate the polymorphic backgrounds of CFTR genes of healthy populations in different Chinese cities (Changchun and Nanjing), we analyzed 119 blood samples (Changchun 64, Nanjing 55) of randomly selected healthy individuals for poly T, TG-repeats and M470V polymorphisms. We analyzed the differences of CFTR polymorphic distributions between the two Chinese cities from the south and the north. Methods Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood. DNA fragments of CFTR gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Poly-T and TG repeats were directly sequenced by auto sequencer (ABI 310). M470V was detected by a HphI restriction enzyme. Results The T7 allele was the most common haplotype in Changchun (0.938) and Nanjing (0.927) populations. The T5 allele was present in only 7 Changchun and 3 Nanjing subjects. The TG11 and TG12 alleles were dominant haplotypes in Changchun (TG11 0.500, TG12 0.453) and Nanjing (TG11 0.345, TG12 0.609). The frequency of the V470 allele was 0.633 in Changchun, which was higher than that in Nanjing (0.500) (p<0.05). There were three major haplotypes: T7-TG11-V470, T7-TG12-M470 and T7-TG12-V470. The T7-TG11-V470 was the most common haplotype in Changchun (0.514), while T7-TG12-M470 was the most common haplotype in Nanjing (0.500). Conclusion Though Changchun and Nanjing are in the same country, their polymorphic backgrounds of CFTR gene are very different. Most of the two populations have genotypes that cause lower CFTR function. PMID:23092102

  4. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of febuxostat under fasting conditions in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; DI, Xiaohui; Xu, Lin; Xu, Juan; Yang, Yongge; Jiang, Nan; Song, Lixue; Xu, Xueting

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of febuxostat following the administration of single and multiple oral doses under fasting conditions to healthy individuals. Thirty-six healthy subjects were randomly divided into three groups, each containing 12 subjects (six male and six female) as follows: Group A, treated with a single oral dose of febuxostat (40 mg); group B, treated with a single oral dose of febuxostat (80 mg) followed by multiple oral doses of febuxostat for 7 days; and group C, treated with a single oral dose of febuxostat (120 mg). Blood samples were collected, and the plasma drug levels and serum uric acid (UA) concentrations were determined by clinical laboratory testing. Febuxostat displayed a linear pharmacokinetic profile for oral doses of 40 to 120 mg. Drug accumulation was not detected following multiple oral doses. When febuxostat was administered as single doses of 40, 80 and 120 mg, the 24-h UA concentration (UA24) values displayed a linear correlation with the dosage. The relationship between UA24 and the three single dose levels (40, 80 and 120 mg) was analyzed. The difference in UA24 between every single dose was significant (P<0.05). After 3 and 7 days of dosing, reductions of 46.67 and 52.69%, respectively, were observed in UA24. On day 7 of dosing, the mean reduction in the UA concentration was 51.83±7.00%. This study demonstrates that febuxostat reduces serum UA concentrations in a dose-linear manner. PMID:24396412

  5. The time course and characteristics of procedural learning in schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Adini, Yael; Bonneh, Yoram S.; Komm, Seva; Deutsch, Lisa; Israeli, David

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have deficits in some types of procedural learning. Several mechanisms contribute to this learning in healthy individuals, including statistical and sequence-learning. To find preserved and impaired learning mechanisms in schizophrenia, we studied the time course and characteristics of implicitly introduced sequence-learning (SRT task) in 15 schizophrenia patients (seven mild and eight severe) and nine healthy controls, in short sessions over multiple days (5–22). The data show speed gains of similar magnitude for all groups, but the groups differed in overall speed and in the characteristics of the learning. By analyzing the data according to its spatial-position and temporal-order components, we provide evidence for two types of learning that could differentiate the groups: while the learning of the slower, severe group was dominated by statistical learning, the control group moved from a fast learning phase of statistical-related performance to subsequence learning (chunking). Our findings oppose the naïve assumption that a similar gain of speed reflects a similar learning process; they indicate that the slower performance reflects the activation of a different motor plan than does the faster performance; and demonstrate that statistical learning and subsequence learning are two successive stages in implicit sequence learning, with chunks inferred from prior statistical computations. Our results indicate that statistical learning is intact in patients with schizophrenia, but is slower to develop in the severe patients. We suggest that this slow learning rate and the associated slow performance contribute to their deficit in developing sequence-specific learning by setting a temporal constraint on developing higher order associations. PMID:26379536

  6. Selected Factors of Innate Immunity in Healthy Individuals with S. aureus Nasal Carriage

    PubMed Central

    Karpiński, Tomasz M.; Żaba, Zbigniew; Chudzicka-Strugała, Izabela; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna K.; Jaworska, Agata; Zeidler, Agnieszka; Andrzejewska, Ewa; Szkaradkiewicz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus represents a well-defined factor of risk involving community and hospital-acquired infections. Recently a significance of several host factors has been pointed out and, in particular, of immune determinants in nasal S. aureus colonization. Therefore, this study aimed at analysis of manifestation involving manifestation in the nasal secretions of important components of the host innate immunity – human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2), lysozyme (Ly), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in healthy individuals and in persons with persistent carriage of S. aureus. The studies were conducted in two groups of healthy volunteers, encompassing non-carriers (group 1) or persistent carriers of S. aureus (group 2). Elisa assays were employed to evaluate levels of HBD-2, Ly, and IFN-γ in nasal secretions of the examined donors. In S. aureus carriers a significant variability of HBD-2 levels was detected, corresponding to, respectively, the high (averaging at 1.46 ng/ml) and the low (averaging at 0.13 ng/ml) secretory response of the defensin. The level of Ly in S. aureus carriers averaged at 1.46 μg/ml and it manifested no significant difference as compared to that noted in non-carriers. In turn, concentrations of IFN-γ in nasal secretions in the group of carriers of S. aureus amounted on the average to 81.7 pg/ml and they were 1.3-fold higher that in the group of non-carriers. The obtained results allow to conclude that IFN-γ secretion by the nasal cavity-colonizing S. aureus remains quantitatively insufficient to eliminate the pathogen. Nevertheless, a significant increase in levels of this host factor may be important for restriction of the staphylococcal colonization and protection against development of an invasive infection. In turn, the role of HBD-2 and Ly in inactivation of the colonizing S. aureus remains doubtful. PMID:27065998

  7. Effect of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on Psychological Stress in Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Takanari, Jun; Nakahigashi, Jun; Sato, Atsuya; Waki, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Shogo; Uebaba, Kazuo; Hisajima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on improving stress response. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial was undertaken in healthy volunteers. ETAS (150 mg/d) or a placebo was consumed for 28 d, with a washout period. Psychological parameters were examined using a self-report scale questionnaire and psychological stress was applied using the Uchida-Kraepelin (U-K) test. During the stress load, autonomic nervous function was analyzed. After the stress load, a profile of mood states (POMS) psychological rating was performed, and serum cortisol, plasma catecholamine, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), and salivary cortisol were analyzed. ETAS intake improved the self-reported rating for the items "Feel tired," "Hard to get up," and "Feel heavy" in the psychological questionnaire; ameliorated the self-reported rating for the items "Depression-Dejection" and "Fatigue" in the POMS questionnaire; and increased salivary sIgA levels after the U-K test. In contrast, serum and salivary cortisol levels, and plasma catecholamine did not change. During the U-K test, ETAS significantly upregulated the sympathetic nerve activity. Furthermore, ETAS intake significantly increased the number of answers and the number of correct answers in the U-K test, suggesting that it might improve office work performance with swiftness and accuracy under stressful conditions. In conclusion, ETAS supplementation reduced feelings of dysphoria and fatigue, ameliorated quality of sleep, and enhanced stress-load performance as well as promoted stress response by increasing salivary sIgA levels. These data suggest ETAS intake may exert beneficial effects, resulting from well-controlled stress management, in healthy individuals. PMID:27465727

  8. Individual Variation in Lipidomic Profiles of Healthy Subjects in Response to Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Nording, Malin L.; Yang, Jun; Georgi, Katrin; Hegedus Karbowski, Christine; German, J. Bruce; Weiss, Robert H.; Hogg, Ronald J.; Trygg, Johan; Hammock, Bruce D.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Conflicting findings in both interventional and observational studies have resulted in a lack of consensus on the benefits of ω3 fatty acids in reducing disease risk. This may be due to individual variability in response. We used a multi-platform lipidomic approach to investigate both the consistent and inconsistent responses of individuals comprehensively to a defined ω3 intervention. Methods The lipidomic profile including fatty acids, lipid classes, lipoprotein distribution, and oxylipins was examined multi- and uni-variately in 12 healthy subjects pre vs. post six weeks of ω3 fatty acids (1.9 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 1.5 g/d docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]). Results Total lipidomic and oxylipin profiles were significantly different pre vs. post treatment across all subjects (p=0.00007 and p=0.00002 respectively). There was a strong correlation between oxylipin profiles and EPA and DHA incorporated into different lipid classes (r2=0.93). However, strikingly divergent responses among individuals were also observed. Both ω3 and ω6 fatty acid metabolites displayed a large degree of variation among the subjects. For example, in half of the subjects, two arachidonic acid cyclooxygenase products, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2), and a lipoxygenase product, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) significantly decreased post intervention, whereas in the other half they either did not change or increased. The EPA lipoxygenase metabolite 12-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (12-HEPE) varied among subjects from an 82% decrease to a 5,000% increase. Conclusions Our results show that certain defined responses to ω3 fatty acid intervention were consistent across all subjects. However, there was also a high degree of inter-individual variability in certain aspects of lipid metabolism. This lipidomic based phenotyping approach demonstrated that individual responsiveness to ω3 fatty acids is highly variable and measurable, and could be

  9. Adhesion and activation of platelets from subjects with coronary artery disease and apparently healthy individuals on biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Braune, S; Groß, M; Walter, M; Zhou, S; Dietze, S; Rutschow, S; Lendlein, A; Tschöpe, C; Jung, F

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the clinical studies in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) presenting an increased percentage of activated platelets, we hypothesized that hemocompatibility testing utilizing platelets from healthy individuals may result in an underestimation of the materials' thrombogenicity. Therefore, we investigated the interaction of polymer-based biomaterials with platelets from CAD patients in comparison to platelets from apparently healthy individuals. In vitro static thrombogenicity tests revealed that adherent platelet densities and total platelet covered areas were significantly increased for the low (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) and medium (Collagen) thrombogenic surfaces in the CAD group compared to the healthy subjects group. The area per single platelet-indicating the spreading and activation of the platelets-was markedly increased on PDMS treated with PRP from CAD subjects. This could not be observed for collagen or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). For the latter material, platelet adhesion and surface coverage did not differ between the two groups. Irrespective of the substrate, the variability of these parameters was increased for CAD patients compared to healthy subjects. This indicates a higher reactivity of platelets from CAD patients compared to the healthy individuals. Our results revealed, for the first time, that utilizing platelets from apparently healthy donors bears the risk of underestimating the thrombogenicity of polymer-based biomaterials. PMID:25631281

  10. Heroin snorters versus injectors: comparison on drug use and treatment outcome in age-matched samples.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M J; Chutuape, M A; Stitzer, M L

    1998-12-01

    Drug use histories and treatment outcomes were compared for age, race and gender-matched samples of intravenous (IV; n = 28) versus intranasal (IN; n = 28) opiate abusers entering a 3-day inpatient detoxification unit. Data were derived from the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) interview. Both groups reported daily heroin use prior to detoxification, but IV users reported more days of alcohol and multiple drug use during the past 30 days. Despite age matching, IV users also started using alcohol at an earlier age and accumulated more lifetime months of regular alcohol, cocaine and multidrug use. IV users were more likely to enter treatment following the detox, but no significant outcome differences were noted at 1 and 3 months post-detoxification. The results show that intravenous, as compared to intranasal, opiate users have both a more severe pattern and a more extensive history of the use of non-opiate drugs. PMID:10933336

  11. The extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and virulence genes of intestinal enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) in healthy elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Jian; Cao, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: to analyze the detection rate of intestinal enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) in healthy elderly (≥60 years) individuals in the Hangzhou area of China, and to investigate the extended spectrum β-lactamases and virulence genes of EAEC. Methods: Stool specimens provided by healthy elderly individuals were cultured on blood agar, SS, and MAC plates. The bacterial strains were identified using Vitek-2 Compact automatic microorganism identification system and mass spectrometry. The resistance phenotypes of the bacteria were determined using the double-disk synergy method. The resistance genes and the EAEC virulence gene, astA and aggR, were amplified by PCR and compared to the sequences available in Gen Bank. Results: Among the 1050 healthy volunteers, the majority of bacteria were E. coli, accounting for 960 strains, with an ESBL-positive rate of 36.3% (348/960). The EAEC detection rate was 10% (96/960); among them, 84 strains were astA, the detection rate of which was 8.75%; 12 strains were aggR, the detection rate of which was 1.25%. The ESBL-positive rate of EAEC strains were 56.25% (54/96), all of which carried the CTX-M type, with the CTX-M-14 predominating at 66.7% (36/54). Conclusions: The ESBL-positive rate of intestinal E. coli in healthy elderly individuals in the Hangzhou area of China was higher than the rate detected in other regions of china; and there was a high rate of antibiotic resistance among the intestinal EAEC in healthy elderly individuals. The results of this study suggest that EAEC is not only a pathogenic bacteria detected in diarrhea patients, but can also be present in healthy individuals, and high-resistance clinical strains have spread to the healthy population in the Hangzhou area. So vigilance is critical. PMID:26885024

  12. Functional effects of endothelial nitric oxide synthase genetic polymorphisms on haemorheological parameters in healthy human individuals.

    PubMed

    Babaoglu, Melih O; Dikmenoglu, Neslihan; Ileri-Gurel, Esin; Seringec, Nurten; Zoto, Teuta; Yasar, Umit; Kayaalp, S Oguz; Bozkurt, Atilla

    2011-03-01

    The constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays a major role in circulatory homoeostasis and shows genetic polymorphism. eNOS is expressed and functional in blood cells, including erythrocytes. There is limited knowledge about the consequences of eNOS genetic variability in haemorheological parameters and erythrocyte functioning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three eNOS genetic polymorphisms, namely exonic G894T (Glu298Asp), intronic VNTR (27-bp repeat) and 5'-flanking T(-786)C polymorphisms on haemorheological variables, such as erythrocyte deformability and erythrocyte aggregation (rouleaux formation) in healthy non-smoking volunteers. Sixty subjects (19 women, 41 men) were examined for genotypes and haemorheological variables. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction analysis. Haemorheological variables were measured by means of a laser-assisted optical rotational cell analyser (LORCA). Erythrocyte aggregation was significantly decreased in individuals with 894TT genotype when compared to subjects with the (G) allele. Aggregation indices (AI) were 54.7±3.2% versus 61.0±0.9% (p=0.026), and the half-lives (t(1/2) ) for aggregation formation were 3.43±0.43 versus 2.55±0.12 sec. (p=0.024), respectively. Similarly, VNTR-bb genotype significantly altered erythrocyte aggregability. AI values were 58.7±1.1% in subjects with VNTR-a allele versus 63.7±1.2% in subjects with bb genotype (p=0.011); t(1/2) values were 2.86±0.16 versus 2.20±0.13 sec., respectively (p=0.016). T(-786)C polymorphism did not change any haemorheological parameters. These findings suggest that eNOS 894TT genotype is associated with decreased erythrocyte aggregation, while VNTR-bb genotype increases aggregability in healthy human individuals. eNOS genetic variants may contribute in the pathogenesis of microvascular disorders by altering erythrocyte functions in human beings. PMID:20977680

  13. Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Bee-Oh; O’Sullivan, David; Choi, Bum-Gwon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ± 2.8 years; weight, 48.1 ± 14.1 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ± 2.9 years; weight, 43.6 ± 10 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite® system while their plantar pressure was being recorded. [Results] The results showed a reduction in cadence, gait velocity, and step length, and an increase in step width in children with autism. Plantar pressure variables highlight the differences between the active pressure areas, especially in the hindfoot of children with autism. [Conclusion] The results suggest that children with autism have an abnormal gait compared with that of age-matched controls, and thus they need extra attention to correct these abnormal gait patterns. PMID:26957776

  14. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  15. Ergospirometry and Echocardiography in Early Stage of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction and in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Eduardo Lima; Menezes, Márcio Garcia; Stefani, Charles de Moraes; Danzmann, Luiz Cláudio; Torres, Marco Antonio Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is a syndrome characterized by changes in diastolic function; it is more prevalent among the elderly, women, and individuals with systemic hypertension (SH) and diabetes mellitus. However, in its early stages, there are no signs of congestion and it is identified in tests by adverse remodeling, decreased exercise capacity and diastolic dysfunction. Objective To compare doppler, echocardiographic (Echo), and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) variables - ergospirometry variables - between two population samples: one of individuals in the early stage of this syndrome, and the other of healthy individuals. Methods Twenty eight outpatients diagnosed with heart failure according to Framingham’s criteria, ejection fraction > 50% and diastolic dysfunction according to the european society of cardiology (ESC), and 24 healthy individuals underwent Echo and CPET. Results The group of patients showed indexed atrial volume and left ventricular mass as well as E/E’ and ILAV/A´ ratios significantly higher, in addition to a significant reduction in peak oxygen consumption and increased VE/VCO2 slope, even having similar left ventricular sizes in comparison to those of the sample of healthy individuals. Conclusion There are significant differences between the structural and functional variables analyzed by Echo and CPET when comparing two population samples: one of patients in the early stage of heart failure with ejection fraction greater than or equal to 50% and another of healthy individuals. PMID:26247247

  16. Inter- and Intra-individual Variability in the Pharmacokinetics of Agomelatine Tablets in Chinese Healthy Male Subjects.

    PubMed

    Wang, X-l; Du, A-h; Zhang, D; Meng, L-j; Liu, M; Zhang, L-n; Zhao, H-n; Liu, H-c

    2015-10-01

    Agomelatine is an antidepressant with a unique action mechanism differing from conventional antidepressants. The high inter- and intra-individual variability of agomelatine was previously reported, but no exact data values about the inter- and intra-individual variability in AUC and Cmax were mentioned. The current study aimed to determine and evaluate the inter- and intra-individual variability in AUC and Cmax of agomelatine tablets in Chinese healthy male subjects, providing useful information for designing bioequivalence studies of agomelatine. Each of 12 Chinese healthy male subjects received a 25-mg agomelatine tablet on 2 separate periods, and plasma samples were collected up to 24 h after dose and analyzed for agomelatine. Inter- and intra-individual variability in the pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞) of agomelatine was assessed. High variations in the plasma concentrations of agomelatine could be observed at each sampling time between the different subjects and in one subject on different periods. The inter-individual CVs of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were 102.20%, 131.74% and 130.59%, respectively. The intra-individual CVs of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were 84.34%, 49.61% and 50.83%, respectively. The results showed high inter- and intra-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics of agomelatine in Chinese healthy male subjects, and the intra-individual variability at CV>80% should be considered in the design of bioequivalence studies. PMID:25383559

  17. Prefrontal inositol levels and implicit decision-making in healthy individuals and depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Jollant, Fabrice; Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Ding, Yang; Turecki, Gustavo; Bechara, Antoine; Near, Jamie

    2016-08-01

    Risky decision-making is found in several mental disorders and is associated with deleterious consequences. Current research aims at understanding the biological underpinnings of this complex cognitive function and the basis of individual variability. We used 3T proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to measure in vivo glutamate, GABA, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), and myo-inositol levels at rest in the right dorsal prefrontal cortex of 54 participants, comprising 24 unmedicated depressed patients and 30 healthy individuals. Participants were also tested with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a classical measure of value-based decision-making. No group differences were found in terms of compound levels or decision-making performance. However, high inositol levels were associated with lower decision-making scores independently from group, notably during the initial stage of the task when explicit rules are still unknown and decisions are largely based on implicit processes (whole sample: F=4.0; p=0.02), with a large effect size (Cohen׳s d=0.8, 95% [0.2-1.5]). This effect was stronger when explicit knowledge was taken into account, with explicit knowledge showing an independent effect on performance. There was no association with other compounds. This study suggests, for the first time, a role for the inositol pathway on the implicit learning component of decision-making, without any direct effect on the explicit component. Hypothesized mechanisms implicate intracellular calcium modulation and subsequent synaptic plasticity. These findings represent a first step in the understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying decision-making and the identification of therapeutic targets. They also emphasize a dimensional approach in the study of the neurobiological determinants of mental disorders. PMID:27342631

  18. PCR activity of CMV in healthy CMV-seropositive individuals: does latency need redefinition?

    PubMed

    Toro, A I; Ossa, J

    1996-01-01

    To demonstrate a possible association between stress factors and the presence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA in leukocytes and in cell-free body fluids, at 2-week intervals over a 6-month period, specimens were taken for HCMV DNA testing from 11 healthy CMV-seropositive individuals who were also surveyed for stress-producing events occurring during the previous week. A positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) signal was given in 104/127 (81.9%) urines, 73/127 (57.3%) throat washings and 68/127 (53.6%) leukocyte samples. An association was found between HCMV DNA in urine and a stress-producing event at work (p < 0.04). An association was also found between detection of HCMV DNA in throat washings and alcohol ingestion (P < 0.006) and between the presence of oral herpes lesions and the detection of HCMV DNA in leukocytes (p < 0.0019). The results suggest that viral reactivation is more common than previously thought and that stress may be a triggering event. PMID:8837231

  19. Interhemispheric Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Connectivity is Associated with Individual Differences in Pain Sensitivity in Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Sevel, Landrew S; Letzen, Janelle E; Staud, Roland; Robinson, Michael E

    2016-06-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is implicated in pain modulation through multiple psychological processes. Recent noninvasive brain stimulation studies suggest that interhemispheric DLPFC connectivity influences pain tolerance and discomfort by altering interhemispheric inhibition. The structure and role of interhemispheric DLPFC connectivity in pain processing have not been investigated. The present study used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI to investigate transcallosal DLPFC connectivity during painful stimulation in healthy volunteers. DCM parameters were used to predict individual differences in sensitivity to noxious heat stimuli. Bayesian model selection results indicated that influences among the right DLPFC (rDLPFC) and left DLPFC (lDLPFC) are modulated during painful stimuli. Regression analyses revealed that greater rDLPFC→lDLPFC couplings were associated with higher suprathreshold pain temperatures. These results highlight the role of interhemispheric connectivity in pain modulation and support the preferential role of the right hemisphere in pain processing. Knowledge of these mechanisms may improve understanding of abnormal pain modulation in chronic pain populations. PMID:26916416

  20. Evidence of altered corticomotor excitability following targeted activation of gluteus maximus training in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Beth E; Southam, Anna C; Kuo, Yi-Ling; Lee, Ya-Yun; Powers, Christopher M

    2016-04-13

    It has been proposed that strengthening and skill training of gluteus maximus (GM) may be beneficial in treating various knee injuries. Given the redundancy of the hip musculature and the small representational area of GM in the primary motor cortex (M1), learning to activate this muscle before prescribing strength exercises and modifying movement strategy would appear to be important. This study aimed to determine whether a short-term activation training program targeting the GM results in neuroplastic changes in M1. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were obtained in 12 healthy individuals at different stimulation intensities while they performed a double-leg bridge. Participants then completed a home exercise program for ∼1 h/day for 6 days that consisted of a single exercise designed to selectively target the GM. Baseline and post-training input-output curves (IOCs) were generated by graphing average MEP amplitudes and cortical silent period durations against corresponding stimulation intensities. Following the GM activation training, the linear slope of both the MEP IOC and cortical silent period IOC increased significantly. Short-term GM activation training resulted in a significant increase in corticomotor excitability as well as changes in inhibitory processes of the GM. We propose that the observed corticomotor plasticity will enable better utilization of the GM in the more advanced stages of a rehabilitation/training program. PMID:26981714

  1. Analysis of cognitive performance in schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals with unsupervised clustering models.

    PubMed

    Silver, Henry; Shmoish, Michael

    2008-05-30

    Currently, assignment of cognitive test results to particular cognitive domains is guided by theoretical considerations and expert judgments which may vary. More objective means of classification may advance understanding of the relationships between test performance and the cognitive functions probed. We examined whether "atheoretical" analyses of cognitive test data can help identify potential hidden structures in cognitive performance. Novel data-mining methods which "let the data talk" without a priori theoretically bound constraints were used to analyze neuropsychological test results of 75 schizophrenia patients and 57 healthy individuals. The analyses were performed on the combined sample to maximize the "atheoretical" approach and allow it to reveal different structures of cognition in patients and controls. Analyses used unsupervised clustering methods, including hierarchical clustering, self-organizing maps (SOM), k-means and supermagnetic clustering (SPC). The model revealed two major clusters containing accuracy and reaction time measures respectively. The sensitivity (75% versus 52%) and specificity (95% versus 77% ) of these clusters for diagnosing schizophrenia differed. Downstream branching was influenced by stimulus domain. Predictions arising from this "atheoretical" model are supported by evidence from published studies. This preliminary study suggests that appropriate application of data-mining methods may contribute to investigation of cognitive functions. PMID:18440074

  2. Pulmonary response to ozone exposures in healthy individuals aged 55 years or greater

    SciTech Connect

    Reisenauer, C.S.; Koenig, J.Q.; McManus, M.S.; Smith, M.S.; Kusic, G.; Pierson, W.E.

    1988-01-01

    Since minimal data are available regarding the pulmonary effects of ozone (O/sub 3/) in healthy individuals over the age of 55, this research was designed to determine if this group was at risk for pulmonary function changes when exposed to O/sub 3/ at ambient concentrations for one hour during intermittent exercise. Ten female and nine male subjects were exposed for 60 minutes in random order to one of the following O/sub 3/ concentrations: 0.0, 0.2, or 0.3 ppm. All exposures were administered through a rubber mouthpiece while the subject was either at rest or moderately exercising on a treadmill. The following pulmonary function tests (PFT) were recorded before exposure, and at periods immediately following and 20 minutes post-exposure: total respiratory resistance (R/sub T/), thoracic gas volume at functional residual capacity (FRC), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV/sub 1/). Baseline PFT mean values and air exposure PFT mean values were compared through the use of repeated measure two-way analysis of variance to detect any significant effect of exposure on these parameters. Following 60 minute of exposure at light intermittent exercise, there were no statistically significant pulmonary functional changes observed in male subjects. However, in female subjects, a statistically significant increase in R/sub T/ was observed

  3. Psychopathic traits are associated with cortical and subcortical volume alterations in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Joana B; Ferreira-Santos, Fernando; Almeida, Pedro R; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João; Marsh, Abigail A

    2015-12-01

    Research suggests psychopathy is associated with structural brain alterations that may contribute to the affective and interpersonal deficits frequently observed in individuals with high psychopathic traits. However, the regional alterations related to different components of psychopathy are still unclear. We used voxel-based morphometry to characterize the structural correlates of psychopathy in a sample of 35 healthy adults assessed with the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure. Furthermore, we examined the regional grey matter alterations associated with the components described by the triarchic model. Our results showed that, after accounting for variation in total intracranial volume, age and IQ, overall psychopathy was negatively associated with grey matter volume in the left putamen and amygdala. Additional regression analysis with anatomical regions of interests revealed total triPM score was also associated with increased lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and caudate volume. Boldness was positively associated with volume in the right insula. Meanness was positively associated with lateral OFC and striatum volume, and negatively associated with amygdala volume. Finally, disinhibition was negatively associated with amygdala volume. Results highlight the contribution of both subcortical and cortical brain alterations for subclinical psychopathy and are discussed in light of prior research and theoretical accounts about the neurobiological bases of psychopathic traits. PMID:25971600

  4. A new predictive equation for resting energy expenditure in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Mifflin, M D; St Jeor, S T; Hill, L A; Scott, B J; Daugherty, S A; Koh, Y O

    1990-02-01

    A predictive equation for resting energy expenditure (REE) was derived from data from 498 healthy subjects, including females (n = 247) and males (n = 251), aged 19-78 y (45 +/- 14 y, mean +/- SD). Normal-weight (n = 264) and obese (n = 234) individuals were studied and REE was measured by indirect calorimetry. Multiple-regression analyses were employed to drive relationships between REE and weight, height, and age for both men and women (R2 = 0.71): REE = 9.99 x weight + 6.25 x height - 4.92 x age + 166 x sex (males, 1; females, 0) - 161. Simplification of this formula and separation by sex did not affect its predictive value: REE (males) = 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) - 5 x age (y) + 5; REE (females) = 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) - 5 x age (y) - 161. The inclusion of relative body weight and body-weight distribution did not significantly improve the predictive value of these equations. The Harris-Benedict Equations derived in 1919 overestimated measured REE by 5% (p less than 0.01). Fat-free mass (FFM) was the best single predictor of REE (R2 = 0.64): REE = 19.7 x FFM + 413. Weight also was closely correlated with REE (R2 = 0.56): REE = 15.1 x weight + 371. PMID:2305711

  5. Corollary Discharge Failure in an Oculomotor Task Is Related to Delusional Ideation in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Malassis, Raphaëlle; Del Cul, Antoine; Collins, Thérèse

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the sensory consequences of saccadic eye movements likely plays a crucial role in planning sequences of saccades and in maintaining visual stability despite saccade-caused retinal displacements. Deficits in predictive activity, such as that afforded by a corollary discharge signal, have been reported in patients with schizophrenia, and may lead to the emergence of positive symptoms, in particular delusions of control and auditory hallucinations. We examined whether a measure of delusional thinking in the general, non-clinical population correlated with measures of predictive activity in two oculomotor tasks. The double-step task measured predictive activity in motor control, and the in-flight displacement task measured predictive activity in trans-saccadic visual perception. Forty-one healthy adults performed both tasks and completed a questionnaire to assess delusional thinking. The quantitative measure of predictive activity we obtained correlated with the tendency towards delusional ideation, but only for the motor task, and not the perceptual task: Individuals with higher levels of delusional thinking showed less self-movement information use in the motor task. Variation of the degree of self-generated movement knowledge as a function of the prevalence of delusional ideation in the normal population strongly supports the idea that corollary discharge deficits measured in schizophrenic patients in previous researches are not due to neuroleptic medication. We also propose that this difference in results between the perceptual and the motor tasks may point to a dissociation between corollary discharge for perception and corollary discharge for action. PMID:26305115

  6. Statins Increase the Frequency of Circulating CD4+FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Perea, Ana Lucía; Montoya, Carlos J.; Olek, Sven; Chougnet, Claire A.; Velilla, Paula A.

    2015-01-01

    Statins have been shown to modulate the number and the suppressive function of CD4+FOXP3+ T cells (Treg) in inflammatory conditions. However, it is not well established whether statin could also affect Treg in absence of inflammation. To address this question, eighteen normocholesterolemic male subjects were treated with lovastatin or atorvastatin daily for 45 days. The frequency and phenotype of circulating Treg were evaluated at days 0, 7, 30, and 45. mRNA levels of FOXP3, IDO, TGF-β, and IL-10 were measured in CD4+ T cells. We found that both statins significantly increased Treg frequency and FOXP3 mRNA levels at day 30. At day 45, Treg numbers returned to baseline values; however, TGF-β and FOXP3 mRNA levels remained high, accompanied by increased percentages of CTLA-4- and GITR-expressing Treg. Treg Ki-67 expression was decreased upon statin treatment. Treg frequency positively correlated with plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), suggesting a role for HDL-c in Treg homeostasis. Therefore, statins appear to have inflammation-independent immune-modulatory effects. Thus, the increase in Treg cells frequency likely contributes to immunomodulatory effect of statins, even in healthy individuals. PMID:25759848

  7. Associations between polygenic risk for schizophrenia and brain function during probabilistic learning in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ihssen, Niklas; Brindley, Lisa M.; Tansey, Katherine E.; Mantripragada, Kiran; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Owen, Michael J.; Linden, David E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A substantial proportion of schizophrenia liability can be explained by additive genetic factors. Risk profile scores (RPS) directly index risk using a summated total of common risk variants weighted by their effect. Previous studies suggest that schizophrenia RPS predict alterations to neural networks that support working memory and verbal fluency. In this study, we apply schizophrenia RPS to fMRI data to elucidate the effects of polygenic risk on functional brain networks during a probabilistic‐learning neuroimaging paradigm. The neural networks recruited during this paradigm have previously been shown to be altered to unmedicated schizophrenia patients and relatives of schizophrenia patients, which may reflect genetic susceptibility. We created schizophrenia RPS using summary data from the Psychiatric Genetic Consortium (Schizophrenia Working Group) for 83 healthy individuals and explore associations between schizophrenia RPS and blood oxygen level dependency (BOLD) during periods of choice behavior (switch–stay) and reflection upon choice outcome (reward–punishment). We show that schizophrenia RPS is associated with alterations in the frontal pole (P WHOLE‐BRAIN‐CORRECTED = 0.048) and the ventral striatum (P ROI‐CORRECTED = 0.036), during choice behavior, but not choice outcome. We suggest that the common risk variants that increase susceptibility to schizophrenia can be associated with alterations in the neural circuitry that support the processing of changing reward contingencies. Hum Brain Mapp 37:491–500, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26510167

  8. Hypobaric hypoxia is not a direct dyspnogenic factor in healthy individuals at rest.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takayuki; Iwazaki, Masayuki; Sasao, Gen; Nagai, Asuka; Ebihara, Akinori; Iwamoto, Tokuzen; Kuwahira, Ichiro

    2015-11-01

    Dyspnea consists of various uncomfortable respiratory sensations. It is believed that hypoxia causes dyspnea, but whether hypoxia is a direct dyspnogenic factor remains uncertain. We investigated whether hypoxia has a direct dyspnogenic effect. We evaluated changes in vital signs, arterial blood gases, SaO2, CaO2, Borg scale, and Mini-Mental State Examination in seven mountain climbers by using a hypobaric hypoxic chamber in which the barometric pressure was lowered to the simulated altitude of 4500 m. PaO2 and CaO2 both decreased significantly as the simulated altitude increased. On the other hand, Borg scale score which reflects dyspnea showed no significant difference. At the simulated altitude of 4500 m, Borg scale score was 1.5 ± 1.2 (mean ± SD), despite the presence of absolute hypoxia (PaO2, 46.8 ± 8.3T; CaO2, 16.4 ± 0.6 mL/dL). These results suggest that hypoxia is not a direct dyspnogenic factor in healthy individuals capable of breathing without restriction at rest. PMID:26219585

  9. Association between MAPT haplotype and memory function in patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy aging individuals

    PubMed Central

    Winder-Rhodes, Sophie E.; Hampshire, Adam; Rowe, James B.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Owen, Adrian M.; Barker, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation is associated with differences in the function of the brain as well as its susceptibility to disease. The common H1 haplotypic variant of the microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT) has been related to an increased risk for Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, among PD patients, H1 homozygotes have an accelerated progression to dementia. We investigated the neurocognitive correlates of MAPT haplotypes using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty-seven nondemented patients with PD (19 H1/H1, 18 H2 carriers) and 40 age-matched controls (21 H1/H1, 19 H2 carriers) were scanned during performance of a picture memory encoding task. Behaviorally, H1 homozygosity was associated with impaired picture recognition memory in PD patients and control subjects. These impairments in the H1 homozygotes were accompanied by an altered blood-oxygen level-dependent response in the medial temporal lobe during successful memory encoding. Additional age-related differences in blood-oxygen level-dependent response were observed in the medial temporal lobes of H1 homozygotes with PD. These results suggest that common variation in MAPT is not only associated with the dementia of PD but also differences in the neural circuitry underlying aspects of cognition in normal aging. PMID:25577413

  10. SENP1, but not fetal hemoglobin, differentiates Andean highlanders with chronic mountain sickness from healthy individuals among Andean highlanders.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Matthew M; Callacondo, David; Rojas-Camayo, Jose; Quesada-Olarte, Jose; Wang, Xunde; Uchida, Naoya; Maric, Irina; Remaley, Alan T; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Villafuerte, Francisco C; Tisdale, John F

    2016-06-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) results from chronic hypoxia. It is unclear why certain highlanders develop CMS. We hypothesized that modest increases in fetal hemoglobin (HbF) are associated with lower CMS severity. In this cross-sectional study, we found that HbF levels were normal (median = 0.4%) in all 153 adult Andean natives in Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Compared with healthy adults, the borderline elevated hemoglobin group frequently had symptoms (headaches, tinnitus, cyanosis, dilatation of veins) of CMS. Although the mean hemoglobin level differed between the healthy (17.1 g/dL) and CMS (22.3 g/dL) groups, mean plasma erythropoietin (EPO) levels were similar (healthy, 17.7 mIU/mL; CMS, 12.02 mIU/mL). Sanger sequencing determined that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in endothelial PAS domain 1 (EPAS1) and egl nine homolog 1 (EGLN1), associated with lower hemoglobin in Tibetans, were not identified in Andeans. Sanger sequencing of sentrin-specific protease 1 (SENP1) and acidic nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member D (ANP32D), in healthy and CMS individuals revealed that non-G/G genotypes were associated with higher CMS scores. No JAK2 V617F mutation was detected in CMS individuals. Thus, HbF and other classic erythropoietic parameters did not differ between healthy and CMS individuals. However, the non-G/G genotypes of SENP1 appeared to differentiate individuals with CMS from healthy Andean highlanders. PMID:26952840

  11. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Ono, Kenjiro; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Iwasa, Kazuo; Nagai, Toshitada; Kobayashi, Shoko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state) and Study 2 (fed state)]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals. Trial Registration Trial Registration: UMIN-CTR UMIN000004997 PMID:25978046

  12. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area Enlargement Is Associated with Aging in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Magnano, Christopher; Belov, Pavel; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Hagemeier, Jesper; Beggs, Clive; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Internal jugular vein (IJV) narrowing has been implicated in central nervous system pathologies, however normal physiological age- and gender-related IJV variance in healthy individuals (HIs) has not been adequately assessed. Objectives We assessed the relationship between IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) and aging. Materials and Methods This study involved 193 HIs (63 males and 130 females) who received 2-dimensional magnetic resonance venography at 3T. The minimum CSA of the IJVs at cervical levels C2/C3, C4, C5/C6, and C7/T1 was obtained using a semi-automated contouring-thresholding technique. Subjects were grouped by decade. Pearson and partial correlation (controlled for cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, heart disease, smoking and body mass index) and analysis of variance analyses were used, with paired t-tests comparing side differences. Results Mean right IJV CSA ranges were: in males, 41.6 mm2 (C2/C3) to 82.0 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 38.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 62.3 mm2 (C7/T1), while the equivalent left side ranges were: in males, 28.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 52.2 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 27.2 mm2 (C2/C3) to 47.8 mm2 (C7/T1). The CSA of the right IJVs was significantly larger (p<0.001) than the left at all cervical levels. Controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, the correlation between age and IJV CSA was more robust in males than in the females for all cervical levels. Conclusions In HIs age, gender, hand side and cervical location all affect IJV CSA. These findings suggest that any definition of IJV stenosis needs to account for these factors. PMID:26895434

  13. Neuroimaging studies of the striatum in cognition Part I: healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean-Sebastien; Hanganu, Alexandru; Monchi, Oury

    2015-01-01

    The striatum has traditionally mainly been associated with playing a key role in the modulation of motor functions. Indeed, lesion studies in animals and studies of some neurological conditions in humans have brought further evidence to this idea. However, better methods of investigation have raised concerns about this notion, and it was proposed that the striatum could also be involved in different types of functions including cognitive ones. Although the notion was originally a matter of debate, it is now well-accepted that the caudate nucleus contributes to cognition, while the putamen could be involved in motor functions, and to some extent in cognitive functions as well. With the arrival of modern neuroimaging techniques in the early 1990, knowledge supporting the cognitive aspect of the striatum has greatly increased, and a substantial number of scientific papers were published studying the role of the striatum in healthy individuals. For the first time, it was possible to assess the contribution of specific areas of the brain during the execution of a cognitive task. Neuroanatomical studies have described functional loops involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex suggesting a specific interaction between these two structures. This review examines the data up to date and provides strong evidence for a specific contribution of the fronto-striatal regions in different cognitive processes, such as set-shifting, self-initiated responses, rule learning, action-contingency, and planning. Finally, a new two-level functional model involving the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum is proposed suggesting an essential role of the dorsal striatum in selecting between competing potential responses or actions, and in resolving a high level of ambiguity. PMID:26500513

  14. Response of the G2-prophase checkpoint to genotoxic drugs in lymphocytes from healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Pincheira, Juana; de la Torre, Consuelo; Rodríguez, Natalie; Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the in vitro effects of the anti-tumoral drugs doxorubicin, cytosine arabinoside and hydroxyurea on the G2-prophase checkpoint in lymphocytes from healthy individuals. At biologically equivalent concentrations, the induced DNA damage activated the corresponding checkpoint. Thus: i) there was a concentration-dependent delay of G2 time and an increase of both the total DNA lesions produced and repaired before metaphase and; ii) G2-checkpoint adaptation took place as chromosome aberrations (CAs) started to appear in the metaphase, indicating the presence of unrepaired double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the previous G2. The checkpoint ATM/ATR kinases are involved in DSB repair, since the recorded frequency of CAs increased when both kinases were caffeine-abrogated. In genotoxic-treated cells about three-fold higher repair activity was observed in relation to the endogenous background level of DNA lesions. The maximum rate of DNA repaired was 3.4 CAs/100 metaphases/hour, this rise being accompanied by a modest 1.3 fold lengthening of late G2 prophase timing. Because of mitotic chromosome condensation, no DSBs repair can take place until the G1 phase of the next cell cycle, when it occurs by DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Chromosomal rearrangements formed as a consequence of these error-prone DSB repairs ensure the development of genome instability through the DNA-fusion-bridge cycle. Hence, adaptation of the G2 checkpoint supports the appearance of secondary neoplasia in patients pretreated with genotoxic drugs. PMID:23096362

  15. Neuronal correlates and serotonergic modulation of behavioural inhibition and reward in healthy and antisocial individuals.

    PubMed

    Völlm, Birgit; Richardson, Paul; McKie, Shane; Reniers, Renate; Elliott, Rebecca; Anderson, Ian M; Williams, Steve; Dolan, Mairead; Deakin, Bill

    2010-02-01

    Individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are impulsive and show impairment in reinforcement processing. There is increasing evidence for a neurobiological basis of psychopathy, which shares some of the characteristics of ASPD, but research on the neuronal correlates of neuropsychological processes in ASPD remains limited. Furthermore, no research has examined the effects of serotonergic manipulation on brain activations in antisocial groups. In this study, 25 male participants with ASPD (mean age 42.1) and 32 male control participants (mean age 30.5; 25 participants providing usable scans) were randomly allocated to receive the 5-HT(2C)-agonist mCPP or placebo. Participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a behavioural inhibition (Go/NoGo) and a reward task. In comparison to healthy controls the ASPD group showed reduced task related activations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) but increased signal in the pre/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the Go/No-Go task and increased activation in OFC in the reward task. mCPP modulated brain responses in both tasks in the whole group. Interactions between group and drug occured in bilateral OFC, caudate and ventral pallidum during the reward task but no significant interactions were found in the Go/No-Go task. This suggests that ASPD involves altered serotonin modulation of reward, but not motor inhibition pathways. These findings suggest that ASPD involves altered DLPFC, ACC and OFC function. Altered serotonergic modulation of reward pathways seen in the ASPD group raises the possibility that targeting serotonin systems may be therapeutic. PMID:19683258

  16. Intensively managed young children with type 1 diabetes consume high-fat, low-fiber diets similar to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sanjeev N; Volkening, Lisa K; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M B

    2014-05-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n = 67) aged 2 to 12 years attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared with a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared with children participating in NHANES (42% vs 30%, P = .04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs 13%, P = .03), whole grains (12% vs 5%, P = .005), and dairy (55% vs 36%, P = .001) compared with NHANES children, whereas similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs 33%, P = .2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than did NHANES children (14% vs 12% total energy intake, P = .0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared with NHANES children, children with T1D had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores (59.6 vs 49.7, P = .0006) primarily because of lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable with youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  17. HealthyME HealthyU(©2010UCPGB): a collaborative project to enhance access to health information and services for individuals with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Brian F; O'Neal, Marcia R; Firsing, Stephen L; Smith, Kay Hogan; Chandan, Priya; Schmidt, Anne; Jackson, Jeri B

    2010-01-01

    In response to the limited information about health information and training needs among persons with disabilities, a collaborative group of Alabama researchers, educators, and clinicians was formed to implement a statewide needs assessment with support provided by the Alabama Council for Developmental Disabilities and the National Network of Libraries of Medicine. Educational and assessment activities were guided by the Systems Model of Clinical Preventive Care and Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) methodology. Four constructs from the 2007 HINTS Annotated Version were identified as relevant to the concepts of local interest. Results of printed and online surveys administered to 251 family and other caregivers, 87 individuals with disabilities, 110 clinical service providers, and 570 health professions students revealed outstanding health communication needs to improve access to reliable consumer information and clinical services. HealthyME HealthyU(©2010UCPGB) developed new educational materials that address issues identified from the needs assessment, specifically (a) accessibility of health care facilities; (b) patient-provider communication; (c) personal health management by consumers and families/caregivers; and (d) sources of trustworthy electronic health information. Six brief digital video training modules were developed for consumers, families, and professionals featuring as speakers health care providers, health professions students, and individuals with cognitive disabilities. Following field testing, video modules were revised and then widely distributed to consumers, family caregivers, and service providers. Preliminary evaluation indicates content is relevant and comprehensible to individuals with disabilities. PMID:21154083

  18. Intake of Nutrients, Fiber, and Sugar in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Comparison to Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Zolfaghari, Hamid; Askari, Gholamreza; Siassi, Fereydoun; Feizi, Awat; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the world. Although some studies have been conducted about dietary intakes of these patients, but the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to survey all macronutrients and micronutrients included in dietary intake of these patients for better understanding the factors influencing this disease. Methods: The present study is a case-control conducted in Isfahan city, Iran. The cases were recently diagnosed patients with NAFLD who identified by ultrasonography. The case (159) and control (158) individuals were matched in age and gender. Data of general characteristics and physical activity of individuals were collected through questionnaire. Dietary intake was also collected using 24 h dietary recall questionnaire. Results: Waistline and body mass index for the case group were more than the control group (P < 0.05). Physical activity level in healthy individuals was more than patients with NAFLD. Dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and sugar in patients with NAFLD was more than healthy individuals (P < 0.05). Intake of total dietary fiber, folic acid, Vitamin D, zinc, and potassium in healthy individuals was more than patients with NAFLD (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In total, it seems the type of dietary intake source is associated with NAFLD. Increasing saturated fatty acids and sugar and decreasing fiber, folic acid, Vitamin D, zinc, and potassium intake might play a role in the progression of this disease. PMID:27625763

  19. Even low alcohol concentrations affect obstacle avoidance reactions in healthy senior individuals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a commonly used social drug and driving under influence is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents[1]. To improve road safety, legal limits are set for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and driving, usually at 0.05% (most European countries) or 0.08% (most US states, Canada and UK). In contrast, for walking there are no legal limits, yet there are numerous accounts of people stumbling and falling after drinking. Alcohol, even at these low concentrations, affects brain function and increases fall risk. An increased fall risk has been associated with impaired obstacle avoidance skills. Low level BACs are likely to affect obstacle avoidance reactions during gait, since the brain areas that are presumably involved in these reactions have been shown to be influenced by alcohol. Therefore we investigated the effect of low to moderate alcohol consumption on such reactions. Thirteen healthy senior individuals (mean(SD) age: 61.5(4.4) years, 9 male) were subjected to an obstacle avoidance task on a treadmill after low alcohol consumption. Fast stepping adjustments were required to successfully avoid suddenly appearing obstacles. Response times and amplitudes of the m. biceps femoris, a prime mover, as well as avoidance failure rates were assessed. Findings After the first alcoholic drink, 12 of the 13 participants already had slower responses. Without exception, all participants' biceps femoris response times were delayed after the final alcoholic drink (avg ± sd:180 ± 20 ms; p < 0.001) compared to when participants were sober (156 ± 16 ms). Biceps femoris response times were significantly delayed from BACs of 0.035% onwards and were strongly associated with increasing levels of BAC (r = 0.6; p < 0.001). These delays had important behavioural consequences. Chances of hitting the obstacle were doubled with increased BACs. Conclusions The present results clearly show that even with BACs considered to be safe for driving, obstacle

  20. Skin Cooling and Force Replication at the Ankle in Healthy Individuals: A Crossover Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haupenthal, Daniela Pacheco dos Santos; de Noronha, Marcos; Haupenthal, Alessandro; Ruschel, Caroline; Nunes, Guilherme S.

    2015-01-01

    Context Proprioception of the ankle is determined by the ability to perceive the sense of position of the ankle structures, as well as the speed and direction of movement. Few researchers have investigated proprioception by force-replication ability and particularly after skin cooling. Objective To analyze the ability of the ankle-dorsiflexor muscles to replicate isometric force after a period of skin cooling. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Twenty healthy individuals (10 men, 10 women; age = 26.8 ± 5.2 years, height = 171 ± 7 cm, mass = 66.8 ± 10.5 kg). Intervention(s) Skin cooling was carried out using 2 ice applications: (1) after maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) performance and before data collection for the first target force, maintained for 20 minutes; and (2) before data collection for the second target force, maintained for 10 minutes. We measured skin temperature before and after ice applications to ensure skin cooling. Main Outcome Measure(s) A load cell was placed under an inclined board for data collection, and 10 attempts of force replication were carried out for 2 values of MVIC (20%, 50%) in each condition (ice, no ice). We assessed force sense with absolute and root mean square errors (the difference between the force developed by the dorsiflexors and the target force measured with the raw data and after root mean square analysis, respectively) and variable error (the variance around the mean absolute error score). A repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. Results The absolute error was greater for the ice than for the no-ice condition (F1,19 = 9.05, P = .007) and for the target force at 50% of MVIC than at 20% of MVIC (F1,19 = 26.01, P < .001). Conclusions The error was greater in the ice condition and at 50% of MVIC. Skin cooling reduced the proprioceptive ability of the ankle-dorsiflexor muscles to replicate isometric

  1. LINE-1 methylation is positively associated with healthier lifestyle but inversely related to body fat mass in healthy young individuals.

    PubMed

    Marques-Rocha, José Luiz; Milagro, Fermin I; Mansego, Maria Luisa; Mourão, Denise Machado; Martínez, J Alfredo; Bressan, Josefina

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of investigating if epigenetic biomarkers from white blood cells (WBC) are associated with dietary, anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in young and apparently healthy individuals. We evaluated 156 individuals (91 women, 65 men; age: 23.1±3.5 years; body mass index: 22.0±2.9 kg/m(2)) for anthropometric, biochemical and clinical markers, including some components of the antioxidant defense system and inflammatory response. DNA methylation of LINE-1, TNF-α and IL-6 and the expression of some genes related to the inflammatory process were analyzed in WBC. Adiposity was lower among individuals with higher LINE-1 methylation. On the contrary, body fat-free mass was higher among those with higher LINE-1 methylation. Individuals with higher LINE-1 methylation had higher daily intakes of calories, iron and riboflavin. However, those individuals who presented lower percentages of LINE-1 methylation reported higher intakes of copper, niacin and thiamin. Interestingly, the group with higher LINE-1 methylation had a lower percentage of current smokers and more individuals practicing sports. On the other hand, TNF-α methylation percentage was negatively associated with waist girth, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-stature ratio. Plasma TNF-α levels were lower in those individuals with higher TNF-α methylation. This study suggests that higher levels of LINE-1 and TNF-α methylation are associated with better indicators of adiposity status in healthy young individuals. In addition, energy and micronutrient intake, as well as a healthy lifestyle, may have a role in the regulation of DNA methylation in WBC and the subsequent metabolic changes may affect epigenetic biomarkers. PMID:26786189

  2. Does a single neurostimulation session really affect mood in healthy individuals? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Remue, Jonathan; Baeken, Chris; De Raedt, Rudi

    2016-05-01

    Non-invasive neurostimulation or neuromodulation techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) were welcomed as promising tools for investigating cognitive and mood processes in healthy participants as well as in patients suffering from neuropsychiatric conditions. Due to their rather easy application, both modalities have been used to experimentally examine prefrontal cognitive and emotional control. However, it remains unclear whether a single session of such stimulation may affect the mood of participants in a healthy state. We provide a systematic review of studies reporting the effects of a single session of rTMS or tDCS (…-2014) on self-reported mood in healthy participants. Although early studies reported significant effects on self-reported mood in healthy participants, more recent work investigating mood effects after a single rTMS/tDCS session has failed to find any significant changes in self-reported mood. Therefore it appears that a single session of rTMS/tDCS has no impact on mood in the healthy state. PMID:26988115

  3. Gingival, Plasma and Salivary Levels of Melatonin in Periodontally Healthy Individuals and Chronic Periodontitis Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Thodur Madapusi; Vasanthi, Hannah Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Periodontal disease is an inflammatory condition affecting tooth supporting structures in which dysregulated immune response and oxidative stress mediate tissue destruction. Melatonin, the pineal gland hormone is a regulator of circadian rhythm, an antioxidant and an immunomodulator. Previous studies have shown lowered melatonin levels in saliva, plasma and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with periodontal disease. Till date no study has assessed the melatonin levels in gingival tissues. Materials and Methods: Five healthy individuals and 15 chronic periodontitis patients were recruited for this pilot study. 5ml of whole saliva, 2 ml peripheral blood and gingival tissue samples were obtained from each individual at 8.00 am in fasting state. Melatonin assay was performed with a commercially available ELISA kit. Statistical analysis was done to assess the difference in mean melatonin levels among the groups. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in mean melatonin levels between healthy individuals and chronic periodontitis patients in saliva (p=.266) and plasma (p=.933) samples, whereas in gingival tissue samples (p=.015), the melatonin levels were significantly lowered in chronic periodontitis patients compared to healthy individuals. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the presence of melatonin in gingival tissue. Furthermore, melatonin levels are lowered in gingival tissues of chronic periodontitis patients. PMID:25954699

  4. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  5. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  6. The neural substrates of affective face recognition in patients with Hwa-Byung and healthy individuals in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeong-Taek; Paik, Jong-Woo; Kang, Rhee-Hun; Chung, Sun-Yong; Kwon, Ho-In; Khang, Hyun-Soo; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Kwon, Jung-Hye; Kim, Jong-Woo; Lee, Min-Soo; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2009-01-01

    Hwa-Byung (HB) is a Korean culture-bound psychiatric syndrome caused by the suppression of anger. HB patients have various psychological and somatic symptoms, such as chest discomfort, a sensation of heat, and the sensation of having an epigastric mass. In this study, we measured brain activity in HB patients and healthy individuals in response to affective facial stimuli. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the current study measured neural responses to neutral, sad, and angry facial stimuli in 12 healthy individuals and 12 patients with HB. In response to all types of facial stimuli, HB patients showed increased activations in the lingual gyrus and fusiform gyrus compared with healthy persons, but they showed relatively lower activation in the thalamus. We also found that patients with HB showed lower activity in response to the neutral condition in the right ACC than healthy controls. The current study indicates that the suppression of affect results in aberrant function of the brain regions of the visual pathway, and functional impairment in the ACC may contribute to the pathophysiology of HB. PMID:18609429

  7. Non-tuberculous mycobacterium skin infections after tattooing in healthy individuals: A systematic review of case reports.

    PubMed

    Mudedla, Sreenuvasu; Avendano, Esther E; Raman, Gowri

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, several case reports and outbreaks reported occurrence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections within 6 months after receiving a tattoo in healthy individuals. NTM species (e.g., Chelonae, Fortuitum, Hemophillum, and Abscessus) are widespread in the environment and it is often suspected that contamination may occur through unsterile instrumentation or unsterile water used for diluting tattoo ink to dilute color. In reported cases, lesions were mainly restricted to a single color 'gray' part of the tattoo. Mycobacterium Chelonae was the most common cause of tattoo associated NTM infections. Less than 50% of the case reports tested tattoo ink for acid fast bacilli stains and cultures. Subjects required treatment with either clarithromycin alone or in combination with quinolones for 6 to 9 months. An increase in NTM skin infections in healthy individuals after tattooing indicates the need for sterile standards during tattooing and improved local and regional regulatory oversight. PMID:26158355

  8. Angiotensin II Levels in Gingival Tissues from Healthy Individuals, Patients with Nifedipine Induced Gingival Overgrowth and Non Responders on Nifedipine

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Anitha; Balaji, Thodur Madapusi

    2015-01-01

    Context The Renin Angiotensin system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Drug Induced Gingival Overgrowth (DIGO), a fibrotic condition, caused by Phenytoin, Nifedipine and Cyclosporine. Aim This study quantified Angiotensin II levels in gingival tissue samples obtained from healthy individuals, patients on Nifedipine manifesting/not manifesting drug induced gingival overgrowth. Materials and Methods Gingival tissue samples were obtained from healthy individuals (n=24), patients on nifidipine manifesting gingival overgrowth (n= 18) and patients on nifidipine not manifesting gingival overgrowth (n=8). Angiotensin II levels were estimated in the samples using a commercially available ELISA kit. Results Angiotensin II levels were significantly elevated in patients on Nifedipine manifesting gingival overgrowth compared to the other 2 groups (p<0.01). Conclusion The results of the study give an insight into the role played by Angiotensin II in the pathogenesis of drug induced gingival overgrowth. PMID:26436057

  9. T Lymphocyte Maturation Is Impaired in Healthy Young Individuals Carrying Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guazzarotti, Laura; Trabattoni, Daria; Castelletti, Eleonora; Boldrighini, Benedetta; Piacentini, Luca; Duca, Piergiorgio; Beretta, Silvia; Pacei, Michela; Caprio, Cristiana; Vigano, Alessandra; di Natale, Berardo; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Clerici, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Cytokine production, immune activation, T lymphocytes maturation, and serum IL-7 concentration were examined in 24 youngsters with Down syndrome and no acquired diseases (healthy Down syndrome [12 prepubertal, 13 pubertal]) and 42 age- and gender-matched controls (20 prepubertal, 22 pubertal). Results showed that a complex immune and impairment is…

  10. Effects of Ageism on Individual and Health Care Providers' Responses to Healthy Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lynda D.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature to support the contention that misconceptions about the aging process have a detrimental effect on healthy aging. Seeks to demonstrate how stereotyping can affect the shape and nature of programs for elderly people. Argues that for long-lasting change to occur, service providers need to target these negative attitudes in…

  11. Malassezia sympodialis stimulation differently affects gene expression in dendritic cells from atopic dermatitis patients and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsson, Susanne; Buentke, Eva; Liedén, Agne; Schmidt, Margit; D'Amato, Mauro; Tengvall-Linder, Maria; Scheynius, Annika

    2004-01-01

    It is known that 28-84% of patients with atopic dermatitis exhibit IgE and/or T-cell reactivity to the opportunistic yeast Malassezia sympodialis, which can be taken up by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), resulting in MDDC maturation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MDDCs from patients with atopic dermatitis respond differently to M. sympodialis compared to MDDCs from healthy individuals. Immature MDDCs were stimulated with M. sympodialis and the gene expression profiles were analysed with cDNA arrays containing 406 genes. Our results show that M. sympodialis differently affected MDDCs from patients with atopic dermatitis, and more so in severely ill patients, compared with healthy individuals. Six genes were more than fivefold up-regulated in MDDCs from more than one patient with atopic dermatitis, coding for CD54, CD83, IL-8, monocyte-derived chemokine (MDC), BTG1 and IL-1R antagonist. In healthy individuals this was true only for BTG1. Up-regulations of IL-8 and MDC were confirmed at the protein level. Our findings might reflect an increased trafficking and stimulatory capacity in MDDCs from the patients, which is likely to result in a stronger inflammatory response to M. sympodialis. PMID:15370698

  12. Are prescription stimulants "smart pills"? The epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience of prescription stimulant use by normal healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Smith, M Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J

    2011-09-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience literatures in search of answers to these questions. Epidemiological issues addressed include the prevalence of nonmedical stimulant use, user demographics, methods by which users obtain prescription stimulants, and motivations for use. Cognitive neuroscience issues addressed include the effects of prescription stimulants on learning and executive function, as well as the task and individual variables associated with these effects. Little is known about the prevalence of prescription stimulant use for cognitive enhancement outside of student populations. Among college students, estimates of use vary widely but, taken together, suggest that the practice is commonplace. The cognitive effects of stimulants on normal healthy people cannot yet be characterized definitively, despite the volume of research that has been carried out on these issues. Published evidence suggests that declarative memory can be improved by stimulants, with some evidence consistent with enhanced consolidation of memories. Effects on the executive functions of working memory and cognitive control are less reliable but have been found for at least some individuals on some tasks. In closing, we enumerate the many outstanding questions that remain to be addressed by future research and also identify obstacles facing this research. PMID:21859174

  13. College of Radiology, Academy of Medicine of Malaysia position on whole body screening CT scans in healthy asymptomatic individuals (2008)

    PubMed Central

    Ho, ELM; Abdullah, BJJ; Tang, AAL; Nordin, AJ; Nair, AR; Lim, GCC; Samad-Cheung, H; Ng, KH; Ponnusamy, S; Abbas, SF; Bux, SI; Arasaratnam, S; Abdul Aziz, YF; Venugopal, S; Musa, Z; Abdul Manaf, Z

    2008-01-01

    To date, the College of Radiology (CoR) does not see any clear benefit in performing whole body screening computed tomography (CT) examinations in healthy asymptomatic individuals. There are radiation risk issues in CT and principles of screening should be adhered to. There may be a role for targeted cardiac screening CT that derives calcium score, especially for asymptomatic medium-risk individuals and CT colonography when used as part of a strategic programme for colorectal cancer screening in those 50 years and older. However, population based screening CT examinations may become appropriate when evidence emerges regarding a clear benefit for the patient outweighing the associated radiation risks. PMID:21611021

  14. Are gingival and periodontal conditions related to salivary gland flow rates in healthy individuals?

    PubMed

    Crow, H C; Ship, J A

    1995-11-01

    Some have suggested that gingival and periodontal health is related to salivary gland function; however, there are few data to support this hypothesis. The purpose of this study was to determine if correlations existed between major salivary gland flow rates and gingival and periodontal conditions in people of different ages. The results suggest that there is no consistent relationship between major salivary gland flow rates and gingival and periodontal conditions in healthy people. PMID:7499648

  15. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Metabolically Healthy versus Unhealthy Obese and Non-Obese Individuals – The Maastricht Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Berg, Julianne D.; van der Kallen, Carla J. H.; Schram, Miranda T.; Savelberg, Hans H. C. M.; Schaper, Nicolaas C.; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Henry, Ronald M. A.; Kroon, Abraham A.; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Koster, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Background Both obesity and the metabolic syndrome are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Although both frequently occur together in the same individual, obesity and the metabolic syndrome can also develop independently from each other. The (patho)physiology of “metabolically healthy obese” (i.e. obese without metabolic syndrome) and “metabolically unhealthy non-obese” phenotypes (i.e. non-obese with metabolic syndrome) is not fully understood, but physical activity and sedentary behavior may play a role. Objective To examine objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior across four groups: I) “metabolically healthy obese” (MHO); II) “metabolically unhealthy obese” (MUO); III)”metabolically healthy non-obese” (MHNO); and IV) “metabolically unhealthy non-obese” (MUNO). Methods Data were available from 2,449 men and women aged 40–75 years who participated in The Maastricht Study from 2010 to 2013. Participants were classified into the four groups according to obesity (BMI≥30kg/m2) and metabolic syndrome (ATPIII definition). Daily activity was measured for 7 days with the activPAL physical activity monitor and classified as time spent sitting, standing, and stepping. Results In our study population, 562 individuals were obese. 19.4% of the obese individuals and 72.7% of the non-obese individuals was metabolically healthy. After adjustments for age, sex, educational level, smoking, alcohol use, waking time, T2DM, history of CVD and mobility limitation, MHO (n = 107) spent, per day, more time stepping (118.2 versus 105.2 min; p<0.01) and less time sedentary (563.5 versus 593.0 min., p = 0.02) than MUO (n = 440). In parallel, MHNO (n = 1384) spent more time stepping (125.0 versus 115.4 min; p<0.01) and less time sedentary (553.3 versus 576.6 min., p<0.01) than MUNO (n = 518). Conclusion Overall, the metabolically healthy groups were less sedentary and more physically active than the

  16. Assessing pathogenicity for novel mutation/sequence variants: the value of healthy older individuals.

    PubMed

    Zatz, Mayana; Pavanello, Rita de Cassia M; Lourenço, Naila Cristina V; Cerqueira, Antonia; Lazar, Monize; Vainzof, Mariz

    2012-12-01

    Improvement in DNA technology is increasingly revealing unexpected/unknown mutations in healthy persons and generating anxiety due to their still unknown health consequences. We report a 44-year-old healthy father of a 10-year-old daughter with bilateral coloboma and hearing loss, but without muscle weakness, in whom a whole-genome CGH revealed a deletion of exons 38-44 in the dystrophin gene. This mutation was inherited from her asymptomatic father, who was further clinically and molecularly evaluated for prognosis and genetic counseling (GC). This deletion was never identified by us in 982 Duchenne/Becker patients. To assess whether the present case represents a rare case of non-penetrance, and aiming to obtain more information for prognosis and GC, we suggested that healthy older relatives submit their DNA for analysis, to which several complied. Mutation analysis revealed that his mother, brother, and 56-year-old maternal uncle also carry the 38-44 deletion, suggesting it an unlikely cause of muscle weakness. Genome sequencing will disclose mutations and variants whose health impact are still unknown, raising important problems in interpreting results, defining prognosis, and discussing GC. We suggest that, in addition to family history, keeping the DNA of older relatives could be very informative, in particular for those interested in having their genome sequenced. PMID:22707356

  17. The Area of Secondary Hyperalgesia following Heat Stimulation in Healthy Male Volunteers: Inter- and Intra-Individual Variance and Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Morten Sejer; Wetterslev, Jørn; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Østervig, Rebecca; Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Dahl, Jørgen Berg

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Clinical pain models can be applied when investigating basic physiologic pain responses in healthy volunteers. Several pain models exist; however, only few have been adequately validated. Our primary aim with this prospective study was to investigate the intra- and inter-individual variation in secondary hyperalgesia elicited by brief thermal sensitization (45°C for 3 min) in healthy volunteers. Material and Methods Fifty healthy volunteers were included. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization were investigated by 2 observers on 4 experimental days, with a minimum interval of 7 days. Additionally, heat pain detection threshold and pain during thermal stimulation (45°C for 1 min.), and the psychological tests Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score were applied. Results For areas of secondary hyperalgesia, an intra-observer intra-person correlation of 0.85, 95% CI [0.78, 0.90], an intra-observer inter-person correlation of 0.03, 95% CI [0.00, 0.16], and a coefficient of variation of 0.17, 95% CI [0.14, 0.21] was demonstrated. Four percent of the study population had areas of secondary hyperalgesia both below the 1st and above the 3rd quartile considering all included participants. Heat pain detection threshold predicted area of secondary hyperalgesia with an adjusted R2 of 0.20 (P = 0.0006). Conclusions We have demonstrated a low intra-individual, and a high inter-individual variation in thermally induced secondary hyperalgesia. We conclude that brief thermal sensitization produce secondary hyperalgesia with a high level of reproducibility, which can be applied to investigate different phenotypes related to secondary hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT02166164 PMID:27167119

  18. Sequence analysis of East Asian cagA of Helicobacter pylori isolated from asymptomatic healthy Japanese and Thai individuals.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Itaru; Yoshinaga, Aya; Kimoto, Ai; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2011-03-01

    CagA, especially East Asian type, is one of the most important virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori, which is believed to contribute to the gastric cancer development. There is extreme sequence heterogeneity on 3' region of cagA gene, demonstrated by the sequence analysis of cagA of H. pylori strains isolated from gastric disease patients. However, whether such heterogeneity of the cagA gene sequence is related to the pathogenicity of H. pylori in the gastric cancer development is not certain. Therefore, in this study, the 3' region of cagA sequences isolated from asymptomatic healthy individuals in Japan and Thailand, which show high and low gastric cancer prevalence, respectively, were analyzed and compared with those from patients with gastric cancer. The CagA sequences analysis in 21 and 12 H. pylori DNA samples obtained from Japanese and Thai individuals, respectively, by the molecular phylogenetic method showed that the sequences were more conserved in the Thai individuals (concordance rates among Thai sequences, 93.9-100%) than in the Japanese individuals (concordance rates among Japanese sequences, 82.8-100%) as shown by unrooted neighbor-joining (N-J) consensus trees constructed with the sequence between Asn869 and Ala967 in CagA. CagA sequences in gastric cancer patients were obtained from published data; analysis of these sequences revealed that CagA sequences from almost all Thai individuals were concentrated in one branch. In contrast, CagA sequences from Japanese individuals were uniformly distributed throughout the N-J consensus tree. These results suggest that the difference in the CagA sequences between asymptomatic healthy Japanese and Thai individuals may be linked to the incidence of gastric cancer in Japan and Thailand. PMID:21046394

  19. A panel of free fatty acid ratios to predict the development of metabolic abnormalities in healthy obese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linjing; Ni, Yan; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhao, Aihua; Bao, Yuqian; Liu, Jiajian; Chen, Tianlu; Xie, Guoxiang; Panee, Jun; Su, Mingming; Yu, Herbert; Wang, Congrong; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping; Jia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidences support that metabolically healthy obese (MHO) is a transient state. However, little is known about the early markers associated with the development of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals. Serum free fatty acids (FFAs) profile is highlighted in its association with obesity-related insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). To examine the association of endogenous fatty acid metabolism with future development of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals, we retrospectively analyzed 24 [product FFA]/[precursor FFA] ratios in fasting sera and clinical data from 481 individuals who participated in three independent studies, including 131 metabolic healthy subjects who completed the 10-year longitudinal Shanghai Diabetes Study (SHDS), 312 subjects cross-sectionally sampled from the Shanghai Obesity Study (SHOS), and 38 subjects who completed an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) intervention study. Results showed that higher baseline level of oleic acid/stearic acid (OA/SA), and lower levels of stearic acid/palmitic acid (SA/PA) and arachidonic acid/dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (AA/DGLA) ratios were associated with higher rate of MHO to MUO conversion in the longitudinal SHDS. Further, the finding was validated in the cross-sectional and interventional studies. This panel of FFA ratios could be used for identification and early intervention of at-risk obese individuals. PMID:27344992

  20. A panel of free fatty acid ratios to predict the development of metabolic abnormalities in healthy obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Linjing; Ni, Yan; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhao, Aihua; Bao, Yuqian; Liu, Jiajian; Chen, Tianlu; Xie, Guoxiang; Panee, Jun; Su, Mingming; Yu, Herbert; Wang, Congrong; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping; Jia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidences support that metabolically healthy obese (MHO) is a transient state. However, little is known about the early markers associated with the development of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals. Serum free fatty acids (FFAs) profile is highlighted in its association with obesity-related insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). To examine the association of endogenous fatty acid metabolism with future development of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals, we retrospectively analyzed 24 [product FFA]/[precursor FFA] ratios in fasting sera and clinical data from 481 individuals who participated in three independent studies, including 131 metabolic healthy subjects who completed the 10-year longitudinal Shanghai Diabetes Study (SHDS), 312 subjects cross-sectionally sampled from the Shanghai Obesity Study (SHOS), and 38 subjects who completed an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) intervention study. Results showed that higher baseline level of oleic acid/stearic acid (OA/SA), and lower levels of stearic acid/palmitic acid (SA/PA) and arachidonic acid/dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (AA/DGLA) ratios were associated with higher rate of MHO to MUO conversion in the longitudinal SHDS. Further, the finding was validated in the cross-sectional and interventional studies. This panel of FFA ratios could be used for identification and early intervention of at-risk obese individuals. PMID:27344992

  1. Family History as a Predictor for Disease Risk in Healthy Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Peterlin, Borut

    2013-01-01

    Background Family history can be used as a genetic risk predictor for common non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of healthy individuals at risk of developing these diseases, based on their self-reported family history. Methods and Findings This was a cross-sectional observational study. Data were collected in the three largest occupational practices in primary health care centres in Slovenia, a Central European country. The study population consisted of consecutive individuals who came to occupational practices for their regular preventive check-up from November 2010 to June 2012. We included 1,696 individuals. Data were collected by a self-developed questionnaire. The main outcome was the number of participants at a moderate or high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. The final sample consisted of 1,340 respondents. Moderate or high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases was present in 280 (20.9%) participants, for the development of diabetes in 154 (11.5%) participants and for cancer in 163 (12.1%) participants. Conclusions In this study, we found a significant proportion of healthy individuals with an increased genetic risk for common non-communicable diseases; consequently further genetic and clinical evaluation and preventive measures should be offered. PMID:24223224

  2. Structural Asymmetry of Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Correlates with Depressive Symptoms: Evidence from Healthy Individuals and Patients with Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Mao, Yu; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Junyi; Du, Xue; Xie, Peng; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of structural asymmetry of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in the continuum of depression from healthy individuals to patients. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 70 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), 49 matched controls, and 349 healthy university students to calculate structural asymmetry indexes of the DLPFC. First-episode, treatment-naive MDD patients showed a relatively lower asymmetry index than healthy controls, and their asymmetry index was negatively correlated with the depressive symptoms. This abnormality was normalized by antidepressants in medicated MDD patients. Furthermore, the asymmetry index was negatively correlated with the depressive symptoms in university students; this was replicated at two time points in a subgroup of students, suggesting good test-retest reliability. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that support the imbalance hypothesis of MDD and suggest a potential structural basis underlying the functional asymmetry of the DLPFC in depression. In future, the structural index of the DLPFC may become a potential biomarker to evaluate individuals' risk for the onset of MDD. PMID:27015663

  3. Does short-term lemon honey juice fasting have effect on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals?

    PubMed

    Shetty, Prashanth; Mooventhan, A; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao

    2016-03-01

    Fasting is one of the fundamental treatments of naturopathy. Use of lemon and honey for various medicinal purposes were documented since ancient days but there is a lack of evidence on short-term effects of lemon honey juice fasting (LHJF). Hence, we aim at evaluating the short-term effect of LHJF on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals. A total of 50 healthy subjects were recruited and they received 300-ml of LHJ, 4 times a day for four successive days of fasting. Assessments were performed before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by student's paired t-test with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version-16. Our study showed significant reduction in weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), free FM (FFM), and total serum triglycerides (TSTGs) with insignificant reduction in fat percentage and total serum cholesterol compared to baseline. Within group analysis of females showed similar results, unlike males. Our results suggest that LHJF may be useful for reduction of body weight, BMI, FM, FFM, and TSTG in healthy individuals, which might be useful for the prevention of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:27297504

  4. Preference for full-fat over low-fat foods among individuals suffering from coronary heart disease and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Erika; Oström, Asa; Osika, Walter; Englund, Anders; Annett, Judith; Gustafsson, Inga-Britt

    2009-10-19

    Dietary behaviour can modify the risks for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary fat contributes to the sensory characteristics of many foods, but there are individual differences in liking for regular and reduced fat products. Preference for dietary fat might differ between healthy individuals and those of diagnosed CHD status. Preference for full-fat versus low-fat foods was assessed in a group suffering from CHD (N=24) and a healthy control group (N=41). Preferences were evaluated using a series of paired preference tests including 34 food pairs. Further, patterns across fat preference and a range of known risk factors for CHD were examined. The study was conducted in Sweden; March 2004 until May 2006. Overall the full-fat food items were preferred to the low-fat alternatives by both patients and control participants. The pattern of preference responses diverged significantly between patients and controls on only four of the 34 food items, in both directions, why preference related to total fat content per se is not confirmed as differentiating significantly between a group diagnosed with CHD compared to a healthy control group. PMID:19682474

  5. Meningococcal carriage rates in healthy individuals in Japan determined using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification and oral throat wash specimens.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Haga, Masae; Sunagawa, Tomimasa; Saitoh, Takehito; Kitahara, Takeru; Matsumoto, Sohkichi; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    The detailed epidemiology of meningococcal diseases in Japan has yet to be determined and, moreover, the healthy carriage rate is also unknown. In this study, to obtain insight into the carriage rate of Neisseria meningitidis in healthy individuals in Japan, we developed a new method to detect the N. meningitidis-specific ctrB gene, one of the genes encoding enzymes for capsule synthesis, by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) and examined the meningococcal carriage rate by using self-collected oral throat wash specimens from 836 students at a university. Examination by LAMP showed that 7 out of 836 samples were positive for N. meningitidis DNA, and the results were also verified by the nested PCR method for the meningococcus specific ggt gene. The N. meningitidis carriage rate in healthy individuals was estimated to be 0.84%. Moreover, we further confirmed by the nested-PCR-based serogroup typing method that 5 of the positive samples belonged to serogroup Y, 1 belonged to group B and 1 was unidentifiable. Considering the epidemiology for meningococcal diseases in Japan, the carriage rate and the serogroup profile seem to be consistent with low incidence of meningococcal diseases and serogroup distribution of clinical meningococcal isolates in Japan, respectively. PMID:26895673

  6. Role of proprioceptive information to control balance during gait in healthy and hemiparetic individuals.

    PubMed

    Mullie, Yannick; Duclos, Cyril

    2014-09-01

    Proprioceptive information is important for balance control yet little is known about how it is used during gait or how a stroke affects its use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of proprioception in controlling balance during gait in healthy participants and after stroke. Twelve healthy and 9 hemiparetic participants walked on an instrumented treadmill in a fully lit room, while whole-body, three-dimensional kinematics were quantified. Vibration was applied continuously or during the stance phase only, on the posterior neck muscles and triceps surae tendon on the non-dominant/paretic side. Difficulty in maintaining dynamic and postural balance was evaluated using stabilizing and destabilizing forces, respectively. Continuous and stance phase vibration of the triceps surae reduced the difficulty in maintaining both dynamic and postural balance in healthy participants (p<.05), with a greater distance between the center of pressure and the limit of the potential base of support, a more backward body position, and no change in spatio-temporal gait parameters. No effect of neck muscle vibration was observed on balance (p=.63 and above). None of the vibration conditions affected balance or gait parameters among stroke participants. The results confirmed that proprioceptive information was not used to control balance during gait in stroke participants. The importance of proprioceptive information may depend on other factors such as walking and visual conditions. Changes in sensory integration ability likely explain the results after stroke. Further study is needed to understand the integration of proprioceptive and visual information to control balance during gait after stroke. PMID:25127297

  7. Circadian and ultradian extrasystole rhythms in healthy individuals at elevated versus lowland altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujanik, Stefan; Mikulecky, Miroslav

    2010-09-01

    We defined chronobiologic norms for supraventricular and ventricular single extrasystoles (SV and VE, respectively) in healthy older males in lowland areas. The study was extended to higher altitudes, where hypobaric hypoxia was expected to increase extrasystole frequency, while perhaps not changing rhythmicity. In healthy men (lowland n = 37, altitude n = 22), aged 49-72 years, mean numbers of SVs and VEs were counted over a 24-h period. Cosinor regression was used to test the 24-h rhythm and its 2nd-10th harmonics. The resulting approximating function for either extrasystole type includes its point, 95% confidence interval of the mean, and 95% tolerance for single measurement estimates. Separate hourly differences (delta) between altitude and lowland ( n = 59) were also analysed. Hourly means were significantly higher in the mountains versus lowland, by +0.8 beats/h on average for SVs, and by +0.9 beats/h for VEs. A relatively rich chronogram for VEs in mountains versus lowland exists. Delta VEs clearly display a 24-h component and its 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 7th harmonics. This results in significantly higher accumulation of VEs around 8.00 a.m., 11.00 a.m. and 3.00 p.m. in the mountains. The increase in extrasystole occurrence in the mountains is probably caused by higher hypobaric hypoxia and resulting sympathetic drive. Healthy men at elevated altitudes show circadian and several ultradian rhythms of single VEs dependent on the hypoxia level. This new methodological approach—evaluating the differences between two locations using delta values—promises to provide deeper insight into the occurrence of premature beats.

  8. Detection of SENV Virus in Healthy, Hepatitis B- and Hepatitis C-Infected Individuals in Yazd Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Sayedeh Azimeh; Bouzari, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background: SEN virus (SENV) is the latest virus proposed as a cause of unknown hepatitis cases. Among nine detected genotypes of the virus, genotypes D and H are more frequent in hepatitis cases of unknown origin. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of SENV-D and SENV-H genotypes in the sera of healthy individuals and hepatitis B and C patients. Methods: Totally, 200 serum samples from healthy individuals as well as 50 hepatitis B and 50 hepatitis C patients were collected. Anti-HCV (hepatitis C virus), anti-human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HBV (hepatitis B virus) core antigen were detected, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured. Viral DNA was subjected to nested PCR. Fisher's exact and unpaired ANOVA tests were used for statistical analyses. Results: SENV was detected in 90%, 66%, and 46% of the healthy individuals HBV and HCV-positive individuals, respectively. The frequency of SENV and its two genotypes were significantly lower in hepatitis B and hepatitis C patients (P<0.01). Also, the frequency of SENV-H was higher than SENV-D in all studied groups. In SENV-positive HBV patients, the level of ALT and AST enzymes were significantly less than SENV-negative patients (P<0.05). It was the same for SENV-H-negative and -positive cases. Conclusions: The levels of liver enzymes were significantly lower in HBV patients co-infected with SENV compared to HBV patients (P<0.05), indicating a positive impact of the virus in liver pathology by decreasing liver damage and thus decreasing the liver enzymes. PMID:26948255

  9. Methylation analysis of multiple genes in blood DNA of Alzheimer's disease and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Tannorella, Pierpaola; Stoccoro, Andrea; Tognoni, Gloria; Petrozzi, Lucia; Salluzzo, Maria Grazia; Ragalmuto, Alda; Siciliano, Gabriele; Haslberger, Alexander; Bosco, Paolo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Migliore, Lucia; Coppedè, Fabio

    2015-07-23

    We collected blood DNA from 120 late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and 115 healthy matched controls and analysed the methylation levels of genes involved in amyloid-beta peptide production (PSEN1 and BACE1), in DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B), and in one-carbon metabolism (MTHFR), searching for correlation with age and gender, with biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism (plasma homocysteine, and serum folate and vitamin B12 levels), and with disease status (being healthy or having AD). We also evaluated the contribution of the APOE ϵ4 allele, the major late-onset AD genetic risk factor, to the studied gene methylation levels. All the genes showed low mean methylation levels (<5%) in both AD and control DNA, no difference between groups, and no correlation with the studied biomarkers, except for MTHFR that showed methylation levels ranging from 5% to 75%, and correlation with circulating biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism. However, mean MTHFR methylation levels were similar between groups (31.1% in AD and 30.7% in controls, P=0.58). Overall, present data suggest that none of the studied regions is differently methylated in blood DNA between AD and control subjects. PMID:26079324

  10. Safety of two-year caloric restriction in non-obese healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Romashkan, Sergei V.; Das, Sai Krupa; Villareal, Dennis T.; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M.; Rochon, James; Bhapkar, Manjushri; Kraus, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The extent to which sustained caloric restriction (CR) in healthy non-obese adults is safe has not been previously investigated. Objective Assess the safety and tolerability of sustained two-year CR intervention in healthy, non-obese adults. Design A multi-center, randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized using a 2:1 allocation in favor of 25% CR vs. Ad-Libitum intake (AL). Adverse and serious adverse events (AE, SAE), safety laboratory tests, and other safety parameters were closely monitored. Results Three participants were withdrawn from the CR intervention because of the safety concerns. No deaths and one SAE was reported by participants in the CR group. Although the difference in AE between AL and CR groups was not significant, within the CR group, the incidence of nervous system (p = 0.02), musculoskeletal (p = 0.02) and reproductive system (p = 0.002) disorders was significantly higher in the normal-weight than in the overweight participants. At months 12 and 24, bone mineral densities at the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck of participants in the CR group were significantly lower than in those in the AL group. Conclusions Two-years of CR at levels achieved in CALERIE was safe and well tolerated. Close monitoring for excessive bone loss and anemia is important. PMID:26992237

  11. Toxicity of a standardized mistletoe extract in immunocompromised and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    van Wely, M; Stoss, M; Gorter, R W

    1999-01-01

    Iscador is being used by many patients as unconventional anticancer and immunomodulating therapy. To determine the toxicity profile and biochemical effects of Iscador Qu Spezial (Weleda AG Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and healthy controls, we performed a phase I/II study. Escalating doses of Iscador Qu Spezial, standardized for its lectin and viscotoxin content, were administered to 16 HIV-positive patients and 8 healthy subjects during a period of 6 to 8 months. Iscador Qu Spezial preparations were administered twice per week subcutaneously in increasing doses (ie, 0.01 mg, 0.1 mg, 1.0 mg, 2.0 mg, 5.0 mg, and 0.1 mg/kg for 2-6 weeks per dose). Drug-related adverse effects were flulike symptoms, gingivitis, fever, local erythema, and eosinophilia. These side effects were never severe. The incidence of systemic adverse events was highest in HIV-positive patients. Furthermore, increased urea levels and slightly decreased total protein caused by a minor decrease in albumin were observed. None of the HIV-positive patients progressed in disease stage. Iscador Qu Spezial can be administered safely to immunocompromised patients. PMID:10423645

  12. Incidence and Risk Factors for Falling in Patients after Total Knee Arthroplasty Compared to Healthy Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Hiromi; Okuno, Makoto; Nakamura, Tatsuhiko; Yamamoto, Kichizo; Osaki, Mari; Hagino, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Background It is possible that patients who have undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are at a high risk of falling. However, there are insufficient data to confirm the incidence and risk factors for falling in patients after TKA compared with healthy elderly counterparts. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the incidence and risk factors for falling in patients after TKA compared to the age- and gender-matched healthy elderly. Methods Subjects who underwent TKA consisted of 252 patients over 60 years of age. Controls were 150 healthy elderly individuals over 60 years of age living independently in the community. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to patients after TKA and a similar questionnaire was distributed to the controls by investigators during the town-sponsored healthy aging program. The questionnaire included questions for ambulatory ability, functional status in daily living, knee pain, other joint pain and information on falls. Results Self-administered questionnares were returned by 192 of the 252 patients (76.1%) and 146 of the 150 controls (97.3%). Age and gender matching was performed for respondents between 70 and 80 years of age. There were 81 patients and 80 controls who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and all of them agreed to participate. In the previous year, 34 of the 81 patients (38.2%) fell. The incidence of falls was significantly higher in patients than controls (23.8%, P = 0.041). In controls, ability to stand up from a chair without using the arms and restriction from joining social activities due to knee pain showed the strongest association with recent falls. In patients, self-reported kyphosis showed the strongest association with recent falls. Conclusion Patients after TKA are more likely to fall than the general Japanese population. Kyphosis showed the strongest association with recent falls in patients after TKA, which was different from the results obtained in the healthy elderly. PMID:25901101

  13. A “Crossomics” Study Analysing Variability of Different Components in Peripheral Blood of Healthy Caucasoid Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Ana; Blejec, Andrej; Albrecht, Tanja; Selbig, Joachim; Bauer, Chris; Schuchardt, Johannes; Or-Guil, Michal; Zupančič, Klemen; Švajger, Urban; Štabuc, Borut; Ihan, Alojz; Kopitar, Andreja Nataša; Ravnikar, Maja; Knežević, Miomir; Rožman, Primož; Jeras, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Background Different immunotherapy approaches for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases are being developed and tested in clinical studies worldwide. Their resulting complex experimental data should be properly evaluated, therefore reliable normal healthy control baseline values are indispensable. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess intra- and inter-individual variability of various biomarkers, peripheral blood of 16 age and gender equilibrated healthy volunteers was sampled on 3 different days within a period of one month. Complex “crossomics” analyses of plasma metabolite profiles, antibody concentrations and lymphocyte subset counts as well as whole genome expression profiling in CD4+T and NK cells were performed. Some of the observed age, gender and BMI dependences are in agreement with the existing knowledge, like negative correlation between sex hormone levels and age or BMI related increase in lipids and soluble sugars. Thus we can assume that the distribution of all 39.743 analysed markers is well representing the normal Caucasoid population. All lymphocyte subsets, 20% of metabolites and less than 10% of genes, were identified as highly variable in our dataset. Conclusions/Significance Our study shows that the intra-individual variability was at least two-fold lower compared to the inter-individual one at all investigated levels, showing the importance of personalised medicine approach from yet another perspective. PMID:22253695

  14. From neural signatures of emotional modulation to social cognition: individual differences in healthy volunteers and psychiatric participants

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Jaume; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Ortega, Rodrigo; Sigman, Mariano; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torrente, Fernando; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Torralva, Teresa; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Manes, Facundo

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that early emotional signals provide relevant information for social cognition tasks. The goal of this study was to test the association between (a) cortical markers of face emotional processing and (b) social-cognitive measures, and also to build a model which can predict this association (a and b) in healthy volunteers as well as in different groups of psychiatric patients. Thus, we investigated the early cortical processing of emotional stimuli (N170, using a face and word valence task) and their relationship with the social-cognitive profiles (SCPs, indexed by measures of theory of mind, fluid intelligence, speed processing and executive functions). Group comparisons and individual differences were assessed among schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their relatives, individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy participants (educational level, handedness, age and gender matched). Our results provide evidence of emotional N170 impairments in the affected groups (SCZ and relatives, ADHD and BD) as well as subtle group differences. Importantly, cortical processing of emotional stimuli predicted the SCP, as evidenced by a structural equation model analysis. This is the first study to report an association model of brain markers of emotional processing and SCP. PMID:23685775

  15. From neural signatures of emotional modulation to social cognition: individual differences in healthy volunteers and psychiatric participants.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Aguado, Jaume; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Ortega, Rodrigo; Sigman, Mariano; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torrente, Fernando; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Torralva, Teresa; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Manes, Facundo

    2014-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that early emotional signals provide relevant information for social cognition tasks. The goal of this study was to test the association between (a) cortical markers of face emotional processing and (b) social-cognitive measures, and also to build a model which can predict this association (a and b) in healthy volunteers as well as in different groups of psychiatric patients. Thus, we investigated the early cortical processing of emotional stimuli (N170, using a face and word valence task) and their relationship with the social-cognitive profiles (SCPs, indexed by measures of theory of mind, fluid intelligence, speed processing and executive functions). Group comparisons and individual differences were assessed among schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their relatives, individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy participants (educational level, handedness, age and gender matched). Our results provide evidence of emotional N170 impairments in the affected groups (SCZ and relatives, ADHD and BD) as well as subtle group differences. Importantly, cortical processing of emotional stimuli predicted the SCP, as evidenced by a structural equation model analysis. This is the first study to report an association model of brain markers of emotional processing and SCP. PMID:23685775

  16. The Superior Sleep of Healthy Elderly Nuns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Carolyn C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared nocturnal sleep structure of 10 healthy elderly nuns to that of 10 healthy age-matched female controls. The nuns fell asleep more quickly and had less early morning awakening, as well as greater rapid eye movement sleep time. These differences may reflect the more highly entrained life style of the nuns, including modest habitual sleep…

  17. Cardiovascular Effects of 1 Year of Alagebrium and Endurance Exercise Training in Healthy Older Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Naoki; Hastings, Jeffrey L.; Carrick-Ranson, Graeme; Shafer, Keri M.; Shibata, Shigeki; Bhella, Paul S.; Abdullah, Shuaib M.; Barkley, Kyler W.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Boyd, Kara N.; Livingston, Sheryl A.; Palmer, Dean; Levine, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lifelong exercise training maintains a youthful compliance of the left ventricle (LV), whereas a year of exercise training started later in life fails to reverse LV stiffening, possibly because of accumulation of irreversible advanced glycation end products. Alagebrium breaks advanced glycation end product crosslinks and improves LV stiffness in aged animals. However, it is unclear whether a strategy of exercise combined with alagebrium would improve LV stiffness in sedentary older humans. Methods and Results Sixty-two healthy subjects were randomized into 4 groups: sedentary+placebo; sedentary+alagebrium (200 mg/d); exercise+placebo; and exercise+alagebrium. Subjects underwent right heart catheterization to define LV pressure–volume curves; secondary functional outcomes included cardiopulmonary exercise testing and arterial compliance. A total of 57 of 62 subjects (67±6 years; 37 f/20 m) completed 1 year of intervention followed by repeat measurements. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and LV end-diastolic volume were measured at baseline, during decreased and increased cardiac filling. LV stiffness was assessed by the slope of LV pressure–volume curve. After intervention, LV mass and end-diastolic volume increased and exercise capacity improved (by ≈8%) only in the exercise groups. Neither LV mass nor exercise capacity was affected by alagebrium. Exercise training had little impact on LV stiffness (training×time effect, P=0.46), whereas alagebrium showed a modest improvement in LV stiffness compared with placebo (medication×time effect, P=0.04). Conclusions Alagebrium had no effect on hemodynamics, LV geometry, or exercise capacity in healthy, previously sedentary seniors. However, it did show a modestly favorable effect on age-associated LV stiffening. PMID:24130005

  18. Probiotic supplement consumption alters cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a preliminary study using healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, N J; Garaiova, I; Williams, E A; Michael, D R; Plummer, S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of daily probiotic supplementation upon the immune profile of healthy participants by the assessment of ex vivo cytokine production. Twenty healthy adult volunteers received a multi-strain probiotic supplement consisting of two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus (CUL60 and CUL21), Bifidobacterium lactis (CUL34) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (CUL20) and fructooligosaccharide for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and cultured ex vivo in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide and cytokine production was assessed. Postintervention, a significant decrease in the production of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β was apparent when PBMCs were incubated in the presence of lipopolysaccharide, whilst a significant increase in IL-10 and transforning growth factor-β production was seen when the cells were incubated without an additional stimulus. This preliminary study demonstrates the potential of a multi-strain probiotic supplement to alter the immune response as demonstrated by changes in ex vivo cytokine production. Such results demonstrate the potential benefit of probiotic supplementation for healthy individuals and warrants further investigation. PMID:24311314

  19. Comparison of europium and chromium release assays: cytotoxicity in healthy individuals and patients with cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    von Zons, P; Crowley-Nowick, P; Friberg, D; Bell, M; Koldovsky, U; Whiteside, T L

    1997-03-01

    Natural killer (NK) and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell activities were measured in peripheral blood obtained from healthy women to compare a standard 51Cr release assay with a nonradioactive europium (Eu3+) release assay based on time-resolved fluorescence. The two types of cytotoxicity assays were first compared in paired determinations performed on 28 samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from healthy women who had normal pap smears or no biopsy evidence of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL). Target cells (NK-sensitive K562 and NK-resistant Raji cell lines) were labeled with Eu3+ only, 51Cr only, or both labels and compared in cytotoxicity assays using fresh or interleukin 2 (IL-2)-activated effector cells. Spontaneous release in the Eu3+ release assay was comparable to that observed in the 51Cr release assay, but maximum Eu3+ release always exceeded that of 51Cr. In 4-h assays, specific release of Eu3+ from target cells was more rapid than that of 51Cr, consistently resulting in 30 to 40% higher levels of activity. However, a significant linear correlation (P < 0.001) was observed between cytotoxicity levels based on measurements of Eu3+ and 51Cr release in 4-h assays. The Eu3+ release assay was then used to measure NK and LAK activities in the peripheral blood of women with cervical SIL or cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Mean NK activity of women with advanced SIL (121 lytic units [LU]) or SCC (93 LU) was found to be similar to that of controls (101 LU) or patients with normal cervical biopsies (90 LU), as was the ability to generate IL-2-stimulated NK activity. However, LAK activity during 18 h of incubation in the presence of IL-2 was reduced in patients with cervical SCC (P < 0.05) compared with that in normal controls. Results of 51Cr assays performed in parallel with patient samples gave comparable results. Advantages of EU3+ release assays for routine evaluation of cytotoxicity are discussed. PMID:9067656

  20. Postprandial glucose fluxes and insulin sensitivity during exercise: a study in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Schiavon, Michele; Hinshaw, Ling; Mallad, Ashwini; Dalla Man, Chiara; Sparacino, Giovanni; Johnson, Matthew; Carter, Rickey; Basu, Rita; Kudva, Yogish; Cobelli, Claudio; Basu, Ananda

    2013-08-15

    Quantifying the effect size of acute exercise on insulin sensitivity (SI(exercise)) and simultaneous measurement of glucose disappearance (R(d)), endogenous glucose production (EGP), and meal glucose appearance in the postprandial state has not been developed in humans. To do so, we studied 12 healthy subjects [5 men, age 37.1 ± 3.1 yr, body mass index 24.1 ± 1.1 kg/m², fat-free mass (FFM) 50.9 ± 3.9 kg] during moderate exercise at 50% V(O₂max) for 75 min, 120-195 min after a triple-tracer mixed meal consumed at time 0. Tracer infusion rates were adjusted to achieve constant tracer-to-tracee ratio and minimize non-steady-state errors. Glucose turnover was estimated by accounting for the nonstationary kinetics introduced by exercise. Insulin sensitivity index was calculated in each subject both in the absence [time (t) = 0-120 min, SI(rest)] and presence (t = 0-360 min, SI(exercise)) of physical activity. EGP at t = 0 min (13.4 ± 1.1 μM·kg FFM⁻¹·min⁻¹) fell at t = 120 min (2.4 ± 0.4 μM·kg FFM⁻¹·min⁻¹) and then rapidly rose almost eightfold at t = 180 min (18.2 ± 2.6 μM·kg FFM⁻¹·min⁻¹) before gradually falling at t = 360 min (10.6 ± 0.9 μM·kg FFM⁻¹·min⁻¹). R(d) rapidly peaked at t = 120 min at the start of exercise (89.5 ± 11.6 μM·kg FFM⁻¹·min⁻¹) and then gradually declined at t = 195 min (26.4 ± 3.3 μM·kg FFM⁻¹·min⁻¹) before returning to baseline at t = 360 min. SI(exercise) was significantly higher than SI(rest) (21.6 ± 3.7 vs. 12.5 ± 2.0 10⁻⁴ dl·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ per μU/ml, P < 0.0005). Glucose turnover was estimated for the first time during exercise with the triple-tracer technique. Our results, applying state-of-the-art techniques, show that moderate exercise almost doubles postprandial insulin sensitivity index in healthy subjects. PMID:23820621

  1. Cell-free DNA in healthy individuals, noncancerous disease and strong prognostic value in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Appelt, Ane L; Pallisgaard, Niels; Andersen, Rikke F; Brandslund, Ivan; Jakobsen, Anders

    2014-12-15

    The purpose was to investigate total cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients during treatment with second-line chemotherapy and in healthy controls and patients with different comorbidities. Patient treated with second-line irinotecan for metastatic CRC (n = 100), a cohort of healthy controls with and without comorbidity (n = 70 and 100, respectively) were included. cfDNA was quantified by an in-house developed quantitative polymerase chain reaction from plasma samples drawn prior to the first cycle of chemotherapy and at time of progression. cfDNA levels were significantly higher in CRC compared to controls, with a clear capability for discriminating between the groups (receiver operation curve analysis; area under the curve 0.82, p < 0.0001). Patients with high levels had a shorter survival from irinotecan compared to those with lover levels. The cohort independent upper normal limit divided patients into high and low risk groups. The progression-free survival (PFS) was 2.1 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-3.4] and 6.5 (95% CI 4.2-7.2) months [hazard ratio (HR) 2.53; 95% CI 1.57-4.06, p < 0.0001] and overall survival (OS) 7.4 months (95% CI 4.3-8.7) and 13.8 months (95% CI 11.9-18.9; HR 2.52; 95% CI 1.54-4.13, p < 0.0000), respectively. Cox regression multivariate analysis showed a PFS HR of 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7) for each increase in cfDNA quartile, p = 0.03 and 1.6 (1.3-2.0) for OS, p < 0.0001, respectively. A combined marker analysis with plasma KRAS mutations added further prognostic impact, which was consistent when performed on the samples drawn at time of progression. In conclusion, cfDNA measurement holds important clinical information and could become a useful tool for prediction of outcome from chemotherapy in mCRC. PMID:24798213

  2. The relationship between job enrichment and abdominal obesity: a longitudinal field study of apparently healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Fried, Yitzhak; Laurence, Gregory A; Shirom, Arie; Melamed, Samuel; Toker, Sharon; Berliner, Shlomo; Shapira, Itzhak

    2013-10-01

    Obesity has become an epidemic in modern society. However, there is a paucity of research about how job context affects obesity. To enhance our knowledge we used a large, heterogeneous sample of apparently healthy employees (n = 1,949) across two time periods with an average of close to 3.5 years between measures. We tested a hypothesized curvilinear effect of job enrichment on changes in two stress related indicators of abdominal obesity over time: waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). Job enrichment consisted of the job dimensions of variety, identity, significance, autonomy, and feedback, and in our analysis we controlled for demographics and health related behaviors, including weekly sports activity, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and weekly alcohol consumption. The results supported the hypothesized U-shaped relationship between job enrichment and changes in both indicators of abdominal obesity over time, such that the level of abdominal obesity was reduced when job enrichment was moderate and was increased when job enrichment was either high or low. As expected, no such association was observed for the general obesity measure of body mass index (BMI). We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these results. PMID:24001329

  3. Compartmental chest wall volume changes during volitional hyperpnoea with constant tidal volume in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Illi, Sabine K; Hostettler, Stefanie; Aliverti, Andrea; Spengler, Christina M

    2013-01-15

    Prolonged high-intensity ventilation is associated with the development of rapid shallow breathing with decreased end-inspiratory volumes of all chest wall compartments. During respiratory muscle endurance training using normocapnic hyperpnoea, tidal volume (V(T)) is normally kept constant. The aim of this study was to investigate possible changes in muscle recruitment during constant-V(T) hyperpnoea, to assess potential mechanisms related to rapid shallow breathing. Ten healthy subjects performed 1h of normocapnic hyperpnoea at 70% of maximal voluntary ventilation. Chest wall volume changes were assessed by optoelectronic plethysmography. End-inspiratory (1.08 ± 0.18 versus 0.96 ± 0.27 l, p=0.017) and end-expiratory volumes (-0.13 ± 0.15 versus -0.31 ± 0.19 l, p=0.007) of the pulmonary ribcage decreased significantly and lung function and respiratory muscle strength were reduced (all p<0.05). Since with forced, constant V(T) only the inspiratory rib cage muscles were unable to sustain end-inspiratory volume of their compartment, inspiratory rib cage muscles are the most likely candidate responsible for the development of rapid shallow breathing. PMID:22959999

  4. Does Repeated Ticking Maintain Tic Behavior? An Experimental Study of Eye Blinking in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Beetsma, Daniel J. V.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Engelhard, Iris M.; Rijkeboer, Marleen M.; Cath, Danielle C.

    2014-01-01

    Tics in Tourette syndrome (TS) are often preceded by “premonitory urges”: annoying feelings or bodily sensations. We hypothesized that, by reducing annoyance of premonitory urges, tic behaviour may be reinforced. In a 2 × 2 experimental design in healthy participants, we studied the effects of premonitory urges (operationalized as air puffs on the eye) and tic behaviour (deliberate eye blinking after a puff or a sound) on changes in subjective evaluation of air puffs and EMG responses on the m. orbicularis oculi. The experimental group with air puffs + blinking experienced a decrease in subjective annoyance of the air puff, but habituation of the EMG response was blocked and length of EMG response increased. In the control groups (air puffs without instruction to blink, no air puffs), these effects were absent. When extrapolating to the situation in TS patients, these findings suggest that performance of tics is reinforced by reducing the subjective annoyance of premonitory urges, while simultaneously preventing habituation or even inducing sensitisation of the physiological motor response. PMID:24899785

  5. Short-Term Effects of a High Nitrate Diet on Nitrate Metabolism in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bondonno, Catherine P.; Liu, Alex H.; Croft, Kevin D.; Ward, Natalie C.; Puddey, Ian B.; Woodman, Richard J.; Hodgson, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary nitrate, through the enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, can improve blood pressure and arterial stiffness. How long systemic nitrate and nitrite remain elevated following cessation of high nitrate intake is unknown. In 19 healthy men and women, the time for salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite to return to baseline after 7 days increased nitrate intake from green leafy vegetables was determined. Salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite was measured at baseline [D0], end of high nitrate diet [D7], day 9 [+2D], day 14 [+7D] and day 21 [+14D]. Urinary nitrite and nitrate was assessed at D7 and +14D. Increased dietary nitrate for 7 days resulted in a more than fourfold increase in saliva and plasma nitrate and nitrite (p < 0.001) measured at [D7]. At [+2D] plasma nitrite and nitrate had returned to baseline while saliva nitrate and nitrite were more than 1.5 times higher than at baseline levels. By [+7D] all metabolites had returned to baseline levels. The pattern of response was similar between men and women. Urinary nitrate and nitrate was sevenfold higher at D7 compared to +14D. These results suggest that daily ingestion of nitrate may be required to maintain the physiological changes associated with high nitrate intake. PMID:25774606

  6. The Influence of Levetiracetam in Cognitive Performance in Healthy Individuals: Neuropsychological, Behavioral and Electrophysiological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Julio Cesar; Gongora, Mariana; Vicente, Renan; Bittencourt, Juliana; Tanaka, Guaraci; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Morato, Gledys; Basile, Luis F.; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Pompeu, Fernando A.M.S; Cagy, Mauricio; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study sought to analyze the influence of Levetiracetam (LEV) in cognitive performance by identifying the changes produced by LEV in reaction time, in neuropsychological assessment of attention and memory and in absolute theta power in frontal activity. Methods Twelve healthy subjects (5 men and 7 women; mean age, 30.08 years, standard deviation, 4.71) were recruited for this study. The neuropsychological tests: Trail Making Test (A and B), Digit Span (direct and indirect numerical orders/working memory); Stroop test (inhibitory control of attention); Tower of London (planning and decision-making) and a quantitative electroencephalography were applied in 2 different days after and before the participants ingested the capsule of placebo or 500 mg LEV. Results A two-way-ANOVA was implemented to observe the interaction between conditions (placebo or LEV 500 mg) and moments (pre- and post-ingestion of LEV or placebo). The data were analyzed by the SPSS statistical package (p<0.05). For the neuropsychological parameter, the Trail Making Test (A) was the only test that showed significant difference for condition in the task execution time (p=0.026). Regarding the reaction time in the behavioral parameter, an interaction between both factors (p=0.034) was identified through a two-way-ANOVA (condition versus moment). Electrophysiological measures showed a significant interaction for electrodes: F7, F3, and FZ. Conclusion The findings showed that LEV promotes an important cognitive enhancement in the executive functions. PMID:25912541

  7. Social and individual determinants of adolescents' acceptance of novel healthy and cool snack products.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-12-01

    Four new, healthy snack products, consisting of fruit, vegetables, bread, dip and topping, were tested with 600 Danish adolescents aged 9-16. Participants could view, handle, and test the products in a school setting. Acceptance was measured by overall buying intention, as well as buying intention contingent on specific substitutes and on the social situation. Price consciousness, health consciousness, snack neophobia, peer influence, social activities and word-of-mouth were measured as potential determinants of acceptance of the novel products. An exploratory analysis in TETRAD suggested that the measured constructs form three layers, with overall buying intention as the terminal causal effect, health consciousness, word of mouth, snack neophobia and peer influence as endogenous determinants, and social activities and the contingent buying intentions as mediators. Estimation of the causal relationships was conducted in LISREL. Findings show a predominance of social factors as determinants of novel snack acceptance, whereas health consciousness had only a weak and indirect effect on buying intentions and the effect of snack neophobia was partly mediated by social factors. PMID:25173064

  8. Interaction of the 5-HTTLPR and childhood trauma influences memory bias in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Vrijsen, Janna N; Tendolkar, Indira; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Schene, Aart H; Fernández, Guillén; van Oostrom, Iris

    2015-11-01

    The tendency to recall more negative and less positive information has been frequently related to the genetic susceptibility to depression. This memory bias may be associated with depression candidate genes especially in individuals who experienced stressful childhood events. The serotonin transporter gene, SLC6A4/5-HTT, regulates the reuptake of serotonin. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the gene's promoter region has a short (S) and a long (L) allele, of which L contains a further SNP (rs25531), resulting in a triallelic polymorphism: La, Lg, and S. Both S and Lg result in increased serotonin signaling (to simplify, we refer to both alleles as 'S'), which in turn appears associated with depression vulnerability, specifically in individuals with stressful events. In non-depressed individuals (N=1083), we examined the interaction between the 5-HTTLPR genotype (LaLa, SLa, and SS) and stressful childhood events in association with explicit verbal memory bias (positive, negative). Two types of stressful childhood events were studied, namely childhood adverse events (e.g. parental loss) and interpersonal traumatic childhood events (e.g. abuse). Less positive memory bias was found for individuals with the SS genotype who had experienced interpersonal childhood traumatic events. No general association of genotype with memory bias was found, nor was there a significant interaction between genotype and childhood adverse events. Our results suggest that the depression-susceptibility genotype of the 5-HTTLPR is associated with depressive information processing styles when occurring in combination with traumatic childhood events. Tailoring treatment to specific risk profiles based on genetic susceptibility and childhood stress could be promising. PMID:26232751

  9. Light scattering and morphology of the lymphocyte as applied to flow cytometry for distinguishing healthy and infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Ruban, Gennady I; Berdnik, Vladimir V; Marinitch, Dmitry V; Goncharova, Natalia V; Loiko, Valery A

    2010-01-01

    A simple optical model of single lymphocytes with smooth and nonsmooth surfaces has been developed for healthy and infected individuals. The model can be used for rapid (in the real-time scale) solution of the inverse light-scattering problem on the basis of optical data measured by label-free flow cytometry. Light scattering patterns have been calculated for the model developed. It has been shown that the smooth and nonsmooth cells can be resolved using the intensities of the sideward- and backward-scattered light. We have found by calculations and validated by the flow cytometer experiments that intensity distributions for the cells of lymphocyte populations can be used as a preliminary signatures of some virus infections. Potential biomedical applications of the findings for label-free flow cytometry detection of individuals infected with viruses of hepatitis B or C and some others viruses are presented. PMID:21054124

  10. Differences in cortical activity between methamphetamine-dependent and healthy individuals performing a facial affect matching task.

    PubMed

    Payer, Doris E; Lieberman, Matthew D; Monterosso, John R; Xu, Jiansong; Fong, Timothy W; London, Edythe D

    2008-01-11

    As individuals who abuse methamphetamine (MA) often exhibit socially maladaptive behaviors such as violence and aggression, it is possible that they respond abnormally to social cues. To investigate this issue, we exposed 12 MA-dependent participants (abstinent 5-16 days) and 12 healthy comparison participants to fearful and angry faces while they performed an affect matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although the groups did not differ in task performance, the healthy participants showed more task-related activity than the MA-dependent participants in a set of cortical regions consisting of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), temporoparietal junction (TPJ), anterior and posterior temporal cortex, and fusiform gyrus in the right hemisphere, and the cuneus in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the MA-dependent participants showed more task-related activity than the healthy participants in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). As expected, the task elicited activation of the amygdala in both groups; however, contrary to expectation, we found no difference between groups in this activation. Dorsal ACC hyperactivity, along with high self-ratings of hostility and interpersonal sensitivity in the MA-dependent group, suggest a hyper-sensitivity to socially threatening cues in the MA-dependent participants, while lower VLPFC activation could point to a deficit in integrating socio-emotional information and/or regulating this limbic hyperactivity. Additional activation differences in neural circuitry related to social cognition (TPJ, anterior, and posterior temporal cortex) suggest further socio-emotional deficits. Together, the results point to cortical abnormalities that could underlie the socially inappropriate behaviors often shown by individuals who abuse MA. PMID:17964741

  11. Risk Factors for Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection in Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shigeishi, Hideo; Sugiyama, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with oral cancer development. However, few epidemiologic investigations have focused on oral HPV prevalence in healthy individuals. The objective of this study was to provide updated information regarding oral HPV prevalence in patients without oral cancer worldwide. Methods We systematically reviewed 29 studies reporting the prevalence of oral HPV infection that included 22,756 subjects (10,124 males, 12,623 females, and nine unknown gender; age range 2 - 89 years) and were published from January 2012 to June 2015. Results The prevalence of overall HPV, low-risk type HPV, high-risk type HPV, and HPV16 in the reported cases was 5.5%, 2.2%, 2.7%, and 1.0%, respectively. The prevalence of overall HPV was considerably higher in males who had sex with males (12.2%) as compared to heterosexual males (4.7%) and females (2.9%). A meta-analysis was performed to elucidate significant risk factors for oral HPV infection, which revealed a significant statistical association for oral sex and smoking with oral HPV infection (odds ratio (OR): 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.51 - 2.39, P < 0.0001; OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.32 - 3.43, P = 0.002). Conclusions Our findings suggest that sexual behavior and smoking are importantly related to oral HPV infection in healthy individuals.

  12. Mechanism of a lymphocyte abnormality associated with HLA-B8/DR3 in clinically healthy individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, S; McCombs, C C; Michalski, J P

    1989-01-01

    An important unanswered question in clinical immunology is why the histocompatibility antigens HLA-B8/DR3 should be associated with at least nine quite different immune-mediated diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanism of an immunologic abnormality, commonly found in healthy individuals with HLA-DR3, that may reflect an immune defect predisposing to autoimmunity. Fourteen healthy subjects with HLA-DR3 had a proliferative response to a suboptimal concentration of PHA nearly eight-fold lower than that observed in 10 individuals without this HLA antigen. Impaired responsiveness to PHA was more strongly associated with HLA-DR3 than with HLA-B8. The IL-2 concentration in mitogen-stimulated cultures was similarly decreased in subjects with HLA-DR3 and was highly predictive of the proliferative response 24 h later (r = 0.82, P less than 0.0001). Inhibition of IL-2 utilization by anti-IL-2 receptor antibody indicated that the reduced IL-2 concentration reflects impaired lymphokine production rather than increased utilization. Expression of IL-2 receptors is decreased in these subjects, although the magnitude of their proliferative response is appropriate for the available lymphokine. These results indicate that impaired lymphocyte activation associated with HLA-DR3 reflects impaired IL-2 production and an abnormality of activation events preceding the production of this lymphokine. PMID:2787712

  13. Age-related cortical thinning in cognitively healthy individuals in their 60s: the PATH Through Life study.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Marnie E; Sachdev, Perminder S; Anstey, Kaarin J; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Although it is recognized that the human cortex thins with age, longitudinal estimates of thinning patterns specific to healthy young-old age (<75 years) individuals are lacking. Importantly, many neurodegenerative disorders first manifest between midlife and old age, and normative estimates may provide a reference for differential change associated with such disorders. Here, we provide longitudinal estimates of cortical thinning observed over 12 years in a large group (n = 396) of healthy individuals, aged 60-66 years at baseline scan, who were scanned with magnetic resonance imaging (1.5T) on 4 occasions. Longitudinal age-related thinning was observed across most of the cortices, with a mean change of -0.3% per year. We measured significant thinning in heteromodal association cortex, with less thinning in regions expected to atrophy later in life (e.g., primary sensory cortex). Men showed more extensive thinning than women. Our comparison of cross-sectional and longitudinal estimates adds to growing evidence that cross-sectional designs may underestimate age-related changes in cortical thickness. PMID:26923417

  14. Almonds decrease postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative damage in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C; Josse, Andrea R; Salvatore, Sara; Brighenti, Furio; Augustin, Livia S A; Ellis, Peter R; Vidgen, Edward; Rao, A Venket

    2006-12-01

    Strategies that decrease postprandial glucose excursions, including digestive enzyme inhibition, and low glycemic index diets result in lower diabetes incidence and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, possibly through lower postprandial oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. We therefore assessed the effect of decreasing postprandial glucose excursions on measures of oxidative damage. Fifteen healthy subjects ate 2 bread control meals and 3 test meals: almonds and bread; parboiled rice; and instant mashed potatoes, balanced in carbohydrate, fat, and protein, using butter and cheese. We obtained blood samples at baseline and for 4 h postprandially. Glycemic indices for the rice (38 +/- 6) and almond meals (55 +/- 7) were less than for the potato meal (94 +/- 11) (P < 0.003), as were the postprandial areas under the insulin concentration time curve (P < 0.001). No postmeal treatment differences were seen in total antioxidant capacity. However, the serum protein thiol concentration increased following the almond meal (15 +/- 14 mmol/L), indicating less oxidative protein damage, and decreased after the control bread, rice, and potato meals (-10 +/- 8 mmol/L), when data from these 3 meals were pooled (P = 0.021). The change in protein thiols was also negatively related to the postprandial incremental peak glucose (r = -0.29, n = 60 observations, P = 0.026) and peak insulin responses (r = -0.26, n = 60 observations, P = 0.046). Therefore, lowering postprandial glucose excursions may decrease the risk of oxidative damage to proteins. Almonds are likely to lower this risk by decreasing the glycemic excursion and by providing antioxidants. These actions may relate to mechanisms by which nuts are associated with a decreased risk of CHD. PMID:17116708

  15. High throughput sequencing reveals distinct microbial populations within the mucosal and luminal niches in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ringel, Yehuda; Maharshak, Nitsan; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar; Wolber, Elizabeth Ashley; Sartor, R Balfour; Carroll, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Background: The intestinal microbiota is associated with human health and diseases. The luminal microbiota (LM) and the mucosal-associated microbiota (MAM) are 2 distinct ecosystems with different metabolic and immunological functions. Aim: To characterize the intestinal LM and MAM in humans using high throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Methods: Fresh fecal samples and distal colonic mucosal biopsies collected from 24 healthy subjects before (fecal) and during (mucosa) a flexible sigmoidoscopy of an un-prepared bowel. High throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize bacterial communities. Sequences were processed using the QIIME pipeline. Results: LM and MAM populations were significantly different (ANOSIM: R = 0.49, P = 0.001). The LM displayed tighter clustering compared to the MAM (average weighted UniFrac distances 0.27 ± 0.05 vs. 0.43 ± 0.09, P < 0.001, respectively), and showed higher diversity (Shannon diversity index: 4.96 ± 0.37 vs 4.14 ± 0.56, respectively, P < 0.001). The dominant phyla in the LM and MAM were significantly different: Firmicutes (41.4% vs. 29.1%, FDR < 0.0001, respectively), Bacteroidetes (20.2% vs. 26.3%, FDR < 0.05, respectively), Actinobacteria (22% vs. 12.6%, FDR < 0.0001, respectively) and Proteobacteria (9.3% vs. 19.3%, FDR < 0.0001, respectively). The abundance of 56 genera differed significantly (FDR < 0.1) between the 2 niches. All of the genera in the fecal microbiota were present in the MAM while 10 genera were found to be unique to the MAM. Conclusion: The LM and MAM are distinct microbial ecosystems that differ significantly from each other in microbial diversity and composition. These two microbial niches should be investigated independently to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in health and disease. PMID:25915459

  16. Relationship between Corneal Temperature and Intraocular Pressure in Healthy Individuals: A Clinical Thermographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fabiani, Claudia; Li Voti, Roberto; Rusciano, Dario; Mutolo, Maria Giulia; Pescosolido, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To study the geographical distribution of corneal temperature (CT) and its influence on the intraocular pressure (IOP) of healthy human volunteers. Materials and Methods. Fifteen subjects (7 M, 8 F), 33.8 ± 17.4 years old, were enrolled in this pilot, cross-sectional study. Measurements of CT were taken after one hour with closed eyelids (CET) or closed eyelids with a cooling mask (cm-CET) and compared to baseline. Results. If compared to baseline, after CET, average CT significantly increased by 0.56°C in the RE and by 0.48°C in the LE (p < 0.001) and IOP concomitantly significantly increased by 1.13 mmHg and 1.46 mmHg, respectively, in each eye (p < 0.001). After cm-CET, average CT significantly decreased by 0.11°C and 0.20°C, respectively, in the RE and LE (RE p = 0.04; LE p = 0.024), followed by a significant IOP decrease of 2.19 mmHg and 1.54 mmHg, respectively, in each eye (RE p < 0.001; LE p = 0.0019). Conclusion. Significant variations of CT occurred after CET and cm-CET and were directly correlated with significant differences of IOP. It can be speculated that both oxidative stress and sympathetic nerve fiber stimulation by temperature oscillations may affect the regulation of AH vortex flow and turnover, thus influencing IOP values. PMID:26904273

  17. The oral microbiome of patients with axial spondyloarthritis compared to healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bisanz, Jordan E.; Suppiah, Praema; Thomson, W. Murray; Milne, Trudy; Yeoh, Nigel; Nolan, Anita; Ettinger, Grace; Reid, Gregor; Gloor, Gregory B.; Burton, Jeremy P.; Cullinan, Mary P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. A loss of mucosal tolerance to the resident microbiome has been postulated in the aetiopathogenesis of spondyloarthritis, thus the purpose of these studies was to investigate microbial communities that colonise the oral cavity of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA) and to compare these with microbial profiles of a matched healthy population. Methods. Thirty-nine participants, 17 patients with AxSpA and 22 age and gender-matched disease-free controls were recruited to the study. For patients with AxSpA, disease activity was assessed using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). All participants underwent a detailed dental examination to assess oral health, including the presence of periodontal disease assessed using probing pocket depth (PPD). Plaque samples were obtained and their bacterial populations were profiled using Ion Torrent sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Results.Patients with AxSpA had active disease (BASDAI 4.1 ± 2.1 [mean ± SD]), and a significantly greater prevalence of periodontitis (PPD ≥ 4 mm at ≥4 sites) than controls. Bacterial communities did not differ between the two groups with multiple metrics of α and β diversity considered. Analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and higher levels of taxonomic assignment did not provide strong evidence of any single taxa associated with AxSpA in the subgingival plaque. Discussion. Although 16S rRNA gene sequencing did not identify specific bacterial profiles associated with AxSpA, there remains the potential for the microbiota to exert functional and metabolic influences in the oral cavity which could be involved in the pathogenesis of AxSpA. PMID:27330858

  18. Measurement and validation of measures for impulsive food choice across obese and healthy-weight individuals.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Kelsie L; Rasmussen, Erin B; Lawyer, Steven R

    2015-07-01

    The present study established a brief measure of delay discounting for food, the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), and compared it to another more established measure of food discounting that uses the adjusting amount (AA) procedure. One hundred forty-four undergraduate participants completed either two measures of hypothetical food discounting (a computerized food AA procedure or the FCQ) or two measures of hypothetical money discounting [a computerized monetary AA procedure or the Monetary Choice questionnaire (MCQ)]. The money condition was used as a replication of previous work. Results indicated that the FCQ yielded consistent data that strongly correlated with the AA food discounting task. Moreover, a magnitude effect was found with the FCQ, such that smaller amounts of food were discounted more steeply than larger amounts. In addition, individuals with higher percent body fat (PBF) discounted food more steeply than individuals with lower PBF. The MCQ, which also produced a magnitude effect, and the monetary adjusting amount procedure yielded data that were orderly, consistent, and correlated strongly with one another, replicating previous literature. This study is the first to show that a novel measure of food discounting (the FCQ) yields consistent data strongly correlated with an established measure of food discounting and is sensitive to PBF. Moreover, the FCQ is easier and quicker to administer than the AA procedure, which may interest researchers who use discounting tasks in food-related research. PMID:25796210

  19. Measurements of skin temperature responses to cold exposure of foot and face in healthy individuals: variability and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Zaproudina, Nina; Lipponen, Jukka A; Eskelinen, Perttu; Tarvainen, Mika P; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Närhi, Matti

    2011-07-01

    Skin vasomotor responses to cold exposure (CE) have been measured widely and shown to be abnormal in some clinical conditions. Among other methods, monitoring of skin temperature (Tsk) changes has been applied for those purposes. We investigated such changes simultaneously in different skin areas of healthy young men during foot and facial CE. Tsk was measured using infrared thermography in the big toe and dorsum of the left foot and with a contact thermode in the fingertip. The relationship of Tsk responses within individuals and factors influencing them were examined using mixed model analysis. Tsk changes varied greatly between sessions, measured areas and individuals. Foot CE that was painful produced both stronger central circulatory and Tsk responses than facial CE. Tsk changes were prominent in the fingertip, moderate in the toe and weak or absent in the dorsal foot. The Tsk changes were related to the baseline levels and changes of blood pressure, heart rate, the baseline Tsk values and stimulus intensity. However, despite the different cold stimuli and measurement techniques, an intra-individual correlation of the Tsk responses was good. In the foot, the big toe area is applicable for studies of Tsk reactions when warm, and the modified Tsk gradient helps to evaluate the level of peripheral vasoconstriction. The cold-induced Tsk changes may be informative in the studies of the cutaneous vasoregulation but the individual character of the cold stress reactivity and numerous confusing factors should be considered when drawing conclusions on the basis of the recorded results. PMID:21672139

  20. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  1. An investigation of a reference posture used in determining rearfoot kinematics for both healthy and patellofemoral pain syndrome individuals.

    PubMed

    Levinger, Pazit; Gilleard, Wendy

    2005-09-01

    The choice of a reference posture is important when investigating rearfoot motion in clinical populations. The reference posture used may affect the magnitude of the peak angles and therefore may not enable comparison of the rearfoot kinematics across different populations. This study examined the relationship between the rearfoot frontal plane pattern of motion and three reference postures during the stance phase of walking in healthy and patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) subjects. The three reference postures investigated were: Relaxed Standing posture, subtalar joint neutral position (STJN) and when the calcaneus and the lower leg were vertically aligned (Vertical Alignment). The rearfoot inversion/eversion during the stance phase was measured in 14 healthy subjects and 13 subjects with diagnosed PFPS using three dimensional motion analysis with the three different reference postures. The graphs of rearfoot inversion/eversion motion were overlaid with the angle at the rearfoot in the static posture and any intersection between the static angle and rearfoot motion was noted. An ANOVA showed significant differences in static posture between the groups for Relaxed Standing (p = 0.01), and STJN (p = 0.02). For both groups, with Relaxed Standing as a reference posture, the mean rearfoot pattern of motion did not intersect the Relaxed Standing static angle during the stance phase. The use of Vertical Alignment reference posture, however, showed an intersection of this reference posture through the rearfoot pattern of motion. The use of the Vertical Alignment reference posture also generated a typical rearfoot motion pattern for both groups and therefore it may be an appropriate reference posture for both healthy and PFPS individuals. Key PointsThe use of the three reference postures resulted in shifting of the curve of the rearfoot frontal plane pattern of motion. The shift of the curve is important in identifying the magnitude of rearfoot peak motion during the

  2. Shift toward prior knowledge confers a perceptual advantage in early psychosis and psychosis-prone healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, Christoph; Subramaniam, Naresh; Dobler, Veronika; Perez, Jesus; Finnemann, Johanna; Mehta, Puja R.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Many neuropsychiatric illnesses are associated with psychosis, i.e., hallucinations (perceptions in the absence of causative stimuli) and delusions (irrational, often bizarre beliefs). Current models of brain function view perception as a combination of two distinct sources of information: bottom-up sensory input and top-down influences from prior knowledge. This framework may explain hallucinations and delusions. Here, we characterized the balance between visual bottom-up and top-down processing in people with early psychosis (study 1) and in psychosis-prone, healthy individuals (study 2) to elucidate the mechanisms that might contribute to the emergence of psychotic experiences. Through a specialized mental-health service, we identified unmedicated individuals who experience early psychotic symptoms but fall below the threshold for a categorical diagnosis. We observed that, in early psychosis, there was a shift in information processing favoring prior knowledge over incoming sensory evidence. In the complementary study, we capitalized on subtle variations in perception and belief in the general population that exhibit graded similarity with psychotic experiences (schizotypy). We observed that the degree of psychosis proneness in healthy individuals, and, specifically, the presence of subtle perceptual alterations, is also associated with stronger reliance on prior knowledge. Although, in the current experimental studies, this shift conferred a performance benefit, under most natural viewing situations, it may provoke anomalous perceptual experiences. Overall, we show that early psychosis and psychosis proneness both entail a basic shift in visual information processing, favoring prior knowledge over incoming sensory evidence. The studies provide complementary insights to a mechanism by which psychotic symptoms may emerge. PMID:26460044

  3. Shift toward prior knowledge confers a perceptual advantage in early psychosis and psychosis-prone healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Teufel, Christoph; Subramaniam, Naresh; Dobler, Veronika; Perez, Jesus; Finnemann, Johanna; Mehta, Puja R; Goodyer, Ian M; Fletcher, Paul C

    2015-10-27

    Many neuropsychiatric illnesses are associated with psychosis, i.e., hallucinations (perceptions in the absence of causative stimuli) and delusions (irrational, often bizarre beliefs). Current models of brain function view perception as a combination of two distinct sources of information: bottom-up sensory input and top-down influences from prior knowledge. This framework may explain hallucinations and delusions. Here, we characterized the balance between visual bottom-up and top-down processing in people with early psychosis (study 1) and in psychosis-prone, healthy individuals (study 2) to elucidate the mechanisms that might contribute to the emergence of psychotic experiences. Through a specialized mental-health service, we identified unmedicated individuals who experience early psychotic symptoms but fall below the threshold for a categorical diagnosis. We observed that, in early psychosis, there was a shift in information processing favoring prior knowledge over incoming sensory evidence. In the complementary study, we capitalized on subtle variations in perception and belief in the general population that exhibit graded similarity with psychotic experiences (schizotypy). We observed that the degree of psychosis proneness in healthy individuals, and, specifically, the presence of subtle perceptual alterations, is also associated with stronger reliance on prior knowledge. Although, in the current experimental studies, this shift conferred a performance benefit, under most natural viewing situations, it may provoke anomalous perceptual experiences. Overall, we show that early psychosis and psychosis proneness both entail a basic shift in visual information processing, favoring prior knowledge over incoming sensory evidence. The studies provide complementary insights to a mechanism by which psychotic symptoms may emerge. PMID:26460044

  4. Improving introspection to inform free will regarding the choice by healthy individuals to use or not use cognitive enhancing drugs

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, David S

    2009-01-01

    A commentary in Nature entitled "Towards responsible use of cognitive-enhancing drugs by the healthy" (Greely et al 2008 Nature 456: 702–705) offers an opportunity to move toward a humane societal appreciation of mind-altering drugs. Using cognitive enhancing drugs as an exemplar, this article presents a series of hypotheses concerning how an individual might learn optimal use. The essence of the proposal is that individuals can cultivate sensitivity to the effects of ever-smaller amounts of psychoactive drugs thereby making harm less likely and benign effects more probable. Four interrelated hypotheses are presented and briefly discussed. 1. Humans can learn to discriminate ever-smaller doses of at least some mind-altering drugs; a learning program can be designed or discovered that will have this outcome. 2. The skill to discriminate drugs and dose can be generalized, i.e. if learned with one drug a second one is easier and so on. 3. Cultivating this skill/knack would be beneficial in leading to choices informed by a more accurate sense of mind-body interactions. 4. From a philosophical point of view learning the effects of ever-smaller doses of psychoactive agents offers a novel path into and to transcend the objective/subjective barrier and the mind/body problem. Whatever the fate of these specific hypotheses, discussion of cognitive enhancing drugs for healthy individuals has the potential to inspire innovative educational and public policy initiatives toward all types of mind-altering drugs and the people who use them. PMID:19531231

  5. The impact of Herpes simplex virus type 1 on cognitive impairments in young, healthy individuals - A historical prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fruchter, Eyal; Goldberg, Shira; Fenchel, Daphna; Grotto, Itamar; Ginat, Keren; Weiser, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a highly prevalent neurotropic virus. Although on the whole, chronic, latent or persistent infection is considered to be relatively benign, HSV infections can cause cognitive impairment during and after acute encephalitis. Some studies have documented cognitive impairment in exposed persons that is untraceable to encephalitis. Most studies have focused on these impairments in the mentally ill, mostly among individuals with schizophrenia, and only recently have studies begun to examine the impact of HSV infection on the cognition of healthy individuals. Subjects were a representative, random sample of 612 soldiers before active duty in the Israeli military (Israeli defense force - IDF), 62.2% HSV positive (n=381) and 38.8% HSV negative (n=231). Cognitive functioning and language abilities were compared between these groups, controlling for years of education, immigration status, and gender. Compared to soldiers who were sero-negative, soldiers who were sero-positive for HSV had significantly lower IQ scores (IQ=97.96, SD=15.19 vs IQ=103.23, SD=14.23; p≤0.001, effect size (ES)=0.2), and significantly lower Hebrew language scores (ES=0.1, p≤0.01). The results remained significant after removing subjects with mild depression, anxiety or personality disorders. Although we could not control for socio-economic status directly, our findings indicate that infection with HSV-1 is associated with reduced cognitive functioning in healthy individuals. This finding adds to the growing number of studies in the schizophrenia literature and indicates that many research findings seemingly characteristic of schizophrenia are related to the association between HSV exposure and cognitive functioning in general, and are not illness specific. PMID:26362735

  6. Effect of gastric pH on erlotinib pharmacokinetics in healthy individuals: omeprazole and ranitidine.

    PubMed

    Kletzl, Heidemarie; Giraudon, Mylene; Ducray, Patricia Sanwald; Abt, Markus; Hamilton, Marta; Lum, Bert L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of coadministration of acid-reducing agents on the pharmacokinetic exposure of orally administered epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib, a drug that displays pH-dependent solubility. Two studies were conducted, the first with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole and the second with the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine. Twenty-four healthy male and female volunteers were enrolled in each study. Erlotinib was administered as a single oral 150 mg dose on day 1. After the washout a subsequent study period evaluated 150 mg erlotinib administered with the acid-reducing agent. Omeprazole (40 mg once daily) was given on days 11-14, concomitantly with erlotinib on day 15, and for two additional days (days 16-17). In the ranitidine study, on day 13, participants were randomized to either concomitant dosing (treatment B) or staggered administration (treatment C) of erlotinib and ranitidine and crossed over to the other treatment starting on day 27. For treatment B, ranitidine (300 mg once daily) was administered in the morning for 5 days, 2 h before erlotinib. For treatment C, ranitidine was administered as a divided dose (150 mg twice daily) for 5 days, with erlotinib given 10 h after the previous evening dose and 2 h before the next ranitidine morning dose. Plasma samples were obtained for determination of the concentrations of erlotinib and its metabolite OSI-420, following each erlotinib dose. All participants were monitored for safety and tolerability. The geometric mean ratios of AUC0-∞ and Cmax for erlotinib and AUC0-last and Cmax for OSI-420 were substantially decreased when erlotinib was dosed with omeprazole. The estimated mean ratio (90% confidence interval) for erlotinib was 0.54 (0.49-0.59) for AUC0-∞ and 0.39 (0.32-0.48) for Cmax. For OSI-420, the estimated mean ratio was 0.42 (0.37-0.48) for AUC0-last and 0.31 (0.24-0.41) for Cmax. AUC0-∞ and Cmax for erlotinib were substantially decreased

  7. Effects of diet on brain iron levels among healthy individuals: an MRI pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hagemeier, Jesper; Tong, Olivia; Dwyer, Michael G; Schweser, Ferdinand; Ramanathan, Murali; Zivadinov, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Increased brain iron levels may be a risk factor for age-related neurologic disorders. Little is known about factors other than age and sex potentially affecting brain iron concentration. We investigated dietary habits (iron and calcium supplements, dairy products, vegetables, and red meat) as a potential modifiable predictor of brain iron levels using 3-T susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. One hundred ninety volunteers were scanned, and mean phase and mean phase of low-phase voxels were determined for deep gray-matter (DGM) structures, including the caudate, putamen, thalamus, pulvinar, hippocampus, amygdala, red nucleus, and substantia nigra. There was a trend for lower mean phase (suggestive of high iron levels) in individuals taking iron supplements (p = 0.075). Among men, both increased dairy and vegetable intakes were significantly associated with lower DGM mean phase (p < 0.05) and mean phase of low-phase voxels (p < 0.05) in the thalamus, pulvinar, and red nucleus. In contrast, among women, iron levels were not associated with dairy consumption (p > 0.05) in the DGM but were inversely associated with vegetable intake in the thalamus (p = 0.006). Brain iron levels appear to be modulated by diet, with effects being highly dependent on gender. PMID:25680267

  8. Evidence analysis library review of best practices for performing indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill individuals.

    PubMed

    Fullmer, Susan; Benson-Davies, Sue; Earthman, Carrie P; Frankenfield, David C; Gradwell, Erica; Lee, Peggy S P; Piemonte, Tami; Trabulsi, Jillian

    2015-09-01

    When measurement of resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry is necessary, following evidence-based protocols will ensure the individual has achieved a resting state. The purpose of this project was to update the best practices for measuring RMR by indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill adults and children found the Evidence Analysis Library of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The Evidence Analysis process described by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics was followed. The Ovid database was searched for papers published between 2003 and 2012 using key words identified by the work group and research consultants, studies used in the previous project were also considered (1980 to 2003), and references were hand searched. The work group worked in pairs to assign papers to specific questions; however, the work group developed evidence summaries, conclusion statements, and recommendations as a group. Only 43 papers were included to answer 21 questions about the best practices to ensure an individual is at rest when measuring RMR in the non-critically ill population. In summary, subjects should be fasted for at least 7 hours and rest for 30 minutes in a thermoneutral, quiet, and dimly lit room in the supine position before the test, without doing any activities, including fidgeting, reading, or listening to music. RMR can be measured at any time of the day as long as resting conditions are met. The duration of the effects of nicotine and caffeine and other stimulants is unknown, but lasts longer than 140 minutes and 240 minutes, respectively. The duration of the effects of various types of exercise on RMR is unknown. Recommendations for achieving steady state, preferred gas-collection devices, and use of respiratory quotient to detect measurement errors are also given. Of the 21 conclusions statements developed in this systemic review, only 5 received a grade I or II. One limitation is the low number of studies available to address the

  9. Biological variation of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in serum of healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    González, C; Cava, F; Ayllón, A; Guevara, P; Navajo, J A; González-Buitrago, J M

    2001-09-01

    Components of biological variation can be used to assess the usefulness of reference values, to evaluate the significance of changes in serial results from an individual and to define objective analytical goals. The aim of the study was to assess, in 15 healthy subjects studied at regular monthly intervals over a period of 6 consecutive months, the biological variation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Biological variation data (within-subject and between-subject coefficient of variation (CV)) were determined using a simple nested analysis of variance. Derived parameters (index of individuality, reliability coefficient and critical diferences) were calculated from within-subject and between-subject CV. The mean and standard deviation (SD), within-subject CV, between-subject CV, index of individuality and reliability coefficient were as follows: for IL-1beta, 0.67 (0.32) pg/ml, 30%, 36%, 0.85, and 0.76; for IL-8, 3.68 (1.45) pg/ml, 24%, 31%, 0.85 and 0.75; and for TNF-alpha, 3.14 (1.87) pg/ml, 43%, 29%, 1.56 and 0.50, respectively. We conclude that between-subject variation and within-subject variation are quite similar for IL-1beta and IL-8 and are relatively high for the three cytokines studied. Index of individuality is less than 1.4 for IL-1beta and IL-8, and thus reference intervals based on population studies are of limited value. On the contrary, the index of individuality for TNF-alpha is greater than 1.4 and reference values can be used for diagnosis. Quality goals for imprecision are easily achieved for the three cytokines with current methodology. PMID:11601683

  10. Effect of modafinil on learning and task-related brain activity in methamphetamine-dependent and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Ghahremani, Dara G; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Monterosso, John; Hellemann, Gerhard; Poldrack, Russell A; London, Edythe D

    2011-04-01

    Methamphetamine (MA)-dependent individuals exhibit deficits in cognition and prefrontal cortical function. Therefore, medications that improve cognition in these subjects may improve the success of therapy for their addiction, especially when cognitive behavioral therapies are used. Modafinil has been shown to improve cognitive performance in neuropsychiatric patients and healthy volunteers. We therefore conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, to examine the effects of modafinil on learning and neural activity related to cognitive function in abstinent, MA-dependent, and healthy control participants. Modafinil (200 mg) and placebo were administered orally (one single dose each), in counterbalanced fashion, 2 h before each of two testing sessions. Under placebo conditions, MA-dependent participants showed worse learning performance than control participants. Modafinil boosted learning in MA-dependent participants, bringing them to the same performance level as control subjects; the control group did not show changes in performance with modafinil. After controlling for performance differences, MA-dependent participants showed a greater effect of modafinil on brain activation in bilateral insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortices than control participants. The findings suggest that modafinil improves learning in MA-dependent participants, possibly by enhancing neural function in regions important for learning and cognitive control. These results suggest that modafinil may be a suitable pharmacological adjunct for enhancing the efficiency of cognitive-based therapies for MA dependence. PMID:21289606

  11. Does Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Prefrontal Cortex Affect Mood and Emotional Memory Retrieval in Healthy Individuals?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Helen M.; Davis, Nick J.; Bracewell, R. Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Studies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of prefrontal cortex to improve symptoms of depression have had mixed results. We examined whether using tDCS to change the balance of activity between left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can alter mood and memory retrieval of emotional material in healthy volunteers. Participants memorised emotional images, then tDCS was applied bilaterally to DLPFC while they performed a stimulus-response compatibility task. Participants were then presented with a set of images for memory retrieval. Questionnaires to examine mood and motivational state were administered at the beginning and end of each session. Exploratory data analyses showed that the polarity of tDCS to DLPFC influenced performance on a stimulus-response compatibility task and this effect was dependent on participants’ prior motivational state. However, tDCS polarity had no effect on the speed or accuracy of memory retrieval of emotional images and did not influence positive or negative affect. These findings suggest that the balance of activity between left and right DLPFC does not play a critical role in the mood state of healthy individuals. We suggest that the efficacy of prefrontal tDCS depends on the initial activation state of neurons and future work should take this into account. PMID:24651375

  12. Trace elements in human cancerous and healthy tissues from the same individual: A comparative study by TXRF and EDXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, T.; von Bohlen, A.; Carvalho, M. L.; Becker, M.

    2006-11-01

    In this work we studied the elemental distribution of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ni, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, I and Pb in normal and cancerous tissues of the same individual along several contiguous thin sections (up to 10 μm thick) of each tissue. Samples of healthy and carcinoma tissues, of colon, breast and uterus on a total of 7 citizens from German population, were analysed directly by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The tissues were also analysed by normal energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). An additional application was performed by studying, by the same processes, 10 carcinoma samples of 10 Portuguese citizens from: rectum, sigmoid, thyroid, kidney, larynx and lung, in order to find out a similar correlation pattern in the studied elements in carcinoma tissues. As major conclusion of this work a similar pattern for almost all the analysed tissues were obtained for all the studied samples: increased or constant levels of P, S, K, Ca, Fe and Cu, and decreased levels of Zn and Br were found in carcinoma tissues, when compared with the corresponding healthy ones. Some exceptions were found in some samples for a few numbers of elements. When comparing the results obtained for both techniques, the patterns were the same, however not always the results did coincide. This can be explained by considering that the analysed samples were not exactly the same and the differences can be explained by inhomogeneities.

  13. Concise review: Generation of neurons from somatic cells of healthy individuals and neurological patients through induced pluripotency or direct conversion.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Iván; Salazar, Patricia; Giorgetti, Alessandra; Ramos-Mejía, Verónica; Castaño, Julio; Romero-Moya, Damià; Menendez, Pablo

    2014-11-01

    Access to healthy or diseased human neural tissue is a daunting task and represents a barrier for advancing our understanding about the cellular, genetic, and molecular mechanisms underlying neurogenesis and neurodegeneration. Reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency by transient expression of transcription factors was achieved a few years ago. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from both healthy individuals and patients suffering from debilitating, life-threatening neurological diseases have been differentiated into several specific neuronal subtypes. An alternative emerging approach is the direct conversion of somatic cells (i.e., fibroblasts, blood cells, or glial cells) into neuron-like cells. However, to what extent neuronal direct conversion of diseased somatic cells can be achieved remains an open question. Optimization of current expansion and differentiation approaches is highly demanded to increase the differentiation efficiency of specific phenotypes of functional neurons from iPSCs or through somatic cell direct conversion. The realization of the full potential of iPSCs relies on the ability to precisely modify specific genome sequences. Genome editing technologies including zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/CAS9 RNA-guided nucleases have progressed very fast over the last years. The combination of genome-editing strategies and patient-specific iPSC biology will offer a unique platform for in vitro generation of diseased and corrected neural derivatives for personalized therapies, disease modeling and drug screening. PMID:24989459

  14. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  15. Experimental Gingivitis Induces Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Young Healthy Individuals: A Single-Subject Interventional Study

    PubMed Central

    Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Background Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. Methods 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. Results The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, P<0.0001). This local inflammation was associated with a systemic increase in hsCRP (0.24 mg/L, P = 0.038), IL-6 (12.52 ng/L, P = 0.0002) and MCP-1 (9.10 ng/l, P = 0.124) in peripheral blood samples between baseline and day 21, which decreased at day 42. Monocytes showed an enhanced adherence to endothelial cells and increased foam cell formation after oxLDL uptake (P<0.050) at day 21 of gingivitis. Conclusions Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL: http

  16. COMT influences on prefrontal and striatal b responses during working memory among individuals with schizophrenia, their siblings and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Ceaser, Alan; Csernansky, John G.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent theories have suggested that cortico-striatal interactions may play an important part in mediating working memory demands and may impact clinical symptomology of schizophrenia. These effects are thought to occur through changes in dopamine signaling from the midbrain and via feedback from the frontal cortex. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism may prove useful for studying these effects in vivo. In this study, patients with schizophrenia, their well siblings, and healthy controls were genotyped and scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they performed a working memory task. We found that patients and their siblings, but not controls, who were Val homozygotes displayed greater activity of the DLPFC, striatum, and the cerebellum during the task than respective Met carriers. Our findings support and extend previous studies of COMT effects on cognition and neural activity, and suggest that changes in dopamine availability may impact cortico-striatal functioning of individuals at risk for schizophrenia differentially. PMID:23030509

  17. Ultrasound assessment of the jugular and vertebral veins in healthy individuals: selected physiological aspects and morphological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Krysiuk, Kamil; Dobrzycki, Konrad; Ustymowicz, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Aim Ultrasound assessment of morphological parameters of the internal jugular veins and vertebral veins in healthy individuals as well as their dependence on the patient's position. Material The examinations were conducted in 185 healthy individuals (101 females and 84 males) aged 18–89. Ultrasound examinations were conducted with the use of a linear probe with the frequency of 5–9 MHz in the supine (0°) and sitting position (90°). Results In 154 cases (83.2%) on the left side and in 150 cases (81.1%) on the right side, the jugular veins were completely closed in the sitting position. In 31 cases (16.8%) on the left side and in 35 cases (18.9%) on the right side, they were merely narrowed. By contrast with the jugular veins, the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vertebral veins was greater in the sitting position than in the supine position in a statistically significant way. The CSA values of the jugular veins in the supine position ranged from 0 cm2 to 4.3 cm2. There were no statistically significant differences in the CSA between men and women. The cross-sectional area of the right jugular vein in the supine position was greater in a statistically significant way than that of the left jugular vein. In this study population, the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the jugular veins on both sides amounted to 8.5:1. Conclusions The width of the jugular and vertebral veins significantly varies depending on the patient's position. The range of the CSA values for the jugular veins is broad, which should be taken into account when interpreting imaging findings. The internal jugular veins can show considerable asymmetry. PMID:26674467

  18. Serum cancer antigen 15.3 concentrations in patients with betathalassemia minor compared to those with cancer and healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shahriari, Mahdi; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Dehghani, Javad; Dehbozorgian, Javad; Eatemadfar, Peyman; Bazrafshan, Asghar; Karimi, Mehran

    2014-01-01

    Background: High serum level of cancer antigen 15.3 (CA15.3) has been reported in some malignant and nonmalignant conditions including thalassemia major which could have been resulted from ineffective erythropoiesis. We aimed to evaluate the serum level of CA15.3 in carriers of beta-thalassemia by comparing them with cancer patients and healthy individuals. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done from February to December 2011 in Southern Iran. Participants consisted of 32 subjects with beta-thalassemia minor, 49 with cancer and 25 healthy individuals. The serum levels of CA15.3 were measured and compared in different groups. Results: The serum levels of CA 15.3 in all participants were in the normal range (<35 U/mL). Also it did not significantly differ among various groups of the participants (p=0.723). Age was not significantly correlated with the serum level of CA 15.3 (r= 0.039, p=0.702). The most frequent cancer in the group of patients with malignancies was hematologic malignancies (96%) with the highest frequency for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (37 patients). Frequency of thalassemia minor in patients with cancer was 11 (22.4%). Conclusion: No correlation was found between CA 15.3 serum level with beta-thalssemia minor or with childhood malignancies. Compared to general population, a high proportion of beta-thalssemia minor was observed in patients with cancer in our study. Future prospective studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between cancer and beta-thalassemia minor accurately. PMID:25664292

  19. New and Improved T-wave Morphology Parameters to Differentiate Healthy Individuals from those with Cardiomyopathy and Coronary Artery Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greco, E. C.; Schlegel, T. T.; Arenare, B.; DePalma, J. L.; Starc, V.; Rahman, M. A.; Delgado, R.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the ability of several known as well as new ECG repolarization parameters to differentiate healthy individuals from patients with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiomyopathy (CM). Advanced high-fidelity 12-lead ECG tests (approx. 5-min supine) were first performed on a "training set" of 99 individuals: 33 with ischemic or dilated CM and low ejection fraction (EF less than 40%); 33 with catheterization-proven obstructive CAD but normal EF; and 33 age-/gender-matched healthy controls. The following multiple parameters of T-wave morphology (TWM) were derived via signal averaging and singular value decomposition (SVD, which yields 8 eigenvalues, rho(sub 1) greater than rho(sub 2)...greater than rho(sub 8) and studied for their retrospective accuracy in detecting underlying disease: 1) Principal component analysis ratio of the T wave (T-PCA) = 100*rho(sub 2)/rho(sub 1); 2) Relative T-wave residuum (rTWR) = 100* SIGMA (rho(sub 4)(sup 2) +...+ rho(sub 8)(sup 2)); 3) Modified complexity ratio of the T wave (T-mCR) = 100*SIGMA(rho(sub 3)(sup 2) +...+rho(sb 8) (sup 2)); and 4) Normalized 3-dimensional volume of the T wave (nTV) = 100*(rho(sub 2)*rho(sub 3)/rho(sub 1)(sup 2). All TWM parameters significantly differentiated CAD from controls (p less than 0.0001), and also CM from controls (p less than 0.0001). Retrospective areas under the ROC curve were 0.77, 0.81, 0.82, and 0.83 (CAD vs. controls) and 0.93, 0.89, 0.95 and 0.96 (CM vs. controls) for T-PCA, rTWR, T-mCR and nTV respectively. The newer TWM parameters (T-mCR and nTV) thus outperformed the more established parameters (T-PCA and rTWR), presumably by putting a greater emphasis on the third T-wave eigenvalue, which in most healthy subjects has little energy compared to the first two eigenvalues. Subsequent prospective analyses have also yielded similar results, such that we conclude that diagnostic differentiation of pathology from non-pathology may be especially aided by detecting

  20. Risk of Developing Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Metabolically Unhealthy Normal-Weight and Metabolically Healthy Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Aung, KoKo; Hinojosa, Marco A.; Haffner, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) associated with obesity appears to be influenced by the coexistence of other metabolic abnormalities. Objective: We examined the risk of developing CVD and DM in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUH-NW) individuals. Design and Setting: We analyzed prospective data of the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites (median follow-up, 7.4 y). Participants: Incident DM and CVD were assessed in 2814 and 3700 participants aged 25 to 64 years, respectively. Main Measures: MHO was defined as obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) with no more than one metabolic abnormality, and MUH-NW was defined as body mass index <25 kg/m2 with two or more abnormalities. Results: In logistic regression models, BMI was associated with incident DM after controlling for demographics, family history of DM, and fasting glucose (odds ratio × 1 SD, 1.7 [95% CI, 1.5–2.0]). Both MUH-NW and MHO individuals had an increased DM risk (2.5 [1.1–5.6] and 3.9 [2.0–7.4], respectively). Similarly, BMI was related to incident CVD after adjusting for demographics and Framingham risk score (1.3 [1.1–1.6]). Incident CVD was also increased in MUH-NW and MHO individuals (2.9 [1.3–6.4] and 3.9 [1.9–7.8], respectively). Results were consistent across gender and ethnic categories. Conclusion: The risk of developing DM and CVD is increased in MUH-NW and MHO individuals. Screening for obesity and other metabolic abnormalities should be routinely performed in clinical practice to institute appropriate preventive measures. PMID:24257907

  1. Effects of joint position on the distraction distance during grade III glenohumeral joint distraction in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Park, Sam-Sik; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Moon, Ok-Kon; Choi, Wan-Suk

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The study investigated the effects of joint position on the distraction distance during Grade III glenohumeral joint distraction in healthy individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty adults in their forties without shoulder disease were randomly divided into neutral position group (NPG; n = 7), resting position group (RPG; n = 7), and end range position group (ERPG; n = 6). After Kaltenborn Grade III distraction for 40s, the distance between glenoid fossa and humeral head was measured by ultrasound. [Results] The average distances between the humeral head and glenoid fossa before distraction were 2.86 ± 0.81, 3.21 ± 0.47, and 3.55 ± 0.59 mm for the NP, RP, and ERP groups. The distances after applying distraction were 3.12 ± 0.51, 3.86 ± 0.55, and 4.35 ± 0.32 mm. Between-group comparison after applying distraction revealed no significant differences between the NP and RP groups, while there was a statistically significant difference between the NP and RP groups, as well as between the NP and ERP groups. [Conclusion] Joint space was largest in ERP individuals when performing manual distraction. PMID:26644692

  2. A Stress-Coping Profile of Opioid Dependent Individuals Entering Naltrexone Treatment: A Comparison with Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Scott M.; Hong, Kwang-Ik A.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Dabre, Zubaida; Comegys, Allison D.; Kimmerling, Anne; Sinha, Rajita

    2009-01-01

    Background Stress is known to increase addiction vulnerability and risk of relapse to substance use. Purpose & Method We compared opioid dependent individuals entering naltrexone treatment (n = 57) with healthy controls (n = 75) on measures of stress, coping, and social support and examined the relative contribution of group membership, coping and social support to stress within the sample. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA), and stepwise multiple regression were conducted. Results Compared with controls, opioid dependent subjects reported greater stress, less use of adaptive coping, but comparable use of maladaptive/avoidant coping. No group differences were found with respect to social support. Perceived stress was predicted by group membership, low social support and greater use of maladaptive/avoidant coping, and the prediction by social support and maladaptive/avoidant coping did not differ by group. Conclusion Opioid dependent individuals entering naltrexone treatment experience higher levels of stress and report less use of adaptive coping strategies when compared with controls. Group membership, maladaptive/avoidant coping and social support independently contribute to perceived stress. Findings suggest that novel treatment approaches that decrease maladaptive/avoidant coping and improve social support are important aspects of decreasing stress during early recovery from opioid addiction. PMID:20025367

  3. Highly Specific Detection of Myostatin Prodomain by an Immunoradiometric Sandwich Assay in Serum of Healthy Individuals and Patients

    PubMed Central

    Widera, Christian; Gottlieb, Jens; Vogel, Arndt; Schmidt, Sebastian; Brandes, Gudrun; Heuft, Hans-Gert; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Kempf, Tibor; Wollert, Kai C.; Bauersachs, Johann; Heineke, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    Background Myostatin is a muscle derived factor that functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Induction of myostatin expression was observed in rodent models of muscle wasting and in cachectic patients with cancer or pulmonary disease. Therefore, there is an increasing interest to use serum myostatin as a biomarker. Methods We established an immunoradiometric sandwich assay (IRMA), which uses a commercially available chicken polyclonal, affinity purified antibody directed against human myostatin prodomain. We determined the serum concentrations of myostatin prodomain in 249 healthy individuals as well as 169 patients with heart failure, 53 patients with cancer and 44 patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Results The IRMA had a detection limit of 0.7ng/ml, an intraassay imprecision of ≤14.1% and an interassay imprecision of ≤ 18.9%. The specificity of our assay was demonstrated by size exclusion chromatography, detection of myostatin by Western-blotting and a SMAD-dependent transcriptional-reporter assay in the signal-rich serum fractions, as well as lack of interference by unspecific substances like albumin, hemoglobin or lipids. Myostatin prodomain was stable at room temperature and resistant to freeze-thaw cycles. Apparently healthy individuals over the age of 55 had a median myostatin prodomain serum concentration of 3.9ng/ml (25th-75th percentiles, 2-7ng/ml) and we could not detect increased levels in patients with stable chronic heart failure or cancer related weight loss. In contrast, we found strongly elevated concentrations of myostatin prodomain (median 26.9ng/ml, 25th-75th percentiles, 7-100ng/ml) in the serum of underweight patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Conclusions We established a highly specific IRMA for the quantification of myostatin prodomain concentration in human serum. Our assay could be useful to study myostatin as a biomarker for example in patients with chronic pulmonary disease, as we detected highly

  4. Toxocara Seroprevalence among Clinically Healthy Individuals, Pregnant Women and Psychiatric Patients and Associated Risk Factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Na; Yu, Chang-Zheng; Chen, Jia; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Li, Bing; Qian, Ai-Dong; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection. Methodology/Principle Findings Seroprevalence of Toxocara was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, eastern China. Factors potentially associated with Toxocara infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n = 2866) was 12.25%, and a significantly higher seroprevalence in psychiatric patients (16.40%, 73/445) than that in clinically healthy individuals (13.07%, 187/1431) and pregnant women (9.19%, 91/990) was revealed. Univariate analyses suggested that keeping dogs at home (OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.05–0.08, P<0.001), contact with cats and dogs (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.33–0.53, P<0.001) and exposure with soil (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.28–0.49, P<0.001) were risk factors associated with Toxocara infection. Conclusions/Significance The present study revealed, for the first time, that human infection with Toxocara is common in eastern China, posing a significant public health concern. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change all will serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis

  5. Cadmium intake and systemic exposure in postmenopausal women and age-matched men who smoke cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ebert-McNeill, Andrea; Clark, Sara P; Miller, James J; Birdsall, Paige; Chandar, Manisha; Wu, Lucia; Cerny, Elizabeth A; Hall, Patricia H; Johnson, Maribeth H; Isales, Carlos; Chutkan, Norman; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2012-11-01

    Mean blood cadmium (B-Cd) concentrations are two- to threefold higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. The basis for this phenomenon is not well understood. We conducted a detailed, multifaceted study of cadmium exposure in smokers. Groups were older smokers (62±4 years, n = 25, 20% male) and nonsmokers (62±3 years, n = 16, 31% male). Each subject's cigarettes were machine smoked, generating individually paired measures of inhaled cadmium (I-Cd) versus B-Cd; I-Cd and B-Cd were each evaluated three times, at monthly intervals. Urine cadmium (U-Cd) was analyzed for comparison. In four smokers, a duplicate-diet study was conducted, along with a kinetic study of plasma cadmium versus B-Cd. Female smokers had a mean B-Cd of 1.21ng Cd/ml, with a nearly 10-fold range (0.29-2.74ng Cd/ml); nonsmokers had a lower mean B-Cd, 0.35ng Cd/ml (p < 0.05), and narrower range (0.20-0.61ng Cd/ml). Means and ranges for males were similar. Estimates of cadmium amounts inhaled daily for our subjects smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes/day were far less than the 15 µg Cd reported to be ingested daily via diet. This I-Cd amount was too low to alone explain the 3.5-fold elevation of B-Cd in our smokers, even assuming greater cadmium absorption via lungs than gastrointestinal tract; cadmium accumulated in smokers' lungs may provide the added cadmium. Finally, B-Cd appeared to be linearly related to I-Cd values in 75% of smokers, whereas 25% had far higher B-Cd, implying a possible heterogeneity among smokers regarding circulating cadmium concentrations and potentially cadmium toxicity. PMID:22831969

  6. Fear of falling and quality of life of apparently-healthy elderly individuals from a Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Akosile, Christopher O; Anukam, Gabriel O; Johnson, Olubusola E; Fabunmi, Ayodeji A; Okoye, Emmanuel C; Iheukwumere, Ngozi; Akinwola, Mojisola O

    2014-06-01

    Ageing is associated with increased morbidity, increased fear of falling (FOF) and reduced activity. These may consequently impair the quality of life (QOL) of the elderly. Studies from Africa investigating FOF and its relationship with QOL among elderly individuals are rare. This study investigated the prevalence of FOF and QOL of apparently-healthy elderly residents of two Local Government Areas (LGAs) from Anambra State, Nigeria and also determined the relationship between the two variables. Two hundred and sixty-one (131 males and 130 females) volunteering elderly individuals, from three randomly-selected communities from each of the LGAs, participated in this cross-sectional survey. The Modified Fall Efficacy Scale (MFES) and the Short-Form Health Survey 36-item (SF-36) questionnaire were used to evaluate FOF and QOL respectively. Data were analysed using frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation, Chi-square, Independent t-test, Pearson correlation and multivariate regression analysis statistics. Alpha level was set at 0.05. FOF was markedly prevalent in the population at 23.4 % and the QOL score of 55.27 ± 17.28 was just modest. QOL was particularly low in the role limitations due to the physical and emotional problems domains but high in the mental health, social function and bodily pain domains. Significant relationship was found between FOF and all the QOL domains. FOF was present in nearly one of every four elderly individuals in the sample and was related to their QOL. FOF should be routinely investigated in community-dwelling elderly and strategies devised to combat it. PMID:24710949

  7. Characterization of the apelin -1860T>C polymorphism in Turkish coronary artery disease patients and healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Akcılar, Raziye; Yümün, Gündüz; Bayat, Zeynep; Donbaloğlu, Okan; Erselcan, Kubilay; Ece, Ezgi; Kökdaşgil, Hülya; Genç, Osman

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between the apelin -1860T>C polymorphism and plasma apelin levels in Turkish patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 276 individuals were enrolled in the present study, including 158 patients with CAD and 118 individuals without CAD as controls. The presence of the apelin -1860T>C gene polymorphism and plasma apelin levels were determined using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Significance was set at p≤0.05 for all statistical analyses. The genotype and allele frequencies of interested genes were significantly different between groups (χ2=10.2; df=2; p=0.006 and χ2=13.4; df=1; p=0.000, respectively). Frequency of CC genotype and the C allele of -1860T>C site was significantly higher in CAD patients compared to healthy controls. We found that individuals with the TC and CC genotypes were associated with an increased risk of CAD when compared with the TT genotype in CAD patients, and the adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 6.50 (1.27-33.0) and 6.39 (1.77-23.0), respectively. Plasma apelin levels were significantly lower in CAD patients compared to control group. Apelin level of CAD patient group having CC genotype of -1860T>C site was significantly lower compared to those having TT genotypes, but it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The homozygous CC genotype of apelin gene is associated with high risk of CAD. Apelin gene polymorphism -1860T>C is a significant predictor of predisposition to CAD in in Turkish population. PMID:27073592

  8. Inspiratory High Frequency Airway Oscillation Attenuates Resistive Loaded Dyspnea and Modulates Respiratory Function in Young Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Theresa; Sumners, David Paul; Green, David Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Direct chest-wall percussion can reduce breathlessness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and respiratory function may be improved, in health and disease, by respiratory muscle training (RMT). We tested whether high-frequency airway oscillation (HFAO), a novel form of airflow oscillation generation can modulate induced dyspnoea and respiratory strength and/or patterns following 5 weeks of HFAO training (n = 20) compared to a SHAM-RMT (conventional flow-resistive RMT) device (n = 15) in healthy volunteers (13 males; aged 20–36 yrs). HFAO causes oscillations with peak-to-peak amplitude of 1 cm H2O, whereas the SHAM-RMT device was identical but created no pressure oscillation. Respiratory function, dyspnoea and ventilation during 3 minutes of spontaneous resting ventilation, 1 minute of maximal voluntary hyperventilation and 1 minute breathing against a moderate inspiratory resistance, were compared PRE and POST 5-weeks of training (2×30 breaths at 70% peak flow, 5 days a week). Training significantly reduced NRS dyspnoea scores during resistive loaded ventilation, both in the HFAO (p = 0.003) and SHAM-RMT (p = 0.005) groups. Maximum inspiratory static pressure (cm H2O) was significantly increased by HFAO training (vs. PRE; p<0.001). Maximum inspiratory dynamic pressure was increased by training in both the HFAO (vs. PRE; p<0.001) and SHAM-RMT (vs. PRE; p = 0.021) groups. Peak inspiratory flow rate (L.s−1) achieved during the maximum inspiratory dynamic pressure manoeuvre increased significantly POST (vs. PRE; p = 0.001) in the HFAO group only. HFAO reduced inspiratory resistive loading–induced dyspnoea and augments static and dynamic maximal respiratory manoeuvre performance in excess of flow-resistive IMT (SHAM-RMT) in healthy individuals without the respiratory discomfort associated with RMT. PMID:24651392

  9. GSK3B and MAPT Polymorphisms Are Associated with Grey Matter and Intracranial Volume in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Dobson-Stone, Carol; Polly, Patsie; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Williams, Leanne M.; Gordon, Evian; Schofield, Peter R.; Mather, Karen; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Wen, Wei; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Kwok, John B. J.

    2013-01-01

    The microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT) codes for a protein that plays an integral role in stabilisation of microtubules and axonal transport in neurons. As well as its role in susceptibility to neurodegeneration, previous studies have found an association between the MAPT haplotype and intracranial volume and regional grey matter volumes in healthy adults. The glycogen synthase kinase-3β gene (GSK3B) codes for a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates various proteins, including tau, and has also been associated with risk for neurodegenerative disorders and schizophrenia. We examined the effects of MAPT and two functional promoter polymorphisms in GSK3B (rs3755557 and rs334558) on total grey matter and intracranial volume in three independent cohorts totaling 776 neurologically healthy individuals. In vitro analyses revealed a significant effect of rs3755557 on gene expression, and altered binding of at least two transcription factors, Octamer transcription factor 1 (Oct-1) and Pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1 (Pbx-1), to the GSK3B promoter. Meta-analysis across the three cohorts revealed a significant effect of rs3755557 on total grey matter volume (summary B = 0.082, 95% confidence interval = 0.037–0.128) and intracranial volume (summary B = 0.113, 95% confidence interval = 0.082–0.144). No significant effect was observed for MAPT H1/H2 diplotype or GSK3B rs334558 on total grey matter or intracranial volume. Our genetic and biochemical analyses have identified a role for GSK3B in brain development, which could have important aetiological implications for neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:23951236

  10. A dietary biomarker approach captures compliance and cardiometabolic effects of a healthy Nordic diet in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Matti; Magnusdottir, Ola K; Rosqvist, Fredrik; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Landberg, Rikard; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Brader, Lea; Hermansen, Kjeld; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hukkanen, Janne; Savolainen, Markku J; Dragsted, Lars O; Schwab, Ursula; Paananen, Jussi; Uusitupa, Matti; Åkesson, Björn; Thorsdottir, Inga; Risérus, Ulf

    2014-10-01

    Assessment of compliance with dietary interventions is necessary to understand the observed magnitude of the health effects of the diet per se. To avoid reporting bias, different dietary biomarkers (DBs) could be used instead of self-reported data. However, few studies investigated a combination of DBs to assess compliance and its influence on cardiometabolic risk factors. The objectives of this study were to use a combination of DBs to assess compliance and to investigate how a healthy Nordic diet (ND) influences cardiometabolic risk factors in participants with high apparent compliance compared with the whole study population. From a recently conducted isocaloric randomized trial, SYSDIET (Systems Biology in Controlled Dietary Interventions and Cohort Studies), in 166 individuals with metabolic syndrome, several DBs were assessed to reflect different key components of the ND: canola oil (serum phospholipid α-linolenic acid), fatty fish [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], vegetables (plasma β-carotene), and whole grains (plasma alkylresorcinols). High-fat dairy intake (expectedly low in the ND) was reflected by serum pentadecanoic acid. All participants with biomarker data (n = 154) were included in the analyses. Biomarkers were combined by using a biomarker rank score (DB score) and principal component analysis (PCA). The DB score was then used to assess compliance. During the intervention, median concentrations of alkylresorcinols, α-linolenic acid, EPA, and DHA were >25% higher in the ND individuals than in the controls (P < 0.05), whereas median concentrations of pentadecanoic acid were 14% higher in controls (P < 0.05). Median DB score was 57% higher in the ND than in controls (P < 0.001) during the intervention, and participants were ranked similarly by DB score and PCA score. Overall, estimates of group difference in cardiometabolic effects generally appeared to be greater among compliant participants than in the whole study

  11. Screening the Expression of ABCB6 in Erythrocytes Reveals an Unexpectedly High Frequency of Lan Mutations in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Katalin; Varady, Gyorgy; Gera, Melinda; Antalffy, Geza; Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Tordai, Attila; Studzian, Maciej; Strapagiel, Dominik; Pulaski, Lukasz; Tani, Yoshihiko; Sarkadi, Balazs; Szakacs, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Lan is a high-incidence blood group antigen expressed in more than 99.9% of the population. Identification of the human ABC transporter ABCB6 as the molecular basis of Lan has opened the way for studies assessing the relation of ABCB6 function and expression to health and disease. To date, 34 ABCB6 sequence variants have been described in association with reduced ABCB6 expression based on the genotyping of stored blood showing weak or no reactivity with anti-Lan antibodies. In the present study we examined the red blood cell (RBC) surface expression of ABCB6 by quantitative flow cytometry in a cohort of 47 healthy individuals. Sequencing of the entire coding region of the ABCB6 gene in low RBC ABCB6 expressors identified a new allele (IVS9+1G>A, affecting a putative splice site at the boundary of exon 9) and two nonsynonymous SNPs listed in the SNP database (R192Q (rs150221689) and G588 S (rs145526996)). The R192Q mutation showed co-segregation with reduced RBC ABCB6 expression in a family, and we found the G588 S mutation in a compound heterozygous individual with undetectable ABCB6 expression, suggesting that both mutations result in weak or no expression of ABCB6 on RBCs. Analysis of the intracellular expression pattern in HeLa cells by confocal microscopy indicated that these mutations do not compromise overall expression or the endolysosomal localization of ABCB6. Genotyping of two large cohorts, containing 235 and 1039 unrelated volunteers, confirmed the high allele frequency of Lan-mutations. Our results suggest that genetic variants linked to lower or absent cell surface expression of ABCB6/Langereis may be more common than previously thought. PMID:25360778

  12. A Comparative Study on the Kinematic Biomechanical Effects of Tibia Vara in the Healthy and Diseased Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmohammadi, Mehrdad; Karami, Hossein; Bani, Milad Salimi; Zadeh, Hossein Bahreini; Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi

    2016-08-01

    BACKGROUND: Malalignment about the knee leads to a pathological-mechanical load that may cause early osteoarthritis of the knee joint and high degree of deformity which may need surgical treatment. Analysis of the leg movements in the experimental cases and comparing acquired results to the normal ones during the gait is used as a practical method to evaluate the effects of the disease. METHOD: In this study, gait differences between the patients with tibia vara and normal people were studied according to the data obtained from a three-dimensional (3D) motion analyzer. Various parameters, including positions, linear and angular velocities, linear and angular accelerations, total velocity, total acceleration, and path length at different angels were extracted and processed via a 3D motion analyzer. Then the results of the patient and control groups were compared to identify the differences. RESULTS: The maximum and average values as well as sample entropy were also calculated for all the mentioned parameters. Among all, only nine remarkable differences between these two groups were observed. The results revealed that the great difference between the patients with tibia vara compared to the normal ones in gait cycle lies on the abnormal movement of fibula bone and less irregularities along the z-axis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may have implications not only for understanding the differences between the tibia vara in the healthy and diseased individuals, but also for providing a practical understanding for the medical and orthopedic experts to propose a better treatment method.

  13. Abnormal neurological exam findings in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) versus psychiatric and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marc A; Donnell, Alison J; Kim, Michelle S; Vanderploeg, Rodney D

    2012-01-01

    In those with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), cognitive and emotional disturbances are often misattributed to that preexisting injury. However, causal determinations of current symptoms cannot be conclusively determined because symptoms are often nonspecific to etiology and offer virtually no differential diagnostic value in postacute or chronic phases. This population-based study examined whether the presence of abnormalities during neurological examination would distinguish between mTBI (in the chronic phase), healthy controls, and selected psychiatric conditions. Retrospective analysis of data from 4462 community-dwelling Army veterans was conducted. Diagnostically unique groups were compared on examination of cranial nerve function and other neurological signs. Results demonstrated that individuals with mTBI were no more likely than those with a major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, or somatoform disorder to show any abnormality. Thus, like self-reported cognitive and emotional symptoms, the presence of cranial nerve or other neurological abnormalities offers no differential diagnostic value. Clinical implications and study limitations are presented. PMID:23020281

  14. Healthy individuals treated with clomipramine: an fMRI study of brain activity during autobiographical recall of emotions.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, C T; Sato, J R; de Almeida, J R C; Amaro, E; Leite, C C; Gorenstein, C; Gentil, V; Busatto, G F

    2014-01-01

    Various functional magnetic resonance imaging studies addressed the effects of antidepressant drugs on brain functioning in healthy subjects; however, none specifically investigated positive mood changes to antidepressant drug. Sixteen subjects with no personal or family history of psychiatric disorders were selected from an ongoing 4-week open trial of small doses of clomipramine. Follow-up interviews documented clear positive treatment effects in six subjects, with reduced irritability and tension in social interactions, improved decision making, higher self-confidence and brighter mood. These subjects were then included in a placebo-controlled confirmatory trial and were scanned immediately after 4 weeks of clomipramine use and again 4 weeks after the last dose of clomipramine. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were run during emotion-eliciting stimuli. Repeated-measures analysis of variance of brain activity patterns showed significant interactions between group and treatment status during induced irritability (P<0.005 cluster-based) but not during happiness. Individuals displaying a positive subjective response do clomipramine had higher frontoparietal cortex activity during irritability than during happiness and neutral emotion, and higher temporo-parieto-occipital cortex activity during irritability than during happiness. We conclude that antidepressants not only induce positive mood responses but also act upon autobiographical recall of negative emotions. PMID:24984192

  15. Bridging Integrator 1 (BIN1) Genotype Effects on Working Memory, Hippocampal Volume, and Functional Connectivity in Young Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Yu, Jin-Tai; Li, Jin; Wang, Chao; Tan, Lan; Liu, Bing; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and exhibits a considerable level of heritability. The bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) gene has recently been identified in several large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) as the second most important risk locus for AD following apolipoprotein E (APOE). However, how and when the established genetic risk locus BIN1 rs744373 confers risk to late-onset AD has yet to be determined. Here using an imaging genetic strategy in large-sample Chinese subjects, we show that healthy homozygous carriers of the rs744373 risk allele exhibit worse high-load working memory (WM) performance, larger hippocampal volume and lower functional connectivity between the bilateral hippocampus and the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), mirroring clinical evidence of disturbed memory and connectivity in patients. Our findings demonstrate that rs744373 itself or a variation in linkage disequilibrium may provide a neurogenetic mechanism for BIN1 while further validating the possibility of combining genetic and neuroimaging strategies to monitor individuals at risk for AD. PMID:25630570

  16. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    PubMed

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity and

  17. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18–56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92–0.95; pain rating r = 0.93–0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87–0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity

  18. Validity and Reproducibility of an Incremental Sit-To-Stand Exercise Test for Evaluating Anaerobic Threshold in Young, Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Ohira, Masayoshi; Yokokawa, Yoshiharu; Nagasawa, Yuya

    2015-01-01

    Sit-to-stand exercise (STS) is a common activity of daily living. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to assess the validity of aerobic fitness measurements based on anaerobic thresholds (ATs), during incremental sit-to-stand exercise (ISTS) with and without arm support compared with an incremental cycle-ergometer (CE) test; and 2) to examine the reproducibility of the AT measured during the ISTSs. Twenty-six healthy individuals randomly performed the ISTS and CE test. Oxygen uptakes at the AT (AT-VO2) and heart rate at the AT (AT-HR) were determined during the ISTSs and CE test, and repeated-measures analyses of variance and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to evaluate the differences between these variables. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the strength of the relationship between AT-VO2 and AT-HR during the ISTSs and CE test. Data analysis yielded the following correlations: AT-VO2 during the ISTS with arm support and the CE test, r = 0.77 (p < 0.05); AT-VO2 during the ISTS without arm support and the CE test, r = 0.70 (p < 0.05); AT-HR during the ISTS with arm support and the CE test, r = 0.80 (p < 0.05); and AT-HR during the ISTS without arm support and the CE test, r = 0.66 (p < 0.05). The AT-VO2 values during the ISTS with arm support (18.5 ± 1.9 mL·min-1·kg-1) and the CE test (18.4 ± 1.8 mL·min-1·kg-1) were significantly higher than those during the ISTS without arm support (16.6 ± 1.8 mL·min-1·kg-1; p < 0.05). The AT-HR values during the ISTS with arm support (126 ± 10 bpm) and the CE test (126 ± 13 bpm) were significantly higher than those during the ISTS without arm support (119 ± 9 bpm; p < 0.05). The ISTS with arm support may provide a cardiopulmonary function load equivalent to the CE test; therefore, it is a potentially valid test for evaluating AT-VO2 and AT-HR in healthy, young adults. Key points The ISTS is a simple test that varies only according to the frequency of standing up, and requires only a small

  19. High-sweat Na+ in cystic fibrosis and healthy individuals does not diminish thirst during exercise in the heat

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, N. A.; Millard-Stafford, M.

    2011-01-01

    Sweat Na+ concentration ([Na+]) varies greatly among individuals and is particularly high in cystic fibrosis (CF). The purpose of this study was to determine whether excess sweat [Na+] differentially impacts thirst drive and other physiological responses during progressive dehydration via exercise in the heat. Healthy subjects with high-sweat [Na+] (SS) (91.0 ± 17.3 mmol/l), Controls with average sweat [Na+] (43.7 ± 9.9 mmol/l), and physically active CF patients with very high sweat [Na+] (132.6 ± 6.4 mmol/l) cycled in the heat without drinking until 3% dehydration. Serum osmolality increased less (P < 0.05) in CF (6.1 ± 4.3 mosmol/kgH2O) and SS (8.4 ± 3.0 mosmol/kgH2O) compared with Control (14.8 ± 3.5 mosmol/kgH2O). Relative change in plasma volume was greater (P < 0.05) in CF (−19.3 ± 4.5%) and SS (−18.8 ± 3.1%) compared with Control (−14.3 ± 2.3%). Thirst during exercise and changes in plasma levels of vasopressin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone relative to percent dehydration were not different among groups. However, ad libitum fluid replacement was 40% less, and serum NaCl concentration was lower for CF compared with SS and Control during recovery. Despite large variability in sweat electrolyte loss, thirst appears to be appropriately maintained during exercise in the heat as a linear function of dehydration, with relative contributions from hyperosmotic and hypovolemic stimuli dependent upon the magnitude of salt lost in sweat. CF exhibit lower ad libitum fluid restoration following dehydration, which may reflect physiological cues directed at preservation of salt balance over volume restoration. PMID:21813870

  20. High-sweat Na+ in cystic fibrosis and healthy individuals does not diminish thirst during exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Brown, M B; McCarty, N A; Millard-Stafford, M

    2011-10-01

    Sweat Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]) varies greatly among individuals and is particularly high in cystic fibrosis (CF). The purpose of this study was to determine whether excess sweat [Na(+)] differentially impacts thirst drive and other physiological responses during progressive dehydration via exercise in the heat. Healthy subjects with high-sweat [Na(+)] (SS) (91.0 ± 17.3 mmol/l), Controls with average sweat [Na(+)] (43.7 ± 9.9 mmol/l), and physically active CF patients with very high sweat [Na(+)] (132.6 ± 6.4 mmol/l) cycled in the heat without drinking until 3% dehydration. Serum osmolality increased less (P < 0.05) in CF (6.1 ± 4.3 mosmol/kgH(2)O) and SS (8.4 ± 3.0 mosmol/kgH(2)O) compared with Control (14.8 ± 3.5 mosmol/kgH(2)O). Relative change in plasma volume was greater (P < 0.05) in CF (-19.3 ± 4.5%) and SS (-18.8 ± 3.1%) compared with Control (-14.3 ± 2.3%). Thirst during exercise and changes in plasma levels of vasopressin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone relative to percent dehydration were not different among groups. However, ad libitum fluid replacement was 40% less, and serum NaCl concentration was lower for CF compared with SS and Control during recovery. Despite large variability in sweat electrolyte loss, thirst appears to be appropriately maintained during exercise in the heat as a linear function of dehydration, with relative contributions from hyperosmotic and hypovolemic stimuli dependent upon the magnitude of salt lost in sweat. CF exhibit lower ad libitum fluid restoration following dehydration, which may reflect physiological cues directed at preservation of salt balance over volume restoration. PMID:21813870

  1. A comprehensive review of auditory verbal hallucinations: lifetime prevalence, correlates and mechanisms in healthy and clinical individuals

    PubMed Central

    de Leede-Smith, Saskia; Barkus, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been documented across the lifespan in varied contexts, and with a range of potential long-term outcomes. Initially the emphasis focused on whether AVHs conferred risk for psychosis. However, recent research has identified significant differences in the presentation and outcomes of AVH in patients compared to those in non-clinical populations. For this reason, it has been suggested that auditory hallucinations are an entity by themselves and not necessarily indicative of transition along the psychosis continuum. This review will examine the presentation of auditory hallucinations across the life span, as well as in various clinical groups. The stages described include childhood, adolescence, adult non-clinical populations, hypnagogic/hypnopompic experiences, high schizotypal traits, schizophrenia, substance induced AVH, AVH in epilepsy, and AVH in the elderly. In children, need for care depends upon whether the child associates the voice with negative beliefs, appraisals and other symptoms of psychosis. This theme appears to carry right through to healthy voice hearers in adulthood, in which a negative impact of the voice usually only exists if the individual has negative experiences as a result of their voice(s). This includes features of the voices such as the negative content, frequency, and emotional valence as well as anxiety and depression, independently or caused by voices presence. It seems possible that the mechanisms which maintain AVH in non-clinical populations are different from those which are behind AVH presentations in psychotic illness. For example, the existence of maladaptive coping strategies in patient populations is one significant difference between clinical and non-clinical groups which is associated with a need for care. Whether or not these mechanisms start out the same and have differential trajectories is not yet evidenced. Future research needs to focus on the

  2. Gut Balance, a synbiotic supplement, increases fecal Lactobacillus paracasei but has little effect on immunity in healthy physically active individuals

    PubMed Central

    West, Nicholas P.; Pyne, David B.; Cripps, Allan; Christophersen, Claus T.; Conlon, Michael A.; Fricker, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Synbiotic supplements, which contain multiple functional ingredients, may enhance the immune system more than the use of individual ingredients alone. A double blind active controlled parallel trial over a 21 day exercise training period was conducted to evaluate the effect of Gut BalanceTM, which contains Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei (L. casei 431®), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis (BB-12®), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5®), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG®), two prebiotics (raftiline and raftilose) and bovine whey derived lactoferrin and immunoglobulins with acacia gum on fecal microbiota, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), gut permeability, salivary lactoferrin and serum cytokines. All subjects randomized were included in the analysis. There was a 9-fold (1.2-fold to 64-fold; 95% confidence intervals p = 0.03) greater increase in fecal L. paracasei numbers with Gut BalanceTM compared with acacia gum supplementation. Gut BalanceTM was associated with a 50% (-12% to 72%; p = 0.02) smaller increase in the concentration of serum IL-16 in comparison to acacia gum from pre- to post-study. No substantial effects of either supplement were evident in fecal SCFA concentrations, measures of mucosal immunity or GI permeability. Clinical studies are now required to determine whether Gut BalanceTM may exert beneficial GI health effects by increasing the recovery of fecal L. paracasei. Both supplements had little effect on immunity. Twenty-two healthy physically active male subjects (mean age = 33.9 ± 6.5 y) were randomly allocated to either daily prebiotic or synbiotic supplementation for 21 day. Saliva, blood, urine and fecal samples were collected pre-, mid- and post-intervention. Participants recorded patterns of physical activity on a self-reported questionnaire. PMID:22572834

  3. Immunodominant CD4+ T-cell responses to influenza A virus in healthy individuals focus on matrix 1 and nucleoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Zanker, Damien; Xiao, Kun; Wu, Chao; Zou, Quanming; Chen, Weisan

    2014-10-01

    Antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells are essential for effective virus-specific host responses, with recent human challenge studies (in volunteers) establishing their importance for influenza A virus (IAV)-specific immunity. However, while many IAV CD4(+) T cell epitopes have been identified, few are known to stimulate immunodominant CD4(+) T cell responses. Moreover, much remains unclear concerning the major antigen(s) responded to by the human CD4(+) T cells and the extents and magnitudes of these responses. We initiated a systematic screen of immunodominant CD4(+) T cell responses to IAV in healthy individuals. Using in vitro expanded-multispecificity IAV-specific T cell lines and individual IAV protein antigens produced by recombinant vaccinia viruses, we found that the internal matrix protein 1 (M1) and nucleoprotein (NP) were the immunodominant targets of CD4(+) T cell responses. Ten epitopes derived from M1 and NP were definitively characterized. Furthermore, epitope sequence conservation analysis established that immunodominance correlated with an increased frequency of mutations, reflecting the fact that these prominent epitopes are under greater selective pressure. Such evidence that particular CD4(+) T cells are important for protection/recovery is of value for the development of novel IAV vaccines and for our understanding of different profiles of susceptibility to these major pathogens. Importance: Influenza virus causes half a million deaths annually. CD4(+) T cell responses have been shown to be important for protection against influenza and for recovery. CD4(+) T cell responses are also critical for efficient CD8(+) T cell response and antibody response. As immunodominant T cells generally play a more important role, characterizing these immunodominant responses is critical for influenza vaccine development. We show here that the internal matrix protein 1 (M1) and nucleoprotein (NP), rather than the surface proteins reported previously, are the

  4. Immunodominant CD4+ T-Cell Responses to Influenza A Virus in Healthy Individuals Focus on Matrix 1 and Nucleoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Zanker, Damien; Xiao, Kun; Wu, Chao; Zou, Quanming

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigen-specific CD4+ T cells are essential for effective virus-specific host responses, with recent human challenge studies (in volunteers) establishing their importance for influenza A virus (IAV)-specific immunity. However, while many IAV CD4+ T cell epitopes have been identified, few are known to stimulate immunodominant CD4+ T cell responses. Moreover, much remains unclear concerning the major antigen(s) responded to by the human CD4+ T cells and the extents and magnitudes of these responses. We initiated a systematic screen of immunodominant CD4+ T cell responses to IAV in healthy individuals. Using in vitro expanded-multispecificity IAV-specific T cell lines and individual IAV protein antigens produced by recombinant vaccinia viruses, we found that the internal matrix protein 1 (M1) and nucleoprotein (NP) were the immunodominant targets of CD4+ T cell responses. Ten epitopes derived from M1 and NP were definitively characterized. Furthermore, epitope sequence conservation analysis established that immunodominance correlated with an increased frequency of mutations, reflecting the fact that these prominent epitopes are under greater selective pressure. Such evidence that particular CD4+ T cells are important for protection/recovery is of value for the development of novel IAV vaccines and for our understanding of different profiles of susceptibility to these major pathogens. IMPORTANCE Influenza virus causes half a million deaths annually. CD4+ T cell responses have been shown to be important for protection against influenza and for recovery. CD4+ T cell responses are also critical for efficient CD8+ T cell response and antibody response. As immunodominant T cells generally play a more important role, characterizing these immunodominant responses is critical for influenza vaccine development. We show here that the internal matrix protein 1 (M1) and nucleoprotein (NP), rather than the surface proteins reported previously, are the immunodominant

  5. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  6. Faecal carriage rate of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalised patients and healthy asymptomatic individuals coming for health check-up.

    PubMed

    Babu, Rachana; Kumar, Anil; Karim, Shamsul; Warrier, Sruthi; Nair, Suresh G; Singh, Sanjeev K; Biswas, Raja

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) in hospitalised and community patients is of significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to estimate the faecal carriage rate of ESBL-PE in hospitalised patients and healthy asymptomatic individuals coming for health check-up. Non-repetitive, consecutive stool samples from 480 adults (260 healthy individuals and 220 hospitalised patients) aged ≥18 years from November 2011 to July 2013 were screened using MacConkey agar supplemented with ceftazidime. All screen-positive isolates were identified to species level and were tested for ESBL production. Representative ESBL-PE isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing and multiplex ESBL PCR. The faecal carriage rate of ESBL-PE was found to be 62.7% among hospitalised patients and 33.8% among healthy asymptomatic individuals. The most common ESBL-PE was Escherichia coli (70.3% and 78.4% in hospitalised patients and healthy individuals, respectively), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (26.8% and 17.0%). ESBL-PE showed the highest sensitivity to carbapenems (85% and 100%, respectively), followed by amikacin (67.2% and 98%), cefoperazone/sulbactam (27.8% and 88.2%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (18% and 74.5%). Ciprofloxacin exhibited a high level of resistance among both groups. Molecular analysis for ESBL genes showed a predominance of the CTX-M gene. In conclusion, the faecal carriage rate of ESBL-PE among hospitalised patients was almost double that of healthy individuals. Carriage of carbapenem-resistant isolates is emerging among hospitalised patients. The spread of these organisms in the community merits radical measures to improve sanitation and implement antibiotic stewardship. PMID:27530858

  7. Carriage of Escherichia coli Producing CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase in Healthy Vietnamese Individuals.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thi Mai Huong; Hirai, Itaru; Ueda, Shuhei; Bui, Thi Kim Ngan; Hamamoto, Kouta; Toyosato, Takehiko; Le, Danh Tuyen; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2015-10-01

    Healthy carriage of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was examined by thrice collecting fecal samples from the same 199 healthy Vietnamese subjects every 6 months. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), identical PFGE patterns throughout the three samplings were not observed, although prevalence of E. coli in the subjects was around 50% in the three samplings. Our results suggested a short carriage period of the CTX-M-type ESBL-producing E. coli in healthy Vietnamese subjects. PMID:26195526

  8. Analysis of the Airway Microbiota of Healthy Individuals and Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by T-RFLP and Clone Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zakharkina, Tetyana; Heinzel, Elke; Koczulla, Rembert A.; Greulich, Timm; Rentz, Katharina; Pauling, Josch K.; Baumbach, Jan; Herrmann, Mathias; Grünewald, Christiane; Dienemann, Hendrik; von Müller, Lutz; Bals, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, inflammatory lung disease that affects a large number of patients and has significant impact. One hallmark of the disease is the presence of bacteria in the lower airways. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the detailed structure of microbial communities found in the lungs of healthy individuals and patients with COPD. Nine COPD patients as compared and 9 healthy individuals underwent flexible bronchoscopy and BAL was performed. Bacterial nucleic acids were subjected to terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length polymorphism and clone library analysis. Overall, we identified 326 T-RFLP band, 159 in patients and 167 in healthy controls. The results of the TRF analysis correlated partly with the data obtained from clone sequencing. Although the results of the sequencing showed high diversity, the genera Prevotella, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Fusobacterium, Megasphaera, Veillonella, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus constituted the major part of the core microbiome found in both groups. A TRF band possibly representing Pseudomonas sp. monoinfection was associated with a reduction of the microbial diversity. Non-cultural methods reveal the complexity of the pulmonary microbiome in healthy individuals and in patients with COPD. Alterations of the microbiome in pulmonary diseases are correlated with disease. PMID:23874580

  9. Age related differences of selected Hatha yoga practices on anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility of healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Kaushik; Chatterjee, Abhirup; Pal, Rameshwar; Tomer, Omveer S; Saha, Mantu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physiological benefits of yoga on volunteers of a particular age group are available. However, reports on efficacy of a specific yoga package on the populace of different age groups from similar occupational background is still very limited. Therefore, the present study was conducted to appraise the effect of a specific Hatha yoga package on anthropometric characteristics, flexibility and muscular strength of healthy individuals of different age groups from similar occupational trade. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 participants (Group All) from Indian Air Force ground personnel volunteered and age wise divided into 3 groups - (i) Group I (Gr. - I) (n1 = 27, 20-29 years), (ii) Group II (Gr. - II) (n2 = 21, 30-39 years) and (iii) Group III (Gr. - III) (n3 = 23, 40-49 years). All the participants undergone selected Hatha yoga training for 1 h daily for a period of 12 weeks. Parameters were recorded before and after the training. Pre and post training differences were assessed by Student's t-test. Results: Body weight (All, Gr. - II and Gr. - III [all P < 0.05]), body mass index (Gr. - II and Gr. - III [both P < 0.01]) and fat% (Gr. - II and III [both P < 0.05]) were decreased significantly. Neck circumference was increased significantly in Gr. - I (P < 0.05) but decreased significantly in Gr. - III (P < 0.05). Chest circumference (All (P < 0.001), in Gr. - I and II [both P < 0.05]), grip strength (All [left: P < 0.01 and right: P < 0.05], in Gr. - I [left: P < 0.05 and right: P < 0.01], in Gr. - II [right: P < 0.05] and in Gr. - III [left: P < 0.05 and right: P < 0.01]), back leg strength (group wise P < 0.001, P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 respectively) and flexibility (all P < 0.001) were increased significantly. Summary and Conclusion: Hatha yoga can improve anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility among volunteers of different age group and can also be helpful in preventing and attenuating age related deterioration of

  10. Generating genius: how an Alzheimer’s drug became considered a ‘cognitive enhancer’ for healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, has been widely cited in media and bioethics literature on cognitive enhancement (CE) as having the potential to improve the cognitive ability of healthy individuals. In both literatures, this claim has been repeatedly supported by the results of a small study published by Yesavage et al. in 2002 on non-demented pilots (30–70 years old). The factors contributing to this specific interpretation of this study’s results are unclear. Methods We examined print media and interdisciplinary bioethics coverage of this small study, aiming to provide insight into how evidence from research may be shaped within different discourses, potentially influencing important policy, ethics, and clinical decisions. Systematic qualitative content analysis was used to examine how this study was reported in 27 media and 22 bioethics articles. Articles were analyzed for content related to: (1) headlines and titles; (2) colloquialisms; and, (3) accuracy of reporting of the characteristics and results of the study. Results In media and bioethics articles referencing this small study, strong claims were made about donepezil as a CE drug. The majority of headlines, titles, and colloquialisms used enhancement language and the majority of these suggest that donepezil could be used to enhance intellectual ability. Further, both literatures moved between reporting the results of the primary study and magnifying the perceived connection between these results and the CE debate that was alluded to in the primary study. Specific descriptions of the results overwhelmingly reported an improvement in performance on a flight simulator, while more general statements claimed donepezil enhanced cognitive performance. Further, a high level of reporting accuracy was found regarding study characteristics of the original study, but variable levels of accuracy surrounded the presentation of complex

  11. Variable profile of individual heart rate responses to cold water immersion apnea in healthy late adolescent men.

    PubMed

    Wierzba, Tomasz H; Musiał, Paweł; Cwikałowska, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Holding breath combined with immersion of face in cool water induces diving reflex consisting in bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and preferential redistribution of blood to the vital organs. The individual responses are variable, highly expressed in young children to weaken with age. Detailed assessment of the cardiac response to diving in late adolescents who are mostly prone to unexpected diving experiments and related complications are of practical importance. The study was performed to the investigate the heart rate (HR) response to controlled breath-hold diving in cold water in young healthy late adolescents aged 17.5 - 20.4. Twenty volunteers performed a procedure consisting in immersion of face in cold water during possibly long breath-holding. Beat-to-beat HR was assessed from the continuous ECG recording. Average diving time (tD) was 77.5±10.5 s, ranging from 61.7 to 95.4 s. Apnea and face immersion induced a biphasic response: an increase in HR was followed by its gradual decrease to reach a final limit of the response 47.7±9.0 beats/min at 55.2±16.1 s of dive. Within a variable time course of the evoked responses, two patterns of the HR decrease were distinguished: monoexponential decay functions fitted best for 8 (40%) subjects with a constant rate τ 31.3±11.4 s-1, whereas the 60% majority displayed a two phase negative chronotropic effect with constant rates: τ1 10.3±4.2 s-1 and τ1 25.5±10.1 s-1. The initial, anticipatory excitation influenced the HR response: the higher was the initial HR increase, the more pronounced was bradycardia. Disturbances of heart rhythm were observed in majority of subjects: supraventricular ectopic beats (40%), ventricular beats (20%), I-degree AV block (30%), II-degree Mobitz I block (15%), junctional rhythm (60%). In one case pair of ventricular ectopic beats looked severe and the trial was rapidly terminated. In conclusion, the unquestionable potency of late adolescents towards diving challenges

  12. Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy vs standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A non-randomized, age-matched single center trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Yoen TK; Bosscha, Koop; Prins, Hubert A; Lips, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the safety of single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomies with standard four-port cholecystectomies. METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2012 datas were gathered from 100 consecutive patients who received a single-port cholecystectomy. Patient baseline characteristics of all 100 single-port cholecystectomies were collected (body mass index, age, etc.) in a database. This group was compared with 100 age-matched patients who underwent a conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the same period. Retrospectively, per- and postoperative data were added. The two groups were compared to each other using independent t-tests and χ2-tests, P values below 0.05 were considered significantly different. RESULTS: No differences were found between both groups regarding baseline characteristics. Operating time was significantly shorter in the total single-port group (42 min vs 62 min, P < 0.05); in procedures performed by surgeons the same trend was seen (45 min vs 59 min, P < 0.05). Peroperative complications between both groups were equal (3 in the single-port group vs 5 in the multiport group; P = 0.42). Although not significant less postoperative complications were seen in the single-port group compared with the multiport group (3 vs 9; P = 0.07). No statistically significant differences were found between both groups with regard to length of hospital stay, readmissions and mortality. CONCLUSION: Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy has the potential to be a safe technique with a low complication rate, short in-hospital stay and comparable operating time. Single-port cholecystectomy provides the patient an almost non-visible scar while preserving optimal quality of surgery. Further prospective studies are needed to prove the safety of the single-port technique. PMID:26328034

  13. Levels and Age Dependency of Neurofilament Light and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein in Healthy Individuals and Their Relation to the Brain Parenchymal Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Vågberg, Mattias; Norgren, Niklas; Dring, Ann; Lindqvist, Thomas; Birgander, Richard; Zetterberg, Henrik; Svenningsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurofilament light (NFL) and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) are integral parts of the axonal and astrocytal cytoskeletons respectively and are released into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in cases of cellular damage. In order to interpret the levels of these biomarkers in disease states, knowledge on normal levels in the healthy is required. Another biomarker for neurodegeneration is brain atrophy, commonly measured as brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Potential correlations between levels of NFL, GFAP and BPF in healthy individuals have not been investigated. Objectives To present levels of NFL and GFAP in healthy individuals stratified for age, and investigate the correlation between them as well as their correlation with BPF. Methods The CSF was analysed in 53 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 70 (1 sample missing for GFAP analysis) and 48 of the volunteers underwent determination of BPF using MRI. Results Mean (±SD) NFL was 355 ng/L (±214), mean GFAP was 421 ng/L (±129) and mean BPF was 0.867 (±0.035). All three biomarkers correlated with age. NFL also correlated with both GFAP and BPF. When controlled for age, only the correlation between NFL and GFAP retained statistical significance. Conclusions This study presents data on age-stratified levels of NFL and GFAP in the CSF of healthy individuals. There is a correlation between levels of NFL and GFAP and both increase with age. A correlation between NFL and BPF was also found, but did not retain statistical significance if controlled for age. PMID:26317831

  14. Metabonomic Profiling of Serum and Urine by 1H NMR-Based Spectroscopy Discriminates Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuo; Mao, Shitao; Ling, Yuan; Liu, Dan; He, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xiaoge

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has seriously impacted the health of individuals and populations. In this study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)-based metabonomics combined with multivariate pattern recognition analysis was applied to investigate the metabolic signatures of patients with COPD. Serum and urine samples were collected from COPD patients (n = 32) and healthy controls (n = 21), respectively. Samples were analyzed by high resolution 1H NMR (600 MHz), and the obtained spectral profiles were then subjected to multivariate data analysis. Consistent metabolic differences have been found in serum as well as in urine samples from COPD patients and healthy controls. Compared to healthy controls, COPD patients displayed decreased lipoprotein and amino acids, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), and increased glycerolphosphocholine in serum. Moreover, metabolic differences in urine were more significant than in serum. Decreased urinary 1-methylnicotinamide, creatinine and lactate have been discovered in COPD patients in comparison with healthy controls. Conversely, acetate, ketone bodies, carnosine, m-hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetyglycine, pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate exhibited enhanced expression levels in COPD patients relative to healthy subjects. Our results illustrate the potential application of NMR-based metabonomics in early diagnosis and understanding the mechanisms of COPD. PMID:23755267

  15. The Frontal Hypothesis of Cognitive Aging: Factor Structure and Age Effects on Four "Frontal Tests" among Healthy Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Aranda, Claudia; Sundet, Kjetil

    2006-01-01

    With 101 healthy aging adult participants, the authors investigated whether executive functions are a unitary concept. The authors established the factor structure of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST; E. A. Berg, 1948), the Stroop color and word test (C. J. Golden, 1978), verbal fluency using the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT;…

  16. Effect of tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine on immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in healthy individuals with insufficient immune response

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Maryam; Haghighat, Abbas; Salehi, Hassan; Taleban, Roya; Salehi, Marzieh; Kalbasi, Nader; Moafi, Mohammad; Salehi, Mohammad Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) fails to produce appropriate immune responses in some healthy individuals; thus, different strategies have been adopted to promote immune responses. The current study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of HBV vaccine coadministered with tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine compared with HBV vaccine in healthy individuals through measuring hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) levels. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled clinical trial, which was implemented in Isfahan, Isfahan Province (Iran) in 2013. One hundred and forty healthy individuals, whose HBsAb titers were less than 10 IU/L were recruited. The subjects were randomly assigned to either in intervention or control trials. The control group received 40 μg of recombinant HBV vaccines intramuscularly injected at 0, 1, and 6 months; however, the intervention group was simultaneously vaccinated by Td with the first dose of HBV vaccine. HBV antibody levels (titer) were measured before the vaccination and 6 months after the last vaccination. Results: Antibody titers of the subjects in the intervention and control groups increased from 5.07 ± 2.9 IU/L to 744.45 ± 353.07 IU/L and from 4.45 ± 3.4 IU/L to 589.94 ± 353 IU/L, respectively (both P < 0.001). Also, the mean difference of antibody titer was significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.011). Conclusion: Td vaccination can be applied as a feasible approach to promote efficient and persistent immunity in healthy individuals with insufficient HBsAb titers. PMID:26929760

  17. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography for Tear Meniscus Evaluation and its Correlation with other Tear Variables in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Dhasmana, Renu; Nagpal, Ramesh Chander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dry eye is one of the most common ocular diseases in this cyber era. Despite availability of multiple tests, no single test is accurate for the diagnosis of dry eye. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography is the recent tool which can be added in the armentarium of dry eye tests. Aim To evaluate tear meniscus with anterior segment optical coherence tomography and its correlation with other tear variables in normal healthy individuals. Materials and Methods In this prospective cross-sectional observational study, right eye of 203 consecutive patients were studied. All the patients were divided into three groups Group 1, 2 and 3 according to their age ≤20 years, 21-40 years and >40 years respectively. All patients underwent routine ophthalmologic examinations along with slit-lamp bio-microscopy for tear meniscus height measurement, tear film break up time, Schirmer’s I test (with anaesthesia) and optical coherence tomography imaging of inferior tear meniscus height. After focusing of the instrument with a Cross Line (CL) centered on lower tear meniscus at 6’0 clock of cornea, a 6 mm long scan was obtained. The tear meniscus height (μm) and tear meniscus area (mm2) were measured manually with help of callipers by joining upper corneo-meniscus junction to the lower lid-meniscus junction and tear meniscus height and area within the plotted line respectively and calculated by using the integrated analysis available in the custom software. Results There was significant decrease in the all tear variables with the increase in the age. According to age groups in group 1, the mean Schirmer’s (24.0±4.9)mm, tear film break up time (11.1±1.9) sec, tear meniscus height on slit lamp (600.2±167.3)mm were higher but decreased in group 2 (21.5±5.4,10.8±1.4, 597.5±186.3) and group 3 (19.8 ± 5.1, 10.2 ± 1.6, 485.6 ± 157.7) respectively. Schirmer’s test values and tear film break up time were similar in both sexes (p=0.1 and p= 0.9). Tear meniscus

  18. Comparison Between Strength of Muscles Rotating the Knee in Healthy Individuals and Patients one Year after an ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Popieluch, Marcın; Śmigıelski, Robert; Straszewski, Darıusz; Plenzler, Marcın; Stanıszewski, Mıchał

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In this study we have made an attempt to establish torque value of the muscles rotating the knee of patients who had ruptured their ACLs during an amateur football practise on an artificial turf. In this study we presented biomechanical research on torques of muscles responsible for internal and external rotation of the lower leg. We presented a method whereby it is possible to measure the muscle strength before and after the ACL rupture but also during the process of rehabilitation and after its finish. The available literature on measurements of torque of the knee is quite extensive though it mainly describes torques of muscles flexing and extending the joint. In Polish literature there is scarcity of studies focused on torques of muscles rotating the knee. In foreign literature there is an increasing emphasis on the role of lower leg rotation, as the element greatly impacting, for instance, the position of the foot. Methods: The study presents results of 22 patients and 50 healthy individuals (not practising any particular sport regularly) being the control group. All patients had their ACLs reconstructed using the double-bundle technique. The material for the graft was obtained from the hamstrings. The aim was to measure the maximal torque of the muscles responsible for external and internal rotation of the knee (lower leg in a static state using a special device). The device allowed measurement of the torque of muscles rotating the lower leg in its axis by stabilizing the ankle with special emphasis on foot mounting (stabilization of footwear). The special device was connected to a PC with CPS/HMF software. The software enabled observation and recording of increase in the value of the torque until it reached its maximum. The measurements were taken in two knee positions: 30 degrees and 90 degrees flexion. Results: The result were analyzed statistically, means and SDs were calculated. Only right-legged subjects were included in the analysis. The

  19. Differences in Plantar Flexor Fascicle Length and Pennation Angle between Healthy and Poststroke Individuals and Implications for Poststroke Plantar Flexor Force Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, John W.; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Higginson, Jill S.

    2014-01-01

    Poststroke plantar flexor muscle weakness has been attributed to muscle atrophy and impaired activation, which cannot collectively explain the limitations in force-generating capability of the entire muscle group. It is of interest whether changes in poststroke plantar flexor muscle fascicle length and pennation angle influence the individual force-generating capability and whether plantar flexor weakness is due to uniform changes in individual muscle force contributions. Fascicle lengths and pennation angles for the soleus, medial, and lateral gastrocnemius were measured using ultrasound and compared between ten hemiparetic poststroke subjects and ten healthy controls. Physiological cross-sectional areas and force contributions to poststroke plantar flexor torque were estimated for each muscle. No statistical differences were observed for any muscle fascicle lengths or for the lateral gastrocnemius and soleus pennation angles between paretic, nonparetic, and healthy limbs. There was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the paretic medial gastrocnemius pennation angle compared to both nonparetic and healthy limbs. Physiological cross-sectional areas and force contributions were smaller on the paretic side. Additionally, bilateral muscle contributions to plantar flexor torque remained the same. While the architecture of each individual plantar flexor muscle is affected differently after stroke, the relative contribution of each muscle remains the same. PMID:25147753

  20. Changes in cortical slow wave activity in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Leirer, Vera Maria; Wienbruch, Christian; Kolassa, Stephan; Schlee, Winfried; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2011-09-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated enhanced slow wave activity associated with pathological brain function e.g. in stroke patients, schizophrenia, depression, Morbus Alzheimer, and post-traumatic stress disorder. However, the association between slow wave activity and healthy aging has remained largely unexplored. This study examined whether the frequency at which focal generators of delta waves appear in the healthy cerebral cortex changes with age and whether this measure relates to cognitive performance. We investigated 53 healthy individuals aged 18 to 89 years and assessed MEG during a resting condition. Generators of focal magnetic slow waves were localized. Results showed a significant influence of age: dipole density decreases with increasing age. The relationship between cognitive performance and delta dipole density was not significant. The results suggest that in healthy aging slow waves decrease with aging and emphasize the importance of age-matched control groups for further studies. Increased appearance of slow waves as a marker for pathological stages can only be detected in relation to a control group of the same age. PMID:21698438

  1. Effect of verbal persuasion on self-efficacy for pain-related diagnostic sensory testing in individuals with chronic neck pain and healthy controls - a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Söderlund, Anne; Sterling, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in cold pain threshold (CTh), pressure pain threshold (PPT), cold pain tolerance (CPTo) tests, and the level of self-efficacy when self-efficacy for diagnostic sensory testing was manipulated by verbal persuasion before a testing situation in persons with neck pain and in healthy controls. A randomized experimental design was used. Twenty-one healthy volunteers and 22 individuals with either traumatic or nontraumatic chronic neck pain were recruited to participate in the study. The intervention consisted of two experimental verbal persuasion conditions: Increase self-efficacy and Decrease self-efficacy. The PPT was measured using a pressure algometer, the CTh was measured using a thermo test system, and CPTo was measured by submerging the participant's hand in ice water up to the elbow joint. On three occasions, the participants reported their self-efficacy level in performing the sensory tests. In the chronic neck pain group, there were no differences in pain threshold or tolerance. There was a difference in the self-efficacy level after verbal persuasion between the experimental conditions. In the healthy control group, the CThs increased following the condition that aimed to increase self-efficacy. No other differences were observed in the healthy controls. A short verbal persuasion in the form of manipulative instructions seems to have a marginal effect on the individual's self-efficacy levels in the chronic neck pain group and a slight influence on the results of sensory testing in healthy controls. PMID:27022298

  2. The Attentional Fields of Visual Search in Simultanagnosia and Healthy Individuals: How Object and Space Attention Interact.

    PubMed

    Khan, A Z; Prost-Lefebvre, M; Salemme, R; Blohm, G; Rossetti, Y; Tilikete, C; Pisella, L

    2016-03-01

    Simultanagnosia is a deficit in which patients are unable to perceive multiple objects simultaneously. To date, it remains disputed whether this deficit results from disrupted object or space perception. We asked both healthy participants as well as a patient with simultanagnosia to perform different visual search tasks of variable difficulty. We also modulated the number of objects (target and distracters) presented. For healthy participants, we found that each visual search task was performed with a specific "attentional field" depending on the difficulty of visual object processing but not on the number of objects falling within this "working space." This was demonstrated by measuring the cost in reaction times using different gaze-contingent visible window sizes. We found that bilateral damage to the superior parietal lobule impairs the spatial integration of separable features (within-object processing), shrinking the attentional field in which a target can be detected, but causing no deficit in processing multiple objects per se. PMID:25840422

  3. Test-retest reliability of a new technique with pressure algometry applied to teeth in healthy Chinese individuals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran; Gu, Xinyu; Zhang, Jinglu; Yu, Linfeng; Chen, Wenjing; Wang, Kelun; Svensson, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) have been shown to be useful measures of mechanical pain sensitivity in deep tissues. However, clinical methods for measuring mechanical allodynia or hyperalgesia in teeth have not been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of PPTs in periodontal ligament of healthy Chinese participants. Twenty healthy young adults participated. Pressure pain thresholds were measured at six teeth and in two directions. The tests included three consecutive trials, in two separate sessions, which were performed on the first day by one examiner. After 1-3 wk, an identical protocol was carried out by two examiners, also in two separate sessions. There were no significant differences between repeated measures for all teeth. The PPTs had excellent reliability with high intraclass coefficients (ICCs) across different sessions (ICC: 0.871-0.956), days (ICC: 0.879-0.951), and examiners (ICC: 0.845-0.950). Pressure pain thresholds applied to the teeth have excellent intra- and inter-examiner agreement in healthy participants. This method may be proposed as an easy and reliable technique to assess mechanical pain sensitivity (e.g. mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia) in the periodontal ligament, which is associated with endodontic or periodontal conditions. PMID:27017942

  4. Interaction effect between handedness and CNTNAP2 polymorphism (rs7794745 genotype) on voice-specific frontotemporal activity in healthy individuals: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Koeda, Michihiko; Watanabe, Atsushi; Tsuda, Kumiko; Matsumoto, Miwako; Ikeda, Yumiko; Kim, Woochan; Tateno, Amane; Naing, Banyar Than; Karibe, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Takashi; Suzuki, Hidenori; Matsuura, Masato; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that Contactin-associated protein-like2 (CNTNAP2) polymorphisms affect left-hemispheric function of language processing in healthy individuals, but no study has investigated the influence of these polymorphisms on right-hemispheric function involved in human voice perception. Further, although recent reports suggest that determination of handedness is influenced by genetic effect, the interaction effect between handedness and CNTNAP2 polymorphisms for brain activity in human voice perception and language processing has not been revealed. We aimed to investigate the interaction effect of handedness and CNTNAP2 polymorphisms in respect to brain function for human voice perception and language processing in healthy individuals. Brain function of 108 healthy volunteers (74 right-handed and 34 non-right-handed) was examined while they were passively listening to reverse sentences (rSEN), identifiable non-vocal sounds (SND), and sentences (SEN). Full factorial design analysis was calculated by using three factors: (1) rs7794745 (A/A or A/T), (2) rs2710102 [G/G or A carrier (A/G and A/A)], and (3) voice-specific response (rSEN or SND). The main effect of rs7794745 (A/A or A/T) was significantly revealed at the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG). This result suggests that rs7794745 genotype affects voice-specific brain function. Furthermore, interaction effect was significantly observed among MFG-STG activations by human voice perception, rs7794745 (A/A or A/T), and handedness. These results suggest that CNTNAP2 polymorphisms could be one of the important factors in the neural development related to vocal communication and language processing in both right-handed and non-right-handed healthy individuals. PMID:25941478

  5. On the Prevalence of M. avium Subspecies paratuberculosis DNA in the Blood of Healthy Individuals and Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Juste, Ramon A.; Elguezabal, Natalia; Garrido, Joseba M.; Pavon, Andres; Geijo, Maria V.; Sevilla, Iker; Cabriada, Jose-Luis; Tejada, Angel; García-Campos, Francisco; Casado, Roberto; Ochotorena, Itziar; Izeta, Ander; Greenstein, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Mycobacteria, such as M. leprae and M. tuberculosis infect billions of humans. However, because of appropriate immune responses and antibiotic therapy, overt mycobacterial diseases occur far less frequently. M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease in ruminants, an affliction evocative of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Several agents used to treat IBD (5-ASA, methotrexate, azathioprine and its metabolite 6-MP) have recently been shown to be antiMAP antibiotics. We herein evaluate the prevalence of MAP DNA in healthy individuals and compare them with IBD patients on antiMAP antibiotics. Methods We studied 100 healthy individuals (90 blood donors) and 246 patients with IBD. IS900 MAP DNA was identified using a nested primer PCR in the buffy coat of blood. Positive signal was confirmed as MAP by DNA sequence analysis. PCR positive results frequencies were compared according to medications used. Significance was accepted at p<0.05. Results 47% (47/100) healthy controls and 16% (40/246) IBD patients were IS900 positive (p<0.0001). MAP DNA was identified in 17% of 143 patients receiving mesalamine and 6% of 16 receiving sulfasalazine. None of the IBD patients receiving methotrexate (n = 9), 6-MP (n = 3), ciprofloxacin (n = 5) or Tacrolimus® (n = 3) had MAP DNA detectable in their blood. Discussion We found a disquietingly large percentage of healthy individuals have MAP DNA in their blood, the significance of which remains to be determined. Counter-intuitively, the incidence of MAP DNA was significantly lower in patients with IBD. Agents with the most potent in vitro antiMAP activity were associated with clearance of blood MAP DNA. We posit that the use antiMAP antibiotics was responsible for the decreased prevalence of MAP DNA in patients with IBD. PMID:18596984

  6. Influences of Electromagnetic Articulography Sensors on Speech Produced by Healthy Adults and Individuals with Aphasia and Apraxia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, William F.; Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Stettler, Monica P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether the intraoral transducers used in electromagnetic articulography (EMA) interfere with speech and whether there is an added risk of interference when EMA systems are used to study individuals with aphasia and apraxia. Method: Ten adult talkers (5 individuals with aphasia/apraxia, 5 controls) produced 12 American…

  7. Torque Teno Midi Virus/Small Anellovirus in Sera of Healthy, HIV/HCV and HIV Infected Individuals in Lorestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fatholahi, Maryam; Bouzari, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Torque Teno Midi Virus/Small Anellovirus (TTMDV/SAV) is a member of the Gammatorquevirus genus within the family Anelloviridae. It is detected in healthy, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and HIV infected individuals and also patients with acute respiratory disease in different countries, but its role in clinical diseases and its full geographical distribution is still unclear. Objectives: The current study aimed to detect the frequency of infection with TTMDV/SAV in the sera of healthy blood donors, hepatitis C infected and HIV positive individuals in Lorestan province, Iran; and also investigate the possible role of TTMDV/SAV virus in liver diseases. Materials and Methods: Fifty two, 36, 4, and 110 serum samples from HIV positive, patients with HIV/HCV and HIV/HCV/HBV co-infections, and healthy individuals were collected in Khorramabad city, respectively. Nested-polymerase chain reaction was performed using SMAs/SMAr primers to detect TTMDV/SAV DNA. Serum aminotransferases were measured. Results: In the HIV/HCV, HIV/HCV/HBV, HIV, and control cases, 29 (80.5%), 3 (75%), 43 (82.7%), and 16 (14.5%) were positive for DNA of TTMDV/SAV, respectively. In the HIV/HCV infected cases and HIV positive cases the level of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were not significantly different in TTMDV/SAV infected and non-infected individuals (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Although significant differences (P < 0.01) were observed in the frequency of TTMDV/SAV between healthy controls and each of the HIV positive and HIV/HCV co-infected individuals, no significant difference was observed between HIV positive and HIV/HCV co-infected cases, which may be due to HIV associated immunodeficiency. This is the first time that TTMDV/SAV is reported in HIV infected individuals worldwide. Interpretation of the high frequency of the virus (82.7%) in HIV cases needs more detailed studies. PMID:26862377

  8. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  9. Subcortical brain volume abnormalities in 2028 individuals with schizophrenia and 2540 healthy controls via the ENIGMA consortium.

    PubMed

    van Erp, T G M; Hibar, D P; Rasmussen, J M; Glahn, D C; Pearlson, G D; Andreassen, O A; Agartz, I; Westlye, L T; Haukvik, U K; Dale, A M; Melle, I; Hartberg, C B; Gruber, O; Kraemer, B; Zilles, D; Donohoe, G; Kelly, S; McDonald, C; Morris, D W; Cannon, D M; Corvin, A; Machielsen, M W J; Koenders, L; de Haan, L; Veltman, D J; Satterthwaite, T D; Wolf, D H; Gur, R C; Gur, R E; Potkin, S G; Mathalon, D H; Mueller, B A; Preda, A; Macciardi, F; Ehrlich, S; Walton, E; Hass, J; Calhoun, V D; Bockholt, H J; Sponheim, S R; Shoemaker, J M; van Haren, N E M; Hulshoff Pol, H E; Pol, H E H; Ophoff, R A; Kahn, R S; Roiz-Santiañez, R; Crespo-Facorro, B; Wang, L; Alpert, K I; Jönsson, E G; Dimitrova, R; Bois, C; Whalley, H C; McIntosh, A M; Lawrie, S M; Hashimoto, R; Thompson, P M; Turner, J A

    2016-04-01

    The profile of brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia is still not fully understood, despite decades of research using brain scans. To validate a prospective meta-analysis approach to analyzing multicenter neuroimaging data, we analyzed brain MRI scans from 2028 schizophrenia patients and 2540 healthy controls, assessed with standardized methods at 15 centers worldwide. We identified subcortical brain volumes that differentiated patients from controls, and ranked them according to their effect sizes. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia had smaller hippocampus (Cohen's d=-0.46), amygdala (d=-0.31), thalamus (d=-0.31), accumbens (d=-0.25) and intracranial volumes (d=-0.12), as well as larger pallidum (d=0.21) and lateral ventricle volumes (d=0.37). Putamen and pallidum volume augmentations were positively associated with duration of illness and hippocampal deficits scaled with the proportion of unmedicated patients. Worldwide cooperative analyses of brain imaging data support a profile of subcortical abnormalities in schizophrenia, which is consistent with that based on traditional meta-analytic approaches. This first ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group study validates that collaborative data analyses can readily be used across brain phenotypes and disorders and encourages analysis and data sharing efforts to further our understanding of severe mental illness. PMID:26033243

  10. Delayed effect of Kinesio Taping on neuromuscular performance, balance, and lower limb function in healthy individuals: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lins, Caio A. A.; Borges, Daniel T.; Macedo, Liane B.; Costa, Karinna S. A.; Brasileiro, Jamilson S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Kinesio Taping (KT) is an elastic bandage that aims to improve neuromuscular performance, although there is no consensus as to its benefits. Objective To analyze the immediate and delayed effects of KT on the neuromuscular performance of the femoral quadriceps, on balance, and lower limb function in healthy subjects. Method This is a randomized controlled trial. Thirty-six women with a mean age of 22.2±3.6 years and BMI of 22.5±2.3 Kg/m2 were divided into three groups: control, with ten minutes of rest (control, n=12), application of Kinesio Taping without tension (placebo, n=12) and with tension (KT, n=12) on the quadriceps. The primary outcome was isokinetic performance, while secondary outcomes were the single-hop test, one-footed static balance, and electromyographic activity. The evaluations were carried out in five stages: 1) before application of KT, 2) immediately after the application of KT, 3) after 24h, 4) after 48h, and 5) after 72h. Mixed ANOVA was used to determine differences between groups. Results There was no change in one-footed static balance, electromyographic activity of the VL in the lower limb function, nor in isokinetic performance between groups. Conclusion KT promotes neither immediate nor delayed changes in neuromuscular performance of the femoral quadriceps in healthy women. PMID:27437714

  11. Novel Form of Curcumin Improves Endothelial Function in Young, Healthy Individuals: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Lee; Rowlands, David S.; Caldwell, Aaron R.; Sanders, Elizabeth; Kreutzer, Andreas; Mitchell, Joel B.; Purpura, Martin; Jäger, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a turmeric extract, may protect against cardiovascular diseases by enhancing endothelial function. In this randomized controlled double-blind parallel prospective study, fifty-nine healthy adults were assigned to placebo, 50 mg (50 mg), or 200 mg (200 mg) curcumin, for 8 weeks. The higher curcumin (200 mg) supplementation produced a dose-mediated improvement in endothelial function measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The outcome was a clinically substantial 3.0% increase (90% CI 0.7 to 5.3%, p = 0.032; benefit : harm odds ratio 546 : 1) with the 200 mg dose, relative to placebo. The 50 mg dose also increased FMD relative to placebo by 1.7% (−0.6 to 4.0%, p = 0.23; 25 : 1), but the outcome was not clinically decisive. In apparently healthy adults, 8 weeks of 200 mg oral curcumin supplementation resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in endothelial function as measured by FMD. Oral curcumin supplementation may present a simple lifestyle strategy for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This trial was registered at ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN90184217).

  12. No short-term effects of calorie-controlled Mediterranean or fast food dietary interventions on established biomarkers of vascular or metabolic risk in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Parcina, Marijo; Kaese, Vareska; Zorn, Markus; Spiegel, Rainer; Vojvoda, Valerija; Fleming, Thomas; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Paul Nawroth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study addressed the question whether the composition of supposedly 'healthy' or 'unhealthy' dietary regimes has a calorie-independent short-term effect on biomarkers of metabolic stress and vascular risk in healthy individuals. SUBJECTS/METHODS Healthy male volunteers (age 29.5 ± 5.9 years, n = 39) were given a standardized baseline diet for two weeks before randomization into three groups of different dietary regimes: fast food, Mediterranean and German cooking style. Importantly, the amount of calories consumed per day was identical in all three groups. Blood samples were analyzed for biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and metabolic stress after two weeks of the baseline diet and after two weeks of the assigned dietary regime. RESULTS No dietary intervention affected the metabolic or cardiovascular risk profile when compared in-between groups or compared to baseline. Subjects applied to the Mediterranean diet showed a statistically significant increase of uric acid compared to baseline and compared to the German diet group. Plasma concentrations of urea were significantly higher in both the fast food group and the Mediterranean group, when compared to baseline and compared to the German diet group. No significant differences were detected for the levels of vitamins, trace elements or metabolic stress markers (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde and methylglyoxal, a potent glycating agent). Established parameters of vascular risk (e.g. LDL-cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine) were not significantly changed in-between groups or compared to baseline during the intervention period. CONCLUSIONS The calorie-controlled dietary intervention caused neither protective nor harmful short-term effects regarding established biomarkers of vascular or metabolic risk. When avoiding the noxious effects of overfeeding, healthy individuals can possess the metabolic capacity to compensate for a potentially disadvantageous composition of a

  13. Quality of life in mentally ill, physically ill and healthy individuals: The validation of the Greek version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100) questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Ginieri-Coccossis, Maria; Triantafillou, Eugenia; Tomaras, Vlasis; Liappas, Ioannis A; Christodoulou, George N; Papadimitriou, George N

    2009-01-01

    Objective The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100) questionnaire is a generic quality of life (QoL) measurement tool used in various cultural and social settings and across different patient and healthy populations. The present study examines the psychometric properties of the Greek version, with an emphasis on the ability of the instrument to capture QoL differences between mentally ill, physically ill and healthy individuals. Methods A total of 425 Caucasian participants were tested, as to form 3 groups: (a) 124 psychiatric patients (schizophrenia n = 87, alcohol abuse/dependence n = 37), (b) 234 patients with physical illness (hypertension n = 139, cancer n = 95), and (c) 67 healthy control individuals. Results Confirmatory factor analysis was performed indicating that a four-factor model can provide an adequate instrument structure for the participating groups (GFI 0.92). Additionally, internal consistency of the instrument was shown to be acceptable, with Cronbach's α values ranging from 0.78 to 0.90 regarding the four -domain model, and from 0.40 to 0.90 regarding the six-domain one. Evidence based on Pearson's r and Independent samples t-test indicated satisfactory test/retest reliability, as well as good convergent validity tested with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the Life Satisfaction Inventory (LSI). Furthermore, using Independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA, the instrument demonstrated good discriminatory ability between healthy, mentally ill and physically ill participants, as well as within the distinct patient groups of schizophrenic, alcohol dependent, hypertensive and cancer patients. Healthy individuals reported significantly higher QoL, particularly in the physical health domain and in the overall QoL/health facet. Mentally ill participants were distinctively differentiated from physically ill in several domains, with the greatest difference and reduction observed in the social relationships domain and in

  14. Immune Responses in Healthy and Allergic Individuals Are Characterized by a Fine Balance between Allergen-specific T Regulatory 1 and T Helper 2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Akdis, Mübeccel; Verhagen, Johan; Taylor, Alison; Karamloo, Fariba; Karagiannidis, Christian; Crameri, Reto; Thunberg, Sarah; Deniz, Günnur; Valenta, Rudolf; Fiebig, Helmut; Kegel, Christian; Disch, Rainer; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B.; Blaser, Kurt; Akdis, Cezmi A.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms by which immune responses to nonpathogenic environmental antigens lead to either allergy or nonharmful immunity are unknown. Single allergen-specific T cells constitute a very small fraction of the whole CD4+ T cell repertoire and can be isolated from the peripheral blood of humans according to their cytokine profile. Freshly purified interferon-γ–, interleukin (IL)-4–, and IL-10–producing allergen-specific CD4+ T cells display characteristics of T helper cell (Th)1-, Th2-, and T regulatory (Tr)1–like cells, respectively. Tr1 cells consistently represent the dominant subset specific for common environmental allergens in healthy individuals; in contrast, there is a high frequency of allergen-specific IL-4–secreting T cells in allergic individuals. Tr1 cells use multiple suppressive mechanisms, IL-10 and TGF-β as secreted cytokines, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 and programmed death 1 as surface molecules. Healthy and allergic individuals exhibit all three allergen-specific subsets in different proportions, indicating that a change in the dominant subset may lead to allergy development or recovery. Accordingly, blocking the suppressor activity of Tr1 cells or increasing Th2 cell frequency enhances allergen-specific Th2 cell activation ex vivo. These results indicate that the balance between allergen-specific Tr1 cells and Th2 cells may be decisive in the development of allergy. PMID:15173208

  15. 'Jumping to conclusions' data-gathering bias in psychosis and other psychiatric disorders - Two meta-analyses of comparisons between patients and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    So, Suzanne Ho-Wai; Siu, Nicolson Yat-Fan; Wong, Hau-Lam; Chan, Wai; Garety, Philippa Anne

    2016-06-01

    There has been an increase in attention to studying shared mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders. The 'Jumping to conclusions' (JTC(1)) bias, a tendency to make decisions with certainty based on insufficient information, has been reported in patients with psychosis, and process-based treatment protocols targeting this bias have recently been developed. This review aimed to investigate to what extent the JTC bias, measured by various tasks, is associated with psychotic disorders and other psychiatric disorders using a meta-analytic approach. We examined 6864 articles published between 1990 and 2015, and meta-analysed 46 studies. The first meta-analysis included 40 effect sizes comparing patients with schizophrenia spectrum or other psychotic disorders and healthy controls. There was a hastier data-gathering style in patients with psychosis than healthy individuals, with a moderate aggregated effect size. The second meta-analysis included 18 effect sizes comparing patients with non-psychotic disorders and healthy controls. There was marked heterogeneity in effect sizes and evidence for publication bias. After removal of outliers, the aggregated effect size for JTC was not statistically significant. A planned subgroup analysis showed no significant effect of JTC in depression. Other diagnostic subgroups yielded small non-significant results. Therefore, our findings do not support the suggestion that JTC is a transdiagnostic phenomenon beyond psychosis. PMID:27216559

  16. Raised FGF-21 and Triglycerides Accompany Increased Energy Intake Driven by Protein Leverage in Lean, Healthy Individuals: A Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gosby, Alison K.; Lau, Namson S.; Tam, Charmaine S.; Iglesias, Miguel A.; Morrison, Christopher D.; Caterson, Ian D.; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Conigrave, Arthur D.; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    A dominant appetite for protein drives increased energy intake in humans when the proportion of protein in the diet is reduced down to approximately 10% of total energy. Compensatory feeding for protein is apparent over a 1–2 d period but the mechanisms driving this regulation are not fully understood. Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) has been identified as a candidate protein signal as levels increase in the circulation when dietary protein is low. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to assess whether changes in percent dietary protein over a 4 d ad libitum experimental period in lean, healthy participants influenced energy intake, metabolic health, circulating FGF-21 and appetite regulating hormones including ghrelin, glucagon like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin. Twenty-two lean, healthy participants were fed ad libitum diets containing 10, 15 and 25% protein, over three, 4 d controlled, in-house experimental periods. Reduced dietary protein intake from 25% to 10% over a period of 4 d was associated with 14% increased energy intake (p = 0.02) as previously reported, and a 6-fold increase in fasting circulating plasma FGF-21 levels (p<0.0001), a 1.5-fold increase in serum triglycerides (p<0.0001), and a 0.9-fold decrease in serum total cholesterol (p = 0.02). Serum HDL cholesterol was reduced with a reduction in dietary protein from 15% to 10% (p = 0.01) over 4 d but not from 25% to 10% (p = 0.1) and the change from baseline was not different between diets. Plasma fasting insulin levels following the 4 d study period were significantly lower following the 25% ad libitum study period compared to the 15% protein period (p = 0.014) but not the 10% protein period (p = 0.2). Variability in interstitial glucose during each study period increased with a decrease in dietary protein from 25% to 15% and 10% (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively). Ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin were unchanged. Increases in energy intake, plasma FGF-21

  17. Gait termination in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Roeing, Kathleen L; Wajda, Douglas A; Motl, Robert W; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2015-09-01

    Despite the ubiquitous nature of gait impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS), there is limited information concerning the control of gait termination in individuals with MS. The purpose of this investigation was to examine planned gait termination in individuals with MS and healthy controls with and without cognitive distractors. Individuals with MS and age matched controls completed a series of gait termination tasks over a pressure sensitive walkway under non-distracting and cognitively distracting conditions. As expected the MS group had a lower velocity (89.9±33.3 cm/s) than controls (142.8±22.4 cm/s) and there was a significant reduction in velocity in both groups under the cognitive distracting conditions (MS: 73.9±30.7 cm/s; control: 120.0±25.9 cm/s). Although individuals with MS walked slower, there was no difference between groups in the rate a participant failed to stop at the target (i.e. failure rate). Overall failure rate had a 10-fold increase in the cognitively distracting condition across groups. Individuals with MS were more unstable during termination. Future research examining the neuromuscular mechanisms contributing to gait termination is warranted. PMID:26228021

  18. Left hippocampus–amygdala complex macro- and microstructural variation is associated with BDNF plasma levels in healthy elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Antonietta; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bossù, Paola; Sensi, Stefano L; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Deep brain gray matter (GM) structures are involved in several neurodegenerative disorders and are affected by aging. In this study, we investigated the potential relationship between levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a putative biomarker of age- and clinically relevant brain dysfunctions, and the presence of structural modifications that were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging in six deep GM structures. Methods Volume changes and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scalars were studied in the thalamus, putamen, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, amygdala and pallidum of a cohort of 120 healthy subjects. The cohort included young (18–39 years old), adult (40–59 years old) and elderly (60–76 years old) subjects. Results No correlations were seen in the young and adult cohorts. In the elderly group, we observed reduced BDNF levels that correlated with increased DTI-based mean diffusivity occurring in the left hippocampus along with decreased normalized volume in the left amygdala. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in elderly subjects, BDNF may exert regional and lateralized effects that allow the integrity of two strategic deep GM areas such as the hippocampus and the amygdala. PMID:26221568

  19. Orthotic Heel Wedges Do Not Alter Hindfoot Kinematics and Achilles Tendon Force During Level and Inclined Walking in Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Weinert-Aplin, Robert A; Bull, Anthony M J; McGregor, Alison H

    2016-04-01

    Conservative treatments such as in-shoe orthotic heel wedges to treat musculoskeletal injuries are not new. However, weak evidence supporting their use in the management of Achilles tendonitis suggests the mechanism by which these heel wedges works remains poorly understood. It was the aim of this study to test the underlying hypothesis that heel wedges can reduce Achilles tendon load. A musculoskeletal modeling approach was used to quantify changes in lower limb mechanics when walking due to the introduction of 12-mm orthotic heel wedges. Nineteen healthy volunteers walked on an inclinable walkway while optical motion, force plate, and plantar pressure data were recorded. Walking with heel wedges increased ankle dorsiflexion moments and reduced plantar flexion moments; this resulted in increased peak ankle dorsiflexor muscle forces during early stance and reduced tibialis posterior and toe flexor muscle forces during late stance. Heel wedges did not reduce overall Achilles tendon force during any walking condition, but did redistribute load from the medial to lateral triceps surae during inclined walking. These results add to the body of clinical evidence confirming that heel wedges do not reduce Achilles tendon load and our findings provide an explanation as to why this may be the case. PMID:26502456

  20. Electroencephalographic Response to Different Odors in Healthy Individuals: A Promising Tool for Objective Assessment of Olfactory Disorders.

    PubMed

    Krbot Skorić, Magdalena; Adamec, Ivan; Jerbić, Ana Branka; Gabelić, Tereza; Hajnšek, Sanja; Habek, Mario

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine human central nervous system response to three different odors. Electrophysiological activity was recorded in the baseline state and for 3 odors, lemon, peppermint, and vanilla, in 16 healthy participants. Electrodes were separated into groups according to the spatial position on the head. Fast Fourier transformation was performed on every set, and mean value of activity in theta was exported. As theta showed statistically significant results, further analysis was based only on the theta frequency band. On electrodes FP1, F3, Fz, F4, F8, T7, C3, Cz, C4, T8, TP9, CP5, CP1, CP2, CP6, P7, P3, Pz, P4, P8, PO9, and PO10 there was statistically significant difference in the electrical activity of the brain between four conditions. For peppermint and lemon, there was statistically significant difference in activity between different regions-F(1.576, 23.637)=16.030, P=.000 and F(1.362, 20.425)=4.54, P=.035, respectively-where the activity in the central area was significantly reduced compared with the activity in the other 4 areas and in the left and right anterior and left posterior area, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for vanilla between specific areas, F(1.217, 18.257)=1.155, P=.309. The results indicate that olfactory stimuli can affect the frequency characteristics of the electrical activity of the brain. PMID:25406126

  1. Relationship of Alexithymia Ratings to Dopamine D2-type Receptors in Anterior Cingulate and Insula of Healthy Control Subjects but Not Methamphetamine-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Okita, Kyoji; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Payer, Doris E.; Robertson, Chelsea L.; Mandelkern, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Individuals with substance-use disorders exhibit emotional problems, including deficits in emotion recognition and processing, and this class of disorders also has been linked to deficits in dopaminergic markers in the brain. Because associations between these phenomena have not been explored, we compared a group of recently abstinent methamphetamine-dependent individuals (n=23) with a healthy-control group (n=17) on dopamine D2-type receptor availability, measured using positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride. Methods: The anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices were selected as the brain regions of interest, because they receive dopaminergic innervation and are thought to be involved in emotion awareness and processing. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale, which includes items that assess difficulty in identifying and describing feelings as well as externally oriented thinking, was administered, and the scores were tested for association with D2-type receptor availability. Results: Relative to controls, methamphetamine-dependent individuals showed higher alexithymia scores, reporting difficulty in identifying feelings. The groups did not differ in D2-type receptor availability in the anterior cingulate or anterior insular cortices, but a significant interaction between group and D2-type receptor availability in both regions, on self-report score, reflected significant positive correlations in the control group (higher receptor availability linked to higher alexithymia) but nonsignificant, negative correlations (lower receptor availability linked to higher alexithymia) in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Conclusions: The results suggest that neurotransmission through D2-type receptors in the anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices influences capacity of emotion processing in healthy people but that this association is absent in individuals with methamphetamine dependence. PMID:26657175

  2. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  3. Thinking Outside a Less Intact Box: Thalamic Dopamine D2 Receptor Densities Are Negatively Related to Psychometric Creativity in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    de Manzano, Örjan; Cervenka, Simon; Karabanov, Anke; Farde, Lars; Ullén, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support that dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a role in creative thought and behavior. Here, we investigated the relationship between creative ability and dopamine D2 receptor expression in healthy individuals, with a focus on regions where aberrations in dopaminergic function have previously been associated with psychotic symptoms and a genetic liability to schizophrenia. Scores on divergent thinking tests (Inventiveness battery, Berliner Intelligenz Struktur Test) were correlated with regional D2 receptor densities, as measured by Positron Emission Tomography, and the radioligands [11C]raclopride and [11C]FLB 457. The results show a negative correlation between divergent thinking scores and D2 density in the thalamus, also when controlling for age and general cognitive ability. Hence, the results demonstrate that the D2 receptor system, and specifically thalamic function, is important for creative performance, and may be one crucial link between creativity and psychopathology. We suggest that decreased D2 receptor densities in the thalamus lower thalamic gating thresholds, thus increasing thalamocortical information flow. In healthy individuals, who do not suffer from the detrimental effects of psychiatric disease, this may increase performance on divergent thinking tests. In combination with the cognitive functions of higher order cortical networks, this could constitute a basis for the generative and selective processes that underlie real life creativity. PMID:20498850

  4. The CD8+ granzyme B+ T-cell subset in peripheral blood from healthy individuals contains activated and apoptosis-prone cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wever, P C; Van Der Vliet, H J; Spaeny, L H; Wolbink, A M; Van Diepen, F N; Froelich, C J; Hack, C E; ten Berge, I J

    1998-01-01

    Granzyme B (GrB) has been implicated in induction of apoptosis in target cells. The presence of GrB in peripheral blood CD8+ T cells from healthy individuals was analysed in immunocytochemical and flow cytometric studies. Furthermore, CD8+ GrB- T cells and CD8+ GrB+ T cells were compared regarding phenotypical characteristics and susceptibility to both spontaneous and Fasmediated apoptosis. GrB was expressed by approximately one-fifth of CD8+ T cells. Compared with the CD8+ GrB- T-cell subset, the CD8+ GrB+ T-cell subset contained cells that were relatively more activated and more prone to spontaneous apoptosis. Culturing of cells with immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-Fas monoclonal antibody had no additional effect on the number of CD8+ GrB+ T cells undergoing apoptosis. We suggest that the presence of CD8+ GrB+ T cells in peripheral blood from healthy individuals results from immune surveillance or contact with infectious agents, and that spontaneous apoptosis of these cells might serve as a mechanism for their eventual clearance. Images Figure 1 PMID:9640249

  5. Upper limb joint position sense during shoulder flexion in healthy individuals: a pilot study to develop a new assessment method

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Background Altered shoulder joint position sense (JPS) following shoulder injury has been demonstrated in the literature and may increase the risk of injury. A JPS assessment targeting the shoulder will provide the clinician with an objective marker. The present study aimed to develop an assessment method of JPS using an active relocation test (ART). Methods In total, 40 healthy participants were recruited. A laser-pointer attached to the index finger during an ART allowed measurement (mm) of JPS by measuring the distance between the target and relocated position. Participants were blindfolded and stood an arm’s length (approximately 1 m) away from the wall. Whilst keeping the wrist in neutral and elbow extended, the participant actively moved to the target position (90° glenohumeral flexion), held for 5 seconds, returned their arm to their side and actively returned to the target position. A mean was calculated from three trials to provide an ART score. Results The mean (SD) dominant and nondominant ART score was 89.2 (SD 35.5) mm (95% confidence interval = 77.87 mm to 100.5 mm) and 94.1 (34.5) mm (95% confidence interval = 83.1 mm to 105.2 mm), respectively. Arm dominance did not significantly affect ART scores. Conclusions No significant difference was demonstrated between the dominant and nondominant arm using an ART assessing JPS acuity. Further studies are needed to establish inter-rater and intra-rater reliability.

  6. Common Ewing sarcoma-associated antigens fail to induce natural T cell responses in both patients and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Altvater, Bianca; Kailayangiri, Sareetha; Theimann, Nadine; Ahlmann, Martina; Farwick, Nicole; Chen, Christiane; Pscherer, Sibylle; Neumann, Ilka; Mrachatz, Gabriele; Hansmeier, Anna; Hardes, Jendrik; Gosheger, Georg; Juergens, Heribert; Rossig, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    Disseminated or relapsed Ewing sarcoma (EwS) has remained fatal in the majority of patients. A promising approach to preventing relapse after conventional therapy is to establish tumor antigen-specific immune control. Efficient and specific T cell memory against the tumor depends on the expansion of rare T cells with native specificity against target antigens overexpressed by the tumor. Candidate antigens in EwS include six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate-1 (STEAP1), and the human cancer/testis antigens X-antigen family member 1 (XAGE1) and preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME). Here, we screened normal donors and EwS patients for the presence of circulating T cells reactive with overlapping peptide libraries of these antigens by IFN-γ Elispot analysis. The majority of 22 healthy donors lacked detectable memory T cell responses against STEAP1, XAGE1 and PRAME. Moreover, ex vivo detection of T cells specific for these antigens in both blood and bone marrow were limited to a minority of EwS patients and required nonspecific T cell prestimulation. Cytotoxic T cells specific for the tumor-associated antigens were efficiently and reliably generated by in vitro priming using professional antigen-presenting cells and optimized cytokine stimulation; however, these T cells failed to interact with native antigen processed by target cells and with EwS cells expressing the antigen. We conclude that EwS-associated antigens fail to induce efficient T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated antitumor immune responses even under optimized conditions. Strategies based on TCR engineering could provide a more effective means to manipulating T cell immunity toward targeted elimination of tumor cells. PMID:24973179

  7. Cannabis-Related Working Memory Deficits and Associated Subcortical Morphological Differences in Healthy Individuals and Schizophrenia Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with working memory (WM) impairments; however, the relationship between cannabis use and WM neural circuitry is unclear. We examined whether a cannabis use disorder (CUD) was associated with differences in brain morphology between control subjects with and without a CUD and between schizophrenia subjects with and without a CUD, and whether these differences related to WM and CUD history. Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls, 10 subjects with a CUD history, 28 schizophrenia subjects with no history of substance use disorders, and 15 schizophrenia subjects with a CUD history. Large-deformation high-dimensional brain mapping with magnetic resonance imaging was used to obtain surface-based representations of the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus, compared across groups, and correlated with WM and CUD history. Surface maps were generated to visualize morphological differences. There were significant cannabis-related parametric decreases in WM across groups. Similar cannabis-related shape differences were observed in the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus in controls and schizophrenia subjects. Cannabis-related striatal and thalamic shape differences correlated with poorer WM and younger age of CUD onset in both groups. Schizophrenia subjects demonstrated cannabis-related neuroanatomical differences that were consistent and exaggerated compared with cannabis-related differences found in controls. The cross-sectional results suggest that both CUD groups were characterized by WM deficits and subcortical neuroanatomical differences. Future longitudinal studies could help determine whether cannabis use contributes to these observed shape differences or whether they are biomarkers of a vulnerability to the effects of cannabis that predate its misuse. PMID:24342821

  8. Microbial diversity of the supra- and subgingival biofilm of healthy individuals after brushing with chlorhexidine- or silver-coated toothbrush bristles.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Cássio; Paulo, Diana Ferreira; Pita, Murillo Sucena; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; de Albuquerque Junior, Rubens Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Nanoparticulate silver has recently been reported as an effective antimicrobial agent. The aim of this clinical study was to investigate the potential changes on the oral microbiota of healthy individuals after controlled brushing with chlorhexidine- or silver-coated toothbrush bristles. Twenty-four healthy participants were enrolled in this investigation and randomly submitted to 3 interventions. All the participants received, in a crossover format, the following toothbrushing interventions: (i) chlorhexidine-coated bristles, (ii) silver-coated bristles, and (iii) conventional toothbrush (Control). All the interventions had a duration of 30 days. The DNA checkerboard hybridization method was used to identify and quantify up to 43 microbial species colonizing the supra- and subgingival biofilm. The supragingival samples presented higher genome counts than the subgingival samples (p < 0.0001). The total genome counts from the Control group showed the highest values, followed by the silver and chlorhexidine groups (p < 0.0001). After 4 weeks of brushing, the silver-coated and chlorhexidine-coated bristles were capable of reducing or maintaining lower levels of the bacterial counts of the putative periodontal pathogens Tanerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Other major periodontal pathogens, such as Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella nigrescens, and Parvimonas micra, were also detected at lower levels. The toothbrush bristles impregnated with silver nanoparticles reduced the total and individual genome count in the supra- and subgingival biofilm after 4 weeks of brushing. Chlorhexidine was not effective in reducing the total genome counts in both supra- or subgingival biofilm after 4 weeks of brushing. Chlorhexidine reduced the individual genome counts in the supragingival biofilm for most of the target species, including putative periodontal pathogens. PMID:25581046

  9. The effect of nitrate supplementation on exercise performance in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoon, Matthew W; Johnson, Nathan A; Chapman, Phillip G; Burke, Louise M

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the effect of nitrate supplementation on exercise performance by systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled human studies. A search of four electronic databases and cross-referencing found 17 studies investigating the effect of inorganic nitrate supplementation on exercise performance that met the inclusion criteria. Beetroot juice and sodium nitrate were the most common supplements, with doses ranging from 300 to 600 mg nitrate and prescribed in a manner ranging from a single bolus to 15 days of regular ingestion. Pooled analysis showed a significant moderate benefit (ES = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.23-1.35) of nitrate supplementation on performance for time to exhaustion tests (p = .006). There was a small but insignificant beneficial effect on performance for time trials (ES = 0.11, 95% CI: -0.16-0.37) and graded exercise tests (ES = 0.26, 95% CI: -0.10-0.62). Qualitative analysis suggested that performance benefits are more often observed in inactive to recreationally active individuals and when a chronic loading of nitrate over several days is undertaken. Overall, these results suggest that nitrate supplementation is associated with a moderate improvement in constant load time to exhaustion tasks. Despite not reaching statistical significance, the small positive effect on time trial or graded exercise performance may be meaningful in an elite sport context. More data are required to clarify the effect of nitrate supplementation on exercise performance and to elucidate the optimal way to implement supplementation. PMID:23580439

  10. Anti-Apolipoprotein A-1 IgG Levels Predict Coronary Artery Calcification in Obese but Otherwise Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Quercioli, Alessandra; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Galan, Katia; Ratib, Osman; Roux-Lombard, Pascale; Pagano, Sabrina; Mach, François; Schindler, Thomas H.; Vuilleumier, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    We aimed at determining whether anti-apolipoprotein (apo) A-1 IgG levels are independent predictors of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and coronary endothelial dysfunction in obese and nonobese subjects without cardiovascular disease. 48 nonobese and 43 obese subjects were included. CAC score was measured by thorax scanner and defined by an Agatston score > 0. Coronary endothelial dysfunction was determined by measuring myocardial blood flow responses to cold pressor test (CPT) on PET/CT. Serum anti-apoA-1 IgG levels were measured by ELISA. Prevalence of coronary calcification was similar between the two study groups, but the prevalence of coronary endothelial dysfunction was higher in obese subjects. Anti-apoA-1 IgG levels and positivity rate were higher in obese than in nonobese individuals. CAC score was higher in anti-apoA-1 IgG positive subjects. ROC analyses indicated that anti-apoA-1 IgG levels were significant predictors of CAC > 0, but not of coronary endothelial dysfunction with a negative predictive value of 94%. Anti-apoA-1 IgG positivity was associated with a 17-fold independent increased risk of CAC > 0. In conclusion, those preliminary results indicate that anti-apoA-1 IgG autoantibodies are raised in obese subjects and independently predict the presence of coronary calcification in this population but not the presence of coronary endothelial dysfunction. PMID:23258951

  11. Folliculo-stellate cells - potential mediators of the inflammaging-induced hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Ivan; Ugrenović, Slađana; Ljubomirović, Miljana; Vasović, Ljiljana; Cukuranović, Rade; Stefanović, Vladisav

    2014-10-01

    Some evidence has suggested that, with age, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis becomes less resilient, leading to higher glucocorticoids nocturnal levels and a flattening of the circadian profiles. Such age-related changes in the activity of the HPA axis has overexposed the brain and peripheral organs to the effects of the glucocorticoids, increasing the morbidity and mortality rates of the elderly. Debate among scientists regarding the contributions of HPA axis age-related changes of impaired feedback regulation vs. direct overactivation persists. Supporters of impaired feedback regulation assumed that this effect might be the consequence of the hippocampal age-related neuronal loss and the reduction of the number of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors. On the other hand, healthy elderly individuals are characterized by an increase of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α, and the development of a chronic low-grade inflammatory state, known as inflammaging. Cytokines central to inflammaging send signals to the brain, activate HPA axis, and, by increased cortisol secretion, down-regulate inflammaging in a process known as anti-inflammaging. Even as these cytokines act at the level of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, they are hampered by the intact blood-brain barrier. Further, the corticotropes in the anterior pituitary do not express cytokine receptors, and the density of folliculo-stellate cells generally increases with age. Therefore, we assumed that folliculo-stellate cells were the target structures through which the elevated levels of cytokines, as a part of the inflammaging phenomenon, would cause the overactivation of the HPA axis in healthy elderly individuals. Folliculo-stellate cells are non-endocrine cells that were originally considered to act as supporting cells for the endocrine cells. Despite the fact that FS cells do not produce any of the established hormones of the anterior pituitary, they

  12. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  13. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  14. Performance enhancement in the workplace: why and when healthy individuals should disclose their reliance on pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Garasic, Mirko D.; Lavazza, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The use of pharmaceuticals cognitive enhancers (PCE) has been stirring growing interest, not only in the scientific domain but also in the popular media, and has probably had some increase recently in academic, professional and military quarters. So this phenomenon is deemed as a normal procedure aimed at improving the performance of an individual as well as the overall standards of an organization. Although the vast majority of countries have some kind of restrictions to reduce the wide non-medical usage of PCE, these can be overcome quite easily. In arguing for our explicit claim that, in many contexts, the use of cognitive enhancers should be disclosed—as a moral and socially relevant duty—we maintain that PCE present typical, or at least not rare, properties. The features are the following: (a) the enhancer has acute and/or chronic effects. In the first case, shortly after taking the drug the performance is significantly better than average; in the second case, there is a growing or lasting effect, which, however, is poised to diminish when one stops taking the drug; (b) those effects are significant (there is a difference in the outcome considered between taking and not taking the drug) and sometimes dramatic; and (c) a third feature, not directly related to enhancers as such, is their varying safety, availability, and legal permissibility, which might either induce people to take them or refrain them from doing so. We will consider the issue of fairness due to “unenhanced” people as well as the potentially dysfunctional social consequences of an undisclosed PCE use. PMID:25762902

  15. Absence of adverse events in healthy individuals using probiotics - analysis of six randomised studies by one study group.

    PubMed

    Tapiovaara, L; Lehtoranta, L; Poussa, T; Mäkivuokko, H; Korpela, R; Pitkäranta, A

    2016-03-11

    Consumption of live bacteria as probiotic supplements is increasing. There is, however, a lack of information on the safety of ingested probiotics. The main objective of this study was to investigate the adverse events (AEs) of specific probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) alone or LGG in combination with L. rhamnosus Lc705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii JS, Bifidobacterium lactis BB12, or Bifidobacterium breve 99) studied in six of our study groups' clinical trials, by analysing individual participant data. A secondary objective was to study AEs associated with the consumed probiotic species and mixtures in three specific categories; 'gastrointestinal disorders', 'respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders' and 'infections and infestations'. Six randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies by our study group were included in this AE analysis (study population n=1,909). All AE data were classified according to the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v4.0. From the 26 CTCAE System Organ Classes, we identified AEs in 20 classes among 1,909 subjects. Probiotic ingestion did not result in statistically significant differences in AEs in different groups, when compared to placebo. A subgroup analysis of gastrointestinal, respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders, infections and infestations, found no differences between the intervention groups or for different probiotic combinations (risk ratio (RR) = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-1.02, P=0.30; RR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.97-1.01, P=0.35; RR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.93-1.06, P=0.62, respectively). As a conclusion, ingestion of probiotic supplementations containing LGG alone, or LGG in combination with L. rhamnosus Lc705, P. freudenreichii JS, B. breve 99, or B. lactis BB12 did not seem to cause AEs in young and elderly subjects in this analysis. PMID:26689224

  16. Performance enhancement in the workplace: why and when healthy individuals should disclose their reliance on pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers.

    PubMed

    Garasic, Mirko D; Lavazza, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The use of pharmaceuticals cognitive enhancers (PCE) has been stirring growing interest, not only in the scientific domain but also in the popular media, and has probably had some increase recently in academic, professional and military quarters. So this phenomenon is deemed as a normal procedure aimed at improving the performance of an individual as well as the overall standards of an organization. Although the vast majority of countries have some kind of restrictions to reduce the wide non-medical usage of PCE, these can be overcome quite easily. In arguing for our explicit claim that, in many contexts, the use of cognitive enhancers should be disclosed-as a moral and socially relevant duty-we maintain that PCE present typical, or at least not rare, properties. The features are the following: (a) the enhancer has acute and/or chronic effects. In the first case, shortly after taking the drug the performance is significantly better than average; in the second case, there is a growing or lasting effect, which, however, is poised to diminish when one stops taking the drug; (b) those effects are significant (there is a difference in the outcome considered between taking and not taking the drug) and sometimes dramatic; and (c) a third feature, not directly related to enhancers as such, is their varying safety, availability, and legal permissibility, which might either induce people to take them or refrain them from doing so. We will consider the issue of fairness due to "unenhanced" people as well as the potentially dysfunctional social consequences of an undisclosed PCE use. PMID:25762902

  17. Prediction of inter-individual variability on the pharmacokinetics of CYP1A2 substrates in non-smoking healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Haraya, Kenta; Kato, Motohiro; Chiba, Koji; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2016-08-01

    The activity of CYP1A2, a major drug-metabolizing enzyme, is known to be affected by various environmental factors. Our study aimed to predict inter-individual variability of AUC/Dose of CYP1A2 substrates in non-smoking healthy volunteers using the Monte Carlo simulation. Inter-individual variability in hepatic intrinsic clearance of CYP1A2 substrates (CLint,h,1A2) was estimated using dispersion model based on the inter-individual variability (N = 96) of the AUC of caffeine, a major CYP1A2 substrate. The estimated coefficient of variation (CV) of CLint,h,1A2 was 55%, similar to previously reported CLint,h,2D6 (60%) but larger than CLint,h,3A4 (33%). Then, this estimated CV was validated by predicting the CVs of AUC/Dose of tizanidine and phenacetin, which are mainly metabolized by CYP1A2 and have negligible renal clearance. As a result, reported CVs were successfully predicted within 2.5-97.5 percentile range of predicted values. Moreover, CVs for AUC/Dose of the CYP1A2 substrates theophylline and lidocaine, which are affected by other CYPs and renal clearance, were also successfully predicted. The inter-individual variability of AUC/Dose of CYP1A2 substrates was successfully predicted using 55% CV for CLint,h,1A2, and the results, along with those reported by our group for other CYPs, support the prediction of inter-individual variability of pharmacokinetics in the clinical setting. PMID:27318879

  18. Degenerative Changes in the Cervical Spine Are More Common in Middle-Aged Individuals with Thalidomide Embryopathy than in Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi Jahani, Shadi A.; Danielsson, Aina; Ab-Fawaz, Rana; Hebelka, Hanna; Danielson, Barbro; Brisby, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Background Thalidomide was used as a sedative drug for pregnant women in the 1950–60:s and resulted in children born with thalidomide embryopathy (TE), including upper limb malformations. These may alter the motion pattern of the cervical spine by the use of head/shoulder and mouth grip. Aims To compare degenerative changes in the cervical spine in TE individuals with healthy controls (CTR). Methods and Procedures Twenty-seven middle-aged TE individuals and 27 age- and gender-matched CTR were examined by cervical spine MRI. The presence of malformations, disc herniation(s), osteophytes, nerve and medullary compression and the degree of disc degeneration (DD) were evaluated. Outcomes and Results Significantly higher degree of DD was seen in the TE group compared with the controls (p<0.001). Similar frequencies of disc herniation and disc space narrowing were observed in the two groups, but more foraminal narrowing was seen in the TE group (p = 0.002). DD was observed relatively frequently at all cervical levels in the TE group, however, mainly at the two lower levels in the CTR. Conclusions and Implications Middle-aged individuals with TE have a higher frequency of degenerative changes in the cervical spine than controls, possibly caused by an altered load on the cervical spine. PMID:27175919

  19. Asymptomatic faecal carriage of ESBL producing enterobacteriaceae in Hungarian healthy individuals and in long-term care applicants: A shift towards CTX-M producers in the community.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Mózes, Julianna; Mészáros, Júlia; Juhász, Ágnes; Majoros, László; Szarka, Krisztina; Kardos, Gábor

    2016-07-01

    Background Faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy individuals was examined and compared to previous results obtained in such individuals a few years earlier. Methods Faecal samples from 779 individuals screened for employment purposes and from 225 applicants to long-term care (LTC) were screened between November 2013 and May 2014. Results The overall rate of faecal carriage was 3.0% (30/1004). The carriage rate was significantly higher in applicants for LTC (5.3% vs 2.3%; p = 0.019). All isolates carried CTX-M ESBLs, with an overwhelming dominance of blaCTX-M-15 (84.4%) in both groups and in both E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions The prevalences were comparable to those in the earlier study, but a marked decrease of the diversity of ESBL genes in E. coli from the employment screening group was found, suggesting that the ESBL-producing isolates originating from diverse sources are being replaced by highly successful blaCTX-M-15 producing strains. PMID:26982242

  20. Characteristics of individual reactions of the cardiovascular system of healthy people to changes in meteorological factors in a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenchenko, T. A.; Skavulyak, A. N.; Khorseva, N. I.; Breus, T. K.

    2013-12-01

    Based on the results of 4-year observations of daily variations in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in seven healthy volunteers, two distinct types of reaction of physiological indicators (PIs) to changes in meteorological parameters (first and foremost, atmospheric temperature T atm) are revealed. The first type is a monotonic (but nonuniform with respect to speed) decrease in systolic BP with increasing temperature, which is most pronounced for T atm < -5°C and T atm > 15°C, with a weaker reaction of diastolic BP and no reaction of HR (in four volunteers). The second type is a two-phase nonmonotonic dependence of BP indicators on T atm, which coincides with the first type in the range T atm < -5°C and is characterized by a positive correlation of BP and HR indicators with T atm for T atm > -5°C (in two volunteers). The physiological mechanisms that can provide the observed compensatory-adaptive reactions of healthy individuals to atmospheric factors in different temperature ranges are analyzed in detail. It has been shown that the revealed regularities can explain the results obtained by the authors in earlier studies.

  1. Worry or craving? A selective review of evidence for food-related attention biases in obese individuals, eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy samples.

    PubMed

    Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Roefs, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Living in an 'obesogenic' environment poses a serious challenge for weight maintenance. However, many people are able to maintain a healthy weight indicating that not everybody is equally susceptible to the temptations of this food environment. The way in which someone perceives and reacts to food cues, that is, cognitive processes, could underlie differences in susceptibility. An attention bias for food could be such a cognitive factor that contributes to overeating. However, an attention bias for food has also been implicated with restrained eating and eating-disorder symptomatology. The primary aim of the present review was to determine whether an attention bias for food is specifically related to obesity while also reviewing evidence for attention biases in eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy-weight individuals. Another aim was to systematically examine how selective attention for food relates (causally) to eating behaviour. Current empirical evidence on attention bias for food within obese samples, eating-disorder patients, and, even though to a lesser extent, in restrained eaters is contradictory. However, present experimental studies provide relatively consistent evidence that an attention bias for food contributes to subsequent food intake. This review highlights the need to distinguish not only between different (temporal) attention bias components, but also to take different motivations (craving v. worry) and their impact on attentional processing into account. Overall, the current state of research suggests that biased attention could be one important cognitive mechanism by which the food environment tempts us into overeating. PMID:25311212

  2. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression in the epithelium and stroma of normal colon in healthy individuals in an aspirin intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sushma S; Makar, Karen W; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yingye; Yang, Peiying; Levy, Lisa; Rudolph, Rebecca Y; Lampe, Paul D; Yan, Min; Markowitz, Sanford D; Bigler, Jeannette; Lampe, Johanna W; Potter, John D

    2015-12-01

    Regular aspirin use reduces colon adenoma and carcinoma incidence. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are involved in aspirin metabolism and clearance, and variant alleles in UGT1A6 have been shown to alter salicylic acid metabolism and risk of colon neoplasia. In a randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial of 44 healthy men and women, homozygous for UGT1A6*1 or UGT1A6*2, we explored differences between global epithelial and stromal expression, using Affymetrix U133 + 2.0 microarrays and tested effects of 60-day aspirin supplementation (325 mg/d) on epithelial and stromal gene expression and colon prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. We conducted a comprehensive study of differential gene expression between normal human colonic epithelium and stroma from healthy individuals. Although no statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed in response to aspirin or UGT1A6 genotype, we have identified the genes uniquely and reproducibly expressed in each tissue type and have analyzed the biologic processes they represent. Here we describe in detail how the data, deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) - accession number GSE71571 - was generated including the basic analysis as contained in the manuscript published in BMC Medical Genetics with the PMID 25927723 (Thomas et al., 2015 [9]). PMID:26697360

  3. Layered genetic control of DNA methylation and gene expression: a locus of multiple sclerosis in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jean; Bourdon, Celine; Bernard, Manon; Wilson, Michael D; Reischl, Eva; Waldenberger, Melanie; Ruggeri, Barbara; Schumann, Gunter; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Leemans, Alexander; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Leonard, Gabriel; Richer, Louis; Bouchard, Luigi; Gaudet, Daniel; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka

    2015-10-15

    DNA methylation may contribute to the etiology of complex genetic disorders through its impact on genome integrity and gene expression; it is modulated by DNA-sequence variants, named methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs). Most meQTLs influence methylation of a few CpG dinucleotides within short genomic regions (<3 kb). Here, we identified a layered genetic control of DNA methylation at numerous CpGs across a long 300 kb genomic region. This control involved a single long-range meQTL and multiple local meQTLs. The long-range meQTL explained up to 75% of variance in methylation of CpGs located over extended areas of the 300 kb region. The meQTL was identified in four samples (P = 2.8 × 10(-17), 3.1 × 10(-31), 4.0 × 10(-71) and 5.2 × 10(-199)), comprising a total of 2796 individuals. The long-range meQTL was strongly associated not only with DNA methylation but also with mRNA expression of several genes within the 300 kb region (P = 7.1 × 10(-18)-1.0 × 10(-123)). The associations of the meQTL with gene expression became attenuated when adjusted for DNA methylation (causal inference test: P = 2.4 × 10(-13)-7.1 × 10(-20)), indicating coordinated regulation of DNA methylation and gene expression. Further, the long-range meQTL was found to be in linkage disequilibrium with the most replicated locus of multiple sclerosis, a disease affecting primarily the brain white matter. In middle-aged adults free of the disease, we observed that the risk allele was associated with subtle structural properties of the brain white matter found in multiple sclerosis (P = 0.02). In summary, we identified a long-range meQTL that controls methylation and expression of several genes and may be involved in increasing brain vulnerability to multiple sclerosis. PMID:26220975

  4. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 allele and haplotype frequencies in a population of 432 healthy unrelated individuals from Albania.

    PubMed

    Sulcebe, Genc; Shyti, Erkena

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 allele and haplotype polymorphism in a population of 432 healthy individuals from Albania. First-field HLA genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific priming and/or oligonucleotide methods. The data were analyzed statistically using gene counting and Arlequin software packages. No deviation from Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium was detected at any of the loci studied. The HLA genotypic data of the population sample reported here are available publicly in the Allele Frequencies Net Database and they can serve as a reference database for further HLA-based population genetics studies including the Albanian population. PMID:27262454

  5. [Cardiac effects and glycoside concentrations in serum and urine after oral administration of beta-methy-digoxin to healthy individuals (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Haasis, R; Larbig, D; Klenk, K O

    1975-06-01

    Six healthy individuals were digitalized orally with beta-methyl-digoxin. The serum glycoside concentration, determined radioimmunologically at the end of the digitalization period was 1.2 +/- 0.22 ng/ml. At this period of time renal excretion attained 55.9% of the daily administered oral dose. The calculated renal clearance of beta-methyl-digoxin was 63 +/- 8.1 ml/min e. g. 57.5 +/- 8.3 ml/min/1.73 m2. After discontinuation of the glycoside the serum half life was 54 h. During the digitalization period the cardiac glycoside effects could be measured by ECG changes, especially a shortening of the QT interval as well as a shortening of the left ventricular ejection time and the pre ejection period, corrected for the heart rate. PMID:1152344

  6. Combined Oral Contraception and Obesity Are Strong Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation in Healthy Individuals: Results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS)

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Cecilie J.; Pedersen, Ole B.; Petersen, Mikkel S.; Sørensen, Erik; Kotzé, Sebastian; Thørner, Lise W.; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rigas, Andreas S.; Møller, Bjarne; Rostgaard, Klaus; Riiskjær, Mads; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI), is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors. Methods We measured plasma CRP levels in 15,684 participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study. CRP was measured by a commercial assay. Furthermore, all participants completed a standard questionnaire on smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet, and various body measurements. Female participants also reported the use of contraception, childbirth, and menopausal status. The relationship between LGI (defined here as a plasma CRP level between 3 mg/L and 10 mg/L) and predictors was explored by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We found LGI in a total of 1,561 (10.0%) participants. LGI was more frequent in women using combined oral contraception (OC) (29.9%) than in men (6.1%) and women not using OC (7.9%). Among premenopausal women, OC was the strongest predictor of LGI (odds ratio = 8.98, p<0.001). Additionally, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were positively associated with LGI. Conclusion High BMI and abdominal obesity strongly predicted LGI among healthy individuals. However, the most striking finding was the high prevalence of LGI among premenopausal women who used combined oral contraception. Although the significance of CRP as a marker of inflammation is well known, the role of CRP in pathogenesis is still uncertain. The impact of oral contraception on CRP levels should nevertheless be considered when CRP is used in risk assessment. PMID:24516611

  7. A comparison of platelet function tests and thromboxane metabolites to evaluate aspirin response in healthy individuals and patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Johnsen, Helle Ladefoged; Hedegaard, Sofie Sommer; Pedersen, Susanne Bendesgaard; Mortensen, Jette; Kristensen, Steen Dalby

    2010-06-01

    Individualised antiplatelet therapy and platelet function testing have attracted considerable clinical interest, but several aspects of test performance have not been thoroughly evaluated. We investigated repeatability and concordance of light transmission aggregometry (LTA) induced with arachidonic acid (AA) 1.0 mM, PFA-100 induced with collagen/epinephrine, multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) induced with AA 0.5 or 0.75 mM and VerifyNow Aspirin. Patients with stable coronary artery disease (n=43) and healthy individuals (n=21) were included. All tests were performed in duplicate at baseline in healthy individuals and in duplicate for four days in all study participants during aspirin treatment. Serum and urinary thromboxane metabolites were measured several times to evaluate cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition by aspirin. MEA was most sensitive for aspirin as treatment induced a 12-fold difference in AA-induced platelet aggregation. Coefficients of variation for duplicate measurements at baseline (0.4-12%), during aspirin treatment (3-46%) and for day-to-day variability (3-37%) differed markedly between tests and were lowest for VerifyNow. The prevalence of aspirin low-responsiveness also differed between tests (0-9%) and the agreement was low: kappa

  8. In vitro immunoreactivity towards lectin-rich or viscotoxin-rich mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts Iscador applied to healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Huber, Roman; Classen, Karen; Werner, Michael; Klein, Reinhild

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how exposure to mistletoe extracts in vivo may influence cellular immune reactions by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). 47 healthy individuals were exposed for twelve weeks either to Iscador Quercus special (IQ; rich in mistletoe lectin [ML]) (n = 16), to Iscador Pinus (IP; poor in ML but rich in viscotoxin) (n = 15), or to placebo (physiological saline) (n = 16). PBMC were isolated before exposure, during exposure in week 4, 8 and 12, as well as 13 weeks after last exposure (week 25) and incubated for 7 days with IQ or IP. Proliferative response and cytokine release were determined (type 1 cytokines: interferon [IFN]-gamma, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-gamma, type 2 cytokines: interleukin [IL]-5, IL-13, macrophage/ monocyte-cytokines: IL-1, TNFalpha). IP- and IQ incubation of PBMC from non-exposed individuals lead to a significant increase of proliferation and production of all cytokines. There was a significant increase of IQ-induced TNFalpha (but not IL-1) production by PBMC in week 25 in individuals receiv-type 2-cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 significantly decreased during the observation period (p < 0.05 compared to placebo in week 8). These data indicate that IP seems to contain an antigen, which decreases type 2 reactivity. Furthermore, a component present preferentially in IQ seems to activate the production of the monocyte/ macrophage-related cytokine TNFalpha by PBMC. Intriguingly, also in individuals receiving placebo injections immunological alterations were detected during the observation period. PMID:16927525

  9. Glyco-centric lectin magnetic bead array (LeMBA) - proteomics dataset of human serum samples from healthy, Barrett׳s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma individuals.

    PubMed

    Shah, Alok K; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Choi, Eunju; Chen, David; Gautier, Benoît; Nancarrow, Derek; Whiteman, David C; Baker, Peter R; Clauser, Karl R; Chalkley, Robert J; Saunders, Nicholas A; Barbour, Andrew P; Joshi, Virendra; Hill, Michelle M

    2016-06-01

    This data article describes serum glycoprotein biomarker discovery and qualification datasets generated using lectin magnetic bead array (LeMBA) - mass spectrometry techniques, "Serum glycoprotein biomarker discovery and qualification pipeline reveals novel diagnostic biomarker candidates for esophageal adenocarcinoma" [1]. Serum samples collected from healthy, metaplastic Barrett׳s esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) individuals were profiled for glycoprotein subsets via differential lectin binding. The biomarker discovery proteomics dataset consisting of 20 individual lectin pull-downs for 29 serum samples with a spiked-in internal standard chicken ovalbumin protein has been deposited in the PRIDE partner repository of the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier PRIDE: PXD002442. Annotated MS/MS spectra for the peptide identifications can be viewed using MS-Viewer (〈http://prospector2.ucsf.edu/prospector/cgi-bin/msform.cgi?form=msviewer〉) using search key "jn7qafftux". The qualification dataset contained 6-lectin pulldown-coupled multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) data for 41 protein candidates, from 60 serum samples. This dataset is available as a supplemental files with the original publication [1]. PMID:27408916

  10. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M; Collip, Dina; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual's fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0-11 years) and late (12-18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life stress

  11. Novel insights into the interplay between ventral neck muscles in individuals with whiplash-associated disorders

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Gunnel; Nilsson, David; Trygg, Johan; Falla, Deborah; Dedering, Åsa; Wallman, Thorne; Peolsson, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) is common after whiplash injury, with considerable personal, social, and economic burden. Despite decades of research, factors responsible for continuing pain and disability are largely unknown, and diagnostic tools are lacking. Here, we report a novel model of mechanical ventral neck muscle function recorded from non-invasive, real-time, ultrasound measurements. We calculated the deformation area and deformation rate in 23 individuals with persistent WAD and compared them to 23 sex- and age-matched controls. Multivariate statistics were used to analyse interactions between ventral neck muscles, revealing different interplay between muscles in individuals with WAD and healthy controls. Although the cause and effect relation cannot be established from this data, for the first time, we reveal a novel method capable of detecting different neck muscle interplay in people with WAD. This non-invasive method stands to make a major breakthrough in the assessment and diagnosis of people following a whiplash trauma. PMID:26472599

  12. Novel insights into the interplay between ventral neck muscles in individuals with whiplash-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Gunnel; Nilsson, David; Trygg, Johan; Falla, Deborah; Dedering, Åsa; Wallman, Thorne; Peolsson, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) is common after whiplash injury, with considerable personal, social, and economic burden. Despite decades of research, factors responsible for continuing pain and disability are largely unknown, and diagnostic tools are lacking. Here, we report a novel model of mechanical ventral neck muscle function recorded from non-invasive, real-time, ultrasound measurements. We calculated the deformation area and deformation rate in 23 individuals with persistent WAD and compared them to 23 sex- and age-matched controls. Multivariate statistics were used to analyse interactions between ventral neck muscles, revealing different interplay between muscles in individuals with WAD and healthy controls. Although the cause and effect relation cannot be established from this data, for the first time, we reveal a novel method capable of detecting different neck muscle interplay in people with WAD. This non-invasive method stands to make a major breakthrough in the assessment and diagnosis of people following a whiplash trauma. PMID:26472599

  13. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  14. Size-exclusion chromatography as a stand-alone methodology identifies novel markers in mass spectrometry analyses of plasma-derived vesicles from healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Sáez, María José Fidalgo; Lozano-Ramos, Inés; Segui-Barber, Joan; Martin-Jaular, Lorena; Ullate, Josep M. Estanyol; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Borrás, Francesc E.; del Portillo, Hernando A.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma-derived vesicles hold a promising potential for use in biomedical applications. Two major challenges, however, hinder their implementation into translational tools: (a) the incomplete characterization of the protein composition of plasma-derived vesicles, in the size range of exosomes, as mass spectrometric analysis of plasma sub-components is recognizably troublesome and (b) the limited reach of vesicle-based studies in settings where the infrastructural demand of ultracentrifugation, the most widely used isolation/purification methodology, is not available. In this study, we have addressed both challenges by carrying-out mass spectrometry (MS) analyses of plasma-derived vesicles, in the size range of exosomes, from healthy donors obtained by 2 alternative methodologies: size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) on sepharose columns and Exo-Spin™. No exosome markers, as opposed to the most abundant plasma proteins, were detected by Exo-Spin™. In contrast, exosomal markers were present in the early fractions of SEC where the most abundant plasma proteins have been largely excluded. Noticeably, after a cross-comparative analysis of all published studies using MS to characterize plasma-derived exosomes from healthy individuals, we also observed a paucity of “classical exosome markers.” Independent of the isolation method, however, we consistently identified 2 proteins, CD5 antigen-like (CD5L) and galectin-3-binding protein (LGALS3BP), whose presence was validated by a bead-exosome FACS assay. Altogether, our results support the use of SEC as a stand-alone methodology to obtain preparations of extracellular vesicles, in the size range of exosomes, from plasma and suggest the use of CD5L and LGALS3BP as more suitable markers of plasma-derived vesicles in MS. PMID:26154623

  15. Effect of exercise training on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Goessler, Karla; Polito, Marcos; Cornelissen, Véronique Ann

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of exercise training on parameters of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in healthy adults, and to investigate the relation with training induced changes in blood pressure. A systematic search was conducted and we included randomized controlled trials lasting ⩾4 weeks investigating the effects of exercise on parameters of the RAAS in healthy adults (age ⩾18 years) and published in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2013. Fixed effects models were used and data are reported as weighted means and 95% confidence limits (CL). Eleven randomized controlled trials with a total of 375 individuals were included. Plasma renin activity was reduced after exercise training (n= 7 trials, standardized mean difference -0.25 (95% CL -0.5 to -0.001), P=0.049), whereas no effect was observed on serum aldosterone ((n= 3 trials; standardized mean difference -0.79 (-1.97 to +0.39)) or angiotensin II (n=3 trials; standardized mean difference -0.16 (-0.61 to +0.30). Significant reductions in systolic blood pressure -5.65 mm Hg (-8.12 to -3.17) and diastolic blood pressure -3.64 mm Hg (-5.4 to -1.91) following exercise training were observed. No relation was found between net changes in plasma renin activity and net changes in blood pressure (P>0.05). To conclude, although we observed a significant reduction in plasma renin activity following exercise training this was not related to the observed blood pressure reduction. Given the small number of studies and small sample sizes, larger well-controlled randomized studies are required to confirm our results and to investigate the potential role of the RAAS in the observed improvements in blood pressure following exercise training. PMID:26399454

  16. Adverse Events in Healthy Individuals and MDR-TB Contacts Treated with Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs Potentially Effective for Preventing Development of MDR-TB: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Langendam, Miranda W.; Tiemersma, Edine W.; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Sandgren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A recent systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence on the effectiveness to support or reject preventive therapy for treatment of contacts of patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Whether preventive therapy is favorable depends both on the effectiveness and the adverse events of the drugs used. We performed a systematic review to assess adverse events in healthy individuals and MDR-TB contacts treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs potentially effective for preventing development of MDR-TB. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other databases (August 2011). Record selection, data extraction, and study quality assessment were done in duplicate. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Of 6,901 identified references, 20 studies were eligible. Among the 16 studies in healthy volunteers (a total of 87 persons on either levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, or rifabutin, mostly for 1 week), serious adverse events and treatment discontinuation due to adverse events were rare (<1 and <5%, respectively), but mild adverse events frequently occurred. Due to small sample sizes of the levofloxacin and ofloxacin studies an increased frequency of mild adverse events compared to placebo could not be demonstrated or excluded. For moxifloxacin the comparative results were inconsistent. In four studies describing preventive therapy of MDR-TB contacts, therapy was stopped for 58–100% of the included persons because of the occurrence of adverse events ranging from mild adverse events such as nausea and dizziness to serious events requiring treatment. The quality of the evidence was very low. Although the number of publications and quality of evidence are low, the available evidence suggests that shortly after starting treatment the occurrence of serious adverse events is rare. Mild adverse events occur more frequently and may be of importance because these may provoke treatment interruption. PMID:23326464

  17. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  18. Frequencies of EGFR single nucleotide polymorphisms in non-small cell lung cancer patients and healthy individuals in the Republic of Serbia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Obradović, Jasmina; Djordjević, Natasa; Tošic, Natasa; Mrdjanović, Jasminka; Stanković, Biljana; Stanić, Jelena; Zarić, Bojan; Perin, Branislav; Pavlović, Sonja; Jurišić, Vladimir

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequencies of EGFR -216G>T, -191C>A, and 181946C>T in Serbian non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, as well as to compare it with healthy individuals, in order to assess their potential importance for lung cancer in Serbia. The study involved 56 NSCLC patients and 53 unrelated healthy volunteers, and genotyping was performed on DNA samples obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tumor tissue and blood, respectively. This was the first time to show genotype frequencies of those single nucleotide polymorphisms for this study group from the territory of the Republic of Serbia. There was very strong evidence of association between age and death due to lung cancer (Pearson chi-square = 43.439, df = 2, p < 0,001), as well as between ever smoking and death due to lung cancer (Pearson chi-square = 31.727, df = 1, p < 0.001). When dominant genetic model (GG vs. GT+TT) was used for -216G>T, we have found significant association (p = 0.012) between -216GG genotype and NSCLC patients within smokers' subgroup. So, carriers of -216GG genotype had higher risk (OR = 4.33, 95 % CI = 1.324-14.179) than noncarriers (GT and TT) for developing non-small cell lung cancer in our patients. PMID:26846215

  19. A rare allele combination of the interleukin-1 gene complex is associated with high interleukin-1 beta plasma levels in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Hulkkonen, J; Laippala, P; Hurme, M

    2000-06-01

    Increases in the plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokines can be detected in various infectious and inflammatory diseases, but in healthy individuals these levels are in most cases low or undetectable. There is now increasing evidence that genes of the inflammatory cytokines are polymorphic and the various alleles may differ in their capability to produce the cytokine. We have measured the plasma levels IL-1 beta of 400 healthy blood donors and correlated these to the genotype (biallelelic base exchanges at the position - 889 of the IL-1 alpha gene, and at the position - 511 of the IL-1 beta gene and the pentaallelic VNTR in the second intron of the IL-1Ra gene). The median concentration of IL-1 beta was 5.8 pg/ml (upper and lower quartiles 2.2-13.6). The polymorphisms of the IL-1 beta and IL-1 Ra genes did not have any significant influence on the IL-1 beta levels, but the IL-1 alpha 2.2 homozygotes (32/400 blood donors) had significantly elevated levels (median 7.0 pg/ml, quartiles 2.2-22.4, one-way ANOVA p < 0.008 as compared to the IL-1 alpha 1.1 homozygotes and p < 0.02 as compared to the IL-1 alpha 1.2 heterozygotes). This effect of IL-1 alpha 2.2 homozygosity was more pronounced in donors, who also were carriers of the IL-1 beta allele 2. Thus these data suggest that this allele combination has a regulatory effect on basal IL-1 beta production. PMID:10903804

  20. Differential Effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met Genotype on the Cognitive Function of Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Japanese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Kaneda, Ayako; Kaneko, Sunao

    2013-01-01

    Background The functional polymorphism Val158Met in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been associated with differences in prefrontal cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Several studies have indicated that the Met allele is associated with better performance on measures of cognitive function. We investigated whether the COMT Val158Met genotype was associated with cognitive function in 149 healthy controls and 118 patients with schizophrenia. Methods Cognitive function, including verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, attention, executive function and verbal fluency, was assessed by the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS-J). We employed a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a multiple regression analysis to determine the associations between the COMT Val158Met genotype and the BACS-J measurements. Results The one-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in the scores on the Tower of London, a measure of executive function, between the different Val158Met genotypes in the healthy controls (p = 0.023), and a post-hoc analysis showed significant differences between the scores on the Tower of London in the val/val genotype group (18.6 ± 2.4) compared to the other two groups (17.6 ± 2.7 for val/met and 17.1 ± 3.2 for met/met; p = 0.027 and p = 0.024, respectively). Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive function was significantly correlated with the Val158Met genotype (p = 0.003). However, no evidence was found for an effect of the COMT on any cognitive domains of the BACS-J in the patients with schizophrenia. Conclusion These data support the hypothesis that the COMT Val158Met genotype maintains an optimal level of dopamine activity. Further studies should be performed that include a larger sample size and include patients on and off medication, as these patients would help to confirm our findings. PMID:24282499

  1. Low plasma glutamine in combination with high glutamate levels indicate risk for loss of body cell mass in healthy individuals: the effect of N-acetyl-cysteine.

    PubMed

    Kinscherf, R; Hack, V; Fischbach, T; Friedmann, B; Weiss, C; Edler, L; Bärtsch, P; Dröge, W

    1996-07-01

    Skeletal muscle catabolism, low plasma glutamine, and high venous glutamate levels are common among patients with cancer or human immunodeficiency virus infection. In addition, a high glycolytic activity is commonly found in muscle tissue of cachectic cancer patients, suggesting insufficient mitochondrial energy metabolism. We therefore investigated (a) whether an "an-aerobic physical exercise" program causes similar changes in plasma amino acid levels, and (b) whether low plasma glutamine or high glutamate levels are risk factors for loss of body cell mass (BCM) in healthy human subjects, i.e., in the absence of a tumor or virus infection. Longitudinal measurements from healthy subjects over longer periods suggest that the age-related loss of BCM occur mainly during episodes with high venous glutamate levels, indicative of decreased muscular transport activity for glutamate. A significant increase in venous glutamate levels from 25 to about 40 microM was seen after a program of "anaerobic physical exercise." This was associated with changes in T lymphocyte numbers. Under these conditions persons with low baseline levels of plasma glutamine, arginine, and cystine levels also showed a loss of BCM. This loss of BCM was correlated not only with the amino acid levels at baseline examination, but also with an increase in plasma glutamine, arginine, and cystine levels during the observation period, suggesting that a loss of BCM in healthy individuals terminates itself by adjusting these amino acids to higher levels that stabilize BCM. To test a possible regulatory role of cysteine in this context we determined the effect of N-acetyl-cysteine on BCM in a group of subjects with relatively low glutamine levels. The placebo group of this study showed a loss of BCM and an increase in body fat, suggesting that body protein had been converted into other forms of chemical energy. The decrease in mean BCM/body fat ratios was prevented by N-acetyl-cysteine, indicating that

  2. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M.

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual’s fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0–11 years) and late (12–18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life

  3. Thigh Muscle Strength in Senior Athletes and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Jean L; Salacinski, Amanda J; Hunt, Sarah E; Greenspan, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is commonly recommended to counteract aging-related muscle weakness. While numerous exercise intervention studies on the elderly have been performed, few have included elite senior athletes, such as those who participate in the National Senior Games. The extent to which participation in highly competitive exercise affects muscle strength is unknown, as well as the extent to which such participation mitigates any aging-related strength losses. The purpose of this study was to examine isometric thigh muscle strength in selected athletes of the National Senior Games and healthy noncompetitive controls of similar age, as well as to investigate strength changes with aging in both groups. In all, 95 athletes of the Games and 72 healthy controls participated. Of the senior athletes, 43 were runners, 12 cyclists, and 40 swimmers. Three trials of isometric knee flexion and extension strength were collected using a load cell affixed to a custom-designed chair. Strength data were normalized to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-obtained lean mass of the leg. A 3-factor multivariate analysis of variance (group × gender × age group) was performed, which included both the extension and flexion variables ([alpha] = 0.05). Athletes exhibited 38% more extension strength and 66% more flexion strength than the controls (p < 0.001). Strength did not decrease with advancing age in either the athletes or the controls (p = 0.345). In conclusion, senior athletes who participate in highly competitive exercise have greater strength than healthy aged-matched individuals who do not. Neither group displayed the expected strength losses with aging. Our subject cohorts, however, were not typical of those over age 65 years because individuals with existing health conditions were excluded from the study. PMID:19972628

  4. Errorless learning and elaborative self-generation in healthy older adults and individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: mnemonic benefits and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lubinsky, Tobi; Rich, Jill B; Anderson, Nicole D

    2009-09-01

    Errorless learning is an intervention that benefits memory performance in healthy older adults and a variety of clinical populations. A limitation of the errorless learning technique is that it is passive and does not involve elaborative processing. We report two studies investigating the added benefits of elaborative, self-generated learning to the errorless learning advantage. We also explored the mnemonic mechanisms of the errorless learning advantage. In both studies, older adults and individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) completed four encoding conditions representing the crossing of errorless/errorful learning and self-generated/experimenter-provided learning. Self-generation enhanced the errorless learning benefit in cued recall and cued recognition, but not in free recall or item recognition. An errorless learning advantage was observed for priming of target words, and this effect was amplified for participants with aMCI after self-generated learning. Moreover, the aMCI group showed significant priming of prior self-generated errors. These results demonstrate that self-generation enhances the errorless learning advantage when study and test conditions match. The data also support the argument that errorless learning eliminates the misleading implicit influence of prior errors, as well as the need for explicit memory processes to distinguish targets from errors. PMID:19631023

  5. CYP2D6 function moderates the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine in a controlled study in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Yasmin; Vizeli, Patrick; Hysek, Cédric M; Prestin, Katharina; Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Henriette E; Liechti, Matthias E

    2016-08-01

    The role of genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome (CYP) 2D6 involved in the metabolism of 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is unclear. Effects of genetic variants in CYP2D6 on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of MDMA were characterized in 139 healthy individuals (70 men, 69 women) in a pooled analysis of eight double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover studies. In CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, the maximum concentrations (Cmax) of MDMA and its active metabolite 3,4-methylene-dioxyamphetamine were +15 and +50% higher, respectively, compared with extensive metabolizers and the Cmax of the inactive metabolite 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine was 50-70% lower. Blood pressure and subjective drug effects increased more rapidly after MDMA administration in poor metabolizers than in extensive metabolizers. In conclusion, the disposition of MDMA and its effects in humans are altered by polymorphic CYP2D6 activity, but the effects are small because of the autoinhibition of CYP2D6. PMID:27253829

  6. Sequential Recall in Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Chapman, Robin S.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to recall correctly ordered information was examined using two auditory tasks (narrative recall and digit span) and a nonverbal, visual task, with 47 individuals with Down's syndrome (ages 5 to 20) and 47 mentally aged-matched children. Although Down's syndrome subjects recalled less information than controls, no differences in the…

  7. Executive Functions in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menghini, D.; Addona, F.; Costanzo, F.; Vicari, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed at investigating working memory (WM) and executive functions capacities in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) as compared with mental-age matched typically developing (TD) children. Method: In order to serve the study goal, a sizeable battery of tasks tapping WM as well as attention, memory, planning,…

  8. Evaluating the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate, ingested individually or in combination, and a taste-matched placebo on high-intensity cycling capacity in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Matthew F; Wilson, Susie; Hill, Cameron; Price, Mike J; Duncan, Mike; Tallis, Jason

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ingesting sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or caffeine individually or in combination on high-intensity cycling capacity. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, 13 healthy, noncycling trained males (age: 21 ± 3 years, height: 178 ± 6 cm, body mass: 76 ± 12 kg, peak power output (Wpeak): 230 ± 34 W, peak oxygen uptake: 46 ± 8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, 2 familiarisation trials, and 4 experimental trials. Trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion at 100% Wpeak (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting a solution containing either (i) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate (BIC), (ii) 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine plus 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (CAF), (iii) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate plus 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine (BIC-CAF), or (iv) 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (PLA). Experimental solutions were administered double-blind. Pre-exercise, at the end of exercise, and 5-min postexercise blood pH, base excess, and bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3(-)]) were significantly elevated for BIC and BIC-CAF compared with CAF and PLA. TLIM (median; interquartile range) was significantly greater for CAF (399; 350-415 s; P = 0.039; r = 0.6) and BIC-CAF (367; 333-402 s; P = 0.028; r = 0.6) compared with BIC (313: 284-448 s) although not compared with PLA (358; 290-433 s; P = 0.249, r = 0.3 and P = 0.099 and r = 0.5, respectively). There were no differences between PLA and BIC (P = 0.196; r = 0.4) or between CAF and BIC-CAF (P = 0.753; r = 0.1). Relatively large inter- and intra-individual variation was observed when comparing treatments and therefore an individual approach to supplementation appears warranted. PMID:26988768

  9. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 induces different responses in dendritic cells of birch pollen allergic and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Smole, Ursula; Radauer, Christian; Lengger, Nina; Svoboda, Martin; Rigby, Neil; Bublin, Merima; Gaier, Sonja; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs) of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals. PMID:25635684

  10. Acute ingestion of a novel whey-derived peptide improves vascular endothelial responses in healthy individuals: a randomized, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Kevin D; Bruno, Richard S; Seip, Richard L; Quann, Erin E; Volk, Brittanie M; Freidenreich, Daniel J; Kawiecki, Diana M; Kupchak, Brian R; Chung, Min-Yu; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2009-01-01

    NOP-47 (-18%). Conclusion These findings indicate that supplementation with a novel whey-derived peptide in healthy individuals improves vascular function. PMID:19624856

  11. The Major Birch Pollen Allergen Bet v 1 Induces Different Responses in Dendritic Cells of Birch Pollen Allergic and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Smole, Ursula; Radauer, Christian; Lengger, Nina; Svoboda, Martin; Rigby, Neil; Bublin, Merima; Gaier, Sonja; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs) of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals. PMID:25635684

  12. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  13. Do Healthy Preterm Children Need Neuropsychological Follow-Up? Preschool Outcomes Compared with Term Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dall'Oglio, Anna M.; Rossiello, Barbara; Coletti, Maria F.; Bultrini, Massimiliano; De Marchis, Chiara; Rava, Lucilla; Caselli, Cristina; Paris, Silvana; Cuttini, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. Method : A total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33…

  14. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  15. Factors of Influence on the Performance of a Short-Latency Non-Invasive Brain Switch: Evidence in Healthy Individuals and Implication for Motor Function Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ren; Jiang, Ning; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Dremstrup, Kim; Farina, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Brain-computer interfacing (BCI) has recently been applied as a rehabilitation approach for patients with motor disorders, such as stroke. In these closed-loop applications, a brain switch detects the motor intention from brain signals, e.g., scalp EEG, and triggers a neuroprosthetic device, either to deliver sensory feedback or to mimic real movements, thus re-establishing the compromised sensory-motor control loop and promoting neural plasticity. In this context, single trial detection of motor intention with short latency is a prerequisite. The performance of the event detection from EEG recordings is mainly determined by three factors: the type of motor imagery (e.g., repetitive, ballistic), the frequency band (or signal modality) used for discrimination (e.g., alpha, beta, gamma, and MRCP, i.e., movement-related cortical potential), and the processing technique (e.g., time-series analysis, sub-band power estimation). In this study, we investigated single trial EEG traces during movement imagination on healthy individuals, and provided a comprehensive analysis of the performance of a short-latency brain switch when varying these three factors. The morphological investigation showed a cross-subject consistency of a prolonged negative phase in MRCP, and a delayed beta rebound in sensory-motor rhythms during repetitive tasks. The detection performance had the greatest accuracy when using ballistic MRCP with time-series analysis. In this case, the true positive rate (TPR) was ~70% for a detection latency of ~200 ms. The results presented here are of practical relevance for designing BCI systems for motor function rehabilitation. PMID:26834551

  16. Bioequivalence of Alendronate and Vitamin D3 in a Combination Tablet Versus Corresponding-Dose Individual Tablets in Healthy Taiwanese Volunteers, Determined Using a Novel Plasma Alendronate Assay

    PubMed Central

    Wright, D. Hamish; Mols, Ramon; Brown, Kevin R; Yeh, Geng-Chang; Woolf, Eric; Hickey, Lisa; Zajic, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to demonstrate that alendronate (ALN)/vitamin D3 combination tablets (ALN/D5600) are bioequivalent to corresponding doses of ALN and vitamin D3 as individual tablets in healthy Taiwanese volunteers. Methods In this open-label, randomized, 2-period, crossover study, 68 volunteers were randomized to a single ALN/D5600 combination tablet or corresponding doses of 70 mg ALN + 5600 IU vitamin D3 (2 × 2800 IU), followed by a 12-day washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. Plasma ALN levels were measured using a newly developed assay. Geometric mean ratios of ALN AUC0–last, AUC0–∞, and Cmax, and unadjusted vitamin D3 AUC0–80h and Cmax were compared and considered bioequivalent if the 90% CI was within 0.8 to 1.25. Results The geometric mean ratios were: AUC0–last, 1.084 (90% CI, 0.937–1.253); AUC0–∞, 1.081 (90% CI, 0.935–1.249); and Cmax, 1.112 (90% CI, 0.959–1.289) for ALN, and AUC0–80h 0.953 (90% CI, 0.827–1.098) and Cmax, 0.982 (90% CI, 0.854–1.130) for vitamin D3 unadjusted for endogenous levels. Conclusions The combination tablet was considered bioequivalent to coadministration based on ALN AUC0–∞ and unadjusted vitamin D3 parameters. Slight differences for ALN AUC0–last and Cmax (upper 90% CIs outside the bounds) were not considered clinically significant. The combination tablet was well tolerated. No serious adverse experiences were reported. © 2015. The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID:26843897

  17. Gray Matter Volume and Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Motor Cortex-Cerebellum Network Reflect the Individual Variation in Masticatory Performance in Healthy Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Shu; Wu, Shih-Yun; Wu, Ching-Yi; Ko, Hsien-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have consistently identified brain activation in the motor area and the cerebellum during chewing. In this study, we further investigated the structural and functional brain signature associated with masticatory performance, which is a widely used index for evaluating overall masticatory function in the elderly. Twenty-five healthy elderly participants underwent oral examinations, masticatory performance tests, and behavioral assessments, including the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument and the short-form Geriatric Depression Scale. Masticatory performance was assessed with the validated colorimetric method, using color-changeable chewing gum. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state function MRI were performed. We analyzed alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between brain regions using the seed-based method. The structural and functional MRI analyses revealed the following findings: (1) the GMV change in the premotor cortex was positively correlated with masticatory performance. (2) The rsFC between the cerebellum and the premotor cortex was positively correlated with masticatory performance. (3) The GMV changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the rsFC between the cerebellum and the DLPFC, were positively correlated with masticatory performance. The findings showed that in the premotor cortex, a reduction of GMV and rsFC would reflect declined masticatory performance. The positive correlation between DLPFC connectivity and masticatory performance implies that masticatory ability is associated with cognitive function in the elderly. Our findings highlighted the role of the central nervous system in masticatory performance and increased our understanding of the structural and functional brain signature underlying individual variations in masticatory performance in the elderly. PMID:26779015

  18. NMR-based metabolic profiling in healthy individuals overfed different types of fat: links to changes in liver fat accumulation and lean tissue mass

    PubMed Central

    Elmsjö, A; Rosqvist, F; Engskog, M K R; Haglöf, J; Kullberg, J; Iggman, D; Johansson, L; Ahlström, H; Arvidsson, T; Risérus, U; Pettersson, C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overeating different dietary fatty acids influence the amount of liver fat stored during weight gain, however, the mechanisms responsible are unclear. We aimed to identify non-lipid metabolites that may differentiate between saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) overfeeding using a non-targeted metabolomic approach. We also investigated the possible relationships between plasma metabolites and body fat accumulation. Methods: In a randomized study (LIPOGAIN study), n=39 healthy individuals were overfed with muffins containing SFA or PUFA. Plasma samples were precipitated with cold acetonitrile and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Pattern recognition techniques were used to overview the data, identify variables contributing to group classification and to correlate metabolites with fat accumulation. Results: We previously reported that SFA causes a greater accumulation of liver fat, visceral fat and total body fat, whereas lean tissue levels increases less compared with PUFA, despite comparable weight gain. In this study, lactate and acetate were identified as important contributors to group classification between SFA and PUFA (P<0.05). Furthermore, the fat depots (total body fat, visceral adipose tissue and liver fat) and lean tissue correlated (P(corr)>0.5) all with two or more metabolites (for example, branched amino acids, alanine, acetate and lactate). The metabolite composition differed in a manner that may indicate higher insulin sensitivity after a diet with PUFA compared with SFA, but this needs to be confirmed in future studies. Conclusion: A non-lipid metabolic profiling approach only identified a few metabolites that differentiated between SFA and PUFA overfeeding. Whether these metabolite changes are involved in depot-specific fat storage and increased lean tissue mass during overeating needs further investigation. PMID:26479316

  19. Muscle mass, visceral fat, and plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide in healthy individuals (from the J-SHIPP Study).

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Taiji; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Ochi, Masayuki; Nagai, Tokihisa; Okada, Yoko; Igase, Michiya; Miki, Tetsuro

    2014-08-15

    A paradoxical negative association between obesity and the plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level has been firmly established. An individual's fat mass increases and muscle mass decreases with aging. Because aging is a potent determinant of plasma BNP levels, BNP may be related not only to fat mass but also to muscle mass. However, no studies have evaluated the associations between body composition and plasma levels of BNP. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate these associations in 1,431 apparently healthy middle-aged to elderly subjects. The abdominal visceral fat area and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) were quantified by computed tomography. Plasma adiponectin and leptin levels were measured as possible confounding parameters. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was measured as an index of arterial stiffness, and the pulse pressure (PP) of the second peak of the radial systolic blood pressure waveform (PP2) was used as an estimate of the central PP. Plasma BNP levels were significantly and negatively associated with the visceral fat area (r = -0.13, p <0.0001) and thigh muscle CSA (r = -0.25, p <0.0001). Corrections with possible confounding parameters including age, gender, heart rate, mean blood pressure, body weight, body height, adiponectin, leptin, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, and PP2 eliminated the association of BNP with visceral fat area but not with thigh muscle CSA (β = -0.27, p <0.0001). These findings indicate that along with adiposity, muscle mass is an independent determinant of plasma BNP. PMID:25001150

  20. Factors of Influence on the Performance of a Short-Latency Non-Invasive Brain Switch: Evidence in Healthy Individuals and Implication for Motor Function Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ren; Jiang, Ning; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Dremstrup, Kim; Farina, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interfacing (BCI) has recently been applied as a rehabilitation approach for patients with motor disorders, such as stroke. In these closed-loop applications, a brain switch detects the motor intention from brain signals, e.g., scalp EEG, and triggers a neuroprosthetic device, either to deliver sensory feedback or to mimic real movements, thus re-establishing the compromised sensory-motor control loop and promoting neural plasticity. In this context, single trial detection of motor intention with short latency is a prerequisite. The performance of the event detection from EEG recordings is mainly determined by three factors: the type of motor imagery (e.g., repetitive, ballistic), the frequency band (or signal modality) used for discrimination (e.g., alpha, beta, gamma, and MRCP, i.e., movement-related cortical potential), and the processing technique (e.g., time-series analysis, sub-band power estimation). In this study, we investigated single trial EEG traces during movement imagination on healthy individuals, and provided a comprehensive analysis of the performance of a short-latency brain switch when varying these three factors. The morphological investigation showed a cross-subject consistency of a prolonged negative phase in MRCP, and a delayed beta rebound in sensory-motor rhythms during repetitive tasks. The detection performance had the greatest accuracy when using ballistic MRCP with time-series analysis. In this case, the true positive rate (TPR) was ~70% for a detection latency of ~200 ms. The results presented here are of practical relevance for designing BCI systems for motor function rehabilitation. PMID:26834551

  1. Spleen Size Is Significantly Influenced by Body Height and Sex: Establishment of Normal Values for Spleen Size at US with a Cohort of 1200 Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kai Uwe; Luxembourg, Beate; Seifried, Erhard; Bonig, Halvard

    2016-04-01

    Purpose To define height- and sex-corrected normal values for spleen length and volume determined with ultrasonography (US). Materials and Methods The authors performed a retrospective data review of stem cell donors who had provided written informed consent for stem cell donation and use of anonymized data and biologic materials for scientific and quality control purposes. Spleen length, spleen volume, and anthrophometric data were correlated in 1230 healthy volunteers to identify variables that affect spleen size. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to weight effects of various variables on spleen size. Linear regression through the 95th percentile for men and women of different height cohorts generated the formula for the upper limit of normal for spleen length and volume. For validation, the upper limit of normal was calculated for each volunteer and compared with the observed value. Formulae to calculate the additional percentiles were similarly generated and validated. A cohort of 75 volunteers was analyzed twice to assess the stability of spleen length and volume over time. Results Spleen length and volume were significantly and independently associated with sex (length: P < .001; volume: P = .012), body height (P < .001 for both), and weight (P < .001 for both), with men and taller and heavier individuals having longer and larger spleens. The spleen length of 20 of 324 women (6%) and 234 of 906 men (26%) exceeded the previously reported upper limit of normal of 12 cm. Repeat measurements indicated that spleen length (median difference, 0.10 cm; range, -1.8 to 1.7 cm) and volume (median difference, 3 cm(3); range, -106 to 142 cm(3)) were quite stable. A mobile application that performs these calculations is available for download. Conclusion The authors define height- and sex-corrected normal values for spleen length and volume for women with a body height of 155-179 cm and men with a body height of 165-199 cm and propose validated algorithms

  2. Cross-linking of sodium caseinate-structured emulsion with transglutaminase alters postprandial metabolic and appetite responses in healthy young individuals.

    PubMed

    Juvonen, Kristiina R; Macierzanka, Adam; Lille, Martina E; Laaksonen, David E; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Niskanen, Leo K; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Mäkelä, Kari A; Mills, Clare E N; Mackie, Alan R; Malcolm, Paul; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Karhunen, Leila J

    2015-08-14

    The physico-chemical and interfacial properties of fat emulsions influence lipid digestion and may affect postprandial responses. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the modification of the interfacial layer of a fat emulsion by cross-linking on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. A total of fifteen healthy individuals (26.5 (sem 6.9) years and BMI 21.9 (sem 2.0) kg/m2) participated in a cross-over design experiment in which they consumed two isoenergetic (1924 kJ (460 kcal)) and isovolumic (250 g) emulsions stabilised with either sodium caseinate (Cas) or transglutaminase-cross-linked sodium caseinate (Cas-TG) in a randomised order. Blood samples were collected from the individuals at baseline and for 6 h postprandially for the determination of serum TAG and plasma NEFA, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose and insulin responses. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. Postprandial TAG and NEFA responses and gastric emptying (GE) rates were comparable between the emulsions. CCK increased more after the ingestion of Cas-TG than after the ingestion of Cas (P< 0.05), while GLP-1 responses did not differ between the two test emulsions. Glucose and insulin profiles were lower after consuming Cas-TG than after consuming Cas (P< 0.05). The overall insulin, glucose and CCK responses, expressed as areas above/under the curve, did not differ significantly between the Cas and Cas-TG meal conditions. Satiety ratings were reduced and hunger, desire to eat and thirst ratings increased more after the ingestion of Cas-TG than after the ingestion of Cas (P< 0.05). The present results suggest that even a subtle structural modification of the interfacial layer of a fat emulsion can alter the early postprandial profiles of glucose, insulin, CCK, appetite and satiety through decreased protein digestion without affecting significantly on GE or overall lipid digestion. PMID:26159899

  3. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  4. Comparison of the metabolic responses to ingestion of hydrothermally processed high-amylopectin content maize, uncooked maize starch or dextrose in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Bracken, Richard M; Gray, Benjamin J; Turner, Daniel

    2014-04-14

    Optimal carbohydrate ingestion strategies as nutritional therapy for glycogen storage diseases have not been fully realised, in part, due to difficulties in accessing patient cohorts, alongside limited details on metabolic effects and insight into working mechanisms. The present pilot study compared glycaemic and fuel oxidation responses following the ingestion of a hydrothermally processed maize starch (HPMS), an uncooked maize starch (UCMS) and maize-derived dextrose (DEX) at rest and during and after exercise in healthy individuals. A total of eight participants (seven males and one female; body mass (BM) 76.9 (SEM 5.2) kg) visited the laboratory on three occasions. During each visit, the participants ingested 1 g/kg BM of HPMS (Glycosade™), UCMS (Argo™) or DEX as a 10% solution. Blood samples were collected over a 2 h rest period and for 2 h after a 60 min treadmill run at 65 (SEM 1) % VO(2max). Mean values with their standard errors were analysed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Blood glucose concentrations under the HPMS condition were significantly elevated from resting values at 90 min (P=0.02) after ingestion compared with those under the UCMS (60 min; P=0.02) and DEX (30 min; P=0.001) conditions. The rate of carbohydrate use during exercise after the ingestion of HPMS was 7-9% lower compared with that after the ingestion of either DEX or UCMS (P<0.05). The total amount of lipids oxidised during exercise was greater under the HPMS condition (26.2 (SEM 2.8) g) compared with that oxidised under the UCMS (19.6 (SEM 2.7) g; P=0.04) or DEX (20.6 (SEM 3.6) g; P=0.07) condition. The results demonstrated a glycaemic advantage to the ingestion of HPMS over that of UCMS or DEX. Carbohydrate oxidation was reduced after the ingestion of HPMS compared with that after the ingestion of UCMS or DEX, with a corresponding higher rate of endogenous lipid use during exercise. PMID:24229467

  5. Profile of Individuals Who Are Metabolically Healthy Obese Using Different Definition Criteria. A Population-Based Analysis in the Spanish Population

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Larrad, María Teresa; Corbatón Anchuelo, Arturo; Del Prado, Náyade; Ibarra Rueda, José María; Gabriel, Rafael; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with numerous metabolic complications such as diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and several forms of cancer. Our goal was to compare different criteria to define the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) with metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO) subjects. We applied Wildman (W), Wildman modified (WM) with insulin resistance (IR) with cut-off point ≥3.8 and levels of C- Reactive Protein (CRP) ≥3 mg/l; and Consensus Societies (CS) criteria. In these subjects cardiovascular-risk (CV-risk) was estimated by Framingham score and SCORE for MHO and MUHO. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Spanish Caucasian adults. A total of 3,844 subjects completed the study, 45% males, aged 35–74 years. Anthropometric/biochemical variables were measured. Obesity was defined as BMI: ≥30 Kg/m2. Results The overall prevalence of obesity in our population was 27.5%, (23.7%/males and 30.2%/females). MHO prevalence according to W, WM, and CS definition criteria were: 9.65%, 16.29%, 39.94% respectively in obese participants. MHO has lower waist circumference (WC) measurements than MUHO. The estimated CV-risks by Framingham and SCORE Project charts were lower in MHO than MUHO subjects. WC showed high specificity and sensitivity in detecting high estimated CV risk by Framingham. However, WHR showed high specificity and sensitivity in detecting CV risk according to SCORE Project. MHO subjects as defined by any of the three criteria had higher adiponectin levels after adjustment by sex, age, WC, HOMA IR and Framingham or SCORE risks. This relationship was not found for CRP circulating levels neither leptin levels. Conclusions MHO prevalence is highly dependent on the definition criteria used to define those individuals. Results showed that MHO subjects had less WC, and a lower estimated CV-risk than MUHO subjects. Additionally, the high adiponectin circulating levels in MHO may suggest a protective role

  6. Regional brain distribution of translocator protein using [(11)C]DPA-713 PET in individuals infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Jennifer M; Wang, Yuchuan; Ma, Shuangchao; Yue, Chen; Kim, Pearl K; Adams, Ashley V; Roosa, Heidi V; Gage, Kenneth L; Stathis, Marigo; Rais, Rana; Rojas, Camilo; McGlothan, Jennifer L; Watkins, Crystal C; Sacktor, Ned; Guilarte, Tomas R; Zhou, Yun; Sawa, Akira; Slusher, Barbara S; Caffo, Brian; Kassiou, Michael; Endres, Christopher J; Pomper, Martin G

    2014-06-01

    Imaging the brain distribution of translocator protein (TSPO), a putative biomarker for glial cell activation and neuroinflammation, may inform management of individuals infected with HIV by uncovering regional abnormalities related to neurocognitive deficits and enable non-invasive therapeutic monitoring. Using the second-generation TSPO-targeted radiotracer, [(11)C]DPA-713, we conducted a positron emission tomography (PET) study to compare the brains of 12 healthy human subjects to those of 23 individuals with HIV who were effectively treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Compared to PET data from age-matched healthy control subjects, [(11)C]DPA-713 PET of individuals infected with HIV demonstrated significantly higher volume-of-distribution (VT) ratios in white matter, cingulate cortex, and supramarginal gyrus, relative to overall gray matter VT, suggesting localized glial cell activation in susceptible regions. Regional TSPO abnormalities were evident within a sub-cohort of neuro-asymptomatic HIV subjects, and an increase in the VT ratio within frontal cortex was specifically linked to individuals affected with HIV-associated dementia. These findings were enabled by employing a gray matter normalization approach for PET data quantification, which improved test-retest reproducibility, intra-class correlation within the healthy control cohort, and sensitivity of uncovering abnormal regional findings. PMID:24567030

  7. Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 > Staying Healthy Font: What is Alpha-1? Emphysema Alpha-1 Symptoms Diagnosing Alpha-1 Current Treatments ... Healthy What can people with Alpha-1-related emphysema do to stay as healthy as possible? First ...

  8. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  9. RELN-expressing Neuron Density in Layer I of the Superior Temporal Lobe is Similar in Human Brains with Autism and in Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C.; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. PMID:25067827

  10. Healthy doctors, healthy communities.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Donna; Katch, Ellen; Anderson, Patricia; Furlong, Mary A

    2004-01-01

    Promoting health and eliminating disease are goals of Healthy People 2010, a national initiative for all communities. Physician-directed interventions that advance these principles are most effective when directed by clinicians who regularly participate in such healthy behaviors themselves. This pilot study describes an 8-week intervention, "Well-being for You and Your Patients," for first-year medical students to experience health behavior change. In the 2-hour sessions, students set goals for changing health behavior in 6 dimensions of wellness; report their progress; and enjoy a 30-minute change-of-pace wellness activity. The authors recommend adapting the course for medical student alumni to facilitate health behavior change with small groups of adults, school-age children, teens, and elders in churches, schools, community health centers, and other community-based organizations. Through continuing medical education and Grand Rounds, residents and physicians in practice could also be trained to implement specific behavioral change strategies. PMID:15495745

  11. Healthy pets, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Wong, S K; Feinstein, L H; Heidmann, P

    1999-08-01

    Zoonoses, diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans, can pose serious health risks to immunocompromised people. Although pets can carry zoonoses, owning and caring for animals can benefit human health. Information exists about preventing transmission of zoonoses, but not all physicians and veterinarians provide adequate and accurate information to immunocompromised pet owners. This disease prevention/health promotion project provides physicians and veterinarians with information, created specifically to share with patients and clients, about the health risks and benefits of pet ownership. Further, "Healthy Pets, Healthy People" encourages communication between veterinarians, physicians, clients, and patients and can serve as a model program for a nation-wide effort to aid health professionals in making recommendations about pet ownership for immunocompromised people. PMID:10434969

  12. Effect of whole body vibration frequency on neuromuscular activity in ACL-deficient and healthy males.

    PubMed

    Giombini, A; Menotti, F; Laudani, L; Piccinini, A; Fagnani, F; Di Cagno, A; Macaluso, A; Pigozzi, F

    2015-09-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to enhance muscle activity via reflex pathways, thus having the potential to contrast muscle weakness in individuals with rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of neuromuscular activation during WBV over a frequency spectrum from 20 to 45 Hz between ACL-deficient and healthy individuals. Fifteen males aged 28±4 with ACL rupture and 15 age-matched healthy males were recruited. Root mean square (RMS) of the surface electromyogram from the vastus lateralis in both limbs was computed during WBV in a static half-squat position at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, and normalized to the RMS while maintaining the half-squat position without vibration. The RMS of the vastus lateralis in the ACL-deficient limb was significantly greater than in the contralateral limb at 25, 30, 35 and 40 Hz (P<0.05) and in both limbs of the healthy participants (dominant limb at 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05; non dominant limb at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05). The greater neuromuscular activity in the injured limb compared to the uninjured limb of the ACL-deficient patients and to both limbs of the healthy participants during WBV might be due to either augmented excitatory or reduced inhibitory neural inflow to motoneurons of the vastus lateralis through the reflex pathways activated by vibratory stimuli. The study provides optimal WBV frequencies which might be used as reference values for ACL-deficient patients. PMID:26424928

  13. Effect of whole body vibration frequency on neuromuscular activity in ACL-deficient and healthy males

    PubMed Central

    Giombini, A; Menotti, F; Piccinini, A; Fagnani, F; Di Cagno, A; Macaluso, A; Pigozzi, F

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to enhance muscle activity via reflex pathways, thus having the potential to contrast muscle weakness in individuals with rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of neuromuscular activation during WBV over a frequency spectrum from 20 to 45 Hz between ACL-deficient and healthy individuals. Fifteen males aged 28±4 with ACL rupture and 15 age-matched healthy males were recruited. Root mean square (RMS) of the surface electromyogram from the vastus lateralis in both limbs was computed during WBV in a static half-squat position at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, and normalized to the RMS while maintaining the half-squat position without vibration. The RMS of the vastus lateralis in the ACL-deficient limb was significantly greater than in the contralateral limb at 25, 30, 35 and 40 Hz (P<0.05) and in both limbs of the healthy participants (dominant limb at 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05; non dominant limb at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05). The greater neuromuscular activity in the injured limb compared to the uninjured limb of the ACL-deficient patients and to both limbs of the healthy participants during WBV might be due to either augmented excitatory or reduced inhibitory neural inflow to motoneurons of the vastus lateralis through the reflex pathways activated by vibratory stimuli. The study provides optimal WBV frequencies which might be used as reference values for ACL-deficient patients. PMID:26424928

  14. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  15. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. PMID:24210176

  16. Prescription Errors in Older Individuals with an Intellectual Disability: Prevalence and Risk Factors in the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaal, Rianne J.; van der Kaaij, Annemieke D. M.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Prescribing pharmacotherapy for older individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) is a complex process, possibly leading to an increased risk of prescription errors. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of older individuals with an intellectual disability with at least one prescription error and (2) to identify…

  17. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as “the ball is above the cup”, where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6–11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as “the cup is above the drum” or “the bird is below the hat”. Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children’s scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of

  18. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Training and Jobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  19. Heart rate and autonomic response to stress after experimental induction of worry versus relaxation in healthy, high-worry, and generalized anxiety disorder individuals.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Aaron J; Newman, Michelle G

    2013-04-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is the most commonly occurring anxiety disorder and has been related to cardiovascular morbidity such as cardiac ischemia, sudden cardiac death, and myocardial infarction. Both GAD and its cardinal symptom - worry - have been shown to promote muted physiological reactivity in response to laboratory and ecological stressors. Importantly, no study to date has examined the concurrent and relative contributions of trait and state worry within healthy controls, (non-clinical) high trait-worry controls, and GAD participants. The present study examined heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) responses to laboratory stress during and following the experimental induction of worry versus relaxation in healthy controls (n=42), high trait worriers (n=33) and participants with GAD (n=76). All groups exhibited increased HR and decreased RSA in response to the stressor, with no differences by condition. Baseline sAA significantly moderated HR and RSA reactivity, such that higher sAA predicted greater increases in HR and decreases in RSA. There was a significant group by baseline sAA interaction such that in GAD, higher baseline sAA predicted decreased change in sAA during stress, whereas higher baseline sAA predicted greater sAA change in healthy controls. High-worry controls fell non-significantly between these groups. The present study provides additional evidence for the effect of worry on diminished HR stress response and points to possible suppression of adrenergic sympathetic stress responses in GAD. PMID:23384513

  20. Theoretical modeling of the urinary supersaturation of calcium salts in healthy individuals and kidney stone patients: Precursors, speciation and therapeutic protocols for decreasing its value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Allen L.; Allie-Hamdulay, Shameez; Jackson, Graham E.; Durbach, Ian

    2013-11-01

    BackgroundSupersaturation (SS) of urinary salts has been extensively invoked for assessing the risk of renal stone formation, but precursors have often been ignored. Our objectives were to establish by computer modeling, which urinary components are essential for calculating reliable SS values, to investigate whether unique equilibrium processes occur in the urine of stone formers (SF) which might account for their higher SS levels relative to healthy controls (N), to determine the relative efficacies of three different, widely-used protocols for lowering urinary SS of calcium salts and to examine the influence of precursors.

  1. Frequency of P2RX7 A1513C and TLR2 -196 to -174 ins/del in healthy Polish individuals.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, M; Garczyńska, P; Jędrychowska-Dańska, K; Kopczyńska, P; Masłowska, A; Witas, H

    2015-06-01

    Polymorphisms within genes coding innate immune response proteins are involved in genetic susceptibility to various conditions. We investigated the frequency of P2RX7 A1513C and TLR2 -196 to -174 ins/del polymorphisms in healthy Polish population. Frequency of minor alleles was relatively similar to the pattern presented by Caucasian populations while it differed significantly when compared to non-European populations, which could be a result of variable selection pressure put upon studied alleles or hindered gene flow between populations. PMID:25726710

  2. Healthy human gut phageome.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health. PMID:27573828

  3. Nyquist and Bode stability criteria to assess changes in dynamic knee stability in healthy and anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed individuals during walking.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kristin D; Zheng, Yanbing; Bush, Heather; Noehren, Brian

    2016-06-14

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are one of the most frequently injured knee ligaments. Despite reconstruction, many individuals report difficulty returning to high level activities that require greater dynamic stability. Since few methods have been tested to assess dynamic stability post ACL reconstruction (ACLR), the purpose of this study was to evaluate between and within dynamic knee stability in control and ACLR individuals using Nyquist and Bode stability criteria. Sixteen control and sixteen post ACLR individuals performed a walking protocol. Nyquist and Bode stability criteria were implemented to classify and quantify individual step-to-step sagittal plane dynamic knee stability from the gait waveforms at initial contact, 15% and 30% of stance based on the resulting gain and phase margins. An ANOVA compared differences in phase margins between the control and ACLR limbs and found that the ACLR limbs were overall significantly more unstable than the non-reconstructed and control limbs (p=0.001). The results indicated that the ACLR individuals who exhibited stable steps adopted a more compensatory strategy aimed to stabilize the knee. These methods of evaluating dynamic knee stability may help clinicians to assess dynamic knee stability progression throughout rehabilitation and help assess return-to-sport with minimal risk to the individual. PMID:27126984

  4. Effect of verbal persuasion on self-efficacy for pain-related diagnostic sensory testing in individuals with chronic neck pain and healthy controls – a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Söderlund, Anne; Sterling, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in cold pain threshold (CTh), pressure pain threshold (PPT), cold pain tolerance (CPTo) tests, and the level of self-efficacy when self-efficacy for diagnostic sensory testing was manipulated by verbal persuasion before a testing situation in persons with neck pain and in healthy controls. A randomized experimental design was used. Twenty-one healthy volunteers and 22 individuals with either traumatic or nontraumatic chronic neck pain were recruited to participate in the study. The intervention consisted of two experimental verbal persuasion conditions: Increase self-efficacy and Decrease self-efficacy. The PPT was measured using a pressure algometer, the CTh was measured using a thermo test system, and CPTo was measured by submerging the participant’s hand in ice water up to the elbow joint. On three occasions, the participants reported their self-efficacy level in performing the sensory tests. In the chronic neck pain group, there were no differences in pain threshold or tolerance. There was a difference in the self-efficacy level after verbal persuasion between the experimental conditions. In the healthy control group, the CThs increased following the condition that aimed to increase self-efficacy. No other differences were observed in the healthy controls. A short verbal persuasion in the form of manipulative instructions seems to have a marginal effect on the individual’s self-efficacy levels in the chronic neck pain group and a slight influence on the results of sensory testing in healthy controls. PMID:27022298

  5. Neural Substrates of Sexual Desire in Individuals with Problematic Hypersexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Ji-Woo; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the characteristics of individuals with hypersexual disorder have been accumulating due to increasing concerns about problematic hypersexual behavior (PHB). Currently, relatively little is known about the underlying behavioral and neural mechanisms of sexual desire. Our study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of sexual desire with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-three individuals with PHB and 22 age-matched healthy controls were scanned while they passively viewed sexual and nonsexual stimuli. The subjects' levels of sexual desire were assessed in response to each sexual stimulus. Relative to controls, individuals with PHB experienced more frequent and enhanced sexual desire during exposure to sexual stimuli. Greater activation was observed in the caudate nucleus, inferior parietal lobe, dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the PHB group than in the control group. In addition, the hemodynamic patterns in the activated areas differed between the groups. Consistent with the findings of brain imaging studies of substance and behavior addiction, individuals with the behavioral characteristics of PHB and enhanced desire exhibited altered activation in the prefrontal cortex and subcortical regions. In conclusion, our results will help to characterize the behaviors and associated neural mechanisms of individuals with PHB. PMID:26648855

  6. Intra- and inter-individual variation of BIS-index® and Entropy® during controlled sedation with midazolam/remifentanil and dexmedetomidine/remifentanil in healthy volunteers: an interventional study

    PubMed Central

    Haenggi, Matthias; Ypparila-Wolters, Heidi; Hauser, Kathrin; Caviezel, Claudio; Takala, Jukka; Korhonen, Ilkka; Jakob, Stephan M

    2009-01-01

    Introduction We studied intra-individual and inter-individual variability of two online sedation monitors, BIS® and Entropy®, in volunteers under sedation. Methods Ten healthy volunteers were sedated in a stepwise manner with doses of either midazolam and remifentanil or dexmedetomidine and remifentanil. One week later the procedure was repeated with the remaining drug combination. The doses were adjusted to achieve three different sedation levels (Ramsay Scores 2, 3 and 4) and controlled by a computer-driven drug-delivery system to maintain stable plasma concentrations of the drugs. At each level of sedation, BIS® and Entropy® (response entropy and state entropy) values were recorded for 20 minutes. Baseline recordings were obtained before the sedative medications were administered. Results Both inter-individual and intra-individual variability increased as the sedation level deepened. Entropy® values showed greater variability than BIS® values, and the variability was greater during dexmedetomidine/remifentanil sedation than during midazolam/remifentanil sedation. Conclusions The large intra-individual and inter-individual variability of BIS® and Entropy® values in sedated volunteers makes the determination of sedation levels by processed electroencephalogram (EEG) variables impossible. Reports in the literature which draw conclusions based on processed EEG variables obtained from sedated intensive care unit (ICU) patients may be inaccurate due to this variability. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov Nr. NCT00641563. PMID:19228415

  7. Enhancing memory performance with rTMS in healthy subjects and individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: the role of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Turriziani, Patrizia; Smirni, Daniela; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Mangano, Giuseppa R.; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A debated question in the literature is the degree of anatomical and functional lateralization of the executive control processes sub-served by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during recognition memory retrieval. We investigated if transient inhibition and excitation of the left and right DLPFC at retrieval by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulate recognition memory performance in 100 healthy controls (HCs) and in eight patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Recognition memory tasks of faces, buildings, and words were used in different experiments. rTMS-inhibition of the right DLPFC enhanced recognition memory in both HCs and MCIs. rTMS-excitation of the same region in HCs deteriorated memory performance. Inhibition of the right DLPFC could modulate the excitability of a network of brain regions, in the ipsilateral as well as in the contralateral hemisphere, enhancing function in HCs or restoring an adaptive equilibrium in MCI. PMID:22514525

  8. Evaluation of the effect of N-acetyl-glucosamine administration on biomarkers for cartilage metabolism in healthy individuals without symptoms of arthritis: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Tomonaga, Akihito; Watanabe, Keita; Fukagawa, Mitsuhiko; Suzuki, Asahi; Kurokawa, Mihoko; Nagaoka, Isao

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) on the joint health of healthy individuals without arthritic symptoms. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed to investigate the effect of oral administration of a GlcNAc-containing test supplement (low dose, 500 mg/day and high dose, 1,000 mg/day) on cartilage metabolism in healthy individuals with a mean age of 48.6±1.3 years (range, 23–64 years) by analyzing the ratio of type II collagen degradation to type II collagen synthesis using type II collagen degradation (C2C) and synthesis (PIICP) markers. The results indicated that the changes in C2C/PIICP ratios from the baseline were suppressed in the treated with low and high doses of GlcNAc, compared with the placebo group at week 16 during intervention. To further elucidate the effect of GlcNAc, subjects with impaired cartilage metabolism were evaluated. Notably, the changes in the C2C/PIICP ratios were markedly suppressed in the groups treated with low and high doses of GlcNAc at week 16. Finally, to exclude the effect of heavy body weight on joint loading, subjects weighing <70 kg with impaired cartilage metabolism were analyzed. Notably, the changes in the C2C/PIICP ratios were suppressed in the groups treated with low and high doses of GlcNAc at weeks 12 and 16. No test supplement-related adverse events were observed during or following the intervention. Together, these observations suggest that oral administration of GlcNAc at doses of 500 mg and 1,000 mg/day exhibits a chondroprotective effect on healthy individuals by reducing the C2C/PIICP ratio (relatively decreasing type II collagen degradation and increasing type II collagen synthesis) without any apparent adverse effects. PMID:27588069

  9. Age-Related Differences in Memory and Executive Functions in Healthy APOE ε4 Carriers: The Contribution of Individual Differences in Prefrontal Volumes and Systolic Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrew R.; Raz, Naftali

    2012-01-01

    Advanced age and vascular risk are associated with declines in the volumes of multiple brain regions, especially, the prefrontal cortex, and the hippocampus. Older adults, even unencumbered by declining health, perform less well than their younger counterparts in multiple cognitive domains, such as episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of perceptual processing. Presence of a known genetic risk factor for cognitive decline and vascular disease, the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, accounts for some share of those declines; however, the extent of the joint contribution of genetic and physiological vascular risk factors on the aging brain and cognition is unclear. In a sample of healthy adults (age 19–77), we examined the effects of a vascular risk indicator (systolic blood pressure, SBP) and volumes of hippocampus (HC), lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC), and prefrontal white matter (pFWM) on processing speed, working memory (WM), and recognition memory. Using path analyses, we modeled indirect effects of age, SBP, and brain volumes on processing speed, WM, and memory and compared the patterns of structural relations among those variables in APOE ε4 carriers and ε3 homozygotes. Among ε4 carriers, age differences in WM were explained by increase in SBP, reduced FWM volume, and slower processing. In contrast, lPFC and FWM volumes, but not BP, explained a share of age differnces in WM among ε3 homozygotes. Thus, even in healthy older carriers of the APOE ε4 allele, clinically unremarkable increase in vascular risk may be associated with reduced frontal volumes and impaired cognitive functions. PMID:22245009

  10. Association of decreased prefrontal hemodynamic response during a verbal fluency task with EGR3 gene polymorphism in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yukika; Takizawa, Ryu; Koike, Shinsuke; Kinoshita, Akihide; Satomura, Yoshihiro; Kawasaki, Shingo; Yamasue, Hidenori; Tochigi, Mamoru; Kakiuchi, Chihiro; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Yamada, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2014-01-15

    The early growth response 3 (EGR3) gene is an immediate early gene that is expressed throughout the brain and has been suggested as a potential susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SZ). EGR3 impairment is associated with various neurodevelopmental dysfunctions, and some animal studies have reported a role for EGR3 function in the prefrontal cortex. Therefore, EGR3 genotype variation may be reflected in prefrontal function. By using multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in an imaging genetics approach, we tested for an association between the EGR3 gene polymorphism and prefrontal hemodynamic response during a cognitive task in patients with SZ. We assessed 73 chronic patients with SZ and 73 age-, gender-, and genotype-matched healthy controls (HC) who provided written informed consent. We used NIRS to measure changes in prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (oxyHb) during the letter version of a verbal fluency task (VFT). Statistical comparisons were performed among EGR3 genotype subgroups (rs35201266, GG/GA/AA). The AA genotype group showed significantly smaller oxyHb increases in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the VFT than the GG and GA genotype groups; this was true for both patients with SZ and HC. Our findings provide in vivo human evidence of a significant influence of EGR3 polymorphisms on prefrontal hemodynamic activation level in healthy adults and in patients with SZ. Genetic variation in EGR3 may affect prefrontal function through neurodevelopment. This study illustrates the usefulness of NIRS in imaging genetics investigations on psychiatric disorders. PMID:23962955

  11. The miR-137 schizophrenia susceptibility variant rs1625579 does not predict variability in brain volume in a sample of schizophrenic patients and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Rose, Emma J; Morris, Derek W; Fahey, Ciara; Cannon, Dara; McDonald, Colm; Scanlon, Cathy; Kelly, Sinead; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden; Donohoe, Gary

    2014-09-01

    The micro RNA 137 (miR-137) variant rs1625579 has been identified as a genome-wide significant risk variant for schizophrenia. miR-137 has an established role in neurodevelopment and may mediate cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. This role of miR-137 may be related to changes in brain morphology for risk-related genotypes; however this has not yet been delineated. Here we considered whether rs1625579 genotype was predictive of indices of brain structure in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data (i.e. 3T T1-TFE or 1.5T T1-MPRAGE) were acquired from 150 healthy controls and 163 schizophrenic patients. Two volumetric analyses that considered the impact of miR-137/rs1625579 genotype were carried out on sMRI data. In the first analysis, voxel based morphometry was employed to consider genotype-related variability in local grey and white matter across the entire brain volume. Our secondary analysis utilized the FIRST protocol in FSL to consider the volume of subcortical structures (i.e. bilateral accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen and thalamus). Several brain regions in both analyses demonstrated the expected main effect of participant group (i.e. schizophrenics < controls), yet there were no regions where we observed an impact of rs1635579 genotype on brain volume. Our analyses suggest that the mechanism by which miR-137 confers risk for schizophrenia and impacts upon cognitive function may not be mediated by changes in local brain volume. However, it remains to be determined whether or not alternative measures of brain structure are related to these functions of miR-137. PMID:25044277

  12. Intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid temperature analysis using MR diffusion-weighted imaging thermometry in Parkinson's disease patients, multiple system atrophy patients, and healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, Kaoru; Sato, Noriko; Ota, Miho; Sakai, Koji; Nippashi, Yasumasa; Sone, Daichi; Yokoyama, Kota; Ito, Kimiteru; Maikusa, Norihide; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kei; Murata, Miho; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the temperature of the intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid (Tv) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and those with multiple system atrophy (MSA) in comparison with healthy subjects, and we examined normal changes in this temperature with aging. Methods Tv was estimated by magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) thermometry in 36 PD patients (19 males, 17 females), 34 MSA patients (17 males, 17 females), 64 age-matched controls (27 men, 37 women), and 114 all-age adult controls (47 men, 67 women; 28–89 years old). The volume of lateral ventricles was also estimated using FreeSurfer in all subjects. Tv and ventricular volume data were compared among the PD and MSA patients and age-matched controls. We also evaluated the relationship between Tv and age in the 114 all-age controls, controlling for ventricular volume. Men and women were analyzed separately. Results The male PD and MSA patients had significantly higher Tv values compared to the male controls, with no significant difference in ventricular volume among them. There was no significant difference in Tv between the female patients and controls. In the all-age male controls, there was a significant negative correlation between Tv and age controlling for ventricular volume, and this was not observed in the women. Conclusion DWI thermometry is a useful and easy method for demonstrating an altered intracranial environment in male patients and healthy controls, but not in females. DWI thermometry can thus be used to help to explore the pathophysiology of Parkinsonian syndromes and to differentiate individuals affected by neurodegenerative disease with autonomic dysfunction from those without it. PMID:26085965

  13. Lack of effect of ezogabine/retigabine on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin in healthy individuals: results from a drug–drug interaction study

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, Debra J; Crean, Christopher S; Buraglio, Mauro; Arumugham, Thangam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The potential for ezogabine/retigabine (EZG/RTG) and its N-acetyl metabolite (NAMR) to inhibit the transporter protein P-glycoprotein-(P-gp)-mediated digoxin transport was tested in vitro. EZG/RTG did not inhibit P-gp. However, NAMR inhibited P-gp in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on these in vitro results, NAMR had the potential to inhibit P-gp at therapeutic doses of EZG/RTG (600–1,200 mg/day). As digoxin has a narrow therapeutic index, inhibition of digoxin clearance may have an impact on its safety. Methods An open-label, single-center, two session, fixed-sequence study was conducted to assess the effect of co-administration of therapeutic doses of EZG/RTG on digoxin pharmacokinetics in healthy adults. In session 1, subjects received a single dose of digoxin 0.25 mg. In session 2, EZG/RTG was up-titrated over 6 weeks. Digoxin 0.25 mg was co-administered at EZG/RTG steady-state doses of 600, 900, and, based on tolerability, 1,050/1,200 mg/day. Blood samples were collected over 144 hours for determination of digoxin, EZG/RTG, and NAMR concentrations. Urine samples were collected over 48 hours for determination of digoxin concentrations. Results Of 30 subjects enrolled, 29 were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis. Compared with digoxin alone, co-administration with EZG/RTG led to small increases in the digoxin plasma area under the concentration–time curve (AUC)0–120 at doses of 600, 900, and 1,050/1,200 mg (geometric mean ratio 1.08, 90% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.15; 1.18, 90% CI 1.10–1.27; 1.13, 90% CI 1.05–1.21, respectively). Safety was consistent with previous repeat-dose studies of EZG/RTG in healthy subjects. Conclusion Co-administration of EZG/RTG across the therapeutic range resulted in small, non-dose-dependent and non-clinically relevant increases in digoxin systemic exposure, suggesting that digoxin dose adjustment is not necessary. PMID:25342921

  14. Healthy Colon, Healthy Life

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Judith M.E.; Salazar, Rene; Nguyen, Tung T.; Kaplan, Celia; Nguyen, Lamkieu; Hwang, Jimmy; McPhee, Stephen J.; Pasick, Rena J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are increasing, but they are still low, particularly in ethnic minority groups. In many resource-poor settings, fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is the main screening option. Intervention Culturally tailored telephone counseling by community health advisors employed by a community-based organization, culturally tailored brochures, and customized FOBT kits. Design RCT. Participants were randomized to (1) basic intervention: culturally tailored brochure plus FOBT kit (n=765); (2) enhanced intervention: brochure, FOBT plus telephone counseling (n=768); or (3) usual care (n=256). Setting/participants Latino and Vietnamese primary care patients at a large public hospital. Main outcome measures Self-reported receipt of FOBT or any CRC screening at 1-year follow-up. Results 1358 individuals (718 Latinos and 640 Vietnamese) completed the follow-up survey. Self-reported FOBT screening rates increased by 7.8 % in the control group, by 15.1 % in the brochure group, and by 25.1 % in the brochure/telephone counseling group (p<0.01 for differences between each intervention and usual care and for the difference between brochure/telephone counseling and brochure alone). For any CRC screening, rates increased by 4.1 % in the usual care group, by 11.9 % in the FOBT/brochure group, and by 21.4 % in the brochure/telephone counseling group (p<0.01 for differences between each intervention and usual care and for the difference between the basic and the enhanced intervention). Conclusions An intervention that included culturally tailored brochures and tailored telephone counseling increased CRC screening in Latinos and the Vietnamese. Brochure and telephone counseling together had the greatest impact. Future research should address replication and dissemination of this model for Latinos and Vietnamese in other communities, and adaptation of the model for other groups. PMID:20547275

  15. Subclass compositions of immunoglobulin G to pertussis toxin in patients with whooping cough, in healthy individuals, and in recipients of a pertussis toxoid vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Zackrisson, G; Lagergård, T; Trollfors, B

    1989-01-01

    The subclass composition of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against pertussis toxin was studied in 108 serum samples obtained during various stages of disease from 75 patients with whooping cough. IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies were detected in 92 and 42% of the samples, respectively, while only a few contained IgG2 or IgG4 antibodies. Similarly, IgG1 antibodies were predominant in serum samples from healthy children and adults, many of whom had a history of whooping cough several years earlier. Of 85 children and 30 adults with detectable levels of total IgG, 65 and 14 had IgG1 antibodies, respectively, while only 9 of them had IgG3 antibodies. Again, very few sera contained IgG2 or IgG4 antibodies. In contrast, 13 children vaccinated with an acellular aluminum-adsorbed pertussis toxoid vaccine responded mainly with IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies. In conclusion, this study showed that the subclass composition of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin after natural infection consists mainly of IgG1 and to a certain extent of IgG3, while an aluminum-adsorbed pertussis toxoid induces IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies. PMID:2768444

  16. Comparison of error-amplification and haptic-guidance training techniques for learning of a timing-based motor task by healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Milot, Marie-Hélène; Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Green, Christopher S; Cramer, Steven C; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2010-03-01

    Performance errors drive motor learning for many tasks. Some researchers have suggested that reducing performance errors with haptic guidance can benefit learning by demonstrating correct movements, while others have suggested that artificially increasing errors will force faster and more complete learning. This study compared the effect of these two techniques--haptic guidance and error amplification--as healthy subjects learned to play a computerized pinball-like game. The game required learning to press a button using wrist movement at the correct time to make a flipper hit a falling ball to a randomly positioned target. Errors were decreased or increased using a robotic device that retarded or accelerated wrist movement, based on sensed movement initiation timing errors. After training with either error amplification or haptic guidance, subjects significantly reduced their timing errors and generalized learning to untrained targets. However, for a subset of more skilled subjects, training with amplified errors produced significantly greater learning than training with the reduced errors associated with haptic guidance, while for a subset of less skilled subjects, training with haptic guidance seemed to benefit learning more. These results suggest that both techniques help enhanced performance of a timing task, but learning is optimized if training subjects with the appropriate technique based on their baseline skill level. PMID:19787345

  17. A Comparison in Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the Gingival Crevicular Fluid from Subjects with Periodontitis and Healthy Individuals using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Mohammad Reza; Shah Aboei, Mohammad; Naghsh, Narges; Hajisadeghi, Samira; Ajami, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. The high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among the microorganisms isolated from the oral environment brings up the question of whether oral cavity acts as a reservoir for this bacterium. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the prevalence of H. pylori in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) as an infectious disease and healthy subjects using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and methods. Periodontal examination was performed for all participants. Two sterilized paper points were inserted to the maximum depth of the periodontal pockets of selected teeth. The presence of H. pylori was determined by PCR. In the CP group, the severity of disease was defined as moderate or severe. Further, the frequency of Helicobacter pylori in GCF of each category, and the association between the presence of Helicobacter pylori in GCF and periodontitis were determined. Results. There was no statistically significant association between CP and the presence of H. pylori in the GCF (P = 0.62), there was no significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori in the GCF and gender of the subjects (P = 0.28 in CP group and P = 0.25 in control group), and there was no significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori in the GCF and severity of periodontitis (P = 0.20). Conclusion. Oral cavity acts as a reservoir for H. pylori; however, the results do not show that H. pylori is involved in periodontal disease. PMID:24578823

  18. A Comparison of Glenohumeral Internal and External Range of Motion and Rotation Strength in healthy and Individuals with Recurrent Anterior Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghifar, Amirreza; Ilka, Shahab; Dashtbani, Hasan; Sahebozamani, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Background: The glenohumeral joint becomes dislocated more than any other major joint because it maintains a wide range of motion and its stability is inherently weak. The most common complication following acute initial shoulder dislocation is recurrent dislocation or chronic instability. Imbalance of strength and range of motion in individuals with anterior dislocation can be a contributing factor in recurrent dislocation as well. Methods: This case-control study consisted of 24 individuals with a mean age of 24.29±4.33 years, and a mean dislocation rate of 5.37±3.62 times. Isometric cuff strength was measured using a handheld dynamometer and for range of motion, the Leighton flexometer was used in internal and external rotational motions of both upper extremities. Independent t-test was used for data analysis. Results: The internal and external range of motion of the injured glenohumeral joint was lower than the uninjured joint (P<0.001). Similarly, the internal and external rotation strength of the injured joint was lower than the uninjured joint (P<0.001). Conclusions: According to previous data, imbalance of strength and range of motion in individuals with anterior shoulder dislocation can be a contributing factor in long-term disability and increased recurrent dislocation and our finding confirm decreased range of motion and strength in our patients. Hence, proper exercise and rehabilitation plans need to be developed for those suffering from this complication. PMID:25386585

  19. Production of high specific activity (195m) Pt-cisplatinum at South African Nuclear Energy Corporation for Phase 0 clinical trials in healthy individual subjects.

    PubMed

    Zeevaart, Jan Rijn; Wagener, Judith; Marjanovic-Painter, Biljana; Sathekge, Mike; Soni, Nischal; Zinn, Christa; Perkins, Gary; Smith, Suzanne V

    2013-01-01

    Platinum agents continue to be the main chemotherapeutic agents used in the first-line and second-line treatments of cancer patients. It is important to fully understand the biological profile of these compounds in order to optimize the dose given to each patient. In a joint project with the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation and the Nuclear Medicine Department at Steve Biko Academic Hospital, South African Nuclear Energy Corporation synthesized and supplied (195m) Pt-cisplatinum (commonly referred to as cisplatin) for a clinical pilot study on healthy volunteers. Enriched (194) PtCl2 was prepared by digestion of enriched (194) Pt metal (>95%) followed by thermal decomposition over a 3 h period. The (194) PtCl2 was then placed in a quartz ampoule, was irradiated in SAFARI-1 up to 200 h, then decay cooled for a minimum of 34 h prior to synthesis of final product. (195m) Pt(NH3 )2 I2 , formed with the addition of KI and NH4 OH, was converted to the diaqua species [(195m) Pt(NH3 )2 (H2 O)2 ](2+) by reaction with AgNO3 . The conversion to (195m) Pt-cisplatinum was completed by the addition of concentrated HCl. The final product yield was 51.7% ± 5.2% (n = 5). The chemical and radionuclidic purity in each case was >95%. The use of a high flux reactor position affords a higher specific activity product (15.9 ± 2.5 MBq/mg at end of synthesis) than previously found (5 MBq/mg). Volunteers received between 108 and 126 MBq of radioactivity, which is equivalent to 6.8-10.0 mg of carrier cisplatinum. Such high specific activities afforded a significant reduction (~50%) in the chemical dose of a carrier cisplatinum, which represents less than 10% of a typical chemotherapeutic dose given to patients. A good manufacturing practice GMP compliant product was produced and was administered to 10 healthy volunteers as part of an ethically approved Phase 0 clinical trial. The majority of the injected activity 27.5% ± 5.8% was excreted

  20. The effect of peanut and grain bar preloads on postmeal satiety, glycemia, and weight loss in healthy individuals: an acute and a chronic randomized intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peanut consumption favorably influences satiety. This study examined the acute effect of peanut versus grain bar preloads on postmeal satiety and glycemia in healthy adults and the long-term effect of these meal preloads on body mass in healthy overweight adults. Methods In the acute crossover trial (n = 15; 28.4 ± 2.9 y; 23.1 ± 0.9 kg/m2), the preload (isoenergetic peanut or grain bar with water, or water alone) was followed after 60 min with ingestion of a standardized glycemic test meal. Satiety and blood glucose were assessed immediately prior to the preload and to the test meal, and for two hours postmeal at 30-min intervals. In the parallel-arm, randomized trial (n = 44; 40.5 ± 1.6 y, 31.8 ± 0.9 kg/m2), the peanut or grain bar preload was consumed one hour prior to the evening meal for eight weeks. Body mass was measured at 2-week intervals, and secondary endpoints included blood hemoglobin A1c and energy intake as assessed by 3-d diet records collected at pre-trial and trial weeks 1 and 8. Results Satiety was elevated in the postprandial period following grain bar ingestion in comparison to peanut or water ingestion (p = 0.001, repeated-measures ANOVA). Blood glucose was elevated one hour after ingestion of the grain bar as compared to the peanut or water treatments; yet, total glycemia did not vary between treatments in the two hour postprandial period. In the 8-week trial, body mass was reduced for the grain bar versus peanut groups after eight weeks (−1.3 ± 0.4 kg versus −0.2 ± 0.3 kg, p = 0.033, analysis of covariance). Energy intake was reduced by 458 kcal/d in the first week of the trial for the grain bar group as compared to the peanut group (p = 0.118). Hemoglobin A1c changed significantly between groups during the trial (−0.25 ± 0.07% and −0.18 ± 0.12% for the grain bar and peanut groups respectively, p = 0.001). Conclusions Compared to an isoenergetic peanut

  1. The diurnal variation pattern of choroidal thickness in macular region of young healthy female individuals using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Meng; Yang, Xiu-Fen; Jiao, Xuan; Lim, Apiradee; Ren, Xue-Tao; Snellingen, Torkel; Liu, Ning-Pu

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the pattern of diurnal variations of choroidal thickness of macular region of healthyindividuals. METHODS A prospective study of 32 healthy female subjects was conducted. Each subject underwent 1) a questionnaire on daily schedule, 2) the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI), and 3) ocular examinations including an eye dominance test, fundus photography, and sequential optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, on two separate days at five fixed 3h time intervals. Choroidal thickness was measured by two masked graders. RESULTS A significant diurnal variation of choriodal thickness at fovea (P<0.001), at 500 µm nasal (P<0.001), temporal to fovea (P=0.01) or 1500 µm nasal to fovea (P=0.001) was observed. The median choroidal thickness peaked at 11:00 at fovea (P=0.01), at 500 µm nasal (P=0.009) and temporal (P=0.03) to fovea. The median amplitude of foveal choroidal thickness was 20.5 µm (13, 31) and 20.0 µm (12.5, 28.2) for the first and second series of measurements, respectively. The greater amplitude of foveal choroidal thickness was associated with thickner initial foveal choroidal thickness [0.05 (0.03, 0.08), P=0.01], dominant eye [10.51 (4.02, 14.60), P=0.04] in the multivariate linear regression. CONCLUSION Our data show a significant diurnal variation of the choroidal thickness at fovea, at 500 µm nasal and temporal to fovea and 1500 µm nasal to fovea. Thicker initial foveal choroidal thickness and being dominant eye may influence the amplitude of foveal choroidal thickness. PMID:27162729

  2. Comparison of spatial filters and features for the detection and classification of movement-related cortical potentials in healthy individuals and stroke patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochumsen, Mads; Niazi, Imran Khan; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Jiang, Ning; Farina, Dario; Dremstrup, Kim

    2015-10-01

    Objective. The possibility of detecting movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) at the single trial level has been explored for closing the motor control loop with brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for neurorehabilitation. A distinct feature of MRCPs is that the movement kinetic information is encoded in the brain potential prior to the onset of the movement, which makes it possible to timely drive external devices to provide sensory feedback according to the efferent activity from the brain. The aim of this study was to compare methods for the detection (different spatial filters) and classification (features extracted from various domains) of MRCPs from continuous electroencephalography recordings from executed and imagined movements from healthy subjects (n = 24) and attempted movements from stroke patients (n = 6) to optimize the performance of MRCP-based BCIs for neurorehabilitation. Approach. The MRCPs from four cue-based tasks were detected with a template matching approach and a set of spatial filters, and classified with a linear support vector machine using the combination of temporal, spectral, time-scale, or entropy-based features. Main results. The best spatial filter (large Laplacian spatial filter (LLSF)) resulted in a true positive rate of 82 ± 9%, 78 ± 12% and 72 ± 9% (with detections occurring ˜200 ms before the onset of the movement) for executed, imagined and attempted movements (stroke patients). The best feature combination (temporal and spectral) led to pairwise classification of 73 ± 9%, 64 ± 10% and 80 ± 12%. When the detection was combined with classification, 60 ± 10%, 49 ± 10% and 58 ± 10% of the movements were both correctly detected and classified for executed, imagined and attempted movements. A similar performance for detection and classification was obtained with optimized spatial filtering. Significance. A simple setup with an LLSF is useful for detecting cued movements while the combination of features from the time

  3. [The dynamics of pulse rate and biochemical parameters in blood of healthy individuals in relation to Pc5-6 geomagnetic pulsations].

    PubMed

    Zenchenko, T A; Medvedeva, A A; Potolitsyna, N N; Parshukova, O I; Boiko, E R

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments on long-term monitoring of pulse rate and blood biochemical parameters in four healthy volunteers (women) were conducted. The duration of each experiment was 90 minutes, electrocardiography was performed continuously, taking blood sampling every two minutes. In venous blood the current concentrations of triiodothyronine, cortisol, glucose, stable metabolites of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were determined. Synchronicity in oscillations of cortisol and free triiodothyronine levels in the blood of all four volunteers was detected, as well as the presence of the periods of 7-8 min and 15-17 min in the spectra of these biochemical parameters was observed. The periods in the spectra of NO(x) are equal to 7 min, 13 min and 25-30 min. It is shown that the, dynamics of variations in the heart rate is determined mostly by the rhythms of fluctuations in the level of NO(x) in the blood, and the periods in wavelet spectra of these physiological parameters in all four volunteers are close to the periods of their spectra synchronous variations of a. geomagnetic field vector in the frequency range of 0.5-3 mHz. The results obtained in this study indicate that. the presence of nitric oxide and its metabolites in the blood is a biochemical factor, with high probability of its participation in the developmental process of the fine "tuning" of the body to the variations of the geomagnetic field providing synchronization of variations in heart rate and geomagnetic fluctuations in the geomagnetic quiet conditions. PMID:26016037

  4. A Randomized Comparison of the Biomechanical Effect of Two Commercially Available Rocker Bottom Shoes to a Conventional Athletic Shoe During Walking in Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Talaty, Mukul; Patel, Sona; Esquenazi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Rocker bottom shoes have recently gained considerable popularity, likely in part because of the many purported benefits, including reducing joint loading and toning muscles. Scientific inquiry about these benefits has not kept pace with the increased usage of this shoe type. A fundamental premise of rocker bottom shoes is that they transform hard, flat, level surfaces into more uneven ones. Published studies have described a variety of such shoes-all having a somewhat rounded bottom and a cut heel region or a cut forefoot region, or both (double rocker). Despite the fundamentally similar shoe geometries, the reported effects of rocker bottom shoes on gait biomechanics have varied considerably. Ten healthy subjects agreed to participate in the present study and were given appropriately sized Masai Barefoot Technology (St. Louis, MO), Skechers(™) (Manhattan Beach, CA), and New Balance (Boston, MA) conventional walking shoes. After a 12-day accommodation period, the subjects walked wearing each shoe while 3-dimensional motion and force data were collected in the gait laboratory. The key findings included (1) increased trunk flexion, decreased ankle plantarflexion range, and reduced plantarflexion moment in the early stance; (2) increased ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexor moment in the midstance; (3) decreased peak ankle plantarflexion in the late stance; and (4) decreased ankle plantarflexion and decreased hip flexor and knee extensor moments in the pre-swing and into swing phase. The walking speed was unconstrained and was maintained across all shoe types. A biomechanical explanation is suggested for the observed changes. Suggestions for cautions are provided for using rocker bottom shoes in patients with neuromuscular insufficiency. PMID:27079303

  5. A Preliminary Study of the Effects of Repeated Massage on Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal and Immune Function in Healthy Individuals: A Study of Mechanisms of Action and Dosage

    PubMed Central

    Schettler, Pamela; Bresee, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study gathers preliminary data about the biologic effects of repeated Swedish massage therapy compared to a light-touch control condition. Design The study design was a 5-week comparison of repeated Swedish massage and light touch on oxytocin (OT), arginine-vasopressin (AVP), adrenal corticotropin hormone (ACTH), cortisol (CORT), circulating phenotypic lymphocyte markers, and mitogen-stimulated cytokine function. Setting The setting was an outpatient research unit in an academic medical center. Participants The study subjects were medically and psychiatrically healthy young adults. Intervention The study comprised 45 minutes of Swedish massage or light touch, using highly specified and identical protocols, either weekly or twice weekly for 5 weeks. Outcome measures The outcome measures were mean differences between massage and light touch on OT, AVP, ACTH, CORT, lymphocyte markers, and cytokine levels. Results Compared to the touch control condition, weekly Swedish massage stimulated a sustained pattern of increased circulating phenotypic lymphocyte markers and decreased mitogen-stimulated cytokine production, similar to what was previously reported for a single massage session, while having minimal effect on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal function. Twice-weekly massage produced a different response pattern with increased OT levels, decreased AVP, and decreased CORT but little effect on circulating lymphocyte phenotypic markers and a slight increase in mitogen-stimulated interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1b and IL-2 levels, suggesting increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusions There are sustained cumulative biologic actions for the massage and touch interventions that persist for several days or a week, and these differ profoundly depending on the dosage (frequency) of sessions. Confirmatory studies in larger samples are needed. PMID:22775448

  6. Duodeno-Gastric-Esophageal Reflux—What is Pathologic? Comparison of Patients with Barrett’s Esophagus and Age-Matched Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgarten, Eva; Pütz, Benito; Hölscher, Arnulf H.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to analyse pH- and bile-monitoring data in patients with Barrett’s esophagus and in age- and gender-matched controls. Subjects and Methods Twenty-four consecutive Barrett’s patients (8 females, 16 males, mean age 57 years), 21 patients with esophagitis (10 females, 11 males, mean age 58 years), and 19 healthy controls (8 females, 11 males, mean age 51 years), were included. Only patients underwent endoscopy with biopsy. All groups were investigated with manometry, gastric and esophageal 24-h pH, and simultaneous bile monitoring according to a standardized protocol. A bilirubin absorption >0.25 was determined as noxious bile reflux. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) method was applied to determine the optimal cutoff value of pathologic bilirubin levels. Results Of Barrett’s patients, 79% had pathologic acidic gastric reflux (pH<4 >5% of total measuring time). However, 32% of healthy controls also had acid reflux (p < 0.05) without any symptoms. The median of esophageal bile reflux was 7.8% (lower quartile (LQ)–upper quartile (UQ) = 1.6–17.8%) in Barrett’s patients, in patients with esophagitis, 3.5% (LQ–UQ = 0.1–13.5), and in contrast to 0% (LQ–UQ = 0–1.0%) in controls, p = 0.001. ROC analysis showed the optimal dividing value for patients at more than 1% bile reflux over 24 h (75% sensitivity, 84% specificity). Conclusion An optimal threshold to differentiate between normal and pathological bile reflux into the esophagus is 1% (24-h bile monitoring with an absorbance >0.25). PMID:17436133

  7. Social role participation and the life course in healthy adults and individuals with osteoarthritis: are we overlooking the impact on the middle-aged?

    PubMed

    Gignac, Monique A M; Backman, Catherine L; Davis, Aileen M; Lacaille, Diane; Cao, Xingshan; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2013-03-01

    Little is known about life course differences in social role participation among those with chronic diseases. This study examined role salience (i.e., importance), role limitations, and role satisfaction among middle- and older-aged adults with and without osteoarthritis (OA) and its relationship to depression, stress, role conflict, health care utilization and coping behaviours. Participants were middle- and older-aged adults with OA (n = 177) or no chronic disabling conditions (n = 193), aged ≥40 years. Respondents were recruited through community advertising and clinics in Ontario, Canada (2009-2010). They completed a 45-50 min telephone interview and 20 min self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics (e.g., age, gender); health (e.g., pain, functional limitations, health care utilization); the Social Role Participation Questionnaire (SRPQ) (role salience, limitations, satisfaction in 12 domains), and psychological variables (e.g., depression, stress, role conflict, behavioural coping). Analyses included two-way ANOVAs, correlations, and linear regression. Results indicated that middle-aged adults (40-59 years) reported greater role salience than older-aged adults (60 + years). Middle-aged adults with OA reported significantly greater role limitations and more health care utilization than all other groups. Middle-aged adults and those with OA also reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping efforts than older adults or healthy controls. Controlling for age and OA, those with higher role salience and greater role limitations reported more health care utilization. Those with greater role limitations and lower role satisfaction reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping. This study has implications for research and interventions, highlighting the need to characterize role participation as multidimensional. It points to the importance of taking into account the meaning of roles at

  8. Infection of less virulent Helicobacter pylori strains in asymptomatic healthy individuals in Thailand as a potential contributing factor to the Asian enigma.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Itaru; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Kimoto, Ai; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Azuma, Takeshi; Mahachai, Varocha; Hansomburana, Piyathida; Lertkupinit, Comsun; Luangjaru, Somchai; Noophan, Phadet; Chanatrirattanapan, Rattikorn; Piyanirandr, Vanich; Sappajit, Theeranan; Suthivarakom, Karun; Sangsuk, Leelaowadee; Wangroongsarb, Piyada

    2010-03-01

    In Thailand, gastric cancer incidence is considerably low despite the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. We investigated the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the genotypes of cagA by using 179 stool specimens obtained from asymptomatic Thai individuals. In this study, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was 43.6%, and the detection rate of cagA-positive strains was 43.5%. In addition, the proportion of the highly virulent East-Asian type of cagA was 7.2%. These results indicate that the low prevalence of cagA-positive H. pylori strain as well as the low prevalence of East-Asian genotype cagA-positive strains may contribute to the low gastric cancer incidence. PMID:20036753

  9. Does anodal transcranial direct current stimulation enhance excitability of the motor cortex and motor function in healthy individuals and subjects with stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bastani, A; Jaberzadeh, S

    2012-04-01

    The primary aim of this review is to evaluate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on corticomotor excitability and motor function in healthy individuals and subjects with stroke. The secondary aim is to find a-tDCS optimal parameters for its maximal effects. Electronic databases were searched for studies into the effect of a-tDCS when compared to no stimulation. Studies which met the inclusion criteria were assessed and methodological quality was examined using PEDro and Downs and Black (D&B) assessment tools. Data from seven studies revealed increase in corticomotor excitability with a small but significant effect size (0.31 [0.14, 0.48], p=0.0003) in healthy subjects and data from two studies in subjects with stroke indicated significant results with moderate effect size (0.59 [0.24, 0.93], p=0.001) in favor of a-tDCS. Likewise, studies examining motor function demonstrated a small and non-significant effect (0.39 [-0.17, 0.94], p=0.17) in subjects with stroke and a large but non-significant effect (0.92 [-1.02, 2.87], p=0.35) in healthy subjects in favor of improvement in motor function. The results also indicate that efficacy of a-tDCS is dependent on current density and duration of application. A-tDCS increases corticomotor excitability in both healthy individuals and subjects with stroke. The results also show a trend in favor of motor function improvement following a-tDCS. A-tDCS is a non-invasive, cheap and easy-to-apply modality which could be used as a stand-alone technique or as an adds-on technique to enhance corticomotor excitability and the efficacy of motor training approaches. However, the small sample size of the included studies reduces the strength of the presented evidences and any conclusion in this regard should be considered cautiously. PMID:21978654

  10. A Phytochemical-rich Multivitamin-multimineral Supplement Is Bioavailable and Reduces Serum Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein, Myeloperoxidase, and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in a Four-week Pilot trial of Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Anuradha; Lamb, Joseph J.; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Darland, Gary; Konda, Veera R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A multivitamin-multimineral supplement combined with a diverse blend of bioactive phytochemicals may provide additional antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory property for overall health. This convenient feature may be useful for individuals who want to increase their intake of phytochemicals. Methods: We conducted a pilot study in 15 healthy individuals (8 women and 7 men, mean age 41.7±14.9 years, mean body mass index 28.0±5.6) to investigate the effects of this novel formulation on biomarkers associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. After a 2-week diet that limited intake of fruits and vegetables to 2 servings/day, participants continued with the same restricted diet but began consuming 2 tablets of the study product for the subsequent 4 weeks. Fasting blood samples collected at Week 2 and Week 6 were analyzed and compared using paired t-tests for levels of carotenoids, folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (oxLDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), F2-isoprostane, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and myeloperoxidase. Noninvasive peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT) was also measured. Results: After 4 weeks of supplementation, plasma levels of carotenoids, folate, and vitamin B12, but not homocysteine, were significantly increased (P<.05). Serum levels of oxLDL, PAI-1 and myeloperoxidase were significantly reduced (P<.05), but F2-isoprostane, hs-CRP, and EndoPAT measures were unchanged compared with baseline. The study product was well tolerated. Conclusions: This nutritional supplement is bioavailable as indicated by the significant increase in plasma carotenoids, vitamin B12, and folate levels and may provide health benefits by significantly reducing serum levels of oxLDL, myeloperoxidase, and PAI-1 in healthy individuals. PMID:24808980

  11. Intertemporal choice behavior is constrained by brain structure in healthy participants and pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Bahram; Hammer, Anke; Miedl, Stephan F; Wiswede, Daniel; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Herrmann, Manfred; Münte, Thomas F

    2016-07-01

    The steepness of the delay discounting function shows considerable interindividual differences. Moreover, faster devaluation of future rewards has been consistently observed in pathological gamblers (PGs). Here, we asked whether variability in delay discounting is at least partially driven by differences in the anatomy of gray and white matter. For 40 healthy young subjects (study 1) as well as 15 PG and 15 age-matched healthy controls (HCs, study 2), the individual discounting parameter k was obtained. Based on 3D T1-weighted high-resolution magnetic resonance scans and diffusion tensor imaging, we performed voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics, respectively, to examine the relation of gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter properties (as indicated by fractional anisotropy, FA) to k. Healthy groups from both studies showed a negative correlation between k and FA for the superior longitudinal fascicle and inferior longitudinal fascicle, whereas a positive correlation was found in the PG group for the inferior longitudinal fascicle and left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle. The latter also was significantly different between HC and PG in the group statistics (albeit on the right side), thus suggesting that this is a significant structure for the development of pathological gambling. GMV of the right frontal orbital cortex, left insular cortex and right lateral occipital cortex showed a positive correlation to k HC (studies 1 and 2) and PG, whereas a negative correlation was found for the left frontal pole in all three groups. Group comparison of GMV (study 2) revealed a decrease in PG for several cortical and subcortical areas. PMID:26239549

  12. Reduced Anterior Temporal and Hippocampal Functional Connectivity During Face Processing Discriminates Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder from Healthy Controls and Panic Disorder, and Increases Following Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pantazatos, Spiro P; Talati, Ardesheer; Schneier, Franklin R; Hirsch, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Group functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that anxiety disorders are associated with anomalous brain activation and functional connectivity (FC). However, brain-based features sensitive enough to discriminate individual subjects with a specific anxiety disorder and that track symptom severity longitudinally, desirable qualities for putative disorder-specific biomarkers, remain to be identified. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI during emotional face perceptual tasks and a new, large-scale and condition-dependent FC and machine learning approach were used to identify features (pair-wise correlations) that discriminated patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD, N=16) from controls (N=19). We assessed whether these features discriminated SAD from panic disorder (PD, N=16), and SAD from controls in an independent replication sample that performed a similar task at baseline (N: SAD=15, controls=17) and following 8-weeks paroxetine treatment (N: SAD=12, untreated controls=7). High SAD vs HCs discrimination (area under the ROC curve, AUC, arithmetic mean of sensitivity and specificity) was achieved with two FC features during unattended neutral face perception (AUC=0.88, P<0.05 corrected). These features also discriminated SAD vs PD (AUC=0.82, P=0.0001) and SAD vs HCs in the independent replication sample (FC during unattended angry face perception, AUC=0.71, P=0.01). The most informative FC was left hippocampus-left temporal pole, which was reduced in both SAD samples (replication sample P=0.027), and this FC increased following the treatment (post>pre, t(11)=2.9, P=0.007). In conclusion, SAD is associated with reduced FC between left temporal pole and left hippocampus during face perception, and results suggest promise for emerging FC-based biomarkers for SAD diagnosis and treatment effects. PMID:24084831

  13. Reduced anterior temporal and hippocampal functional connectivity during face processing discriminates individuals with social anxiety disorder from healthy controls and panic disorder, and increases following treatment.

    PubMed

    Pantazatos, Spiro P; Talati, Ardesheer; Schneier, Franklin R; Hirsch, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Group functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that anxiety disorders are associated with anomalous brain activation and functional connectivity (FC). However, brain-based features sensitive enough to discriminate individual subjects with a specific anxiety disorder and that track symptom severity longitudinally, desirable qualities for putative disorder-specific biomarkers, remain to be identified. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI during emotional face perceptual tasks and a new, large-scale and condition-dependent FC and machine learning approach were used to identify features (pair-wise correlations) that discriminated patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD, N=16) from controls (N=19). We assessed whether these features discriminated SAD from panic disorder (PD, N=16), and SAD from controls in an independent replication sample that performed a similar task at baseline (N: SAD=15, controls=17) and following 8-weeks paroxetine treatment (N: SAD=12, untreated controls=7). High SAD vs HCs discrimination (area under the ROC curve, AUC, arithmetic mean of sensitivity and specificity) was achieved with two FC features during unattended neutral face perception (AUC=0.88, P<0.05 corrected). These features also discriminated SAD vs PD (AUC=0.82, P=0.0001) and SAD vs HCs in the independent replication sample (FC during unattended angry face perception, AUC=0.71, P=0.01). The most informative FC was left hippocampus-left temporal pole, which was reduced in both SAD samples (replication sample P=0.027), and this FC increased following the treatment (post>pre, t(11)=2.9, P=0.007). In conclusion, SAD is associated with reduced FC between left temporal pole and left hippocampus during face perception, and results suggest promise for emerging FC-based biomarkers for SAD diagnosis and treatment effects. PMID:24084831

  14. Healthy Eyes

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  18. Aerobic fitness and body mass index in individuals with schizophrenia: Implications for neurocognition and daily functioning.

    PubMed

    Kimhy, David; Vakhrusheva, Julia; Bartels, Matthew N; Armstrong, Hilary F; Ballon, Jacob S; Khan, Samira; Chang, Rachel W; Hansen, Marie C; Ayanruoh, Lindsey; Smith, Edward E; Sloan, Richard P

    2014-12-30

    Previous reports indicate that among healthy individuals low aerobic fitness (AF) and high body-mass index (BMI) predict poor neurocognition and daily-functioning. It is unknown whether these associations extend to disorders characterized by poor neurocognition, such as schizophrenia. Therefore, we compared AF and BMI in individuals with schizophrenia and non-clinical controls, and then within the schizophrenia group we examined the links between AF, BMI, neurocognition and daily-functioning. Thirty-two individuals with schizophrenia and 64 gender- and age-matched controls completed assessments of AF (indexed by VO2max) and BMI. The former also completed measures of neurocognition, daily-functioning and physical activity. The schizophrenia group displayed significantly lower AF and higher BMI. In the schizophrenia group, AF was significantly correlated with overall neurocognition (r=0.57), along with executive functioning, working memory, social cognition, and processing speed. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that AF accounted for 22% of the neurocognition variance. Furthermore, AF was significantly correlated with overall daily-functioning (r=0.46). In contrast, BMI displayed significant inverse correlations with neurocognition, but no associations to daily-functioning. AF was significantly correlated physical activity. The authors discuss the potential use of AF-enhancing interventions to improve neurocognitive and daily-functioning in schizophrenia, along with putative neurobiological mechanisms underlying these links, including Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor. PMID:25219618

  19. Pain and Personality: Do Individuals with Different Forms of Chronic Pain Exhibit a Mutual Personality?

    PubMed

    Gustin, Sylvia M; Burke, Lucinda A; Peck, Chris C; Murray, Greg M; Henderson, Luke A

    2016-04-01

    The role of personality in the experience of chronic pain is a growing field, with endless debate regarding the existence of a "pain personality". This study aims to compare different chronic pain types and consolidate the existence of a common personality. Thirty-two females with chronic orofacial pain and 37 age-matched healthy females were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Chronic pain subjects had either trigeminal neuropathy (neuropathic pain) or temporomandibular disorders (nociceptive pain). This study revealed that individuals with different chronic pain types exhibit a mutual personality profile encompassing significantly higher scores in Harm Avoidance and significantly lower scores in Self-Directedness when compared to healthy subjects. In fact, this combination is associated with Cluster C personality disorders. In conclusion, our study reveals that irrespective of type, chronic pain may be associated with Cluster C personality disorders. Indeed, there has never been empirical evidence in the past to suggest that chronic pain as an overall concept is associated with any particular personality disorders. Therefore, a potential future avenue of chronic pain treatment may lie in targeting particular personality aspects and shift the target of pain-relieving treatments from sensory and psychologically state focused to psychologically trait focused. PMID:25858277

  20. Regional Grey Matter Structure Differences between Transsexuals and Healthy Controls—A Voxel Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Lajos; Kozák, Lajos R.; Simon, Viktória; Czobor, Pál; Unoka, Zsolt; Szabó, Ádám; Csukly, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF) transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM) transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM) obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17) and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females). We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM) structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri). These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender. PMID:24391851

  1. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Simon, Lajos; Kozák, Lajos R; Simon, Viktória; Czobor, Pál; Unoka, Zsolt; Szabó, Ádám; Csukly, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF) transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM) transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM) obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17) and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females). We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM) structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri). These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender. PMID:24391851

  2. Naturally occurring tumor-specific CD8+ T-cell precursors in individuals with and without cancer.

    PubMed

    Karanikas, Vaios; Zamanakou, Maria; Soukou, Faye; Kerenidi, Theodora; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Germenis, Anastasios E

    2010-07-01

    Boosting pre-existing, naturally occurring cytolytic CD8(+) T-cell (CTLs) responses directed against class-I MHC-restricted peptides of tumor antigens, represents a primary goal of cancer immunotherapy. The number of pre-existing antitumor CTLs and their impaired function has been incriminated as the most likely candidates for the reduced clinical efficacy of these trials. This study was scheduled to determine possible differences in the frequency and the function of naturally occurring CTL precursors (pCTLs) against multiple peptides derived from the cancer-testis antigens MAGE-A1 and MAGE-A3, and the overexpressed antigen hTERT, in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients as compared with aged-matched healthy individuals. The cumulative frequency of circulating peptide-specific pCTLs was found significantly higher in the cancer patients, varied widely and was not affected by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Furthermore, this frequency was greatly different between the various tumor-antigen peptides. Under the light of recent evidence provided from animal models, these results indicate that the peptide-specific pCTL frequency might represent an important determinant for the fate of cancer immunotherapy. In addition, our results show that tumor-specific pCTLs of cancer patients can present functional differences regarding their proliferative capacity, intensity of multimer staining and lytic capacity, when compared with those of healthy individuals. Hence, our findings could have an important role for the design of improved immunotherapeutic approaches for lung cancer. PMID:20142837

  3. Could Local Dynamic Stability Serve as an Early Predictor of Falls in Patients with Moderate Neurological Gait Disorders? A Reliability and Comparison Study in Healthy Individuals and in Patients with Paresis of the Lower Extremities

    PubMed Central

    Reynard, Fabienne; Vuadens, Philippe; Deriaz, Olivier; Terrier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Falls while walking are frequent in patients with muscular dysfunction resulting from neurological disorders. Falls induce injuries that may lead to deconditioning and disabilities, which further increase the risk of falling. Therefore, an early gait stability index would be useful to evaluate patients in order to prevent the occurrence of future falls. Derived from chaos theory, local dynamic stability (LDS), defined by the maximal Lyapunov exponent, assesses the sensitivity of a dynamic system to small perturbations. LDS has already been used for fall risk prediction in elderly people. The aim of the present study was to provide information to facilitate future researches regarding gait stability in patients with neurological gait disorders. The main objectives were 1) to evaluate the intra-session repeatability of LDS in patients and 2) to assess the discriminative power of LDS to differentiate between healthy individuals and neurological patients. Eighty-three patients with mild to moderate neurological disorders associated with paresis of the lower extremities and 40 healthy controls participated in the study. The participants performed 2×30 s walking wearing a 3D accelerometer attached to the lower back, from which 2×35 steps were extracted. LDS was defined as the average exponential rate of divergence among trajectories in a reconstructed state-space that reflected the gait dynamics. LDS assessed along the medio-lateral axis offered the highest repeatability and discriminative power. Intra-session repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient between the two repetitions) in the patients was 0.89 and the smallest detectable difference was 16%. LDS was substantially lower in the patients than in the controls (33% relative difference, standardized effect size 2.3). LDS measured in short over-ground walking tests seems sufficiently reliable. LDS exhibits good discriminative power to differentiate fall-prone individuals and opens up the possibility of

  4. Plasma eicosanoid profiles determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in stimulated peripheral blood from healthy individuals and sickle cell anemia patients in treatment.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Alyne Fávero; Petta, Tânia; Flamand, Nicolas; Bollela, Valdes Roberto; Silva, Célio Lopes; Jarduli, Luciana Ribeiro; Malmegrim, Kelen Cristina Ribeiro; Simões, Belinda Pinto; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena

    2016-05-01

    Eicosanoids play an important role in homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of various human diseases. Pharmacological agents such as Ca(2+) ionophores and Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitors, as well as natural agonists such as formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), can stimulate eicosanoid biosynthesis. The aims of this work were to develop a method to determine the eicosanoid profile of human plasma samples after whole blood stimulation and to assess differences between healthy and sick individuals. For this purpose, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was partially validated for the quantification of 22 eicosanoids using human plasma from healthy volunteers. In addition, we optimized a method for the stimulation of eicosanoids in human whole blood. LC-MS/MS analyses were performed by negative electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring. An assumption of linearity resulted in a regression coefficient ≥0.98 for all eicosanoids tested. The mean intra-assay and inter-assay accuracy and precision values had relative standard deviations and relative errors of ≤15%, except for the lower limit of quantification, where these values were ≤20%. For whole blood stimulation, four stimuli (fMLP, ionomycin, A23187, and thapsigargin) were tested. Results of the statistical analysis showed that A23187 and thapsigargin were potent stimuli for the production or liberation of eicosanoids. We next compared the eicosanoid profiles of stimulated whole blood samples of healthy volunteers to those of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) under treatment with hydroxyurea (HU) or after chronic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. The results indicate that the method was sufficient to find a difference between lipid mediators released in whole blood of SCA patients and those of healthy subjects, mainly for 5-HETE, 12-HETE, LTB4, LTE4, TXB2, and PGE2. In conclusion, our analytical method can detect significant changes in eicosanoid profiles in

  5. Emergence and spread of O16-ST131 and O25b-ST131 clones among faecal CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in healthy individuals in Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yi-Ming; Liu, Wen-En; Liang, Xiang-Hui; Li, Yan-Ming; Jian, Zi-Juan; Hawkey, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli ST131 strain prevalence in stool specimens from healthy subjects in central China and to molecularly characterize clonal groups. Methods From November 2013 to January 2014, stool specimens from healthy individuals in Hunan Province were screened for ESBL-producing E. coli using chromogenic medium and CTX-M genotypes and phylogenetic groups were determined. ST131 clonal groups were detected by PCR and characterized for antibiotic resistance, fimH, gyrA and parC alleles, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants, virulence genotypes and PFGE patterns. Results Among 563 subjects, 287 (51.0%) exhibited the presence of faecal ESBL-producing E. coli, all of which produced CTX-M enzymes. The most common CTX-M genotypes were CTX-M-14 (48.4%), CTX-M-15 (27.5%) and CTX-M-27 (15.0%). Of the 287 CTX-M-producing isolates, 32 (11.1%) belonged to the ST131 clone. O16-ST131 isolates were dominant (75%) and contained the fimH41 allele. The remaining eight (25%) ST131 isolates were of the O25b subgroup and contained fimH30 or fimH41. Ciprofloxacin resistance was found in 100% of the O25b-ST131 isolates, whereas only 8% of the O16-ST131 isolates were resistant. All of the O25b-ST131 isolates except one showed gyrA1AB and parC1aAB mutations; most of the O16-ST131 isolates had gyrA1A and parC1b mutations. The virulence genotypes of O16-ST131 resembled those of the O25b-ST131 isolates. The 32 ST131 isolates formed one large group at the 64% similarity level. They comprised 15 PFGE groups (defined at ≥85% similarity). Conclusions O16-ST131 isolates have emerged as the predominant type of ST131 isolate in faecal CTX-M-producing E. coli in healthy individuals in China. PMID:25957581

  6. The healthy human microbiome.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Price, Jason; Abu-Ali, Galeb; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Humans are virtually identical in their genetic makeup, yet the small differences in our DNA give rise to tremendous phenotypic diversity across the human population. By contrast, the metagenome of the human microbiome-the total DNA content of microbes inhabiting our bodies-is quite a bit more variable, with only a third of its constituent genes found in a majority of healthy individuals. Understanding this variability in the "healthy microbiome" has thus been a major challenge in microbiome research, dating back at least to the 1960s, continuing through the Human Microbiome Project and beyond. Cataloguing the necessary and sufficient sets of microbiome features that support health, and the normal ranges of these features in healthy populations, is an essential first step to identifying and correcting microbial configurations that are implicated in disease. Toward this goal, several population-scale studies have documented the ranges and diversity of both taxonomic compositions and functional potentials normally observed in the microbiomes of healthy populations, along with possible driving factors such as geography, diet, and lifestyle. Here, we review several definitions of a 'healthy microbiome' that have emerged, the current understanding of the ranges of healthy microbial diversity, and gaps such as the characterization of molecular function and the development of ecological therapies to be addressed in the future. PMID:27122046

  7. The Outcome of a Preventive Dental Care Programme on the Prevalence of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis in Down's Syndrome Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigmond, Maora; Stabholz, A.; Shapira, J.; Bachrach, G.; Chaushu, G.; Becker, A.; Yefenof, E.; Merrick, J.; Chaushu, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Periodontal disease in Down's syndrome (DS) individuals develops earlier and is more rapid and extensive than in age-matched normal individuals. The present study evaluated a group of DS patients, who had been participating in a 10-year preventive dental programme, for the impact of the programme on their periodontal status. Methods:…

  8. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preparing Food When the person with Alzheimer’s disease lives with you: • Buy healthy foods such as vegetables, fruits, and whole-grain products. ... When a person with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease lives alone, you can buy foods that the person doesn’t need to cook. ...

  9. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get ...

  10. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  11. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... easy for kids to choose healthy snacks by keeping fruits and vegetables on hand and ready to eat. ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping ... Award-Winning Cafeteria Recipes Garden-Fresh Lunches Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Kid's Guide ...

  12. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... of healthy foods, and limit calories and saturated fat Be physically active Control your blood pressure and cholesterol Don't smoke Protect yourself from too much sun Drink alcohol in moderation, or don't drink at all Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

  13. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  14. c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase Activity in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue but Not Nuclear Factor-κB Activity in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Is an Independent Determinant of Insulin Resistance in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sourris, Karly C.; Lyons, Jasmine G.; de Courten, Maximilian P.J.; Dougherty, Sonia L.; Henstridge, Darren C.; Cooper, Mark E.; Hage, Michelle; Dart, Anthony; Kingwell, Bronwyn A.; Forbes, Josephine M.; de Courten, Barbora

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Chronic low-grade activation of the immune system (CLAIS) predicts type 2 diabetes via a decrease in insulin sensitivity. Our study investigated potential relationships between nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways—two pathways proposed as the link between CLAIS and insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adiposity (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and insulin sensitivity (M, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) were measured in 22 healthy nondiabetic volunteers (aged 29 ± 11 years, body fat 28 ± 11%). NF-κB activity (DNA-binding assay) and JNK1/2 activity (phosphorylated JNK) were assessed in biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue and in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) lysates. RESULTS NF-κB activities in PBMCs and muscle were positively associated with WHR after adjustment for age, sex, and percent body fat (both P < 0.05). NF-κB activity in PBMCs was inversely associated with M after adjustment for age, sex, percent body fat, and WHR (P = 0.02) and explained 16% of the variance of M. There were no significant relationships between NF-κB activity and M in muscle or adipose tissue (both NS). Adipose-derived JNK1/2 activity was not associated with obesity (all P> 0.1), although it was inversely related to M (r = −0.54, P < 0.05) and explained 29% of its variance. When both NF-κB and JNK1/2 were examined statistically, only JNK1/2 activity in adipose tissue was a significant determinant of insulin resistance (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS JNK1/2 activity in adipose tissue but not NF-κB activity in PBMCs is an independent determinant of insulin resistance in healthy individuals. PMID:19258436

  15. Effects of Presentation Mode on Veridical and False Memory in Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Michael; Toglia, Michael P.; Belmonte, Colleen; DiMeglio, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the effects of visual, auditory, and audio-visual presentation formats on memory for thematically constructed lists were assessed in individuals with intellectual disability and mental age-matched children. The auditory recognition test included target items, unrelated foils, and two types of semantic lures: critical related…

  16. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals. PMID:26808852

  17. Early somatosensory processing in individuals at risk for developing psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Hagenmuller, Florence; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Walitza, Susanne; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Human cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) allow an accurate investigation of thalamocortical and early cortical processing. SEPs reveal a burst of superimposed early (N20) high-frequency oscillations around 600 Hz. Previous studies reported alterations of SEPs in patients with schizophrenia. This study addresses the question whether those alterations are also observable in populations at risk for developing schizophrenia or bipolar disorders. To our knowledge to date, this is the first study investigating SEPs in a population at risk for developing psychoses. Median nerve SEPs were investigated using multichannel EEG in individuals at risk for developing bipolar disorders (n = 25), individuals with high-risk status (n = 59) and ultra-high-risk status for schizophrenia (n = 73) and a gender and age-matched control group (n = 45). Strengths and latencies of low- and high-frequency components as estimated by dipole source analysis were compared between groups. Low- and high-frequency source activity was reduced in both groups at risk for schizophrenia, in comparison to the group at risk for bipolar disorders. HFO amplitudes were also significant reduced in subjects with high-risk status for schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. These differences were accentuated among cannabis non-users. Reduced N20 source strengths were related to higher positive symptom load. These results suggest that the risk for schizophrenia, in contrast to bipolar disorders, may involve an impairment of early cerebral somatosensory processing. Neurophysiologic alterations in schizophrenia precede the onset of initial psychotic episode and may serve as indicator of vulnerability for developing schizophrenia. PMID:25309363

  18. Is perception of vertical impaired in individuals with chronic stroke with a history of 'pushing'?

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Avril; Fraser, Lindsey; Rajachandrakumar, Roshanth; Danells, Cynthia J; Knorr, Svetlana; Campos, Jennifer

    2015-03-17

    Post-stroke 'pushing' behaviour appears to be caused by impaired perception of vertical in the roll plane. While pushing behaviour typically resolves with stroke recovery, it is not known if misperception of vertical persists. The purpose of this study was to determine if perception of vertical is impaired amongst stroke survivors with a history of pushing behaviour. Fourteen individuals with chronic stroke (7 with history of pushing) and 10 age-matched healthy controls participated. Participants sat upright on a chair surrounded by a curved projection screen in a laboratory mounted on a motion base. Subjective visual vertical (SVV) was assessed using a 30 trial, forced-choice protocol. For each trial participants viewed a line projected on the screen and indicated if the line was tilted to the right or the left. For the subjective postural vertical (SPV), participants wore a blindfold and the motion base was tilted to the left or right by 10-20°. Participants were asked to adjust the angular movements of the motion base until they felt upright. SPV was not different between groups. SVV was significantly more biased towards the contralesional side for participants with history of pushing (-3.6 ± 4.1°) than those without (-0.1 ± 1.4°). Two individuals with history of pushing had SVV or SPV outside the maximum for healthy controls. Impaired vertical perception may persist in some individuals with prior post-stroke pushing, despite resolution of pushing behaviours, which could have consequences for functional mobility and falls. PMID:25666890

  19. Clinical study to assess the efficacy and safety of a citrus polyphenolic extract of red orange, grapefruit, and orange (Sinetrol-XPur) on weight management and metabolic parameters in healthy overweight individuals.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Constantin; Gerbi, Alain; Elbez, Yves; Caillard, Philippe; Zamaria, Nicolas; Cloarec, Maurice

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the efficacy and safety effects of Sinetrol-XPur (polyphenolic citrus dry extract) in weight management; metabolic parameters; and inflammatory, glycemic and oxidative status. In a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Sinetrol-XPur was given to overweight subjects twice daily with meals in the tested group (N = 47) versus a placebo group (N = 48). Waist and hip circumference and abdominal fat were decreased in the Sinetrol-XPur group as compared with the placebo group (p < 0.0001) (-5.71% vs. -1.56% for waist, -4.71% vs. -1.35% for hip and -9.73% vs. -3.18% for fat). Inflammatory markers were reduced (C-reactive protein: -22.87% vs. +61%; fibrinogen: -19.93% vs. -1.61%, p < 0.01). Oxidative stress was lowered as seen by the reduction of malondialdehyde (-14.03% vs. 2.76%) and the increase in superoxide dismutase and glutathione (17.38% vs. 2.19% and 4.63% vs. -2.36%, respectively, p < 0.01). No adverse effects were observed. Kidney, liver, and lipid panels remained unchanged. These results indicated that Sinetrol-XPur supplementation is a viable option for reducing abdominal fat, waist and hip circumference, and body weight and for improving inflammatory, glycemic, and oxidative status in healthy overweight individuals. PMID:23554029

  20. Imagine that: elevated sensory strength of mental imagery in individuals with Parkinson's disease and visual hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Shine, James M.; Keogh, Rebecca; O'Callaghan, Claire; Muller, Alana J.; Lewis, Simon J. G.; Pearson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Visual hallucinations occur when our conscious experience does not accurately reflect external reality. However, these dissociations also regularly occur when we imagine the world around us in the absence of visual stimulation. We used two novel behavioural paradigms to objectively measure visual hallucinations and voluntary mental imagery in 19 individuals with Parkinson's disease (ten with visual hallucinations; nine without) and ten healthy, age-matched controls. We then used this behavioural overlap to interrogate the connectivity both within and between the major attentional control networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with visual hallucinations had elevated mental imagery strength compared with patients without hallucinations and controls. Specifically, the sensory strength of imagery predicted the frequency of visual hallucinations. Together, hallucinations and mental imagery predicted multiple abnormalities in functional connectivity both within and between the attentional control networks, as measured with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, the two phenomena were also dissociable at the neural level, with both mental imagery and visual misperceptions associated with specific abnormalities in attentional network connectivity. Our results provide the first evidence of both the shared and unique neural correlates of these two similar, yet distinct phenomena. PMID:25429016

  1. Consumption of Green Coffee Reduces Blood Pressure and Body Composition by Influencing 11β-HSD1 Enzyme Activity in Healthy Individuals: A Pilot Crossover Study Using Green and Black Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Revuelta-Iniesta, R.; Al-Dujaili, E. A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols may have a protective role against the development of CVD. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of green coffee (GC), rich in chlorogenic acid, and black coffee (BC) on cardiovascular markers. A randomised pilot crossover study was performed on healthy subjects who consumed both coffees for 2 weeks. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, and arterial elasticity after each intervention and collected urine samples to monitor antioxidant capacity. Free cortisol and cortisone levels were obtained from urine and analysed by specific ELISA methods. Systolic blood pressure (P = 0.018) and arterial elasticity (P = 0.001) were significantly reduced after GC. BMI (P = 0.04 for BC; P = 0.01 for GC) and abdominal fat (P = 0.01 for BC; P = 0.009 for GC) were also significantly reduced with no changes in energy intake. Urinary free cortisol was significantly reduced from 125.6 ± 85.9 nmol/day to 76.0 ± 54.9 nmol/day following GC and increased to 132.1 ± 89.1 nmol/day after BC. Urinary free cortisone increased by 18% following BC and 9% following GC (nonsignificant). Cortisol/cortisone ratio (indicating 11β-HSD1 activity) was reduced after GC (from 3.5 ± 1.9 to 1.7 ± 1.04, P = 0.002). This suggests that GC can play a role in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. Further research including hypertensive and overweight individuals will now be justified to clarify whether GC could have a therapeutic role in CVD. PMID:25133164

  2. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  3. Aetiology of Diarrhoea and Virulence Properties of Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli among Patients and Healthy Subjects in Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases are one of the most important causes of illness and death all over the world. In Nigeria, the aetiology of diarrhoeagenic bacteria and the virulence of various Escherichia coli pathotypes have not been well-studied because most currently-published data were from the southwestern axis of the country. In total, 520 stool samples were collected from infants, young children, and other age-groups with acute diarrhoeal diseases in Enugu and Onitsha, southeastern Nigeria. Stool samples were collected from 250 apparently-healthy individuals, with similar age distribution and locality, who were considered control subjects. The stool samples were screened for diarrhea-causing bacterial agents. E. coli strains were isolated from both the groups and were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for 16 virulence genes. Of the 520 stool samples in the diarrhoea group, 119 (44.74%) were E. coli. Fifty (49.02%) were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), 22 (21.57%) were enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) while 7.84% was enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). Sex had no effect on the distribution of diarrhoeagenic bacteria, except for EIEC. The E. coli strains isolated from the diarrhoea and healthy asymptomatic age-matched control groups examined by PCR for 16 virulence genes indicate that the detection of EAEC, ETEC, EPEC, and EIEC was significantly associated with diarrhoea (p=0.0002). The study confirmed that several bacterial pathogens, such as E. coli, play an important role in the aetiology of acute diarrhoea in southeastern Nigeria. A routine surveillance, especially for diarrhoeagenic E. coli, would be useful in identifying outbreaks and help identify the potential reservoirs and transmission routes. PMID:20635635

  4. Plasma levels of alpha1-antichymotrypsin and secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor in healthy and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) subjects with and without severe α1-antitrypsin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Camilla; Westin, Ulla; Wallmark, Anders; Piitulainen, Eeva; Sveger, Tomas; Janciauskiene, Sabina M

    2007-01-01

    Background Individuals with severe Z α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency have a considerably increased risk of developing chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). It has been hypothesized that compensatory increases in levels of other protease inhibitors mitigate the effects of this AAT deficiency. We analysed plasma levels of AAT, α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in healthy (asymptomatic) and COPD subjects with and without AAT deficiency. Methods Studied groups included: 71 asymptomatic AAT-deficient subjects (ZZ, n = 48 and SZ, n = 23, age 31 ± 0.5) identified during Swedish neonatal screening for AAT deficiency between 1972 and 1974; age-matched controls (MM, n = 57, age 30.7 ± 0.6); older asymptomatic ZZ (n = 10); healthy MM (n = 20, age 53 ± 9.6); and COPD patients (ZZ, n = 10, age 47.4 ± 11 and MM, n = 10, age 59.4 ± 6.7). Plasma levels of SLPI, AAT and ACT were analysed using ELISA and immunoelectrophoresis. Results No significant difference was found in plasma ACT and SLPI levels between the healthy MM and the ZZ or SZ subjects in the studied groups. Independent of the genetic variant, subjects with COPD (n = 19) had elevated plasma levels of SLPI and ACT relative to controls (n = 153) (49.5 ± 7.2 vs 40.7 ± 9.1 ng/ml, p < 0.001 and 0.52 ± 0.19 vs 0.40 ± 0.1 mg/ml, p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion Our findings show that plasma levels of ACT and SLPI are not elevated in subjects with genetic AAT deficiency compared MM controls and do not appear to compensate for the deficiency of plasma AAT. PMID:17261175

  5. Healthy Family 2009: Practicing Healthy Adult Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Practicing Healthy Adult Living Past Issues / Winter ... diabetes, or if heart disease runs in your family, begin checking cholesterol at age 20. Colorectal Cancer : ...

  6. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... please turn Javascript on. 7 Smart Steps to Aging Well 1. Control Blood Pressure You can have ...

  7. Partnership for Healthy Mouths Healthy Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Dentist Campaign Overview Press Releases About the Partnership Our Supporters Contact Us Partner Profile Page Learn ... others in the general population. OUR SOLUTION The Partnership for Healthy Mouths,