Science.gov

Sample records for age-matched healthy women

  1. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  2. Analysis of abstract and concrete word processing in persons with aphasia and age-matched neurologically healthy adults using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Kiran, Swathi

    2014-08-01

    The concreteness effect occurs in both normal and language-disordered populations. Research suggests that abstract and concrete concepts elicit differing neural activation patterns in healthy young adults, but this is undocumented in persons with aphasia (PWA). Three PWA and three age-matched controls were scanned using fMRI while processing abstract and concrete words. Consistent with current theories of abstract and concrete word processing, abstract words elicited activation in verbal areas, whereas concrete words additionally activated multimodal association areas. PWA show greater differences in neural activation than age-matched controls between abstract and concrete words, possibly due to an exaggerated concreteness effect. PMID:23548150

  3. Secreted proteome profiling in human RPE cell cultures derived from donors with age related macular degeneration and age matched healthy donors.

    PubMed

    An, Eunkyung; Lu, Xiaoning; Flippin, Jessica; Devaney, Joseph M; Halligan, Brian; Hoffman, Eric P; Hoffman, Eric; Strunnikova, Nataly; Csaky, Karl; Hathout, Yetrib

    2006-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by progressive loss of central vision, which is attributed to abnormal accumulation of macular deposits called "drusen" at the interface between the basal surface of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane. In the most severe cases, drusen deposits are accompanied by the growth of new blood vessels that breach the RPE layer and invade photoreceptors. In this study, we hypothesized that RPE secreted proteins are responsible for drusen formation and choroidal neovascularization. We used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in combination with LC-MS/MS analysis and ZoomQuant quantification to assess differential protein secretion by RPE cell cultures prepared from human autopsy eyes of AMD donors (diagnosed by histological examinations of the macula and genotyped for the Y402H-complement factor H variant) and age-matched healthy control donors. In general, RPE cells were found to secrete a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, complement factors, and protease inhibitors that have been reported to be major constituents of drusen (hallmark deposits in AMD). Interestingly, RPE cells from AMD donors secreted 2 to 3-fold more galectin 3 binding protein, fibronectin, clusterin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and pigment epithelium derived factor than RPE cells from age-matched healthy donors. Conversely, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) was found to be down regulated by 2-fold in AMD RPE cells versus healthy RPE cells. Ingenuity pathway analysis grouped these differentially secreted proteins into two groups; those involved in tissue development and angiogenesis and those involved in complement regulation and protein aggregation such as clusterin. Overall, these data strongly suggest that RPE cells are involved in the biogenesis of drusen and the pathology of AMD. PMID:17022631

  4. QT Is Longer in Drug-Free Patients with Schizophrenia Compared with Age-Matched Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Kumiko; Ozeki, Yuji; Okayasu, Hiroaki; Takano, Yumiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Hori, Hiroaki; Orui, Masami; Horie, Minoru; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2014-01-01

    The potassium voltage-gated channel KCNH2 is a well-known gene in which mutations induce familial QT interval prolongation. KCNH2 is suggested to be a risk gene for schizophrenia. Additionally, the disturbance of autonomic control, which affects the QT interval, is known in schizophrenia. Therefore, we speculate that schizophrenic patients have characteristic features in terms of the QT interval in addition to the effect of antipsychotic medication. The QT interval of patients with schizophrenia not receiving antipsychotics (n = 85) was compared with that of patients with schizophrenia receiving relatively large doses of antipsychotics (n = 85) and healthy volunteers (n = 85). The QT interval was corrected using four methods (Bazett, Fridericia, Framingham or Hodges method). In ANCOVA with age and heart rate as covariates, patients not receiving antipsychotic treatment had longer QT intervals than did the healthy volunteers, but antipsychotics prolonged the QT interval regardless of the correction method used (P<0.01). Schizophrenic patients with and without medication had a significantly higher mean heart rate than did the healthy volunteers, with no obvious sex-related differences in the QT interval. The QT interval prolongation may be manifestation of a certain biological feature of schizophrenia. PMID:24887423

  5. No consistent difference in gray matter volume between individuals with fibromyalgia and age-matched healthy subjects when controlling for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Michael C; Harris, Richard E; Sundgren, Pia C; Welsh, Robert C; Fernandes, Carlo R; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, David A

    2009-06-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for the presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p< or =.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={-28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=-.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  6. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  7. Sensorimotor Control of Tracking Movements at Various Speeds for Stroke Patients as Well as Age-Matched and Young Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-yu

    2015-01-01

    There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides) and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals) were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s). The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE), normalized integrated jerk (NIJ) and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS), were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (P<0.01), and the values were ranked in the following order: young controls < age-matched controls

  8. Healthy aging for older women.

    PubMed

    Young, Heather M; Cochrane, Barbara B

    2004-03-01

    Healthy aging is a multifaceted phenomenon, incorporating biological and psychosocial developmental factors. The population of older women is diverse in health, function, social context, and age. Health promotion strategies, therefore, should be customized accordingly to optimize the health of the varied subgroups of older women, according to their health trajectory and personal preferences. Research and evaluation of approaches to promote health among these subgroups is an important next step in understanding and influencing the health of older women. PMID:15062732

  9. Premature infants display increased noxious-evoked neuronal activity in the brain compared to healthy age-matched term-born infants.

    PubMed

    Slater, Rebeccah; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2010-08-15

    This study demonstrates that infants who are born prematurely and who have experienced at least 40days of intensive or special care have increased brain neuronal responses to noxious stimuli compared to healthy newborns at the same postmenstrual age. We have measured evoked potentials generated by noxious clinically-essential heel lances in infants born at term (8 infants; born 37-40weeks) and in infants born prematurely (7 infants; born 24-32weeks) who had reached the same postmenstrual age (mean age at time of heel lance 39.2+/-1.2weeks). These noxious-evoked potentials are clearly distinguishable from shorter latency potentials evoked by non-noxious tactile sensory stimulation. While the shorter latency touch potentials are not dependent on the age of the infant at birth, the noxious-evoked potentials are significantly larger in prematurely-born infants. This enhancement is not associated with specific brain lesions but reflects a functional change in pain processing in the brain that is likely to underlie previously reported changes in pain sensitivity in older ex-preterm children. Our ability to quantify and measure experience-dependent changes in infant cortical pain processing will allow us to develop a more rational approach to pain management in neonatal intensive care. PMID:20438855

  10. Thin healthy women have a similar low bone mass to women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, D; Rodríguez, M; García Alemán, J; García-Almeida, J M; Picón, M J; Fernández-Aranda, F; Tinahones, F J

    2009-09-01

    An association between anorexia nerviosa (AN) and low bone mass has been demonstrated. Bone loss associated with AN involves hormonal and nutritional impairments, though their exact contribution is not clearly established. We compared bone mass in AN patients with women of similar weight with no criteria for AN, and a third group of healthy, normal-weight, age-matched women. The study included forty-eight patients with AN, twenty-two healthy eumenorrhoeic women with low weight (LW group; BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) and twenty healthy women with BMI >18.5 kg/m2 (control group), all of similar age. We measured lean body mass, percentage fat mass, total bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density in lumbar spine (BMD LS) and in total (tBMD). We measured anthropometric parameters, leptin and growth hormone. The control group had greater tBMD and BMD LS than the other groups, with no differences between the AN and LW groups. No differences were found in tBMD, BMD LS and total BMC between the restrictive (n 25) and binge-purge type (n 23) in AN patients. In AN, minimum weight (P = 0.002) and percentage fat mass (P = 0.02) explained BMD LS variation (r2 0.48) and minimum weight (r2 0.42; P = 0.002) for tBMD in stepwise regression analyses. In the LW group, BMI explained BMD LS (r2 0.72; P = 0.01) and tBMD (r2 0.57; P = 0.04). We concluded that patients with AN had similar BMD to healthy thin women. Anthropometric parameters could contribute more significantly than oestrogen deficiency in the achievement of peak bone mass in AN patients. PMID:19302720

  11. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals. PMID:25790831

  12. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods: Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Results: Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Conclusions: Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway. PMID:26941571

  13. Women's attitudes towards a pre-conception healthy lifestyle programme.

    PubMed

    Funk, K L; LeBlanc, E S; Vesco, K K; Stevens, V J

    2015-04-01

    Nearly half of US women begin pregnancy overweight or obese and more than half of overweight or obese pregnant women experience excessive gestational weight gain. Recent lifestyle intervention programmes have helped women avoid excessive weight gain during pregnancy, but helping women lose weight before pregnancy may be a more effective way to improve pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed women's attitudes towards pre-conception diet and weight management interventions. An anonymous survey was conducted in patients waiting in a health maintenance organization's obstetrics and primary care waiting rooms. It focused on attitudes towards participating in a pre-conception, lifestyle change programme. Eighty percent of the 126 women surveyed were pregnant or considering pregnancy within 5 years. Of the 126 respondents, 60 (48%) were overweight or obese. Of these, 96% rated healthy diet and healthy weight before pregnancy as very important or important and 77% favoured a healthy lifestyle programme (diet, weight management and physical activity) before becoming pregnant. Likewise, overweight or obese women reported being likely or highly likely to participate in specific intervention programme aspects such as keeping phone appointments (77%), using a programme website (70%) and keeping food and exercise records (63%). Survey results show that women in this population believe that adopting a healthy lifestyle and losing weight are important before pregnancy and that they are enthusiastic about programmes that will help them achieve those goals in preparation for pregnancy. PMID:25735259

  14. Carbohydrate ingestion induces sex-specific cardiac vagal inhibition, but not vascular sympathetic modulation, in healthy older women.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Graham, Stuart L; Pilowsky, Paul M

    2016-07-01

    The role of vagal function in cardiovascular risk in older women remains unclear. Autonomic modulation following carbohydrate ingestion (CI) and postural stress (PS) were investigated in 14 healthy men and 21 age-matched postmenopausal women (age: 65.0 ± 2.1 vs. 64.1 ± 1.6 years), with normal and comparable insulin sensitivity. Continuous noninvasive finger arterial pressure and ECG were recorded in the lying and the standing positions before and after ingestion of a carbohydrate-rich meal (600 kcal, carbohydrate 78%, protein 13%, and fat 8%). Low-frequency (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF, 0.15-0.4 Hz) components (ms(2)) of heart rate variability (HRV), low-frequency power (mmHg(2)) of systolic blood pressure variability (SBP LF power), and the sequence method for spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, ms/mmHg) were used to quantify autonomic modulation. In response to CI and PS, mean arterial pressure maintained stable, and heart rate increased in women and men in the lying and standing positions. Following CI (60, 90, and 120 min postprandially) in the standing position, SBP LF power increased by 40% in men (P = 0.02), with unchanged HRV parameters; in contrast, in women, HRV HF power halved (P = 0.02), with unaltered SBP LF power. During PS before and after CI, similar magnitude of SBP LF power, HRV, and BRS changes was observed in men and women. In conclusion, CI induces sex-specific vascular sympathetic activation in healthy older men, and cardiac vagal inhibition in healthy older women; this CI-mediated efferent vagal inhibition may suggest differential cardiovascular risk factors in women, irrespective of insulin resistance, and impairment of autonomic control. PMID:27147618

  15. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies: A Compendium of Program Ideas for Serving Low-Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.

    The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies survey conducted in spring 1985 drew responses from over 1,500 programs active in maternal and child health efforts directed toward low-income women and their families. The executive summary of this report identifies the major goals, common strategies, and needs of program respondents. Chapter 1 summarizes a…

  16. The portrayal of healthy women requesting oocyte cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Mertes, H.

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to cryopreserve oocytes to be used in IVF treatment later in life has not only enlarged the reproductive options of cancer patients who are faced with gonadotoxic treatments, but also holds the promise of enlarging the reproductive options of healthy women whose personal circumstances (most often the absence of a partner) do not allow them to reproduce in their most fertile years. Opinions for and against this application of the cryopreservation technology are often based on different portrayals of the women who might use it. Three different portrayals can be discerned in the debate about the ethics of so-called ‘social egg freezing’ or ‘non medical egg freezing’. First, these women have been portrayed as selfish career-pursuing women. Second, healthy women who might benefit from oocyte cryopreservation have been portrayed as victims of a male-oriented society that makes it difficult for women to combine motherhood with a good education or professional responsibilities. Third, healthy women opting to cryopreserve oocytes have been portrayed as wise, proactive women who will not have to depend on oocyte donors should they suffer from age-related infertility by the time they are ready to reproduce. Each of these three portrayals has its own shortcomings that one should be wary of, as they lead to an oversimplification of the ethical debate. PMID:24753939

  17. Total body phosphorus in healthy women and ethnic variations.

    PubMed

    Arunabh, Sonia; Feuerman, Martin; Ma, Ruimei; Aloia, John F

    2002-02-01

    Total body phosphorus (TBP) levels were measured in 90 black and 143 white healthy women to determine ethnic differences. The measurements were performed by in vivo delayed gamma neutron activation (DGNA) analysis at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Mean value of TBP in whites was 10.4% lower as compared with the black women (mean TBP in white women 401.4 +/- 57.5 g v. 447.7 +/- 57.7 g in black women). Both subgroups have a decrease in TBP with age with a rapid phase after the onset of menopause, which corresponds to bone loss. The decrease in TBP is similar in both ethnic groups with black women losing -1.59 g/yr (-0.33%/yr) and white women losing -2.08 g/yr (-0.45%/yr). PMID:11833045

  18. Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Healthy Korean Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Sil

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated the prevalence of sarcopenia, presarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia in healthy Korean elderly women. Methods We measured the muscle mass and muscle function of 196 ambulatory women over the age of 65 years who visited the University Hospital Menopause Clinic. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Assessment of hand grip strength (HGS) of the dominant hand was performed to measure the muscle strength, and 4-m straight on-way path was used to measure gait speed for physical performance. The values used to define the presarcopenia, sarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia were based on the cutoff values proposed by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Results The mean age of women was 71.2 years, and the mean SMI in 196 women was 5.94 kg/m2. The average HGS was 20.3 kg, and the mean gait speed was 1.08 m/sec. In 41 out of the 196 women (20.9%), the SMI was reduced to less than 5.4 kg/m2. Fifty-nine women (30.1%) had HGS of less than 18 kg, and gait speed was less than 0.8 m/sec in 12 women (6.1%). Twenty-six women (13.3%) were classified into the presarcopenia stage, and 15 women (7.6%) were classified into the sarcopenia stage. There was no case of severe sarcopenia. Conclusions One out of five relatively healthy women aged more than 65 years showed a decrease in muscle mass, and 7.6% of women showed a decrease in muscle mass and strength. The sarcopenia stage was also intensified with aging. PMID:26713310

  19. Management of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Healthy Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Hickling, Duane R; Nitti, Victor W

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence after urinary tract infection (rUTI) is common in adult women. The majority of recurrences are believed to be reinfection from extraurinary sources such as the rectum or vagina. However, uropathogenic Escherichia coli are now known to invade urothelial cells and form quiescent intracellular bacterial reservoirs. Management of women with frequent symptomatic rUTI can be particularly vexing for both patients and their treating physicians. This review addresses available and promising management strategies for rUTI in healthy adult women. PMID:24082842

  20. Reaching Perinatal Women Online: The Healthy You, Healthy Baby Website and App

    PubMed Central

    Hearn, Lydia; Miller, Margaret; Lester, Leanne

    2014-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence reveals the close link between unwarranted weight gain among childbearing women and childhood adiposity. Yet current barriers limit the capacity of perinatal health care providers (PHCPs) to offer healthy lifestyle counselling. In response, today's Internet savvy women are turning to online resources to access health information, with the potential of revolutionising health services by enabling PHCPs to guide women to appropriate online resources. This paper presents the findings of a project designed to develop an online resource to promote healthy lifestyles during the perinatal period. The methodology involved focus groups and interviews with perinatal women and PHCPs to determine what online information was needed, in what form, and how best it should be presented. The outcome was the development of the Healthy You, Healthy Baby website and smartphone app. This clinically-endorsed, interactive online resource provides perinatal women with a personalised tool to track their weight, diet, physical activity, emotional wellbeing, and sleep patterns based on the developmental stage of their child with links to quality-assured information. One year since the launch of the online resource, data indicates it provides a low-cost intervention delivered across most geographic and socioeconomic strata without additional demands on health service staff. PMID:24872891

  1. Reaching perinatal women online: the Healthy You, Healthy Baby website and app.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Lydia; Miller, Margaret; Lester, Leanne

    2014-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence reveals the close link between unwarranted weight gain among childbearing women and childhood adiposity. Yet current barriers limit the capacity of perinatal health care providers (PHCPs) to offer healthy lifestyle counselling. In response, today's Internet savvy women are turning to online resources to access health information, with the potential of revolutionising health services by enabling PHCPs to guide women to appropriate online resources. This paper presents the findings of a project designed to develop an online resource to promote healthy lifestyles during the perinatal period. The methodology involved focus groups and interviews with perinatal women and PHCPs to determine what online information was needed, in what form, and how best it should be presented. The outcome was the development of the Healthy You, Healthy Baby website and smartphone app. This clinically-endorsed, interactive online resource provides perinatal women with a personalised tool to track their weight, diet, physical activity, emotional wellbeing, and sleep patterns based on the developmental stage of their child with links to quality-assured information. One year since the launch of the online resource, data indicates it provides a low-cost intervention delivered across most geographic and socioeconomic strata without additional demands on health service staff. PMID:24872891

  2. Breast Cancer Risk in Metabolically Healthy but Overweight Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Gunter, Marc J.; Xie, Xianhong; Xue, Xiaonan; Kabat, Geoffrey C.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y.F; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Greco, Theresa; Yu, Herbert; Beasley, Jeannette; Strickler, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Adiposity is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. Recent data suggest that high insulin levels in overweight women may play a major role in this relationship, due to insulin’s mitogenic/anti-apoptotic activity. However, whether overweight women who are metabolically healthy (i.e. normal insulin sensitivity) have elevated risk of breast cancer is unknown. We investigated whether overweight women with normal insulin sensitivity (i.e., homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] index, or fasting insulin level, within the lowest quartile [q1]) have increased breast cancer risk. Subjects were incident breast cancer cases (N=497) and a subcohort (N=2,830) of Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) participants with available fasting insulin and glucose levels. In multivariate Cox models, metabolically healthy overweight women, defined using HOMA-IR, were not at elevated risk of breast cancer compared to metabolically healthy normal weight women (hazard ratio [HR]HOMA-IR=0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI],0.64-1.42). In contrast, the risk among women with high (q3-4) HOMA-IRs was elevated whether they were overweight (HRHOMA-IR=1.76; 95% CI,1.19-2.60) or normal weight (HRHOMA-IR=1.80; 95% CI,0.88-3.70). Similarly, using fasting insulin to define metabolic health, metabolically unhealthy women (insulin q3-4) were at higher risk of breast cancer regardless of whether they were normal weight (HRinsulin=2.06; 95% CI,1.01-4.22) or overweight (HRinsulin=2.01; 95% CI,1.35-2.99), whereas metabolically healthy overweight women did not have significantly increased risk of breast cancer (HRinsulin=0.96; 95% CI,0.64-1.42) relative to metabolically healthy normal weight women. Metabolic health (e.g., HOMA-IR or fasting insulin) may be more biologically relevant and more useful for breast cancer risk stratification, than adiposity per se. PMID:25593034

  3. Enhanced emotional empathy after mineralocorticoid receptor stimulation in women with borderline personality disorder and healthy women.

    PubMed

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Kuehl, Linn K; Janke, Katrin; Hinkelmann, Kim; Dziobek, Isabel; Fleischer, Juliane; Otte, Christian; Roepke, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is highly expressed in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. MR have an important role in appraisal processes and in modulating stress-associated emotional reactions but it is not known whether the MR affects empathy. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by disturbed emotion regulation and alterations in empathy. In the current study, we examined whether stimulation of the MR enhances empathy in patients with BPD and healthy individuals. In a placebo-controlled study, we randomized 38 women with BPD and without psychotropic medication, and 35 healthy women to either placebo or 0.4 mg fludrocortisone, an MR agonist. Subsequently, all participants underwent two tests of social cognition, the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET) and the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC), measuring cognitive and emotional facets of empathy. Eighteen BPD patients and 18 healthy women received placebo, whereas 20 BPD patients and 17 healthy women received fludrocortisone. In the MET, fludrocortisone enhanced emotional empathy across groups, whereas cognitive empathy was not affected. In the MASC, no effect of fludrocortisone could be revealed. In both tests, BPD patients and healthy women did not differ significantly in cognitive and emotional empathy and in their response to fludrocortisone. Stimulation of MR enhanced emotional empathy in healthy women and in BPD patients. Whether fludrocortisone might have a therapeutic role in psychotherapeutic processes, remains to be elucidated. PMID:24535100

  4. Factors associated with bone mineral density in healthy African women

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Cliff; Gati, Brenda; Greenspan, Susan; Dai, James Y.; Bragg, Vivian; Livant, Edward; Piper, Jeanna M.; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Magure, Tsitsi; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Chirenje, Z. Mike; Riddler, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is a paucity of normative bone mineral density (BMD) data in healthy African women. Baseline total hip and lumbar spine BMD was measured in premenopausal women. BMD distribution was comparable to that of a reference population and was impacted by several factors including contraception and duration of lactation. Introduction Normative data on bone mineral density (BMD) and the cumulative impact of lactation, contraceptive use, and other factors on BMD in healthy African women have not been well studied. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with BMD in healthy premenopausal women in Uganda and Zimbabwe. Methods Baseline total hip (TH) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry in 518 healthy, premenopausal black women enrolling in VOICE, an HIV-1 chemoprevention trial, at sites in Uganda and Zimbabwe. Contraceptive and lactation histories, physical activity assessment, calcium intake, and serum vitamin D levels were assessed. Independent factors associated with BMD were identified using an analysis of covariance model. Results The study enrolled 331 women from Zimbabwe and 187 women from Uganda. Median age was 29 years (IQR 25, 32) and median body mass index (BMI) was 24.8 kg/m2 (IQR 22.2, 28.6). In univariate analyses, lower TH BMD values were associated with residence in Uganda (p<0.001), lower BMI (p<0.001), and any use of and duration of depot-medroxyprogresterone acetate. Use of oral contraceptives, progestin-only implants, and higher physical activity levels were protective against reduced BMD. Similarly, lower LS BMD values were associated with these same factors but also higher parity and history of breastfeeding. In a multivariable analysis, lower TH and LS BMD values were associated with enrollment in Uganda, lower BMI, and lower physical activity level; contraceptive use was associated with lower spine BMD, and breastfeeding contributed to lower total hip BMD. Conclusions

  5. Formerly incarcerated women create healthy lives through participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Mickey L; Warner-Robbins, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    The specific purpose of the participatory action research study was to facilitate formerly incarcerated women who participate in Welcome Home Ministries (WHM) to develop their own plans and specific strategies, and to take action to build their own healthy futures. The research had a duel purpose of joint generation of knowledge and intervention relative to women's capacity building. The research intervention was the creation, implementation, and follow-up of a future search conference. The outcomes, conclusions, and implications for practice are discussed. PMID:11845765

  6. Larger hippocampus size in women with anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively than healthy women.

    PubMed

    Beadle, Janelle N; Paradiso, Sergio; Brumm, Michael; Voss, Michelle; Halmi, Katherine; McCormick, Laurie M

    2015-05-30

    Exercise has been shown to increase hippocampal volume in healthy older adults. Observations from animal models of diabetes and hypertension suggest that the combination of exercise and caloric restriction may exert greater neuroprotection in the hippocampus than either behavior alone. Yet, in humans, the effects of exercise and caloric restriction on the hippocampus are not known. We measured the volume of the hippocampus prior to clinical treatment in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) who were restricting calories and engaging in excessive exercise, women with AN who did not exercise excessively, and healthy women who did not engage in either behavior. Women with AN were also examined longitudinally (once weight was restored and 6 months later). In the present report, we found that women with AN engaged in caloric restriction and excessive exercising prior to clinical treatment had larger hippocampal volumes than healthy comparison women. After weight restoration, women with AN who had engaged in food restriction and excessive exercise prior to treatment had hippocampal volumes similar to that of women with AN who only engaged in caloric restriction. These results advance the field by showing for the first time that hippocampal volume may be increased by exercise alone or exercise interacting with food restriction in AN. PMID:25624068

  7. Serum antimüllerian hormone in healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Christiana M; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Egleston, Brian L; Kahle, L L; Spittle, Cynthia S; Godwin, Andrew K; Brinton, Louise A; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2011-06-30

    Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) is extensively studied in ovarian aging and pathology; however, little is known about correlates in healthy premenopausal women. We found that AMH levels are strongly inversely associated with age and differed significantly between oral contraceptive pill users and nonusers, whereas no significant associations were seen between AMH and other clinical, behavioral, and anthropometric characteristics and laboratory variables, making it an attractive hormone for clinical applications. PMID:21704216

  8. Serum antimüllerian hormone in healthy premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Christiana M.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Egleston, Brian L.; Kahle, L.L.; Spittle, Cynthia S.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Brinton, Louise A.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2011-01-01

    Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) is extensively studied in ovarian aging and pathology; however, little is known about correlates in healthy premenopausal women. We found that AMH levels are strongly inversely associated with age and differed significantly between oral contraceptive pill users and nonusers, whereas no significant associations were seen between AMH and other clinical, behavioral, and anthropometric characteristics and laboratory variables, making it an attractive hormone for clinical applications. PMID:21704216

  9. Assessment of Macular Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroidal Thickness Changes in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Healthy Pregnant Women, and Healthy Non-Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Acmaz, Gokhan; Atas, Mustafa; Gulhan, Ahmet; Acmaz, Banu; Atas, Fatma; Aksoy, Huseyin; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Gokce, Gokcen

    2015-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes and it causes maternal and child morbidity. Screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) is important because patients who develop DR have no symptoms until macular edema and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) are already present. The aim of this study was to determine the early retinal findings of GDM. Material/Methods This study was conducted in a tertiary research center. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study with 3 groups: Group 1 consisted of 36 pregnant women with GDM, Group 2 consisted of 24 healthy pregnant women, and Group 3 consisted of 38 healthy non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used for the assessment. Macular, choroid, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were evaluated in patients with GDM and comparisons were made among pregnant women with GDM, healthy pregnant women, and healthy non-pregnant women for these parameters. Results The nasal part of the RNFL was significantly thinner in the GDM group than in the healthy pregnant group. None of the patients had retinopathy or macular edema at the time of examination. Conclusions Decreased nasal part of RNFL thickness may be the first retinal change in patients with GDM. Our study suggests that OCT should be performed for the patients with GDM for detection of early retinal changes associated with GDM. PMID:26084958

  10. Barriers to healthy nutrition: perceptions and experiences of Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A sound understanding of community perceptions and experiences regarding barriers to a healthy diet is a prerequisite for the design of effective interventions aimed at prevention of diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study focused on exploring barriers to healthy nutrition as experienced by women participating in the Tehran Lipid Glucose Study (TLGS). Methods A grounded theory approach was used for analyzing the participants’ experiences and their perceptions regarding these barriers. Data collection was conducted through sixteen semi-structured focus group discussions, between 2008 and 2009. Participants were 102 women, aged 25-65 years, selected and recruited from the TGLS cohort. All interviews and focus group discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Constant comparative analysis of the data was conducted manually according to the Strauss and Corbin analysis method. Results The study revealed that the most important barriers to healthy nutrition were: 1) Interpersonal/cultural effects, 2) Lack of access to healthy foods, and 3) Food preferences. Conclusions Understanding these barriers might contribute to existing literature by providing evidence from a different culture, and help design effective preventive strategies, and implement appropriate interventions among Tehranian families. PMID:23227832

  11. Testosterone and sexual desire in healthy women and men.

    PubMed

    van Anders, Sari M

    2012-12-01

    Sexual desire is typically higher in men than in women, with testosterone (T) thought to account for this difference as well as within-sex variation in desire in both women and men. However, few studies have incorporated both hormonal and social or psychological factors in studies of sexual desire. The present study addressed how three psychological domains (sexual-relational, stress-mood, body-embodiment) were related to links between T and sexual desire in healthy adults and whether dyadic and solitary desire showed associations with T. Participants (n = 196) were recruited as part of the Partnering, Physiology, and Health study, which had 105 men and 91 women who completed questionnaires and provided saliva for cortisol and T assays. T was positively linked to solitary desire in women, with masturbation frequency influencing this link. In contrast, T was negatively correlated with dyadic desire in women, but only when cortisol and perceived social stress were controlled. Replicating past findings, no significant correlations between T and desire in men were apparent, but these analyses showed that the null association remained even when psychological and confound variables were controlled. Men showed higher desire than women, but masturbation frequency rather than T influenced this difference. Results were discussed in terms of challenges to assumptions of clear links between T and desire, gendered approaches to T, and the unitarity of desire. PMID:22552705

  12. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  13. Healthy eating index and breast cancer risk among Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Shahril, Mohd Razif; Sulaiman, Suhaina; Shaharudin, Soraya Hanie; Akmal, Sharifah Noor

    2013-07-01

    Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), an index-based dietary pattern, has been shown to predict the risk of chronic diseases among Americans. This study aims to examine the ability of HEI-2005 in predicting the probability for risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer among Malaysian women. Data from a case-control nutritional epidemiology study among 764 participants including 382 breast cancer cases and 382 healthy women were extracted and scored. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to evaluate the relationship between the risk of breast cancer and quartiles (Q) of HEI-2005 total scores and its component, whereas the risk prediction ability of HEI-2005 was investigated using diagnostics analysis. The results of this study showed that there is a significant reduction in the risk of breast cancer, with a higher HEI-2005 total score among premenopausal women (OR Q1 vs. Q4=0.34, 95% CI; 0.15-0.76) and postmenopausal women (OR Q1 vs. Q4=0.20, 95% CI; 0.06-0.63). However, HEI-2005 has a sensitivity of 56-60%, a specificity of 55-60%, and a positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 57-58%, which indicates a moderate ability to predict the risk of breast cancer according to menopausal status. The breast cancer incidence observed poorly agrees with risk outcomes from HEI-2005 as shown by low κ statistics (κ=0.15). In conclusion, although the total HEI-2005 scores were associated with a risk of breast cancer among Malaysian women, the ability of HEI-2005 to predict risk is poor as indicated by the diagnostic analysis. A local index-based dietary pattern, which is disease specific, is required to predict the risk of breast cancer among Malaysian women for early prevention. PMID:23702680

  14. Comparison of Lifestyle in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Sedigheh; Akbari, Sedigheh Amir Ali; Afrakhteh, Maryam; Esteki, Taraneh; Majd, Hamid Alavi; Mahmoodi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and that a lifestyle is recognized effective in development of many diseases, this study aimed to compare lifestyle of women with PCOS and healthy women. Nor are there sufficient studies on the difference between lifestyle of these people with that of healthy people. Furthermore, studies show that changes in lifestyle improve this disease. This descriptive-comparative study was conducted on 65 women with PCOS and 65 healthy women of 18 to 45 years old who presented to hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 2013. The subjects were selected using multi stage random sampling method. The data were collected using questionnaires for diet, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and unhealthy behaviors and were analyzed in SPSS v. 17, using descriptive statistics, Man-Whitney, independent t, Chi-square and logistic regression tests. The results showed there was a significant relationship between PCOS and inappropriate diet (p=0.009), low physical activity (p=0.009), but no relationship was observed between PCOS and unhealthy behaviors. Given the results obtained, training and awareness raising is necessary for women and girls especially about appropriate diet and regular physical activity. PMID:25560358

  15. Dietary factors and luteal phase deficiency in healthy eumenorrheic women

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Mary A.; Schliep, Karen C.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Stanford, Joseph B.; Zarek, Shvetha M.; Radin, Rose G.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Perkins, Neil J.; Kalwerisky, Robyn A.; Hammoud, Ahmad O.; Mumford, Sunni L.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are prospectively assessed dietary factors, including overall diet quality, macronutrients and micronutrients, associated with luteal phase deficiency (LPD) in healthy reproductive aged women with regular menstrual cycles? SUMMARY ANSWER Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), fiber and isoflavone intake were positively associated with LPD while selenium was negatively associated with LPD after adjusting for age, percentage body fat and total energy intake. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY LPD may increase the risk of infertility and early miscarriage. Prior research has shown positive associations between LPD and low energy availability, either through high dietary restraint alone or in conjunction with high energy expenditure via exercise, but few studies with adequate sample sizes have been conducted investigating dietary factors and LPD among healthy, eumenorrheic women. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The BioCycle Study (2005–2007) prospectively enrolled 259 women from Western New York state, USA, and followed them for one (n = 9) or two (n = 250) menstrual cycles. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Women aged 18–44 years, with self-reported BMI between 18 and 35 kg/m2 and cycle lengths between 21 and 35 days, were included in the study. Participants completed baseline questionnaires, four 24-h dietary recalls per cycle and daily diaries capturing vigorous exercise, perceived stress and sleep; they also provided up to eight fasting serum samples during clinic visits timed to specific phases of the menstrual cycle using a fertility monitor. Cycles were included for this analysis if the peak serum luteal progesterone was >1 ng/ml and a urine or serum LH surge was detected. Associations between prospectively assessed diet quality, macronutrients and micronutrients and LPD (defined as luteal duration <10 days) were evaluated using generalized linear models adjusting for age, percentage body fat and total energy intake. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE LPD

  16. Women and Heart Disease | Healthy Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Women and Heart Disease Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... Truth Campaign" Urges Women To Take Good Blood Pressure Seriously February is American Heart Month, and the ...

  17. Sources of Cadmium Exposure Among Healthy Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Scott V.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Shafer, Martin M.; Atkinson, Charlotte; Aiello Bowles, Erin J.; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 μg/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38–0.48 μg/g) and 0.30 μg/g (0.27–0.33 μg/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11–33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 μg/g (95% CI: 0.06 – 0.15 μg/g ) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. PMID:21333327

  18. Associations of physical activity and inactivity with body tissue composition among healthy Polish women and women after mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Czerniak, U; Demuth, A; Skrzypczak, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between physical activity and body composition among healthy women and women who have had mastectomy. This is in order to establish whether physical activity of women after breast cancer treatment improves composition and distribution of body mass components to a degree which will allow to achieve the body composition of healthy women. Research material consists of anthropometric measurements (body height, weight) of women and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) of body composition (using Akern - BIA 101 composition analyzer). Intensity of activity was assessed using the Physical Activity International Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 76 healthy women (active 44.74%, inactive 55.26%) and 70 females after mastectomy (54.29% and 45.71%, respectively). Mean chronological age of women after mastectomy was 53.40 years, SD=7.55, and of the healthy ones 52.38 years SD=11.01). A significant difference in body composition was noted among active and inactive women after mastectomy; namely the active females had lower weight (by approximately 12 kg), body mass index (BMI), level of fat mass (by approximately 8%) and (by approximately 5%) total body water. The active healthy women had 6% less fat mass, almost 4% more body water and 6% more fat free mass. Programmed physical activity undertaken by women after mastectomy is recommended and produces good results in the form of reduction of excessive body fat tissue. Through physical activity these women are able to achieve the same level of fat mass as healthy women. PMID:25012759

  19. Amphetamine alters neural response to sucrose in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Melrose, A James; Bailer, Ursula; Wierenga, Christina E; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Paulus, Martin P; Kaye, Walter H

    2016-06-30

    Amphetamine, likely via action on the brain's dopaminergic systems, induces anorectic eating behavior and blunts dopaminergic midbrain activation to rewards. Past work has hypothesized that this blunted reward responsivity is a result of increasing tonic over phasic DA activity. We sought to extend past findings to sweet taste during fMRI following single-blind administration of dextroamphetamine and placebo in 11 healthy women. We hypothesized that neural response in both limbic and cognitive sweet taste circuits would mirror past work with monetary rewards by effectively blunting sweet taste reward, and 'equalizing' it's rewarding taste with receipt of water. Behavioral results showed that amphetamine reduced self-reported hunger (supporting the existence of amphetamine anorexia) and increased self-report euphoria. In addition, region of Interest analysis revealed significant treatment by taste interactions in the middle insula and dorsal anterior cingulate confirming the 'equalizing' hypothesis in the cingulate, but unlike monetary reinforcers, the insula actually evinced enhanced separation between tastes on the amphetamine day. These results suggest a divergence from prior research using monetary reinforcers when extended to primary reinforcers, and may hint that altering dopaminergic signaling in the insula and anterior cingulate may be a target for pharmacological manipulation of appetite, and the treatment of obesity. PMID:27179312

  20. A lifetime of healthy skin: implications for women.

    PubMed

    Bergfeld, W F

    1999-01-01

    ultraviolet (UV) light. It is the leading cause of extrinsic aging, or alterations of the skin due to environmental exposure. Estimates indicate that almost half of a person's UV exposure occurs by age 18. Photoaging causes numerous histologic, physiologic, and clinical changes; it also increases the risk for skin cancer. Photodamage can be prevented through the use of sun screens, protective clothing, and avoidance of the sun during peak intensity time. The only product approved by the FDA for the treatment of photodamage (fine wrinkles, mottled hyperpigmentation, and skin roughness), topical tretinoin emollient cream, may help prevent additional photoaging when it is used to treat existing photoaging. Other management options for photodamaged skin include alpha-hydroxy acids, antioxidants, antiandrogens, moisturizers, and exfoliants. In patients with excessive manifestations of photodamage, surgical management may be needed, including dermabrasion, chemical peels, soft tissue augmentation, laser resurfacing, botulism toxin, and Gortex threads. Clinicians must educate their patients about the most appropriate skin care regimen as well as approaches for preventing and treating common afflictions. In this way, women will have the best opportunity for having and maintaining healthy skin. PMID:10338266

  1. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Systemic Gene Expression among Healthy Women and Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Anuradha; Pachter, Lior; Nelson, J. Lee; Smed, Mette Kiel; Gildengorin, Virginia L.; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Hetland, Merete Lund; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Olsen, Jørn; Jawaheer, Damini

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy induces drastic biological changes systemically, and has a beneficial effect on some autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, specific systemic changes that occur as a result of pregnancy have not been thoroughly examined in healthy women or women with RA. The goal of this study was to identify genes with expression patterns associated with pregnancy, compared to pre-pregnancy as baseline and determine whether those associations are modified by presence of RA. Results In our RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) dataset from 5 healthy women and 20 women with RA, normalized expression levels of 4,710 genes were significantly associated with pregnancy status (pre-pregnancy, first, second and third trimesters) over time, irrespective of presence of RA (False Discovery Rate (FDR)-adjusted p value<0.05). These genes were enriched in pathways spanning multiple systems, as would be expected during pregnancy. A subset of these genes (n = 256) showed greater than two-fold change in expression during pregnancy compared to baseline levels, with distinct temporal trends through pregnancy. Another 98 genes involved in various biological processes including immune regulation exhibited expression patterns that were differentially associated with pregnancy in the presence or absence of RA. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that the maternal immune system plays an active role during pregnancy, and also provide insight into other systemic changes that occur in the maternal transcriptome during pregnancy compared to the pre-pregnancy state. Only a small proportion of genes modulated by pregnancy were influenced by presence of RA in our data. PMID:26683605

  2. Influences of Natural Menopause on Psychological Characteristics and Symptoms of Middle-Aged Healthy Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Karen A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated psychological and symptom consequences of natural menopause in longitudinal study of 541 initially premenopausal healthy women. Findings 3 years later from 101 menopausal women and control group of 101 premenopausal women revealed that natural menopause led to few changes in psychological characteristics, with only decline in…

  3. Identifying metabolically healthy but obese individuals in sedentary postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Messier, Virginie; Karelis, Antony D; Prud'homme, Denis; Primeau, Vanessa; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare different methods to identify metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) individuals in a cohort of obese postmenopausal women. We examined the anthropometric and metabolic characteristics of 113 obese (age: 57.3 +/- 4.8 years; BMI: 34.2 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2)), sedentary postmenopausal women. The following methods were used to identify MHO subjects: the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (MHO: upper quartile of glucose disposal rates); the Matsuda index (MHO: upper quartile of the Matsuda index); the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index (MHO: lower quartile of the HOMA index); having 0-1 cardiometabolic abnormalities (systolic/diastolic blood pressure > or =130/85 mm Hg, triglycerides (TG) > or =1.7 mmol/l, glucose > or =5.6 mmol/l, HOMA >5.13, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) >0.1 mg/l, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) <1.3 mmol/l); and meeting four out of five metabolic factors (HOMA < or =2.7, TG < or =1.7 mmol/l, HDL-C > or =1.3 mmol/l, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol < or =2.6 mmol/l, hsCRP < or =3.0 mg/l). Thereafter, we measured insulin sensitivity, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), body fat distribution (computed tomography scan), energy expenditure, plasma lipids, inflammation markers, resting blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness. We found significant differences in body composition (i.e., peripheral fat mass, central lean body mass (LBM)) and metabolic risk factors (i.e., HDL-C, hsCRP) between MHO and at risk individuals using the different methods to identify both groups. In addition, significant differences between MHO subjects using the different methods to identify MHO individuals were observed such as age, TG/HDL, hsCRP, and fasting insulin. However, independently of the methods used, we noted some recurrent characteristics that identify MHO subjects such as TG, apolipoprotein B, and ferritin. In conclusion, the present study shows variations in body composition

  4. Religion and healthy lifestyle behaviors among postmenopausal women: the women's health initiative.

    PubMed

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Fitchett, George; Ockene, Judy K; Schnall, Eliezer; Crawford, Sybil; Granek, Iris; Manson, JoAnn; Ockene, Ira; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Powell, Lynda; Rapp, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    Worship attendance has been associated with longer survival in prospective cohort studies. A possible explanation is that religious involvement may promote healthier lifestyle choices. Therefore, we examined whether attendance is associated with healthy behaviors, i.e. use of preventive medicine services, non-smoking, moderate drinking, exercising regularly, and with healthy dietary habits. The population included 71,689 post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative observational study free of chronic diseases at baseline. Attendance and lifestyle behaviors information was collected at baseline using self-administered questionnaires. Healthy behaviors were modeled as a function of attendance using logistic regression. After adjustment for confounders, worship attendance (less than weekly, weekly, and more than weekly vs. never) was positively associated with use of preventive services [OR for mammograms: 1.34 (1.19, 1.51), 1.41 (1.26, 1.57), 1.33 (1.17, 1.52); breast self exams: 1.14 (1.02, 1.27), 1.33 (1.21, 1.48), 1.25 (1.1, 1.43); PAP smears: 1.22 (1.01, 1.47-weekly vs. none)]; non-smoking: [1.41 (1.35, 1.48), 1.76 (1.69, 1.84), 2.27 (2.15, 2.39)]; moderate drinking [1.35 (1.27, 1.45), 1.60 (1.52, 1.7), 2.19 (2.0, 2.4)]; and fiber intake [1.08 (1.03, 1.14), 1.16 (1.11, 1.22), 1.31 (1.23, 1.39), respectively], but not with regular exercise or with lower saturated fat and caloric intake. These findings suggest that worship attendance is associated with certain, but not all, healthy behaviors. Further research is needed to get a deeper understanding of the relationship between religious involvement and healthy lifestyle behaviors and of the inconsistent patterns in this association. PMID:21301947

  5. A gender-based approach to developing a healthy lifestyle and healthy weight intervention for diverse Utah women.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Sara E; Digre, Kathleen B; Ralls, Brenda; Mukundente, Valentine; Davis, France A; Rickard, Sylvia; Tavake-Pasi, Fahina; Napia, Eru Ed; Aiono, Heather; Chirpich, Meghan; Stark, Louisa A; Sunada, Grant; Keen, Kassy; Johnston, Leanne; Frost, Caren J; Varner, Michael W; Alder, Stephen C

    2015-08-01

    Utah women from some cultural minority groups have higher overweight/obesity rates than the overall population. We utilized a gender-based mixed methods approach to learn about the underlying social, cultural and gender issues that contribute to the increased obesity risk among these women and to inform intervention development. A literature review and analysis of Utah's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data informed the development of a focus group guide. Focus groups were conducted with five groups of women: African immigrants from Burundi and Rwanda, African Americans, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Hispanics/Latinas, and Pacific Islanders. Six common themes emerged: (1) health is multidimensional and interventions must address health in this manner; (2) limited resources and time influence health behaviors; (3) norms about healthy weight vary, with certain communities showing more preference to heavier women; (4) women and men have important but different influences on healthy lifestyle practices within households; (5) women have an influential role on the health of families; and (6) opportunities exist within each group to improve health. Seeking insights from these five groups of women helped to identify common and distinct cultural and gender themes related to obesity, which can be used to help elucidate core obesity determinants. PMID:25559947

  6. Awareness, knowledge and healthy lifestyle behaviors related to coronary heart disease among women: An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Hadassah Joann; Wu, Vivien Xi; Kowitlawakul, Yanika; Wang, Wenru

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine recent literature on the awareness, knowledge, and healthy lifestyle behaviors related to Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) among women. Literature published in the English language from 2004 to 2015 was reviewed. Of the 684 articles retrieved, 21 were deemed relevant. Being aware that CHD is the leading cause of death in women and knowledge of the risk factors of CHD were found to be generally suboptimal in the women studied. Awareness was seen to be positively associated with healthy lifestyle behaviors, though findings on the predictive relationship of knowledge of risk factors on healthy lifestyle behaviors in women seem to be divided. Diabetes was the prominent risk factor that most women did not associate with CHD. Translating these findings into clinical practice can help health care providers be more attuned when discussing CHD with their female patients so as to provide targeted education on CHD prevention. PMID:26961078

  7. Physiological Reduction in Left Ventricular Contractile Function in Healthy Postpartum Women: Potential Overlap with Peripartum Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sitara G.; Melikian, Narbeh; Mushemi-Blake, Sitali; Dennes, William; Jouhra, Fadi; Monaghan, Mark; Shah, Ajay M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a potentially life-threatening cause of heart failure, commoner in Afro-Caribbean than Caucasian women. Its diagnosis can be challenging due to physiological changes in cardiac function that also occur in healthy women during the early postpartum period. This study aimed to (i) establish the overlap between normal cardiac physiology in the immediate postpartum period and pathological changes in peripartum cardiomyopathy ii) identify any ethnicity-specific changes in cardiac function and cardiac biomarkers in healthy postpartum women. Methods and Results We conducted a cross-sectional study of 58 healthy postpartum women within 48 hours of delivery and 18 matched non-pregnant controls. Participants underwent cardiac assessment by echocardiography and strain analysis, including 3D echocardiography in 40 postpartum women. Results were compared with 12 retrospectively studied peripartum cardiomyopathy patients. Healthy postpartum women had significantly higher left ventricular volumes and mass, and lower ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain than non-pregnant controls. These parameters were significantly more impaired in peripartum cardiomyopathy patients but with overlapping ranges of values. Healthy postpartum women had higher levels of adrenomedullin, placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1) compared to controls. The postpartum state, adrenomedullin, sFlt1 and the sFlt1:PlGF ratio were independent predictors of LV remodelling and function in healthy postpartum women. Conclusion Healthy postpartum women demonstrate several echocardiographic indicators of left ventricular remodelling and reduced function, which are associated with altered levels of angiogenic and cardiac biomarkers. PMID:26859567

  8. Changes in CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+, and Immunoglobulin M-Positive Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome-Affected Pigs and Age-Matched Uninfected Wasted and Healthy Pigs Correlate with Lesions and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Load in Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Darwich, Laila; Segalés, Joaquim; Domingo, Mariano; Mateu, Enric

    2002-01-01

    Forty-one 8- to 12-week-old wasted pigs were selected from several conventional farms with histories of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and classified into two groups according to their porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection status, as determined by in situ hybridization (ISH). Twenty-four pigs tested positive for PCV2 (PCV2-positive group), while 17 pigs tested negative for PCV2 (PCV2-negative group). In addition, eight uninfected healthy pigs from an experimental farm were used as controls. Heparinized blood samples were taken to obtain peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+ (double-positive [DP]), and immunoglobulin M-positive (IgM+) cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry with appropriate monoclonal antibodies. Histopathological studies were done to evaluate the apparent degrees of lymphocyte depletion in different lymphoid organs (superficial inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, tonsils, and spleen) and to determine the viral load of the PCV2 genome by using an ISH technique. Animals of the PCV2-positive group showed a significant downshift of the CD8+ and DP cell subsets compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, in PCV2-positive pigs, the amount of PCV2 genome in lymphoid tissues was related to the degree of cell depletion in those tissues (P < 0.05) as well as to the relative decrease in IgM+ and CD8+ cells in peripheral blood. These data support the notion that PCV2-positive pigs might have an impaired immune response. PMID:11874858

  9. Applying Grounded Theory to Weight Management among Women: Making a Commitment to Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Ivankova, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    In this study we developed a theory grounded in data from women who continued healthy eating behaviors after a weight management program. Participant recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies for focus groups and individual interviews. Inclusion criteria were: African American or Caucasian women aged 30+ who lost [greater than or…

  10. Health in middle-aged and elderly women: A conceptual framework for healthy menopause.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke-Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M Carola; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the concept of healthy menopause exists, despite its recognized importance. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) characterize healthy menopause; (ii) identify aspects that contribute to it; and (iii) explore potential approaches to measure it. We propose healthy menopause as a dynamic state, following the permanent loss of ovarian function, which is characterized by self-perceived satisfactory physical, psychological and social functioning, incorporating disease and disability, allowing the attainment of a woman's desired ability to adapt and capacity to self-manage. The concept of healthy menopause applies to all women from the moment they enter the menopausal transition, up until they reach early and late postmenopause and includes women with spontaneous, iatrogenic, and premature menopause. This conceptualization can be considered as a further step in the maintenance and improvement of health in menopausal women from different perspectives, foremost the woman's own perspective, followed by the clinical, public health, and societal perspectives, and can be seen as a further step in delineating lines for future research. Furthermore, it could facilitate the improvement of adequate preventive and treatment strategies, guide scientific efforts, and aid education and communication to health care practitioners and the general public, allowing women the achievement of their potential and the fulfillment of their fundamental role in society. PMID:25813865

  11. Body Iron Excretion by Healthy Men and Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Iron excretion measured by isotope dilution has been a primary basis for factorial derivation of recommendations for iron intake, but results have been available for men only. Objective: The objective of this study was to reproduce iron excretion measurements in healthy men and extend th...

  12. Quality of life and sexuality comparison between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Ik; Lee, Yumi; Joo, Jungnam; Park, KiByung; Lee, Dong Ock; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective compare quality of life (QoL) and sexual functioning between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 103 successfully treated ovarian cancer survivors and 220 healthy women. All women had engaged in sexual activity within the previous 3 months, and ovarian cancer survivors were under surveillance after primary treatment without evidence of disease. QoL and sexual functioning were assessed using three questionnaires; the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), Ovarian Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-OV28), and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Propensity score matching was used to adjust covariates between the ovarian cancer survivor and healthy women groups. In total, 73 ovarian cancer survivors and 73 healthy women were compared. Results Poorer social functioning (mean, 82.4 vs. 90.9; p=0.010) and more financial difficulties (mean, 16.4 vs. 7.8; p=0.019) were observed among ovarian cancer survivors than among healthy women. Sexuality, both in terms of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain and in terms of interest in sex, sexual activity, and enjoyment of sex (EORTC QLQ-OV28) were similar between the groups. However, vaginal dryness was more problematic in ovarian cancer survivors, with borderline statistical significance (p=0.081). Conclusion Sexuality was not impaired in ovarian cancer survivors who were without evidence of disease after primary treatment and having sexual activities, compared with healthy women, whereas social functioning and financial status did deteriorate. Prospective cohort studies are needed. PMID:25686396

  13. Pilates for Better Sex: Changes in Sexual Functioning in Healthy Turkish Women After Pilates Exercise.

    PubMed

    Halis, Fikret; Yildirim, Pelin; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Cecen, Kursat; Gokce, Ahmet

    2016-05-18

    Although a large number of studies report the impact of daily exercise on many aspects of women's health, none of them address the relationship between Pilates exercise and sexual function prospectively. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Pilates exercise on sexual function in healthy young women using a validated questionnaire. In total, 34 premenopausal healthy Turkish women aged between 20 and 50 years who had regular menstrual cycles and sexual relationships were included in the study. Women were asked to complete Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed before and after 12 weeks of Pilates exercise. Primary endpoints were changes in total and individual domain scores on the FSFI and BDI. After the 12-week Pilates intervention, BDI scores were decreased and all domains of the FSFI were significantly improved with mean ± SD total FSFI scores increasing from 25.9 ± 7.4 to 32.2 ± 3.6 (p <.0001). This is the first prospective study that quantifies the improvement in sexual function of healthy women after a 12-week Pilates program. Our findings suggest that Pilates may improve sexual function in healthy women. However, further studies with a larger sample size are needed in this field. PMID:25826474

  14. Vitamin D status in healthy postmenopausal Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    Niafar, Mitra; Bahrami, Amir; Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Najafipour, Farzad; Mobasseri, Majid

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few epidemiologic studies on vitamin D status of postmenopausal women in the Middle East countries. This study aimed to investigate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in postmenopausal women living in the north-west of Iran. METHODS: Using the records of the local household registry, 300 cases were enrolled by simple random sampling. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined by fully automated chemiluminescent immunoassay. In addition, the study included survey questions regarding age, body weight and height, use of supplements and skin protection agents and clinical and reproductive histories. RESULTS: Our cases had the mean age of 63.41 ± 4.64 years with menopause duration of 16.79 ± 6.15 years. Median and interquartile 25-75 range of vitamin D were 14.20 ng/ml and 7-37.2 ng/ml respectively. We found hypovitaminosis D [25(OH) D < 10 ng/ml] in 38.3% of our cases. Serum 25(OH) D concentrations were not significantly correlated with age or BMI. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that 25(OH) D levels in postmenopausal women of north-west Iran are low. Studies to elucidate and assess the dietary intake of vitamin D in elderly women of this region can be of further benefit. PMID:21772879

  15. Neural Mechanisms of Verb Argument Structure Processing in Agrammatic Aphasic and Healthy Age-Matched Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Fix, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior peri-sylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions on the basis of argument structure complexity. The aim of…

  16. Self-perception of women after mastectomy as an ego defence mechanism. Comparison with a group of healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Ziółkowska, Patrycja; Kowalska, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Analysis of changes in self-perception in post-mastectomy patients and its comparison with self-perception of healthy women. Material and methods The subjects of this study were 50 women. The main group was post-mastectomy patients involved in the meetings of the Amazons Club (25 women). The reference group consisted of 25 healthy women. The method used in the study was the ACL (Adjective Check List) test, identifying 37 dimensions of self-image. Oncological patients completed a test twice (for current and pre-cancer self-image), and healthy women once – for current self. Both groups were selected similarly in respect of education level for the purpose of ensuring a similar level of insight. Results Retrospective self-image and the current one in the Amazon women group were highly convergent. Existing differences include a reduced need for achievement and dominance, and a lower level of self-confidence. However, the comparison of current self-images in both groups showed a large discrepancy of the results. The Amazon women assess themselves in a much more negative way. Also, their self-image is self-contradictory in certain characteristics. Conclusions Mastectomy is a difficult experience requiring one to re-adapt and to accept oneself thereafter. The way of thinking about oneself is a defence mechanism helping to cope. The work with patients programmes must, therefore, focus on identifying their emotions and thoughts, especially on those they do not want to accept because of the perceived pressure from the environment to effectively and quickly deal with this difficult situation. The increasing acceptance of personal limitations may help the affected women to adjust psychologically faster and easier. PMID:23788875

  17. Women's Facial Redness Increases Their Perceived Attractiveness: Mediation Through Perceived Healthiness.

    PubMed

    Pazda, Adam D; Thorstenson, Christopher A; Elliot, Andrew J; Perrett, David I

    2016-07-01

    In the present research, we investigated whether the red-attraction relation that has been observed for men viewing women may also be observed with regard to women's facial redness. We manipulated facial redness by slightly increasing or decreasing the redness on the faces of baseline pictures of target women, and then had men judge the attractiveness of the women. We also examined healthiness perceptions as a mediator of the redness-attraction relation, along with several other candidate mediator variables. A series of experiments showed that increased redness led to increased ratings of attractiveness, and decreased redness led to decreased ratings of attractiveness. Perceived healthiness was documented as a mediator of the influence of female facial redness on male perceptions of attractiveness, and this mediation was independent of other candidate mediator variables. The findings highlight the importance of attending to facial coloration as an attraction-relevant cue and point to interesting areas for subsequent research. PMID:26908567

  18. [Caring for healthy aging: building an educational process with rural women].

    PubMed

    Portella, M R

    1999-01-01

    This study analyses a proposal of nursing assistance. The project proposed has as its goal the construction of an educational process aiming a healthy aging among rural women. It is important to emphasize that these women's cultural health practices were taken into consideration in this research. The conceptual milestones adopted were drawn from Madeleine Leninger's concept of "cultural care" and Paulo Freire's pedagogical ideas. The educational process being proposed is based on the idea of caring/educating in which the nursing professional and the group share experiences through reflective dialog, and seek cultural health practices that can contribute on a healthy aging. PMID:12138632

  19. Urinary Tract Infection In Young Healthy Women Following Heterosexual Anal Intercourse: Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Lema, Valentino M

    2015-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in outpatient clinical settings globally. Young healthy women are at highest risk of community-acquired UTI. While uncomplicated UTI is not life-threatening, it is associated with high morbidity and treatment costs. The pathogenesis of urinary tract infection in young healthy women is complex. It is influenced by a number of host biological and behavioural factors and virulence of the uropathogen. The infecting uropathogens in community-acquired UTI originate from the fecal flora, E. coli being the most predominant, accounting for 80-90% of these UTIs. Vaginal colonization with uropathogens, a pre-requisite for bladder infection may be facilitated by sexual intercourse, which has been shown to be a strong risk factor and predictor of UTI. While majority of studies have explored the association between heterosexual vaginal intercourse and UTI in healthy young women, the possible association with heterosexual receptive anal intercourse has not received adequate attention despite evidence of high prevalence globally. This paper presents two young healthy married women who had severe UTI following heterosexual anal intercourse and discusses possible association thereof. Understanding the risk factors for UTI and identification of possible predisposing conditions in a particular individual are important in guiding therapeutic approaches and preventive strategies. Cognisant of reportedly high prevalence of various sexual practices including receptive heterosexual anal intercourse and their impact on individuals' health, details on sexual history should always be enquired into in young women presenting with genito-urinary complaints. PMID:26506666

  20. Candy or apple? How self-control resources and motives impact dietary healthiness in women.

    PubMed

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Strohbach, Stefanie; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2011-06-01

    People can choose between a virtually endless array of food items rising the question, which factors determine healthy or unhealthy food choice. The present study examines the impact of two contrasting motives for food choice (affect regulation and body weight control) and self-regulatory competences on healthy eating within a sample of women (N=761). The data show that a relative lack of self-regulatory resources combined with a high tendency to regulate negative affect through comfort eating was associated with an unfavorable dietary pattern. Accordingly, a healthy dietary pattern requires not only self-regulatory capacities but also a facilitating motive structure. PMID:21296115

  1. Exploring the Challenges of Healthy Eating in an Urban Community of Hispanic Women.

    PubMed

    Suplee, Patricia D; Jerome-D'Emilia, Bonnie; Burrell, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional exploratory study was to describe Hispanic women's level of obesity, eating patterns, and access to food. Forty-eight Hispanic women ages 23-73 years participated in the study during a community health fair in the Northeastern United States. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, nonparametric Mann-Whitney tests, and Fisher's exact tests. Findings revealed that women had an average body mass index of 30, with 76% being classified as overweight or obese. Sixty-one percent of the women reported not having enough money to buy food at least once a week, and 50% received Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits. More than half of the women regularly ate fast food, and those women with the lowest income ate fast food more often. More than 90% of the women reported not knowing how to choose healthy foods. Half had been informed to change their diet for health reasons. Gaining a better understanding of access barriers to healthy foods in marginalized populations may assist in developing future weight loss interventions. PMID:26400394

  2. Lifestyle behaviors in metabolically healthy and unhealthy overweight and obese women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To determine whether physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior and/or diet quality differ between metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Methods: Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI =25 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian women 19-35 ...

  3. Voices from the Inside: African American Women's Perspectives on Healthy Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Jill

    2010-01-01

    The author of this study conducted focus groups with African American women to explore their perspectives on obesity, disease causation, and their ideas on the functionality of cultural, social, historical, environmental, and psychological forces in altering healthy eating habits. Reoccurring themes centered on four areas: (a) the definition of…

  4. Barium versus Nonbarium Stimuli: Differences in Taste Intensity, Chemesthesis, and Swallowing Behavior in Healthy Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Ahmed; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the impact of barium on the perceived taste intensity of 7 different liquid tastant stimuli and the modulatory effect that these differences in perceived taste intensity have on swallowing behaviors. Method: Participants were 80 healthy women, stratified by age group (<40; >60) and genetic taste status…

  5. Oxygen saturation response to exercise in healthy pregnant women: a simple protocol and normal range

    PubMed Central

    Langford, Edward; Khwanda, Ahmad; Langford, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of oxygen saturation on excercise, using a pulse oximeter, has been advocated in the assessment of women with shortness of breath in pregnancy. However, there is currently no standard protocol for this. The aims of this study were to determine the normal range for oxygen saturation at rest and on moderate exercise in healthy women from 24 weeks gestation and to evaluate a simple, widely applicable exercise protocol in which women walked at their own pace for 100 metres then up two flights of stairs. The protocol achieved 60–85% maximum predicted heart rate in 99% of women at a median gestation of 31+3 weeks, with a wide range of Hb and BMI. There was a mean 0.3% fall in oxygen saturation on exertion but oxygen saturation did not fall below 95% in any of the women.

  6. Food Intake Does Not Differ between Obese Women Who Are Metabolically Healthy or Abnormal1234

    PubMed Central

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, PK

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metabolically healthy obesity may confer lower risk of adverse health outcomes compared with abnormal obesity. Diet and race are postulated to influence the phenotype, but their roles and their interrelations on healthy obesity are unclear. Objective: We evaluated food intakes of metabolically healthy obese women in comparison to intakes of their metabolically healthy normal-weight and metabolically abnormal obese counterparts. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in 6964 women of the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Participants were aged 45–98 y with a body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) ≥18.5 and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Food intake was collected by using a food-frequency questionnaire. BMI phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intakes among BMI phenotypes were compared by using ANCOVA. Results: Approximately one-half of obese women (white: 45%; black: 55%) as defined by MetS criteria and approximately one-quarter of obese women (white: 28%; black: 24%) defined on the basis of HOMA-IR values were metabolically healthy. In age-adjusted analyses, healthy obesity and normal weight as defined by both criteria were associated with lower intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages compared with abnormal obesity among both white and black women (P < 0.05). HOMA-IR–defined healthy obesity and normal weight were also associated with higher fruit and low-fat dairy intakes compared with abnormal obesity in white women (P < 0.05). Results were attenuated and became nonsignificant in multivariable-adjusted models that additionally adjusted for BMI, marital status, residential region, education, annual income, alcohol intake, multivitamin use, cigarette smoking status, physical activity, television viewing, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, menopausal status, hormone therapy

  7. The microbiota of human milk in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Fernández, L; Langa, S; Martín, V; Jiménez, E; Martín, R; Rodríguez, J M

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has shown that human colostrum and milk, which had been traditionally considered sterile, provides a continuous supply of commensal and potential probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. More than 200 different bacterial species, including staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, have been isolated from human milk samples so far, although the cultivable bacterial diversity found in individual samples is much lower (2 to 8 different species per women). Interestingly, the same bacterial strains have been found in both breast milk and infant feces of different mother-infant pairs, confirming the role of human milk on the bacterial colonization of the infant gut. These commensal bacteria could protect the infant gut and direct, at least partly, the maturation of the immune system, among other functions. Different studies suggest that some bacteria present in the maternal gut could reach the mammary gland during late pregnancy and lactation through a mechanism involving gut dendritic cells and macrophages. Thus, modulation of maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy and lactation could have a direct effect on infant health. PMID:24200019

  8. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Nepomuceno, Marília Regina; Turra, Cássio Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual's current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey) of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years) and 2003-2008 (19.4 years). However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008. PMID:25741653

  9. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Nepomuceno, Marília Regina; Turra, Cássio Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual’s current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey) of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years) and 2003-2008 (19.4 years). However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008. PMID:25741653

  10. Cardiovascular inflammation in healthy women: multilevel associations with state-level prosperity, productivity and income inequality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular inflammation is a key contributor to the development of atherosclerosis and the prediction of cardiovascular events among healthy women. An emerging literature suggests biomarkers of inflammation vary by geography of residence at the state-level, and are associated with individual-level socioeconomic status. Associations between cardiovascular inflammation and state-level socioeconomic conditions have not been evaluated. The study objective is to estimate whether there are independent associations between state-level socioeconomic conditions and individual-level biomarkers of inflammation, in excess of individual-level income and clinical covariates among healthy women. Methods The authors examined cross-sectional multilevel associations among state-level socioeconomic conditions, individual-level income, and biomarkers of inflammation among women (n = 26,029) in the Women's Health Study, a nation-wide cohort of healthy women free of cardiovascular diseases at enrollment. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and fibrinogen were measured between 1993 and 1996. Biomarker levels were examined among women within quartiles of state-level socioeconomic conditions and within categories of individual-level income. Results The authors found that favorable state-level socioeconomic conditions were correlated with lower hsCRP, in excess of individual-level income (e.g. state-level real per capital gross domestic product fixed effect standardized Βeta coefficient [Std B] -0.03, 95% CI -0.05, -0.004). Individual-level income was more closely associated with sICAM-1 (Std B -0.04, 95% CI -0.06, -0.03) and fibrinogen (Std B -0.05, 95% CI -0.06, -0.03) than state-level conditions. Conclusions We found associations between state-level socioeconomic conditions and hsCRP among healthy women. Personal household income was more closely associated with sICAM-1 and fibrinogen than state

  11. Determinants of telomere attrition over 1 year in healthy older women: stress and health behaviors matter.

    PubMed

    Puterman, E; Lin, J; Krauss, J; Blackburn, E H; Epel, E S

    2015-04-01

    Telomere length, a reliable predictor of disease pathogenesis, can be affected by genetics, chronic stress and health behaviors. Cross-sectionally, highly stressed postmenopausal women have shorter telomeres, but only if they are inactive. However, no studies have prospectively examined telomere length change over a short period, and if rate of attrition is affected by naturalistic factors such as stress and engagement in healthy behaviors, including diet, exercise, and sleep. Here we followed healthy women over 1 year to test if major stressors that occurred over the year predicted telomere shortening, and whether engaging in healthy behaviors during this period mitigates this effect. In 239 postmenopausal, non-smoking, disease-free women, accumulation of major life stressors across a 1-year period predicted telomere attrition over the same period-for every major life stressor that occurred during the year, there was a significantly greater decline in telomere length over the year of 35 bp (P<0.05). Yet, these effects were moderated by health behaviors (interaction B=0.19, P=0.04). Women who maintained relatively higher levels of health behaviors (1 s.d. above the mean) appeared to be protected when exposed to stress. This finding has implications for understanding malleability of telomere length, as well as expectations for possible intervention effects. This is the first study to identify predictors of telomere length change over the short period of a year. PMID:25070535

  12. 17β-estradiol differentially regulates stress circuitry activity in healthy and depressed women.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Emily G; Holsen, Laura M; Lancaster, Katie; Makris, Nikos; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Sue; Remington, Anne; Weiss, Blair; Buka, Stephen; Klibanski, Anne; Goldstein, Jill M

    2015-02-01

    Many regions within stress neurocircuitry, including the anterior hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex, are densely populated with sex steroid receptors. Substantial evidence from animal studies indicates that the gonadal hormone 17β-estradiol (E₂) impacts the structure and function of these regions, but human studies are limited. Characterizing estradiol's role in stress circuitry in vivo in humans may have important clinical implications given the comorbidity between major depressive disorder (MDD), stress circuitry dysfunction and endocrine dysregulation. In this study, we determined estradiol's role in modulating activity within cortical and subcortical stress circuitry regions in healthy and MDD women. Subjects were part of a population-based birth cohort, the New England Family Study. Capitalizing on the endogenous fluctuation in E₂ during the menstrual cycle, we conducted a within-person repeated-measures functional neuroimaging study in which 15 women with recurrent MDD, in remission, and 15 healthy control women underwent hormonal evaluations, behavioral testing, and fMRI scanning on two occasions, under low and high E₂ conditions. Subjects completed an fMRI scan while undergoing a mild visual stress challenge that reliably activated stress neural circuitry. Results demonstrate that E₂ modulates activity across key stress circuitry regions, including bilateral amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. In healthy women, robust task-evoked BOLD signal changes observed under low E₂ conditions were attenuated under high E₂ conditions. This hormonal capacity to regulate activity in stress circuitry was not observed in MDD women, despite their remitted status, suggesting that dysregulation of gonadal hormone function may be a characteristic trait of the disease. These findings serve to deepen our understanding of estradiol's actions in the healthy brain and the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the pronounced

  13. 17β-Estradiol Differentially Regulates Stress Circuitry Activity in Healthy and Depressed Women

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Emily G; Holsen, Laura M; Lancaster, Katie; Makris, Nikos; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Sue; Remington, Anne; Weiss, Blair; Buka, Stephen; Klibanski, Anne; Goldstein, Jill M

    2015-01-01

    Many regions within stress neurocircuitry, including the anterior hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex, are densely populated with sex steroid receptors. Substantial evidence from animal studies indicates that the gonadal hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) impacts the structure and function of these regions, but human studies are limited. Characterizing estradiol's role in stress circuitry in vivo in humans may have important clinical implications given the comorbidity between major depressive disorder (MDD), stress circuitry dysfunction and endocrine dysregulation. In this study, we determined estradiol's role in modulating activity within cortical and subcortical stress circuitry regions in healthy and MDD women. Subjects were part of a population-based birth cohort, the New England Family Study. Capitalizing on the endogenous fluctuation in E2 during the menstrual cycle, we conducted a within-person repeated-measures functional neuroimaging study in which 15 women with recurrent MDD, in remission, and 15 healthy control women underwent hormonal evaluations, behavioral testing, and fMRI scanning on two occasions, under low and high E2 conditions. Subjects completed an fMRI scan while undergoing a mild visual stress challenge that reliably activated stress neural circuitry. Results demonstrate that E2 modulates activity across key stress circuitry regions, including bilateral amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. In healthy women, robust task-evoked BOLD signal changes observed under low E2 conditions were attenuated under high E2 conditions. This hormonal capacity to regulate activity in stress circuitry was not observed in MDD women, despite their remitted status, suggesting that dysregulation of gonadal hormone function may be a characteristic trait of the disease. These findings serve to deepen our understanding of estradiol's actions in the healthy brain and the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the pronounced sex

  14. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women123

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. Objective: We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. Design: We included 13,818 women from the Nurses’ Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984–1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984–1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Results: Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Conclusion: Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. PMID

  15. Impact of menstrual cycle phase on endocrine effects of partial sleep restriction in healthy women.

    PubMed

    LeRoux, Amanda; Wright, Lisa; Perrot, Tara; Rusak, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    There is extensive evidence that sleep restriction alters endocrine function in healthy young men, increasing afternoon cortisol levels and modifying levels of other hormones that regulate metabolism. Recent studies have confirmed these effects in young women, but have not investigated whether menstrual cycle phase influences these responses. The effects on cortisol levels of limiting sleep to 3h for one night were assessed in two groups of women at different points in their menstrual cycles: mid-follicular and mid-luteal. Eighteen healthy, young women, not taking oral contraceptives (age: 21.8±0.53; BMI: 22.5±0.58 [mean±SEM]), were studied. Baseline sleep durations, eating habits and menstrual cycles were monitored. Salivary samples were collected at six times of day (08:00, 08:30, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, 20:00) during two consecutive days: first after a 10h overnight sleep opportunity (Baseline) and then after a night with a 3h sleep opportunity (Post-sleep restriction). All were awakened at the same time of day. Women in the follicular phase showed a significant decrease (p=0.004) in their cortisol awakening responses (CAR) after sleep restriction and a sustained elevation in afternoon/evening cortisol levels (p=0.008), as has been reported for men. Women in the luteal phase showed neither a depressed CAR, nor an increase in afternoon/evening cortisol levels. Secondary analyses examined the impact of sleep restriction on self-reported hunger and mood. Menstrual cycle phase dramatically altered the cortisol responses of healthy, young women to a single night of sleep restriction, implicating effects of spontaneous changes in endocrine status on adrenal responses to sleep loss. PMID:25051527

  16. Sexual Functioning, Desire, and Satisfaction in Women with TBI and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Strizzi, Jenna; Olabarrieta Landa, Laiene; Pappadis, Monique; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Valdivia Tangarife, Edgar Ricardo; Fernandez Agis, Inmaculada; Perrin, Paul B.; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can substantially alter many areas of a person's life and there has been little research published regarding sexual functioning in women with TBI. Methods. A total of 58 women (29 with TBI and 29 healthy controls) from Neiva, Colombia, participated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in sociodemographic characteristics. All 58 women completed the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoL), Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI), Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI), and the Sexual Satisfaction Index (ISS). Results. Women with TBI scored statistically significantly lower on the SQoL (p < 0.001), FSFI subscales of desire (p < 0.05), arousal (p < 0.05), lubrication (p < 0.05), orgasm (p < 0.05), and satisfaction (p < 0.05), and the ISS (p < 0.001) than healthy controls. Multiple linear regressions revealed that age was negatively associated with some sexuality measures, while months since the TBI incident were positively associated with these variables. Conclusion. These results disclose that women with TBI do not fare as well as controls in these measures of sexual functioning and were less sexually satisfied. Future research is required to further understand the impact of TBI on sexual function and satisfaction to inform for rehabilitation programs. PMID:26556951

  17. Sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms in healthy postpartum women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shao-Yu; Thomas, Karen A

    2012-06-01

    In this pilot study we examined the relationship between objective and subjective sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms in 22 healthy primiparous postpartum women within 3 months after delivery. We found that none of the women in our study had clinically significant depression scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; nonetheless, a variable duration of night-time sleep from night to night during the 7-day monitoring period and reported awakening too early were significantly correlated with increased depressive symptoms. Results suggest that first-time mothers who complain of irregular night-time sleep duration and waking up too early should be screened and evaluated for potential postpartum depressive symptoms. PMID:22431157

  18. Effects of Ovarian Steroids on Immunoglobulin-Secreting Cell Function in Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Fabien X.; Ma, Zhongmin; Moser, Susie; Evans, Thomas G.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of the ovarian hormone cycle on immunity, immunoglobulin-secreting cell (ISC) frequency and lymphocyte subsets were examined in the blood of healthy women. We found that immunoglobulin A (IgA)-secreting cells (IgA-ISC) were fourfold more frequent than IgG-ISC in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Further, the ISC frequency in PBMC was highest (P < 0.05) during the periovulatory stage of the menstrual cycle. Thus, endogenous ovarian steroids regulate the ISC frequency and this may explain why women are more resistant to viral infections and tend to have more immune-mediated diseases than men do. PMID:12965931

  19. Evidence for the emergence of leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone with age in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David J.; Barlow, Matthew A.; Gonzales, Joaquin U.; McGowan, Cheri L.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Proctor, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract While muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is elevated with advancing age, correlational evidence suggests that, in contrast to men, basal MSNA is not related to resting lower limb hemodynamics in women. However, limited data exists in women that have attempted to directly assess the degree of limb sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone, and whether it is altered with age. To address this issue, we measured changes in femoral artery vascular conductance (FVC) during an acute sympatho‐inhibitory stimulus (−60 mm Hg neck suction, NS) in groups of healthy younger (n = 8, 23 ± 1 years) and older (n = 7, 66 ± 1 years) women. The percent change in FVC in response to NS was significantly augmented in the older (P = 0.006 vs. young) women. Although NS caused no significant change (3 ± 3%, P = 0.33) in FVC in the young women, there was a robust increase in FVC (21 ± 5%, P = 0.003) in the old women. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that in women, leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone emerges with age. PMID:25626874

  20. Evidence for the emergence of leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone with age in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Moore, David J; Barlow, Matthew A; Gonzales, Joaquin U; McGowan, Cheri L; Pawelczyk, James A; Proctor, David N

    2015-01-01

    While muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is elevated with advancing age, correlational evidence suggests that, in contrast to men, basal MSNA is not related to resting lower limb hemodynamics in women. However, limited data exists in women that have attempted to directly assess the degree of limb sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone, and whether it is altered with age. To address this issue, we measured changes in femoral artery vascular conductance (FVC) during an acute sympatho-inhibitory stimulus (-60 mm Hg neck suction, NS) in groups of healthy younger (n = 8, 23 ± 1 years) and older (n = 7, 66 ± 1 years) women. The percent change in FVC in response to NS was significantly augmented in the older (P = 0.006 vs. young) women. Although NS caused no significant change (3 ± 3%, P = 0.33) in FVC in the young women, there was a robust increase in FVC (21 ± 5%, P = 0.003) in the old women. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that in women, leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone emerges with age. PMID:25626874

  1. Circulating leptin and osteoprotegerin levels affect insulin resistance in healthy premenopausal obese women.

    PubMed

    Ugur-Altun, Betul; Altun, Armagan

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between circulating leptin and osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels and insulin resistance assessed by HOMA-IR in premenopausal obese and normal weight women. Thirty four obese women (age 31 +/- 8 years) (BMI 35 +/- 4 kg/m(2)) with 19 healthy controls (age 31 +/- 7 years) (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) (BMI 21 +/- 2 kg/m(2)) were included in the study. Women were healthy and had no osteoporosis. Circulating leptin levels were significantly higher in obese women (17.11 +/- 2.05 ng/mL vs. 8.38 +/- 4.71 ng/mL, p <0.0001) and decreased OPG levels were found (14.7 +/- 7.15 pg/mL vs. 19.17 +/- 6.37 pg/mL, p = 0.03). Leptin showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.851, p <0.0001), waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.692, p <0.0001), fasting insulin (r = 0.441, p <0.001), HOMA-IR (r = 0.412, p = 0.002), fibrinogen (r = 0.387, p = 0.004), uric acid (r = 0.293, p = 0.033), hematocrit (r = 0.394, p = 0.003), systolic (r = 0.504, p <0.0001), and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.363, p = 0.008). OPG showed a negative correlation with insulin (r = -0.341, p = 0.013) and HOMA-IR (r = -0.324, p = 0.018). In obese women group, the regression equation of HOMA-IR was (HOMA-IR = [0.095 x leptin]-[0.051 x OPG] + 1.71). However, there was no relation between leptin and OPG levels. In conclusion, circulating leptin and OPG levels were related to insulin resistance in premenopausal obese women. However, leptin had no interference in OPG in premenopausal women. PMID:17923273

  2. Incidence of childhood abuse among women with psychiatric disorders compared with healthy women: Data from a tertiary care centre in India.

    PubMed

    Jangam, Kavita; Muralidharan, Kesavan; Tansa, K A; Aravind Raj, E; Bhowmick, Paramita

    2015-12-01

    Childhood abuse has been recognized as a precursor and a maintaining factor for adult psychopathology. There are very few studies that have investigated the incidence of childhood abuse in adult women with psychiatric disorders. Hence, this current investigation is an attempt to study and compare the incidence of childhood abuse (physical, emotional and sexual) among women seeking treatment for psychiatric disorders to healthy women. Using consecutive sampling, women seeking treatment for psychiatric disorders (N=609) and a group of age-education matched healthy women (N=100) were recruited for the study from a tertiary mental health-care hospital in India. The participants were screened for childhood abuse using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool - Retrospective (ICAST)-R (I-CAST R, International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) and The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), 2009). Emotional abuse was significantly more common among women with psychiatric disorders compared with healthy women (p<0.05). On overall abuse, there was a trend to significance in women with psychiatric disorders compared with healthy women (p=0.07). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups on physical and sexual abuse (all p>0.13). There was no statistically significant difference in all three types of abuse across disorder categories, though the report was more among women with severe mental disorders. Women with psychiatric disorders reported more emotional and overall abuse compared with healthy women. Sexual and physical abuse was similar in both groups. It is likely that more emotional abuse predisposes these women to psychiatric disorders. PMID:26118353

  3. Effects of lactation on bone mineral content in healthy postpartum women

    SciTech Connect

    Hayslip, C.C.; Klein, T.A.; Wray, H.L.; Duncan, W.E.

    1989-04-01

    Bone mineral contents were estimated by dual photon absorptiometry of the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and single photon absorptiometry of the mid- and distal radius in 19 healthy women on their second postpartum day and at 6 months postpartum. All bone mineral measurements were performed by one technician, and the single and dual photon absorptiometry results were read by one observer. Daily oral calcium intakes were estimated from dietary histories obtained by a dietitian. Twelve women who breast-fed exclusively throughout the first 6 months postpartum were compared with seven formula-feeding women who did not breast-feed or who breast-fed for less than 3 months postpartum. No differences were found in age, parity, height, weight, or daily calcium intake between the breast- and formula-feeding women. Breast-feeding women had a significant decrease (averaging 6.5%) in bone mineral of the lumbar spine at 6 months postpartum as compared with 2 days postpartum (1.14 +/- 0.03 versus 1.22 +/- 0.03 g/cm2, mean +/- SEM; P less than .001), whereas no significant change occurred in the formula-feeding women at 6 months (1.24 +/- 0.03 versus 1.26 +/- 0.04 g/cm2). At 6 months postpartum, the breast-feeding women had a significantly lower mean bone mineral content of the lumbar spine than did formula-feeding women (P less than .05). No significant changes were noted in bone mineral content of the mid- or distal radius in either group of women during the period of evaluation. We conclude that during the first 6 months postpartum, breast-feeding is associated with bone mineral loss from the lumbar spine, but not from the mid- or distal radius.

  4. Cadmium intake and systemic exposure in postmenopausal women and age-matched men who smoke cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ebert-McNeill, Andrea; Clark, Sara P; Miller, James J; Birdsall, Paige; Chandar, Manisha; Wu, Lucia; Cerny, Elizabeth A; Hall, Patricia H; Johnson, Maribeth H; Isales, Carlos; Chutkan, Norman; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2012-11-01

    Mean blood cadmium (B-Cd) concentrations are two- to threefold higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. The basis for this phenomenon is not well understood. We conducted a detailed, multifaceted study of cadmium exposure in smokers. Groups were older smokers (62±4 years, n = 25, 20% male) and nonsmokers (62±3 years, n = 16, 31% male). Each subject's cigarettes were machine smoked, generating individually paired measures of inhaled cadmium (I-Cd) versus B-Cd; I-Cd and B-Cd were each evaluated three times, at monthly intervals. Urine cadmium (U-Cd) was analyzed for comparison. In four smokers, a duplicate-diet study was conducted, along with a kinetic study of plasma cadmium versus B-Cd. Female smokers had a mean B-Cd of 1.21ng Cd/ml, with a nearly 10-fold range (0.29-2.74ng Cd/ml); nonsmokers had a lower mean B-Cd, 0.35ng Cd/ml (p < 0.05), and narrower range (0.20-0.61ng Cd/ml). Means and ranges for males were similar. Estimates of cadmium amounts inhaled daily for our subjects smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes/day were far less than the 15 µg Cd reported to be ingested daily via diet. This I-Cd amount was too low to alone explain the 3.5-fold elevation of B-Cd in our smokers, even assuming greater cadmium absorption via lungs than gastrointestinal tract; cadmium accumulated in smokers' lungs may provide the added cadmium. Finally, B-Cd appeared to be linearly related to I-Cd values in 75% of smokers, whereas 25% had far higher B-Cd, implying a possible heterogeneity among smokers regarding circulating cadmium concentrations and potentially cadmium toxicity. PMID:22831969

  5. The StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts program in Pennsylvania: RE-AIM analysis.

    PubMed

    Folta, Sara C; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Seguin, Rebecca A; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Corbin, Marilyn A; Wiker, Nancy; Gauker, Jodi; Chui, Kenneth; Nelson, Miriam E

    2015-03-01

    Dissemination of evidence-based programs is needed to reduce CVD risk among midlife and older women. The aim of this study is to examine the public health impact of StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts in Pennsylvania using the RE-AIM framework. Reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance were assessed using qualitative and quantitative measures; effectiveness was assessed using a pretest-posttest within-participants design. Reach into the target population was 5 in 100,000. Compared to the target population, a greater percentage of participants were white, married, middle-class, and had a graduate degree. Effectiveness was demonstrated (weight loss -2.0 kg, p < 0.001). Adoption among trained leaders was high (83.3 %), as was fidelity in implementation (average score 9.3 of 10). No leaders maintained the program. To increase impact of the StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts Program, it will be important to lower the costs and modify the recruitment and training strategies to better reach low-income and minority women. Such strategies may also improve program maintenance. PMID:25729458

  6. Decreased bone mineral density is associated with coronary atherosclerosis in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Seok Kyo; Yun, Bo Hyon; Noe, Eun Bee; Suh, Jong Wook; Choi, Young Sik

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and coronary atherosclerosis in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 252 postmenopausal women who had visited a health promotion center for a routine checkup. BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and coronary atherosclerosis was assessed using 64-row multidetector computed tomography. Participants were divided into normal BMD and osteopenia-osteoporosis groups, according to the T-scores of their lumbar spine or femoral neck. Results Participants with osteopenia-osteoporosis had a significantly higher proportion of coronary atherosclerosis than did those with normal BMD at the lumbar spine (P=0.003) and femoral neck (P=0.004). Osteopenia-osteoporosis at the lumbar spine (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 7.27) or femoral neck (OR, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.07 to 10.57) was associated with coronary atherosclerosis, after controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Decreased BMD is associated with coronary atherosclerosis in healthy postmenopausal women, independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors. Postmenopausal women with decreased BMD may have a higher risk of developing coronary atherosclerosis. PMID:25798428

  7. Lower serum levels of Th2-related chemokine CCL22 in women patients with multiple sclerosis: a comparison between patients and healthy women.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, A; Ebrahimi, H A; Bagherzadeh, S; Zarkesh, F; Iranmanesh, F; Najafzadeh, A; Khosravimashizi, A; Nemati, M; Sabahi, A; Hajghani, H; Daneshvar, H; Mohammadi, M M

    2014-04-01

    Chemokines play a major role in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Gender also affects the susceptibility and course of MS. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of the macrophage-derived chemokine (CCL22) in women and men patients with MS. Blood samples were collected from 135 healthy subjects (35 men and 100 women) and 135 MS patients (29 men and 136 women; 47 newly diagnosed and 88 treated patients and have relapsing-remitting (RRMS; n = 65), secondary progressive (SPMS; n = 37), primary progressive (PPMS; n = 19), or progressive relapsing (PRMS; n = 14) patterns). The serum levels of CCL22 were measured by ELISA. The difference of the mean serum levels of CCL22 between the newly diagnosed MS men and healthy men was not significant, but in newly diagnosed MS women, the mean serum levels of CCL22 were significantly lower than those in treated MS women and healthy women (P < 0.006 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The differences of the mean CCL22 levels between men patients with different treatment programs were not significant, but the mean CCL22 levels were significantly higher in women treated with interferon-β or the combination of interferon-β plus methylprednisolone as compared to untreated women patients (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The CCL22 levels were also significantly higher in women with RRMS and PRMS patterns in comparison to healthy women (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). These results showed lower levels of CCL22 in women patients which represents that the reduction in CCL22 levels may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease in women. In women patients, the levels of CCL22 were influenced by disease pattern and treatment. PMID:24254331

  8. Comparison of prevalence of periodontal disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Rahiminejad, Mohammad Ehsan; Moaddab, Amirhossein; Zaryoun, Hassan; Rabiee, Soghra; Moaddab, Arta; Khodadoustan, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, affecting 4-18% of them. Previous studies also showed that periodontal diseases are associated with different components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the association between PCOS and periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: A total of 196 women (98 with PCOS and 98 healthy controls) were enrolled. PCOS diagnosis was confirmed by history, clinical signs, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and ultrasound studies. Both cases and controls were examined by the same periodontist. Periodontal parameters including bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth, clinical attachment loss (CAL), plaque index, and tooth loss were investigated in all participants. Pregnant women, smokers, individuals with a history of malignancy or osteoporosis, and those taking prophylactic antibiotics for dental procedures or receiving periodontal treatment during the 6-month period before examination were excluded. Data were analyzed using t-test, Chi-square test, and linear regression. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: CAL and sites with BOP were significantly higher in women with PCOS (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in the tooth loss rate between PCOS and non-PCOS participants (P = 0.384). Conclusion: The prevalence of periodontal disease seems to be higher in women with PCOS. This may be related to the role of chronic systemic inflammation in the pathophysiology of both PCOS and periodontal diseases. PMID:26759585

  9. Dysanapsis and the resistive work of breathing during exercise in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Dominelli, Paolo B; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Bingham, Derek; Swartz, Philippa M; Road, Jeremy D; Foster, Glen E; Sheel, A William

    2015-11-15

    We asked if the higher work of breathing (Wb) during exercise in women compared with men is explained by biological sex. We created a statistical model that accounts for both the viscoelastic and the resistive components of the total Wb and independently compares the effects of biological sex. We applied the model to esophageal pressure-derived Wb values obtained during an incremental cycle test to exhaustion. Subjects were healthy men (n = 17) and women (n = 18) with a range of maximal aerobic capacities (V̇o2 max range: men = 40-68 and women = 39-60 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). We also calculated the dysanapsis ratio using measures of lung recoil and forced expiratory flow as index of airway caliber. By applying the model we found that the differences in the total Wb during exercise in women are due to a higher resistive Wb rather than viscoelastic Wb. We also found that the higher resistive Wb is independently explained by biological sex. To account for the known effect of lung volumes on the dysanapsis ratio we compared the sexes with an analysis of covariance procedures and found that when vital capacity was accounted for the adjusted mean dysanapsis ratio is statistically lower in women (0.17 vs. 0.25 arbitrary units; P < 0.05). Our collective findings suggest that innate sex-based differences may exist in human airways, which result in significant male-female differences in the Wb during exercise in healthy subjects. PMID:26359483

  10. Healthy behaviours and educational needs among Turkish women: a school-based study.

    PubMed

    Esin, Melek Nihal; Bulduk, Serap

    2008-12-01

    The present descriptive study was planned to be the first stage of a school-based programme towards promoting healthy behaviours in Turkish women after determining their healthy behaviours and their need for relevant education. The sample was composed of 468 mothers of students attending an elementary school located in the city of Istanbul. The data were obtained during interviews and using two separate questionnaires. The Health Promotion Model formed the basis for the questionnaires describing healthy behaviours. The mean age was 34.6 +/- 0.5 and 10.9% of the participants were illiterate. They generally were in middle-income families and 41.5% had at least one chronic disease. The participants were found to have poor behaviours pertaining to exercising, eating habits, and weight control. The majority (88%) did not exercise regularly. Chronic diseases were found to be the factor with the largest impact (OR: 1.87, 95%, CL = 1.908-2.515). The participants pointed out that they would especially like to be educated on how to control their weight. The researchers have appended a programme devised for women regarding exercising, eating habits and weight control. PMID:19149207

  11. Affective reactivity differences in pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Rosebrock, Laina; Hoxha, Denada; Gollan, Jackie

    2015-06-30

    Reactions to emotional cues, termed affective reactivity, promote adaptation and survival. Shifts in affective reactivity during pregnancy and postpartum may invoke altered responses to environmental and biological changes. The development and testing of affective reactivity tasks, with published normative ratings for use in studies of affective reactivity, has been based on responses provided by healthy college students. A comparison of the healthy norms with ratings provided by peripartum women has yet to be conducted, despite its value in highlighting critical differences in affective reactivity during peripartum phases. This study compared arousal ratings of unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and threat stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., Cuthbert, B.N. 2008. International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Affective Ratings of Pictures and Instruction Manual (Technical Report A-8). University of Florida, Gainseville, FL.) between three samples: (a) women measured during pregnancy and again at postpartum, (b) age-matched nonpregnant women, and (c) college-aged women from the normative sample used to test the stimuli. Using mixed-design GLMs, results showed that the pregnant and postpartum women and the age-matched women showed suppressed arousal relative to the college-age women. Additionally, postpartum women showed increased arousal to unpleasant/threat images compared to other types of images. The data suggest that future research on peripartum women should include affective reactivity tasks based on norms reflective of this specific population. PMID:25890694

  12. Impact of age on the cardiovascular response to dynamic upright exercise in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Fleg, J L; O'Connor, F; Gerstenblith, G; Becker, L C; Clulow, J; Schulman, S P; Lakatta, E G

    1995-03-01

    To examine whether age differentially modifies the physiological response to exercise in men and women, we performed gated radionuclide ventriculography with measurement of left ventricular volumes at rest and during peak upright cycle exercise in 200 rigorously screened healthy sedentary volunteers (121 men and 79 women) aged 22-86 yr from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. At rest in the sitting position, age-associated declines in heart rate (HR) and increases in systolic blood pressure occurred in both sexes. Whereas resting cardiac index (CI) and total systemic vascular resistance (TSVR) in men did not vary with age, in women resting CI decreased 16% and TSVR increased 46% over the six-decade age span. Men, but not women, demonstrated an age-associated increase of approximately 20% in sitting end-diastolic volume index (EDVI), end-systolic volume index (ESVI), and stroke volume index over this age span. Peak cycle work rate declined with age approximately 40% in both sexes, but at any age it was greater in men than in women even after normalization for body weight. At peak effort, ejection fraction (EF), HR, and CI were reduced similarly with age while ESVI and TSVR were increased in both sexes; EDVI increased 35% with age and stroke work index (SWI) rose 19% in men, but neither was related to age in women; and stroke volume index did not vary with age in either sex. When hemodynamics were expressed as the change from rest to peak effort as an index of cardiovascular reserve function, both sexes demonstrated age-associated increases in EDVI and ESVI and reductions in EF, HR, and CI. However, the exercise-induced reduction in ESVI and the increases in EF, CI, and SWI from rest were greater in men than in women. Thus, age and gender each have a significant impact on the cardiac response to exhaustive upright cycle exercise. PMID:7775334

  13. Aortic input impedance increases with age in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Mazzaro, Luciano; Almasi, Stephen J; Shandas, Robin; Seals, Douglas R; Gates, Phillip E

    2005-06-01

    Aortic input impedance represents the hydraulic load presented by the systemic circulation to the left ventricle of the heart and is increased in patients with cardiovascular disease. Aging is a strong independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and could exert this effect partly through an increase in modulus of aortic input impedance. We used a novel noninvasive technique to determine aortic input impedance in 71 healthy men and women aged 20 to 69 years. We found that the aortic input impedance spectrum was shifted rightward with advancing age, characterized by a 37% increase in the frequency of the minimum modulus between the third and seventh decade (P<0.0001). The frequency of the minimum modulus correlated with age in all subjects (r=0.48; P<0.0001), in men (r=0.43; P<0.005), and in women (r=0.53; P=0.001). Although several physical characteristics were associated with the frequency of the minimum modulus (bivariate correlation), a regression model that included age and these physical characteristics showed that age was the only independent predictor of the frequency of the minimum modulus. We conclude that aortic input impedance increases with advancing age in healthy men and women. This increase in aortic input impedance may be an important mechanism by which age increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in humans. PMID:15867143

  14. Changes in spatial cognition and brain activity after a single dose of testosterone in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Pintzka, Carl W S; Evensmoen, Hallvard R; Lehn, Hanne; Håberg, Asta K

    2016-02-01

    Studies have consistently shown that males perform better than females on several spatial tasks. Animal and human literature suggests that sex hormones have an important role in both establishing and maintaining this difference. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of exogenous testosterone on spatial cognition and brain activity in healthy women. A cross-sectional, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was performed in 42 healthy young women who either received one dose of 0.5mg sublingual testosterone or placebo. They then learned a virtual environment and performed navigation tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subsequently, their knowledge of the virtual environment, self-reported navigation strategy, and mental rotation abilities were measured. The testosterone group had improved representations of the directions within the environment and performed significantly better on the mental rotation task compared to the placebo group, but navigation success and navigation strategy were similar in the two groups. Nevertheless, the testosterone group had significantly increased activity within the medial temporal lobe during successful navigation compared to the placebo group, and a positive correlation between testosterone load and medial temporal lobe activity was found. Fetal testosterone levels, measured as second-to-fourth digit length ratio, interacted significantly with parahippocampal activity and tended towards giving higher mental rotation task scores. These results demonstrated that testosterone had a limited effect pertaining specifically to spatial cognition involving 3D-visualization in healthy women, while complex behaviors such as navigation, relying more on learned strategies, were not altered despite increased neuronal activity in relevant brain regions. PMID:26542812

  15. Smoking cessation, weight gain, and changes in cardiovascular risk factors during menopause: the Healthy Women Study.

    PubMed Central

    Burnette, M M; Meilahn, E; Wing, R R; Kuller, L H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The relationship between smoking cessation, subsequent weight gain, and cardiovascular disease risk factors from premenopause to postmenopause was studied. METHODS: Healthy Women Study participants were assessed for changes in coronary heart disease risk factors from a premenopausal baseline assessment to first- and second-year postmenopausal assessments. RESULTS: Although ex-smokers gained substantially more weight than nonsmokers and smokers, they did not experience a greater increase in cardiovascular risk factors. In fact, the results indicated a trend toward ex-smokers' high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increasing slightly more than those of nonsmokers and smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation in perimenopausal to postmenopausal women is associated with greater weight gain but appears to be modestly associated with certain positive changes in cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:9584041

  16. Wrist circumference is related to patellar tendon thickness in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Nyland, John; Fried, Andrew; Maitra, Ranjan; Johnson, Darren L; Caborn, David N M

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy of dominant wrist circumference measurements to predict dominant lower extremity patellar tendon thickness at regions of interest for bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft harvest was studied among 24 healthy men and women. Dominant wrist circumference displayed good relationships with dominant lower extremity patellar tendon thickness as determined by two-dimensional diagnostic ultrasound. This initial screening method may assist surgeons as they consider graft selection for patients who may be at risk for developing or exacerbating preexisting patellofemoral joint or knee extensor mechanism conditions with BPTB autograft harvest. PMID:16919555

  17. Higher levels of central adiposity in healthy premenopausal women with family histories of premenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dettenborn, Lucia; James, Gary D; Britton, Julie A; Bovbjerg, Dana H

    2008-01-01

    Research strongly suggests that lower overall adiposity and higher central adiposity are independent risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer in the general population. We aimed to test the possibility that these factors may contribute to familial risk of premenopausal breast cancer. A convenience sample of healthy women, ages 25-49, was recruited to yield three study groups: (1) Women with first-degree family histories of premenopausal breast cancer, operationally defined as being diagnosed prior to age 50 (Group FH < 50, n = 39); (2) Women with first-degree family histories of postmenopausal breast cancer, operationally defined as being diagnosed at age 50 or after (Group FH > or = 50, n = 33); and (3) Women without a history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives (Group FH-, n = 132). Multinomial logistic regression analyses, including possible confounders, waist circumference, and BMI, revealed a lower BMI among FH < 50 compared to either FH- (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.59-0.87), or FH > or = 50 women (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.60-0.95), and higher waist circumferences in FH < 50 compared to either FH- (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.06-1.25), or FH > or = 50 women (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.05-1.28). No group differences were seen for waist skinfold measures. These results support the possibility that differences in patterns of adiposity may contribute to familial risk of premenopausal breast cancer, and suggest the importance of conducting large scale, population-based studies of the link between body size characteristics and familial breast cancer risk. PMID:18161037

  18. VITAMIN D–BINDING PROTEIN IN HEALTHY PRE- AND POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN: RELATIONSHIP WITH ESTRADIOL CONCENTRATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Pop, L. Claudia; Shapses, Sue A.; Chang, Brian; Sun, Wei; Wang, Xiangbing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between endogenous serum estradiol and vitamin D–binding protein (DBP) and total, free, and bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods In 165 healthy women (ages, 26 to 75 years) not taking any form of exogenous estrogen, the serum concentrations of estradiol, 25OHD, DBP, parathyroid hormone, and albumin were measured. Free and bioavailable 25OHD (free + albumin-bound) levels were calculated from total 25OHD, DBP, and serum albumin levels. Results Premenopausal women had higher serum 25OHD (31.5 ± 7.9 ng/mL), DBP (45.3 ± 6.2 mg/dL), and estradiol (52.8 ± 35.0 pg/mL) levels than postmenopausal women (26.5 ± 4.9 ng/mL, 41.7 ± 5.7 mg/dL, and 12.9 ± 4.9 pg/mL), respectively. In addition, the calculated free and bioavailable 25OHD levels were higher in pre- than postmenopausal women (P<.05). Serum estradiol correlated with DBP (r = 0.22; P<.01) and total 25OHD (r = 0.27; P<.01). In multivariate regression models (with or without serum 25OHD), estradiol was independently associated with DBP (P<.05). Conclusion Lower estradiol level is one of the factors that contribute to lower DBP levels in older women. Our data indicate that besides well-known factors such as age, gender, and race, serum estradiol concentrations are also a physiologic predictor of DBP concentration. PMID:26121448

  19. Changes in body composition in apparently healthy urban Indian women up to 3 years postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Kajale, Neha A.; Khadilkar, Anuradha V.; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Khadilkar, Vaman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dietary and life style practices differ in postpartum (PP) and nonpregnant Indian women. Effect of these practices on postpartum weight retention (PPWR) and development of cardio-metabolic risk (CMR) has been scarcely studied in urban women. Aims of this study were to (i) compare anthropometry, biochemical parameters and body composition up to 3 years PP (ii) effect of PPWR, dietary fat intake and physical activity on CMR factors. Methods: Design: Cross-sectional, 300-fullterm, apparently healthy primi-parous women (28.6 ± 3.4 years) randomly selected. 128 women within 7-day of delivery (Group-A), 88 with 1–2 years (Group-B) and 84 with 3–4-year-old-children (Group-C) were studied. Anthropometry, sociodemographic status, physical activity, diet, clinical examination, biochemical tests, body composition, at total body (TB), by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-Lunar DPX) were collected. Results: Women at 3-year PP showed higher weight retention (6.5[10] kg) than at 1-year (3.0[7] kg) (median [IQR]). Android fat % (central obesity) increased (P < 0.05) at 1-year PP (47 ± 10.0%) when compared to 1-week PP (44.3 ± 6.7%) and remained elevated at 3-year PP (45.6 ± 10.2%). Regression analysis revealed that at 1-year PP, increase in PPWR (Odd Ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.2, 2.5], P < 0.001) and inactivity (OR 1.4, 95% CI= (0.97, 2.0), P < 0.1) were predictors for CMR. At 3-year PP, only PPWR was responsible for increase in CMR parameters (OR 1.6, 95% CI = (1.3, 2.3), P < 0.001) and not inactivity (P > 0.1). Conclusion: Postdelivery, low physical activity and higher PPWR may increase CMR in Indian women. PMID:26180762

  20. Joint Model of Iron and Hepcidin During the Menstrual Cycle in Healthy Women.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Adeline; Lainé, Fabrice; Lavenu, Audrey; Ropert, Martine; Lacut, Karine; Gissot, Valérie; Sacher-Huvelin, Sylvie; Jezequel, Caroline; Moignet, Aline; Laviolle, Bruno; Comets, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    Hepcidin regulates serum iron levels, and its dosage is used in differential diagnostic of iron-related pathologies. We used the data collected in the HEPMEN (named after HEPcidin during MENses) study to investigate the joint dynamics of serum hepcidin and iron during the menstrual cycle in healthy women. Ninety menstruating women were recruited after a screening visit. Six fasting blood samples for determination of iron-status variables were taken in the morning throughout the cycle, starting on the second day of the period. Non-linear mixed effect models were used to describe the evolution of iron and hepcidin. Demographic and medical covariates were tested for their effect on model parameters. Parameter estimation was performed using the SAEM algorithm implemented in the Monolix software. A general pattern was observed for both hepcidin and iron, consisting of an initial decrease during menstruation, followed by a rebound and stabilising during the second half of the cycle. We developed a joint model including a menstruation-induced decrease of both molecules at the beginning of the menses and a rebound effect after menses. Iron stimulated the release of hepcidin. Several covariates, including contraception, amount of blood loss and ferritin, were found to influence the parameters. The joint model of iron and hepcidin was able to describe the fluctuations induced by blood loss from menstruation in healthy non-menopausal women and the subsequent regulation. The HEPMEN study showed fluctuations of iron-status variables during the menstrual cycle, which should be considered when using hepcidin measurements for diagnostic purposes in women of child-bearing potential. PMID:26842695

  1. Intake of Novel Red Clover Supplementation for 12 Weeks Improves Bone Status in Healthy Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Thorup, Anne Cathrine; Lambert, Max Norman; Kahr, Henriette Strøm; Bjerre, Mette; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect by which daily consumption of a novel red clover (RC) extract influences bone health, inflammatory status, and cardiovascular health in healthy menopausal women. Design. A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial involving 60 menopausal women receiving a daily dose of 150 mL RC extract containing 37.1 mg isoflavones (33.8 mg as aglycones) or placebo. Methods. Bone parameters were changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and T-score at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Bone turnover (CTx) and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma and finally blood pressure (BP) was evaluated. Results. RC extract had positive effect on bone health, and only the women receiving the placebo experienced a decline in BMD (p < 0.01) at the lumbar spine. T-score at the lumbar spine only decreased in the placebo group (p < 0.01). CTx decreased in the RC group with −9.94 (±4.93)%, although not significant. Conclusion. Daily consumption of RC extract over a 12-week period was found to have a beneficial effect on bone health in menopausal women based on BMD and T-score at the lumbar spine and plasma CTx levels. No changes in BP or inflammation markers were found and no side effects were observed. PMID:26265926

  2. Characterization of the vaginal microbiota of healthy Canadian women through the menstrual cycle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The vaginal microbial community plays a vital role in maintaining women’s health. Understanding the precise bacterial composition is challenging because of the diverse and difficult-to-culture nature of many bacterial constituents, necessitating culture-independent methodology. During a natural menstrual cycle, physiological changes could have an impact on bacterial growth, colonization, and community structure. The objective of this study was to assess the stability of the vaginal microbiome of healthy Canadian women throughout a menstrual cycle by using cpn60-based microbiota analysis. Vaginal swabs from 27 naturally cycling reproductive-age women were collected weekly through a single menstrual cycle. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify the universal target region of the cpn60 gene and generate amplicons representative of the microbial community. Amplicons were pyrosequenced, assembled into operational taxonomic units, and analyzed. Samples were also assayed for total 16S rRNA gene content and Gardnerella vaginalis by quantitative PCR and screened for the presence of Mollicutes by using family and genus-specific PCR. Results Overall, the vaginal microbiome of most women remained relatively stable throughout the menstrual cycle, with little variation in diversity and only modest fluctuations in species richness. Microbiomes between women were more different than were those collected consecutively from individual women. Clustering of microbial profiles revealed the expected groupings dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus iners, and Lactobacillus jensenii. Interestingly, two additional clusters were dominated by either Bifidobacterium breve or a heterogeneous mixture of nonlactobacilli. Direct G. vaginalis quantification correlated strongly with its pyrosequencing-read abundance, and Mollicutes, including Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum, were detected in most samples. Conclusions Our

  3. Blood glucose levels, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance in healthy women and women with premenstrual syndrome: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Safar; Mosalanejad, Leili

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the blood glucose levels, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance during the two phases of the menstrual cycle between healthy women and patients with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Methods From January of 2011 to the August of 2012, a descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among students in the School of Medicine of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. We included 30 students with the most severe symptoms of PMS and 30 age frequency-matched healthy controls. We analyzed the serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance by using the glucose oxidase method, radioimmunometric assay, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance equation, respectively. Results No significant differences between the demographic data of the control and PMS groups were observed. The mean concentrations of glucose of the two study groups were significantly different during the follicular and luteal phases (p=0.011 vs. p<0.0001, respectively). The amounts of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance of the two study groups were significantly different in the luteal phase (p=0.0005). Conclusion The level of blood glucose and insulin resistance was lower during the two phases of the menstrual cycle of the PMS group than that of the controls. PMID:23875163

  4. The relationship between left ventricle myocardial performance index of healthy women and geographical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Ge, Miao; Dong, Jie; Wang, Zixuan; He, Jinwei; Yang, Rongrong

    2015-11-01

    The study focused on the relationship between geographical factors and left ventricular myocardial performance index (MPI)reference value, analyed the different distribution of MPI, and then provided a scientific basis for clinical examination. This study collected MPI reference values of 2545 healthy women from 91 cities in China, used the Moran's index to determin the spatial relationship, selected 25 geographical factors, examined the significance between MPI and geographical factors by correlation analysis, through the significance test, and extracted seven significant factors to build the artificial neural network (ANN) model and principal component analysis (PCA) model. Through calculating the relative error, the ANN model was chosen as the better model to predict the values. By normality test for the predicted values, the geographical distribution was made by disjunctive kriging interpolation. The predicted values decrease from north to south. If geographical factors are obtained in one location, the MPI of healthy women in this area can be predicted by the ANN model. Synthesizing the influence of physiological and geographical could be more scientific to formulate the MPI reference value.

  5. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation does not increase blood pressure of healthy elderly women.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marcelo Pinto

    2012-07-01

    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is an attractive method to increase strength and proprioception of elderly individuals. However, a major clinical concern about the prescription of PNF is the belief that it can cause a cardiovascular overload, because it involves close-to-maximal loads and isometric contractions. Yet the acute effect of a PNF training session on cardiovascular response in elderly individuals is still unknown. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of PNF on diastolic and systolic blood pressure of healthy elderly people. Fifteen older women (mean age 72.40±6.82 years) performed three sets (five repetitions each) of three different PNF techniques (rhythmic initiation, dynamic reversion, and isotonic combination), executing a single movement pattern. Diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP and SBP) were evaluated by means of a manual sphygmomanometer immediately before and during the last two repetitions (last set) of each technique. A two-way ANOVA test (time and technique) was performed to investigate the PNF effect on blood pressure. No time (preexercise to postexercise) (p=0.33 for DBP; p=0.06 for SBP) or PNF technique (p=0.75; p=0.81) effect were observed. In conclusion, we can state that the execution of these PNF techniques is safe for the cardiovascular system of healthy elderly women, because no blood pressure increases were found. PMID:22007735

  6. Changes in the muscle strength and functional performance of healthy women with aging

    PubMed Central

    Mousavikhatir, Roghayeh

    2012-01-01

    Background Lower limbs antigravity muscles weakness and decreased functional ability have significant role in falling. The aim of this study was to find the effects of aging on muscle strength and functional ability, determining the range of decreasing strength and functional ability and relationship between them in healthy women. Methods Across-section study was performed on 101 healthy women aged 21-80 years. The participants were divided into six age groups. The maximum isometric strength of four muscle groups was measured using a hand-held dynamometer bilaterally. The functional ability was measured with functional reach (FR), timed get up and go (TGUG), single leg stance (SLS), and stairs walking (SW) tests. Results Muscle strength changes were not significant between 21-40 years of age, but decreased significantly thereafter. Also, there was a significant relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in age groups. Conclusion Both muscle strength and functional ability is reduced as a result of aging, but the decrease in functional ability can be detected earlier. PMID:23482911

  7. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Richard A; Pahnke, Aric Q; Johnson, Jeffrey M; Sachse, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06) but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06) and adult (0.91 ± 0.04) myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal that the

  8. Vaginal Microbiota of Healthy Pregnant Mexican Women is Constituted by Four Lactobacillus Species and Several Vaginosis-Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Romero-González, Roberto; Albani-Campanario, Mario; Figueroa-Damián, Ricardo; Meraz-Cruz, Noemí; Hernández-Guerrero, César

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To identify the microbiota communities in the vaginal tracts of healthy Mexican women across the pregnancy. Methods. Vaginal swabs were obtained during the prenatal visit of women from all trimesters (n = 64) of healthy pregnant women of Mexico City. DNA was isolated from each sample, and PCR-DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments were used to identify the bacterial communities. Results. 21 different microorganisms were identified in the vaginal samples. Lactobacillus genus was present in 98% of women studied. Four lactobacilli species were identified in vaginal samples. L. acidophilus was the predominant (78%) followed by L. iners (54%), L. gasseri (20%), and L. delbrueckii (6%). 17 different microorganisms related to bacterial vaginosis conditions were identified. Ureaplasma urealyticum was the predominant (21%) followed by BVAB1 (17%) and Gemella bergeriae (7.8%). Conclusions. Lactobacillus genus predominates in the vaginal samples of Mexican pregnant women associated with different microorganisms related to bacterial vaginosis conditions. PMID:21960733

  9. Rectal Visceral Sensitivity in Women with Irritable Bowel Syndrome without Psychiatric Comorbidity Compared with Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Spetalen, Signe; Sandvik, Leiv; Blomhoff, Svein; Jacobsen, Morten B.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Psychiatric comorbidity and visceral hypersensitivity are common in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but little is known about visceral sensitivity in IBS patients without psychiatric disorders. Aim. We wanted to examine rectal visceral sensitivity in IBS patients without comorbid psychiatric disorders, IBS patients with phobic anxiety and healthy volunteers. Methods. A total of thirty-eight female, non-constipated IBS patients without psychiatric disorders and eleven female IBS patients with phobic anxiety were compared to nine healthy women using a barostat double random staircase method. The non-psychiatric patients were divided into those with diarrhoea predominant symptoms and those with alternating stool habits. Results. The IBS patients without psychiatric disorders had normal visceral pressure thresholds. However, in the diarrhoea predominant subgroup, the volume discomfort threshold was reduced while it was unchanged in those with alternating stool habits. The phobic IBS patients had similar thresholds to the healthy volunteers. The rectal tone was increased in the non-psychiatric IBS patients with diarrhoea predominant symptoms and in the IBS patients with phobic anxiety. Conclusions. Non-constipated IBS patients without psychiatric disorders had increased visceral sensitivity regarding volume thresholds but normal pressure thresholds. Our study suggests that the lowered volume threshold was due to increased rectal tone. PMID:19789637

  10. Health-Related Physical Fitness and Normative Data in Healthy Women, Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, MR; Fallahi, AA; Sangari, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the age-related loss of health-related physical fitness and normative data in healthy population women aged 20–60 years old of Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1000 healthy women aged 20–60 years old were randomly selected from northern, southern, eastern, western and center regions of Tehran. Cardiovascular fitness was determined by Ros and Jakson protocol. Body composition were measured using Jackson and Poolak procedure, flexibility was determined by sit and reach test, muscular strength with a standard dynamometer and muscular endurance were measured with Sit-ups test in one minutes. Results: Cardiovascular fitness (vo2max), body composition, flexibility, muscular strength and endurance remained unchanged in the 20 and 30 year old age groups. Around of 40 years old, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength and endurance began to gradually decline but body composition increased and flexibility unchanged. Data for Vo2max and the other variables in 4-yr groups provide “normative” results. Result indicated age-related declined in Vo2max (0.43 ml/ kg/min× yr (−1)), muscular strength (0.004 kg/weight ×yr (−1)) and endurance (0.63 repetition ×yr (−1)), and increased in body fat (0.43 % ×yr (−1)) in 30–60 year. One-way ANOVA test showed that all variables significantly differed (P<0.001) among decades except sit and rich test (P< 0.059) between the second and third decades. Vo2max had a significant relationship (P< 0.01) with Age, BMI, body fat percent and muscular strength and endurance. Conclusion: Iranian women have a greater decline in cardiovascular fitness; muscular strength and endurance. The results of this study can be used as reference material for clinical studies in different age groups. PMID:23113042

  11. Circulating oxidative stress parameters in pre- and post-menopausal healthy women and in women suffering from breast cancer treated or not with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Sánchez-López, Estefanía; Cueto-Ureña, Cristina; Dueñas, Basilio; Carrera-González, Pilar; Navarro-Cecilia, Joaquín; Mayas, María Dolores; Arias de Saavedra, José M; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Martínez-Martos, José M

    2014-10-01

    We evaluate here the redox status in pre- and post-menopausal healthy women and in women with breast cancer in order to understand the consequences of the hormonal alterations of menopause for the oxidative stress status, its modifications with breast cancer and the influence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC). To that, serum oxidative stress parameters (total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation), non-enzyme antioxidant defenses (total glutathione, uric acid and bilirubin) and enzyme antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities) were measured in healthy women and in women with breast cancer divided according to their menopausal status and that received or not NC. Circulating estradiol, progesterone, FSH and LH were also analyzed. We found that menopause itself modifies the redox status of healthy women, being most of these differences also reflected in women with breast cancer. However, several changes occur as a consequence of the disease. Furthermore, NC increases oxidative damage, decreases antioxidant defenses and eliminates the differences found in menopause. We conclude that the normal redox balance is disrupted by breast cancer but is also affected by the hormonal status promoted by menopause. In fact, NC nullifies the differences found between pre- and postmenopausal women in several antioxidant defense systems. PMID:25019472

  12. Influence of oral contraceptives on endogenous pain control in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Rezaii, Taraneh; Ernberg, Malin

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) on diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC) in healthy women. Fifteen women taking OC and 17 normally menstruating women (No-OC) were tested during high and low endogenous estrogens sessions. Saliva was sampled for analysis of endogenous estradiol level. Mechanical pressure (test stimuli) was applied to the masseter muscle and finger. The pain induced by this pressure was assessed on a 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) before, during, and after immersion of the contralateral hand in ice-cold water (cold pressor test, CPT) to induce DNIC. For all subjects, pain induced by the test stimuli decreased significantly during the CPT (P < 0.001). The decrease in general was larger in the No-OC group, with a significant difference between groups in the masseter muscle in the low session (P < 0.027). There were no significant differences between groups or sessions in estradiol levels. These results indicate that endogenous pain modulation may be less effective in OC users. PMID:20419369

  13. Effectiveness of carboxytherapy in the treatment of cellulite in healthy women: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pianez, Luana Ramalho; Custódio, Fernanda Silva; Guidi, Renata Michelini; de Freitas, Jauru Nunes; Sant’Ana, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Background Carbon dioxide therapy, better known as carboxytherapy, relates to percutaneous infusion of medical carbon dioxide with therapeutic approaches, and its use in the treatment of localized fat has demonstrated good results. Gynoid lipodystrophy, also known as cellulite, affects 80%–90% of women after puberty, especially in the buttocks and thighs. Its etiology is complex and involves multifactorial aspects. Its treatment and evaluation require the use of new technologies (more effective and low-cost approaches). The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of carboxytherapy in the treatment of cellulite in the areas of buttocks and posterior thigh. Patients and methods Ten women, 29±6.1 years, were selected and all of them received eight treatment sessions, with an interval of 7 days between sessions. Standardized digital photographs were used to assess the severity of cellulite, and panoramic images were collected by ultrasound diagnosis. The evaluations were performed before the first treatment (baseline) and 7 days after the last treatment session of carboxytherapy. Results After the treatment, there was a significant reduction (P=0.0025) of the cellulite from degree III to degree II, and this improvement had correlation with the improvement in the organization of the fibrous lines and the disposal of adipose tissue lines of the treated regions observed through the panoramic ultrasound images diagnosis. Conclusion Carboxytherapy is an effective technique of treatment of cellulite in the buttocks region and posterior thighs of healthy women. PMID:27578994

  14. Associations between vitamin D levels and depressive symptoms in healthy young adult women.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David C R; Zava, David T; Piper, Walter T; Saturn, Sarina R; Frei, Balz; Gombart, Adrian F

    2015-05-30

    There have been few studies of whether vitamin D insufficiency is linked with depression in healthy young women despite women׳s high rates of both problems. Female undergraduates (n=185) living in the Pacific Northwest during fall, winter, and spring academic terms completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale weekly for 4 weeks (W1-W5). We measured serum levels of vitamin D3 and C (ascorbate; as a control variable) in blood samples collected at W1 and W5. Vitamin D insufficiency (<30ng/mL) was common at W1 (42%) and W5 (46%), and rates of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were 34-42% at W1-W5. Lower W1 vitamin D3 predicted clinically significant depressive symptoms across W1-W5 (β=-0.20, p<0.05), controlling for season, BMI, race/ethnicity, diet, exercise, and time outside. There was some evidence that lower levels of depressive symptoms in Fall participants (vs. Winter and Spring) were explained by their higher levels of vitamin D3. W1 depressive symptoms did not predict change in vitamin D3 levels from W1 to W5. Findings are consistent with a temporal association between low levels of vitamin D and clinically meaningful depressive symptoms. The preventive value of supplementation should be tested further. PMID:25791903

  15. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17 015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample. PMID:26538188

  16. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Minlikeeva, Albina N.; Browne, Richard W.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Marian, Catalin; Shields, Peter G.; Trevisan, Maurizio; Krishnan, Shiva; Modali, Ramakrishna; Seddon, Michael; Lehman, Teresa; Freudenheim, Jo L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There is accumulating evidence that oxidative stress is an important contributor to carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that genetic variation in genes involved in maintaining antioxidant/oxidant balance would be associated with overall oxidative stress. Methods We examined associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MnSOD, GSTP1, GSTM1, GPX1, GPX3, and CAT genes and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a blood biomarker of oxidative damage, in healthy white women randomly selected from Western New York (n = 1402). We used general linear models to calculate age-adjusted geometric means of TBARS across the variants. We also examined the associations within strata of menopausal status. Results For MnSOD, being heterozygous was associated with lower geometric means of TBARS (less oxidative stress), 1.28 mg/dL, compared to homozygous T-allele or homozygous C-allele,1.35 mg/dL, and 1.31 mg/dL correspondingly (p for trend = 0.01). This difference remained among postmenopausal women, 1.40 mg/dL for TT, 1.32 mg/dL for TC, and 1.34mg/dL for CC (p for trend 0.015); it was attenuated among premenopausal women. SNPs in the other genes examined (GSTP1, GSTM1, GPX1, GPX3, and CAT) were not associated with TBARS. Conclusions Our findings suggest that genetic variation in MnSOD gene may be associated with oxidative status, particularly among postmenopausal women. PMID:27271305

  17. Aromatase imaging with [N-methyl-C-11]vorozole PET in healthy men and women

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Sung Won; Logan, Jean; Pareto, Deborah; Schlyer, David; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2015-02-19

    Aromatase, the last and obligatory enzyme catalyzing estrogen biosynthesis from androgenic precursors, can be labeled in vivo with ¹¹C-vorozole. Aromatase inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer and other endocrine conditions. The present study aims to provide baseline information defining aromatase distribution in healthy men and women, against which its perturbation in pathological situations can be studied. Methods: ¹¹C-vorozole (111-296 MBq/subject) was injected I.V in 13 men and 20 women (age range 23 to 67). PET data were acquired over a 90 minute period. Each subject had 4 scans, 2/day separated by 2-6 weeks, including brain and torso or pelvismore » scans. Young women were scanned at 2 discrete phases of the menstrual cycle (midcycle and late luteal). Men and postmenopausal women were also scanned following pretreatment with a clinical dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (“blocking” studies). Time activity curves were obtained and standard uptake values (SUV) calculated for major organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, muscle, bone and male and female reproductive organs (penis, testes, uterus, ovaries). Organ and whole body radiation exposures were calculated using Olinda software. Results: Liver uptake was higher than all other organs, but was not blocked by pretreatment with letrozole. Mean SUVs in men were higher than in women, and brain uptake was blocked by letrozole. Male brain SUVs were also higher than all other organs (ranging from 0.48±0.05 in lungs to 1.5±0.13 in kidneys). Mean ovarian SUVs (3.08±0.7) were comparable to brain levels and higher than all other organs. Furthermore, ovarian SUVs In young women around the time of ovulation (midcycle) were significantly higher than those measured in the late luteal phase, while aging and cigarette smoking reduced ¹¹C-vorozole uptake. Conclusions: PET with ¹¹C-vorozole is useful for assessing physiological changes in estrogen synthesis capacity in the

  18. Associations between healthy eating patterns and indicators of metabolic risk in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since human diets contain many components that may work synergistically to prevent or promote disease, assessing diet quality may be informative. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between quality diet, by using Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and metabolic risk indicators in postmenopausal women. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 173 Brazilian women, aged 45-75 years, seeking healthcare at a public outpatient center. Food consumption assessed by 24 h-recall food inquiry was used to calculate HEI scores: >80 implied diet good, 80-51 diet "needed improvement", and <51 diet poor. Anthropometric data included: body mass index (BMI = weight/height2), waist-circumference (WC), body fat (%BF) and lean mass (%LM). Data on total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), and triglycerides (TG) were also collected. Fisher's Exact test, and logistic regression method (to determine odds ratio, OR) were used in the statistical analysis. Results Overweight and obesity were observed in 75.7% of the participants. Excessive %BF (> 35%) was observed in 56.1%, while %LM was reduced (< 70%) in 78.1%. WC was elevated (≥88 cm) in 72.3%. Based on HEI values, diet quality was good in 3% (5/173), needed improvement in 48.5% (84/173), and was poor in 48.5% (84/173) of the cases. In this group, 75% of women had high intakes of lipids (> 35%), predominantly saturated and monounsaturated fat. On average, plasma TC, LDLC, and TG levels were higher than recommended in 57.2%, 79.2% and 45.1% of the women, respectively, while HDLC was low in 50.8%. There was association between HEI scores and the %BF that it was higher among women with HEI score < 80 (p = 0.021). There were not observed significant risk associations between HEI and lipid profile. Conclusion Among the Brazilian postmenopausal women attending a public outpatient clinic, diet was considered to need improvement or

  19. Aromatase imaging with [N-methyl-C-11]vorozole PET in healthy men and women

    SciTech Connect

    Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Sung Won; Logan, Jean; Pareto, Deborah; Schlyer, David; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2015-02-19

    Aromatase, the last and obligatory enzyme catalyzing estrogen biosynthesis from androgenic precursors, can be labeled in vivo with ¹¹C-vorozole. Aromatase inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer and other endocrine conditions. The present study aims to provide baseline information defining aromatase distribution in healthy men and women, against which its perturbation in pathological situations can be studied. Methods: ¹¹C-vorozole (111-296 MBq/subject) was injected I.V in 13 men and 20 women (age range 23 to 67). PET data were acquired over a 90 minute period. Each subject had 4 scans, 2/day separated by 2-6 weeks, including brain and torso or pelvis scans. Young women were scanned at 2 discrete phases of the menstrual cycle (midcycle and late luteal). Men and postmenopausal women were also scanned following pretreatment with a clinical dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (“blocking” studies). Time activity curves were obtained and standard uptake values (SUV) calculated for major organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, muscle, bone and male and female reproductive organs (penis, testes, uterus, ovaries). Organ and whole body radiation exposures were calculated using Olinda software. Results: Liver uptake was higher than all other organs, but was not blocked by pretreatment with letrozole. Mean SUVs in men were higher than in women, and brain uptake was blocked by letrozole. Male brain SUVs were also higher than all other organs (ranging from 0.48±0.05 in lungs to 1.5±0.13 in kidneys). Mean ovarian SUVs (3.08±0.7) were comparable to brain levels and higher than all other organs. Furthermore, ovarian SUVs In young women around the time of ovulation (midcycle) were significantly higher than those measured in the late luteal phase, while aging and cigarette smoking reduced ¹¹C-vorozole uptake. Conclusions: PET with ¹¹C-vorozole is useful for assessing physiological changes in estrogen synthesis capacity in the human body

  20. Subtle Increases in BMI within a Healthy Weight Range Still Reduce Womens Employment Chances in the Service Sector.

    PubMed

    Nickson, Dennis; Timming, Andrew R; Re, Daniel; Perrett, David I

    2016-01-01

    Using mixed design analysis of variance (ANOVA), this paper investigates the effects of a subtle simulated increase in adiposity on women's employment chances in the service sector. Employing a unique simulation of altering individuals' BMIs and the literature on "aesthetic labour", the study suggests that, especially for women, being heavier, but still within a healthy BMI, deleteriously impacts on hireability ratings. The paper explores the gendered dimension of this prejudice by asking whether female employees at the upper end of a healthy BMI range are likely to be viewed more negatively than their overtly overweight male counterparts. The paper concludes by considering the implications of these findings. PMID:27603519

  1. Low, moderate, or high protein yogurt snacks on appetite control and subsequent eating in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Steve M; Ortinau, Laura C; Hoertel, Heather A; Leidy, Heather J

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed whether afternoon snacks, varying in protein content, influence appetite-control and eating initiation. Fifteen healthy women (age: 26 ± 2 y) randomly consumed 160 kcal afternoon yogurt snacks containing Low (LP), Moderate (MP), or High (HP) protein (5,14,24 g protein, respectively) or had no snack (NS) for 3 days. On day 4, the volunteers came to our facility to consume a standardized lunch. The respective snack pattern was completed 3h post-lunch. Perceived sensations were measured every 30 min until dinner was voluntarily requested. An ad libitum dinner was then provided. Snacking, regardless of protein content, led to reduced hunger and increased fullness, which were sustained up to 120 min post-snack vs. NS (all, p<0.05). Between snacks, hunger was lower and fullness was higher throughout post-snack following HP vs. LP (p<0.05). Snacking delayed the onset of eating vs. NS (all, p<0.05). Specifically, dinner was requested at 124 ± 7 min following NS, 152 ± 7 min with LP, 158 ± 7 min following MP, and 178 ± 7 min post-snack for HP. Between snacks, HP led to the latest request time vs. LP (p<0.001) and MP (p<0.05). Although the energy content consumed at dinner was lower following the yogurt snacks vs. NS, the 160 kcal snacks were not fully compensated for at this meal. In conclusion, an afternoon snack of Greek yogurt, containing 24 g protein, led to reduced hunger, increased fullness, and delayed subsequent eating compared to lower protein snacks in healthy women. PMID:23022602

  2. Association between levels of vitamin D and inflammatory markers in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Azizieh, Fawaz; Alyahya, Khulood O; Raghupathy, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Background No one can deny that the biological importance of vitamin D is much beyond its classical role in bone metabolism. Several recent publications have highlighted its potential role in the functioning of the immune system. The overall objective of this study was to look into possible correlations between levels of vitamin D and inflammatory markers in sera of healthy adult women. These markers included proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, interferon [IFN]-γ, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13), as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) as a general indicator of inflammation. Methods Venous blood samples were collected from 118 healthy adult women and serum levels of vitamin D, CRP, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, IFN-γ, and TNF-α), and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) were measured. Results There were no significant direct correlations between serum levels of vitamin D and any of the inflammatory markers measured. However, subjects with deficient levels of vitamin D and high CRP produced significantly higher levels of the proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-8) as compared to subjects with low CRP levels with nondeficient and deficient levels of vitamin D. Further, the anti-inflammatory/proinflammatory ratios suggest a role of vitamin D in maintaining an anti-inflammatory environment at low levels of CRP, an association that is weaker at high CRP levels in subjects with subclinical inflammatory situations. Conclusion These data point to a possible role of vitamin D as a contributing factor in balancing cytokines toward an anti-inflammatory role in inflammatory situations. PMID:27175089

  3. The correlation between perceived social support, cortisol and brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Ma, Doy Yung; Chang, Wei Hung; Chi, Mei Hung; Tsai, Hsin Chun; Yang, Yen Kuang; Chen, Po See

    2016-05-30

    In this study, the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in stress resilience was investigated. With a focus on healthy subjects, we explored whether plasma BDNF levels are correlated with the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and subjectively perceived social support status. Moreover, we examined the possible interacting effect of DST status and perceived social support on BDNF levels. Seventy-two healthy volunteers, 44 females and 28 males, were recruited from the community and completed the perceived routine support subscale of Measurement of Support Function (PRS_MSF) questionnaire. Plasma BDNF levels and DST suppression rate with the low dose DST were measured. There was a significant positive correlation between BDNF and DST suppression rate in the female subjects. This was also true for the plasma BDNF levels and PRS_MSF in the female subjects. The positive correlation between BDNF and PRS_MSF was significant only in female subjects with low DST suppression rates. Plasma BDNF levels were associated with stress resilience in a sex-specific manner. Subjects' belief in social support might buffer the biological stress reactions. Differences in social perception and the biological stress response between men and women merits further investigation. PMID:27137977

  4. Foods that are perceived as healthy or unhealthy differentially alter young women's state body image.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Jacqueline F; D'Anci, Kristen E; Kanarek, Robin B

    2011-10-01

    Body image can be influenced by day-to-day events, including food intake. The present study investigated the effects of foods typically perceived as "healthy" or "unhealthy" on state body image and mood. College-aged women were told the experiment was designed to assess the effects of food on cognition. Using a between-subjects design, participants consumed isocaloric amounts of foods perceived to be healthy (banana) or unhealthy (donut) or ate nothing. Next, participants completed three cognitive tasks. Prior to eating and following the cognitive tests, participants completed the BISS, POMS, the Figure Rating Scale, and the Restraint Scale. Body satisfaction decreased following intake of a donut, but was not altered in the other conditions. Depression scores significantly decreased after intake of either a donut or banana, but did not decrease in the no-food condition. Tension scores decreased significantly after consumption of a banana and in the no-food condition, but did not decrease following consumption of a donut. These results indicate that intake of a food that is perceived as unhealthy negatively affects state body image. PMID:21669241

  5. Serotonergic modulation of resting state default mode network connectivity in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Helmbold, K; Zvyagintsev, M; Dahmen, B; Biskup, C S; Bubenzer-Busch, S; Gaber, T J; Klasen, M; Eisert, A; Konrad, K; Habel, U; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Zepf, F D

    2016-04-01

    The default mode network (DMN) plays a central role in intrinsic thought processes. Altered DMN connectivity has been linked to diminished cerebral serotonin synthesis. Diminished brain serotonin synthesis is further associated with a lack of impulse control and various psychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the serotonergic modulation of intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) within the DMN in healthy adult females, controlling for the menstrual cycle phase. Eighteen healthy women in the follicular phase (aged 20-31 years) participated in a double-blind controlled cross-over study of serotonin depletion. Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) and a balanced amino acid load (BAL), used as the control condition, were applied on two separate days of assessment. Neural resting state data using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and individual trait impulsivity scores were obtained. ATD compared with BAL significantly reduced FC with the DMN in the precuneus (associated with self-referential thinking) and enhanced FC with the DMN in the frontal cortex (associated with cognitive reasoning). Connectivity differences with the DMN between BAL and ATD in the precentral gyrus were significantly correlated with the magnitude of serotonin depletion. Right medial frontal gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus connectivity differences with the DMN were inversely correlated with trait impulsivity. These findings partially deviate from previous findings obtained in males and underline the importance of gender-specific studies and controlling for menstrual cycle to further elucidate the mechanism of ATD-induced changes within intrinsic thought processes. PMID:26767373

  6. Relationships of ratings of appetite to food intake in healthy older men and women.

    PubMed

    Parker, Barbara A; Ludher, Anyssa K; Loon, Tam Khai; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian M

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how rated appetite relates to the amount eaten in a meal in healthy older people. On two study days, 32 healthy older men (n = 16) and women (n = 16) aged 65-85 years, recruited by advertisement, consumed a standardised breakfast and 4 h later were offered lunch from which they could eat freely. Foods eaten at lunch were weighed and energy intake calculated from nutrient composition data. Appetite was assessed at baseline and at 30-min intervals between meals by line ratings of hunger, fullness, nausea and how much could be eaten. The optimum time for correlations both among appetite ratings and between appetite and lunch intake was just before the lunch. Mean coefficients of repeatability (21-38 mm) and correlation coefficients (0.67-0.71) at that point in time were similar to those reported previously in young adults. Thus, in older and well as young adults, the size of a meal is most closely related to rated appetite just before the meal. PMID:15527924

  7. Heroin snorters versus injectors: comparison on drug use and treatment outcome in age-matched samples.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M J; Chutuape, M A; Stitzer, M L

    1998-12-01

    Drug use histories and treatment outcomes were compared for age, race and gender-matched samples of intravenous (IV; n = 28) versus intranasal (IN; n = 28) opiate abusers entering a 3-day inpatient detoxification unit. Data were derived from the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) interview. Both groups reported daily heroin use prior to detoxification, but IV users reported more days of alcohol and multiple drug use during the past 30 days. Despite age matching, IV users also started using alcohol at an earlier age and accumulated more lifetime months of regular alcohol, cocaine and multidrug use. IV users were more likely to enter treatment following the detox, but no significant outcome differences were noted at 1 and 3 months post-detoxification. The results show that intravenous, as compared to intranasal, opiate users have both a more severe pattern and a more extensive history of the use of non-opiate drugs. PMID:10933336

  8. Personality, social support and affective states during simulated microgravity in healthy women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Michel

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the time-course of stress and recovery states and their relations to social support and personality traits in healthy women during a long-term head-down tilt bed rest. Personality, social support and affective states were assessed in 16 women exposed to simulated microgravity for a 60-day duration involving three stages: a 20-day baseline control period (BDC), a 60-day head-down tilt bed rest (HDT) and a 20-day post-HDT ambulatory recovery period (R+). Participants were divided into two groups: an exercise (Exe, n = 8) and a control group (Ctl, n = 8). All the participants experienced significantly more stress during the HDT period. But exercise did not improve the impaired effects of simulated microgravity. The Exe group perceived more stress and less recovery than the Ctl group during the HDT period. Among the five major personality factors, only Neuroticism was related to both social and affective variables. Neuroticism was positively associated with stress and negatively associated with recovery and social support (S-SSQ). Practical implications in psychological countermeasures for better dealing with the key human factor in spaceflights are discussed.

  9. Pro/antioxidant status in young healthy women using oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) on pro/antioxidant status in the blood of healthy women aged 20-25 years. Individuals were divided into OCs users and OCs nonusers. Markers of oxidative stress in the blood such as Cu, Cu/Zn ratio, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione oxidized (GSSG), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were determined. Antioxidants such as glutathione reduced (GSH), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated. Higher Cu concentrations, Cu/Zn ratio and GGT activity in women taking OCs were noted. A significant increase in MDA concentrations in oral OCs users was observed. Heightened activity of CAT in plasma was observed in OCs users, whereas SOD activity remained unchanged in plasma and erythrocyte lysate. A decline of GSH and GSSG in whole blood and glutathiono-dependent enzymes (GPx in plasma, GR in plasma and GST in lysate) was shown. Use of OCs leads to a pro/antioxidant imbalance. The results in the present study confirmed that GGT is an early marker of oxidative stress. Catalase is the main antioxidant, involved in the removal of free radicals in OCs users. PMID:26921793

  10. Dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Chinese women: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2016-05-01

    Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns ("vegetable pattern", "meat pattern", and "animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern") were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349

  11. Dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Chinese women: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns (“vegetable pattern”, “meat pattern”, and “animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern”) were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349

  12. Lifestyle Behaviors in Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Overweight and Obese Women: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Camhi, Sarah M.; Crouter, Scott E.; Hayman, Laura L.; Must, Aviva; Lichtenstein, Alice H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined dietary data or objective measures of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior among metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Thus, the purpose is to determine whether PA, sedentary behavior and/or diet differ between MHO and MUO in a sample of young women. Methods Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian women 19–35 years were classified by cardiometabolic risk factors, including elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, glucose and C-reactive protein, low high density lipoprotein, and insulin resistance (MUO ≥2; MHO, <2). Time (mins/day) in light, moderate, vigorous PA, and sedentary behavior were estimated using an accelerometer (≥3 days; ≥8 hrs wear time). Questionnaires were used to quantify sitting time, TV/computer use and usual daily activity. The Block Food Frequency Questionnaire assessed dietary food intake. Differences between MHO and MUO for lifestyle behaviors were tested with linear regression (continuous data) or logistic regression (categorical data) after adjusting for age, race, BMI, smoking and accelerometer wear and/or total kilocalories, as appropriate. Results Women were 26.7±4.7 years, with a mean BMI of 31.1±3.7 kg/m2, and 61% were African American. Compared to MUO (n = 9), MHO (n = 37; 80%) spent less mins/day in sedentary behavior (difference: -58.1±25.5, p = 0.02), more mins/day in light PA (difference: 38.2±16.1, p = 0.02), and had higher daily METs (difference: 0.21±0.09, p = 0.03). MHO had higher fiber intakes (g/day of total fiber, soluble fiber, fruit/vegetable fiber, bean fiber) and daily servings of vegetables; but lower daily dairy servings, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and trans fats (g/day) compared to MUO. Conclusion Compared to MUO, MHO young women demonstrate healthier lifestyle habits with less sedentary behavior, more time in light PA, and healthier dietary quality for fat

  13. Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Bee-Oh; O’Sullivan, David; Choi, Bum-Gwon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ± 2.8 years; weight, 48.1 ± 14.1 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ± 2.9 years; weight, 43.6 ± 10 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite® system while their plantar pressure was being recorded. [Results] The results showed a reduction in cadence, gait velocity, and step length, and an increase in step width in children with autism. Plantar pressure variables highlight the differences between the active pressure areas, especially in the hindfoot of children with autism. [Conclusion] The results suggest that children with autism have an abnormal gait compared with that of age-matched controls, and thus they need extra attention to correct these abnormal gait patterns. PMID:26957776

  14. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  15. Dietary Carbohydrate Intake Does Not Impact Insulin Resistance or Androgens in Healthy, Eumenorrheic Women

    PubMed Central

    Schisterman, Enrique F.; Schliep, Karen C.; Plowden, Torie; Zarek, Shvetha M.; Yeung, Edwina; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mumford, Sunni L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Diet is proposed to contribute to androgen-related reproductive dysfunction. Objective: This study evaluated the association between dietary macronutrient intake, carbohydrate fraction intake, and overall diet quality on androgens and related hormones, including anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and insulin, in healthy, regularly menstruating women. Design: This was a prospective cohort study from 2005 and 2007. Setting: The study was conducted at the University at Buffalo, western New York State, USA. Participants: Participants were 259 eumenorrheic women without a self-reported history of infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), or other endocrine disorder. Main Outcome Measures: A 24-hour dietary recall was administered 4 times per menstrual cycle, and hormones were measured 5 to 8 times per cycle for 1 (n = 9) or 2 (n = 250) cycles per woman (n = 509 cycles). Associations between the dietary intake of carbohydrates (starch, sugar, sucrose, and fiber), macronutrients, overall diet quality and hormones (insulin, AMH, and total and free testosterone), as well as the relationship of dietary intake with occurrences of high total testosterone combined with high AMH (fourth quartile of each), ie, the “PCOS-like phenotype,” were assessed. Results: No significant relationships were identified between dietary intake of carbohydrates, percent calories from any macronutrient or overall diet quality (ie, Mediterranean diet score) and relevant hormones (insulin, AMH, and total and free testosterone). Likewise, no significant relationships were identified between dietary factors and the occurrence of a subclinical PCOS-like phenotype. Conclusions: Despite evidence of a subclinical continuum of a PCOS-related phenotype of elevated androgens and AMH related to sporadic anovulation identified in previous studies, dietary carbohydrate and diet quality do not appear to relate to these subclinical endocrine characteristics in women without overt PCOS. PMID:26066675

  16. Cardiac Infarction Injury Score predicts cardiovascular mortality in apparently healthy men and women.

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, J M; Schouten, E G; Pool, J; Kok, F J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The Cardiac Infarction Injury Score (CIIS) is an electrocardiogram classification system that was developed to identify ischaemic heart disease. As well as being of diagnostic value, the CIIS may also be of prognostic value. DESIGN--The prognostic value of the CIIS for mortality of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease was assessed in a 28 year follow up study of 3091 apparently healthy middle aged men and women (Dutch Civil Servants Study). RESULTS--The rates of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease mortality during the first 15 years of follow up were significantly higher in men and women with a CIIS of > 10 than in those with a CIIS of < or = 0 (rate ratio of coronary heart disease mortality 2.9 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.8) for men and 5.6 (2.0 to 15.5) for women). Coronary heart disease mortality was also higher in men with a CIIS of 1-10 than in men with CIIS of < or = 0. When individuals with major Minnesota code items were excluded, the associations were weaker and no longer statistically significant. CONCLUSION--These results indicate that a high CIIS is a risk indicator for coronary heart disease mortality in the general population. Classification of electrocardiograms by means of the CIIS seems to be equivalent to classification by a combination of Minnesota code items. Because CIIS coding is simpler and can be performed by computer it may be more efficient than the Minnesota code for classifying cardiac injury in epidemiological studies. PMID:8068467

  17. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, dietary composition, and lifestyle among Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Eriksson, Ulf; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Olsen, Anja; Skeie, Guri; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-01-01

    Background : Studies examining diet scores in relation to health outcomes are gaining ground. Thus, control for dietary factors not part of the score, and lifestyle associated with adherence, is required to allow for a causal interpretation of studies on diet scores and health outcomes. Objective : The study objective is to describe and investigate dietary composition, micronutrient density, lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations across groups defined by their level of adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (HNFI). The paper examines both dietary components included in the HNFI as well as dietary components, which are not part of the HNFI, to get a broad picture of the diet. Design : The study is cross-sectional and conducted in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort. We included 45,277 women, aged 29-49 years at baseline (1991-1992). The HNFI was defined by six items: wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, cabbages, root vegetables and fish/shellfish, using data from a food frequency questionnaire. Proportions, means and standard deviations were calculated in the entire cohort and by adherence groups. Results : Women scoring high on the HNFI had a higher energy intake, compared to low adherers. They had a higher intake of fiber and a higher micronutrient density (components of the HNFI), but also a higher intake of items not included in the HNFI: red/processed meats, sweets, and potatoes. They were on average more physically active and less likely to smoke. Conclusions : Adherence to the HNFI was associated with a generally healthier lifestyle and a high intake of health-beneficial components. However, it was also associated with a higher energy intake and a higher intake of foods without proven health benefits. Therefore, future studies on the HNFI and health outcomes should take into account potential confounding of dietary and lifestyle factors associated with the HNFI. PMID:25773303

  18. Recruitment of healthy first-trimester pregnant women: lessons from the Chemicals, Health & Pregnancy study (CHirP).

    PubMed

    Webster, Glenys M; Teschke, Kay; Janssen, Patricia A

    2012-02-01

    To describe and evaluate recruitment techniques used to enroll 152 healthy pregnant women fewer than 15 weeks gestation into a prospective study of environmental chemical exposure during pregnancy. Posters, a website, online and print advertising, recruitment emails, media coverage, recruitment from clinic waiting rooms, networking within the pregnancy community and presenting a study booth at baby "trade shows" were used to advertise the study. Participants had to meet a strict set of eligibility criteria, and were asked to donate two-second-trimester blood samples, complete two questionnaires, have samples of air, dust, lint and tap water collected from their homes, and donate a cord blood sample at delivery. Over 17 months, 171 women enrolled (49% of initial contacts, and 99% of all eligible women) and 152 women completed the study (89% retention). Total recruitment costs were approximately $400 Cdn per final participant. Posters, study booth presentations and online advertising generated the most inquiries about the study. Word of mouth, referral from another study and direct email were the most cost-effective strategies. Not surprisingly, the recruited study population was less ethnically diverse, more affluent and more educated than the background population of pregnant women in Vancouver. A combination of passive and active recruitment techniques were successful for recruiting healthy women in roughly the first trimester of pregnancy (<15 weeks gestation). While a convenience sample of women is suitable for our study questions, additional strategies may be required to recruit a more representative pregnant population in future studies. PMID:21210200

  19. Habitual dietary isoflavone intake is associated with decreased C-reactive protein concentrations among healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Filiberto, Amanda C; Mumford, Sunni L; Pollack, Anna Z; Zhang, Cuilin; Yeung, Edwina H; Perkins, Neil J; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2013-06-01

    Isoflavones have been associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk, but existing research focused on very high isoflavone intakes, as seen in Asian populations, as well as on risk factor reductions primarily in postmenopausal women. We investigated whether habitual low isoflavone intake among premenopausal women was associated with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, a commonly used biomarker associated with prediction of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy women. Between 2005 and 2007, 259 healthy, regularly menstruating women were enrolled in the BioCycle Study, and followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles. CRP was measured in serum at up to 16 clinic visits, timed to phases of the women's menstrual cycle. Diet was assessed up to 4 times per cycle by using 24-h recalls. Marginal structural models with inverse probability of exposure weights estimated the association between CRP and quartiles of isoflavone intake adjusted for age, race, BMI, cycle phase, total energy intake, total fiber, total whole grains, and phase-specific hormone concentrations including estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. Compared with the lowest quartile of total isoflavone intake, women in the highest quartile had, on average, 27% lower serum CRP concentrations (95% CI: -35, -21%). Our results suggest that dietary isoflavone intakes at levels characteristic of the U.S. population are associated with decreased serum CRP concentrations, a factor associated with beneficial effects on inflammation, and subsequently may have the potential to improve health status among young women. PMID:23616515

  20. Healthy Start Programa Madrina: A Promotora Home Visiting Outreach and Education Program to Improve Perinatal Health among Latina Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill, Debra E.; Hock-Long, Linda; Mesure, Maryann; Bryer, Pamela; Zambrano, Neydary

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of Healthy Start Programa Madrina (HSPM), a home visiting promotora outreach and education program for Latina pregnant women and to present the 10-year findings of the program (1996-2005). Perinatal health disparities continue to persist among low-income…

  1. The social distribution of dietary patterns. Traditional, modern and healthy eating among women in a Latin American city.

    PubMed

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Unikel, Claudia; Cortez, Irene; Cerecero, Diego

    2015-09-01

    Popkin's nutrition transition model proposes that after the change from the traditional to the modern dietary pattern, another change toward "healthy eating" could occur. As health-related practices are associated with social position, with higher socioeconomic groups generally being the first to adopt public health recommendations, a gradient of traditional-modern-healthy dietary patterns should be observed between groups. The objectives of this article were: 1) to describe the dietary patterns of a representative sample of adult women; 2) to assess whether dietary patterns differentiate in traditional, modern and healthy; and 3) to evaluate the association of social position and dietary patterns. We conducted a survey in Tijuana, a Mexican city at the Mexico-United States (US) border. Women 18-65 years old (n = 2345) responded to a food frequency questionnaire, and questions about socioeconomic and demographic factors. We extracted dietary patterns through factor analysis, and employed indicators of economic and cultural capital, life course stage and migration to define social position. We evaluated the association of social position and dietary patterns with linear regression models. Three patterns were identified: "tortillas," "hamburgers" and "vegetables." Women in a middle position of economic and cultural capital scored higher in the "hamburgers" pattern, and women in upper positions scored higher in the "vegetables" pattern. Economic and cultural capitals and migration interacted, so that for women lower in economic capital, having lived in the US was associated with higher scores in the "hamburgers" pattern. PMID:25975967

  2. Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR)

    PubMed Central

    Pazoki, Raha; Nabipour, Iraj; Seyednezami, Nasrin; Imami, Seyed Reza

    2007-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods. Methods A total of 335 healthy, 25–64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week) increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p < 0.0001) at the ending of the program in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The participants in the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity per week (mean = 139.81, SE = 23.35) than women in the control group (mean = 40.14, SE = 12.65) at week 8 (p < 0.0001). The intervention group subjects exhibited a significantly greater decrease in systolic blood pressure (-10.0 mmHg) than the control group women (+2.0. mmHg). The mean ranks for posttest healthy heart knowledge in

  3. The Effect of Ankle Taping and Balance Exercises on Postural Stability Indices in Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Asghar; Sarmadi, Alireza; Zafardanesh, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of ankle taping and balance exercises on postural stability indices in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy female students were randomly assigned into two equal groups: ankle taping and balance exercise. The balance exercise group performed balance exercises for 6 weeks, with 3 sessions per week and each session lasting 40 minutes. Ankle joint taping was performed for 6 weeks and was renewed three times a week. Before and after the interventions, overall, anteroposterior, and mediolateral stability indices were measured with a Biodex Balance System in bilateral and unilateral stance positions with the eyes open and closed. [Results] In the taping group during bilateral standing with the eyes closed, the overall stability index changed from 6±1.4 to 4.8±1.3, anteroposterior stability index changed from 4.2±1.27 to 3.4±0.97, and mediolateral stability index changed from 3.2±0.75 to 2.7± 0.7. In the balance exercise group during bilateral standing with the eyes closed, the overall stability index changed from 5.7±1.69 to 4.5±1.94, anteroposterior stability index changed from 4.1±1.61 to 3±1.21, and mediolateral stability index changed from 3.5±1.4 to 2.2± 1.3. No significant difference was seen between the two groups regarding any study variables. [Conclusion] The results showed that compared with the taping technique, balance training increases postural stability in the majority of the studied balance situations. PMID:24926148

  4. Acute effects of chlorogenic acids on endothelial function and blood pressure in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Zimmermann, Diane; Poquet, Laure; Leveques, Antoine; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Puddey, Ian B; Croft, Kevin D

    2016-05-18

    Coffee is a rich source of polyphenols, primarily chlorogenic acids (CGA). Certain polyphenols and polyphenol-rich foods and beverages have been shown to improve endothelial function and lower blood pressure (BP). The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effect of two doses of CGA (5-CGA) on endothelial function and BP. In a cross-over study, 16 healthy men and women received: (i) 0 mg purified 5-CGA (control group); (ii) 450 mg purified 5-CGA; (iii) 900 mg purified 5-CGA; and (iv) 200 mg purified (-)-epicatechin (positive control) in random order one week apart. Peak and continuous mean (60 to 240 s post ischaemia) flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured at baseline, 1 h and 4 h. BP was measured at baseline and every 30 min to 4 h. Plasma CGA and epicatechin levels were significantly increased at both 1 h and 4 h post their respective treatments. Peak FMD was not significantly altered by either dose of 5-CGA or the epicatechin, relative to control (p > 0.05). Relative to control, effects on continuous mean FMD response following 450 mg 5-CGA and 900 mg of 5-CGA (0.47 ± 0.16%, p = 0.016 and 0.65 ± 0.16%, p < 0.001, respectively) at 1 h and (0.18 ± 0.17%, p = 0.99 and 0.44 ± 0.16%, p < 0.05, respectively) at 4 h. There was no significant effect of any of the treatments on BP. In conclusion, the present study has found no significant effect of 5-CGA, at 450 and 900 mg, on peak FMD response. However, there were significant improvements in mean post-ischaemic FMD response, particularly at the 1 h time point in this group of healthy individuals. PMID:27109860

  5. FemHab: The effects of bed rest and hypoxia on oxidative stress in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Debevec, Tadej; Pialoux, Vincent; Ehrström, Sabine; Ribon, Alexandra; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B; Millet, Grégoire P

    2016-04-15

    Independently, both inactivity and hypoxia augment oxidative stress. This study, part of the FemHab project, investigated the combined effects of bed rest-induced unloading and hypoxic exposure on oxidative stress and antioxidant status. Healthy, eumenorrheic women were randomly assigned to the following three 10-day experimental interventions: normoxic bed rest (NBR;n= 11; PiO2 = 133 mmHg), normobaric hypoxic bed rest (HBR;n= 12; PiO2 = 90 mmHg), and ambulatory hypoxic confinement (HAMB;n= 8: PiO2 = 90 mmHg). Plasma samples, obtained before (Pre), during (D2, D6), immediately after (Post) and 24 h after (Post+1) each intervention, were analyzed for oxidative stress markers [advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitrotyrosine], antioxidant status [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and uric acid (UA)], NO metabolism end-products (NOx), and nitrites. Compared with baseline, AOPP increased in NBR and HBR on D2 (+14%; +12%;P< 0.05), D6 (+19%; +15%;P< 0.05), and Post (+22%; +21%;P< 0.05), respectively. MDA increased at Post+1 in NBR (+116%;P< 0.01) and D2 in HBR (+114%;P< 0.01) and HAMB (+95%;P< 0.05). Nitrotyrosine decreased (-45%;P< 0.05) and nitrites increased (+46%;P< 0.05) at Post+1 in HAMB only. Whereas SOD was higher at D6 (+82%) and Post+1 (+67%) in HAMB only, the catalase activity increased on D6 (128%) and Post (146%) in HBR and HAMB, respectively (P< 0.05). GPX was only reduced on D6 (-20%;P< 0.01) and Post (-18%;P< 0.05) in HBR. No differences were observed in FRAP and NOx. UA was higher at Post in HBR compared with HAMB (P< 0.05). These data indicate that exposure to combined inactivity and hypoxia impairs prooxidant/antioxidant balance in healthy women. Moreover, habitual activity levels, as opposed to inactivity, seem to blunt hypoxia-related oxidative stress via antioxidant system upregulation. PMID:26796757

  6. Recurrent Major Depression Predicts Progression of Coronary Calcification in Healthy Women: Study of Women’s Health across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Karen A.; Chang, Yue-Fang; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Bromberger, Joyce T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms and major depression are risk factors for clinical coronary heart disease (CHD) among CHD patients and among healthy individuals. It is less clear whether depression is related to the progression of atherosclerosis prior to the onset of CHD events. Design Longitudinal cohort study Methods 149 middle-aged healthy women (113 white and 36 African American) who reported no heart disease, stroke, or diabetes were enrolled simultaneously in two ancillary studies of the Study Women’s Health across the Nation (SWAN) at the Pittsburgh site: the Mental Health Study and the SWAN Heart Study. These women were administered psychiatric interviews annually and coronary calcification computed tomography measures (CAC) on two occasions approximately 2¼ years apart. Results Women who had recurrent major depression (N = 33) had greater progression of CAC (logged difference scores) than did women with a single or no episodes, b = 0.09 (0.04), p = .01. The other significant covariates were BMI, SBP, initial CAC, and time between scans. Stratified analyses showed that the effect was obtained in those women who had any CAC at the first examination. Conclusions Recurrent major depression may be a risk factor for progression of atherosclerosis, especially in those who have at least some initial calcification. Women with a history of depression may be candidates for aggressive cardiovascular risk factor prevention therapy. PMID:20668281

  7. Salivary bone turnover markers in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women: daily and seasonal rhythm.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Gretel G; Gonzales Chaves, Macarena M S; Fajardo, Maria A; Ponce, Graciela M; Toyos, Gloria I; Lifshitz, Fima; Friedman, Silvia M; Zeni, Susana N

    2012-04-01

    No studies had investigated circadian and circannual rhythms of bone biomarkers in whole saliva. We evaluated the salivary daily and seasonal rhythm of carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP). Forty clinical and oral healthy ambulatory pre- and postmenopausal women from two southern Argentine cities: Comodoro Rivadavia (latitude 45º S) and Ushuaia (latitude 54º S) were included in the study. CTX levels were evaluated in serum, urine, and saliva, and b-ALP levels were measured in serum and saliva. In both groups of women, salivary CTX showed a maximum percentage of change early in the morning (80%) and a minimum in the late afternoon (45%), similarly to the pattern observed in urinary samples. No daily rhythm was observed in serum or salivary b-ALP. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels decreased in winter vs. summer (p < 0.01) without differences between the two studied groups. Conversely, parathormone reached higher levels in winter (p < 0.05) which induced a slight non-significant increment in salivary CTX and b-ALP levels. The results showed that, as in serum and urinary samples, salivary CTX exhibits daily and a slight seasonal rhythmicity. Whole non-stimulated saliva is a useful tool to detect several oral and systemic diseases because it has important advantages compared to serum and urinary samples. Then, it may also be a promising sample to test changes in bone metabolism contributing to diagnose and to monitor the therapy of several metabolic bone diseases. PMID:21431857

  8. Comparison of Follicular and Luteal Phase Mucosal Markers of HIV Susceptibility in Healthy Women.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Andrea Ries; Chandra, Neelima; Yousefieh, Nazita; Zalenskaya, Irina; Kimble, Thomas; Asin, Susana; Rollenhagen, Christiane; Anderson, Sharon M; Herold, Betsy; Mesquita, Pedro M M; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Cunningham, Tina; Schwartz, Jill L; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in vaginal immune cell populations, vaginal tissue gene expression, antimicrobial activity of the cervicovaginal (CV) lavage (CVL), vaginal flora, and p24 antigen production from CV tissues after ex vivo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection between follicular (FOL) and luteal (LUT) phases of the menstrual cycle. CV tissue biopsies, CV secretions, and blood samples were obtained as part of two longitudinal clinical trials of healthy women (CONRAD D11-119 and A12-124 studies). Participants (n = 39) were HIV-seronegative women not using exogenous hormone supplementation, with normal menstrual cycles, who were screened to exclude sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone were significantly higher in the LUT versus the FOL phase of the menstrual cycle. Controlling for race, reported contraceptive use/sexual practices, and clinical trial, we found no differences in vaginal tissue immune cell populations and activation status, transcriptomes, inhibition of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 and Escherichia coli by the CVL, vaginal pH or Nugent score, or production of p24 antigen after ex vivo infection by HIV-1BaL between CV samples obtained in the FOL phase versus the LUT phase of the menstrual cycle. There were no significant correlations between serum estradiol and progesterone levels and CV endpoints. The hypothesis that the LUT phase of the menstrual cycle represents a more vulnerable stage for mucosal infection with HIV was not supported by data from samples obtained from the lower genital tract (ectocervix and vagina) from these two clinical trials. PMID:26750085

  9. Excretion balance and metabolism of the progestagen Org 30659 in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, C H; Gloudemans, R H; Groothuis, G M; Rietjens, I M; Vos, R M

    2000-05-01

    Metabolism of Org 30659 ((17alpha)-17-hydroxy-11-methylene-19-norpregna-4, 15-dien-20-yn-3-one), a new potent progestagen currently under clinical development by NV Organon for use in oral contraception and hormone replacement therapy, was studied in vivo after oral administration to healthy postmenopausal women. After oral administration of [14C]-Org 30659 to postmenopausal women, the compound was extensively metabolized. The dosed radioactivity was predominantly excreted via urine. Org 30659 was to a large extent metabolized at the C3- and the C17-positions. Phase II metabolism, and in particular conjugation with glucuronic acid at the 17beta-hydroxy group, is the major metabolic route for Org 30659 in vivo. Not only phase II metabolism was observed for Org 30659 after oral administration to postmenopausal volunteers, but also metabolism in the A-ring occurred, especially reduction of the 3-keto-Delta(4) moiety to give 3alpha-hydroxy, 5alpha(beta)-dihydro and 3beta-hydroxy, 5alpha-dihydro derivatives. Oxidative metabolism (6beta-hydroxylation) observed in human liver preparations in vitro, was not observed to a significant extent in vivo. So, in vitro human metabolism is different from the in vivo metabolism, indicating that the in vitro-in vivo extrapolation is far from straightforward, at least when only liver preparations are used. The proper choice of the in vitro system (e.g., microsomes, hepatocytes, slices or individually expressed enzymes) and the substrate concentration can be very important determinative factors for the predictability of the in vitro system for the in vivo situation. Species comparison of the metabolic routes of Org 30659 after oral administration indicated that the monkey seems to be a better representative species than the rat for the metabolism of Org 30659 in humans. PMID:10822023

  10. Effect of a 1-week, eucaloric, moderately high-fat diet on peripheral insulin sensitivity in healthy premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Branis, Natalia M; Etesami, Marjan; Walker, Ryan W; Berk, Evan S; Albu, Jeanine B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether a weight-maintaining, moderate (50%) high-fat diet is deleterious to insulin sensitivity in healthy premenopausal women. Design/setting/participants 23 African-American and non-Hispanic white, healthy, overweight, and obese premenopausal women recruited in New York City, USA, fed either a eucaloric, 1-week long high-fat (50% of total Kcal from fat) diet or a eucaloric, 1-week long low-fat (30% of total Kcal from fat) diet, assigned in a randomized crossover design. Main outcome measures Peripheral insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (80 mU/m2/min) clamp measured during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, at the end of each diet period. Results Peripheral insulin sensitivity (mg kg/fat-free mass/min (µU/mL)×10−1) was not decreased after the high-fat diet vs the low-fat diet (0.09±0.01 vs 0.08±0.01, p=0.09, respectively) in the combined group of African-American and white women, with no significant diet by race interaction (p=0.6). Metabolic flexibility (change in substrate utilization, ΔNPRQ, in response to insulin during the clamp) was similarly unaltered by the diet (0.12±0.01 vs 0.11, p=0.48, for the high-fat diet vs the low-fat diet, respectively) in the combined group of women, with no significant diet by race interaction (p=0.9). African–American women had a lower insulin clearance compared with the white women, regardless of the diet (p<0.05). Conclusions We conclude that a short term (1 week), moderate (50%), eucaloric high-fat diet does not lower peripheral insulin sensitivity in healthy, overweight and obese premenopausal women. PMID:26203360

  11. Intensively managed young children with type 1 diabetes consume high-fat, low-fiber diets similar to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sanjeev N; Volkening, Lisa K; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M B

    2014-05-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n = 67) aged 2 to 12 years attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared with a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared with children participating in NHANES (42% vs 30%, P = .04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs 13%, P = .03), whole grains (12% vs 5%, P = .005), and dairy (55% vs 36%, P = .001) compared with NHANES children, whereas similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs 33%, P = .2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than did NHANES children (14% vs 12% total energy intake, P = .0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared with NHANES children, children with T1D had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores (59.6 vs 49.7, P = .0006) primarily because of lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable with youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  12. The effects of auditory stimulation with music on heart rate variability in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Adriano L.; Valenti, Vitor E.; Guida, Heraldo L.; Campos, Mônica F.; Knap, André; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.; Ferreira, Lucas L.; Ferreira, Celso; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There are no data in the literature with regard to the acute effects of different styles of music on the geometric indices of heart rate variability. In this study, we evaluated the acute effects of relaxant baroque and excitatory heavy metal music on the geometric indices of heart rate variability in women. METHODS: We conducted this study in 21 healthy women ranging in age from 18 to 35 years. We excluded persons with previous experience with musical instruments and persons who had an affinity for the song styles. We evaluated two groups: Group 1 (n = 21), who were exposed to relaxant classical baroque musical and excitatory heavy metal auditory stimulation; and Group 2 (n = 19), who were exposed to both styles of music and white noise auditory stimulation. Using earphones, the volunteers were exposed to baroque or heavy metal music for five minutes. After the first music exposure to baroque or heavy metal music, they remained at rest for five minutes; subsequently, they were re-exposed to the opposite music (70-80 dB). A different group of women were exposed to the same music styles plus white noise auditory stimulation (90 dB). The sequence of the songs was randomized for each individual. We analyzed the following indices: triangular index, triangular interpolation of RR intervals and Poincaré plot (standard deviation of instantaneous beat-by-beat variability, standard deviation of the long-term RR interval, standard deviation of instantaneous beat-by-beat variability and standard deviation of the long-term RR interval ratio), low frequency, high frequency, low frequency/high frequency ratio, standard deviation of all the normal RR intervals, root-mean square of differences between the adjacent normal RR intervals and the percentage of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 ms. Heart rate variability was recorded at rest for 10 minutes. RESULTS: The triangular index and the standard deviation of the long-term RR

  13. Impact of the clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education on exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Fadime; Livanelioglu, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Exercise is one of the most important components of a healthy life. The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in sedentary and active healthy women and observe the changes in these parameters resulting from clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-six healthy women were included in the study. Participants were divided into clinical Pilates (n=21), verbal education (n=25), and control groups (n=20). Prior to and at the end of the study, demographic information, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, exercise beliefs, physical activity index, and psychosocial factors (Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Body Cathexis Index, SF-36 quality of life, Beck Depression Scale, visual analog scale for tiredness) of the subjects were recorded. [Results] Meaningful changes for all the parameters took place in the clinical Pilates and verbal education groups. Our analyses indicated that the changes in the clinical Pilates group were more meaningful than those in the verbal education group. When the data of the study groups were compared with those of the control group, the clinical Pilates group showed meaningful differences. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicate that both clinical Pilates and verbal education are effective in changing exercise beliefs and physical and psychosocial parameters. PMID:26696715

  14. Impact of the clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education on exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Fadime; Livanelioglu, Ayşe

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] Exercise is one of the most important components of a healthy life. The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in sedentary and active healthy women and observe the changes in these parameters resulting from clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-six healthy women were included in the study. Participants were divided into clinical Pilates (n=21), verbal education (n=25), and control groups (n=20). Prior to and at the end of the study, demographic information, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, exercise beliefs, physical activity index, and psychosocial factors (Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Body Cathexis Index, SF-36 quality of life, Beck Depression Scale, visual analog scale for tiredness) of the subjects were recorded. [Results] Meaningful changes for all the parameters took place in the clinical Pilates and verbal education groups. Our analyses indicated that the changes in the clinical Pilates group were more meaningful than those in the verbal education group. When the data of the study groups were compared with those of the control group, the clinical Pilates group showed meaningful differences. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicate that both clinical Pilates and verbal education are effective in changing exercise beliefs and physical and psychosocial parameters. PMID:26696715

  15. An outbreak of histoplasmosis among healthy young Japanese women after traveling to Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hideaki; Ogata, Yoshiko; Suguro, Hajime; Yokota, Soichiro; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Yamagoe, Satoshi; Ishida-Okawara, Akiko; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Horino, Atsuko; Yamane, Kunikazu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Nagata, Noriyo; Hasegawa, Hideki; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Sata, Tetsutaro; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu

    2010-01-01

    Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, is an endemic mycosis in many countries of the world except for Japan. Outbreaks of histoplasmosis among Japanese people are very rare and are mainly imported by travelers. We report an outbreak of histoplasmosis among healthy Japanese people who traveled to a resort area in Southeast Asia. Three young Japanese women traveled to Langkawi island, Malaysia and stayed on the island for five days without visiting caves, a known reservoir of H. capsulatum. All three individuals developed flu-like symptoms with multiple nodule shadows on chest X rays or chest CT scans at around ten days after their return to Japan. Serum samples obtained from the three subjects were positive for anti-Histoplasma antibody and specific PCR for H. capsulatum on lung biopsy specimens and the serum from one patient was positive. The clinical course of all three patients improved without the use of anti-fungal agents and no recurrence has been confirmed. Clinical attendants should consider histoplasmosis when they see patients with flu-like symptoms with abnormal chest X-rays after visiting H. capsulatum endemic areas, especially Southeast Asia. PMID:20190491

  16. Associations between Vitamin D Levels and Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, David C. R.; Zava, David T.; Piper, Walter T.; Saturn, Sarina R.; Frei, Balz; Gombart, Adrian F.

    2015-01-01

    There have been few studies of whether vitamin D insufficiency is linked with depression in healthy young women despite women’s high rates of both problems. Female undergraduates (n = 185) living in the Pacific Northwest during fall, winter, and spring academic terms completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale weekly for four weeks (W1–W5). We measured serum levels of vitamin D3 and C (ascorbate; as a control variable) in blood samples collected at W1 and W5. Vitamin D insufficiency (<30ng/mL) was common at W1 (42%) and W5 (46%), and rates of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) were 35–42% at W1–W5. Lower W1 vitamin D3 predicted clinically significant depressive symptoms across W1–W5 (β = −.20, p < .05), controlling for season, BMI, race/ethnicity, diet, exercise, and time outside. There was some evidence that lower levels of depressive symptoms in Fall participants (vs. Winter and Spring) were explained by their higher levels of vitamin D3. W1 depressive symptoms did not predict change in vitamin D3 levels from W1 to W5. Findings are consistent with a temporal association between low levels of vitamin D and clinically meaningful depressive symptoms. The preventive value of supplementation should be tested further. PMID:25791903

  17. Azuki Bean Juice Lowers Serum Triglyceride Concentrations in Healthy Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Chizuko; Araki, Risa; Kawamura, Mito; Kondo, Naoko; Kigawa, Mieko; Kawai, Yukari; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Miyashita, Koichi; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2008-01-01

    Effects of azuki bean juice supplementation, prescribed according to a Kanpo medicine regimen, on serum lipid concentrations were studied. Healthy young Japanese women were recruited and were randomly assigned to one of the three groups using a parallel-group design. Control (n = 10), azuki (n = 11) and Concentrated azuki (CA) (n = 12) juice groups consumed 150 g daily of the isocaloric assigned juice for one menstrual cycle with their usual diet. Triglyceride concentrations were decreased in the azuki juice group (p<0.05) and tended to be decreased in the CA juice group (p = 0.055). Triglyceride concentrations in the azuki and CA juice groups decreased by 0.170 mmol/liter (15.4%) and 0.159 mmol/liter (17.9%), respectively (p<0.05). The azuki and CA juice used in this study inhibited pancreatic lipase activity 29.2% and 56.9%, respectively, in vitro. Lipid peroxide changes, based on ANCOVA with the initial level and α-tocopherol changes as covariates, did not differ among the three groups. Serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) cholesterol concentrations did not change. Thus, azuki bean juice intake, as a traditional Kampo prescription, might be beneficial for preventing hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:18648655

  18. Effect of exercise on maternal hemodynamics and placental blood flow in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Rauramo, I; Forss, M

    1988-01-01

    Intervillous placental blood flow responses to standardized exercise during late pregnancy were studied using a Xenon technique in 25 healthy women. Thirteen of them were studied twice between the 32nd and 38th weeks of pregnancy, with mean 32 (range 22 to 40) days between the studies. At the end of a 6-min exercise, mean maternal heart rate had risen from 77 +/- 10 (SD) to 154 +/- 11 beats/min, amounting to 63% of maximal oxygen uptake. Stroke volume rose by 9%, cardiac output by 65% and cardiac index by 71% as a consequence of exercise, but peripheral vascular resistance declined by 41%. The placental blood flow was at a similar level after the exercise as before the exercise, being 95 +/- 19 (mean +/- SD) ml/min/100 ml of intervillous space before, 98 +/- 24 one min after, and 93 +/- 16 30 min after the cessation of exercise. No change was found in the level of placental blood flow between the 32-34th and 37-38th weeks of pregnancy. The placental blood flow had a positive correlation with maternal weight, mean arterial blood pressure and with diastolic blood pressure. Maternal heart rate, cardiac output, cardiac index, placental weight and the birth weight of the infant was not correlated with placental blood flow. It is concluded that in normal pregnancy a short submaximal exercise has little effect on placental blood flow measured after exercise. PMID:3176909

  19. Effects of outdoor temperature on changes in physiological variables before and after lunch in healthy women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Masahiro; Kakehashi, Masayuki

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies of autonomic nervous system responses before and after eating when controlling patient conditions and room temperature have provided inconsistent results. We hypothesized that several physiological parameters reflecting autonomic activity are affected by outdoor temperature before and after a meal. We measured the following physiological variables before and after a fixed meal in 53 healthy Japanese women: skin temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, salivary amylase, blood glucose, heart rate, and heart rate variability. We assessed satiety before and after lunch using a visual analog scale (100 mm). We recorded outdoor temperature, atmospheric pressure, and relative humidity. Skin temperature rose significantly 1 h after eating (greater in cold weather) (P = 0.008). Cold weather markedly influenced changes in diastolic blood pressure before (P = 0.017) and after lunch (P = 0.013). Fasting salivary amylase activity increased significantly in cold weather but fell significantly after lunch (significantly greater in cold weather) (P = 0.007). Salivary amylase was significantly associated with cold weather, low atmospheric pressure, and low relative humidity 30 min after lunch (P < 0.05). Cold weather significantly influenced heart rate variability (P = 0.001). The decreased low frequency (LF)/high frequency (HF) ratio, increased Δ LF/HF ratio, and increased Δ salivary amylase activity imply that cold outdoor temperature is associated with dominant parasympathetic activity after lunch. Our results clarify the relationship between environmental factors, food intake, and autonomic system and physiological variables, which helps our understanding of homeostasis and metabolism.

  20. Effects of smoking and oral contraception on plasma beta-carotene levels in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Palan, P R; Romney, S L; Vermund, S H; Mikhail, M G; Basu, J

    1989-10-01

    Oral contraceptive use and smoking have been known to affect plasma vitamin levels. Total carotenoids have been studied with spectrophotometry, a relatively insensitive technique. In this study plasma concentrations of beta-carotene and retinol were measured in coded samples by sensitive high-pressure liquid chromatography in a cross-sectional study of 149 normal healthy women attending a family planning clinic. At the time of recruitment in the morning, a general health questionnaire was administered for patient age, methods of contraception, smoking habits, and food intake at breakfast. Of the 149 enrolled volunteers, 88 were oral contraceptive users and 61 were not users. Among users, 21 smoked cigarettes, and there were 18 smokers among nonusers. Oral contraceptive users had significantly lower plasma concentrations of beta-carotene (p less than 0.001) and higher retinol levels (p less than 0.0001). Plasma beta-carotene or retinol levels did not differ among users of intrauterine contraceptive devices or barrier methods of contraception. No association was noted between the plasma levels of these two micronutrients and age greater than or less than 30 years. Cigarette smoking alone was associated with significantly reduced plasma beta-carotene levels in nonusers (p less than 0.001). Combined cigarette smoking and oral contraceptive usage were associated with low plasma beta-carotene levels; the results appear to be additive. These findings suggest a possible synergistic effect on plasma beta-carotene levels from the use of both cigarette smoking and oral contraception. PMID:2801833

  1. Adequate iodine levels in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Burcu; Akbaba, Gülhan; Yeniçeri, Emine N.; Akın, Melike N.; Akbaba, Eren; Öner, Gökalp; Turhan, Nilgün Ö.; Duru, Mehmet E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current iodine levels and related factors among healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, healthy pregnant women (n=135) were scanned for thyroid volume, provided urine samples for urinary iodine concentration and completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits targeted for iodine consumption at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey, between August 2014 and February 2015. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Results: Median urinary iodine concentration was 222.0 µg/L, indicating adequate iodine intake during pregnancy. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 28.1% of subjects had iodine deficiency, 34.1% had adequate iodine intake, 34.8% had more than adequate iodine intake, and 3.0% had excessive iodine intake during pregnancy. Education level, higher monthly income, current employment, consuming iodized salt, and adding salt to food during, or after cooking were associated with higher urinary iodine concentration. Conclusion: Iodine status of healthy pregnant women was adequate, although the percentage of women with more than adequate iodine intake was higher than the reported literature. PMID:27279519

  2. Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: results from a focus groups assessment.

    PubMed

    Baruth, Meghan; Sharpe, Patricia A; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n = 28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3 ± 8.9 years; body mass index [BMI] 40.4 ± 8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g., from children or people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:24617795

  3. Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: Results from a focus groups assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n=28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3±8.9 years; BMI 40.4±8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g. from children, people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:24617795

  4. Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Du Toit, Nola Cora

    2010-01-01

    Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women--the notion…

  5. Are patterns of bone loss in anorexic and postmenopausal women similar? Preliminary results using high resolution peripheral computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Milos, Gabriella; Häuselmann, Hans-Jörg; Krieg, Marc-Antoine; Rüegsegger, Peter; Gallo, Luigi M

    2014-01-01

    This study intended to compare bone density and architecture in three groups of women: young women with anorexia nervosa (AN), an age-matched control group of young women, and healthy late postmenopausal women. Three-dimensional peripheral quantitative high resolution computed-tomography (HR-pQCT) at the ultradistal radius, a technology providing measures of cortical and trabecular bone density and microarchitecture, was performed in the three cohorts. Thirty-six women with AN aged 18-30 years (mean duration of AN: 5.8 years), 83 healthy late postmenopausal women aged 70-81 as well as 30 age-matched healthy young women were assessed. The overall cortical and trabecular bone density (D100), the absolute thickness of the cortical bone (CTh), and the absolute number of trabecules per area (TbN) were significantly lower in AN patients compared with healthy young women. The absolute number of trabecules per area (TbN) in AN and postmenopausal women was similar, but significantly lower than in healthy young women. The comparison between AN patients and post-menopausal women is of interest because the latter reach bone peak mass around the middle of the fertile age span whereas the former usually lose bone before reaching optimal bone density and structure. This study shows that bone mineral density and bone compacta thickness in AN are lower than those in controls but still higher than those in postmenopause. Bone compacta density in AN is similar as in controls. However, bone inner structure in AN is degraded to a similar extent as in postmenopause. This last finding is particularly troubling. PMID:24084384

  6. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  7. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  8. Creating a Culturally Appropriate Web-Based Behavioral Intervention for American Indian/Alaska Native Women in Southern California: The Healthy Women Healthy Native Nation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Jessica R.; Clapp, John D.; Calac, Daniel; Kolander, Chelsea; Nyquist, Corinna; Chambers, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are of high importance to American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 21 AI/AN women and key informants in Southern California to modify a brief, Web-based program for screening and prevention of prenatal alcohol use. This process…

  9. Dim light melatonin onset in alcohol-dependent men and women compared to healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Deirdre A.; Hairston, Ilana S.; Arnedt, J. Todd; Hoffmann, Robert F.; Armitage, Roseanne; Brower, Kirk J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbances in alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals may persist despite abstinence from alcohol and can influence the course of disorder. Although the mechanisms for their sleep disturbances are not well understood and some evidence suggests dysregulation of circadian rhythms, dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) has not previously been assessed in AD vs. healthy control (HC) individuals in a sample that varied by sex and race. Methods Fifty-two AD participants (mean age 36.0 ± 11.0 years, 10 women) who were 3–12 weeks since their last drink (mean abstinence 57.9 ± 19.3 days) and 19 age- and sex-matched HCs (mean age 34.4 ± 10.6 years, 5 women) participated. Following a 23:00 – 06:00 h at-home sleep schedule for at least 5 days, and screening/baseline nights in the sleep laboratory, participants underwent a 3-hr extension of wakefulness (02:00 h bedtime) during which salivary melatonin samples were collected every 30 minutes beginning at 19:30 h. The time of DLMO was the primary measure of circadian physiology and was assessed with two commonly used methodologies. Results There was a slower rate of rise and a lower maximal amplitude in the AD group. DLMO varied by methodology used. Using 3 pg/ml as a threshold, no significant differences between the AD and HC groups were found. Using two standard deviations above the mean of the first 3 samples, AD DLMO occurred later 21:02 (SD=0:41) than HC 20:44 (SD=0:21) t=-2.4, (p=.02). Conclusions While melatonin in the AD group appears to have a slower rate of rise, using well-established criteria to assess salivary DLMO did not reveal differences between AD and HC participants. Only when capturing melatonin when it is already rising was DLMO significantly delayed by a mean 18 min in ADs. Future circadian analyses on alcoholics should account for these methodological caveats PMID:22217099

  10. The microbiome, intestinal function, and arginine metabolism of healthy Indian women are different from those of American and Jamaican women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indian women have slower arginine flux during pregnancy compared with American and Jamaican women. Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that becomes essential during periods of rapid lean tissue deposition. It is synthesized only from citrulline, a nondietary amino acid produced mainly in the gut...

  11. Emotion Reactivity Is Increased 4-6 Weeks Postpartum in Healthy Women: A Longitudinal fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gingnell, Malin; Bannbers, Elin; Moes, Harmen; Engman, Jonas; Sylvén, Sara; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Kask, Kristiina; Wikström, Johan; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Marked endocrine alterations occur after delivery. Most women cope well with these changes, but the postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of depressive episodes. Previous studies of emotion processing have focused on maternal–infant bonding or postpartum depression (PPD), and longitudinal studies of the neural correlates of emotion processing throughout the postpartum period in healthy women are lacking. In this study, 13 women, without signs of post partum depression, underwent fMRI with an emotional face matching task and completed the MADRS-S, STAI-S, and EPDS within 48 h (early postpartum) and 4–6 weeks after delivery (late postpartum). Also, data from a previous study including 15 naturally cycling controls assessed in the luteal and follicular phase of the menstrual cycle was used. Women had lower reactivity in insula, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in the early as compared to the late postpartum assessment. Insular reactivity was positively correlated with anxiety in the early postpartum period and with depressive symptoms late postpartum. Reactivity in insula and IFG were greater in postpartum women than in non-pregnant control subjects. Brain reactivity was not correlated with serum estradiol or progesterone levels. Increased reactivity in the insula, IFG, and MFG may reflect normal postpartum adaptation, but correlation with self-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety in these otherwise healthy postpartum women, may also suggest that these changes place susceptible women at increased risk of PPD. These findings contribute to our understanding of the neurobiological aspects of the postpartum period, which might shed light on the mechanisms underlying affective puerperal disorders, such as PPD. PMID:26061879

  12. Effects of experimentally adopted sexual schemas on vaginal response and subjective sexual arousal: a comparison between women with sexual arousal disorder and sexually healthy women.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Laura S; Kuffel, Stephanie W; Heiman, Julia R

    2008-12-01

    The present study evaluated and compared the effects of experimentally adopted sexual schemas on vaginal response, subjective sexual arousal, and affect in 17 women with Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD) and 17 sexually healthy women. Positive and negative cognitive schemas were presented to participants before viewing sexually explicit video segments. They were asked to temporarily adopt both schemas, and vaginal response, subjective sexual arousal, and affect were measured in each schema condition. Participants in both groups had significantly greater vaginal response and reported more subjective sexual arousal in the positive schema condition than in the negative schema condition. Sexually healthy women demonstrated significantly higher subjective sexual arousal than women with FSAD, but there were no significant group differences in vaginal response. Moreover, participants in both groups reported higher levels of Positive Affect and Vigor in the positive schema condition than in the negative schema condition but higher levels of Negative Affect, Tension-Anxiety, and Anger-Hostility in the negative schema condition than in the positive schema condition. These findings demonstrate the impact of cognitions on sexual arousal, which has important implications for addressing cognitions in the treatment of FSAD. Moreover, these findings have implications for the conceptualization of FSAD, which may be best characterized as a complex, heterogeneous cluster of symptoms. PMID:18256919

  13. Self-rated health, life-style, and psychoendocrine measures of stress in healthy adult women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) is a robust predictor of subsequent health outcome, independent of objective health measures and life-style-related health risk factors. However, the determinants of SRH are as yet largely unknown. In accordance with the prevailing stress theory, we hypothesized that SRH is associated with personal coping resources, psychological strain, life-style variables, and endocrine variables. Methods A total of 106 healthy women, 22–59 years of age, were followed for up to 3 years with annual blood sampling (cortisol, prolactin, testosterone) and written questionnaires in which information on SRH, psychological strain, coping resources, socio-economic and life-style variables was sought. Results In bivariate, screening logistic regression analyses, intended to find candidate variables for a final analysis model, all coping resource variables (sense of coherence, mastery, and self-esteem) were significantly related to SRH, and so were two psychological strain variables (vital exhaustion, and sleep disturbances), one life-style variable (fitness), but none of the endocrine variables. In the final multivariate analysis model, including all candidate variables, only vital exhaustion (P < 0.0001), fitness (P = 0.0002), and sense of coherence (P = 0.0006) were independently associated with SRH, together explaining 74% of the SRH variance. Conclusion Some elements of the hypothesis, i.e. the effects of coping resources, psychological strain, and life-style variables on SRH, were supported by the results, while others, i.e. effects of endocrine measures on SRH, were not, indicating a possible gender difference. PMID:20977316

  14. Prevalence and mechanisms of erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus agalactiae from healthy pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Sandra; Radhouani, Hajer; Coelho, Céline; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Carvalho, Eulália; Carvalho, José António; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda; Torres, Carmen; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2009-06-01

    We sought to determine the resistance phenotypes for erythromycin and clindamycin and the mechanisms implicated in 93 Streptococcus agalactiae isolates recovered from healthy pregnant women. Susceptibility testing for erythromycin, clindamycin, penicillin, cefotaxime, vancomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, choramphenicol, ofloxacin, and meropenen was carried out by disc-diffusion test, and the E-test was also applied for erythromycin and clindamycin. The constitutive MLS(B) resistance (cMLS(B)) and inducible MLS(B) resistance (iMLS(B)) phenotypes, respectively, as well as the M resistance phenotype were determined by the erythromycin-clindamycin double-disc test. The presence of ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA, and mef(A/E) macrolide resistance genes was studied by PCR. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was found in 15% and 9.6% of the isolates, respectively. The resistance phenotypes detected among the 14 erythromycin-resistant isolates were as follows (number of isolates): cMLS(B) (9), iMLS(B) (3), and M (2). The MICs for erythromycin and clindamycin were as follows: cMLS(B) isolates (128-256 and >or=32 mg/L, respectively), iMLS(B) isolates (16-256 and 1 mg/L), and M isolates (2-8 and 1 mg/L). The following combination of genes were detected among isolates with cMLS(B) or iMLS(B) phenotypes: erm(B) (6 isolates), ermA + ermTR (3), ermA + ermB + ermTR (1), and none of these genes (2). The two isolates with M phenotype harbored the mef(A/E), and msrA gene was also found in one of them. PMID:19432524

  15. Effects of outdoor temperature on changes in physiological variables before and after lunch in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Kakehashi, Masayuki

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies of autonomic nervous system responses before and after eating when controlling patient conditions and room temperature have provided inconsistent results. We hypothesized that several physiological parameters reflecting autonomic activity are affected by outdoor temperature before and after a meal. We measured the following physiological variables before and after a fixed meal in 53 healthy Japanese women: skin temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, salivary amylase, blood glucose, heart rate, and heart rate variability. We assessed satiety before and after lunch using a visual analog scale (100 mm). We recorded outdoor temperature, atmospheric pressure, and relative humidity. Skin temperature rose significantly 1 h after eating (greater in cold weather) (P = 0.008). Cold weather markedly influenced changes in diastolic blood pressure before (P = 0.017) and after lunch (P = 0.013). Fasting salivary amylase activity increased significantly in cold weather but fell significantly after lunch (significantly greater in cold weather) (P = 0.007). Salivary amylase was significantly associated with cold weather, low atmospheric pressure, and low relative humidity 30 min after lunch (P < 0.05). Cold weather significantly influenced heart rate variability (P = 0.001). The decreased low frequency (LF)/high frequency (HF) ratio, increased Δ LF/HF ratio, and increased Δ salivary amylase activity imply that cold outdoor temperature is associated with dominant parasympathetic activity after lunch. Our results clarify the relationship between environmental factors, food intake, and autonomic system and physiological variables, which helps our understanding of homeostasis and metabolism. PMID:24599494

  16. Healthy diet and lifestyle and risk of stroke in a prospective cohort of women

    PubMed Central

    Åkesson, Agneta; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between a low-risk lifestyle and risk of stroke. Methods: The study population comprised 31,696 women, in the population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort who at baseline had completed a questionnaire about diet and lifestyle and were free from cardiovascular disease and cancer. We defined a low-risk lifestyle as a healthy diet (top 50% of a Recommended Food Score), moderate alcohol consumption (5–15 g/d), never smoking, physically active (walking/bicycling ≥40 min/d and exercise ≥1 h/wk), and body mass index below 25 kg/m2. Stroke cases were identified from the Swedish National Patient Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. Results: We ascertained 1,554 incident stroke cases, including 1,155 cerebral infarctions, 246 hemorrhagic strokes, and 153 unspecified strokes during 10.4 years of follow-up. The risk of stroke, in particular cerebral infarction, decreased steadily with increasing number of low-risk lifestyle factors. Compared with no low-risk factors, the multivariable relative risks (95% confidence interval) of cerebral infarction across increasing number of low-risk factors (1–5) were 0.72 (0.56–0.93), 0.67 (0.52–0.85), 0.57 (0.44–0.74), 0.54 (0.40–0.73), and 0.38 (0.20–0.73). Conclusions: These findings indicate that a low-risk lifestyle can substantially reduce the risk of stroke, especially cerebral infarction. PMID:25298305

  17. Acute Pain Speeds Skin Barrier Recovery in Healthy Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jennifer E.; Song, Sunmi; Engeland, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Psychological stress is known to impair skin barrier recovery, but little is known about the impact of pain on skin healing processes. Our primary goals were to examine the degree to which acute pain affects recovery from skin barrier disruption, and the potential mediating impact of cortisol and catecholamines. Methods Healthy non-smokers aged 18-43 (N=53, 65% women) underwent a 3-minute cold pressor pain stimulus to their foot. Tape-stripping of forearm skin occurred at two separate locations: before (site 1) and after (site 2) the pain stimulus. Transepidural water loss (TEWL) was assessed at baseline (pre-stripping), immediately post-stripping, and at 75 minutes to determine skin barrier recovery. Cortisol and catecholamine responses were obtained from multiple saliva and plasma samples, respectively. Results Contrary to expectations, greater pain was associated with faster skin barrier recovery, even after controlling for demographics, mood, anxiety, and other factors. Those who reported higher pain showed faster recovery at site 2 compared to a) individuals who experienced lower pain; and b) their own recovery at site 1. Greater increase in norepinephrine (but not in cortisol) was also associated with faster recovery at site 2, and mediated the impact of pain on recovery. Discussion Results bolster evidence that acute pain can affect immune-related processes. It is possible that acute pain may speed recovery from dermal abrasions, although pain is likely to impair recovery from more severe wounds. As pain is an important potential target for clinical intervention, further investigation of pain, stress, and healing processes is warranted. PMID:23148814

  18. Steady-state pharmacokinetics following application of a novel transdermal estradiol spray in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Morton, Terri L; Gattermeir, David J; Petersen, Craig A; Day, Wesley W; Schumacher, Robert J

    2009-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics (PK) of estradiol and its metabolites, estrone and estrone sulfate, following application of a novel estradiol transdermal spray to healthy postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned in parallel to receive 1-, 2-, or 3-spray doses (24 participants/dose level) of a 1.7% estradiol metered-dose transdermal spray (1.53 mg/spray) once daily for 14 days. Blood was collected predose on days 1 to 14 and over 7 days after the last dose. Serum concentrations for all 3 analytes reached steady state by day 7 or 8 and were still slightly above baseline on day 21. Estradiol, estrone, and estrone sulfate serum concentrations generally increased with increasing dose. Mean estradiol and estrone maximum serum concentration (C(max)) following 1, 2, or 3 sprays for 14 days were 36 and 50, 57 and 60, and 54 and 71 pg/mL, respectively. Estradiol time when maximum concentration occurred (t(max)) was 18 to 20 hours. The area under the serum concentration-time curve over 24 hours following the last dose of study drug (AUC(0-24 h)) on day 14 for the 1-, 2-, and 3-spray groups, respectively, was 471, 736, and 742 pg.h/mL for estradiol; 886, 1208, and 1367 pg x h/mL for estrone; and 16,501, 26,515, and 27,971 pg x h/mL for estrone sulfate. The metered-dose estradiol transdermal spray delivers estradiol at therapeutic levels and produces low serum estrone concentrations. PMID:19628730

  19. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Genoni, Angela; Lo, Johnny; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) SUBJECTS/METHODS: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day) calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3) RESULTS: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03). Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046), costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01) and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility. PMID:27509519

  20. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Genoni, Angela; Lo, Johnny; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background/Objectives: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) Subjects/Methods: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day) calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3) Results: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03). Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046), costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01) and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility. PMID:27509519

  1. Controlled trial of the effects of milk basic protein (MBP) supplementation on bone metabolism in healthy adult women.

    PubMed

    Aoe, S; Toba, Y; Yamamura, J; Kawakami, H; Yahiro, M; Kumegawa, M; Itabashi, A; Takada, Y

    2001-04-01

    Milk has more beneficial effects on bone health compared to other food sources. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies showed that milk whey protein, especially its basic protein fraction, contains several components capable of both promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption. However, the effects of milk basic protein (MBP) on bone metabolism of humans are not known. The object of this study was to examine the effects of MBP on bone metabolism of healthy adult women. Thirty-three normal healthy women were randomly assigned to treatment with either placebo or MBP (40 mg per day) for six months. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the left calcaneus of each subject was measured at the beginning of the study and after six months of treatment, by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum and urine indices of bone metabolism were measured at the base line, three-month intervals, and the end of the study. Daily intake of nutrients was monitored by a three-day food record made at three and six months. The mean (+/- SD) rate of left calcaneus BMD gain of women in the MBP group (3.42 +/- 2.05%) was significantly higher than that of women in the placebo group (2.01 +/- 1.75%, P = 0.042). As compared with the placebo group, urinary cross-linked N-teleopeptides of type-I collagen/creatinine and deoxypyridinoline/creatinine were significantly decreased in the MBP group (p < 0.05), while no significant differences between the two groups were observed in serum osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase concentrations. A daily MBP supplementation of 40 mg in healthy adult women can significantly increase their BMD independent of dietary intake of minerals and vitamins. This increase in BMD might be primarily mediated through inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption by the MBP supplementation. PMID:11388472

  2. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) as a criterion for the identification of the healthy obesity phenotype in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lwow, Felicja; Jedrzejuk, Diana; Milewicz, Andrzej; Szmigiero, Leszek

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and its complications constitute a major health problem in postmenopausal women. The identification of the obesity phenotype, especially that of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) patients, is a necessary part of obesity treatment protocols. There are several methods to define MHO, but unfortunately, all of them are arbitrary and inconsistent. The aim of this work was to determine whether lipid accumulation product (LAP) could be used as a marker of the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. A sample of 345 Polish postmenopausal women aged 50-60years old participated in the study. Participants were classified as obese when their BMI was >27. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to estimate the best cutoff for the LAP index value to identify postmenopausal women without metabolic syndrome components. We found that the best cutoff value was LAP ≤29.9, and this value was used to define MHO individuals. With this definition, the identification of MHO individuals could be made when both of the following criteria were met: LAP index ≤29.9 and no arterial hypertension (SBP<130mmHg, DBP<85mmHg). The anthropometric and body fat distribution measurements, as well as the metabolic characteristics of MHO women identified according to the above definition, were compared with those of MHO women identified by two other methods in the literature. These methods and our definition identified similar proportions of MHO women ranging from 11.6% to 16.9%. We found that MHO women identified by all of the definitions used in this study possessed a similar metabolic status, and they did not differ in anthropometric indices or body fat distribution measurements. We concluded that the combination of LAP estimation and arterial blood pressure measurement appear to constitute a useful method for identifying the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. PMID:27329927

  3. Effects of surface irregularity and lighting on step variability during gait: a study in healthy young and older women.

    PubMed

    Thies, Sibylle B; Richardson, James K; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2005-08-01

    Relatively few studies have examined how uneven surfaces affect human gait. To study this, along with the effects of advancing age and low light conditions, we measured step width and step time variability, as well as comfortable gait speed, in 12 healthy young women (YW) and 12 healthy older women (OW) as they walked at a comfortable speed along a 10-m walkway. Ten trials were completed for each cell of a 2 x 2 factorial design: (1) flat surface with regular lighting; (2) flat surface with low lighting; (3) irregular surface with regular lighting; and (4) irregular surface with low lighting. Effects of surface type, incident lighting, and age on gait parameters were tested via repeated measures ANOVA. Surface type significantly affected step width variability (P < 0.001) and step time variability (P < 0.001). Light level showed no significant effect on any of the gait parameters. One significant age group difference was found: step width variability was significantly greater in OW than YW (P = 0.010). We conclude that the irregular surface had a greater effect on the gait variability of healthy OW than on that of healthy YW. PMID:15996588

  4. Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Gene Polymorphisms and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and in Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kuliczkowska Plaksej, Justyna; Milewicz, Andrzej; Lenarcik-Kabza, A.; Trzmiel-Bira, Anna; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula; Hirnle, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    Context. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is frequently associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The endocannabinoid system may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Polymorphism of the cannabinoid receptor 1 gene (CNR1) may be responsible for individual susceptibility to obesity and related conditions. Objective. To determine the role of genetic variants of CNR1 in the etiopathology of NAFLD in women with PCOS. Design and Setting. Our department (a tertiary referral center) conducted a cross-sectional, case-controlled study. Subjects. 173 women with PCOS (aged 20–35) and 125 healthy, age- and weight-matched controls were studied. Methods. Hepatic steatosis was assessed by ultrasound evaluation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of CNR1 (rs806368, rs12720071, rs1049353, rs806381, rs10485170, rs6454674) were genotyped. Results. Frequency of the G allele of rs806381 (P < 0.025) and the GG genotype of rs10485170 (P < 0.03) was significantly higher in women with PCOS and NAFLD than in PCOS women without NAFLD. Frequency of the TT genotype of rs6454674 was higher in PCOS women with NAFLD (not significantly, P = 0.059). In multivariate stepwise regression, allele G of rs806381 was associated with PCOS + NAFLD phenotype. Conclusion. Our preliminary results suggest the potential role of CNR1 polymorphisms in the etiology of NAFLD, especially in PCOS women. PMID:25136364

  5. "Judging a body by its cover": young Lebanese-Canadian women's discursive constructions of the "healthy" body and "health" practices.

    PubMed

    Abou-Rizk, Zeina; Rail, Geneviève

    2014-02-01

    Our interest stems from the dramatic increase in the number of obesity studies, which expose Canadian women to a huge amount of information that links health to weight. Using feminist poststructuralist and postcolonial lenses, this paper investigates young Lebanese-Canadian women's constructions of the body and "health" practices within the context of the dominant obesity discourse. Participant-centered conversations were held with 20 young Christian Lebanese-Canadian women. A thematic analysis was first conducted and was followed by a poststructuralist discourse analysis to further our understanding of how the participants construct themselves as subjects within various discourses surrounding health, obesity, and the body. Our findings reveal that most participants conflate the "healthy" body and the "ideal" body, both of which they ultimately portray as thin. The young women construct the "healthy"/"ideal" body as a solely individual responsibility, thus reinforcing the idea of "docile bodies." The majority of participants report their frequent involvement in disciplinary practices such as rigorous physical activity and dietary restrictions, and a few young women mention the use of other extreme forms of bodily monitoring such as detoxes, dieting pills, and compulsive exercise. We discuss the language employed by participants to construct their multiple and shifting subjectivities. For instance, many of these Lebanese-Canadian women use the term "us" to dissociate themselves from Lebanese women ("them"), whom they portray as overly focused on thinness and beauty and engaged in physical activity and other bodily practices for "superficial" purposes. The participants also use the "us/them" trope to distance themselves from "Canadian" women (read: white Euro-Canadian women), whom they portray as very physically active for purposes beyond the improvement of the physical appearance of the body. We discuss the impacts of the young Christian Lebanese-Canadian women

  6. Anger, and plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and glucose levels in healthy women: the mediating role of physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Siegman, Aron Wolfe; Malkin, Amy R; Boyle, Stephen; Vaitkus, Mark; Barko, William; Franco, Edward

    2002-02-01

    The association between anger, lipid profiles, and glucose levels were examined in this study of 103 middle aged, healthy women. A principal component factor analysis of Spielberger's Trait Anger and Anger Expression scales yielded two anger factors: Impulsive Anger-Out and Neurotic Anger. Impulsive anger-out significantly predicted a negative lipid profile (high total serum cholesterol (TSC), low density lipoproteins (LDL), TSC/HDL (high density lipids), and triglyceride levels) and heightened glucose levels, but only in physically unfit women. Neurotic anger did not predict lipid and glucose levels. These findings parallel previous findings regarding the two anger dimensions and CHD, with only impulsive anger-out predicting CHD. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the protective effect of physical fitness, previously documented for men, also occurs in women. PMID:11845555

  7. Does a healthy lifestyle behaviour influence the prognosis of low back pain among men and women in a general population? A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bohman, Tony; Alfredsson, Lars; Jensen, Irene; Hallqvist, Johan; Vingård, Eva; Skillgate, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To study the influence of healthy lifestyle behaviour on the prognosis of occasional low back pain among men and women in a general population. Design Cohort study with a 4-year follow-up. Settings General population in Stockholm County, Sweden. Participants The study sample comprised 3938 men and 5056 women aged 18–84 from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort reporting occasional low back pain in the baseline questionnaire 2006. Measures Lifestyle factors and potential confounders were assessed at baseline. The lifestyle factors smoking habits, alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity and consumption of fruit and vegetables were dichotomised using recommendations for a health-enhancing lifestyle and combined to form the exposure variable ‘healthy lifestyle behaviour’. The exposure was categorised into five levels according to the number of healthy lifestyle factors met. The follow-up questionnaire in 2010 gave information about the outcome, long duration troublesome low back pain. Crude and adjusted binomial regression models were applied to estimate the association between the exposure and the outcome analysing men and women separately. Results The risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain decreased with increasing healthy lifestyle behaviour (trend test: p=0.006). 21% (28/131) among women with no healthy lifestyle factor (reference) experienced the outcome compared to 9% (36/420) among women with all four factors. Compared to the reference group, the risk was reduced by 35% (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96) for women with one healthy lifestyle factor and 52% (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77) for women with all four healthy lifestyle factors. There were no clear associations found among men. Conclusions Healthy lifestyle behaviour seems to decrease the risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain and may be recommended to improve the

  8. Comparison of trace elements in the scalp hair of malignant and benign breast lesions versus healthy women.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Qaisara; Malik, Salman A; Shaheen, Nazia; Shah, Munir H

    2010-05-01

    Trace elements including Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, and Zn were analyzed in the scalp hair samples of women with malignant breast lesions, women with benign breast lesions, and healthy donors using atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. In the scalp hair of malignant-tumor patients, the highest average concentration was shown by Ca (1,187 microg/g), followed by Na (655 microg/g), Mg (478 microg/g), Zn (391 microg/g), Sr (152 microg/g), Fe (114 microg/g), and K (89.8), while in the case of benign-tumor patients, the average estimated element levels were 1,522, 1,093, 572, 457, 217, 80.4, and 74.7 microg/g, respectively. Most of the elements exhibited non-normal distribution evidenced by large spread, standard error, and skewness values. Mean concentrations of Ca (634 microg/g), Zn (206 microg/g), Mg (162 microg/g), Fe (129 microg/g), and Na (82.1 microg/g) were noteworthy in the scalp hair of healthy women. Average levels of Na, Sr, K, Cd, Co, Pb, Mg, Ca, Zn, Ni, Sb, and Mn were revealed to be significantly higher in the hair of malignant and benign patients compared to the healthy women; however, Fe, Cu, Al, and Cr were not significantly different in the scalp hair of the three groups. The quartile distributions of Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Sr revealed maximum spread in the scalp hair of malignant and benign groups; nevertheless, Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn exhibited almost comparable quartile levels in the three groups. Strong correlation coefficients were found between Fe and Cd, Al and Na, Mn and Sr, Co and Cr, Cd and Cr, Pb and K, Pb and Mn, Cu and Na, and Al and Fe in the scalp hair of malignant-tumor patients, while Fe and K, Cd and Co, Na and Co, and Cr and Pb showed strong correlations in the scalp hair of benign-tumor patients, both of which were significantly different compared with the healthy subjects. Multivariate cluster analysis also revealed divergent clustering of the elements in the scalp hair of

  9. Prospective evaluation of hemostatic system activation and thrombin potential in healthy pregnant women with and without factor V Leiden.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, S; Weltermann, A; Philipp, K; Hafner, E; Kaider, A; Kittl, E M; Brenner, B; Mannhalter, C; Lechner, K; Kyrle, P A

    1999-10-01

    Normal pregnancy is associated with alterations of the hemostatic system towards a hypercoagulable state and an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. The risk of venous thrombosis is higher in pregnant women with factor V Leiden (FVL) than in those with wildtype factor V. Routine laboratory assays are not useful to detect hypercoagulable conditions. A prospective and systematic evaluation of hemostatic system activation in women with and without FVL during an uncomplicated pregnancy employing more sensitive markers of hypercoagulability, such as prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), D-Dimer, or the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), an indicator of the plasma's potential to generate thrombin, has not been performed. We prospectively followed 113 pregnant women with (n = 11) and without (n = 102) FVL and measured F1+2. TAT, D-Dimer and the ETP at the 12th, 22nd and 34th gestational week as well as 3 months after delivery (baseline) in each subject. None of the women developed clinical signs of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy or postpartum. Pregnant women with and without FVL exhibited substantial activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic system as indicated by a gradual increase of F1+2, TAT and D-Dimer throughout uncomplicated pregnancy up to levels similar to those found in acute thromboembolic events (p < 0.0001 by analysis of variance for each parameters). Levels of F1+2 and TAT were comparable between women with and without FVL, but levels of D-Dimer were significantly higher in women with FVL than in those without the mutation (p = 0.0005). The ETP remained unchanged in both women with and without FVL at all timepoints. Our data demonstrate a substantial coagulation and fibrinolytic system activation in healthy women with and without FVL during uncomplicated pregnancy. An elevated F1+2, TAT or D-Dimer level during pregnancy is not necessarily indicative for an acute thromboembolic event. The normal ETP in both

  10. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index and total and cause-specific mortality among Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-06-01

    Several healthy dietary patterns have been linked to longevity. Recently, a Nordic dietary pattern was associated with a lower overall mortality. No study has, however, investigated this dietary pattern in relation to cause-specific mortality. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (consisting of wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, root vegetables, cabbages and fish/shellfish) and overall mortality, and death by cardiovascular disease, cancer, injuries/suicide and other causes. We conducted a prospective analysis in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort, including 44,961 women, aged 29-49 years, who completed a food frequency questionnaire between 1991-1992, and have been followed up for mortality ever since, through Swedish registries. The median follow-up time is 21.3 years, and mortality rate ratios (MRR) were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. Compared to women with the lowest index score (0-1 points), those with the highest score (4-6 points) had an 18% lower overall mortality (MRR 0.82; 0.71-0.93, p < 0.0004). A 1-point increment in the healthy Nordic food index was associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality: 6% (3-9%), cancer mortality: 5% (1-9%) and mortality from other causes: 16% (8-22%). When examining the diet components individually, only wholegrain bread and apples/pears were significantly inversely associated with all-cause mortality. We observed no effect-modification by smoking status, BMI or age at baseline. The present study encourages adherence to a healthy Nordic food index, and warrants further investigation of the strong association with non-cancer, non-cardiovascular and non-injury/suicide deaths. PMID:25784368

  11. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation.

    PubMed

    De Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B; Neme, Walter S; Gallarreta, Francisco M P; Gonçalves, Thissiane L

    2016-01-01

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 25 non-pregnant women. The following oxidative stress parameters were evaluated: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein thiol groups (P-SH), non-protein thiol levels (NP-SH), vitamin C levels, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity. Markers of oxidative stress and cell damage, such as TBARS in plasma were significantly higher in pregnant women without supplementation. Levels of P-SH, NP-SH and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation compared to non-pregnant and pregnant women with supplementation, while vitamin C levels were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation when compared to non-pregnant women. The increase in the generation of oxidative species and decrease of antioxidants suggest the loss of physiological oxidative balance during normal pregnancy, which was not observed in pregnant women with iron supplementation, suggesting a protective effect of iron against oxidative damage. PMID:27153075

  12. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    De Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B.; Neme, Walter S.; Gallarreta, Francisco M. P.; Gonçalves, Thissiane L.

    2016-01-01

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 25 non-pregnant women. The following oxidative stress parameters were evaluated: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein thiol groups (P-SH), non-protein thiol levels (NP-SH), vitamin C levels, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity. Markers of oxidative stress and cell damage, such as TBARS in plasma were significantly higher in pregnant women without supplementation. Levels of P-SH, NP-SH and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation compared to non-pregnant and pregnant women with supplementation, while vitamin C levels were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation when compared to non-pregnant women. The increase in the generation of oxidative species and decrease of antioxidants suggest the loss of physiological oxidative balance during normal pregnancy, which was not observed in pregnant women with iron supplementation, suggesting a protective effect of iron against oxidative damage. PMID:27153075

  13. Short-term effects of chewing gum on satiety and afternoon snack intake in healthy weight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunyoung; Edirisinghe, Indika; Inui, Taichi; Kergoat, Sophie; Kelley, Michael; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2016-05-15

    Afternoon snacking contributes significantly to total energy intake. Strategies to enhance the satiety value of lunch and reduce afternoon snacking are of interest for body weight management. To assess whether between-meal gum chewing would enhance the satiety response to a fixed lunch meal; and assess the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) as a potential mediator of the response in non-obese healthy weight and obese women. Fifty unrestrained obese (n=25) and non-obese healthy weight (n=25) women participated in a two-arm cross-over study assessing multiple (15min per hour×3h) gum chewing (GUM) occurrences or no gum (Control) on subjective ratings of satiety, subsequent sweet and salty snack intake, CCK and general metabolic responses. GUM compared to Control resulted in significant suppression of hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption (p<0.05). Total snack energy intake was reduced ~9.3% by GUM, but not significantly different from Control (p=0.08). However, overall carbohydrate intake was reduced by GUM (p=0.03). This was consistent with a reduction in snacks characterized as high carbohydrate, low fat (p=0.02). BMI specific effects indicated GUM reduced pretzel intake in obese women (p=0.05) and Oreo cookie intake in healthy weight women (p=0.03) 3h after lunch. Metabolic responses and CCK did not differ between experimental conditions. Chewing gum intermittently post-lunch enhances perceptions of satiety and may have important implications in reducing afternoon high carbohydrate-snack intake. PMID:26948161

  14. Single Oral Dose Pharmacokinetics of Decursin and Decursinol Angelate in Healthy Adult Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinhui; Li, Li; Hale, Thomas W.; Chee, Wayne; Xing, Chengguo; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2015-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root has promising anti-cancer and other bioactivities in rodent models. It is currently believed that the pyranocoumarin isomers decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA) contribute to these activities. We and others have documented that D and DA were rapidly converted to decursinol (DOH) in rodents. However, our in vitro metabolism studies suggested that D and DA might be metabolized differently in humans. To test this hypothesis and address a key question for human translatability of animal model studies of D and DA or AGN extract, we conducted a single oral dose human pharmacokinetic study of D and DA delivered through an AGN-based dietary supplement Cogni.Q (purchased from Quality of Life Labs, Purchase, NY) in twenty healthy subjects, i.e., 10 men and 10 women, each consuming 119 mg D and 77 mg DA from 4 vegicaps. Analyses of plasma samples using UHPLC-MS/MS showed mean time to peak concentration (Tmax) of 2.1, 2.4 and 3.3 h and mean peak concentration (Cmax) of 5.3, 48.1 and 2,480 nmol/L for D, DA and DOH, respectively. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2) for D and DA was similar (17.4 and 19.3 h) and each was much longer than that of DOH (7.4 h). The mean area under the curve (AUC0-48h) for D, DA and DOH was estimated as 37, 335 and 27,579 h∙nmol/L, respectively. Gender-wise, men absorbed the parent compounds faster and took shorter time to reach DOH peak concentration. The human data supported an extensive conversion of D and DA to DOH, even though they metabolized DA slightly slower than rodents. Therefore, the data generated in rodent models concerning anti-cancer efficacy, safety, tissue distribution and pharmacodynamic biomarkers will likely be relevant for human translation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02114957 PMID:25695490

  15. Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Toit, Nola Cora Du

    2012-01-01

    Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women—the notion that certain limitations may make women poor marriage partners. Like their male counterparts, we find women also possess qualities that are not considered assets in the marriage market, such as economic constraints, mental and physical health issues, substance use, multiple partner fertility, and gender distrust. We also consider how women participating in a marriage program frame their marriage options, whereas a few opt out of the marriage market altogether. PMID:23258947

  16. Free and total urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women from the Healthy Baby Cohort (HBC), China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingshuang; Wan, Yanjian; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Aifen; Cai, Zongwei; Qian, Zhengmin; Zhang, Chuncao; Huo, Wenqian; Huang, Kai; Hu, Jie; Cheng, Lu; Chang, Huailong; Huang, Zheng; Xu, Bing; Xia, Wei; Xu, Shunqing

    2016-03-01

    Total urinary phthalate metabolites (the free plus glucuronidated forms) have been frequently measured in the general population. However, data are limited on the free forms which may be more bioactive, especially for sensitive population such as pregnant women. Here the data gap was addressed by measuring concentrations of free and total forms of six phthalate metabolites in 293 urine samples from pregnant women at delivery, who were randomly selected from the prospective Healthy Baby Cohort (HBC), China. We observed detectable concentrations of the total amount of phthalate metabolites in all urine samples. The geometric mean (GM) urinary concentrations of free and total mono-butyl phthalate (MBP) (5.20, 54.49ng/mL) were the highest, followed by mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) (4.52, 7.27ng/mL). For most of phthalate metabolites, urinary concentrations were significantly higher in women who were nulliparous. Significantly higher concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) were found in women who had higher educational level. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the free and total forms of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women in China. The results suggest that exposure characteristics may be related to parity and education. PMID:26722670

  17. Shared Genetic Background for Regulation of Mood and Sleep: Association of GRIA3 with Sleep Duration in Healthy Finnish Women

    PubMed Central

    Utge, Siddheshwar; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Soronen, Pia; Ollila, Hanna M.; Loukola, Anu; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Paunio, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleeping 7 to 8 hours per night appears to be optimal, since both shorter and longer sleep times are related to increased morbidity and mortality. Depressive disorder is almost invariably accompanied by disturbed sleep, leading to decreased sleep duration, and disturbed sleep may be a precipitating factor in the initiation of depressive illness. Here, we examined whether, in healthy individuals, sleep duration is associated with genes that we earlier found to be associated with depressive disorder. Design: Population-based molecular genetic study. Setting: Regression analysis of 23 risk variants for depressive disorder from 12 genes to sleep duration in healthy individuals. Participants: Three thousand, one hundred, forty-seven individuals (25–75 y) from population-based Health 2000 and FINRISK 2007 samples. Measurements and Results: We found a significant association of rs687577 from GRIA3 on the X-chromosome with sleep duration in women (permutation-based corrected empirical P = 0.00001, β = 0.27; Bonferroni corrected P = 0.0052; f = 0.11). The frequency of C/C genotype previously found to increase risk for depression in women was highest among those who slept for 8 hours or less in all age groups younger than 70 years. Its frequency decreased with the lengthening of sleep duration, and those who slept for 9 to 10 hours showed a higher frequency of C/A or A/A genotypes, when compared with the midrange sleepers (7-8 hours) (permutation-based corrected empirical P = 0.0003, OR = 1.81). Conclusions: The GRIA3 polymorphism that was previously found to be associated with depressive disorder in women showed an association with sleep duration in healthy women. Mood disorders and short sleep may share a common genetic background and biologic mechanisms that involve glutamatergic neurotransmission. Citation: Utge S; Kronholm E; Partonen T; Soronen P; Ollila HM; Loukola A; Perola M; Salomaa V; Porkka-Heiskanen T; Paunio T. Shared genetic background for

  18. Impact of Probiotic SYNBIO(®) Administered by Vaginal Suppositories in Promoting Vaginal Health of Apparently Healthy Women.

    PubMed

    Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, Maria Magdalena; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Coata, Giuliana; Cresci, Alberto; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether vaginal administration of probiotic Lactobacillus results in their colonization and persistence in the vagina and whether it promotes normalization and maintenance of pH and Nugent score. A single-arm, open-label controlled towards the baseline (pre-post) study including 35 apparently healthy women was conducted. Each woman was examined three times during the study. Women were instructed to receive daily for 7 days, the probiotic suppositories SYNBIO(®) gin (Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501(®) and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502(®)). Vaginal swabs were collected during visit 1, 2, and 3 to determine the total lactobacilli count, the presence of the two administered bacteria, the measure of the pH, and the estimation of Nugent score. Evaluation of treatment tolerability was based on analysis of the type and occurrence of adverse events. The probiotic vaginal suppository was well tolerated and no side effects were reported. Intermediate Nugent score was registered in 40 % of women at visit 1 and these intermediate scores reverted to normal at day 7 (end of treatment) in 20 % of subjects. Administration of SYNBIO(®) gin contributed to a significant increase in the lactobacilli level at visit 2. Molecular typing revealed the presence of the two strains originating from SYNBIO(®) gin in 100 % of women at visit 2 and 34 % at visit 3. No significant changes were registered for pH between visits. The SYNBIO(®) gin product is safe for daily use in healthy women and it could be useful to restore and maintain a normal vaginal microbiota. PMID:27324341

  19. Music-induced prolongation of heart rate corrected QT intervals from electrocardiogram recordings of healthy preterm pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Rhomberg, Franziska; Moeslinger, Thomas; Gottsauner-Wolf, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Aim: Women do have longer QTc intervals compared to men. The aim of this study was to investigate as-yet undocumented effects of music on QTc intervals from electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings compared to various cardiovascular parameters of women in the prenatal phase. Methods: Forty-four healthy women in pregnancy were exposed to quiet surroundings (Q), self-selected slow music (S), and investigator-provided fast music (F) with different rhythm and frequency characteristics for 3 min each during their routine cardiotocography investigation. QTc intervals from ECG recordings were calculated according to the formulas of Bazett, Fridericia, and Sagie. Results: QTc durations (Bazett) increased from 0.396±0.02 (Q) to 0.401±0.02 s (S) and to 0.407±0.03 s (F). The increase in QTc (delta QTc) value for slow (S) and fast (F) music was found to be 5.3 (S) and 10.1 ms (F, milliseconds) when compared to quiescent (Q) conditions showing a highly significant tripled P-value of 0.002 (Q vs. F). Similar results were found using alternate frequency corrections (Fridericia, Sagie) - QTc (delta QTc): 8.1 (Fridericia) and 7.2 ms (Sagie), quiescent vs. F, with P<0.001. None of the tests for other cardiovascular parameters showed significant differences. Conclusions: As shown from our data, music with different rhythm and frequency characteristics may prolong QTc intervals in healthy preterm pregnant women and may add to other risk factors (e.g., preexisting QTc prolongation or application of QTc prolonging drugs). These data could prove to be relevant in the primary prevention recommendations for women at risk for arrhythmic patterns during pregnancy. PMID:25470602

  20. Social support for healthy behaviors: scale psychometrics and prediction of weight loss among women in a behavioral program.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Michaela; Moore, Susan D; Schoffman, Danielle E; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C; Taylor, C Barr; Kiernan, Nancy E; Perri, Michael G

    2012-04-01

    Social support could be a powerful weight-loss treatment moderator or mediator but is rarely assessed. We assessed the psychometric properties, initial levels, and predictive validity of a measure of perceived social support and sabotage from friends and family for healthy eating and physical activity (eight subscales). Overweight/obese women randomized to one of two 6-month, group-based behavioral weight-loss programs (N = 267; mean BMI 32.1 ± 3.5; 66.3% White) completed subscales at baseline, and weight loss was assessed at 6 months. Internal consistency, discriminant validity, and content validity were excellent for support subscales and adequate for sabotage subscales; qualitative responses revealed novel deliberate instances not reflected in current sabotage items. Most women (>75%) "never" or "rarely" experienced support from friends or family. Using nonparametric classification methods, we identified two subscales-support from friends for healthy eating and support from family for physical activity-that predicted three clinically meaningful subgroups who ranged in likelihood of losing ≥5% of initial weight at 6 months. Women who "never" experienced family support were least likely to lose weight (45.7% lost weight) whereas women who experienced both frequent friend and family support were more likely to lose weight (71.6% lost weight). Paradoxically, women who "never" experienced friend support were most likely to lose weight (80.0% lost weight), perhaps because the group-based programs provided support lacking from friendships. Psychometrics for support subscales were excellent; initial support was rare; and the differential roles of friend vs. family support could inform future targeted weight-loss interventions to subgroups at risk. PMID:21996661

  1. Effects of the height of shoe heels on muscle activation of cervical and lumbar spine in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Park, Kisu; Kim, Young; Chung, Yijung; Hwang, Sujin

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different height of high heels on muscle activation of the paraspinalis cervicis and erector spinae in healthy young women. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy women were recruited in this study. To examine the effects of different heights of heels on muscle activation, the paraspinalis cervicis (cervical spine) and erector spinae (lumbar spine) were measured at the time of heel strike and toe off during gait on three different conditions (barefoot, 4 cm high heels, and 10 cm high heels). There are no previous trials or reports that have evaluated this approach in patients with chronic neck pain. [Results] A significant increase in muscle activation of the paraspinalis cervicis and erector spinae at heel strike and toe off (except that of the paraspinalis cervicis at toe off in healthy subjects) was observed in the under 10 cm high heel condition as, compared to that with barefoot condition, in all the subjects. [Conclusion] The height of the high heels affects to the activation demand of the paraspinalis cervicis and erector spinae in patients with neck pain. PMID:27134392

  2. Effects of the height of shoe heels on muscle activation of cervical and lumbar spine in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kisu; Kim, Young; Chung, Yijung; Hwang, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different height of high heels on muscle activation of the paraspinalis cervicis and erector spinae in healthy young women. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy women were recruited in this study. To examine the effects of different heights of heels on muscle activation, the paraspinalis cervicis (cervical spine) and erector spinae (lumbar spine) were measured at the time of heel strike and toe off during gait on three different conditions (barefoot, 4 cm high heels, and 10 cm high heels). There are no previous trials or reports that have evaluated this approach in patients with chronic neck pain. [Results] A significant increase in muscle activation of the paraspinalis cervicis and erector spinae at heel strike and toe off (except that of the paraspinalis cervicis at toe off in healthy subjects) was observed in the under 10 cm high heel condition as, compared to that with barefoot condition, in all the subjects. [Conclusion] The height of the high heels affects to the activation demand of the paraspinalis cervicis and erector spinae in patients with neck pain. PMID:27134392

  3. Differential Circadian Catecholamine and Cortisol Responses between Healthy Women with and without a Parental History of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    James, Gary D.; Alfarano, Alexandria S.; van Berge-Landry, Helene M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies suggest that otherwise healthy individuals who have a parental history of hypertension (PH+) have an accentuated reactive rise in catecholamines and cortisol to laboratory stressors as well as elevated plasma levels when compared to those with no parental history (PH−); however, few if any studies have evaluated whether parental history affects the responses of these hormones to changing environmental circumstances in everyday life. The purpose of this study was to compare urinary catecholamine (epinephrine and norepinephrine) and cortisol excretion and ambulatory blood pressures across three daily microenvironments between women with and without a parental history of hypertension. Methods The women in the study (PH+, N=62, age=35.2±9.1; PH−,N=72, age=33.8±10.0) worked in clerical, technical or professional positions at a major medical center in NYC. Urinary hormone excretion rates and ambulatory BP were measured across three daily microenvironments: work (11AM–3PM), home (approx. 6PM–10PM) and during sleep (approx. 10PM– 6AM). History group comparisons by microenvironment were made using repeated measures ANCOVA and ANOVA analyses. Results The results show that epinephrine excretion among PH+ women was 36% higher than PH− women (p<.008) over the entire day, and that nocturnal cortisol excretion was also greater among PH+ women (p<.045). PH+ women also had statistically significantly higher systolic (4 mmHg higher; p<.01) and diastolic (2 mmHg higher, p<.03) BP compared to PH− women across all daily microenvironments. Conclusion These findings suggest that there may be genetically-linked mechanisms which elevate tonic epinephrine levels and nocturnal cortisol levels that contribute to elevating circadian blood pressure. PMID:25043989

  4. Reported zinc, but not copper, intakes influence whole body bone density, mineral content and T score responses to zinc and copper supplementation in healthy postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A supplementation trial starting with 224 postmenopausal women provided with adequate vitamin D and calcium was conducted to determine whether increased copper and zinc intakes would reduce the risk for bone loss. Healthy women aged 51-80 years were recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled s...

  5. The Superior Sleep of Healthy Elderly Nuns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Carolyn C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared nocturnal sleep structure of 10 healthy elderly nuns to that of 10 healthy age-matched female controls. The nuns fell asleep more quickly and had less early morning awakening, as well as greater rapid eye movement sleep time. These differences may reflect the more highly entrained life style of the nuns, including modest habitual sleep…

  6. Dietary total antioxidant capacity is associated with plasmatic antioxidant capacity, nutrient intake and lipid and DNA damage in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Stedile, Natalia; Canuto, Raquel; de Col, Camila Dallavechia; de Sene, Juliane Souza; Stolfo, Adriana; Wisintainer, Gabrielle Nunes de Souza; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Salvador, Mirian

    2016-06-01

    Dietary total antioxidant capacity (DTAC) seems to be associated with reducing risk of diseases. However, data about the influence of the DTAC on oxidative stress parameters are scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the DTAC and its influence on plasma total antioxidant capacity (PTAC), and damage to lipids, proteins and DNA in healthy women. It was found a positive correlation between DTAC and PTAC in young and healthy subjects, where presumably the endogenous defenses are fully functional. DTAC and PTAC were positively correlated with the intake of known antioxidants, including vitamin C and polyphenols. The DTAC exhibited a negative correlation with lipid oxidative damage, while PTAC showed a negative correlation with DNA damage. This data contributes to better understanding of the recommended dietary antioxidant intake for promoting health. PMID:27018203

  7. Comparing the effects of two Swedish massage techniques on the vital signs and anxiety of healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Gholami-Motlagh, Farzaneh; Jouzi, Mina; Soleymani, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is an inseparable part of our lives and a serious threat to health. Therefore, it is necessary to use certain strategies to prevent disorders caused by anxiety and adjust the vital signs of people. Swedish massage is one of the most recognized techniques for reducing anxiety. This study aims to compare the effects of two massage techniques on the vital signs and anxiety of healthy women. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study with a two-group, crossover design was conducted on 20 healthy women who were selected by simple sampling method and were randomly assigned to BNC (Back, Neck, and Chest) or LAF (Leg, Arm, and Face) groups. Massage therapy was carried out for a 14-week period (two 4-week massage therapy sessions and 6 weeks washout stage). Gathered data were analyzed using paired t-test with a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: Both BNC and LAF methods caused a significant decrease in systolic BP in the first stage (P = 0.02, 0.00); however, diastolic BP showed significant decrease only in BNC group (P = 0.01). The mean average of body temperature of LAF group showed a significant decrease in the first stage (P = 0.0.3), and pulse and respiratory rate showed significant decrease in both groups during the second stage (P = 0.00). In addition, anxiety scores showed no significant difference before and after massage therapy (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Massage therapy caused a decrease in systolic BP, pulse, and respiratory rate. It can be concluded that massage therapy was useful for decreasing the vital signs associated with anxiety in healthy women. PMID:27563325

  8. Racial differences in genome-wide methylation profiling and gene expression in breast tissues from healthy women.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Ae; Brasky, Theodore M; Marian, Catalin; Weng, Daniel Y; Taslim, Cenny; Dumitrescu, Ramona G; Llanos, Adana A; Freudenheim, Jo L; Shields, Peter G

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is more common in European Americans (EAs) than in African Americans (AAs) but mortality from breast cancer is higher among AAs. While there are racial differences in DNA methylation and gene expression in breast tumors, little is known whether such racial differences exist in breast tissues of healthy women. Genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression profiling was performed in histologically normal breast tissues of healthy women. Linear regression models were used to identify differentially-methylated CpG sites (CpGs) between EAs (n = 61) and AAs (n = 22). Correlations for methylation and expression were assessed. Biological functions of the differentially-methylated genes were assigned using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Among 485 differentially-methylated CpGs by race, 203 were hypermethylated in EAs, and 282 were hypermethylated in AAs. Promoter-related differentially-methylated CpGs were more frequently hypermethylated in EAs (52%) than AAs (27%) while gene body and intergenic CpGs were more frequently hypermethylated in AAs. The differentially-methylated CpGs were enriched for cancer-associated genes with roles in cell death and survival, cellular development, and cell-to-cell signaling. In a separate analysis for correlation in EAs and AAs, different patterns of correlation were found between EAs and AAs. The correlated genes showed different biological networks between EAs and AAs; networks were connected by Ubiquitin C. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive genome-wide study to identify differences in methylation and gene expression between EAs and AAs in breast tissues from healthy women. These findings may provide further insights regarding the contribution of epigenetic differences to racial disparities in breast cancer. PMID:26680018

  9. Isoflavone supplementation reduces DNA oxidative damage and increases O-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase activity in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Erba, Daniela; Casiraghi, M Cristina; Martinez-Conesa, Cristina; Goi, Giancarlo; Massaccesi, Luca

    2012-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are believed to boost the human antioxidant defense system and health; therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate the hypothesis that soy isoflavones (IFs) provide antioxidant protection in healthy women by evaluating DNA resistance to oxidative damage and O-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (OGA) activity. An IF supplement (80 mg/d) was given to 9 postmenopausal women and 13 young women for 6 months and then stopped up to the 14th month. The women were allowed to consume their normal diet. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study after 2, 4, and 6 months and then at the 8th and 14th months. Plasma concentrations of genistein and daidzein, total antioxidant capacity, plasma vitamin status, markers of oxidative stress (red blood cell membrane fluidity, activity of the red blood cell cytosolic enzyme OGA and lymphocyte DNA susceptibility to oxidative stress), and serum lipid profile were analyzed. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used for statistical analysis. Plasma concentrations of IFs rose significantly during the supplementation period, and plasma total antioxidant capacity increased in young women; membrane fluidity and OGA activity increased, and DNA oxidative damage decreased (P < .05) at 4 months, then returned to the basal level. There was a significant inverse correlation between DNA damage and plasma IF concentrations (P < .01). The results indicated a positive effect of IF supplementation on oxidative stress in women, thus suggesting that the healthful action ascribed to soy consumption may be partially related to the antioxidant potential of IFs. PMID:22575035

  10. Detection of HPV and co-infecting pathogens in healthy Italian women by multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Camporiondo, Maria Pia; Farchi, Francesca; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Denaro, Aurelia; Gallone, Domenica; Maracchioni, Fabio; Favalli, Cartesio; Ciotti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Several pathogens can be transmitted sexually and are an important cause of morbidity among sexually active women. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in a group of 309 healthy women enrolled at the San Camillo - Forlanini hospital of Rome by using two multiplex real-time PCR assays based on TOCE® technology. The women's ages ranged from 34 to 60 years, median 49 [IQR 45-54]. Of the 309 women tested, HPV DNA was detected in 77/309 (24.9%) patients. Of these, 44 (14.2%) harboured a single infection while 33 (10.7%) were infected by multiple genotypes. Prevalence of HPV infection was highest among females aged 40-50 years (15.2%). Of the other pathogens sought, CT, MG and NG were not detected while positive results were found for MH (12/309, 3.9%), TV (4/309, 1.3%), UP (89/309, 28.8%) and UU (14/309, 4.5%). Co-infections were as follows: 5 MH/HPV, 4 TV/HPV, 34 UP/HPV and 9 UU/HPV. In HPV-positive women, the probability of being infected by UP and UU was 2.5 (p=0.00045) and 6 fold higher (p=0.0016) than in HPV-negative women. The study supports the use of multiplex real-time PCR assays in a routine diagnostic setting. The high sensitivity and specificity of these assays along with the simultaneous detection of the most common sexually transmitted pathogens confers an advantage with respect to more obsolete methods reducing costs and time to diagnosis. PMID:27031891

  11. Fat Infiltration in the Leg is Associated with Bone Geometry and Physical Function in Healthy Older Women.

    PubMed

    Lorbergs, Amanda L; Noseworthy, Michael D; Adachi, Jonathan D; Stratford, Paul W; MacIntyre, Norma J

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the associations between muscular fat infiltration, tibia bone mineral quantity and distribution, and physical function in healthy older women. Thirty-five women (aged 60-75 years, mean 70 years) were recruited from the community. Percent intramuscular fat (%IntraMF) within the right leg tibialis anterior, soleus, and gastrocnemius muscles and total intermuscular fat (IMF) were segmented from magnetic resonance imaging scans at the mid-calf. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content in the right tibialis anterior was measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Right tibia bone content, area, and strength were measured at the 4, 14, and 66% sites using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Physical function was assessed by gait speed on the 20 m walking test. After adjusting for age, body size, and activity level, %IntraMF had a negative association with bone content and area at all tibia sites (r = -0.31 to -0.03). Conversely, greater IMF was associated with increased bone content and area (r = 0.04-0.32). Correlation coefficients for the association between IMCL and bone were negative (r = -0.44 to -0.03). All measures of fat infiltration had a negative association with observed physical function (r = -0.42 to -0.04). Our findings suggest that muscular fat infiltration in the leg of healthy postmenopausal women has a compartment-specific relationship with bone status and physical function. Minimizing fat accumulation within and between muscle compartments may prevent bone fragility and functional decline in women. PMID:26071112

  12. Muscle Size Not Density Predicts Variance in Muscle Strength and Neuromuscular Performance in Healthy Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Benjamin K; Gerrits, Tom A J; Horan, Sean A; Beck, Belinda R

    2016-06-01

    Weeks, BK, Gerrits, TAJ, Horan, SA, and Beck, BR. Muscle size not density predicts variance in muscle strength and neuromuscular performance in healthy adult men and women. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1577-1584, 2016-The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)-derived measures of muscle area and density and markers of muscle strength and performance in men and women. Fifty-two apparently healthy adults (26 men, 26 women; age 33.8 ± 12.0 years) volunteered to participate. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (XR-800; Norland Medical Systems, Inc., Trumbull, CT, USA) was used to determine whole body and regional lean and fat tissue mass, whereas pQCT (XCT-3000; Stratec, Pforzheim, Germany) was used to determine muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and muscle density of the leg, thigh, and forearm. Ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor strengths were examined using isokinetic dynamometry, and grip strength was examined with dynamometry. Impulse generated during a maximal vertical jump was used as an index of neuromuscular performance. Thigh, forearm, and leg MCSA strongly predicted variance in knee extensor (R = 0.77, p < 0.001) and grip strength (R = 0.77, p < 0.001) and weakly predicted variance in ankle plantar flexor strength (R = 0.20, p < 0.001), respectively, whereas muscle density was only a weak predictor of variance in knee extensor strength (R = 0.18, p < 0.001). Thigh and leg MCSA accounted for 79 and 69% of the variance in impulse generated from a maximal vertical jump (p < 0.001), whereas thigh muscle density predicted only 18% of the variance (p < 0.002). In conclusion, we found that pQCT-derived muscle area is more strongly related to strength and neuromuscular performance than muscle density in adult men and women. PMID:26473521

  13. Menaquinone-7 supplementation improves arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women. A double-blind randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Knapen, Marjo H J; Braam, Lavienja A J L M; Drummen, Nadja E; Bekers, Otto; Hoeks, Arnold P G; Vermeer, Cees

    2015-05-01

    Observational data suggest a link between menaquinone (MK, vitamin K2) intake and cardiovascular (CV) health. However, MK intervention trials with vascular endpoints are lacking. We investigated long-term effects of MK-7 (180 µg MenaQ7/day) supplementation on arterial stiffness in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Healthy postmenopausal women (n=244) received either placebo (n=124) or MK-7 (n=120) for three years. Indices of local carotid stiffness (intima-media thickness IMT, Diameter end-diastole and Distension) were measured by echotracking. Regional aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral and carotid-radial Pulse Wave Velocity, cfPWV and crPWV, respectively) was measured using mechanotransducers. Circulating desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (dp-ucMGP) as well as acute phase markers Interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and markers for endothelial dysfunction Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule (VCAM), E-selectin, and Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) were measured. At baseline dp-ucMGP was associated with IMT, Diameter, cfPWV and with the mean z-scores of acute phase markers (APMscore) and of markers for endothelial dysfunction (EDFscore). After three year MK-7 supplementation cfPWV and the Stiffness Index βsignificantly decreased in the total group, whereas distension, compliance, distensibility, Young's Modulus, and the local carotid PWV (cPWV) improved in women having a baseline Stiffness Index β above the median of 10.8. MK-7 decreased dp-ucMGP by 50 % compared to placebo, but did not influence the markers for acute phase and endothelial dysfunction. In conclusion, long-term use of MK-7 supplements improves arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women, especially in women having a high arterial stiffness. PMID:25694037

  14. Towards understanding sex differences in visceral pain: enhanced reactivation of classically-conditioned fear in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Benson, Sven; Kattoor, Joswin; Kullmann, Jennifer S; Hofmann, Sarah; Engler, Harald; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke R; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2014-03-01

    Sex differences in learned fear regarding aversive gastrointestinal stimuli could play a role in the female preponderance of chronic abdominal pain. In a fear conditioning model with rectal pain as unconditioned stimulus (US), we compared healthy males and females with respect to neural responses during aversive visceral learning, extinction and re-activation of fear memory (i.e., reinstatement). To do so, conditioned visual stimuli (CS(+)) were consistently paired with painful rectal distensions as US, while different visual stimuli (CS(-)) were presented without US. During extinction, both CSs were presented without US, whereas during reinstatement, a single, unpaired US was presented. In region-of-interest analyses, sexes were compared with respect to conditioned anticipatory neural activation (CS(+)>CS(-)). The results revealed that in late acquisition, CS+ presentation induced significantly greater anticipatory activation of the insula in women. During extinction, women demonstrated reduced activation of the posterior cingulate cortex. During reinstatement, the CS(+) led to greater activation of the hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum in women. These group effects in neural activation during learning and memory processes were not accounted for by sex differences in pain thresholds, pain ratings, or stress parameters. In conclusion, this is the first study to support sex differences in neural processes mediating aversive visceral learning. Our finding of enhanced neural responses during reinstatement in key brain areas relevant for memory suggests enhanced reactivation of old fear memory trace in women. Sex differences in "gut memories" could play a role in the female preponderance of chronic abdominal pain. PMID:24398396

  15. Diurnal salivary cortisol in relation to perceived stress at home and at work in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Sjörs, Anna; Ljung, Thomas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the association between diurnal salivary cortisol profile and perceived stress at work and at home. Healthy participants (N=180, 52% women) collected saliva cortisol samples immediately after waking up, 15 min later, 30 min later, and at 9:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00. The area under the cortisol awakening curve with respect to ground (AUCgCAR) and increase (AUCiCAR), and diurnal slope between 9:00 and 21:00 were analyzed. Perceived stress at work and at home was measured with the Stress-Energy Questionnaire. Participants reporting stress at home had significantly lower AUCgCAR and a flatter diurnal slope. When performing separate analyses for men and women, this association was only significant among women. Perceived stress at work was not associated with any cortisol measure. This study highlights the importance of stress outside the workplace. The sex differences may indicate an increased vulnerability to non-work stress in women. PMID:24746849

  16. Dietary Pattern Influences Breast Cancer Prognosis in Women Without Hot Flashes: The Women's Healthy Eating and Living Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Ellen B.; Pierce, John P.; Natarajan, Loki; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Laughlin, Gail A.; Caan, Bette J.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Emond, Jennifer A.; Saquib, Nazmus; Madlensky, Lisa; Kealey, Sheila; Wasserman, Linda; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Rock, Cheryl L.; Parker, Barbara A.; Karanja, Njeri; Jones, Vicky; Hajek, Richard A.; Pu, Minya; Mortimer, Joanne E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether a low-fat diet high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber differentially affects prognosis in breast cancer survivors with hot flashes (HF) or without HF after treatment. Patients and Methods A secondary analysis was conducted on 2,967 breast cancer survivors, age 18 to 70 years, who were randomly assigned between 1995 and 2000 in a multicenter, controlled trial of a dietary intervention to prevent additional breast cancer events and observed through June 1, 2006. We compared the dietary intervention group with a group who received five-a-day dietary guidelines. Results Independent of HF status, a substantial between-group difference among those who did and did not receive dietary guidelines was achieved and maintained at 4 years in intake of vegetable/fruit servings per day (54% higher; 10 v 6.5 servings/d, respectively), fiber (31% higher; 25.5 v 19.4 g/d, respectively), and percent energy from fat (14% lower; 26.9% v 31.3%, respectively). Adjusting for tumor characteristics and antiestrogen treatment, HF-negative women assigned to the intervention had 31% fewer events than HF-negative women assigned to the comparison group (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.93; P = .02). The intervention did not affect prognosis in the women with baseline HFs. Furthermore, compared with HF-negative women assigned to the comparison group, HF-positive women had significantly fewer events in both the intervention (HR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.00; P = .05) and comparison groups (HR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.85; P = .002). Conclusion A diet with higher vegetable, fruit, and fiber and lower fat intakes than the five-a-day diet may reduce risk of additional events in HF-negative breast cancer survivors. This suggestive finding needs confirmation in a trial in which it is the primary hypothesis. PMID:19075284

  17. The possible absence of a healthy-worker effect: a cross-sectional survey among educated Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    Nishikitani, Mariko; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Tsurugano, Shinobu; Yano, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Despite being highly educated in comparison with women in other member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Japanese women are expected to assume traditional gender roles, and many dedicate themselves to full-time housewifery. Women working outside the home do so under poor conditions, and their health may not be better than that of housewives. This study compared the self-rated health status and health behaviours of housewives and working women in Japan. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting A national university in Tokyo with 9864 alumnae. Participants A total 1344 women who graduated since 1985 and completed questionnaires in an anonymous mail-based survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures Health anxiety and satisfaction, receipt of health check-ups, eating breakfast, smoking, and sleep problems according to job status and family demands: housewives (n=247) and working women with (n=624) and without (n=436) family demands. ORs were used for risk assessment, with housewives as a reference. Results After adjustment for satisfaction with present employment status and other confounding factors, working women were more likely than housewives to feel health anxiety (with family demands, OR: 1.68, 95% CI1.10 to 2.57; without family demands, OR: 3.57, 95% CI 2.19 to 4.50) and health dissatisfaction (without family demands, OR: 3.50, 95% CI 2.35 to 5.21); they were also more likely than housewives to eat an insufficient breakfast (with family demands, OR: 1.91, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.00; without family demands, OR: 4.02, 95% CI 2.47 to 6.57) and to have sleep problems (ORs: 2.08 to 4.03). Conclusions No healthy-worker effect was found among Japanese women. Housewives, at least those who are well educated, appear to have better health status and health-related behaviours than do working women with the same level of education. PMID:22964114

  18. Knowledge is (not) power: healthy eating and physical activity for African-American women.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T

    2015-01-01

    African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity. PMID:25905767

  19. Women and Heart Disease | Healthy Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... brings leading celebrities together in fashions created by America's top designers for women's heart health. Celebrity participants ... However, data on increasing rates of overweight and obesity, important risk factors for heart disease in younger ...

  20. Preradiotherapy Calcium Scores of the Coronary Arteries in a Cohort of Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Comparison With a Cohort of Healthy Women

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, Mirjam E.; Heijenbrok, Mark W.; Petoukhova, Anna L.; Scholten, Astrid N.; Schreur, Joop H.M.; Struikmans, Henk

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Breast cancer radiotherapy has been associated with an increased risk of cardiac toxicity. However, no data are available on the probability of developing coronary artery disease (CAD) in breast cancer patients when compared with healthy women. Therefore, baseline coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, as an accepted tool to predict CAD, were determined and compared with the CAC scores of a healthy, asymptomatic cohort, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Methods and Materials: Eighty consecutive patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or infiltrative breast cancer referred for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery were included in our study. Their cardiovascular risk profile was registered, and a 64 multislice CT scan was performed. The CAC scores of an unselected (Caucasian only) Radiotherapy Centre West (RCWEST) cohort, as well as of those of a selected (comorbidity and race adjusted) RCWEST cohort, were determined. The scores of both cohorts were compared with those of the female (Caucasian only) MESA cohort. Results: For the unselected RCWEST cohort (n = 62) we found significant (p < .01) higher scores for women in the 55-64 age category compared with those of the MESA cohort. In the selected cohort (n = 55) the CAC scores of the women in the age category 55-64 were significantly (p = .02) higher compared with the MESA cohort. No significant differences were noted in the other age categories. Conclusion: Both cohorts revealed that CAC scores in the 55-64 age category were significantly higher than the CAC scores in the asymptomatic (female) MESA population. These data suggest that breast cancer patients bear a higher risk of developing coronary heart disease before the start of radiotherapy. Therefore, measures to decrease cardiac dose further in breast cancer radiotherapy are even more important.

  1. Osteoporosis in otherwise healthy perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women: physical and biochemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pouillès, Jean-Michel; Trémollieres, Florence A; Ribot, Claude

    2006-02-01

    Population studies have shown that about 3-5% of perimenopausal women already have osteoporosis according to the WHO definition of osteoporosis for postmenopausal women ( t -scorewomen, with no identifiable cause of bone loss. This group has so far been little studied. We prospectively evaluated a group of 60 perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women (mean age 52.2+/-2.5 years) who were found to have apparently unexplained low bone mass, and we compared them to 120 controls matched for age and menopausal status. These women were extensively investigated, including by detailed questionnaire and laboratory testing. Of the 60 women with osteoporosis, only three were found to have previously undiagnosed disorders (two with subclinical hyperthyroidism and one with elevated serum PTH levels) that might have contributed to their low bone mass. On the other hand, osteoporotic patients were characterized by a significantly lower body weight, higher prevalence of personal and parental histories of fractures and a higher level of bone turnover as assessed by increased serum osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase levels and urinary type I collagen C-telopeptide (CTX) excretion, as compared to controls. These findings support theories of a genetic contribution to osteoporosis and underline the predictive value of a previous history of personal and familial fracture in the identification of osteoporosis in early postmenopausal women. PMID:16021526

  2. Sexuality of young women surviving leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Puukko, L; Hirvonen, E; Aalberg, V; Hovi, L; Rautonen, J; Siimes, M

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 7 December 1996
 This study was designed to assess the sexuality of young women surviving acute leukaemia in childhood or early adolescence. Thirty of 31 survivors were compared with 50 healthy age matched controls. Three methods were used: a self report questionnaire, a face to face interview conducted by a psychiatrist, and a projective psychological test. The age at initiation of dating and sexual activity, the frequency of sexual intercourse, and opinions on sexual behaviour were similar in the two groups. With regard to inner sexuality, however, the survivors differed significantly from the healthy controls. Their images of sexuality were more restrictive, and their attitudes, especially those concerning sexual pleasure, were more negative than those of the controls. Sexual identity among the survivors was less often feminine and more often infantile as compared with the controls. The findings obtained with the three methods of assessment were concordant.

 PMID:9135258

  3. Impact of functional training on cardiac autonomic modulation, cardiopulmonary parameters and quality of life in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Rezende Barbosa, Marianne Penachini da Costa de; Netto Júnior, Jayme; Cassemiro, Bruna Montechieze; de Souza, Naiara Maria; Bernardo, Aline Fernanda Barbosa; da Silva, Anne Kastelianne França; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques

    2016-07-01

    Functional training (FT) promotes benefits in various physical abilities; however, its effect on autonomic modulation, cardiorespiratory parameters and quality of life in the healthy adult population is unknown, and thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of  FT on these variables in healthy young women. The study consisted of 29 women, distributed into two groups: the FT Group (FTG; n = 13; 23 ± 2·51 years; 21·90 ± 2·82 kg m(-) ²) and the Control Group (CG; n = 16; 20·56 ± 1·03 years; 22·12 ± 3·86 kg m(-) ²). The FTG performed periodized FT for 12 weeks, three times a week. The following were evaluated: autonomic modulation (heart rate variability), cardiorespiratory parameters and quality of life (SF-36 Questionnaire). The Student's t-test for unpaired data or the Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the differences obtained between the final moment and the initial moment of the studied groups (P<0·05). The FTG demonstrated significant improvements in quality of life and autonomic modulation (P<0·05), but not in the cardiorespiratory parameters. Functional training was able to produce improvements in autonomic modulation and quality of life. PMID:26033271

  4. Sex Hormones Enhance Gingival Inflammation without Affecting IL-1β and TNF-α in Periodontally Healthy Women during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Chen, Shao-Wu; Su, Wei-Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ying; Ouyang, Shu-Yuan; Cao, Ya-Ting; Jiang, Shao-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Hormones (progesterone and estradiol) change greatly during pregnancy; however, the mechanism of hormonal changes on gingival inflammation is still unclear. This study is to evaluate the effects of hormonal changes during pregnancy on gingival inflammation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). 30 periodontally healthy pregnant women were evaluated in the first, second, and third trimesters. 20 periodontally healthy nonpregnant women were evaluated twice (once per subsequent month). Clinical parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding index (BI), gingival index (GI), clinical attachment level (CAL), and plaque index (PLI) were recorded. GCF levels of IL-1β and TNF-α and serum levels of progesterone and estradiol were measured. From the data, despite low PLI, BI and GI increased significantly during pregnancy; however, no significant changes in PLI, CAL, IL-1β, or TNF-α GCF levels were observed. Although IL-1β, not TNF-α, was higher in pregnant group than in nonpregnant group, they showed no correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. GI and BI showed significant positive correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. This study suggests that sex hormone increase during pregnancy might have an effect on inflammatory status of gingiva, independent of IL-1β and TNF-α in GCF. PMID:27034591

  5. Muscle activation and knee biomechanics during squatting and lunging after lower extremity fatigue in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Longpré, Heather S; Acker, Stacey M; Maly, Monica R

    2015-02-01

    Muscle activations and knee joint loads were compared during squatting and lunging before and after lower extremity neuromuscular fatigue. Electromyographic activations of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris, and the external knee adduction and flexion moments were collected on 25 healthy women (mean age 23.5 years, BMI of 23.7 kg/m(2)) during squatting and lunging. Participants were fatigued through sets of 50 isotonic knee extensions and flexions, with resistance set at 50% of the peak torque achieved during a maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Fatigue was defined as a decrease in peak isometric knee extension or flexion torque ≥25% from baseline. Co-activation indices were calculated between rectus femoris and biceps femoris; and between vastus lateralis and biceps femoris. Fatigue decreased peak isometric extension and flexion torques (p<0.05), mean vastus lateralis activation during squatting and lunging (p<0.05), and knee adduction and flexion moments during lunging (p<0.05). Quadriceps activations were greater during lunging than squatting (p<0.05). Thus, fatigue altered the recruitment strategy of the quadriceps during squatting and lunging. Lunging challenges quadriceps activation more than squatting in healthy, young women. PMID:25258248

  6. Modulation of the discriminative stimulus effects of triazolam across the menstrual cycle phase in healthy pre-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Babalonis, Shanna; Emurian, Cleeve S.; Martin, Catherine A.; Lile, Joshua A.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Preclinical studies indicate that changes in progesterone levels across menstrual cycle phases modulate the behavioral effects of sedative drugs acting at GABAA receptor sites. In this study, seven healthy women learned to discriminate triazolam (0.25 mg/70 kg) from placebo. After acquiring the discrimination, a range of triazolam doses (0.00, 0.06, 0.12 and 0.25 mg/70 kg) was tested during the early follicular and mid-luteal menstrual cycle phases. During the mid-luteal phase, when progesterone levels were elevated, 0.12 mg/70 kg triazolam was identified as the active triazolam training dose (0.25 mg/70 kg), whereas 0.12 mg/70 kg triazolam was identified as placebo during the early follicular phase, when progesterone levels were low. Triazolam engendered prototypical sedative effects on subjective effect, performance and cardiovascular measures that were generally independent of cycle phase. These results suggest that the discriminative stimulus effects of the positive GABAA modulator, triazolam, are sensitive to menstrual cycle phase in healthy adult women. PMID:18178039

  7. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Young Healthy Women in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Felipe A.; Quint, Wim; Gonzalez, Paula; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Herrero, Rolando; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Schiffman, Mark; Struijk, Linda; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; DelVecchio, Corey; Lowy, Douglas R.; Porras, Carolina; Jimenez, Silvia; Schiller, John; Solomon, Diane; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Kreimer, Aimée R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Anal cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), yet little is known about anal HPV infection among healthy young women. Methods. A total of 2017 sexually active women in the control arm of an HPV-16/18 vaccine trial had a single anal specimen collected by a clinician at the 4-year study visit. Samples were tested for HPV by SPF10 PCR/DEIA/LiPA25, version 1. Results. A total of 4% of women had HPV-16, 22% had oncogenic HPV, and 31% had any HPV detected in an anal specimen. The prevalence of anal HPV was higher among women who reported anal intercourse, compared with those who did not (43.4% vs 28.4%; P < .001). Among women who reported anal intercourse, cervical HPV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.4–8.2]), number of sex partners (aOR, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.1–4.6] for ≥4 partners), and number of anal intercourse partners (aOR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.1–3.3] for ≥2 partners) were independent risk factors for anal HPV detection. Among women who reported no anal intercourse, cervical HPV (aOR, 4.7 [95% CI, 3.7–5.9]), number of sex partners (aOR, 2.4 [95% CI, 1.7–3.4] for ≥4 partners), and report of anal fissures (aOR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.1–4.8]) were associated with an increased odds of anal HPV detection. Conclusion. Anal HPV is common among young women, even those who report no anal sex, and was associated with cervical HPV infection. Anal fissures in women who report never having had anal intercourse may facilitate HPV exposure. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00128661. PMID:22850119

  8. Prevalence of dieting among working men and women: the healthy worker project.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, R W; Adlis, S A; Forster, J L

    1991-01-01

    Examined dieting to lose weight in a population of 2,107 men and 2,540 women employed in 32 worksites in the upper Midwest. Lifetime prevalence of this behavior was estimated to be 47% in men and 75% in women, and point prevalence was reported as 13% and 25% in men and women, respectively. Lifetime prevalence of participation in organized weight-loss programs was 6% in men and 31% in women; current prevalence was 1% in men and 6% in women. The strongest correlate of dieting behavior was relative body weight. In logistic regression analyses, dieting tended to be associated positively with education and occupational status and, in men only, was more prevalent among those with a history of hypertension. Dieters reported lower food intakes than nondieters, but the two groups did not differ consistently in reported physical activity. Overall, dieting appears to be a pervasive behavioral U.S. phenomenon that may contribute in part to population differences in the prevalence of obesity. PMID:1915214

  9. Hormonal contraceptive use diminishes salivary cortisol response to psychosocial stress and naltrexone in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Daniel J.O.; King, Andrea C.; Cohoon, Andrew J.; Lovallo, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of hormonal contraception (HC) may affect salivary cortisol levels at rest and in response to a pharmacological or stress challenge. Therefore, the current study used a secondary data analysis to investigate the effect of HC on salivary cortisol levels in response to the mu-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and a psychosocial stressor, and also across the diurnal curve. Two hundred and nine women (n = 72 using hormonal contraception; HC+) completed a two-session stress response study that consisted of a stress day, in which they were exposed to public speaking and mental arithmetic, and a rest day, in which unstimulated cortisol levels were measured to assess the diurnal rhythm. A subset of seventy women (n = 24 HC+) also completed a second study in which they were administered oral naltrexone (50 mg) or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind fashion. Women who were HC+ had a significantly reduced salivary cortisol response to both the psychosocial stressor (p < 0.001) and naltrexone (p < 0.05) compared to HC− women. Additionally, HC+ women had a significantly altered morning diurnal cortisol rhythm (p < 0.01), with a delayed peak and higher overall levels. The results of the current study confirm that HC attenuates salivary cortisol response to a psychosocial stressor and mu-opioid receptor antagonism, and also alters the morning diurnal cortisol curve. PMID:23672966

  10. Hormonal contraceptive use is associated with neural and affective changes in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Lisofsky, Nina; Riediger, Michaela; Gallinat, Jürgen; Lindenberger, Ulman; Kühn, Simone

    2016-07-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has demonstrated that female gonadal hormones can alter the structure and function of adult women's brains. So far, we do not know how hormonal contraceptives affect female brain structure, in part because within-person longitudinal observations are lacking. Here, we compared 28 young women before and after three months of regular contraceptive intake with 28 naturally cycling women of comparable age. The goal was to explore within-person neural change in women using contraceptives. Neuroimaging, hormonal, cognitive, and affect data were collected at two time points for each participant. A voxel-wise whole-brain comparison of both groups revealed decreased gray matter volume in the left amygdala/anterior parahippocampal gyrus in women using contraceptives as compared to the control group. Resting-state functional connectivity of this region with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex changed from positive to negative connectivity following contraceptive intake whereas the opposite held for the control group. An exploratory analysis revealed that gray matter volume in the left amygdala/anterior parahippocampal gyrus was associated with positive affect at the second time point. There were no systematic differences in cognitive performance change between the groups. These findings provide initial insights into effects of hormonal contraceptives on the human brain and expand previous findings on hormone-related amygdala/hippocampal complex plasticity. The affected brain regions may be related to psychological wellbeing, underlining the importance of future studies on contraceptive-induced brain changes. PMID:27109356

  11. Liver Enzymes Are Associated With Hepatic Insulin Resistance, Insulin Secretion, and Glucagon Concentration in Healthy Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Fabrice; Ducluzeau, Pierre-Henri; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Laville, Martine; Anderwald, Christian H.; Konrad, Thomas; Mari, Andrea; Balkau, Beverley

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The pathophysiological mechanisms to explain the association between risk of type 2 diabetes and elevated concentrations of γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alanineaminotransferase (ALT) remain poorly characterized. We explored the association of liver enzymes with peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance, insulin secretion, insulin clearance, and glucagon concentration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 1,309 nondiabetic individuals from the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular disease (RISC) study; all had a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with assessment of insulin secretion and hepatic insulin extraction. The hepatic insulin resistance index was calculated in 393 individuals. RESULTS In both men and women, plasma concentrations of GGT and ALT were inversely related with insulin sensitivity (M/I) (all P < 0.01). Likewise, the hepatic insulin resistance index was positively correlated with both GGT (r = 0.37, P < 0.0001, men; r = 0.36, P < 0.0001, women) and ALT (r = 0.25, P = 0.0005, men; r = 0.18, P = 0.01, women). These associations persisted in multivariable models. Increased GGT and ALT were significantly associated with higher insulin secretion rates and with both reduced endogenous clearance of insulin and hepatic insulin extraction during the OGTT (P = 0.0005 in men; P = 0.003 in women). Plasma fasting glucagon levels increased over ALT quartiles (men, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 11.2 ± 5.1 vs. 9.3 ± 3.8 pmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0002; women, 9.0 ± 4.3 vs. 7.6 ± 3.1, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS In healthy individuals, increased GGT and ALT were biomarkers of both systemic and hepatic insulin resistance with concomitant increased insulin secretion and decreased hepatic insulin clearance. The novel finding of a positive correlation between ALT and fasting glucagon level concentrations warrants confirmation in type 2 diabetes. PMID:21521874

  12. Income and Subjective Well-Being: New Insights from Relatively Healthy American Women, Ages 49-79.

    PubMed

    Wyshak, Grace

    2016-01-01

    The interests of economists, psychologists, social scientists and others on the relations of income, demographics, religion and subjective well-being, have generated a vast global literature. It is apparent that biomedical research has focused on white with men. The Women's Health Initiative and Observational Study (WHI OS) was initiated in 1992. The OS represents the scientific need for social priorities to improve the health and welfare of women; it includes 93.676 relatively healthy postmenopausal women, 49 to 79, from diverse backgrounds. The objective of this study is to examine how lifestyle and other factors influence women's health. Data from the WHI OS questionnaire were analyzed. Statistical methods included descriptive statistics square, correlations, linear regression and analyses of covariance (GLM). New findings and insights relate primarily to general health, religion, club attendance, and likelihood of depression. The most important predictor of excellent or very good health is quality of life and general health is a major predictor of quality of life. A great deal of strength and comfort from religion was reported by 62.98% of the women, with little variation by denomination. More from religion related to poorer health, and less likelihood of depression. Religion and lower income are in accord with of across country studies. Attendance at clubs was associated with religion and with all factors associated with religion, except income. Though general health and likelihood of depression are highly correlated, better health is associated with higher income; however, likelihood of depression is not associated with income--contrary to conventional wisdom about socioeconomic disparities and mental health. Subjective well-being variables, with the exception of quality of life, were not associated with income. Social networks--religion and clubs--among a diverse population, warrant further attention from economists, psychologists, sociologists, and others

  13. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  14. Sexual Activity and Satisfaction in Healthy Community-dwelling Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Trompeter, Susan E.; Bettencourt, Ricki; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Female sexual dysfunction is a focus of medical research but few studies describe the prevalence and covariates of recent sexual activity and satisfaction in older community-dwelling women. METHODS 1303 older women from the Rancho Bernardo Study were mailed a questionnaire on general health, recent sexual activity, sexual satisfaction, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). RESULTS 806 of 921 respondents (87.5%) age ≥40 years answered questions about recent sexual activity. Their median age was 67; mean years since menopause, 25; most were upper-middle class; 57% had attended at least one year of college; 90% reported good to excellent health. Half (49.8%) reported sexual activity within the past month with or without a partner, the majority of whom reported arousal (64.5%), lubrication (69%), and orgasm (67.1%) at least most of the time, although one-third reported low, very low, or no sexual desire. Although frequency of arousal, lubrication, and orgasm decrease with age, the youngest (<55 yrs) and oldest (>80 yrs) women reported a higher frequency of orgasm satisfaction. Emotional closeness during sex was associated with more frequent arousal, lubrication, and orgasm; estrogen therapy was not. Overall, two-thirds of sexually active women were moderately or very satisfied with their sex life, as were almost half of sexually inactive women. CONCLUSION Half these women were sexually active, with arousal, lubrication, and orgasm maintained into old age, despite low libido in one-third. Sexual satisfaction increased with age and did not require sexual activity. PMID:22195529

  15. Evaluation of an inexpensive calcium absorption index in healthy older men and women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium absorption is an important determinant of calcium retention and bone metabolism. However, most methods of measuring calcium absorption, including the well-established dual stable isotope method, are costly and cumbersome to implement. We evaluated eleven healthy subjects age 54-74 to determ...

  16. Assessment of Perceptual-Motor Abilities of Healthy Rural Elderly Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowatt, Marilyn; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Steadiness, reaction time, anticipation timing, and finger dexterity of healthy rural older adults were assessed to discover if norms should be set for perceptual motor tasks based on age. Guidelines for assessment of fine manipulative performances of the elderly are proposed. (DF)

  17. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is related to indicators of overall physical fitness in healthy postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inadequate vitamin D status is related to increased adiposity, risk of falls, and muscle weakness, particularly in the elderly. We hypothesized that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) vitamin D) is related to physical fitness indices (androidal fat, whole body lean mass, balance, strength) in healthy...

  18. Evidence for reduced sympatholysis in leg resistance vasculature of healthy older women.

    PubMed

    Parker, Beth A; Smithmyer, Sandra L; Jarvis, Sara S; Ridout, Samuel J; Pawelczyk, James A; Proctor, David N

    2007-02-01

    Inhibition of a sympathetic stimulus (i.e., sympatholysis) during forearm exercise is reduced with age in women. This age-related alteration has not been characterized in the lower extremity vasculature of women, and the potential for blunting of the conduit artery dilatory response to a sudden increase in shear stress [flow-mediated dilation (FMD)] has not been examined in older adults of either sex. In the present study, we assessed popliteal artery diameter and velocity (Doppler ultrasound) in 16 young (23 +/- 1 yr) and 14 older (69 +/- 1 yr) women after 5 min of distal calf occlusion (FMD), 3 min of hand immersion in ice water [cold pressor test (CPT)], and 5 min of distal calf occlusion combined with hand immersion in ice water (FMD+CPT). Peak popliteal conductance after 5-min ischemia was not significantly different in young vs. older women. During the combined stimulus (FMD+CPT), the magnitude of vasoconstriction in the calf (reduction in peak popliteal artery conductance) was similar (5-8%), despite reduced resting adrenergic sensitivity to CPT [young (Y): -27.3 +/- 3.8%; older (O): -15.8 +/- 2.2%; P < 0.05] and blunted muscle sympathetic nerve activity responses to CPT (Y: 12.7 +/- 3.6 bursts/min; O: 7.8 +/- 2.5 bursts/min; P < 0.05) in older women. Popliteal FMD, normalized to the shear stimulus, was attenuated by 60-70% in older women. Peak popliteal diameter, measured during the combined stimulus (FMD+CPT), was blunted in young but not in older women (Y FMD: 5.5 +/- 0.1 mm; Y FMD+CPT: 5.4 +/- 0.1 mm; P = 0.03; O FMD: 5.8 +/- 0.2 mm; O FMD+CPT: 5.8 +/- 0.2 mm). These results confirm previous findings of diminished reactivity in the conduit arteries of older humans and provide the first evidence of reduced sympatholysis in the leg resistance vasculature of older women. PMID:17071730

  19. Effects of corollary discharge on event-related potentials during selective attention task in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Noriko; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Fukuda, Masato; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Corollary discharge is a brain electrical activity associated with self-monitoring, which distinguishes self from others in thoughts or behaviors. Corollary discharge can be non-invasively assessed using event-related potential (ERP) recordings in humans. Previous studies have revealed that the amplitude of the N100 component elicited during an "odd-ball" task is reduced while a healthy subject is vocalizing, which may index the effect of corollary discharge on auditory ERPs. In this study, we attempted to assess the effect of vocalization on ERP components including N100, mismatch negativity (MMN), negative difference wave (Nd), and P300 during a selective attention task in 22 healthy adults. We also evaluated the possible contribution of gender to these effects. N100 amplitudes elicited by unattended standard stimuli were reduced under the vocalization condition compared with those under the baseline condition. However, there were no significant effects of vocalization on MMN, Nd or P300. Moreover, there was no significant effect of gender to the corollary discharge. These results suggest that the effect of corollary discharge on auditory ERPs is limited to the perceptual stage of information processing in healthy men and women. PMID:14687881

  20. A controlled trial of the effect of milk basic protein (MBP) supplementation on bone metabolism in healthy menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Aoe, Seiichiro; Koyama, Takao; Toba, Yasuhiro; Itabashi, Akira; Takada, Yukihiro

    2005-12-01

    Milk has more beneficial effects on bone health than other food sources. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that milk whey protein, especially its basic protein fraction (milk basic protein, MBP), contains several components capable of promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption. The object of this study was to examine the effect of MBP on the bone metabolism of healthy menopausal women. Thirty-two healthy menopausal women were randomly assigned to treatment with either placebo or MBP (40 mg per day) for 6 months. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 of each subject was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at 0 and 6 months of treatment. Serum and urine indices of bone metabolism were measured at 0, 3 and 6 months. Twenty-seven subjects who completed the study in accordance with the protocol were included in the analysis. The mean rate of gain of lumbar BMD in the MBP group (1.21%) was significantly higher than in the placebo group (-0.66%, P=0.046). When compared with the placebo group, urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides of type-I collagen (NTx) were significantly decreased in the MBP group at 6 months, but no significant difference in serum osteocalcin was observed between the two groups. The urinary NTx excretion was found to be related to serum osteocalcin in the MBP group at 3 and 6 months, indicating that MBP maintained the balance of bone remodeling. These results suggested that MBP supplementation was effective in preventing bone loss in menopausal women and that this improvement in BMD may be primarily mediated through the inhibition of bone resorption while maintaining the balance of bone remodeling by MBP supplementation. PMID:16133638

  1. Subjective Perception of Sleep, but not its Objective Quality, is Associated with Immediate Postpartum Mood Disturbances in Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Bei, Bei; Milgrom, Jeannette; Ericksen, Jennifer; Trinder, John

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated whether there was a relationship between disrupted sleep and postpartum mood disturbances in women during the week after delivery. Design: Sleep and mood were measured during the third trimester (Time-1) and one week postpartum (Time-2) in a 2-stage longitudinal design. Setting: Participants were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a regional Melbourne hospital. Participants: Forty-four healthy women at low risk for postpartum depression. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy and subjective sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; mood was assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Sleep and mood questionnaires were administered at Time-1 and Time-2. Wrist actigraphy was collected for one week at both times. After delivery, both objective and subjective nighttime sleep significantly worsened with decreased total sleep time and sleep efficiency, while daytime napping behavior significantly increased. On average, mood improved across all scales after delivery, although 45.95% of the sample experienced deterioration of mood. Regression analyses showed little relationship between Time-1 and Time-2 objective nighttime sleep, and postpartum mood. Variables that related to both Time-1 and Time-2 subjective perception of sleep, including subjective nighttime sleep, sleep-related daytime dysfunction, and daytime napping behavior, were significant predictors of postpartum mood. Conclusions: The perception of poor sleep, and the conscious awareness of its impact during wake-time, might share a stronger relationship with the occurrence of immediate postpartum mood disturbances than actual sleep quality and quantity. Citation: Bei B; Milgrom J; Ericksen J; Trinder J. Subjective perception of sleep, but not its objective quality, is associated with immediate postpartum mood disturbances in

  2. Fractal correlation property of heart rate variability in response to the postural change maneuver in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated the effects of the PCM on the fractal analysis of the HRV in healthy women Method We evaluated healthy women between 18 and 30 years old. HRV was analyzed in the time (SDNN, RMSSD, NN50 and pNN50) and frequency (LF, HF and LF/HF ratio) domains as well as short and long-term fractal exponents (alpha-1 and alpha-2) of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). HRV was recorded at rest for ten minutes at seated rest and then the women quickly stood up from a seated position in up to three seconds and remained standing for 15 minutes. HRV was recorded at the following time: rest, 0–5 min, 5–10 min and 10–15 min during standing. Results We observed decrease (p < 0.05) in the time-domain indices of HRV between seated and 10–15 minutes after the volunteer stood up. The LF (ms2) and HF (ms2) indices were also reduced (p < 0.05) at 10–15 minutes after the volunteer stood up compared to seated while the LF (nu) was increased at 5–10 min and 10–15 min (p < 0.05). The short-term alpha-1 exponent was increased (p < 0.05) at all moments investigated compared to seated. Increase in the properties of short-term fractal correlations of heart rate dynamics accompanied by a decrease in the parasympathetic modulation and global HRV was observed in response to the postural change maneuver. Conclusion We suggest that fractal analysis of HRV is more sensitive than frequency and time-domain analysis of HRV during the postural change maneuver. PMID:24910714

  3. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women: the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Christensen, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2013-03-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects. The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom 1025 developed CRC (13 years' follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment. PMID:22874538

  4. Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Lof, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2006-02-01

    Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32. PMID:16469145

  5. Psychometric properties of a French version of a Dutch scale for assessing breast and body image (BBIS) in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic testing among women for BRCA1/2 mutation can have various psychological effects, such as those focusing on body image. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a generic scale assessing breast and body image (BBIS) in healthy women tested for BRCA1/2 mutations. Methods A Dutch body image scale focusing on both general and breast-related body image was translated into French. It was presented to a French cohort of female cancer-free BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers (N = 568). The psychometric properties of the scale were studied by assessing its dimensional and factorial structure, internal consistency, construct-related validity, and external validity. Results The scale was found to be a satisfactory psychometric tool for assessing both body image and breast image. The three main dimensions which emerged were classified under the headings “values attached to body image”, “satisfaction with body image and perceived attractiveness”, and “satisfaction with breasts”. The BBIS scores were not significantly associated with the participants’ socio-demographic characteristics or their BRCA1/2 mutation carrier status, but significant associations were observed between these scores and the women’s medical and behavioural characteristics. Conclusions The BBIS is a generic tool which can be used to assess body image in either affected or unaffected women. The scale will have to be administered to other populations in order to confirm its validity. PMID:23680028

  6. What Do Healthy Women Know About the Consequences of Delayed Childbearing?

    PubMed Central

    Gossett, Dana R.; Nayak, Shweta; Bhatt, Shweta; Bailey, Stacy C.

    2013-01-01

    Female fertility declines dramatically with age, and childbearing at older maternal ages has significant medical consequences for mother and infant that are well-known to health professionals. Despite this, the average maternal age in the United States continues to rise. Many factors likely contribute to this secular trend; to date, no research has examined whether American women are aware of the complications of deferring conception and how this correlates with health literacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate women's knowledge of the implications of delaying pregnancy. A structured, in-person interview was administered to 300 women between 20 and 50 years of age attending 1 of 2 gynecologic clinics at a single institution. Demographic information, medical history, and gynecologic history were obtained; and participants answered questions about the implications of aging for fertility and pregnancy outcome. Health literacy and numeracy were assessed. Participants demonstrated knowledge deficits about the implications of aging on fertility and pregnancy, and many were unfamiliar with success rates of infertility treatments. Several demographic factors correlated with knowledge; health literacy and numeracy were both important predictive variables. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study of women's knowledge about fertility, aging, and their health literacy. Awareness of the importance of health literacy and numeracy should inform future educational efforts about fertility. PMID:24093350

  7. Precocious markers of cardiovascular risk and vascular damage in apparently healthy women with previous gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) indicates future risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Insulin resistance (IR) may precede T2DM in many years and is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Aim This study aims to identify endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors in women with pGDM. Methods This cross-sectional analysis included 45 non diabetic women, 20 pGDM and 25 controls, at least one year after delivery. Body mass index (BMI), abdominal circumference (AC), blood pressure, serum lipids, liver enzymes, uric acid, nonesterified fatty acids, C-reactive protein and plasma glucose, insulin, fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 were measured. HOMA IR and β were calculated. Pre and post induced ischemia videocapillaroscopy was performed in hand nailfold to evaluate microvascular morphologic aspect and functional response. Results AC and fasting glucose were significantly higher in pGDM (p = 0.01 and p = 0.002 respectively). Women with pGDM and BMI < 25 kg/m2 had significantly higher levels of fasting insulin and HOMA IR than controls (p = 0.008 and 0.05 respectively). Abnormal morphologic findings were more frequent and papillae rectification were 3.3 times more prevalent in pGDM (p = 0.003). Other microvascular parameters did not differ between groups. Conclusion Cardiovascular risk factors and a microcirculation abnormality (papillae rectification) were significantly increased in young non-diabetic women with pGDM. PMID:24955136

  8. What do healthy women know about the consequences of delayed childbearing?

    PubMed

    Gossett, Dana R; Nayak, Shweta; Bhatt, Shweta; Bailey, Stacy C

    2013-01-01

    Female fertility declines dramatically with age, and childbearing at older maternal ages has significant medical consequences for mother and infant that are well-known to health professionals. Despite this, the average maternal age in the United States continues to rise. Many factors likely contribute to this secular trend; to date, no research has examined whether American women are aware of the complications of deferring conception and how this correlates with health literacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate women's knowledge of the implications of delaying pregnancy. A structured, in-person interview was administered to 300 women between 20 and 50 years of age attending 1 of 2 gynecologic clinics at a single institution. Demographic information, medical history, and gynecologic history were obtained; and participants answered questions about the implications of aging for fertility and pregnancy outcome. Health literacy and numeracy were assessed. Participants demonstrated knowledge deficits about the implications of aging on fertility and pregnancy, and many were unfamiliar with success rates of infertility treatments. Several demographic factors correlated with knowledge; health literacy and numeracy were both important predictive variables. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study of women's knowledge about fertility, aging, and their health literacy. Awareness of the importance of health literacy and numeracy should inform future educational efforts about fertility. PMID:24093350

  9. Consumption of Calcium-Fortified Cereal Bars to Improve Dietary Calcium Intake of Healthy Women: Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer T.; Moore, Carolyn E.; Radcliffe, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day) (intervention) to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control). At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d) when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001) or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001) periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted. Trial Registration Clinical

  10. Bone Mineral Density Changes Among Young, Healthy African Women Receiving Oral Tenofovir for HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Clifton W.; Mgodi, Nyaradzo; Greenspan, Susan; Dai, James Y.; Mayo, Ashley; Piper, Jeanna; Akello, Carolyne A.; Kiweewa, Flavia M.; Magure, Tsitsi; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Chirenje, Z. Mike; Riddler, Sharon A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Limited data exist on effect of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) when used for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) on bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-negative women. We evaluated the effect of daily oral TDF and emtricitabine/TDF compared with placebo on BMD among women enrolled in an HIV-1 PrEP trial. Methods: HIV-uninfected women in Uganda and Zimbabwe had BMD measurements of lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline and every 24 weeks for 48 weeks of active treatment and for 48 weeks after discontinuation of study medication. Plasma tenofovir levels were assessed every 12 weeks for the first 48 weeks. Results: Of 518 women enrolled, 432 had dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry results at baseline and week 48. In the primary analysis, no significant differences in percent BMD change in hip or spine between arms observed, likely because of low product adherence. Among the subset with tenofovir detection in 75%–100% of plasma samples, the mean percent BMD change from baseline to week 48 in the LS was 1.4% lower for TDF or emtricitabine/TDF recipients than for placebo (P = 0.002) and TH BMD was 0.9% lower (P = 0.018). BMD changes from end of active treatment to 48 weeks were significantly greater in the active arm participants compared with placebo participants with a net difference of approximately +0.9% at the LS (P = 0.007) and +0.7% (P = 0.003) at the TH. Conclusions: TDF-containing oral PrEP resulted in small but significant reversible decreases in hip and spine BMD among young African women. PMID:26866954

  11. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  12. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    PubMed

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies. PMID:27297000

  13. Bedrest in healthy women: Effects of menstrual function and oral contraceptives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Beckett, William B.; Vroman, Neil B.; Davis, John; Rock, John; Kimbell, Allyn; Lafrance, Norman; Drew, Helen

    1986-01-01

    With the development of the space shuttle program, space flight for the first time is available to individuals who have not been specially selected and trained to be astronauts. In addition, women are being actively recruited into the space program, both as mission specialists and as career astronauts. One purpose of this project was to examine some of the physiological responses of women to a simulated weightlessness program (12 day horizontal bedrest), to compare their responses to those reported in men during similar programs, and to test whether menstrual function might alter some of the physiological changes which occur during bedrest, specifically changes in the plasma volume, exercise tolerance, and venous compliance before and after bedrest.

  14. Stress-induced changes in skin barrier function in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Altemus, M; Rao, B; Dhabhar, F S; Ding, W; Granstein, R D

    2001-08-01

    Despite clear exacerbation of several skin disorders by stress, the effect of psychologic or exertional stress on human skin has not been well studied. We investigated the effect of three different stressors, psychologic interview stress, sleep deprivation, and exercise, on several dermatologic measures: transepidermal water loss, recovery of skin barrier function after tape stripping, and stratum corneum water content (skin conductance). We simultaneously measured the effects of stress on plasma levels of several stress-response hormones and cytokines, natural killer cell activity, and absolute numbers of peripheral blood leukocytes. Twenty-five women participated in a laboratory psychologic interview stress, 11 women participated in one night of sleep deprivation, and 10 women participated in a 3 d exercise protocol. The interview stress caused a delay in the recovery of skin barrier function, as well as increases in plasma cortisol, norepinephrine, interleukin-1beta and interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and an increase in circulating natural killer cell activity and natural killer cell number. Sleep deprivation also decreased skin barrier function recovery and increased plasma interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and natural killer cell activity. The exercise stress did not affect skin barrier function recovery, but caused an increase in natural killer cell activity and circulating numbers of both cytolytic T lymphocytes and helper T cells. In addition, cytokine responses to the interview stress were inversely correlated with changes in barrier function recovery. These results suggest that acute psychosocial and sleep deprivation stress disrupts skin barrier function homeostasis in women, and that this disruption may be related to stress-induced changes in cytokine secretion. PMID:11511309

  15. What do women know about breast cancer prophylaxis and a healthy style of life?

    PubMed Central

    Sielska, Jolanta; Matecka, Monika; Dąbrowska, Eliza; Jakubek, Ewa; Urbaniak, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to determine the factors influencing women's knowledge concerning breast cancer prophylaxis and find out the sources of the knowledge. Background In the Greater Poland region, breast cancer has been the most frequently detected tumour for years. The percentage of breast cancer cases has increased by 31% in the last decade. Materials and methods The study encompassed 337 women aged 40–59 who participated in the mammographic examinations. An original research tool was used which assessed the level of knowledge concerning breast cancer prophylaxis, the knowledge of health-oriented behaviour in this regard and the influence of the medical personnel on women's education. Results Age is a factor diversifying the knowledge of the breast self-examination method. Doctors and nurses were rarely indicated as a source of knowledge concerning breast cancer prophylaxis. The subjects presented a high level of knowledge of the factors increasing the risk of developing cancer. Conclusions A correlation between the level of education and the knowledge of one's own breast to a degree which enables a woman to detect even a slight change was observed. Vital findings also concern the sources of knowledge concerning breast cancer prophylaxis. The results of the studies indicated little informative support on the part of the medical personnel; therefore, one should call for supplementing training courses for doctors and nurses focusing on the issues of prophylaxis, including the method of breast self-examination. PMID:26549989

  16. Leukocyte telomere length is associated with cognitive performance in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Valdes, AM; Deary, IJ; Gardner, J; Kimura, M; Lu, X; Spector, TD; Aviv, A; Cherkas, LF

    2010-01-01

    Background Age-related cognitive decline begins in mid-life and continues with advancing age. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age, and inflammation and oxidative stress enhance this process. Shorter LTL is associated with dementia. Methods The relationship between cognitive function and LTL was investigated in a cross-sectional study of 382 women (mean age 50.6 years, range 19–78), not diagnosed with any form of dementia or cognitive impairment, from the TwinsUK cohort using 6 tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Results After adjusting for age and estimated prior intellectual ability, we observed significant correlations of LTL with episodic memory and associated learning (PAL, p=0.032), recognition memory for non-verbal patterns (DMS, p=0.007), and working memory capacity (SSP, p=0.003). In pairs of twins discordant for LTL the twin with longer telomeres also had significantly better DMS (p<0.05) and SSP (p<0.013) scores than their co-twin with shorter telomeres. The correlations between these two scores and LTLwas significant both in women over the median mean age and in those below the median age, and remained significant after statistical adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions Leukocyte telomere length correlates with a subset of measures of cognitive performance, suggesting that it might be a biomarker of cognitive aging in women before the onset of dementia. PMID:18718693

  17. Increasing Healthy Start food and vitamin voucher uptake for low income pregnant women (Early Years Collaborative Leith Pioneer Site)

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Graham; Dougall, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Poverty has a detrimental impact on health and wellbeing. Healthy Start food and vitamin vouchers provide support for low income families across the UK, but at least 25% of eligible women and children miss out. We set out to increase uptake, with an aim of 90% of eligible women and children (n~540 eligible, varying over time) receiving vouchers in the initial team's catchment area by December 2015. Starting with one midwife and one pregnant woman in March 2014 we used the model for improvement to identify ways to improve documentation, sign up, and referral. Weekly data on process measures and monthly data on voucher receipt were plotted on run charts. Comparing medians for January-June 2014 and March-August 2015 there was a 13.3% rise in voucher receipt in Lothian (increase from 313 to 355 women), versus an 8.4% decline for the rest of Scotland (fall from 1688 to 1546 women). Figures varied by team, influenced by staff, family, and area factors. The initial aim proved unrealistic, as signing up a woman for vouchers increases both the numerator and denominator. Accordingly, the percentage uptake has not increased at a regional level (remains at 75%), though the figure for the initiating team (“team 3” in graphs) has increased from 73.0% (January 2014) to 79.0% (November 2015). We have continued testing, achieving recent increases in the number of women referred for welfare rights advice on benefits, tax credits, employment rights, childcare, and debt, securing on average £4,500 per client during 2015/16 (£404k for 89 clients by mid September 2015). This improvement project, part of the Early Years Collaborative in Scotland, has had a measureable impact on pregnant women across Lothian. Success has relied on testing, an electronic maternity record, rapid dissemination of findings through direct engagement with clinical teams, and persistence. Our findings have relevance across the UK, particularly at a time of worsening finances for many families. PMID

  18. Increasing Healthy Start food and vitamin voucher uptake for low income pregnant women (Early Years Collaborative Leith Pioneer Site).

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Graham; Dougall, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Poverty has a detrimental impact on health and wellbeing. Healthy Start food and vitamin vouchers provide support for low income families across the UK, but at least 25% of eligible women and children miss out. We set out to increase uptake, with an aim of 90% of eligible women and children (n~540 eligible, varying over time) receiving vouchers in the initial team's catchment area by December 2015. Starting with one midwife and one pregnant woman in March 2014 we used the model for improvement to identify ways to improve documentation, sign up, and referral. Weekly data on process measures and monthly data on voucher receipt were plotted on run charts. Comparing medians for January-June 2014 and March-August 2015 there was a 13.3% rise in voucher receipt in Lothian (increase from 313 to 355 women), versus an 8.4% decline for the rest of Scotland (fall from 1688 to 1546 women). Figures varied by team, influenced by staff, family, and area factors. The initial aim proved unrealistic, as signing up a woman for vouchers increases both the numerator and denominator. Accordingly, the percentage uptake has not increased at a regional level (remains at 75%), though the figure for the initiating team ("team 3" in graphs) has increased from 73.0% (January 2014) to 79.0% (November 2015). We have continued testing, achieving recent increases in the number of women referred for welfare rights advice on benefits, tax credits, employment rights, childcare, and debt, securing on average £4,500 per client during 2015/16 (£404k for 89 clients by mid September 2015). This improvement project, part of the Early Years Collaborative in Scotland, has had a measureable impact on pregnant women across Lothian. Success has relied on testing, an electronic maternity record, rapid dissemination of findings through direct engagement with clinical teams, and persistence. Our findings have relevance across the UK, particularly at a time of worsening finances for many families. PMID:27134747

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERUM CHOLESTEROL AND VERBAL MEMORY MAY BE INFLUENCED BY BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) IN YOUNG HEALTHY WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Darnai, Gergely; Plózer, Enikő; Altbácker, Anna; Perlaki, Gábor; Orsi, Gergely; Kőszegi, Tamás; Nagy, Szilvia Anett; Lucza, Tivadar; Kovács, Norbert; Janszky, József; Zsófia, Clemens

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between verbal memory and total cholesterol (TC) levels related to body mass index (BMI) in healthy young women. Verbal memory was assessed using the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) while total serum cholesterol was measured by enzymatic colorimetric test. In order to analyze the potential significance of BMI subjects were divided into three groups according to their calculated BMI percentile values. No significant correlation was found when assessing the group as a whole. However a remarkable pattern of correlation emerged when assessing the BMI groups separately: a close-to-significant positive correlation was found for total learning score and TC in the low BMI group, no correlation emerged in the medium BMI group while a strong inverse correlation was found in the high BMI group. These findings indicate that the relationship between verbal memory and serum TC level is also influenced by BMI. PMID:27468607

  20. Influences of COMT and 5-HTTLPR Polymorphisms on Cognitive Flexibility in Healthy Women: Inhibition of Prepotent Responses and Memory Updating

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Elisabeth M.; Schulter, Günter; Fink, Andreas; Reiser, Eva M.; Mittenecker, Erich; Niederstätter, Harald; Nagl, Simone; Parson, Walther; Papousek, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Understanding genetic factors that affect monoamine neurotransmitters flux in prefrontal cortex may help to further specify the complex neurobiological processes that underlie cognitive function and dysfunction in health and illness. The current study examined the associations between the polymorphisms of dopaminergic (COMT Met158Val) and serotoninergic (5-HTTLPR) genes and the sequential pattern of responses in a motor random generation task providing well-established indexes for executive functioning in a large sample of 255 healthy women. Participants homozygous for the Met allele of the COMT polymorphism showed impaired inhibition of prepotent responses, whereas individuals homozygous for the s-allele of the 5-HTTLPR showed a restricted ability to update information in working memory. Taken together the results indicate differentiated influences of dopaminergic and serotonergic genes on important and definite executive sub-processes related to cognitive flexibility. PMID:24465579

  1. The effects of a twenty-four-week aquatic training program on muscular strength performance in healthy elderly women.

    PubMed

    Tsourlou, Thomai; Benik, Athanasia; Dipla, Konstantina; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Kellis, Spiros

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a 24-week aquatic training (AT) program, which included both aerobic and resistance components, on muscle strength (isometric and dynamic), flexibility, and functional mobility in healthy women over 60 years of age. Twenty-two subjects were assigned randomly to either an AT (n = 12) or a control (C, n = 10) group. Volunteers participated in a supervised shallow-water exercise program for 60 minutes a day, 3 days a week; the exercise program consisted of a 10-minute warm-up and stretching, 25 minutes of endurance-type exercise (dancing) at 80% of heart rate (HR)(max), 20 minutes of upper- and lower-body resistance exercises with specialized water-resistance equipment, and a 5-minute cool down. Maximal isometric torque of knee extensors (KEXT) and knee flexors (KFLEX) were evaluated by a Cybex Norm dynamometer, grip strength (HGR) was evaluated using a Jamar hydraulic dynamometer, and dynamic strength was evaluated via the 3 repetition maximum (3RM) test for chest press, knee extension, lat pull down, and leg press. Jumping performance was evaluated using the squat jump (SJ), functional mobility with the timed up-and-go (TUG) test, and trunk flexion with the sit-and-reach test. Body composition was measured using the bioelectrical impedance method. The AT induced significant improvements in KEXT (10.5%) and KFLEX (13.4%) peak torque, HGR strength (13%), 3RM (25.7-29.4%), SJ (24.6%), sit-and-reach (11.6%), and TUG (19.8%) performance. The AT group demonstrated a significant increase in lean body mass (3.4%). No significant changes in these variables were observed in the C group. The results indicate that AT, with both aerobic and resistance components, is an alternative training method for improving neuromuscular and functional fitness performance in healthy elderly women. PMID:17194242

  2. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among healthy Korean women: implications of multiplex PCR pathogen detection on antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoonjung; Kim, Juwon; Lee, Kyung-A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using multiplex real-time PCR assay in healthy Korean women. We also evaluated the risk factors of STIs, and compared the various factors between the STI-positive and the STI-negative groups. A total of 799 endocervical swab samples from healthy Korean women who visited our hospital for general medical check-ups during January 2012 to October 2012 were included. Eight STIs including Human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Ureaplasma parvum (UP), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) were detected using Anyplex II STI-7 Detection assay Detection (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) and Hybrid Capture 2 High-Risk HPV DNA test (Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) according manufacture's protocols. Ninety-seven (12.1%) subjects were positive for HPV. Of 393 (49.2%) subjects were infected with at least one microorganism and a total of 499 STIs were identified. Among the 393 STI-positive subjects, the proportion of single, double and triple infection was 76.3%, 20.4% and 3.3%, respectively. The median age of the STI-positive group (47 years, range 42-52) was younger than the STI-negative group (49 years, range 43-56; P < 0.001). The infection rate of HPV was significantly higher in the STI-positive group (15.8%, 62/393) than the STI-negative group (8.6%, 35/406) (P = 0.002). PMID:24462432

  3. Relationship of bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in cortical and cancellous bone within the iliac crest of healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Misof, B M; Dempster, D W; Zhou, Hua; Roschger, P; Fratzl-Zelman, N; Fratzl, P; Silverberg, S J; Shane, E; Cohen, A; Stein, E; Nickolas, T L; Recker, R R; Lappe, J; Bilezikian, J P; Klaushofer, K

    2014-10-01

    Bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) is an important determinant of bone mechanical properties. The most available skeletal site for access to the BMDD is the iliac crest. Compared to cancellous bone much less information on BMDD is available for cortical bone. Hence, we analyzed complete transiliac crest bone biopsy samples from premenopausal women (n = 73) aged 25-48 years, clinically classified as healthy, by quantitative backscattered electron imaging for cortical (Ct.) and cancellous (Cn.) BMDD. The Ct.BMDD was characterized by the arithmetic mean of the BMDD of the cortical plates. We found correlations between Ct. and Cn. BMDD variables with correlation coefficients r between 0.42 and 0.73 (all p < 0.001). Additionally to this synchronous behavior of cortical and cancellous compartments, we found that the heterogeneity of mineralization densities (Ct.Ca(Width)), as well as the cortical porosity (Ct.Po) was larger for a lower average degree of mineralization (Ct.Ca(Mean)). Moreover, Ct.Po correlated negatively with the percentage of highly mineralized bone areas (Ct.Ca(High)) and positively with the percentage of lowly mineralized bone areas (Ct.Ca(Low)). In conclusion, the correlation of cortical with cancellous BMDD in the iliac crest of the study cohort suggests coordinated regulation of bone turnover between both bone compartments. Only in a few cases, there was a difference in the degree of mineralization of >1wt % between both cortices suggesting a possible modeling situation. This normative dataset of healthy premenopausal women will provide a reference standard by which disease- and treatment-specific effects can be assessed at the level of cortical bone BMDD. PMID:25134800

  4. Exploring Religious Mechanisms for Healthy Alcohol Use: Religious Messages and Drinking Among Korean Women in California*

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Kang Sim, D. Eastern; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research identifies social reinforcers within religious institutions associated with alcohol consumption among Korean women in California. Method: Data were drawn from telephone interviews with female adults (N = 591) selected from a random sampling of persons in California with Korean surnames during 2007. Approximately 70% of attempted interviews were completed, with 92% conducted in Korean. Respondents were asked about any lifetime drinking (yes/no), drinking rate (typical number of drinks consumed on drinking days among current drinkers), and messages discouraging “excessive drinking” from religious leaders or congregants. Bivariable and multivariable regressions were used for analysis. Results: Approximately 70.4% of women reported any lifetime drinking, and drinkers drank a mean (SD) of 1.10 (1.22) drinks on drinking days. About 30.8%reported about 30.8% reported any exposure to religious leaders' messages discouraging excessive drinking, and 28.2% reported any exposure to similar messages from congregants. Each congregant's message was statistically significantly associated with a 5.1% lower probability (odds ratio = 0.775, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.626, 0.959) of any lifetime drinking. Also, each congregant's message was associated with a 13.8% (B = -0.138; 95% CI: -0.306, 0.029) lower drinking rate, which was statistically significant after adjusting for covariates using a one-tailed test. Exposure to leaders' messages was not statistically significantly associated with any lifetime drinking or drinking rate. Conclusions: Social reinforcement in the form of religious messages may be one mechanism by which religious institutions influence drinking behaviors. For Korean women, messages from congregants had a unique impact beyond the traditional religiosity indicators. These social mechanisms provide public health interventionists with religious pathways to improve drinking behaviors. PMID:19895765

  5. Whole body creatine and protein kinetics in healthy men and women: effects of creatine and amino acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kalhan, Satish C; Gruca, Lourdes; Marczewski, Susan; Bennett, Carole; Kummitha, China

    2016-03-01

    Creatine kinetics were measured in young healthy subjects, eight males and seven females, age 20-30 years, after an overnight fast on creatine-free diet. Whole body turnover of glycine and its appearance in creatine was quantified using [1-(13)C] glycine and the rate of protein turnover was quantified using L-ring [(2)H5] phenylalanine. The creatine pool size was estimated by the dilution of a bolus [C(2)H3] creatine. Studies were repeated following a five days supplement creatine 21 g.day(-1) and following supplement amino acids 14.3 g day(-1). Creatine caused a ten-fold increase in the plasma concentration of creatine and a 50 % decrease in the concentration of guanidinoacetic acid. Plasma amino acids profile showed a significant decrease in glycine, glutamine, and taurine and a significant increase in citrulline, valine, lysine, and cysteine. There was a significant decrease in the rate of appearance of glycine, suggesting a decrease in de-novo synthesis (p = 0.006). The fractional and absolute rate of synthesis of creatine was significantly decreased by supplemental creatine. Amino acid supplement had no impact on any of the parameters. This is the first detailed analysis of creatine kinetics and the effects of creatine supplement in healthy young men and women. These methods can be applied for the analysis of creatine kinetics in different physiological states. PMID:26480831

  6. Genetic dissimilarity of commensal strains of Candida spp. carried in different anatomical locations of the same healthy women.

    PubMed Central

    Soll, D R; Galask, R; Schmid, J; Hanna, C; Mac, K; Morrow, B

    1991-01-01

    Candida spp. carriage and strain relatedness were assessed in 52 healthy women at 17 anatomical locations by using an isolation procedure which assesses carriage intensity and by using a computer-assisted DNA fingerprinting system which computes genetic similarity between strains on the basis of the patterns of Southern blots probed with the moderately repetitive sequence Ca3. Candida spp. were cultured from 73% of the test individuals, most frequently from the oral (56%), vulvovaginal (40%), and anorectal (24%) regions. Half of the test individuals with Candida spp. carried the organism simultaneously in more than one of the three general areas of carriage. Isolates from different body locations of the same individual were either completely unrelated, identical, or highly similar but nonidentical. In 11 cases in which Candida spp. were simultaneously isolated from the oral cavity and vaginal canal, seven pairs of isolates were genetically unrelated and four pairs were similar but nonidentical. In the latter cases, the isolate pairs each appear to have arisen by genetic divergence from a single progenitor. A comparison of the genetic relatedness of isolates from different individuals further uncovered a single strain which was vaginospecific in the Iowa City, Iowa area and reduced genetic diversity among vulvovaginal strains compared with those isolated from other body locations. These results suggest that strains adapt to different anatomical locations and, conversely, that in a healthy individual there is anatomical selection of vaginotropic, anotropic and orotropic strains of Candida spp. Images PMID:1761692

  7. Differential influence of 5-HTTLPR - polymorphism and COMT Val158Met - polymorphism on emotion perception and regulation in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elisabeth M; Freudenthaler, H Harald; Fink, Andreas; Reiser, Eva M; Niederstätter, Harald; Nagl, Simone; Parson, Walther; Papousek, Ilona

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence indicates that a considerable amount of variance in self-estimated emotional competency can be directly attributed to genetic factors. The current study examined the associations between the polymorphisms of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Met158Val) and the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and specific measures of the self-estimated effectiveness of an individual's emotion perception and regulation. Emotional competence was measured in a large sample of 289 healthy women by using the Self-report Emotional Ability Scale (SEAS), which includes two subscales for the assessment of emotion perception and regulation in the intra-personal domain and two subscales for the assessment of emotion perception and regulation in the inter-personal domain. Participants' reports of effective emotion regulation in everyday life were associated with the COMT Met-allele, with women homozygous for the Val-allele scoring lowest on this scale. Self-estimated effectiveness of emotion perception of the individual's own emotions was related to the 5-HTTLPR. Both homozygous groups (s/s and l/l) rated their intra-personal emotion perception less effective than participants in the heterozygous s/l group. Taken together, the results indicate that genetic variants of the COMT and 5HTTLPR genes are differentially associated with specific measures of the self-estimated effectiveness of an individual's emotion perception and regulation in the intra-personal domain. PMID:24685226

  8. Health/Service Providers' Perspectives on Barriers to Healthy Weight Gain and Physical Activity in Pregnant, Urban First Nations Women.

    PubMed

    Darroch, Francine E; Giles, Audrey R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine health/service providers' perspectives of barriers to healthy weight gain and physical activity for urban, pregnant First Nations women in Ottawa, Canada. Through the use of semi-structured interviews, we explored 15 health/service providers' perspectives on the complex barriers their clients face. By using a postcolonial feminist lens and a social determinants of health framework, we identified three social determinants of health that the health/service providers believed to have the greatest influence on their clients' weight gain and physical activity during pregnancy: poverty, education, and colonialism. Our findings are then contextualized within existing Statistics Canada and the Ottawa Neighbourhood Study data. We found that health/service providers are in a position to challenge colonial relations of power. We conclude by urging health/service providers, researchers, and policymakers alike to take into consideration the ways in which these social determinants of health and their often synergistic effects affect urban First Nations women during pregnancy. PMID:25779985

  9. The Relationship of Plasma Volume, Sympathetic Tone and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Young Healthy Nonpregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Berntein, Ira M; Damron, Dana; Schonberg, Adrienne L.; Shapiro, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Objective Preeclampsia has been associated with elevated pro-inflammatory markers, increased sympathetic activity and decreased plasma volume. We hypothesized that these associations would be identified in women prior to a first pregnancy. Methods We studied 76 healthy nulligravid subjects measuring the pro-inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Plasma volume (PV) was measured in supine position and corrected for body mass index (BMI). We examined supine plasma levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine and blood pressure response to Valsalva’s maneuver to quantify sympathetic activation. We then examined the association of plasma volume and sympathetic activity with pro-inflammatory cytokines with P < 0.05 accepted for significance. Results CRP was significantly increased in subjects with lowest PV/BMI quartile when compared to middle two quartiles and highest quartile (ANOVA, p = 0.037). We found no significant association of PV/BMI with either interleukin 6 or tumor necrosis factor alpha. Both plasma epinephrine concentration (r = 0.29, P = 0.02) and the phase II_L blood pressure response to Valsalva’s maneuver (r = 0.44, P < 0.0001) were associated with serum IL-6 concentrations. Conclusions Low plasma volume is associated with increased CRP levels and increased sympathetic tone is linked to elevated IL-6 concentration in young non-pregnant women. These findings represent elements of a non-pregnancy phenotype that parallels the findings observed in preeclampsia and in women at risk for ischemic cardiovascular disease. This suggests that the relationships observed during preeclampsia, which have been associated with placental pathology, may predate pregnancy and be independent of placental activity. PMID:19531800

  10. Income and Subjective Well-Being: New Insights from Relatively Healthy American Women, Ages 49-79

    PubMed Central

    Wyshak, Grace

    2016-01-01

    The interests of economists, psychologists, social scientists and others on the relations of income, demographics, religion and subjective well-being, have generated a vast global literature. It is apparent that biomedical research has focused on white with men. The Women’s Health Initiative and Observational Study (WHI OS) was initiated in 1992. The OS represents the scientific need for social priorities to improve the health and welfare of women; it includes 93.676 relatively healthy postmenopausal women, 49 to 79, from diverse backgrounds. The objective of this study is to examine how lifestyle and other factors influence women’s health. Data from the WHI OS questionnaire were analyzed. Statistical methods included descriptive statistics square, correlations, linear regression and analyses of covariance (GLM). New findings and insights relate primarily to general health, religion, club attendance, and likelihood of depression. The most important predictor of excellent or very good health is quality of life and general health is a major predictor of quality of life. A great deal of strength and comfort from religion was reported by 62.98% of the women, with little variation by denomination. More from religion related to poorer health, and less likelihood of depression. Religion and lower income are in accord with of across country studies. Attendance at clubs was associated with religion and with all factors associated with religion, except income. Though general health and likelihood of depression are highly correlated, better health is associated with higher income; however, likelihood of depression is not associated with income—contrary to conventional wisdom about socioeconomic disparities and mental health. Subjective well-being variables, with the exception of quality of life, were not associated with income. Social networks—religion and clubs—among a diverse population, warrant further attention from economists, psychologists, sociologists, and

  11. Effects of overnight sleep restriction on brain chemistry and mood in women with unipolar depression and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Denise; Bartha, Robert; Devarajan, Sivakumaran; MacMaster, Frank P.; Schmidt, Matthias H.; Rusak, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Background Partial or total overnight sleep deprivation produces immediate mood improvement in about 50% of patients with depression, but not in healthy controls. Our objectives were to compare the neurochemical changes that accompanied partial overnight sleep deprivation in healthy and depressed participants, and to compare baseline neurochemical profiles and overnight neurochemical changes between those depressed participants who did and did not respond to sleep loss with mood improvement. Methods We studied 2 brain regions (left dorsal prefrontal area and pons) in 12 women with unipolar depression and in 15 healthy women using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy acquired at 1.5 T. The scans took place at baseline and 24 hours later after a night with sleep restricted to a maximum of 2.5 hours (22:30–01:00). We assessed 3 neurochemical signals (referenced to internal water): N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline compounds (Cho) and creatine-plus-phosphocreatine (tCr). Results In both groups combined, sleep restriction caused a 20.1% decrease in pontine tCr (F1–16 = 5.07, p = 0.039, Cohen’s d = 0.54) and an 11.3% increase in prefrontal Cho (F1–21 = 5.24, p = 0.033, Cohen’s d = 0.46). Follow-up tests revealed that prefrontal Cho increases were significant only among depressed participants (17.9% increase, t9 = −3.35, p = 0.008, Cohen’s d = 1.06). Five depressed patients showed at least 30% improvement in mood, whereas 6 showed no change or worsening in mood after sleep restriction. Baseline pontine Cho levels distinguished subsequent responders from nonresponders to sleep restriction among depressed participants (z = 2.61, p = 0.008). Limitations A limitation of this study is the relatively small sample size. Conclusion Sleep restriction altered levels of pontine tCr and prefrontal Cho in both groups combined, suggesting effects on phospholipid and creatine metabolism. Baseline levels of pontine Cho were linked to subsequent mood responses to sleep loss

  12. Rate and predictors of low serum ferritin levels among healthy parturient women in Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Emegoakor, Fausta Chioma J; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Ezegwui, Hyginus Uzo; Ezugwu, Frank Okechukwu; Umeora, Odidika Ugochukwu; Ibeagha, Izuchukwu Obumneme

    2015-01-01

    Background Low serum ferritin levels signify low iron stores and this could predispose to iron deficiency anemia. Objective To determine the rate and predictors of low serum ferritin levels during the puerperium in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Study design A hospital-based prospective longitudinal study involving parturient women who delivered singleton fetuses at term. Venous blood samples were collected to determine the serum ferritin concentration at 48 hours and 6 weeks postpartum. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% confidence interval (CI) using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer software version 20.0. Results Two-hundred and two women who carried singleton pregnancies to term were studied. The mean serum ferritin levels at 48 hours and 6 weeks were 27.82±18.41 µg/L and 36.12±21.53 µg/L, respectively. Forty-eight hours postdelivery, 29.2% had low ferritin levels and this decreased to 12.4% at 6 weeks postpartum. There was a significant positive correlation between the serum ferritin level at 48 hours postdelivery and the serum ferritin level at 6 weeks postpartum (r=0.89, P<0.001). Predictors of the low ferritin level at 6 weeks included age <20 years (odds ratio [OR] =0.70, 95% CI =0.53, 0.93), multiparity (OR =63.7, 95% CI =3.18, 127.5), anemia at 48 hours postpartum (OR =61.7, 95% CI =13.27, 116.6), a low ferritin level at 48 hours (OR =78.1, 95% CI =8.8, 108.3), and intake of antenatal hematinics for <3 months (OR =0.04, 95% CI =0.01, 0.20). Conclusion There was a significant occurrence of low ferritin levels during the puerperium in the study centers, and this was associated mainly with pregnancy and delivery factors. Efforts to improve the iron stores in parturient women could benefit from early booking and compliance with antenatal hematinics and optimizing hemoglobin and iron levels before delivery. PMID:26425110

  13. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in the healthy oral mucosa of women with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion and of their partners as compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Tatár, Tímea Zsófia; Kis, Andrea; Szabó, Éva; Czompa, Levente; Boda, Róbert; Tar, Ildikó; Szarka, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage rates were investigated in relation to genital HPV carriage in women with HPV-associated cervical lesions and male partner of such women, including several couples, in comparison with healthy individuals. Buccal and lingual mucosa of 60 males and 149 females with healthy oral mucosa and without known genital lesion, genital and oral mucosa of further 40 females with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 34 male sexual partners of women with HSIL (including 20 couples) were sampled. HPV DNA was detected using MY/GP PCR. Genotype was determined by sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Virus copy numbers were determined by real-time PCR. Overall, oral HPV carriage rate was 5.7% (12/209) in healthy individuals; average copy number was 5.8 × 10(2) copies/1 μg DNA; male and female rates were comparable. Oral carriage in women with HSIL was significantly higher, 20.0% (8/40, P = 0.003); males with partners with HSIL showed a carriage rate of 17.6% (6/34), copy numbers were similar to the healthy controls. In contrast, genital carriage rate (52.9%, 18/34 vs. 82.5%, 33/40; P = 0.006) and average copy number were lower in males (5.0 × 10(5) vs. 7.8 × 10(5) copies/1 μg DNA; P = 0.01). Oral copy numbers in these groups and in healthy individuals were comparable. High-risk genotypes were dominant; couples usually had the same genotype in the genital sample. In conclusion, genital HPV carriage is a risk factor of oral carriage for the individual or for the sexual partner, but alone is not sufficient to produce an oral HPV infection in most cases. PMID:25495524

  14. Influence of the Perceived Taste Intensity of Chemesthetic Stimuli on Swallowing Parameters Given Age and Genetic Taste Differences in Healthy Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Cathy A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether the perceived taste intensity of liquids with chemesthetic properties influenced lingua-palatal pressures and submental surface electromyography (sEMG) in swallowing, compared with water. Method: Swallowing was studied in 80 healthy women, stratified by age group and genetic taste status. General Labeled…

  15. Are Healthy Diets that follow The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) associated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in men and women?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2005 DGA is a government promulgated healthy dietary pattern to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, including osteoporosis. We examined whether a diet consistent with the DGA was associated with higher BMD in men and women of the Framingham Offspring Study (FOS). We developed an index to measur...

  16. Hepatic, Renal and Inflammatory Biomarkers are Positively Associated with Blood Pressure Changes in Healthy Pregnant Women: A Prospective Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kac, Gilberto; Mendes, Roberta H.; Farias, Dayana R.; Eshriqui, Ilana; Rebelo, Fernanda; Benaim, Camila; Vilela, Ana Amélia F.; Lima, Natália S.; Peres, Wilza A.F.; Salles, Gil F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article evaluates the association of hepatic, renal, and inflammatory biomarkers with changes in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (BP) during healthy pregnancies. A prospective cohort study with 225 healthy pregnant women was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. SBP and DBP were evaluated throughout pregnancy (5th–13th, 20th–26th, and 30th–36th gestational weeks) and were the outcomes. The following biomarkers were measured at the first trimester and analyzed according to tertiles of the sample distribution and were considered the main independent predictors: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), uric acid (UA), creatinine (Cr), and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. The statistical analysis included 3 stages of modeling with the longitudinal linear mixed-effects procedures: Model 1 was adjusted for gestational age and quadratic gestational age; Model 2 included interactions between the biomarkers and gestational age; and Model 3 was adjusted for self-reported skin color, education, parity, early-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (under/normal <25; overweight/obese ≥25 kg/m2), smoking habit, and leisure-time physical activity. Additional models were performed for CRP and UA with the inclusion of interaction terms between the biomarkers and BMI. Women classified in the third tertile of the ALP (≥61.1 U/L; βSBP = 3.474; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.955–5.992; βDBP = 3.291; 95% CI: 1.098–5.485), ALT (≥14.3 U/L; βSBP = 2.232; 95% CI: 0.221–4.242; βDBP = 2.355; 95% CI: 0.721–3.989), and Cr values (≥48.6 μmol/L; βDBP = 1.927; 95% CI: 0.347–3.508) presented higher BP levels during pregnancy compared to those in the first and second tertiles. Women in the highest tertile of the ALP concentration distribution presented a lower rate of change in SBP and DBP during pregnancy (interaction term with gestational age

  17. Multivariate pattern analysis of FMRI in breast cancer survivors and healthy women.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, S M Hadi; Kesler, Shelli R

    2014-04-01

    Advances in breast cancer (BC) treatments have resulted in significantly improved survival rates. However, BC chemotherapy is often associated with several side effects including cognitive dysfunction. We applied multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to find a brain connectivity pattern that accurately and automatically distinguishes chemotherapy-treated (C+) from non-chemotherapy treated (C-) BC females and healthy female controls (HC). Twenty-seven C+, 29 C-, and 30 HC underwent fMRI during an executive-prefrontal task (Go/Nogo). The pattern of functional connectivity associated with this task discriminated with significant accuracy between C+ and HC groups (72%, p = .006) and between C+ and C- groups (71%, p = .012). However, the accuracy of discrimination between C- and HC was not significant (51%, p = .46). Compared with HC, behavioral performance of the C+ and C- groups during the task was intact. However, the C+ group demonstrated altered functional connectivity in the right frontoparietal and left supplementary motor area networks compared to HC, and in the right middle frontal and left superior frontal gyri networks, compared to C-. Our results provide further evidence that executive function performance may be preserved in some chemotherapy-treated BC survivors through recruitment of additional neural connections. PMID:24135221

  18. Berries reduce postprandial insulin responses to wheat and rye breads in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Törrönen, Riitta; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Sarkkinen, Essi; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu; Niskanen, Leo

    2013-04-01

    Starch in white wheat bread (WB) induces high postprandial glucose and insulin responses. For rye bread (RB), the glucose response is similar, whereas the insulin response is lower. In vitro studies suggest that polyphenol-rich berries may reduce digestion and absorption of starch and thereby suppress postprandial glycemia, but the evidence in humans is limited. We investigated the effects of berries consumed with WB or RB on postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Healthy females (n = 13-20) participated in 3 randomized, controlled, crossover, 2-h meal studies. They consumed WB or RB, both equal to 50 g available starch, with 150 g whole-berry purée or the same amount of bread without berries as reference. In study 1, WB was served with strawberries, bilberries, or lingonberries and in study 2 with raspberries, cloudberries, or chokeberries. In study 3, WB or RB was served with a mixture of berries consisting of equal amounts of strawberries, bilberries, cranberries, and blackcurrants. Strawberries, bilberries, lingonberries, and chokeberries consumed with WB and the berry mixture consumed with WB or RB significantly reduced the postprandial insulin response. Only strawberries (36%) and the berry mixture (with WB, 38%; with RB, 19%) significantly improved the glycemic profile of the breads. These results suggest than when WB is consumed with berries, less insulin is needed for maintenance of normal or slightly improved postprandial glucose metabolism. The lower insulin response to RB compared with WB can also be further reduced by berries. PMID:23365108

  19. Plasma concentrations of coffee polyphenols and plasma biomarkers of diabetes risk in healthy Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A H; Tan, L 'B; Hiramatsu, N; Ishisaka, A; Alfonso, H; Tanaka, A; Uemura, N; Fujiwara, Y; Takechi, R

    2016-01-01

    Coffee consumption has been reported to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in experimental and epidemiological studies. This anti-diabetic effect of coffee may be attributed to its high content in polyphenols especially caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. However, the association between plasma coffee polyphenols and diabetic risks has never been investigated in the literature. In this study, fasting plasma samples were collected from 57 generally healthy females aged 38–73 (mean 52, s.d. 8) years recruited in Himeji, Japan. The concentrations of plasma coffee polyphenols were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass tandem spectrometer. Diabetes biomarkers in the plasma/serum samples were analysed by a commercial diagnostic laboratory. Statistical associations were assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficients. The results showed that plasma chlorogenic acid exhibited negative associations with fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin and C-reactive protein, whereas plasma total coffee polyphenol and plasma caffeic acid were weakly associated with these biomarkers. Our preliminary data support previous findings that coffee polyphenols have anti-diabetic effects but further replications with large samples of both genders are recommended. PMID:27270110

  20. Effect of domperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia on selected immune parameters in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Rovenský, J; Buc, M; Lojda, Z; Ruzicková, M; Blazícková, S; Rauová, L; Mistina, T; Vigas, M; Lackovic, V

    1995-01-01

    Domperidone, anti-emetic drug, given to healthy female volunteers, induced an elevation of plasma prolactin (PRL) concentration with the peak in 1-4 h. The release of prolactin had a transient stimulating effect on theophylline sensitive T lymphocytes and on concanavalin A induced mitogenic activity, suggesting an enhanced activity of T suppressor lymphocytes. The relative number of CD4+ lymphocytes decreased markedly one hour after domperidone administration and returned to normal values within 2 h (that means 3 h after taking the drug). The number of lymphocytes positive for dipeptidyl peptidase IV exhibited similar transient increase and normalization of activity. No change was observed in the number of CD8+ lymphocytes. The production of interferon by leukocytes treated with Newcastle disease virus was found to be significantly increased 2 h after domperidone administration. The results suggest that prolactin can selectively stimulate some functions of cellular immunity as well as the release of cytokines (IFN). The present study may contribute to the understanding of the role of the immune system in endogenous hyperprolactinemia. PMID:8744700

  1. Cardiovascular and behavioral effects of aerobic exercise training in healthy older men and women.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, J A; Emery, C F; Madden, D J; George, L K; Coleman, R E; Riddle, M W; McKee, D C; Reasoner, J; Williams, R S

    1989-09-01

    The cardiovascular and behavioral adaptations associated with a 4-month program of aerobic exercise training were examined in 101 older men and women (mean age = 67 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to an Aerobic Exercise group, a Yoga and Flexibility control group, or a Waiting List control group. Prior to and following the 4-month program, subjects underwent comprehensive physiological and psychological evaluations. Physiological measures included measurement of blood pressure, lipids, bone density, and cardiorespiratory fitness including direct measurements of peak oxygen consumption (VO2) and anaerobic threshold. Psychological measures included measures of mood, psychiatric symptoms, and neuropsychological functioning. This study demonstrated that 4 months of aerobic exercise training produced an overall 11.6% improvement in peak VO2 and a 13% increase in anaerobic threshold. In contrast, the Yoga and Waiting List control groups experienced no change in cardiorespiratory fitness. Other favorable physiological changes observed among aerobic exercise participants included lower cholesterol levels, diastolic blood pressure levels, and for subjects at risk for bone fracture, a trend toward an increase in bone mineral content. Although few significant psychological changes could be attributed to aerobic exercise training, participants in the two active treatment groups perceived themselves as improving on a number of psychological and behavioral dimensions. PMID:2768768

  2. Comparison of Sum Absolute QRST Integral, and Temporal Variability in Depolarization and Repolarization, Measured by Dynamic Vectorcardiography Approach, in Healthy Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Tereshchenko, Larisa G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently we showed the predictive value of sum absolute QRST integral (SAI QRST) and repolarization lability for risk stratification of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in heart failure patients. The goal of this study was to compare SAI QRST and metrics of depolarization and repolarization variability in healthy men and women. Methods Orthogonal ECGs were recorded at rest for 10 minutes in 160 healthy men and women (mean age 39.6±14.6, 80 men). Mean spatial TT′ angle, and normalized variances of T loop area, of spatial T vector amplitude, of QT interval and Tpeak-Tend area were measured for assessment of repolarization lability. Normalized variances of spatial QRS vector and QRS loop area characterized variability of depolarization. In addition, variability indices (VI) were calculated to adjust for normalized heart rate variance. SAI QRST was measured as the averaged arithmetic sum of areas under the QRST curve. Results Men were characterized by shorter QTc (430.3±21.7 vs. 444.7±22.2 ms; P<0.0001) and larger SAI QRST (282.1±66.7 vs.204.9±58.5 mV*ms; P<0.0001). Repolarization lability negatively correlated with spatial T vector amplitude. Adjusted by normalized heart rate variance, QT variability index was significantly higher in women than in men (−1.54±0.38 vs. −1.70±0.33; P = 0.017). However, in multivariate logistic regression after adjustment for body surface area, QTc, and spatial T vector amplitude, healthy men had 1.5–3 fold higher probability of having larger repolarization lability, as compared to healthy women (T vector amplitude variability index odds ratio 3.88(95%CI 1.4–11.1; P = 0.012). Conclusions Healthy men more likely than women have larger repolarization lability. PMID:23451181

  3. Habitual total water intake and dimensions of mood in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Colleen X; Johnson, Evan C; McKenzie, Amy L; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Graverholt, Gitte; Casa, Douglas J; Maresh, Carl M; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2015-09-01

    Acute negative and positive mood states have been linked with the development of undesirable and desirable health outcomes, respectively. Numerous factors acutely influence mood state, including exercise, caffeine ingestion, and macronutrient intake, but the influence of habitual total water intake remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to observe relationships between habitual water intake and mood. One hundred twenty healthy females (mean ± SD; age = 20 ± 2 y, BMI = 22.9 ± 3.5 kg⋅m(-2) ) recorded all food and fluids consumed for 5 consecutive days. Investigators utilized dietary analysis software to determine Total Water Intake (TWI; total water content in foods and fluids), caffeine, and macronutrient consumption (i.e. protein, carbohydrate, fat). On days 3 and 4, participants completed the Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire, which examined tension, depression, anger, vigor, and confusion, plus an aggregate measure of Total Mood Disturbance (TMD). For comparison of mood, data were separated into three even groups (n = 40 each) based on TWI: low (LOW; 1.51 ± 0.27 L/d), moderate (MOD; 2.25 ± 0.19 L/d), and high (HIGH; 3.13 ± 0.54 L/d). Regression analysis was performed to determine continuous relationships between measured variables. Group differences (p < 0.05) were observed for tension (MOD = 7.2 ± 5.4, HIGH = 4.4 ± 2.9), depression (LOW = 4.5 ± 5.9, HIGH = 1.7 ± 2.3), confusion (MOD = 5.9 ± 3.4, HIGH = 4.0 ± 2.1), and TMD (LOW=19.0 ± 21.8, HIGH=8.2 ± 14.2). After accounting for other mood influencers, TWI predicted TMD (r(2) = 0.104; p = 0.050). The above relationships suggest the amount of water a woman consumes is associated with mood state. PMID:25963107

  4. The effect of combined oral contraception on testosterone levels in healthy women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Y.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Coelingh Bennink, H.J.T.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) reduce levels of androgen, especially testosterone (T), by inhibiting ovarian and adrenal androgen synthesis and by increasing levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Although this suppressive effect has been investigated by numerous studies over many years, to our knowledge no systematic review concerning this issue had been performed. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of COCs on concentrations of total T, free T and SHBG in healthy women and to evaluate differences between the various types of COCs (e.g. estrogen dose, type of progestin) and the assays used to assess total T and free T. METHODS A review of the literature was performed using database searches (MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials) and all publications (from inception date until July 2012) investigating the effect of COCs on androgen levels in healthy women were considered eligible for selection. Three reviewers were involved in study selection, data extraction and critical appraisal. For the meta-analysis, data on total T, free T and SHBG were extracted and combined using random effects analysis. Additional subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate differences between the various types of COCs (e.g. estrogen dose, type of progestin) and the assays used to assess total T or free T. RESULTS A total of 151 records were identified by systematic review and 42 studies with a total of 1495 healthy young women (age range: 18–40 years) were included in the meta-analysis. All included studies were experimental studies and 21 were non-comparative. Pooling of the results derived from all the included papers showed that total T levels significantly decreased during COC use [mean difference (MD) (95% confidence interval, CI) −0.49 nmol/l (−0.55, −0.42); P < 0.001]. Significantly lower levels of free T were also found [relative change (95% CI) 0.39 (0.35, 0.43); P < 0

  5. Comparative study of stretching modalities in healthy women: heating and application time.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Jose Luis; Foletto, Álexis

    2015-01-01

    A lack of muscle flexibility affects the functionality of the human body, making it difficult to carry out certain activities of daily living. The aim of the present study was to compare the technique of passive static stretching on hamstring muscles in isolation, or combined with heating techniques and different application times. Fifty women were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n = 10 each): The Microwave Diathermy Group had the hamstrings heated by microwave before stretching; Treadmill Group, in which warm-up walking was performed before stretching; 30-Second Group, in which 30 s of stretching was performed; 10-Minute Group, which involved stretching for 10 min and Control Group. In all groups, the leg extension range of motion was assessed, and the flexibility by the third finger-ground test was performed before and after application. The individuals in the experimental groups performed three stretching sessions on three consecutive days. All statistical analysis was performed with p ≤ 0.05. The results showed that all treatments were effective compared to the control group. The Treadmill Group and the 10-Minute group were superior for an acute effect (soon after the stretch--related to a decreased muscular viscoelasticity). The 10-Minute Group was the most effective for the chronic effect (long lasting--related to increased numbers of sarcomeres). A 10-minute stretch, when performed over four subsequent days, is suggested for faster increase in flexibility. The results could suggest a systemic warming (such as the one provided by a treadmill workout) before stretching for an acute gain of flexibility in the same day. It was possible to identify the inefficiencies associated with the use of microwaves in terms of stretching to gain flexibility. In fact, the values recorded were similar to stretching without any heat at all. PMID:25603738

  6. Progestins in the menopause in healthy women and breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Jorge R

    2009-04-20

    At present, more than 200 progestin compounds are synthetized, but their biological effects are different: this is function of their structure, receptor affinity, metabolic transformations, the target tissues considered, dose. The action of progestins in breast cancer is controversial; some studies indicate an increase in breast cancer incidence, others show no differences, and yet others indicate a decrease. Many studies agree that treatment with progestins plus estrogens at a low dose and during a limited period (less than 5 years) can have beneficial effects in peri- and post-menopausal women. It was demonstrated that various progestins (e.g. nomegestrol acetate, medrogestone, promegestone), as well as tibolone and its metabolites, can block the enzymes involved in estradiol bioformation (sulfatase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in breast cancer. Progesterone is converted into various metabolic products: in normal breast tissue the transformation is mainly to 4-ene derivatives, whereas in the tumor tissue 5alpha-pregane derivatives are predominant. Aromatase activity is the last step in the formation of estrogens by the conversion of androgens. In recent studies it was shown that 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone, a metabolite found mainly in normal breast tissue and having anti-proliferative properties, can act as an anti-aromatase agent. The data suggest the possible utilization of this compound in breast cancer prevention. In conclusion, in order to clarify and better understand the response of progestins in breast cancer (incidence and mortality), as well as in hormone replacement therapy or in endocrine dysfunction, new clinical trials are necessary using other progestins in function of the dose and period of treatment. PMID:19179024

  7. Effects of serotonin depletion on punishment processing in the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Helmbold, K; Zvyagintsev, M; Dahmen, B; Bubenzer-Busch, S; Gaber, T J; Crockett, M J; Klasen, M; Sánchez, C L; Eisert, A; Konrad, K; Habel, U; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Zepf, F D

    2015-06-01

    Diminished synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) has been linked to disrupted impulse control in aversive contexts. However, the neural correlates underlying a serotonergic modulation of female impulsivity remain unclear. The present study investigated punishment-induced inhibition in healthy young women. Eighteen healthy female subjects (aged 20-31) participated in a double-blinded, counterbalanced, placebo-controlled, within subjects, repeated measures study. They were assessed on two randomly assigned occasions that were controlled for menstrual cycle phase. In a randomized order, one day, acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) was used to reduce 5-HT synthesis in the brain. On the other day, participants received a tryptophan-balanced amino acid load (BAL) as a control condition. Three hours after administration of ATD/BAL, neural activity was recorded during a modified Go/No-Go task implementing reward or punishment processes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Neural activation during No-Go trials in punishment conditions after BAL versus ATD administration correlated positively with the magnitude of central 5-HT depletion in the ventral and subgenual anterior cingulate cortices (ACC). Furthermore, neural activation in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and the dorsal ACC correlated positively with trait impulsivity. The results indicate reduced neural sensitivity to punishment after short-term depletion of 5-HT in brain areas related to emotion regulation (subgenual ACC) increasing with depletion magnitude and in brain areas related to appraisal and expression of emotions (mOFC and dorsal ACC), increasing with trait impulsivity. This suggests a serotonergic modulation of neural circuits related to emotion regulation, impulsive behavior, and punishment processing in females. PMID:25869157

  8. Stanford's Outcomes Research in Kids (STORK): a prospective study of healthy pregnant women and their babies in Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Catherine; Sanchez, Maria de la Luz; Mathur, Ankur; Yang, Shufang; Sundaram, Vandana; Parsonnet, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Stanford's Outcomes Research in Kids (STORK) is an ongoing prospective cohort of healthy pregnant women and their babies established to determine the effect of infectious diseases on weight, linear growth and immune system development during childhood. Additionally, a nested randomised intervention of household and personal cleaning products tests the effects of the microbicides triclosan and triclocarban on these outcomes and incidence of infection. Participants Healthy pregnant women were identified and enrolled primarily at public clinics; their babies, enrolled shortly after birth, are followed to age 36 months. Automated weekly surveys assess daily health status, infectious disease symptoms, healthcare provider visits and antibiotic use, in the mother during pregnancy and the baby once born. At 4-monthly household visits, information and samples are collected from the mother (urine, stool, saliva, skin swab), the baby (blood by heel/toe stick, urine, stool, saliva, skin swab) and the household (environmental swabs). Annual blood samples are obtained by venipuncture (mother and baby). Medical charts are abstracted for allergy and infectious illness in the mother during pregnancy and the baby. Findings to date From 7/2011 to 2/2015, 158 mothers were enrolled at approximately 20 weeks gestation; 127 babies were enrolled. Two-thirds of mothers are Hispanic, one-third are non-US born and one-third speak primarily Spanish; mean years of education is 13 (SD 6.2) years. Households have on average 4.5 residents. Most households (97%) were randomised to participate in the intervention. Completion of weekly surveys (86%) and follow-up (75% after 14 months) is excellent in this young, mobile population; collection of samples is ongoing with thousands of specimens stored. Future plans Enrolled babies will be followed until age 36 months (last anticipated visit: 07/2018) with medical chart review completed soon thereafter. All epidemiological information and

  9. Effect of acute dietary nitrate intake on maximal knee extensor speed and power in healthy men and women

    PubMed Central

    Coggan, Andrew R.; Leibowitz, Joshua L.; Kadkhodayan, Ana; Thomas, Deepak T.; Ramamurthy, Sujata; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Waller, Suzannea; Farmer, Marsha; Peterson, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to enhance the maximal shortening velocity and maximal power of rodent muscle. Dietary nitrate (NO3-) intake has been demonstrated to increase NO bioavailability in humans. We therefore hypothesized that acute dietary NO3- intake (in the form of a concentrated beetroot juice (BRJ) supplement) would improve muscle speed and power in humans. To test this hypothesis, healthy men and women (n=12; age=22-50 y) were studied using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. After an overnight fast, subjects ingested 140 mL of BRJ either containing or devoid of 11.2 mmol of NO3-. After 2 h, knee extensor contractile function was assessed using a Biodex 4 isokinetic dynamometer. Breath NO levels were also measured periodically using a Niox Mino analyzer as a biomarker of whole-body NO production. No significant changes in breath NO were observed in the placebo trial, whereas breath NO rose by 61% (P<0.001; effect size=1.19) after dietary NO3- intake. This was accompanied by a 4% (P<0.01; effect size=0.74) increase in peak knee extensor power at the highest angular velocity tested (i.e., 6.28 rad/s). Calculated maximal knee extensor power was therefore greater (i.e., 7.90±0.59 vs. 7.44±0.53 W/kg; P<0.05; effect size=0.63) after dietary NO3- intake, as was the calculated maximal velocity (i.e., 14.5±0.9 vs. 13.1±0.8 rad/s; P<0.05; effect size=0.67). No differences in muscle function were observed during 50 consecutive knee extensions performed at 3.14 rad/s. We conclude that acute dietary NO3- intake increases whole-body NO production and muscle speed and power in healthy men and women. PMID:25199856

  10. Effect of acute dietary nitrate intake on maximal knee extensor speed and power in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Coggan, Andrew R; Leibowitz, Joshua L; Kadkhodayan, Ana; Thomas, Deepak P; Ramamurthy, Sujata; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Waller, Suzanne; Farmer, Marsha; Peterson, Linda R

    2015-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to enhance the maximal shortening velocity and maximal power of rodent muscle. Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) intake has been demonstrated to increase NO bioavailability in humans. We therefore hypothesized that acute dietary NO3(-) intake (in the form of a concentrated beetroot juice (BRJ) supplement) would improve muscle speed and power in humans. To test this hypothesis, healthy men and women (n = 12; age = 22-50 y) were studied using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. After an overnight fast, subjects ingested 140 mL of BRJ either containing or devoid of 11.2 mmol of NO3(-). After 2 h, knee extensor contractile function was assessed using a Biodex 4 isokinetic dynamometer. Breath NO levels were also measured periodically using a Niox Mino analyzer as a biomarker of whole-body NO production. No significant changes in breath NO were observed in the placebo trial, whereas breath NO rose by 61% (P < 0.001; effect size = 1.19) after dietary NO3(-) intake. This was accompanied by a 4% (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.74) increase in peak knee extensor power at the highest angular velocity tested (i.e., 6.28 rad/s). Calculated maximal knee extensor power was therefore greater (i.e., 7.90 ± 0.59 vs. 7.44 ± 0.53 W/kg; P < 0.05; effect size = 0.63) after dietary NO3(-) intake, as was the calculated maximal velocity (i.e., 14.5 ± 0.9 vs. 13.1 ± 0.8 rad/s; P < 0.05; effect size = 0.67). No differences in muscle function were observed during 50 consecutive knee extensions performed at 3.14 rad/s. We conclude that acute dietary NO3(-) intake increases whole-body NO production and muscle speed and power in healthy men and women. PMID:25199856

  11. Toxocara Seroprevalence among Clinically Healthy Individuals, Pregnant Women and Psychiatric Patients and Associated Risk Factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Na; Yu, Chang-Zheng; Chen, Jia; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Li, Bing; Qian, Ai-Dong; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection. Methodology/Principle Findings Seroprevalence of Toxocara was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, eastern China. Factors potentially associated with Toxocara infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n = 2866) was 12.25%, and a significantly higher seroprevalence in psychiatric patients (16.40%, 73/445) than that in clinically healthy individuals (13.07%, 187/1431) and pregnant women (9.19%, 91/990) was revealed. Univariate analyses suggested that keeping dogs at home (OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.05–0.08, P<0.001), contact with cats and dogs (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.33–0.53, P<0.001) and exposure with soil (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.28–0.49, P<0.001) were risk factors associated with Toxocara infection. Conclusions/Significance The present study revealed, for the first time, that human infection with Toxocara is common in eastern China, posing a significant public health concern. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change all will serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis

  12. Calcium-Vitamin D Co-supplementation Affects Metabolic Profiles, but not Pregnancy Outcomes, in Healthy Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Asemi, Zatollah; Samimi, Mansooreh; Siavashani, Mehrnush Amiri; Mazloomi, Maryam; Tabassi, Zohreh; Karamali, Maryam; Jamilian, Mehri; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy is associated with unfavorable metabolic profile, which might in turn result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of calcium plus Vitamin D administration on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in healthy pregnant women. Methods: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 42 pregnant women aged 18–40 years who were at week 25 of gestation. Subjects were randomly allocated to consume either 500 mg calcium-200 IU cholecalciferol supplements (n = 21) or placebo (n = 21) for 9 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at the onset of the study and after 9-week trial to determine related markers. Post-delivery, the newborn's weight, length, and head circumference were measured during the first 24 h after birth. Results: Consumption of calcium-Vitamin D co-supplements resulted in a significant reduction of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels compared with placebo (−1856.8 ± 2657.7 vs. 707.1 ± 3139.4 μg/mL, P = 0.006). We also found a significant elevation of plasma total antioxidant capacity (89.3 ± 118.0 vs. −9.4 ± 164.9 mmol/L, P = 0.03), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (2.5 ± 3.5 vs. −1.7 ± 1.7 ng/mL, P < 0.0001), and calcium levels (0.6 ± 0.6 vs. −0.1 ± 0.4 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). The supplementation led to a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure (−1.9 ± 8.3 vs. 3.1 ± 5.2 mmHg, P = 0.02) compared with placebo. No significant effect of calcium-Vitamin D co-supplements was seen on other metabolic profiles. We saw no significant change of the co-supplementation on pregnancy outcomes as well. Conclusions: Although calcium-Vitamin D co-supplementation for 9 weeks in pregnant women resulted in improved metabolic profiles, it did not affect pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27076887

  13. Vitamin C intervention may lower the levels of persistent organic pollutants in blood of healthy women - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weihong; Huen, Karen; Park, June-Soo; Petreas, Myrto; Crispo Smith, Sabrina; Block, Gladys; Holland, Nina

    2016-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals including persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has a long term impact on human health. The goal of this pilot study was to test whether antioxidant intervention by vitamin C supplementation may be a remedial approach to decrease body burden of POPs in humans. Using solid phase extraction coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and a gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry, we measured 18 PCBs, 7 OCPs, and 5 PBDEs in the blood of 15 healthy California women (8 were obese/overweight and 7 had normal weight) before and after 2 months of vitamin C supplementation (1000 mg/day). We observed higher PBDE levels than PCBs and OCPs, but only PCB and OCP levels were strongly and positively correlated with participant's BMI and age. We also found statistically significant decreases in 6 PCBs (PCB-74, PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153, PCB-180, and PCB-187), and 2 OCPs (4,4'-DDE, and 4,4'-DDT), but not PBDEs after vitamin C supplementation. Pending confirmation of this pilot finding in a larger study of both sexes, vitamin C intervention may have important public health implications in protecting health by reducing body burdens of POPs. PMID:27090108

  14. Neural signatures of the interaction between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and stressful life events in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Angela; Manara, Renzo; Pievani, Michela; Clementi, Maurizio; Forzan, Monica; Bruson, Alice; Tenconi, Elena; Degortes, Daniela; Pinato, Claudia; Giannunzio, Valeria; Battista Frisoni, Giovanni; Santonastaso, Paolo

    2014-08-30

    A change in neural connectivity of brain structures implicated in the memory of negative life events has been hypothesized to explain the enhancement of memory encoding during the processing of negative stimuli in depressed patients. Here, we investigated the effects of the interaction between negative life events and the 5-HTTLPR genotype - a polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene - on the functional and structural connectivity of the hippocampal area in 34 healthy women. All participants were genotyped for the presence of the 5-HTTLPR short variant and for the A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism; they underwent clinical assessment including structured diagnostic interviews to exclude the presence of psychiatric disorders and to assess the presence of stressful life events. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging scans were performed. We found significant interactions between stressful events and the 5-HTTLPR genotype in both the functional connectivity of the parahippocampus with the posterior cingulate cortex and the structural connectivity between the hippocampus and both the amygdala and the putamen. In addition, we found several genotype-related differences in the relationship between functional/structural connectivity of the hippocampal area and the ability to update expectations or stress-related phenotypes, such as anxiety symptoms. If confirmed by future studies, these mechanisms may clarify the role of the 5HTTLPR genotype as a risk factor for depression, in interaction with negative events. PMID:24914006

  15. Interaction of mealtime ad libitum beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy young men and women.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Dalia; Panahi, Shirin; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Douglas Goff, H; Harvey Anderson, G

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled study, 29 men and women consumed to satiation, over 20 min, a pizza meal with one of the five beverages including water, 1% milk, orange juice, regular cola and diet cola. Mealtime food and fluid intake were measured, within each of three 7-min phases of the meal. A progressive decline occurred from phase 1 to 3 in fluid intake and food intake, averaging 59 mL and 268 kcal (P < 0.0001) respectively; however, the relative intake of fluid to food (mL/kcal) increased (P < 0.0001). Beverage type was not a factor. All beverages resulted in similar fluid volume intake compared to water. However, caloric beverages led to higher mealtime total energy intake compared to water (P < 0.001) and diet cola (P < 0.0001). Baseline thirst correlated positively with both fluid (r = 0.28; P < 0.001) and food (r = 0.16; P < 0.05) intakes at the meal, whereas baseline appetite associated positively only with mealtime food intake (r = 0.23; P<0.01). In conclusion, mealtime fluid and food intakes interact, unaffected by beverage characteristics, to increase the ratio of fluid to food intake with meal progression. PMID:25700893

  16. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  17. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  18. The immune system during the pre-cancer and the early cancer period. IL-2 production by PBL from post-menopausal women with and without endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yron, I; Schickler, M; Fisch, B; Pinkas, H; Ovadia, J; Witz, I P

    1986-09-15

    We report on alterations in IL-2 production and cell proliferation following PHA stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from stage-I endometrial carcinoma (EC) patients, and on mechanisms involved in these alterations. Our study includes 3 groups: EC patients, post-menopausal women at high risk of developing EC, and age-matched healthy women. IL-2 production was markedly lower in most EC patients than in healthy controls. Varying levels of IL-2 were produced by PBL from women in the high-risk group. The proliferative response of PBL to PHA appeared to correlate with levels of IL-2 production. Our results suggest that macrophages are involved, in part, in the modulation of T-cell functions of EC patients. PMID:3488968

  19. Breast cancer-specific intrusions are associated with increased cortisol responses to daily life stressors in healthy women without personal or family histories of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dettenborn, Lucia; James, Gary D; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B; Montgomery, Guy H; Bovbjerg, Dana H

    2006-10-01

    Studies indicate that women fear breast cancer more than any other disease and that women's levels of breast cancer-specific intrusions are related to their perceived risk of breast cancer. Here, we explore possible biological consequences of higher breast cancer risk perceptions and intrusions in healthy women without personal or family histories of the disease. We hypothesized that women with higher perceived risk would have more intrusions about breast cancer, which would constitute a background stressor sufficient to increase hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) responsivity to daily stress. HPA responses to an ordinary life stressor (work) were assessed in 141 employed women (age = 37.2+/-9.2) without personal or family histories of breast cancer. Urinary cortisol excretion rates were assessed with timed sample collections at work, home, and during sleep. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant Group by Time interaction with higher work cortisol levels in women with breast cancer-specific intrusions compared to women without intrusions (p < 0.02). Regression analyses revealed a significant association between risk perceptions and intrusions (p < 0.001). Regression analysis with intrusions and risk perceptions predicting work cortisol indicated a significant contribution of intrusions (p < 0.04), but not risk perceptions (p = 0.53). Overestimation of breast cancer risk is associated with higher levels of breast cancer-specific intrusions that can result in increased cortisol responsivity to daily stressors. This heightened responsivity could have long-term negative health implications. PMID:16944305

  20. Amygdala alterations during an emotional conflict task in women recovered from anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Bang, Lasse; Rø, Øyvind; Endestad, Tor

    2016-02-28

    The pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is not completely understood, but research suggests that alterations in brain circuits related to cognitive control and emotion are central. The aim of this study was to explore neural responses to an emotional conflict task in women recovered from AN. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure neural responses to an emotional conflict task in 22 women recovered from AN and 21 age-matched healthy controls. The task involved categorizing affective faces while ignoring affective words. Face and word stimuli were either congruent (non-conflict) or incongruent (conflict). Brain responses to emotional conflict did not differ between groups. However, in response to emotional non-conflict, women recovered from AN relative to healthy controls showed significantly less activation in the bilateral amygdala. Specifically, while emotional non-conflict evoked significant activations of the amygdala in healthy controls, recovered AN women did not show such activations. Similar significant group differences were also observed in the hippocampus and basal ganglia. These results suggest that women recovered from AN are characterized by alterations within emotion-related brain circuits. Recovered women's absence of amygdala and hippocampus activation during non-conflict trials possibly reflects an impaired ability to process emotional significant stimuli. PMID:26778366

  1. Reference intervals of bone turnover markers in healthy premenopausal women: results from a cross-sectional European study.

    PubMed

    Eastell, Richard; Garnero, Patrick; Audebert, Christine; Cahall, David L

    2012-05-01

    Robust validated reference intervals for bone turnover markers (BTMs) are required to assess fracture risk and effectiveness of therapy. However, there are currently limited reference intervals for BTMs in premenopausal women, especially comparing manual and automated assays. This study determined the BTM reference intervals using automated and manual assays, compared the results obtained from two different assays, and evaluated the factors that may affect BTM levels. This was a cross-sectional registry study in 194 healthy, premenopausal, European Caucasian women aged 35 to 39years from France (n=98) and Denmark (n=96). Two independent specialized laboratories, one in France (Synarc) and the other in Denmark (Nordic Bioscience), analyzed blood and urine samples from each woman for BTM levels. The type of assay used in this study significantly affected the reference intervals obtained for serum cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (sCTX) and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (uNTX/Cr; both P<0.001), but not for serum procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide (PINP; P=0.28). The Serum Crosslaps® ELISA; Microtitre-plate based ELISA; Metra BAP EIA; and UniQ® PINP RIA assays yielded higher BTM reference values. The reference intervals for the BTMs, as measured with Serum β-Crosslaps, Elecsys® 2010 Systems; VITROS® ECI System; Ostase®, Access® Immunoassay System; and Total PINP, Elecsys® 2010 Systems assays, were 0.111-0.791ng/mL for sCTX, 12.3-59.7nmol BCE/mmol creatinine for uNTX/Cr, 5.8-17.5ng/mL for bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and 17.3-83.4ng/mL for PINP, respectively. When measured with Serum Crosslaps® ELISA, Microtitre-plate based ELISA, Metra BAP EIA, and UniQ® PINP RIA, the reference intervals were 0.177-0.862ng/mL for sCTX, 22.6-95.7nmol BCE/mmol creatinine for uNTX/Cr, 14.8-38.8U/L for bone ALP, and 19.5-75.2ng/mL for PINP, respectively. The clinical interpretation of the BTMs of a subject

  2. Maternal education and adverse birth outcomes among immigrant women to the United States from Eastern Europe: a test of the healthy migrant hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Janevic, T; Savitz, D A; Janevic, M

    2011-08-01

    Immigrant women to the U.S. often have more favorable birth outcomes than their native-born counterparts, including lower rates of preterm birth and low birth weight, a phenomenon commonly attributed to a healthy migrant effect. However, this effect varies by ethnicity and country of origin. No previous study has examined birth outcomes among immigrants from the post-Communist countries of Eastern Europe, a group which includes both economic migrants and conflict refugees. Using data on 253,363 singletons births from New York City during 1995-2003 we examined the risk of preterm birth (PTB) (<37 weeks) or delivering a term small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant among immigrants from Russia and Ukraine (RU), Poland, and former Yugoslavia Republics (FYR) relative to US-born non-Hispanic whites (NHW). Women in all three Eastern European groups had significantly later entry into prenatal care, were more likely to be Medicaid recipients, and had lower educational attainment than US-born NHW. In binomial regression analyses adjusting for age, education, parity, and pre-pregnancy weight, women from RU and FYR had lower risk of PTB than US-born NHW, whereas women from Poland had similar risk. Lower SGA risk was found among women from Poland and FYR, but not RU. When stratified by education, women with <12 years of education from all Eastern European groups had a reduced risk of PTB relative to US-born NHW. An educational gradient in PTB and SGA risk was less pronounced in all Eastern European groups compared to US-born NHW. The healthy migrant effect is present among immigrants from Eastern Europe to the U.S., especially among women with less education and those from the former Yugoslavia, a group that included many conflict refugees. PMID:21724312

  3. Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy vs standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A non-randomized, age-matched single center trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Yoen TK; Bosscha, Koop; Prins, Hubert A; Lips, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the safety of single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomies with standard four-port cholecystectomies. METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2012 datas were gathered from 100 consecutive patients who received a single-port cholecystectomy. Patient baseline characteristics of all 100 single-port cholecystectomies were collected (body mass index, age, etc.) in a database. This group was compared with 100 age-matched patients who underwent a conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the same period. Retrospectively, per- and postoperative data were added. The two groups were compared to each other using independent t-tests and χ2-tests, P values below 0.05 were considered significantly different. RESULTS: No differences were found between both groups regarding baseline characteristics. Operating time was significantly shorter in the total single-port group (42 min vs 62 min, P < 0.05); in procedures performed by surgeons the same trend was seen (45 min vs 59 min, P < 0.05). Peroperative complications between both groups were equal (3 in the single-port group vs 5 in the multiport group; P = 0.42). Although not significant less postoperative complications were seen in the single-port group compared with the multiport group (3 vs 9; P = 0.07). No statistically significant differences were found between both groups with regard to length of hospital stay, readmissions and mortality. CONCLUSION: Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy has the potential to be a safe technique with a low complication rate, short in-hospital stay and comparable operating time. Single-port cholecystectomy provides the patient an almost non-visible scar while preserving optimal quality of surgery. Further prospective studies are needed to prove the safety of the single-port technique. PMID:26328034

  4. Hypnotizability and Placebo Analgesia in Waking and Hypnosis as Modulators of Auditory Startle Responses in Healthy Women: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Scacchia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of hypnotizability, pain expectation, placebo analgesia in waking and hypnosis on tonic pain relief. We also investigated how placebo analgesia affects somatic responses (eye blink) and N100 and P200 waves of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by auditory startle probes. Although expectation plays an important role in placebo and hypnotic analgesia, the neural mechanisms underlying these treatments are still poorly understood. We used the cold cup test (CCT) to induce tonic pain in 53 healthy women. Placebo analgesia was initially produced by manipulation, in which the intensity of pain induced by the CCT was surreptitiously reduced after the administration of a sham analgesic cream. Participants were then tested in waking and hypnosis under three treatments: (1) resting (Baseline); (2) CCT-alone (Pain); and (3) CCT plus placebo cream for pain relief (Placebo). For each painful treatment, we assessed pain and distress ratings, eye blink responses, N100 and P200 amplitudes. We used LORETA analysis of N100 and P200 waves, as elicited by auditory startle, to identify cortical regions sensitive to pain reduction through placebo and hypnotic analgesia. Higher pain expectation was associated with higher pain reductions. In highly hypnotizable participants placebo treatment produced significant reductions of pain and distress perception in both waking and hypnosis condition. P200 wave, during placebo analgesia, was larger in the frontal left hemisphere while placebo analgesia, during hypnosis, involved the activity of the left hemisphere including the occipital region. These findings demonstrate that hypnosis and placebo analgesia are different processes of top-down regulation. Pain reduction was associated with larger EMG startle amplitudes, N100 and P200 responses, and enhanced activity within the frontal, parietal, and anterior and posterior cingulate gyres. LORETA results showed that placebo analgesia modulated pain-responsive areas

  5. Hypnotizability and Placebo Analgesia in Waking and Hypnosis as Modulators of Auditory Startle Responses in Healthy Women: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Scacchia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of hypnotizability, pain expectation, placebo analgesia in waking and hypnosis on tonic pain relief. We also investigated how placebo analgesia affects somatic responses (eye blink) and N100 and P200 waves of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by auditory startle probes. Although expectation plays an important role in placebo and hypnotic analgesia, the neural mechanisms underlying these treatments are still poorly understood. We used the cold cup test (CCT) to induce tonic pain in 53 healthy women. Placebo analgesia was initially produced by manipulation, in which the intensity of pain induced by the CCT was surreptitiously reduced after the administration of a sham analgesic cream. Participants were then tested in waking and hypnosis under three treatments: (1) resting (Baseline); (2) CCT-alone (Pain); and (3) CCT plus placebo cream for pain relief (Placebo). For each painful treatment, we assessed pain and distress ratings, eye blink responses, N100 and P200 amplitudes. We used LORETA analysis of N100 and P200 waves, as elicited by auditory startle, to identify cortical regions sensitive to pain reduction through placebo and hypnotic analgesia. Higher pain expectation was associated with higher pain reductions. In highly hypnotizable participants placebo treatment produced significant reductions of pain and distress perception in both waking and hypnosis condition. P200 wave, during placebo analgesia, was larger in the frontal left hemisphere while placebo analgesia, during hypnosis, involved the activity of the left hemisphere including the occipital region. These findings demonstrate that hypnosis and placebo analgesia are different processes of top-down regulation. Pain reduction was associated with larger EMG startle amplitudes, N100 and P200 responses, and enhanced activity within the frontal, parietal, and anterior and posterior cingulate gyres. LORETA results showed that placebo analgesia modulated pain-responsive areas

  6. The effect of supplementary calcium on blood pressure in healthy adult women aged 18-30 years in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Entezari, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in developed countries and has an increasing trend in developing countries. There are some evidences that calcium supplementation may decrease blood pressure and consequently cardiovascular disease, but they are not conclusive and there is no agreement in this respect. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of supplementary calcium on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in healthy adult women aged 18–30 years. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five normotensive volunteers were randomly divided into two groups, the treatment group received 1000 mg/day calcium (four doses of 625 mg calcium carbonate) for 1 month and the control group received placebo (dextrose). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was determined before and after intervention in supine position after 10 min of rest. Results: The mean daily calcium intake from food was 773.9 mg in treatment and 721 mg in control group (no significant difference) but in both the groups dietary calcium intake was less than the recommended dietary allowance: After calcium supplementation, the mean change of systolic blood pressure was not significant in the two groups, but diastolic blood pressure reduced in treatment group and increased in control group (−4.9 vs 2.6 mmHg) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that, calcium supplementation does not have any effect on systolic blood pressure of our volunteers but can decrease diastolic blood pressure significantly and therefore it seems that calcium supplementation may be useful for people with increased diastolic blood pressure, especially for those who receive less calcium than recommended dietary allowance. PMID:26430694

  7. Pharmacokinetic interaction study between riociguat and the combined oral contraceptives levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Sigrun; van der Mey, Dorina; Becker, Corina; Saleh, Soundos; Wensing, Georg; Mück, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Female patients requiring treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are advised to avoid pregnancy because of the high associated mortality rate. Oral contraception is one of the main methods of preventing pregnancy in this context, mandating pharmacokinetic and safety studies for new agents in this setting. Riociguat is a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator approved for treatment of PAH and inoperable and persistent or recurrent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. This single-center, randomized, nonblinded study involving healthy postmenopausal women investigated the effect of riociguat on plasma concentrations of levonorgestrel (0.15 mg) and ethinylestradiol (0.03 mg) in a combined oral contraceptive. Treatment A was a single oral tablet of levonorgestrel-ethinylestradiol. In treatment B, subjects received 2.5 mg riociguat 3 times daily for 12 days. On the eighth day, they also received a single oral tablet of levonorgestrel-ethinylestradiol. Subjects received both regimens in a crossover design. There was no change in area under the plasma concentration–time curves of levonorgestrel or ethinylestradiol or maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax) of levonorgestrel during combined administration versus levonorgestrel-ethinylestradiol alone. A 20% increase in the Cmax of ethinylestradiol was noted during coadministration; this is not anticipated to adversely impact the contraceptive efficacy or to require any dose adjustment for ethinylestradiol. Plasma concentrations and exposures of riociguat were within the expected range and were not influenced by coadministration with levonorgestrel-ethinylestradiol. Combined treatment was safe and well tolerated. In conclusion, riociguat did not change the exposure to levonorgestrel or ethinylestradiol relative to oral contraceptive administered alone. PMID:27162633

  8. Healthy Eating for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... meat, chicken, turkey, pork, fish, kale, spinach, beans, lentils and fortified breads and cereals. Plant-based sources ... with mandarin orange slices or add tomatoes to lentil soup. Folic Acid During the Reproductive Years When ...

  9. Family history of later-onset breast cancer, breast healthy behavior and invasive breast cancer among postmenopausal women: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A family history of later-onset breast cancer (FHLBC) may suggest multi-factorial inheritance of breast cancer risk, including unhealthy lifestyle behaviors that may be shared within families. We assessed whether adherence to lifestyle behaviors recommended for breast cancer prevention--including maintaining a healthful body weight, being physically active and limiting alcohol intake--modifies breast cancer risk attributed to FHLBC in postmenopausal women. Methods Breast cancer outcomes through August 2003 were analyzed in relationship to lifestyle and risk factors collected by questionnaire during enrollment (between 1993 and 1998) of 85,644 postmenopausal women into the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Results During a mean follow-up of 5.4 years, 1997 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. The rate of invasive breast cancer among women with an FHLBC who participated in all three behaviors was 5.94 per 1,000 woman-years, compared with 6.97 per 1,000 woman-years among women who participated in none of the behaviors. The rate among women with no FHLBC who participated in all three behavioral conditions was 3.51 per 1,000 woman-years compared to 4.67 per 1,000 woman-years for those who participated in none. We did not observe a clinically important departure from additive effects (Interaction Contrast: 0.00014; 95% CI: -0.00359, 0.00388). Conclusions Participating in breast healthy behaviors was beneficial to postmenopausal women and the degree of this benefit was the same for women with and without an FHLBC. PMID:20939870

  10. The Prevalence of Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection and the Most At-risk Genotypes Among Iranian Healthy Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Malary, Mina; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Afshari, Mahdi; Moghaddasifar, Iman; Afsharimoghaddam, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the most common sexual-transmitted infections among women is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection which is associated with genital cancers. Different studies in Iran reported various prevalences, and combining their results could be important for health policy makers. This study aims to determine the total prevalence of HPV infection as well as its related genotypes, particularly HPV16 and HPV18 among Iranian healthy women. Methods: Searching the Scientific Information Database, Iranmedex, Magiran, Irandoc, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ScienceDirect databanks using relevant keywords and excluding duplicates and irrelevant evidence followed by applying exclusion criteria and quality assessment, eligible articles were selected. Standard error of the prevalence was calculated based on binomial distribution. Random effects model was used because of the high heterogeneity among the results. Results: Of 14 studies entered into the systematic review, 24 pieces of evidence reported the HPV prevalence among 7655 healthy and noncancerous women in different Provinces of Iran. Total prevalence of HPV, 9.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.8–12.02); HPV16, 2.03% (95% CI: 1.3–2.8); HPV18, 1.7% (95% CI: 0.9–2.5); and other genotypes of HPV, 5.3% (95% CI: 3.6–6.9) were estimated. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed that the total prevalence of HPV and its high-risk genotypes (16 and 18) among healthy noncancerous Iranian women was very high. PMID:27217936

  11. Potassium excretion in healthy Japanese women was increased by a dietary intervention utilizing home-parcel delivery of Okinawan vegetables.

    PubMed

    Tuekpe, Mallet K-N; Todoriki, Hidemi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Zheng, Kui-Cheng; Ariizumi, Makoto

    2006-06-01

    Potassium, which is abundant in vegetables, is inversely related to blood pressure. Although the situation has changed somewhat in recent years, the Okinawan diet has generally included a large amount of vegetables, and until recently Okinawans had the lowest rates of mortality due to stroke and coronary heart disease in Japan. Based on the hypothesis that these low mortality rates are partly attributable to increased potassium intake resulting from the high vegetable consumption, this study examined whether increasing the consumption of typical yellow-green Okinawan vegetables increases potassium intake. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether increased consumption of these vegetables should be one of the dietary modifications recommended in public health promotion programs for Okinawans. The study employed 56 healthy, normotensive, free-living Japanese women aged 18-38 years living in Okinawa. They were randomized to a dietary intervention group (n=27) or a control group (n=29). Members of the dietary intervention group received an average weight of 371.4 g/day of a combination of the following vegetables twice weekly through an express home parcel deliver service for a period of 14 days: Goya (Momordica charantia), green papaya (Carica papaya), Handama (Gynura bicolor), Karashina (Brassica juncea), Njana (Crepidiastrum lanceolatium), Fuchiba (Artemisia vulgaris) and Fudanso (Beta vulgaris); and they consumed an average of 144.9 g/day, resulting in a 20.5% increase in their urinary potassium excretion over the baseline (p=0.045). The members of the control group were asked to avoid these vegetables, and the change in potassium excretion in this group was not significant (p=0.595). Urinary sodium and magnesium excretions, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, folic acid, triglycerides and serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterols changed non-significantly in both groups. Also, post

  12. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  13. Skin-whitening and skin-condition-improving effects of topical oxidized glutathione: a double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Fumiko; Hashizume, Erika; Chan, Gertrude P; Kamimura, Ayako

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Glutathione is a tripeptide consisting of cysteine, glycine, and glutamate and functions as a major antioxidant. It is synthesized endogenously in humans. Glutathione protects thiol protein groups from oxidation and is involved in cellular detoxification for maintenance of the cell environment. Reduced glutathione (GSH) has a skin-whitening effect in humans through its tyrosinase inhibitory activity, but in the case of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) this effect is unclear. We examined the skin-whitening and skin-condition effects of topical GSSG in healthy women. Subjects and methods The subjects were 30 healthy adult women aged 30 to 50 years. The study design was a randomized, double-blind, matched-pair, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Subjects applied GSSG 2% (weight/weight [w/w]) lotion to one side of the face and a placebo lotion to the other side twice daily for 10 weeks. We objectively measured changes in melanin index values, moisture content of the stratum corneum, smoothness, wrinkle formation, and elasticity of the skin. The principal investigator and each subject also used subjective scores to investigate skin whitening, wrinkle reduction, and smoothness. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences between groups. Results The skin melanin index was significantly lower with GSSG treatment than with placebo from the early weeks after the start of the trial through to the end of the study period (at 10 weeks, P<0.001). In addition, in the latter half of the study period GSSG-treated sites had significant increases in moisture content of the stratum corneum, suppression of wrinkle formation, and improvement in skin smoothness. There were no marked adverse effects from GSSG application. Conclusion Topical GSSG is safe and effectively whitens the skin and improves skin condition in healthy women. PMID:25378941

  14. Hemodynamic Responses of Unfit Healthy Women at a Training Session with Nintendo Wii: A Possible Impact on the General Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato S; Figueiredo, Luiz F; Conceição, Isabel; Carvalho, Carolina; Lattari, Eduardo; Mura, Gioia; Machado, Sérgio; da Silva, Elirez B

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was assess the effect of a training session with Nintendo Wii® on the hemodynamic responses of healthy women not involved in regular physical exercise. Method: Twenty-five healthy unfit women aged 28 ± 6 years played for 10 minutes the game Free Run (Wii Fit Plus). The resting heart rate (RHR), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP), and double (rate-pressure) product (DP) were measured before and after activity. The HR during the activity (exercise heart rate, EHR) was measured every minute. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed between the RHR (75 ± 9 bpm) and the mean EHR (176 ± 15 bpm) (P < 0.001). The EHR remained in the target zone for aerobic exercise until the fifth minute of activity, which coincided with the upper limit of the aerobic zone (80% heart rate reserve (HRR) + RHR) from the sixth to tenth minute. The initial (110 ± 8 mmHg) and final (145 ± 17 mmHg) SBP (P < 0.01) were significantly different, as were the initial (71 ± 8 mmHg) and final (79 ± 9 mmHg) DBP (P < 0.01). A statistically significant difference was observed between the pre- (8.233 ± 1.141 bpm-mmHg) and post-activity (25.590 ± 4.117 bpm-mmHg) DP (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Physical exercise while playing Free Run sufficed to trigger acute hemodynamic changes in healthy women who were not engaged in regular physical exercise. PMID:25614754

  15. Immunogenicity and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in healthy Chinese girls and women aged 9 to 45 years

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fengcai; Li, Juan; Hu, Yuemei; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Xiaoping; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Junzhi; Yang, Jianguo; Xia, Guodong; Dai, Qinyong; Tang, Haiwen; V Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Bi, Dan; Struyf, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Immunogenicity and safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine were evaluated in healthy Chinese females aged 9–45 years in 2 phase IIIB, randomized, controlled trials. Girls aged 9–17 years (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00996125) received vaccine (n = 374) or control (n = 376) and women aged 26–45 years (NCT01277042) received vaccine (n = 606) or control (n = 606) at months 0, 1, and 6. The primary objective was to show non-inferiority of anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune responses in initially seronegative subjects at month 7, compared with Chinese women aged 18–25 years enrolled in a separate phase II/III trial (NCT00779766). Secondary objectives were to describe the anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune response, reactogenicity and safety. At month 7, immune responses were non-inferior for girls (9–17 years) vs. young women (18–25 years): the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (women/girls) was below the limit of 2 for both anti-HPV-16 (0.37 [95% CI: 0.32, 0.43]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.42 [0.36, 0.49]). Immune responses at month 7 were also non-inferior for 26–45 year-old women vs. 18–25 year-old women: the upper limit of the 95% CI for the difference in seroconversion (18–25 minus 26–45) was below the limit of 5% for both anti-HPV-16 (0.00% [–1.53, 1.10]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.21% [–1.36, 1.68]). GMTs were 2- to 3-fold higher in girls (9–17 years) as compared with young women (18–25 years). The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had an acceptable safety profile when administered to healthy Chinese females aged 9–45 years. PMID:25424785

  16. Immunogenicity and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in healthy Chinese girls and women aged 9 to 45 years.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fengcai; Li, Juan; Hu, Yuemei; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Xiaoping; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Junzhi; Yang, Jianguo; Xia, Guodong; Dai, Qinyong; Tang, Haiwen; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Bi, Dan; Struyf, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Immunogenicity and safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine were evaluated in healthy Chinese females aged 9-45 years in 2 phase IIIB, randomized, controlled trials. Girls aged 9-17 years (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00996125) received vaccine (n = 374) or control (n = 376) and women aged 26-45 years (NCT01277042) received vaccine (n = 606) or control (n = 606) at months 0, 1, and 6. The primary objective was to show non-inferiority of anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune responses in initially seronegative subjects at month 7, compared with Chinese women aged 18-25 years enrolled in a separate phase II/III trial (NCT00779766). Secondary objectives were to describe the anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune response, reactogenicity and safety. At month 7, immune responses were non-inferior for girls (9-17 years) vs. young women (18-25 years): the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (women/girls) was below the limit of 2 for both anti-HPV-16 (0.37 [95% CI: 0.32, 0.43]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.42 [0.36, 0.49]). Immune responses at month 7 were also non-inferior for 26-45 year-old women vs. 18-25 year-old women: the upper limit of the 95% CI for the difference in seroconversion (18-25 minus 26-45) was below the limit of 5% for both anti-HPV-16 (0.00% [-1.53, 1.10]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.21% [-1.36, 1.68]). GMTs were 2- to 3-fold higher in girls (9-17 years) as compared with young women (18-25 years). The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had an acceptable safety profile when administered to healthy Chinese females aged 9-45 years. PMID:25424785

  17. Autonomic regulation across phases of the menstrual cycle and sleep stages in women with premenstrual syndrome and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Nicholas, Christian L; Colrain, Ian M; Trinder, John A; Baker, Fiona C

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the influence of menstrual cycle phase and the presence of severe premenstrual symptoms on cardiac autonomic control during sleep, we performed heart rate variability (HRV) analysis during stable non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep in 12 women with severe premenstrual syndrome and 14 controls in the mid-follicular, mid-luteal, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Heart rate was higher, along with lower high frequency (HF) power, reflecting reduced vagal activity, and a higher ratio of low frequency (LF) to high frequency power, reflecting a shift to sympathetic dominance, in REM sleep compared with NREM sleep in both groups of women. Both groups of women had higher heart rate during NREM and REM sleep in the luteal phase recordings compared with the mid-follicular phase. HF power in REM sleep was lowest in the mid-luteal phase, when progesterone was highest, in both groups of women. The mid-luteal phase reduction in HF power was also evident in NREM sleep in control women but not in women with PMS, suggesting some impact of premenstrual syndrome on autonomic responses to the hormone environment of the mid-luteal phase. In addition, mid-luteal phase progesterone levels correlated positively with HF power and negatively with LF/HF ratio in control women in NREM sleep and with the LF/HF ratio during REM sleep in both groups of women. Our findings suggest the involvement of female reproductive steroids in cardiac autonomic control during sleep in women with and without premenstrual syndrome. PMID:23850226

  18. Effect of Oral Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementation on Physical Performance in Healthy Old Women Over 65 Years: An Open Label Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Berton, Linda; Bano, Giulia; Carraro, Sara; Veronese, Nicola; Pizzato, Simona; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Valmorbida, Elena; De Ronch, Irene; Perissinotto, Egle; Coin, Alessandra; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Although older people are particularly liable to sarcopenia, limited research is available on beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in this population, particularly in healthy subjects. In this parallel-group, randomized, controlled, open-label trial, we aimed to evaluate whether an oral supplement containing 1.5 g of calcium HMB for 8 weeks could improve physical performance and muscle strength parameters in a group of community-dwelling healthy older women. Eighty healthy women attending a twice-weekly mild fitness program were divided into two equal groups of 40, and 32 of the treated women and 33 control completed the study. We considered a change in the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score as the primary outcome and changes in the peak torque (PT) isometric and isokinetic strength of the lower limbs, 6-minute walking test (6MWT), handgrip strength and endurance as secondary outcomes. Body composition was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT). The mean difference between the two groups on pre-post change were finally calculated (delta) for each outcome. After 8 weeks, there were no significant differences between the groups’ SPPB, handgrip strength or DXA parameters. The group treated with HMB scored significantly better than the control group for PT isokinetic flexion (delta = 1.56±1.56 Nm; p = 0.03) and extension (delta = 3.32±2.61 Nm; p = 0.03), PT isometric strength (delta = 9.74±3.90 Nm; p = 0.02), 6MWT (delta = 7.67±8.29 m; p = 0.04), handgrip endurance (delta = 21.41±16.28 s; p = 0.02), and muscle density assessed with pQCT. No serious adverse effects were reported in either group. In conclusion, a nutritional supplement containing 1.5 g of calcium HMB for 8 weeks in healthy elderly women had no significant effects on SPPB, but did significantly improve several muscle strength and physical performance parameters. Trial Registration Clinical

  19. A Study of the Vaginal Microbiome in Healthy Canadian Women Utilizing cpn60-Based Molecular Profiling Reveals Distinct Gardnerella Subgroup Community State Types.

    PubMed

    Albert, Arianne Y K; Chaban, Bonnie; Wagner, Emily C; Schellenberg, John J; Links, Matthew G; van Schalkwyk, Julie; Reid, Gregor; Hemmingsen, Sean M; Hill, Janet E; Money, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The vaginal microbiota is important in women's reproductive and overall health. However, the relationships between the structure, function and dynamics of this complex microbial community and health outcomes remain elusive. The objective of this study was to determine the phylogenetic range and abundance of prokaryotes in the vaginal microbiota of healthy, non-pregnant, ethnically diverse, reproductive-aged Canadian women. Socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical data were collected and vaginal swabs were analyzed from 310 women. Detailed profiles of their vaginal microbiomes were generated by pyrosequencing of the chaperonin-60 universal target. Six community state types (CST) were delineated by hierarchical clustering, including three Lactobacillus-dominated CST (L. crispatus, L. iners, L. jensenii), two Gardnerella-dominated (subgroups A and C) and an "intermediate" CST which included a small number of women with microbiomes dominated by seven other species or with no dominant species but minority populations of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Peptoniphilus, E. coli and various Proteobacteria in co-dominant communities. The striking correspondence between Nugent score and deep sequencing CST continues to reinforce the basic premise provided by the simpler Gram stain method, while additional analyses reveal detailed cpn60-based phylogeny and estimated abundance in microbial communities from vaginal samples. Ethnicity was the only demographic or clinical characteristic predicting CST, with differences in Asian and White women (p = 0.05). In conclusion, this study confirms previous work describing four cpn60-based subgroups of Gardnerella, revealing previously undescribed CST. The data describe the range of bacterial communities seen in Canadian women presenting with no specific vaginal health concerns, and provides an important baseline for future investigations of clinically important cohorts. PMID:26266808

  20. Healthy lifestyle and risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort study.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Fiona; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Chajès, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; de Batlle, Jordi; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Baglietto, Laura; Dartois, Laureen; Dossus, Laure; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Rosso, Stefano; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; May, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Buckland, Genevieve; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Andersson, Anne; Sund, Malin; Ericson, Ulrika; Wirfält, Elisabet; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and prevention strategies are needed to reduce incidence worldwide. A healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) was generated to investigate the joint effect of modifiable lifestyle factors on postmenopausal breast cancer risk. The study included 242,918 postmenopausal women from the multinational European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, with detailed information on diet and lifestyle assessed at baseline. The HLIS was constructed from five factors (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0-4 to categories of each component, for which higher values indicate healthier behaviours. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional regression models. During 10.9 years of median follow-up, 7,756 incident breast cancer cases were identified. There was a 3% lower risk of breast cancer per point increase of the HLIS. Breast cancer risk was inversely associated with a high HLIS when fourth versus second (reference) categories were compared [adjusted HR = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.83]. The fourth versus the second category of the HLIS was associated with a lower risk for hormone receptor double positive (adjusted HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67-0.98) and hormone receptor double negative breast cancer (adjusted HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.90). Findings suggest having a high score on an index of combined healthy behaviours reduces the risk of developing breast cancer among postmenopausal women. Programmes which engage women in long term health behaviours should be supported. PMID:25379993

  1. The effect of sex on immune cells in healthy aging: Elderly women have more robust natural killer lymphocytes than do elderly men.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Ahmad; Presnell, Steven R; Peterson, Charlotte A; Thomas, D Travis; Lutz, Charles T

    2016-06-01

    Immune gender differences have been reported, but are little studied in elderly humans. We compared monocyte and lymphocyte subsets, along with soluble immune mediators in healthy men and women over the age of 70. We also measured natural killer (NK) lymphocyte cytotoxic granule exocytosis, chemokine synthesis, and cytokine synthesis in response to a variety of stimuli. Elderly women had significantly more circulating B cells than men, whereas men had more CD4 central memory T cells and higher monocyte levels. Plasma adiponectin levels were higher in women, plasma retinol-binding protein 4 levels were higher in men, but there were no significant gender differences in C-reactive protein, IL-15, or sphingosine-1-phosphate. Women had a higher ratio of immature CD56(bright) NK cells to mature CD56(dim) NK cells, indicating a gender difference in NK cell maturation in the elderly. Comparing sexes, female mature NK cells had more vigorous cytotoxic granule responses to K562 leukemia cells and IFN-γ responses to NKp46 crosslinking. Moreover, female NK cells were more likely to produce MIP-1β in response to a variety of stimuli. These data show that gender influences NK cell activity in elderly humans. PMID:27059724

  2. Intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid temperature analysis using MR diffusion-weighted imaging thermometry in Parkinson's disease patients, multiple system atrophy patients, and healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, Kaoru; Sato, Noriko; Ota, Miho; Sakai, Koji; Nippashi, Yasumasa; Sone, Daichi; Yokoyama, Kota; Ito, Kimiteru; Maikusa, Norihide; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kei; Murata, Miho; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the temperature of the intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid (Tv) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and those with multiple system atrophy (MSA) in comparison with healthy subjects, and we examined normal changes in this temperature with aging. Methods Tv was estimated by magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) thermometry in 36 PD patients (19 males, 17 females), 34 MSA patients (17 males, 17 females), 64 age-matched controls (27 men, 37 women), and 114 all-age adult controls (47 men, 67 women; 28–89 years old). The volume of lateral ventricles was also estimated using FreeSurfer in all subjects. Tv and ventricular volume data were compared among the PD and MSA patients and age-matched controls. We also evaluated the relationship between Tv and age in the 114 all-age controls, controlling for ventricular volume. Men and women were analyzed separately. Results The male PD and MSA patients had significantly higher Tv values compared to the male controls, with no significant difference in ventricular volume among them. There was no significant difference in Tv between the female patients and controls. In the all-age male controls, there was a significant negative correlation between Tv and age controlling for ventricular volume, and this was not observed in the women. Conclusion DWI thermometry is a useful and easy method for demonstrating an altered intracranial environment in male patients and healthy controls, but not in females. DWI thermometry can thus be used to help to explore the pathophysiology of Parkinsonian syndromes and to differentiate individuals affected by neurodegenerative disease with autonomic dysfunction from those without it. PMID:26085965

  3. Influence of Physical Activity Participation on the Associations between Eating Behaviour Traits and Body Mass Index in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Riou, Marie-Ève; Doucet, Éric; Provencher, Véronique; Weisnagel, S. John; Piché, Marie-Ève; Dubé, Marie-Christine; Bergeron, Jean; Lemieux, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Available data reveals inconsistent relationships between eating behaviour traits and markers of adiposity level. It is thus relevant to investigate whether other factors also need to be considered when interpreting the relationship between eating behaviour traits and adiposity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was thus to examine whether the associations between variables of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and adiposity are influenced by the level of physical activity participation. Information from the TFEQ and physical activity was obtained from 113 postmenopausal women (56.7 ± 4.2 years; 28.5 ± 5.9 kg/m2). BMI was compared between four groups formed on the basis of the physical activity participation and eating behaviour traits medians. In groups of women with higher physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women who presented higher dietary restraint when compared to women who had lower dietary restraint (25.5 ± 0.5 versus 30.3 ± 1.7 kg/m2, P < .05). In addition, among women with lower physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women presenting a lower external hunger than in those with a higher external hunger (27.5 ± 0.8 versus 32.4 ± 1.1 kg/m2, P < .001). Our results suggest that physical activity participation should also be taken into account when interpreting the relationship between adiposity and eating behaviour traits. PMID:20871862

  4. [Should a systematic fertility preservation be proposed to healthy women carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation?].

    PubMed

    Sénéchal, C; Rousset-Jablonski, C

    2015-12-01

    Should all women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes mutations be considered at risk of prematurely impaired fertility, and thus should a fertility preservation systematically be proposed? Women carrying mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2 are at high risk for breast and tubo-ovarian cancer. The treatment of a breast cancer at a young age, unrare in this population, is associated with a risk of infertility, due to the ovarian toxicity of chemotherapy, to the recommended duration of hormonotherapy when indicated, and to the time advised before starting a pregnancy. Furthermore, some data in the literature suggest a higher risk of premature ovarian failure among women with BRCA1/2 mutation: advance of the age at menopause and poorer response to ovarian stimulation have been observed. Several pathophysiological hypotheses support this finding, as the involvement of the BRCA genes in maintaining telomere length, the DNA repair anomalies promoting oocyte apoptosis, differences in FMR1 genotype. Current fertility preservation techniques have limitations, some of them being specific to BRCA1/2 women: absence of oncological risk due to stimulation in BRCA1/2 women not clearly demonstrated, oocyte vitrification techniques limited rentability, graft of ovarian cortex not suitable in these women at high risk. Thus, data on the increased risk of premature ovarian failure remaining weak, such a systematic proposal seems questionable. PMID:26476890

  5. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  6. Urea kinetics in healthy young women: minimal effect of stage of menstrual cycle, contraceptive pill and protein intake.

    PubMed

    McClelland, I S; Jackson, A A

    1996-08-01

    Urea kinetics were measured using prime/intermittent oral doses of [15N15N]urea, on five separate protocols in thirteen normal young women. Each woman underwent either two or three study protocols. Measurements were made at day 12 and day 22 of the menstrual cycle, whilst consuming their habitual protein intake in seven women not taking the contraceptive pill and in six women taking the contraceptive pill. In three women taking the pill, and three not taking the pill, urea kinetics were measured whilst taking a diet in which the intake was restricted to 55 g protein/d. There was no difference in the rate of urea production, urea excretion or urea hydrolysis between the women taking the pill and those not taking the pill at day 22. In the women not taking the pill there was no difference in any measure between day 12 and day 22. In the women taking the pill there was a significant difference in the disposal of urea N to excretion or hydrolysis on day 12 compared with day 22, with a relative decrease in excretion and enhancement of hydrolysis at day 12 compared with day 22. On the restricted diet, an intake of 55 g protein/d represented 77% of the habitual intake and urea production, excretion and hydrolysis were reduced to about 84% of the rate found on the habitual intake. In paired studies the reduction in urea production was statistically significant, and there was a statistically significant linear relationship between urea production and either intake or the sum of intake plus hydrolysis. The within-individual variability for urea production was about 10%, for excretion 15% and for hydrolysis 44%. The between-individual variability for intake was about 17% on the habitual intake. The variability for production, excretion and hydrolysis (14, 13, 36%) was less in the women not taking the contraceptive pill than in those taking the pill 23, 32, 42% respectively). The variability was reduced on the controlled low intake of 55 g protein compared with the habitual

  7. The StrongWomenHealthy Hearts Program: Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Rural Sedentary, Overweight, and Obese Midlife and Older Women.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives. We tested a community-based intervention to reduce heart disease risk in sedentary, overweight and obese older women. Methods. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 8 counties in Arkansas and Kansas. Counties were randomly assigned to the intervention or delayed intervention co...

  8. National dissemination of StrongWomenHealthy Hearts: A community-based program to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease among midlife and older women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: We describe the national dissemination of an evidence-based community cardiovascular disease prevention program for midlife and older women using the RE-AIM (reach effectiveness adoption implementation maintenance) framework and share key lessons learned during translation. Methods: In a ...

  9. Effects of depressive symptoms and experimentally adopted schemas on sexual arousal and affect in sexually healthy women.

    PubMed

    Kuffel, Stephanie W; Heiman, Julia R

    2006-04-01

    The present study examined the effects of depressive mood symptoms and experimentally adopted sexual schemas on women's sexual arousal and affect. Women's vaginal response, subjective sexual arousal, and affect were measured in response to sexually explicit visual material in a laboratory setting. At baseline on a self-report measure, women with depressive mood symptoms (n = 28) reported significantly lower sexual desire than women with normal mood (n=28), but no significant differences in arousal, orgasm, satisfaction, or pain. Participants were asked to adopt both a positive and negative sexual self-schema prior to viewing erotic stimuli. Women in both mood groups demonstrated significantly greater subjective sexual arousal, vaginal response, and positive affect in the positive schema condition than in the negative schema condition when controlling for anxiety. There were no main effects for mood symptoms. These findings support an information processing conceptualization of sexual arousal and suggest that an acute dose of cognitive sexual schemas can significantly impact subsequent sexual and affective responses. Implications of findings for the assessment and treatment of sexual dysfunction are noted. PMID:16752119

  10. Cross-Sectional Associations between Body Size, Circulating Sex-Steroid Hormones and IGF Components among Healthy Chinese Women.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Lauren E; Miller, Erline E; Wang, Qiong; Li, Jia-Yuan; Liu, Li; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Smith, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer has increased in Asian countries and rates of hormone receptor (HR) negative breast cancer exceed those of Western countries. Epidemiologic data suggest that the association between body size and BC risk may vary by HR status, and could differ geographically. While body size may influence BC risk by moderating the synthesis and metabolism of circulating sex-steroid hormones, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and related binding proteins, there is a dearth of literature among Asian women. We aimed to examine these specific associations in a sample of Chinese women. In Sichuan Province 143 women aged ≥40 years were recruited through outpatient services (2011-2012). Questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and blood samples were utilized for data collection and linear regression was applied in data analyses. Among women <50 years we observed a non-monotonic positive association between body mass index (BMI) and 17β-estradiol, and a reversed J-shaped association between BMI and IGF-1 (p ≤0.05). We observed similar associations between waist-to-hip ratio and these markers. Our finding of augmented IGF-1 among women with low body mass may have implications for understanding breast tumor heterogeneity in diverse populations and should be evaluated in larger prospective studies with cancer outcomes. PMID:26352264

  11. Cross-Sectional Associations between Body Size, Circulating Sex-Steroid Hormones and IGF Components among Healthy Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Lauren E.; Miller, Erline E.; Wang, Qiong; Li, Jia-yuan; Liu, Li; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer has increased in Asian countries and rates of hormone receptor (HR) negative breast cancer exceed those of Western countries. Epidemiologic data suggest that the association between body size and BC risk may vary by HR status, and could differ geographically. While body size may influence BC risk by moderating the synthesis and metabolism of circulating sex-steroid hormones, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and related binding proteins, there is a dearth of literature among Asian women. We aimed to examine these specific associations in a sample of Chinese women. In Sichuan Province 143 women aged ≥40 years were recruited through outpatient services (2011–2012). Questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and blood samples were utilized for data collection and linear regression was applied in data analyses. Among women <50 years we observed a non-monotonic positive association between body mass index (BMI) and 17β-estradiol, and a reversed J-shaped association between BMI and IGF-1 (p ≤0.05). We observed similar associations between waist-to-hip ratio and these markers. Our finding of augmented IGF-1 among women with low body mass may have implications for understanding breast tumor heterogeneity in diverse populations and should be evaluated in larger prospective studies with cancer outcomes. PMID:26352264

  12. A Study of the Vaginal Microbiome in Healthy Canadian Women Utilizing cpn60-Based Molecular Profiling Reveals Distinct Gardnerella Subgroup Community State Types

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Emily C.; Schellenberg, John J.; Links, Matthew G.; van Schalkwyk, Julie; Reid, Gregor; Hemmingsen, Sean M.; Hill, Janet E.; Money, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The vaginal microbiota is important in women’s reproductive and overall health. However, the relationships between the structure, function and dynamics of this complex microbial community and health outcomes remain elusive. The objective of this study was to determine the phylogenetic range and abundance of prokaryotes in the vaginal microbiota of healthy, non-pregnant, ethnically diverse, reproductive-aged Canadian women. Socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical data were collected and vaginal swabs were analyzed from 310 women. Detailed profiles of their vaginal microbiomes were generated by pyrosequencing of the chaperonin-60 universal target. Six community state types (CST) were delineated by hierarchical clustering, including three Lactobacillus-dominated CST (L. crispatus, L. iners, L. jensenii), two Gardnerella-dominated (subgroups A and C) and an “intermediate” CST which included a small number of women with microbiomes dominated by seven other species or with no dominant species but minority populations of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Peptoniphilus, E. coli and various Proteobacteria in co-dominant communities. The striking correspondence between Nugent score and deep sequencing CST continues to reinforce the basic premise provided by the simpler Gram stain method, while additional analyses reveal detailed cpn60-based phylogeny and estimated abundance in microbial communities from vaginal samples. Ethnicity was the only demographic or clinical characteristic predicting CST, with differences in Asian and White women (p = 0.05). In conclusion, this study confirms previous work describing four cpn60-based subgroups of Gardnerella, revealing previously undescribed CST. The data describe the range of bacterial communities seen in Canadian women presenting with no specific vaginal health concerns, and provides an important baseline for future investigations of clinically important cohorts. PMID:26266808

  13. Levels of adipocytokines and vitamin D in a biracial sample of young metabolically healthy obese and metabolically abnormal obese women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Adipocytokines and vitamin D (vitD) concentrations may contribute to cardiometabolic risk profiles in obese populations. The purpose was to determine if levels of adipocytokines and vitD differ between young metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) black and ...

  14. Isoflavones supplements do not, but appetitive hormones do, influence overall and central adiposity in healthy postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Soybeans are promoted as a healthy food with multiple health benefits. One of the claimed benefits is that soy protein or isoflavones may favorably affect body composition. Objective: We examined the effect of soy isoflavone supplements on overall and regional body composition taking int...

  15. Healthy Eating and Harambee: curriculum development for a culturally-centered bio-medically oriented nutrition education program to reach African American women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Srimathi; Sparks, Arlene V; Webster, J DeWitt; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Lumeng, Julie

    2010-07-01

    The purpose was to develop, implement and evaluate a peer-led nutrition curriculum Healthy Eating and Harambee that addresses established objectives of maternal and infant health and to shift the stage for African American women of childbearing age in Genesee County toward healthier dietary patterns using a socio-cultural and biomedical orientation. The PEN-3 model, which frames culture in the context of health promotion interventions, was integrated with the Transtheoretical Model to guide this 13-week pre-test/post-test curriculum. Materials developed included soul food plate visuals, a micronutrient availability worksheet, a fruit stand, and gardening kits. Learning activities included affirmations, stories, case-scenarios, point-of-purchase product recognition, church health teams, and community health fairs. We investigated health-promoting dietary behaviors (consumption of more fruits and vegetables (F&V), serving more F&V to their families, and moderating dietary sodium and fat intakes), and biomedical behaviors (self-monitoring blood pressure and exercising) across five stages of change. Session attendance and program satisfaction were assessed. N = 102 women participated (mean age = 27.5 years). A majority (77%) reported adopting at least one healthy eating behavior (moderating sodium, serving more F&V to their families), 23% adopted at least two such behaviors (reading food labels for sodium; using culinary herbs/spices; serving more F&V to their families), and 45% adopted both dietary (moderating sodium; eating more fruits) and biomedical behaviors. Participants and facilitators favorably evaluated the curriculum and suggested improvements. A multi-conceptual approach coupled with cultural and biomedical tailoring has potential to promote young African American women's movement to more advanced stages of change and improve self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable intake, dietary sodium moderation, and self-monitoring blood pressure and physical activity

  16. Effects of Estrogen or Venlafaxine on Menopause Related Quality of Life in Healthy Postmenopausal Women with Hot Flashes: A Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Caan, Bette; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Joffe, Hadine; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Larson, Joseph C.; Carpenter, Janet S.; Cohen, Lee S.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Newton, Katherine; Reed, Susan; Rexrode, Kathy; Shifren, Jan; Sternfeld, Barbara; Ensrud, Kris

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of low-dose estradiol (ET) or venlafaxine on menopause-related quality of life and associated symptoms in healthy peri- and postmenopausal women with hot flashes. METHODS A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of low-dose oral 17-beta-estradiol 0.5-mg/day, venlafaxine XR 75-mg/day, vs. identical placebo was conducted among 339 women ages 40–62 years with ≥2 (mean 8.07, SD 5.29) daily VMS recruited at 3 clinical sites from November 2011 to October 2012. The primary trial outcome, reported previously, was the frequency of VMS at 8 weeks. Here, we report on secondary endpoints of total and domain scores from the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) and measures of pain (PEG), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7) and perceived stress (PSS). RESULTS Treatment with both estradiol and venlafaxine resulted in significantly greater improvement in quality of life, as measured by total MENQOL scores compared to placebo (mean difference for ET at 8 weeks of −0.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.7 to −0.2; p<0.001 and for venlafaxine of −0.2; 95% CI −0.5 to 0.0; p 0.04). Quality of life (QOL) domain analyses revealed that ET had beneficial treatment effects in all domains of the MENQOL except psychosocial, while venlafaxine benefits were observed only in the psychosocial domain. Neither ET nor venlafaxine improved pain, anxiety or depressive symptoms, although baseline symptom levels were low. Modest benefits were observed for perceived stress with venlafaxine. CONCLUSIONS Both low-dose estradiol and venlafaxine are effective pharmacologic agents for improving menopause-related quality of life in healthy women with vasomotor symptoms. PMID:25405571

  17. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiyuan; Bua, Peter; Capodice, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    Background Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg calcium) versus a single serving of calcium carbonate powder (one packet of powder=1,000 mg calcium) was performed in healthy women aged between 25 and 45. All subjects were on a calcium-restricted diet 7 days prior to testing and fasted for 12 h before being evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after oral administration of the test agents. Blood measurements for total and ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone were performed and adverse events were monitored. Results Twenty-three women were evaluable with a mean age of 33.2±8.71. Results showed that administration of a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder resulted in greater absorption in total and ionized calcium versus a single serving of calcium citrate tablets at 4 h (4.25±0.21 vs. 4.16±0.16, p=0.001). There were minimal side effects and no reported serious adverse events. Conclusions This study shows that a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder is more bioavailable than a single serving of calcium citrate tablets. This may be beneficial for long-term compliance. PMID:24772062

  18. Sustained Increase of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Healthy Young Women during Wintertime after Three Suberythemal UV Irradiations—The MUVY Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Biersack, Maria Gudrun; Hajdukiewicz, Malgorzata; Uebelhack, Ralf; Franke, Leonora; Piazena, Helmut; Klaus, Pascal; Höhne-Zimmer, Vera; Braun, Tanja; Buttgereit, Frank; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Detert, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Vitamin D (VitD) deficiency is a health problem prevalent not only in the elderly but also in young adults. The primary objective of our observational pilot study “MUVY” (Mood, UVR, Vitamin D in Young women) was to test both the short-term and long-term effects of a series of three suberythemal UV radiation (UVR) exposures on the VitD status and well-being of young healthy women during winter in a repeat measure design. Methods 20 healthy young women (Fitzpatrick skin types I–III, aged 21–25 years) received three full body broad band UVR exposures with an escalating erythemally weighted dose schedule during one week in winter, and completed self-report questionnaires monitoring symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI) and affective state/well-being (Profile of Mood States, POMS) at baseline and three days after the last UVR exposure. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) were measured in serum at baseline, and at study days 8, 36 and 50. Results Mean baseline 25(OH)D level was 54.3 nmol/L (standard deviation (s.d.) = 24.1), with seven women having VitD deficient status. Relevant symptoms of depression, as indicated by low BDI total scores (0–8), were absent. After the three UVR exposures the increment of 25(OH)D was an average of 13.9 nmol/L (95% confidence interval (CI) = 9.4–18.4) and 26.2 pmol/L (95%CI = 7.2–45.1) for 1,25(OH)2D. Δ25(OH)D, and corresponding baseline levels were significantly and inversely associated (rho = -0.493, p = 0.027). Only 25(OH)D remained significantly increased above baseline for at least six weeks after the last UVR exposure. A strong inverse correlation of the POMS subscale “Vigor/Activity” and the increment in 1,25(OH)2D was found (rho = -0.739, p<0.001) at day 8. Conclusions Three suberythemal whole body UVR exposures during one week are a simple and suitable method for improving 25(OH)D levels during winter, for at least six weeks, and especially in

  19. Brain imaging reveals that engagement of descending inhibitory pain pathways in healthy women in a low endogenous estradiol state varies with testosterone.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Katy; Warnaby, Catherine; Stagg, Charlotte J; Moore, Jane; Kennedy, Stephen; Tracey, Irene

    2013-04-01

    The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) has been implicated in the development of a number of chronic pain conditions. Modern COCP formulations produce a low endogenous estradiol, low progesterone environment similar to the early follicular phase of the natural menstrual cycle, with a variable effect on serum androgen levels. We used behavioural measures and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the response to experimental thermal stimuli in healthy women, in both a natural and COCP-induced low endogenous estradiol state, to investigate whether alterations in central pain processing may underlie these observations in COCP users. Although COCP users overall did not require lower temperatures to obtain a fixed pain intensity, alterations in the brain response to these stimuli were observed. In a subgroup of COCP users with significantly reduced serum testosterone, however, lower temperatures were required. Region-of-interest analysis revealed that within key regions of the descending pain inhibitory system, activity in response to noxious stimulation varied with serum testosterone levels in both groups of women. Of particular interest, in COCP users, activity in the rostral ventromedial medulla increased with increasing testosterone and in those women with low testosterone, was significantly reduced compared to controls. These findings suggest that, in a low endogenous estradiol state, testosterone may be a key factor in modulating pain sensitivity via descending pathways. Specifically, failure to engage descending inhibition at the level of the rostral ventromedial medulla may be responsible for the reduction in temperature required by COCP users with low circulating testosterone. PMID:23318125

  20. Large D-Dimer Fluctuation in Normal Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of 4,117 Samples from 714 Healthy Danish Women

    PubMed Central

    Hedengran, Katrine K.; Andersen, Malene R.; Stender, Steen; Szecsi, Pal B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. D-dimer levels increase throughout pregnancy, hampering the usefulness of the conventional threshold for dismissing thromboembolism. This study investigates the biological fluctuation of D-dimer in normal pregnancy. Methods. A total of 801 healthy women with expected normal pregnancies were recruited. D-dimer was repeatedly measured during pregnancy, at active labor, and on the first and second postpartum days. Percentiles for each gestational week were calculated. Each individual D-dimer was normalized by transformation into percentiles for the relevant gestational age or delivery group. The range in percentage points during the pregnancy and the delivery was calculated, and reference intervals were calculated for each pregnancy trimester, during vaginal delivery and scheduled and emergency cesarean section, and for the first and second day postpartum. Results. D-dimer increased during pregnancy; the maximal fluctuation was approximately 20 percentile points in approximately half of the women. In one out of ten women, the D-dimer values fluctuated by more than 50 percentile points. Conclusions. Due to the biological variation in D-dimer within each individual woman during normal pregnancy, repeated D-dimer measurements are of no clinical use in the evaluation of thromboembolic events during pregnancy. PMID:27190521

  1. Prevalence and Predictors of Low Vitamin B6 Status in Healthy Young Adult Women in Metro Vancouver.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chia-Ling; Quay, Teo A W; Devlin, Angela M; Lamers, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Low periconceptional vitamin B6 (B6) status has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and early pregnancy loss. Given many pregnancies are unplanned; it is important for women to maintain an adequate B6 status throughout reproductive years. There is limited data on B6 status in Canadian women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of B6 deficiency and predictors of B6 status in young adult women in Metro Vancouver. We included a convenience sample of young adult non-pregnant women (19-35 years; n = 202). Vitamin B6 status was determined using fasting plasma concentrations of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). Mean (95% confidence interval) plasma PLP concentration was 61.0 (55.2, 67.3) nmol/L. The prevalence of B6 deficiency (plasma PLP < 20 nmol/L) was 1.5% and that of suboptimal B6 status (plasma PLP = 20-30 nmol/L) was 10.9%. Body mass index, South Asian ethnicity, relative dietary B6 intake, and the use of supplemental B6 were significant predictors of plasma PLP. The combined 12.4% prevalence of B6 deficiency and suboptimal status was lower than data reported in US populations and might be due to the high socioeconomic status of our sample. More research is warranted to determine B6 status in the general Canadian population. PMID:27598193

  2. Consumption of foods rich in flavonoids is related to a decreased cardiovascular risk in apparently healthy French women.

    PubMed

    Mennen, Louise I; Sapinho, David; de Bree, Angelika; Arnault, Nathalie; Bertrais, Sandrine; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2004-04-01

    A high consumption of flavonoids may lower cardiovascular risk through their antioxidant capacity. This study evaluated the relation between consumption of foods rich in flavonoids and estimated cardiovascular risk. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 1286 women and 1005 men of the SU.VI.MAX Study (an 8-y trial evaluating the effect of antioxidant supplementation on the incidence of major chronic diseases). Dietary intakes were estimated using six 24-h dietary records collected during the year between the clinical measurement of blood pressure, weight and height and the biological measurement of total serum cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose. The relation between flavonoid rich food consumption and cardiovascular risk factors was evaluated with analyses of covariance and the effect on cardiovascular risk with logistic regression analyses. In women, flavonoid-rich food consumption was inversely related to systolic blood pressure (P = 0.005). No relation between risk factors and flavonoid-rich food consumption was seen in men. Women in the highest tertile of flavonoid-rich food consumption were at lower risk for cardiovascular disease [odds ratio (OR): 0.31; 95%CI: 0.14, 0.68], whereas a positive tendency was seen in men (OR: 1.38; 95%CI: 0.96, 2.00). These results indicate that in women, a high consumption of flavonoid-rich foods may prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:15051848

  3. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  4. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  5. Comparison of Serum Levels of Vitamin D and Inflammatory Markers Between Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Healthy Pregnant Control

    PubMed Central

    Haidari, Fatemeh; Jalali, Mohammad-Taha; Shahbazian, Nahid; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad-Hossein; Azadegan, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Vitamin D appears to be involved in regulation of glycemic and inflammatory responses in gestational diabetes. The purpose of this study was to compare the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), inflammatory biomarkers and glycemic profile between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) pregnant women. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, fasting serum levels of 25(OH)D, insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP and TNF-α were measured in 45 GDM and 45 NGT women at week 20-30 gestation whom referred to Reference Medical Laboratory of Ahvaz, Iran in 1394. Results: Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower (p = 0.003 ) in the GDM group compared to the NGT group which remained even after controlling for confounders. Insulin and TNF-α levels were not statistically different between groups (p > 0.05). However, in unadjusted model, HOMA-IR and hs-CRP were significantly different between groups that disappeared in adjusted model. In the GDM group, there was a negative significant correlation between 25 (OH) D and fasting blood sugar (p = 0.009) and pre pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001). Levels of 25(OH)D were also negatively correlated with pre pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001) and hs-CRP levels (p = 0.003) in the NGT group. Conclusion: The lower level of vitamin D may be responsible for impairments of some glycemic and inflammatory markers in pregnant women. This is more important in overweight pregnant women. However, further studies with larger sample size are recommended in this regards. PMID:27385967

  6. Associations between dietary patterns and gene expression profiles of healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diet regulates gene expression profiles by several mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine gene expression in relation with dietary patterns. Methods Two hundred and fifty four participants from the greater Quebec City metropolitan area were recruited. Two hundred and ten participants completed the study protocol. Dietary patterns were derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by factor analysis. For 30 participants (in fasting state), RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and expression levels of 47,231 mRNA transcripts were assessed using the Illumina Human-6 v3 Expression BeadChips®. Microarray data was pre-processed with Flexarray software and analysed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results Two dietary patterns were identified. The Prudent dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products and low intakes of refined grain products and the Western dietary pattern, by high intakes of refined grain products, desserts, sweets and processed meats. When individuals with high scores for the Prudent dietary pattern where compared to individuals with low scores, 2,083 transcripts were differentially expressed in men, 1,136 transcripts in women and 59 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. For the Western dietary pattern, 1,021 transcripts were differentially expressed in men with high versus low scores, 1,163 transcripts in women and 23 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. IPA reveals that genes differentially expressed for both patterns were present in networks related to the immune and/or inflammatory response, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion Gene expression profiles were different according to dietary patterns, which probably modulate the risk of chronic diseases. Trial Registration NCT: NCT01343342 PMID:23398686

  7. Genetic and Lifestyle Variables Associated with Homocysteine Concentrations and the Distribution of Folate Derivatives in Healthy Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Carolyn M.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Stanislawska-Sachadyn, Anna; Baido, Shirley F.; Blair, Ian A.; Von Feldt, Joan M.; Whitehead, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low folate and high homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations are associated with pregnancy-related pathologies such as spina bifida. Polymorphisms in folate/Hcy metabolic enzymes may contribute to this potentially pathogenic biochemical phenotype. Methods The study comprised 26 Caucasian and 23 African-American premenopausal women. Subjects gave fasting blood samples for biochemical phenotyping and genotyping. Total Hcy (tHcy) and both plasma and red blood cell (RBC) folate derivatives [i.e. tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-methylTHF (5-MTHF), and 5,10-methenylTHF (5,10-MTHF)] were measured using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography, multiple reaction monitoring, mass spectrometry. Eleven polymorphisms from nine folate/Hcy pathway genes were genotyped. Tests of association between genetic, lifestyle, and biochemical variables were applied. Results In African American women, tHcy concentrations were associated (p<0.05) with total RBC folate, RBC 5-MTHF, B12, and polymorphisms in methionine synthase (MTR) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS). In Caucasian women, tHcy concentrations were not associated with total folate levels, but were associated (p<0.05) with RBC THF, ratios of RBC 5-MTHF: THF, and polymorphisms in 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and MTR . In African Americans, folate derivative levels were associated with smoking, B12, and polymorphisms in MTR, TYMS, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and reduced folate carrier1 (RFC1). In Caucasians, folate derivative levels were associated with vitamin use, B12, and polymorphisms in MTHFR, TYMS, and RFC1. Conclusions Polymorphisms in the folate/Hcy pathway are associated with tHcy and folate derivative levels. In African American and Caucasian women, different factors are associated with folate/Hcy phenotypes and may contribute to race-specific differences in the risks of a range of pregnancy-related pathologies. PMID:20544798

  8. Identification of a narrow post-ovulatory window of vulnerability to distressing involuntary memories in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Soni, Mira; Curran, Valerie H; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2013-09-01

    Psychological disorders characterised by intrusive memories are more prevalent in women than men. The biological, social and cognitive processes underlying this gender-difference have yet to be fully elucidated. Some evidence suggests that (fluctuations in) ovarian hormone levels are responsible for altered sensitivity to emotional stimuli during certain phases in the menstrual-cycle and this may form the basis of a specific vulnerability to psychological disorders in women. The post-ovulatory (luteal) phase has been identified as a period of particular vulnerability to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Using an experimental model of PTSD, we examine whether differences are detectable between discrete phases in the menstrual-cycle in the experience of intrusive memories. Women (18-35 years-old) in one of three tightly-defined periods within the menstrual cycle--mid-follicular (n=15), early-luteal (n=15) and late-luteal (n=11)--provided saliva samples for ovarian-hormone assay and watched a distressing film. Subsequent intrusive memories, assessed using a daily online-diary, occurred significantly more frequently in the early-luteal group compared to mid-follicular and late-luteal groups. Intrusion frequency was negatively correlated with the estradiol-to-progesterone ratio, but not estradiol or progesterone alone, suggesting that the interactive effect of low estradiol and high progesterone at encoding contributes to the observed effect. Our results support the need for further research in a clinical context with naturally-cycling women who experience a traumatic event, since assessment of days-since-last-menses and ovarian hormone levels may help to identify those at greatest risk of developing re-experiencing symptoms akin to those seen in psychological disorder such as depression and PTSD. PMID:23611942

  9. Healthy Diet and Nutrition Education Program among Women of Reproductive Age: A Necessity of Multilevel Strategies or Community Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Dunneram, Yashvee; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reproductive years represent a major proportion of women‟s life. This review focuses on recommended nutritional considerations, physical activity pattern as well as the effect of nutrition education (NE) on behavior modification and health outcomes of women of reproductive age using either single-level, multiple-level or community-level interventions. Methods: For this narrative review, numerous searches were conducted on databases of PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar search engine using the keywords women, reproductive age, NE, interventions, community-based. Results: Even though single intervention is effective, multiple intervention programmes in addition to behavior modification components are even more successful in terms of modified behaviors and health outcomes. Moreover, community based interventions using multilevel strategies are further useful for improved health outcomes and behavior modification. Conclusion: NE programmes have been effective in positive behavior modification measured in terms of eating pattern and health quality. Thus, it is recommended that health professionals use multiple intervention strategies at community level to ensure improved outcomes. Political support is also required to create culturally sensitive methods of delivering nutritional programmes. Finally, as policy is dependent on program cost, nutritional programmes need to combine methods of cost analysis to show cost effectiveness of supplying adequate nutrition for women throughout the lifecycle. PMID:26290827

  10. Menstrual cycle and reproductive aging alters immune reactivity, NGF expression, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intracellular signaling pathways in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Priyanka, Hannah P; Sharma, Utsav; Gopinath, Srinivasan; Sharma, Varun; Hima, Lalgi; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan

    2013-08-01

    Reproductive senescence in women is a process that begins with regular menstrual cycles and culminates in menopause followed by gradual development of diseases such as autoimmune diseases, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and hormone-dependent cancers. The age-associated impairment in the functions of neuroendocrine system and immune system results in menopause which contributes to subsequent development of diseases and cancer. The aim of this study is to characterize the alterations in immune responses, compensatory factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and antioxidant enzyme activities, and the molecular mechanisms of actions in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of young (follicular and luteal phases), middle-aged, and old healthy women. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from young women in follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (n=20; 22.6±2.9 yrs), middle-aged women (n=19; 47.1±3.8 yrs; perimenopausal) and old (n=16; 63.2±4.7 yrs; post-menopausal) women and analyzed for Concanavalin (Con A)-induced proliferation of lymphocytes and cytokine (IL-2 and IFN-γ) production, expression of NGF, p-NF-κB, p-ERK, p-CREB, and p-Akt, antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], extent of lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide (NO) production. Serum gonadal hormones (17β-estradiol and progesterone) were also measured. A characteristic age- and menstrual cycle-related change was observed in the serum gonadal hormone secretion (estrogen and progesterone), T lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ production. Salient features include the age-related decline observed in target-derived growth factors (lymphocyte NGF expression), signaling molecules (p-ERK/ERK and p-CREB/CREB ratios) and compensatory factors such as the activities of plasma and PBMC antioxidant enzymes (SOD and catalase) and NO production. Further, an age-associated increase in p

  11. Effect of two different doses of oral cholecalciferol supplementation on serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels in healthy Indian postmenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Niti; Mithal, Ambrish; Dhingra, Vibha; Kaur, Parjeet; Godbole, Madan Mohan; Shukla, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of two different doses (500 and 1000 IU/day) of oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) on serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in apparently healthy postmenopausal Indian women. Materials and Methods: Serum 25(OH)D, calcium with albumin, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were measured in 92 apparently healthy postmenopausal women. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three groups and received supplementation for 3 months each. Each group received 1000 mg calcium carbonate daily while groups B and C received 500 and 1000 IU of cholecalciferol in addition, respectively. The tests were repeated after 3 months. Results: At baseline, 83.7% subjects had vitamin D deficiency (≤20 ng/mL). The difference in the percentage change in mean serum 25(OH)D levels from baseline in group A (–30.5 ± 5.3%), group B (+8.9 ± 19.7%), and in group C (+97.8 ± 53.3%) was statistically significant (P < 0.001) between the three groups. Serum 25(OH)D level >20 ng/mL was achieved in 4.7% (1/21), 16% (4/25), and 66.67% (12/18) subjects in groups A, B, and C, respectively. No significant change was found in serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels at 3 months in either of the groups from baseline. Conclusions: Standard dose of cholecalciferol available in “calcium tablets” (250 IU per 500 mg calcium carbonate) is not adequate for achieving optimum serum 25(OH)D levels in Indian postmenopausal women. Higher dose of vitamin D supplementation with 1000 IU/day (500 IU per 500 mg calcium carbonate) daily is superior to the standard dose therapy. For achievement of optimum serum 25(OH)D levels (>30 ng/mL) in Indian postmenopausal women, still higher doses of vitamin D are likely to be required. PMID:24083171

  12. Measurements of Pupillary Diameter and Wavefront Aberrations in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Mehmet Metin; Demirok, Gulizar; Balta, Ozgur; Bolu, Hulya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To show whether pregnancy affects the measurements of pupillary diameter and wavefront (WF) aberrations. Methods. This was a case-control study including 34 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and age-matched 34 nonpregnant women. Only women who had no ocular abnormalities and no refractive error were included. We measured photopic and mesopic pupil diameter and WF aberrations at the third trimester and at the second postpartum month. Measurements of the right eyes were used in this study. The differences between groups were analysed by paired t-test and t-test. Results. Pregnant women's mean photopic pupil size in the third trimester was significantly higher than in postpartum period and in control group (3.74 ± 0.77, 3.45 ± 0.53, and 3.49 ± 0.15 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). Mesopic pupil size in the third trimester was also higher than in postpartum period and in control group (6.77 ± 0.52, 6.42 ± 0.55, and 6.38 ± 0.21 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). RMS-3 and RMS-5 values were higher in pregnancy but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Pregnancy increased photopic and mesopic pupil size significantly but did not increase wavefront aberrations notably. Increased pupil size may be due to increased sympathetic activity during pregnancy. And this activity can be noninvasively determined by measuring pupil size. PMID:26998383

  13. Healthy Bones Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my bones more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Reprinted from The Surgeon General’s Report on ... women who don’t smoke, and they often go through menopause earlier. Smokers also may absorb less ...

  14. Identifying postmenopausal women at risk for cognitive decline within a healthy cohort using a panel of clinical metabolic indicators: potential for detecting an at-Alzheimer's risk metabolic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Rettberg, Jamaica R; Dang, Ha; Hodis, Howard N; Henderson, Victor W; St John, Jan A; Mack, Wendy J; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2016-04-01

    Detecting at-risk individuals within a healthy population is critical for preventing or delaying Alzheimer's disease. Systems biology integration of brain and body metabolism enables peripheral metabolic biomarkers to serve as reporters of brain bioenergetic status. Using clinical metabolic data derived from healthy postmenopausal women in the Early versus Late Intervention Trial with Estradiol (ELITE), we conducted principal components and k-means clustering analyses of 9 biomarkers to define metabolic phenotypes. Metabolic clusters were correlated with cognitive performance and analyzed for change over 5 years. Metabolic biomarkers at baseline generated 3 clusters, representing women with healthy, high blood pressure, and poor metabolic phenotypes. Compared with healthy women, poor metabolic women had significantly lower executive, global and memory cognitive performance. Hormone therapy provided metabolic benefit to women in high blood pressure and poor metabolic phenotypes. This panel of well-established clinical peripheral biomarkers represents an initial step toward developing an affordable, rapidly deployable, and clinically relevant strategy to detect an at-risk phenotype of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26973115

  15. Searching for Lower Female Genital Tract Soluble and Cellular Biomarkers: Defining Levels and Predictors in a Cohort of Healthy Caucasian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kyongo, Jordan K.; Jespers, Vicky; Goovaerts, Odin; Michiels, Johan; Menten, Joris; Fichorova, Raina N.; Crucitti, Tania; Vanham, Guido; Ariën, Kevin K.

    2012-01-01

    Background High concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been previously observed in the genital fluids of women enrolled in microbicide trials and may explain observed increased HIV transmission in some of these trials. Although the longitudinal nature of these studies allows within-subject comparisons of post-product levels to baseline levels, the fact that the physiologic variations of these cytokines and other markers of immune activation are not fully defined in different populations, makes it difficult to assess changes that can be directly attributed to microbicide use as opposed to other biological and behavioural factors. Methods Cervicovaginal lavage samples were collected from 30 healthy Caucasian and assayed for concentrations of ten cytokines/chemokines, total protein content and two antimicrobial proteins using a multiplex immunoassay and ELISA. Cellular markers were characterized by flow cytometry on mononuclear cells collected from the endocervix using flocked swabs. Bacterial quantification was performed using quantitative PCR. Results Ectopy, menstrual cycle phase, prostate-specific antigen and presence of leucocytes in endocervical cells' supernatant were associated with the concentrations of cyto-/chemokines in cervicovaginal secretions. Approximately 3% of endocervical cells collected were monocytes of which a median of 52% (SD  = 17) expressed both CD4 and CCR5 markers. Approximately 1% of the total cells were T-cells with a median of 61% (SD  = 10) CD4 and CCR5 expression. Around 5% of the monocytes and 16% of the T-cells expressed the immune activation marker HLA-DR. Higher percentages of T-cells were associated with greater quantities of IL-1RA, GM-CSF and elafin. Conclusion We demonstrate the presence of selected soluble and cellular immune activation markers and identify their predictors in the female genital tract of healthy women. Future clinical trials should consider ectopy, sexual activity, menstrual cycle phase and

  16. Risk Factors of Bone Mass Loss at the Lumbar Spine: A Longitudinal Study in Healthy Korean Pre- and Perimenopausal Women Older than 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungsu; Jung, Jaehoon; Jung, Jung Hwa; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Kim, Rock-Bum; Hahm, Jong Ryeal

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies on bone mass decline for healthy women are sparse. We performed a retrospective longitudinal study to evaluate the factor associated with bone mass changes at the lumbar spine in healthy Korean pre- and perimenopausal women over the age of 40. We examined the relation of blood tests including thyroid function tests at baseline and follow-up to the annual percentage changes in average BMD of L2-L4 (A%ΔLSBMD). Four hundred and forty-three subjects without diseases or medications pertaining to bone metabolism were analyzed. The mean A%ΔLSBMD in these subjects was -0.45%/year. Though a significant correlation was observed between the A%ΔLSBMD and age, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level, total cholesterol (TC) level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and follow-up, there was a weak correlation between A%ΔLSBMD and these variables. From multiple linear regression analyses, the percent body fat, age, serum TSH level, serum uric acid level, and the menopause at follow-up were showed to have a significant association with the A%ΔLSBMD. Unlike age, percent body fat, and menopause at follow-up, which had a negative association with the A%ΔLSBMD, serum TSH level and serum uric acid level, had a positive association with the A%ΔLSBMD. The results from our study showed that the notable risk factors of BMD loss at the lumbar spine in population of our study were advancing age, menopause, higher percent body fat, lower normal TSH, and lower serum uric acid levels. PMID:26317525

  17. Preventing FASD: Healthy Women, Healthy Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... continuum of care for an extended period of time, including: • Comprehensive inpatient or outpatient treatment for alcohol and other drugs • Case management • Counseling and other mental health treatment Surgeon General’ ...

  18. Observational study on the efficacy of the supplementation with a preparation with several minerals and vitamins in improving mood and behaviour of healthy puerperal women.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Anna Maria; Orrù, Marisa Margherita; Marotto, Maria Francesca; Pilloni, Monica; Zedda, Pierina; Fais, Maria Francesca; Piras, Bruno; Piano, Camilla; Pala, Silvia; Lello, Stefano; Coghe, Ferdinando; Sorge, Roberto; Melis, Gian Benedetto

    2013-08-01

    We investigated whether a formulation containing vitamins and minerals (vit&min) could improve the worsening of mood changes occurring after delivery ("a.d."). The study was performed in 552 healthy non-anaemic puerperal women ("p.w") without risk factors for puerperal depression ("p.d"). They were at their first full-term pregnancy, and spontaneously delivered healthy newborns. The Edinburgh Depression Postnatal scale (EPDS) evaluates the psychological status of "p.w". EPDS was administered the 3rd (visit 1), 15th (visit 2) and 30th (visit 3) day "a.d.". An EPDS >12 indicates a major susceptibility to "p.d". At the same time intervals, haemoglobin, iron and ferritin (haematological parameters) levels were evaluated. After visit 1, the subjects were randomized to vit&min treatment (group A; N.274) or to calcium/vitamin D3 treatment (group B; N.278). In both groups haematological parameters significantly increased without differences between the groups. EPDS score improved in both groups, but in the group A, the EPDS decrease was significantly larger (p < 0.05) in comparison to the group B. This effect is mainly evident in subjects with a basal EPDS ≥ 12. An early examination of psychological condition could select "p.w." with a high susceptibility to neuronal changes occurring postpartum. Vit&min favourably modulates brain functions antagonizing the evolution to "p.d". PMID:23782001

  19. Effect of onion peel extract supplementation on the lipid profile and antioxidative status of healthy young women: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungmi; Cha, Yong-Jun; Lee, Kyung-Hea

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables that have high polyphenol content has been previously associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of onion peel extract on plasma total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, and leukocyte DNA damage. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Healthy female subjects received either onion peel extract or placebo (dextrin) for two weeks, underwent a 1-week washout period, and then received the other treatment for an additional two weeks. After two weeks of onion peel extract supplementation, the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and atherogenic index significantly decreased (P < 0.05). No changes were observed in activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes or levels of lipid peroxidation markers following onion peel extract supplementation. Additionally, no significant difference was found in plasma antioxidant vitamin (retinol, tocopherols, carotenoids, and coenzyme Q10) levels or ex vivo H2O2-provoked oxidative DNA damage after onion peel extract supplementation. The present interventional study provides evidence of the health benefits of onion peel extract and demonstrates its effects in modulating lipid profiles in healthy young Korean women. PMID:24133616

  20. Acute mood but not cognitive improvements following administration of a single multivitamin and mineral supplement in healthy women aged 50 and above: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, H; Rowsell, R; Cox, K H M; Scholey, A; Pipingas, A

    2015-06-01

    A number of randomised controlled trials have indicated that multivitamin/mineral supplementation for a period of 4 weeks or greater can enhance mood and cognition. To date, no studies have investigated whether a single multivitamin dose can benefit mental function in older adults. This study investigated the acute effects of a single multivitamin and mineral and herbal (MVMH) supplement versus placebo on self ratings of mood and the performance of an effortful computerised cognitive battery in a sample of 76 healthy women aged 50-75 years. Mood was assessed using the depression anxiety stress scale (DASS), state trait anxiety inventory-state anxiety scale and visual analogue scales (VAS). Mood was rated at 1 h post supplementation and again after the competition of the cognitive assessments at 2 h post supplementation. It was demonstrated that the MVMH supplement improved overall DASS mood ratings; however, the most prominent effects appeared to be a reduction in ratings of perceived mental stress. These findings were confirmed using visual analogue scales, with these measures also demonstrating MVMH-related increased ratings of calmness. There were no benefits of the MVMH to mood ratings of depression and performance was not enhanced on the cognitive battery. Supplementation with a single multivitamin, mineral and herbal supplement reduces stress several hours after intake in healthy older people. PMID:25903286

  1. Determinants of Aspirin Metabolism in Healthy Men and Women: Effects of Dietary Inducers of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sandi L.; Saracino, Misty R.; Makar, Karen W.; Thomas, Sushma S.; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yingye; Levy, Lisa; Schwarz, Yvonne; Bigler, Jeannette; Potter, John D.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Interindividual variation in aspirin (ASA) metabolism is attributed to concomitant use of drugs or alcohol, urine pH, ethnicity, sex, and genetic variants in UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). Little is known about the effects of diet. Methods We evaluated cross-sectionally whether urinary excretion of ASA and its metabolites [salicylic acid (SA), salicyluric acid (SUA) phenolic glucuronide (SUAPG), salicylic acid acyl glucuronide (SAAG) and salicylic acid phenolic glucuronide (SAPG)] differed by UGT1A6 genotype and dietary factors shown to induce UGT. Following oral treatment with 650 mg ASA, urine was collected over 8 h in 264 men and 264 women (21–45 years old). Results There were statistically significant differences in metabolites excreted between sexes and ethnicities. Men excreted more SUA; women more ASA (p = 0.03), SA, SAAG and SAPG (p ≤ 0.001 for all). Compared to Caucasians, Asians excreted more ASA, SA and SAAG, and less SUA and SUAPG (p ≤ 0.03 for all); African-Americans excreted more SAAG and SAPG and less SUA (p ≤ 0.04). There was no effect of UGT1A6 genotypes. Increased ASA and decreased SUAPG excretion was observed with increased servings of vegetables (p = 0.008), specifically crucifers (p = 0.05). Conclusion Diet may influence the pharmacokinetics of ASA, but effects may be through modulation of glycine conjugation rather than glucuronidation. PMID:21625173

  2. Associations between pQCT-based fat and muscle area and density and DXA-based total and leg soft tissue mass in healthy women and men

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Thiebaud, Robert S; Chen, Zhaojing; Karabulut, Murat; Kim, So Jung; Bemben, Debra A

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) can be used for muscle and fat area and density assessments. These may independently influence muscle and fat mass measurements from Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Objective To determine associations between pQCT-derived soft tissue density and area measures and DXA-derived soft tissue mass. Methods Linear regression models were developed based on BMI and calf fat and muscle cross-sectional area (FCSA and MCSA) and density measured by pQCT in healthy women (n=76) and men (n=82) aged 20–59 years. Independent variables for these models were leg and total bone-free lean mass (BFLM) and fat mass (FM) measured by DXA. Results Sex differences (p<0.01) were found in both muscle (Mean±SE: Women: 78.6±0.4; Men: 79.9 ± 0.2 mg/cm3) and fat (Women: 0.8±0.4 Men: 9.1±0.6 mg/cm3) density. BMI, fat density, and age (R2=0.86, p<0.01) best accounted for the variability in total FM. FCSA, BMI, and fat density explained the variance in leg FM (R2=0.87, p<0.01). MCSA and muscle density explained the variance in total (R2=0.65, p<0.01) and leg BFLM (R2=0.70, p<0.01). Conclusion Calf muscle and fat area and density independently predict lean and fat tissue mass. PMID:25524966

  3. Impact of acute administration of escitalopram on the processing of emotional and neutral images: a randomized crossover fMRI study of healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Outhred, Tim; Das, Pritha; Felmingham, Kim L.; Bryant, Richard A.; Nathan, Pradeep J.; Malhi, Gin S.; Kemp, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute neural effects of antidepressant medication on emotion processing biases may provide the foundation on which clinical outcomes are based. Along with effects on positive and negative stimuli, acute effects on neutral stimuli may also relate to anti-depressant efficacy, yet these effects are still to be investigated. The present study therefore examined the impact of a single dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram (20 mg) on positive, negative and neutral stimuli using pharmaco-fMRI. Methods Within a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design, healthy women completed 2 sessions of treatment administration and fMRI scanning separated by a 1-week washout period. Results We enrolled 36 women in our study. When participants were administered escitalopram relative to placebo, left amygdala activity was increased and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activity was decreased during presentation of positive pictures (potentiation of positive emotion processing). In contrast, escitalopram was associated with decreased left amygdala and increased right IFG activity during presentation of negative pictures (attenuation of negative emotion processing). In addition, escitalopram decreased right IFG activity during the processing of neutral stimuli, akin to the effects on positive stimuli (decrease in negative appraisal). Limitations Although we used a women-only sample to reduce heterogeneity, our results may not generalize to men. Potential unblinding, which was related to the subjective occurrence of side effects, occurred in the study; however, manipulation check analyses demonstrated that results were not impacted. Conclusion These novel findings demonstrate that a single dose of the commonly prescribed escitalopram facilitates a positive information processing bias. These findings provide an important lead for better understanding effects of antidepressant medication. PMID:24690370

  4. Internalized weight stigma moderates eating behavior outcomes in women with high BMI participating in a healthy living program.

    PubMed

    Mensinger, Janell L; Calogero, Rachel M; Tylka, Tracy L

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is a significant socio-structural barrier to reducing health disparities and improving quality of life for higher weight individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of internalized weight stigma on eating behaviors after participating in a randomized controlled trial comparing the health benefits of a weight-neutral program to a conventional weight-management program for 80 community women with high body mass index (BMI > 30, age range: 30-45). Programs involved 6 months of facilitator-guided weekly group meetings using structured manuals. Assessments occurred at baseline, post-intervention (6 months), and 24-months post-randomization. Eating behavior outcome measurements included the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Intuitive Eating Scale. Intention-to-treat linear mixed models were used to test for higher-order interactions between internalized weight stigma, group, and time. Findings revealed significant 3-way and 2-way interactions between internalized weight stigma, group, and time for disordered and adaptive eating behaviors, respectively. Only weight-neutral program participants with low internalized weight stigma improved global disordered eating scores. Participants from both programs with low internalized weight stigma improved adaptive eating at 6 months, but only weight-neutral program participants maintained changes at follow-up. Participants with high internalized weight stigma demonstrated no changes in disordered and adaptive eating, regardless of program. In order to enhance the overall benefit from weight-neutral approaches, these findings underscore the need to incorporate more innovative and direct methods to reduce internalized weight stigma for women with high BMI. PMID:26829370

  5. Influence of fish oil supplementation and strength training on some functional aspects of immune cells in healthy elderly women.

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Nahhas Rodacki, Cintia; Rodacki, André Luiz Felix; Coelho, Isabela; Pequito, Daniele; Krause, Maressa; Bonatto, Sandro; Naliwaiko, Katya; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio

    2015-07-14

    Immune function changes with ageing and is influenced by physical activity (strength training, ST) and diet (fish oil, FO). The present study investigated the effect of FO and ST on the immune system of elderly women. Forty-five women (64 (sd 1.4) years) were assigned to ST for 90 d (ST; n 15), ST plus 2 g/d FO for 90 d (ST90; n 15) or 2 g/d FO for 60 d followed by ST plus FO for 90 d (ST150; n 15). Training was performed three times per week, for 12 weeks. A number of innate (zymosan phagocytosis, lysosomal volume, superoxide anion, peroxide of hydrogen) and adaptive (cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), CD8, TNF-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 produced by lymphocytes) immune parameters were assessed before supplementation (base), before (pre-) and after (post-) training. ST induced no immune changes. FO supplementation caused increased phagocytosis (48 %), lysosomal volume (100 %) and the production of superoxide anion (32 %) and H₂O₂(70 %) in the ST90. Additional FO supplementation (ST150) caused no additive influence on the immune system, as ST150 and ST90 did not differ, but caused greater changes when compared to the ST (P< 0·05). FO increased CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in the ST150, which remained unchanged when training was introduced. The combination of ST and FO reduced TNF-α in the ST150 from base to post-test. FO supplementation (ST150, base-pre) when combined with exercise (ST150, pre-post) increased IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 production. The immune parameters improved in response to FO supplementation; however, ST alone did not enhance the immune system. PMID:26059004

  6. Pituitary-ovary axis and ovarian reserve in fertile women with multiple sclerosis: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Maria; Ros, Cristina; Martínez-Lapiscina, Elena H; Solà-Valls, Nuria; Hervàs, Mariona; Llufriu, Sara; La Puma, Delon; Casals, Elena; Blanco, Yolanda; Villoslada, Pablo; Graus, Francesc; Castelo-Branco, Camil; Saiz, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Since a decline in the ovary function might impact the reproductive potential in women with multiple sclerosis (MS), we investigated the pituitary-ovary axis and ovarian reserve, including anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels and ultrasound imaging of the ovaries, of 25 relapsing-remitting MS patients and 25 age-matched healthy controls. Mean levels of pituitary-gonadal hormones and age-adjusted parameters of ovarian reserve markers were not significantly different between both groups. Patients with higher disease activity (annualized relapse rate >0.5; n=9) had significantly lower AMH levels, total antral follicle count and ovarian volume, than those with lower disease activity. The finding of poorer ovarian reserve associated with higher disease activity should be taken into consideration since it may negatively impact the reproductive prognosis. PMID:26362892

  7. Influence of age and physical fitness on miRNA-21, TGF-β and its receptors in leukocytes of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Halper, Barbara; Hofmann, Marlene; Oesen, Stefan; Franzke, Bernhard; Stuparits, Petra; Vidotto, Claudia; Tschan, Harald; Bachl, Norbert; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Quittan, Michael; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Wessner, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The TGF-β superfamily has been shown to play an important role in a wide range of physiological as well as pathological processes including ageing, immune modulation, atherosclerosis and cancer development. The aim of the current study was to investigate (i) whether TGF-β signalling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) would differ between young and old females and (ii) whether physical performance parameters of elderly women would be related to the expression of TGF-β or its receptors. Sixteen healthy young (22-28 years; YF) and 90 healthy older (65-92 years; OF) females participated in the study. In addition to several components of health-related physical fitness, circulating CRP and TGF-β levels were determined together with the mRNA expression of TGF-β, TGF-βRI, TGF-βRII, and miRNA-21 (known to interfere with TGF-β signalling) in PBMCs. Physical fitness as determined by 6-minutes walking test (YF:median 932 (range 573-1254) m; OF:360 (114-558) m), handgrip strength (YF: 32 (24-39) kg; OF:18(10-30) kg), relative isokinetic peak torque of knee extensors (YF:1.9 (1.2- 2.3) Nm/kg; OF:1.0 (0.2-1.9) Nm/kg and flexors (YF: 1.1 (0.7- 1.5) Nm/kg; OF: 0.5 (0.2-1.0) Nm/kg was substantially lower in older women (p<0.001 for all comparisons). These changes were paralleled by an increase in hs-CRP (YF: 0.9 (0.1-4.3)mg/L; OF: 2.3 (0.3-56.7)mg/L,p<0.001). Serum levels of TGF-β and TGF-β mRNA levels from PBMCs did not differ between young and old women whereas, both TGF- βRI/GAPDH (YF: 4.07 (1.38-14.60); OF: 2.08 (0.14-28.81); p=0.020) and TGF-βRII/GAPDH levels (YF: 3.16 (1.14- 10.25); OF: 1.71 (0.51-14.86); p=0.020) were lower with respect to old age. In elderly women, only TGF-βRΙ expression correlated negatively with miRNA-21 expression in PBMCs (ρ=-0.315; p=0.004). Interestingly, hs-CRP and miRNA correlated positively with handgrip strength (ρ=0.237 and ρ=243, p<0.05), while none of the TGF-β-related parameters were related to physical

  8. Total deposition of ultrafine particles in the lungs of healthy men and women: experimental and theoretical results

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Inhaled ultrafine particles (UFP) may induce greater adverse respiratory effects than larger particles occurring in the ambient atmosphere. Due to this potential of UFP to act as triggers for diverse lung injuries medical as well as physical research has been increasingly focused on the exact deposition behavior of the particles in lungs of various probands. Main purpose of the present study was the presentation of experimental and theoretical data of total, regional, and local UFP deposition in the lungs of men and women. Methods Both experiments and theoretical simulations were carried out by using particle sizes of 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 µm [number median diameters (NMD)]. Inhalation of UFP took place by application of predefined tidal volumes (500, 750, and 1,000 mL) and respiratory flow rates (150, 250, 375, and 500 mL·s−1). For male subjects a functional residual capacity (FRC) of 3,911±892 mL was measured, whereas female probands had a FRC of 3,314±547 mL. Theoretical predictions were based on (I) a stochastic model of the tracheobronchial tree; (II) particle transport computations according to a random walk algorithm; and (III) empirical formulae for the description of UFP deposition. Results Total deposition fractions (TDF) are marked by a continuous diminution with increasing particle size. Whilst particles measuring 0.04 µm in size deposit in the respiratory tract by 40–70%, particles with a size of 0.10 µm exhibit deposition values ranging from 20% to 45%. Except for the largest particles studied here TDF of female probands are higher than those obtained for male probands. Differences between experimental and theoretical results are most significant for 0.10 µm particles, but never exceed 20%. Predictions of regional (extrathoracic, tracheobronchial, alveolar) UFP deposition show clearly that females tend to develop higher tracheobronchial and alveolar deposition fractions than males. This discrepancy is also confirmed by

  9. Abdominal Fat Is Associated With Lower Bone Formation and Inferior Bone Quality in Healthy Premenopausal Women: A Transiliac Bone Biopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Dempster, David W.; Recker, Robert R.; Lappe, Joan M.; Zhou, Hua; Zwahlen, Alexander; Müller, Ralph; Zhao, Binsheng; Guo, Xiaotao; Lang, Thomas; Saeed, Isra; Liu, X. Sherry; Guo, X. Edward; Cremers, Serge; Rosen, Clifford J.; Stein, Emily M.; Nickolas, Thomas L.; McMahon, Donald J.; Young, Polly; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Context: The conventional view that obesity is beneficial for bone strength has recently been challenged by studies that link obesity, particularly visceral obesity, to low bone mass and fractures. It is controversial whether effects of obesity on bone are mediated by increased bone resorption or decreased bone formation. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate bone microarchitecture and remodeling in healthy premenopausal women of varying weights. Design: We measured bone density and trunk fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 40 women and by computed tomography in a subset. Bone microarchitecture, stiffness, remodeling, and marrow fat were assessed in labeled transiliac bone biopsies. Results: Body mass index (BMI) ranged from 20.1 to 39.2 kg/m2. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-trunk fat was directly associated with BMI (r = 0.78, P < .001) and visceral fat by computed tomography (r = 0.79, P < .001). Compared with women in the lowest tertile of trunk fat, those in the highest tertile had inferior bone quality: lower trabecular bone volume (20.4 ± 5.8 vs 29.1 ± 6.1%; P = .001) and stiffness (433 ± 264 vs 782 ± 349 MPa; P = .01) and higher cortical porosity (8.8 ± 3.5 vs 6.3 ± 2.4%; P = .049). Bone formation rate (0.004 ± 0.002 vs 0.011 ± 0.008 mm2/mm · year; P = .006) was 64% lower in the highest tertile. Trunk fat was inversely associated with trabecular bone volume (r = −0.50; P < .01) and bone formation rate (r = −0.50; P < .001). The relationship between trunk fat and bone volume remained significant after controlling for age and BMI. Conclusions: At the tissue level, premenopausal women with more central adiposity had inferior bone quality and stiffness and markedly lower bone formation. Given the rising levels of obesity, these observations require further investigation. PMID:23515452

  10. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26-65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p=0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p<0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p=0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  11. The Effect of Two Different Cognitive Tests on Gait Parameters during Dual Tasks in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Kałużny, Krystian; Hagner, Wojciech; Kałużna, Anna; Kochański, Bartosz; Borkowska, Alina; Budzyński, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The paper aims to evaluate the influence of two different demanding cognitive tasks on gait parameters using BTS SMART system analysis. Patients and Methods. The study comprised 53 postmenopausal women aged 64.5 ± 6.7 years (range: 47–79). For every subject, gait analysis using a BTS SMART system was performed in a dual-task study design under three conditions: (I) while walking only (single task), (II) walking while performing a simultaneous simple cognitive task (SCT) (dual task), and (III) walking while performing a simultaneous complex cognitive task (CCT) (dual task). Time-space parameters of gait pertaining to the length of a single support phase, double support phase, gait speed, step length, step width, and leg swing speed were analyzed. Results. Performance of cognitive tests during gait resulted in a statistically significant prolongation of the left (by 7%) and right (by 7%) foot gait cycle, shortening of the length of steps made with the right extremity (by 4%), reduction of speed of swings made with the left (by 11%) and right (by 8%) extremity, and reduction in gait speed (by 6%). Conclusions. Performance of cognitive tests during gait changes its individual pattern in relation to the level of the difficulty of the task. PMID:27022602

  12. Elevated plasma and urinary concentrations of green tea catechins associated with improved plasma lipid profile in healthy Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Takechi, Ryusuke; Alfonso, Helman; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Ishisaka, Akari; Tanaka, Akira; Tan, La'Belle; Lee, Andy H

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated green tea catechins in plasma and urine and chronic disease biomarkers. We hypothesized that plasma and urinary concentration of green tea catechins are associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes biomarkers. First void urine and fasting plasma samples were collected from 57 generally healthy females aged 38 to 73 years (mean, 52 ± 8 years) recruited in Himeji, Japan. The concentrations of plasma and urinary green tea catechins were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass tandem spectrometer. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and C-reactive protein in plasma/serum samples were analyzed by a commercial diagnostic laboratory. Statistical associations were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. The results showed weak associations between plasma total catechin and triglyceride (r = -0.30) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.28), whereas plasma (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, and (-)-epicatechin exhibited weak to moderate associations with triglyceride or LDL cholesterol, but little associations with HDL cholesterol, body fat, and body mass index were evident. Urinary total catechin was weakly associated with triglyceride (r = -0.19) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.15), whereas urinary (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33), (-)-epigallocatechin (r = -0.23), and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33) had weak to moderate correlations with triglyceride and similarly with body fat and body mass index. Both plasma (r = -0.24) and urinary (r = -0.24) total catechin, as well as individual catechins, were weakly associated with glycated hemoglobin. Plasma total and individual catechins were weakly to moderately associated with C-reactive protein, but not the case for urinary catechins. In conclusion, we found weak to moderate associations between plasma and urinary green tea

  13. Physiological and functional evaluation of healthy young and older men and women: design of the European MyoAge study.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Jamie S; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Maier, Andrea B; Seppet, Enn; Seynnes, Olivier R; Sipilä, Sarianna; Bottinelli, Roberto; Barnouin, Yoann; Bijlsma, Astrid Y; Gapeyeva, Helena; Maden-Wilkinson, Thomas M; Meskers, Carel G; Pääsuke, Mati; Sillanpää, Elina; Stenroth, Lauri; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Narici, Marco V; Jones, David A

    2013-06-01

    Within the European multi-centre MyoAge project, one workpackage was designed to investigate the contribution of age-related changes to muscle mass, contractile characteristics and neural control in relation to reductions in mobility in older age. The methodology has been described here. Test centres were located in Manchester, UK; Paris, France; Leiden, The Netherlands; Tartu, Estonia and Jyväskylä, Finland. In total, 182 young (18-30 years old, 52.2 % female) and 322 older adults (69-81 years old, 50 % female) have been examined. The participants were independent living, socially active and free from disease that impaired mobility levels. The older participants were selected based on physical activity levels, such that half exceeded current recommended physical activity levels and the other half had lower physical activity levels than is recommended to maintain health. Measurements consisted of blood pressure; anthropometry and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging); lung function; standing balance and cognitive function (CANTAB). Mobility was assessed using the Timed Up and Go, a 6 min walk, activity questionnaires and accelerometers to monitor habitual daily activities. Muscle strength, power, fatigue and neural activation were assessed using a combination of voluntary and electrically stimulated contractions. Fasting blood samples and skeletal muscle biopsies were collected for detailed examination of cell and molecular differences between young and older individuals. The results from this study will provide a detailed insight into "normal, healthy" ageing, linking whole-body function to the structure and function of the neuromuscular system and the molecular characteristics of skeletal muscle. PMID:23722256

  14. A community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among middle-aged African American women in rural Alabama: Findings from a group randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Scarinci, Isabel C.; Moore, Artisha; Wynn, Theresa; Cherrington, Andrea; Fouad, Mona; Li, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the efficacy of a community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among African American (AA) women between the ages of 45–65 years, residing in rural Alabama. Methods We conducted a group randomized controlled trial with counties as the unit of randomization that evaluated two interventions based on health priorities identified by the community: (1) promotion of healthy eating and physical activity; and (2) promotion of breast and cervical cancer screening. A total of 6 counties with 565 participants were enrolled in the study between November 2009 and October 2011. Results The overall retention rate at 24-month follow-up was 54.7%. Higher retention rate was observed in the “healthy lifestyle” arm (63.1%) as compared to the “screening” arm (45.3%). Participants in the “healthy lifestyle” arm showed significant positive changes compared to the “screening” arm at 12-month follow-up with regard to decrease in fried food consumption and an increase in both fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity. At 24-month follow-up, these positive changes were maintained with healthy eating behaviors, but not engagement in physical activity. Conclusions A culturally relevant intervention, developed in collaboration with the target audience, can improve (and maintain) healthy eating among AA women living in rural areas. PMID:25152504

  15. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26–65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p = 0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p < 0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p = 0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  16. High Protein Pasta is Not More Satiating than High Fiber Pasta at a Lunch Meal, Nor Does it Decrease Mid-Afternoon Snacking in Healthy Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Korczak, Renee; Timm, Derek; Ahnen, Rylee; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2016-09-01

    This study compared satiety after high protein pasta (16 g protein, 6 g fiber), high fiber pasta (11 g protein, 8 g fiber) or control pasta (11 g protein, 6 g fiber) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Participants were 36 healthy and men and women from the University of Minnesota campus. Fasted men and women ate calorie controlled, but macronutrient different pastas at 12:00 pm along with 500 mL of water. The primary outcome was satiety assessed by Visual Analogue Scales at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min daily after consuming the pastas. Secondary outcomes were calories consumed at an ad libitum snack at 3:00 pm, calories from food intake, gastrointestinal tolerance, and palatability. No differences were found among the pasta treatments for satiety, snacking, or gastrointestinal tolerance. Men ate significantly more calories for the rest of the (P = 0.007) after the high protein pasta versus the high fiber pasta (1701 ± 154 compared with 1083 ± 154) with control pasta being intermediate to the other treatments. No significant differences were found for gastrointestinal tolerance, but the palatability ratings showed the high protein pasta was less tasty (P = 0.03) and less pleasant (P = 0.01) than the other 2 pastas. Satisfaction was positively associated with pleasantness and negatively associated with aftertaste. Our results do not support the idea that high protein or high fiber pasta produces a greater satiety response compared to pasta with lower amounts of either nutrient. It is likely that since pasta is already a very satiating food, the subjects were unable to differentiate between the 3 conditions. PMID:27474885

  17. Genetic variants associated with Von Willebrand factor levels in healthy men and women identified using the HumanCVD BeadChip.

    PubMed

    Zabaneh, Delilah; Gaunt, Tom R; Kumari, Meena; Drenos, Fotios; Shah, Sonia; Berry, Diane; Power, Chris; Hypponen, Elina; Shah, Tina; Palmen, Jutta; Pallas, Jacky; Talmud, Philippa J; Casas, Juan Pablo; Sofat, Reecha; Lowe, Gordon; Rumley, Ann; Morris, Richard W; Whincup, Peter H; Rodriguez, Santiago; Ebrahim, Shah; Marmot, Michael G; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A; Kivimaki, Mika; Whittaker, John; Hingorani, Aroon D; Day, Ian N; Humphries, Steve E

    2011-07-01

    We have used the gene-centric Illumina HumanCVD BeadChip to identify common genetic determinants of Von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels in healthy men and women. The Whitehall II (WHII) study (n= 5592) and the British Women's Heart and Health Study (BWHHS) (n= 3445) were genotyped using the HumanCVD BeadChip. Replication was conducted in the British Regional Heart Study (n= 3897) and 1958 Birth Cohort (n= 5048). We identified 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genes/regions associated with vWF at P < 10(-4) . These included 19 SNPs at the ABO blood group locus with the lead variant being rs657152 (P= 9.7 × 10(-233) ). The lead variant in the 24 VWF SNPs was rs1063856 (P= 2.3 × 10(-20) ). SNPs at ESR1 (rs6909023) and NRG1(rs1685103) showed modest associations with vWF, but these were not confirmed in a meta-analysis. Using variable selection, five SNPs at the locus for ABO and two for VWF were found to have independent associations with vWF levels. After adjustment for age and gender, the selected ABO SNPs explained 15% and the VWF SNPs an additional 2% of the variance in vWF levels. Individuals at opposite tails of the additive seven SNP allele score exhibited substantial differences in vWF levels. These data demonstrate that multiple common alleles with small effects make, in combination, important contributions to individual differences in vWF levels. PMID:21534939

  18. Feasibility of a clinical trial to assess the effect of dietary calcium v. supplemental calcium on vascular and bone markers in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ong, Angel M; Weiler, Hope A; Wall, Michelle; Haddad, Rouba; Gorgui, Jessica; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Goltzman, David; Morin, Suzanne N

    2016-07-01

    Whether supplemental Ca has similar effects to dietary Ca on vascular and bone markers is unknown. The present trial investigated the feasibility of applying dietary and supplemental interventions in a randomised-controlled trial (RCT) aiming to estimate the effect of supplemental Ca as compared with dietary Ca on vascular and bone markers in postmenopausal women. In total, thirteen participants were randomised to a Ca supplement group (CaSuppl) (750 mg Ca from CaCO3+450 mg Ca from food+20 µg vitamin D supplement) or a Ca diet group (CaDiet) (1200 mg Ca from food+10 µg vitamin D supplement). Participants were instructed on Ca consumption targets at baseline. Monthly telephone follow-ups were conducted to assess adherence to interventions (±20 % of target total Ca) using the multiple-pass 24-h recall method and reported pill count. Measurements of arterial stiffness, peripheral blood pressure and body composition were performed at baseline and after 6 and 12 months in all participants who completed the trial (n 9). Blood and serum biomarkers were measured at baseline and at 12 months. Both groups were compliant to trial interventions (±20 % of target total Ca intake; pill count ≥80 %). CaSuppl participants maintained a significantly lower average dietary Ca intake compared with CaDiet participants throughout the trial (453 (sd 187) mg/d v. 1241 (sd 319) mg/d; P<0·001). There were no significant differences in selected vascular outcomes between intervention groups over time. Our pilot trial demonstrated the feasibility of conducting a large-scale RCT to estimate the differential effects of supplemental and dietary Ca on vascular and bone health markers in healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:27181505

  19. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting. PMID:26763471

  20. Intra-Thoracic Fat, Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Healthy, Recently Menopausal Women Screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gary; Wang, Dan; Zeb, Irfan; Budoff, Matthew J.; Harman, S. Mitchell; Miller, Virginia; Brinton, Eliot A.; Khoudary, Samar El; Manson, JoAnn E.; Sowers, MaryFran R.; Hodis, Howard N.; Merriam, George R.; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Taylor, Hugh S.; Naftolin, Frederick; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Santoro, Nanette; Wildman, Rachel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the correlations between intra-hepatic and intra-thoracic (total, epicardial, and pericardial) fat deposition with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis burden in healthy, recently postmenopausal women. Methods Women screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (mean age 52.9 years) who underwent electron beam or multidetector computed tomography (CT) imaging for the quantification of intra-hepatic fat and thoracic adipose tissue, and coronary artery calcification (CAC) were included (n= 650). Results Higher levels of intra-hepatic and thoracic fat were each associated with CVD risk markers. After adjustment for BMI, the associations for intra-hepatic fat with hs-CRP and insulin persisted (r= 0.21 and 0.19, respectively; P<0.001), while those between thoracic fat indices and lipids persisted (r for total thoracic fat with HDL, LDL, and triglycerides= −0.16, 0.11, and 0.11, respectively, P<0.05). Total thoracic fat was associated with CAC after initial multivariable adjustment (odds ratio [OR] of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th vs. 1st quartile and [95% confidence intervals]: 0.8 [0.4–1.6], 1.5 [0.8–2.9], and 1.8 [1.0–3.4]; P for linear trend=0.017) and was only slightly attenuated after additional adjustment for BMI. Associations between total thoracic fat and CVD risk markers and CAC appeared due slightly more to associations with epicardial than pericardial fat. Conclusion While hepatic fat is related to hs-CRP and insulin, cardiac fat is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis as demonstrated by CAC. Cardiac fat may represent a useful marker for increased CVD risk beyond the standard adiposity measures of BMI and WC. PMID:22209479

  1. Short-Term Energy Deprivation Alters Activin A and Follistatin But Not Inhibin B Levels of Lean Healthy Women in a Leptin-Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Moragianni, Vasiliki A.; Aronis, Konstantinos N.; Chamberland, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Leptin is a potent modulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis mediating the effect of energy deprivation on several hypothalamic-pituitary-peripheral axes. Activin A, inhibin B, and follistatin (FST) also regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in humans. It remains unknown whether energy deprivation affects these hormone levels in a leptin-dependent or -independent manner. Objective: We investigated 1) day-night variability patterns of activin, inhibin, and FST in the fed state, 2) whether their levels are affected by fasting, and 3) whether such an effect is mediated by leptin in physiological replacement or pharmacological doses. Design: We conducted two studies in healthy, eumenorrheic females, each comprising three separate admissions. In study 1, six women were maintained for 72 h 1) on isocaloric diet, 2) fasting while receiving placebo, or 3) fasting while receiving metreleptin in physiological replacement doses. In study 2, five women were administered physiological or pharmacological metreleptin doses (0.01, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg iv four times daily). Results: Neither activin A nor FST had a pulsatile or day-night variability pattern. Inhibin B levels were also nonpulsatile, but a trend toward a day-night pattern was noted. When compared with the fed state, inhibin B levels remained unchanged, whereas FST levels increased (P = 0.01) and activin A decreased (P = 0.01) in the fasting state. These changes were not corrected with metreleptin administered in replacement or pharmacological doses. Conclusions: Short-term energy deprivation alters levels of activin A and FST, but these effects are not mediated by leptin. PMID:21917874

  2. Drinking water arsenic exposure and blood pressure in healthy women of reproductive age in Inner Mongolia, China

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Richard K. Mendola, Pauline; Liu Zhiyi; Savitz, David A.; Heiss, Gerardo; Ling Heling; Xia Yajuan; Lobdell, Danelle; Zeng Donglin; Thorp, John M.; Creason, John P.; Mumford, Judy L.

    2007-08-01

    The extremely high exposure levels evaluated in prior investigations relating elevated levels of drinking water arsenic and hypertension prevalence make extrapolation to potential vascular effects at lower exposure levels very difficult. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 8790 women who had recently been pregnant in an area of Inner Mongolia, China known to have a gradient of drinking water arsenic exposure. This study observed increased systolic blood pressure levels with increasing drinking water arsenic, at lower exposure levels than previously reported in the literature. As compared to the referent category (below limit of detection to 20 {mu}g of As/L), the overall population mean systolic blood pressure rose 1.29 mm Hg (95% CI 0.82, 1.75), 1.28 mm Hg (95% CI 0.49, 2.07), and 2.22 mm Hg (95% CI 1.46, 2.97) as drinking water arsenic concentration increased from 21 to 50, 51 to 100, and > 100 {mu}g of As/L, respectively. Controlling for age and body weight (n = 3260), the population mean systolic blood pressure rose 1.88 mm Hg (95% CI 1.03, 2.73), 3.90 mm Hg (95% CI 2.52, 5.29), and 6.83 mm Hg (95% CI 5.39, 8.27) as drinking water arsenic concentration increased, respectively. For diastolic blood pressure effect, while statistically significant, was not as pronounced as systolic blood pressure. Mean diastolic blood pressure rose 0.78 mm Hg (95% CI 0.39, 1.16), 1.57 mm Hg (95% CI 0.91, 2.22) and 1.32 mm Hg (95% CI 0.70, 1.95), respectively, for the overall population and rose 2.11 mm Hg (95% CI 1.38, 2.84), 2.74 mm Hg (95% CI 1.55, 3.93), and 3.08 mm Hg (95% CI 1.84, 4.31), respectively, for the adjusted population (n = 3260) at drinking water arsenic concentrations of 21 to 50, 51 to 100, and > 100 {mu}g of As/L. If our study results are confirmed in other populations, the potential burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to drinking water arsenic is significant.

  3. Sprint Interval and Sprint Continuous Training Increases Circulating CD34+ Cells and Cardio-Respiratory Fitness in Young Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Emma; Rakobowchuk, Mark; Birch, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The improvement of vascular health in the exercising limb can be attained by sprint interval training (SIT). However, the effects on systemic vascular function and on circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) which may contribute to endothelial repair have not been investigated. Additionally, a comparison between SIT and sprint continuous training (SCT) which is less time committing has not been made. Methods 12 women (22±2 yrs) completed 12 sessions of either SIT (n = 6) or work-matched SCT (n = 6) on 3 days/week. Pre and post-training assessments included brachial artery endothelial function and peripheral blood analysis for CAC number (CD34+/CD34+CD45dim). CAC function was measured by migration and adhesion assays. Cardio-respiratory fitness, carotid arterial stiffness and carotid-radial and brachial-foot pulse wave velocity (PWV) were also evaluated. Results CD34+ CACs increased following training in both groups but CD34+CD45dim did not (Pre CD34+: 40±21/105 leukocytes, Post CD34+: 56±24/105 leukocytes, main time effect p<0.05). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased following SIT but SCT had no effect (Pre SIT: 5.0±3.4%, Post SIT: 5.9±3.0%, Pre SCT: 7.2±2.7%, Post SCT: 6.5±2.9%; group x time interaction p = 0.08). increased in both training groups (Pre: 34.6±4.6 ml•kg•ml−1, Post: 36.9±5.4 ml•kg•ml−1, main time effect p<0.05). CAC function, carotid arterial stiffness and PWV did not change after training (p>0.05). Discussion SCT involving little time commitment is comparable to SIT in increasing CD34+ cell number and . An increased mobilisation of CD34+ CACs suggests that sprint training may be an effective method to enhance vascular repair. PMID:25265043

  4. Sequences of Regressions Distinguish Nonmechanical from Mechanical Associations between Metabolic Factors, Body Composition, and Bone in Healthy Postmenopausal Women123

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Gail R; Prentice, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is increasing recognition of complex interrelations between the endocrine functions of bone and fat tissues or organs. Objective: The objective was to describe nonmechanical and mechanical links between metabolic factors, body composition, and bone with the use of graphical Markov models. Methods: Seventy postmenopausal women with a mean ± SD age of 62.3 ± 3.7 y and body mass index (in kg/m2) of 24.9 ± 3.8 were recruited. Bone outcomes were peripheral quantitative computed tomography measures of the distal and diaphyseal tibia, cross-sectional area (CSA), volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and cortical CSA. Biomarkers of osteoblast and adipocyte function were plasma concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, osteocalcin, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (UCOC), and phylloquinone. Body composition measurements were lean and percent fat mass, which were derived with the use of a 4-compartment model. Sequences of Regressions, a subclass of graphical Markov models, were used to describe the direct (nonmechanical) and indirect (mechanical) interrelations between metabolic factors and bone by simultaneously modeling multiple bone outcomes and their relation with biomarker outcomes with lean mass, percent fat mass, and height as intermediate explanatory variables. Results: The graphical Markov models showed both direct and indirect associations linking plasma leptin and adiponectin concentrations with CSA and vBMD. At the distal tibia, lean mass, height, and adiponectin-UCOC interaction were directly explanatory of CSA (R2 = 0.45); at the diaphysis, lean mass, percent fat mass, leptin, osteocalcin, and age-adiponectin interaction were directly explanatory of CSA (R2 = 0.49). The regression models exploring direct associations for vBMD were much weaker, with R2 = 0.15 and 0.18 at the distal and diaphyseal sites, respectively. Lean mass and UCOC were associated, and the global Markov property of the graph indicated that this association was explained by

  5. Cocoa flavanol intake improves endothelial function and Framingham Risk Score in healthy men and women: a randomised, controlled, double-masked trial: the Flaviola Health Study.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Roberto; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Heuel, Jan; Falk, David; Schuler, Dominik; Wagstaff, Rabea; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Merx, Marc W; Kelm, Malte; Heiss, Christian

    2015-10-28

    Cocoa flavanol (CF) intake improves endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and disease. We investigated the effects of CF on surrogate markers of cardiovascular health in low risk, healthy, middle-aged individuals without history, signs or symptoms of CVD. In a 1-month, open-label, one-armed pilot study, bi-daily ingestion of 450 mg of CF led to a time-dependent increase in endothelial function (measured as flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD)) that plateaued after 2 weeks. Subsequently, in a randomised, controlled, double-masked, parallel-group dietary intervention trial (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01799005), 100 healthy, middle-aged (35-60 years) men and women consumed either the CF-containing drink (450 mg) or a nutrient-matched CF-free control bi-daily for 1 month. The primary end point was FMD. Secondary end points included plasma lipids and blood pressure, thus enabling the calculation of Framingham Risk Scores and pulse wave velocity. At 1 month, CF increased FMD over control by 1·2 % (95 % CI 1·0, 1·4 %). CF decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4·4 mmHg (95 % CI 7·9, 0·9 mmHg) and 3·9 mmHg (95 % CI 6·7, 0·9 mmHg), pulse wave velocity by 0·4 m/s (95 % CI 0·8, 0·04 m/s), total cholesterol by 0·20 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·39, 0·01 mmol/l) and LDL-cholesterol by 0·17 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·32, 0·02 mmol/l), whereas HDL-cholesterol increased by 0·10 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·04, 0·17 mmol/l). By applying the Framingham Risk Score, CF predicted a significant lowering of 10-year risk for CHD, myocardial infarction, CVD, death from CHD and CVD. In healthy individuals, regular CF intake improved accredited cardiovascular surrogates of cardiovascular risk, demonstrating that dietary flavanols have the potential to maintain cardiovascular health even in low-risk subjects. PMID:26348767

  6. Assessment of bladder wall thickness in women with overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Üçer, Oktay; Gümüş, Bilal; Albaz, Ali Can; Pekindil, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare bladder wall thickness (BWT) between female patients with overactive bladder (OAB) and aged-matched healthy controls. Material and methods Thirty-six female patients with OAB and 31 healthy women were enrolled in the present prospective observational study. Qmax and Qave were measured by using uroflowmetry in all of the women in the patient and control groups, and also maximum bladder capacity (MBC), post- void residual urine (PVRU), prevoiding and postvoiding BWT were measured by using transabdominal ultrasound. Lower urinary tract symptoms of the participants were assessed by using Overactive Bladder Version-8 (OAB-V8) and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF). All of the data were statistically compared between the patient and control groups. In the patient group, the relationships between parameters were evaluated correlation analysis. Results The mean age of the patients and controls were similar (respectively, 45.58±12.35 and 44.21±11.60 years (p=0.68). The mean pre- and post-voiding BWT, OAB-V8 and ICIQ-SF scores of the patients were significantly higher than the controls. In the patient group, the moderate positive correlations between BWT with Qmax (p=0.02) and Qave (p=0.02) were found. Conclusion This study showed that the BWTs of the female patients with OAB are higher than those of healthy women. Further studies should investigate the changes in BWT of patients with OAB after treatment of OAB. PMID:27274895

  7. Progesterone Therapy, Endothelial Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A 3-Month Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial in Healthy Early Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Jerilynn C.; Elliott, Thomas G.; Norman, Eric; Stajic, Vesna; Hitchcock, Christine L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Progesterone is effective treatment for hot flushes/night sweats. The cardiovascular effects of progesterone therapy are unknown but evidence suggests that premenopausal normal estradiol with also normal progesterone levels may provide later cardiovascular protection. We compared the effects of progesterone to placebo on endothelial function, weight, blood pressure, metabolism, lipids, inflammation and coagulation. Methods and Results We conducted a randomized, double-blind, 3-month placebo-controlled trial of progesterone (300 mg daily) among 133 healthy postmenopausal women in Vancouver, Canada from 2003–2009. Endothelial function by venous occlusion plethysmography was a planned primary outcome. Enrolled women were 1–11 y since last menstruation, not using hormones (for >6 months), non-smoking, without diabetes, hypertension, heart disease or their medications. Randomized (1∶1) women (55±4 years, body mass index 25±3) initially had normal blood pressure, fasting lipid, glucose and electrocardiogram results. Endothelial function (% forearm blood flow above saline) was not changed with progesterone (487±189%, n = 18) compared with placebo (408±278%, n = 16) (95% CI diff [−74 to 232], P = 0.30). Progesterone (n = 65) and placebo (n = 47) groups had similar changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels. High-density lipoprotein was lower (−0.14 mmol/L, P = 0.001) on progesterone compared with placebo. Fasting glucose, hs-C-reactive protein, albumin and D-dimer changes were all comparable to placebo. Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile scores were initially low and remained low with progesterone therapy and not statistically different from placebo. Conclusions Results indicate that progesterone has short-term cardiovascular safety. Endothelial function, weight

  8. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  9. The Absolute Bioavailability and Effect of Food on the Pharmacokinetics of Odanacatib: A Stable-Label i.v./Oral Study in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Zajic, Stefan; Rossenu, Stefaan; Hreniuk, David; Kesisoglou, Filippos; McCrea, Jacqueline; Liu, Fang; Sun, Li; Witter, Rose; Gauthier, Don; Helmy, Roy; Joss, Darrick; Ni, Tong; Stoltz, Randall; Stone, Julie; Stoch, S Aubrey

    2016-09-01

    A stable-label i.v./oral study design was conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of odanacatib. Healthy, postmenopausal women received oral doses of unlabeled odanacatib administered simultaneously with a reference of 1 mg i.v. stable (13)C-labeled odanacatib. The absolute bioavailability of odanacatib was 30% at 50 mg (the phase 3 dose) and 70% at 10 mg, which is consistent with solubility-limited absorption. Odanacatib exposure (area under the curve from zero to infinity) increased by 15% and 63% when 50 mg was administered with low-fat and high-fat meals, respectively. This magnitude of the food effect is unlikely to be clinically important. The volume of distribution was ∼100 liters. The clearance was ∼0.8 l/h (13 ml/min), supporting that odanacatib is a low-extraction ratio drug. Population PK modeling indicated that 88% of individuals had completed absorption of >80% bioavailable drug within 24 hours, with modest additional absorption after 24 hours and periodic fluctuations in plasma concentrations contributing to late values for time to Cmax in some subjects. PMID:27402726

  10. Supplementing chicken broth with monosodium glutamate reduces energy intake from high fat and sweet snacks in middle-aged healthy women.

    PubMed

    Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Torii, Kunio; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2014-08-01

    Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) and inosine monophosphate-5 (IMP) are flavor enhancers for umami taste. However, their effects on appetite and food intake are not well-researched. The objective of the current study was to test their additions in a broth preload on subsequent appetite ratings, energy intake and food choice. Eighty-six healthy middle-aged women with normal body weight received three preload conditions on 3 test days 1 week apart - a low-energy chicken flavor broth (200 ml) as the control preload, and broths with added MSG alone (0.5 g/100 ml, MSG broth) or in combination with IMP (0.05 g/100 ml) (MSG+ broth) served as the experimental conditions. Fifteen minutes after preload administration subjects were provided an ad libitum testing meal which consisted of 16 snacks varying in taste and fat content. MSG and MSG+ enhanced savory taste and broth properties of liking and pleasantness. In comparison with control, the MSG preload resulted in less consumption of total energy, as well as energy from sweet and high-fat snacks. Furthermore, MSG broth preload reduced added sugar intake. These findings were not observed after MSG+ preload. Appetite ratings were not different across the three preloads. Results suggest a potential role of MSG addition to a low-energy broth preload in subsequent energy intake and food choice. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01761045. PMID:24768895

  11. Evaluation of estradiol administration on the discriminative-stimulus and subject-rated effects of d-amphetamine in healthy pre-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lile, Joshua A.; Kendall, Sherie L.; Babalonis, Shanna; Martin, Catherine A.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that estradiol might be responsible for the enhanced response to psychostimulants sometimes observed in females. In this study, 10 healthy pre-menopausal women who were using oral, hormone-based birth control learned to discriminate 15 mg/70 kg oral d-amphetamine from placebo. Once a discrimination criterion was met (i.e., ≥ 80% correct responding at the final time point for five consecutive sessions), a range of doses of oral d-amphetamine (0, 3.125, 7.5 and 15 mg/70 kg) was tested alone and in combination with sublingual estradiol (0 and 0.25 mg). Test sessions were conducted during the oral contraception placebo phase when levels of both estradiol and progesterone were at their lowest. d-Amphetamine functioned as a discriminative stimulus and produced prototypical stimulant effects (e.g., increased positive subject-rated drug effects, elevated cardiovascular measures). Estradiol enhanced the discriminative-stimulus effects of the low dose, but not higher doses of d-amphetamine. Estradiol also enhanced d-amphetamine effects on a subset of subjective-report ratings (i.e., VAS Like Drug and total score on the Stimulant subscale of the Adjective-Rating Scale). These findings provide limited support for the notion that estradiol increases sensitivity to the psychostimulant effects of drugs such as d-amphetamine. PMID:17544491

  12. The Karlsruhe Metabolomics and Nutrition (KarMeN) Study: Protocol and Methods of a Cross-Sectional Study to Characterize the Metabolome of Healthy Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kriebel, Anita; Dörr, Claudia; Bandt, Susanne; Rist, Manuela; Roth, Alexander; Hummel, Eva; Kulling, Sabine; Hoffmann, Ingrid; Watzl, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background The human metabolome is influenced by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. A precondition to identify such biomarkers is the comprehensive understanding of the composition and variability of the metabolome of healthy humans. Sample handling aspects have an important impact on the composition of the metabolome; therefore, it is crucial for any metabolomics study to standardize protocols on sample collection, preanalytical sample handling, storage, and analytics to keep the nonbiological variability as low as possible. Objective The main objective of the KarMeN study is to analyze the human metabolome in blood and urine by targeted and untargeted metabolite profiling (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry [GC-MS], GC×GC-MS, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry [LC-MS/MS], and1H nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR] spectroscopy) and to determine the impact of sex, age, body composition, diet, and physical activity on metabolite profiles of healthy women and men. Here, we report the outline of the study protocol with special regard to all aspects that should be considered in studies applying metabolomics. Methods Healthy men and women, aged 18 years or older, were recruited. In addition to a number of anthropometric (height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, body composition), clinical (blood pressure, electrocardiogram, blood and urine clinical chemistry) and functional parameters (lung function, arterial stiffness), resting metabolic rate, physical activity, fitness, and dietary intake were assessed, and 24-hour urine, fasting spot urine, and plasma samples were collected. Standard operating procedures were established for all steps of the study design. Using different analytical techniques (LC-MS, GC×GC-MS,1H NMR spectroscopy), metabolite profiles of urine and plasma were determined. Data will be analyzed using univariate and multivariate as well as predictive modeling methods. Results The project was funded in 2011 and enrollment was

  13. Do Healthy Preterm Children Need Neuropsychological Follow-Up? Preschool Outcomes Compared with Term Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dall'Oglio, Anna M.; Rossiello, Barbara; Coletti, Maria F.; Bultrini, Massimiliano; De Marchis, Chiara; Rava, Lucilla; Caselli, Cristina; Paris, Silvana; Cuttini, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. Method : A total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33…

  14. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  15. Neural Circuits for Cognitive Appetite Control in Healthy and Obese Individuals: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tuulari, Jetro J.; Karlsson, Henry K.; Hirvonen, Jussi; Salminen, Paulina; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    The mere sight of foods may activate the brain’s reward circuitry, and humans often experience difficulties in inhibiting urges to eat upon encountering visual food signals. Imbalance between the reward circuit and those supporting inhibitory control may underlie obesity, yet brain circuits supporting volitional control of appetite and their possible dysfunction that can lead to obesity remain poorly specified. Here we delineated the brain basis of volitional appetite control in healthy and obese individuals with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-seven morbidly obese women (mean BMI = 41.4) and fourteen age-matched normal-weight women (mean BMI = 22.6) were scanned with 1.5 Tesla fMRI while viewing food pictures. They were instructed to inhibit their urge to eat the foods, view the stimuli passively or imagine eating the foods. Across all subjects, a frontal cortical control circuit was activated during appetite inhibition versus passive viewing of the foods. Inhibition minus imagined eating (appetite control) activated bilateral precunei and parietal cortices and frontal regions spanning anterior cingulate and superior medial frontal cortices. During appetite control, obese subjects had lower responses in the medial frontal, middle cingulate and dorsal caudate nuclei. Functional connectivity of the control circuit was increased in morbidly obese versus control subjects during appetite control, which might reflect impaired integrative and executive function in obesity. PMID:25658479

  16. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  17. Sexual function in women with primary and secondary infertility in comparison with controls.

    PubMed

    Davari Tanha, F; Mohseni, M; Ghajarzadeh, M

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a distressing health condition that has diverse effects on couples' lives. One of the most affected aspects of life in infertile women is sexual function, which is a key factor in physical and marital health. The goal of this study was to evaluate sexual function according to the type of infertility in comparison with controls. In this study, 191 women with primary infertility and 129 with secondary infertility along with 87 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. They were asked to fill a valid and reliable FSFI (Female Sexual Function Index). Age, partner age and duration of marriage were significantly different between the primary and secondary infertility groups. The score of each FSFI domain was significantly higher in the control group, and the only significant difference between primary and secondary infertility groups was in the desire domain. Multiple linear regression analysis between the total FSFI score as a dependent variable and age, partner age, Body Mass Index and marriage duration as independent variables showed that age is a dependent predictor of FSFI in the primary group. We found significant negative correlation between total FSFI score and age, partner age and marriage duration (r1=-0.21 and P<0.001, r2=-0.14 and P=0.01, r3=-0.19 and P<0.001). Sexual dysfunction is high in all infertile women, and women with secondary infertility suffer more from impaired sexual function compared with those with primary infertility. PMID:24430276

  18. Altered Lung Function Test in Asymptomatic Women Using Biomass Fuel for Cooking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: One third of the world’s population use biomass fuel like wood, dung or charcoal for cooking. The smoke from these organic materials increases the incidence of respiratory illness including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Aim: To evaluate forced expiratory lung volumes in asymptomatic women previously exposed to biomass fuel smoke. Materials and Methods: The study was done in 74 healthy asymptomatic women divided into two age matched groups of 37 each. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were assessed by computerised spirometry and statistical comparisons done on women using biomass fuel (study group) and women using other sources of fuel (LPG/ electric stove) for cooking (control group). Results: The PFT results showed significant reduction in forced expiratory lung volumes like Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1st sec (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Flow between 25-75% (FEF 25-75%) and Forced Expiratory Volume percentage (FEV1%) in biomass fuel users as compared to those not exposed to biomass fuel smoke. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that biomass fuel smoke may produce definite impairment in lung function, especially with regard to the smaller airways. PMID:25478331

  19. Alterations in empathic responding among women with posttraumatic stress disorder associated with childhood trauma

    PubMed Central

    Parlar, Melissa; Frewen, Paul; Nazarov, Anthony; Oremus, Carolina; MacQueen, Glenda; Lanius, Ruth; McKinnon, Margaret C

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although studies increasingly point toward problems with social cognition among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), few studies have assessed empathic responding. The aim of the current study was to investigate empathic responding in women with PTSD related to childhood trauma, and the contribution of parental bonding to empathic abilities in this sample. Methods Participants with PTSD (n = 29) and sex- and age-matched healthy controls (n = 20) completed two self-report empathy measures, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ), and a self-report measure of attachment, the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Results Women with PTSD, relative to controls, reported significantly lower levels of empathic concern (r = 0.29) and perspective taking (r = 0.30), yet significantly higher levels of personal distress (r = 0.45) on the IRI. Women with PTSD also reported elevated scores on the TEQ (η2 = 0.13). Levels of paternal care on the PBI, rather than childhood trauma severity or PTSD symptom severity best predicted perspective taking scores on the IRI in the PTSD sample (R2 = 0.20). Conclusion Women with PTSD associated with childhood trauma reported alterations among different domains of empathic functioning that may be related to low levels of paternal care. PMID:24944867

  20. The Validity of Body Adiposity Indices in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Egyptian Women

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Kamal, Sanaa; Reyad, Hanaa; Yousef, Walaa; Hassan, Naglaa; Helwa, Iman; Kholoussi, Shams

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the associations between the body adiposity indices and risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components in Egyptian women and to evaluate their predictive power. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis performed on 180 Egyptian women aged between 25-35 years. They were 90 women with MS diagnosed by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and 90 healthy age matched controls. Body adiposity index (BAI), body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated and serum samples were analyzed for metabolic parameters. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) was used to determine the discriminatory capacity of BAI, WHR WHtR and BMI for MS. RESULTS: Area under the curve (AUC) was highest for BIA, followed by WHR, WHtR and then BMI. All adiposity indices were significantly correlated with metabolic components and BAI had the highest correlation coefficients compared to other indices. CONCLUSION: BAI is a practical predictor for MS and has satisfactory diagnostic accuracy for diagnosing MS among Egyptian women and can be used in addition to WHR, WHtR and BMI for identifying MS in the field studies. PMID:27275324

  1. Infrared microspectroscopy identifies biomolecular changes associated with chronic oxidative stress in mammary epithelium and stroma of breast tissues from healthy young women

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Imran I; Shearer, Debra A; Fogarty, Simon W; Fullwood, Nigel J; Quaroni, Luca; Martin, Francis L; Weisz, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the decades-long latent stages of breast carcinogenesis have been limited to when hyperplastic lesions are already present. Investigations of earlier stages of breast cancer (BC) latency have been stymied by the lack of fiducial biomarkers needed to identify where in histologically normal tissues progression toward a BC might be taking place. Recent evidence suggests that a marker of chronic oxidative stress (OxS), protein adducts of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE), can meet this need. Specifically: (1) 4HNE immunopositive (4HNE+) mammary epithelial (ME) cells were found to be prevalent in normal (reduction mammoplasty) tissues of most women (including many teenagers) studied, representative of those living in the United States’ high risk-posing environment and: (2) marked (>1.5-fold) differences were identified between tissues of healthy young women with many vs. few 4HNE+ ME cells in the relative levels of transcripts for 42 of the 84 OxS-associated genes represented in SABioscience Oxidative-Stress/Oxidative-Defense PCR array. Herein we used synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy to identify molecular changes associated with 4HNE adducts in basal and luminal ME cells in terminal ductal units (TDLU), which are the cells of origin of BC, and associated intralobular and interlobular stroma, known contributors to carcinogenesis. Multivariate analysis-derived wavenumbers differentiated 4HNE+ and 4HNE− cells in each of the anatomical compartments. Specifically, principal component and linear discriminant analyses of mid-infrared spectra obtained from these cells revealed unambiguous, statistically highly significant differences in the “biochemical fingerprint” of 4HNE+ vs. 4HNE− luminal and basal ME cells, as well as between associated intralobular and interlobular stroma. These findings demonstrate further SR-FTIR microspectroscopy’s ability to identify molecular changes associated with altered

  2. Acute effects of a single session of aerobic exercise with or without weight-lifting on bone turnover in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Aliye; Bölükbaşi, Nesrin; Cingi, Elif; Beyazova, Mehmet; Unlü, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of exercise on bone turnover and to determine whether brisk walking with or without weight-lifting makes a difference on bone metabolism. Nine healthy women performed two exercise bouts: brisk walking on a treadmill for 30 min (E), and similar exercise carrying 5 kg of weight in a backpack (WE). Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin (OC), calcitonin (CT), procollagen type 1 carboxy terminal propeptide (PICP), procollagen type 1 amino terminal propeptide (PINP), type 1 collagen carboxy terminal telopeptide (ICTP), total alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and urine deoxypyridinoline (D-Pyr) levels were studied. Resting values served as control. Significant variances were observed only in serum ALP and PTH values. Variances in ALP values within subjects after exercise were statistically significant (analysis of variance in repeated measurements [AVRM], P=0.000). E caused a significant decrease, while WE caused a significant increase in ALP values at the 24th h (Bonferroni pairwise comparisons tests [BPC t-test]: P=0.028, P=0.000, respectively). Variances in PTH values within subjects after exercise were statistically significant (AVRM, P=0.029), while diurnal variation was not significant (P=0.981). E caused significant alterations in PTH levels (an increase at the 30th min, turned towards baseline at the 45th min) (BPC t-test, P=0.007). WE also caused alterations in PTH levels, though insignificant (BPC t-test, P=1.00). Brisk walking for 30 min has stimulating effects on bone turnover by various mechanisms without any additive effect of weight bearing. PMID:17039311

  3. Metabolite Profile Analysis Reveals Functional Effects of 28-Day Vitamin B-6 Restriction on One-Carbon Metabolism and Tryptophan Catabolic Pathways in Healthy Men and Women123

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Vanessa R.; Rios-Avila, Luisa; Lamers, Yvonne; Ralat, Maria A.; Midttun, Øivind; Quinlivan, Eoin P.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Coats, Bonnie; Shankar, Meena N.; Percival, Susan S.; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Muller, Keith E.; Ueland, Per Magne; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Gregory, Jesse F.

    2013-01-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B-6 status, as reflected by low plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) concentration, is associated with increased risk of vascular disease. PLP plays many roles, including in one-carbon metabolism for the acquisition and transfer of carbon units and in the transsulfuration pathway. PLP also serves as a coenzyme in the catabolism of tryptophan. We hypothesize that the pattern of these metabolites can provide information reflecting the functional impact of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency. We report here the concentration of major constituents of one-carbon metabolic processes and the tryptophan catabolic pathway in plasma from 23 healthy men and women before and after a 28-d controlled dietary vitamin B-6 restriction (<0.35 mg/d). liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the compounds relevant to one-carbon metabolism showed that vitamin B-6 restriction yielded increased cystathionine (53% pre- and 76% postprandial; P < 0.0001) and serine (12% preprandial; P < 0.05), and lower creatine (40% pre- and postprandial; P < 0.0001), creatinine (9% postprandial; P < 0.05), and dimethylglycine (16% postprandial; P < 0.05) relative to the vitamin B-6–adequate state. In the tryptophan pathway, vitamin B-6 restriction yielded lower kynurenic acid (22% pre- and 20% postprandial; P < 0.01) and higher 3-hydroxykynurenine (39% pre- and 34% postprandial; P < 0.01). Multivariate ANOVA analysis showed a significant global effect of vitamin B-6 restriction and multilevel partial least squares-discriminant analysis supported this conclusion. Thus, plasma concentrations of creatine, cystathionine, kynurenic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine jointly reveal effects of vitamin B-6 restriction on the profiles of one-carbon and tryptophan metabolites and serve as biomarkers of functional effects of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency. PMID:23966327

  4. Effects of a viscous-fibre supplemented evening meal and the following un-supplemented breakfast on post-prandial satiety responses in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Yong, Mei Kei; Solah, Vicky A; Johnson, Stuart K; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A; James, Anthony P; Fenton, Haelee K; Gahler, Roland J; Wood, Simon

    2016-02-01

    The post-prandial satiety response and "second-meal effect" of a viscous fibre supplement PolyGlycopleX(®) (PGX(®)) was evaluated in a single-blind, randomised controlled crossover study of 14 healthy adult women. The two hour post-prandial satiety response, expressed as the area under the curve (AUC) of perceived hunger/fullness score versus post-prandial time, of a standardised evening meal with concurrent intake of either PGX softgel or rice flour softgel (control) was determined. On the following morning, after an overnight fast, the four hour satiety response to a standardised breakfast with no softgel supplementation was assessed. A significantly higher satiety response (AUC) to the standard dinner for the PGX-supplemented dinner compared with the control dinner (p=0.001) was found. No significant difference (p=0.09) was observed in the satiety response (AUC) of the breakfast regardless of which supplemented-dinner had been consumed prior, however the p value indicated a trend towards a higher response to the breakfast following the PGX-supplemented dinner. The fullness scores of the breakfast following the PGX-supplemented dinner at 15, 30, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240min post-prandial were significantly higher than those for the breakfast following the control dinner (p=<0.001, 0.007, 0.009, 0.009, 0.049, 0.03, 0.003 and <0.001 respectively). PGX supplementation at dinner increased the satiety effects of both the dinner itself and the subsequent un-supplemented breakfast; a "second meal effect" indicting the potential for this fibre supplement to induce extended satiety. PMID:26562186

  5. Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of dietary triacylglycerols does not affect insulin secretion or glucose homeostasis in healthy men and women

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, A; Teng, K-T; Berry, S E; Sanders, T A B

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: Dietary triacylglycerols containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose. Subjects/Methods: We used a cross-over designed feeding trial in 53 healthy Asian men and women (20–50 years) to test this hypothesis by exchanging 20% energy of palm olein (PO; control) with randomly interesterified PO (IPO) or high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS). After a 2-week run-in period on PO, participants were fed PO, IPO and HOS for 6 week consecutively in randomly allocated sequences. Fasting (midpoint and endpoint) and postprandial blood at the endpoint following a test meal (3.54 MJ, 14 g protein, 85 g carbohydrate and 50 g fat as PO) were collected for the measurement of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, lipids and apolipoproteins; pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were postprandial changes in C-peptide and plasma glucose. Results: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.3 mmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) 0.1, 0.5; P<0.001) lower on HOS than on PO or IPO as predicted, indicating good compliance to the dietary intervention. There were no significant differences (P=0.58) between diets among the 10 male and 31 female completers in the incremental area under the curve (0–2 h) for C-peptide in nmol.120 min/l: GM (95% CI) were PO 220 (196, 245), IPO 212 (190, 235) and HOS 224 (204, 244). Plasma glucose was 8% lower at 2 h on IPO vs PO and HOS (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position does not adversely impair insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25052227

  6. Assessment of the effect of a single oral dose of telithromycin on sotalol-induced qt interval prolongation in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Démolis, Jean-Louis; Strabach, Soraya; Vacheron, Françoise; Funck-Brentano, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Aims Telithromycin belongs to ketolides, a new class of macrolide antibiotics. Macrolides are known to have the potential to prolong QT interval duration. Previous studies have shown that telithromycin did not induce significant QT interval prolongation in healthy subjects compared with placebo. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the absence of amplification of QT interval prolongation induced by sotalol, when telithromycin and sotalol were co-administered. The secondary objective was to correlate the QT interval changes induced by the study drugs to plasma concentrations during the elimination phase. Methods Twenty-four women received sotalol (160 mg) together with placebo or telithromycin (800 mg) in a two-period, double-blind, randomized study. Electrocardiograms were recorded at rest. Comparison of maximal corrected QT interval (QTcmax) with sotalol in the presence or absence of telithromycin was performed. The relation between sotalol concentration and QTc was studied using linear regression. Results Mean difference (95% CI) between QTcmax with sotalol-placebo and QTcmax with sotalol-telithromycin was −15.5 ms (−27.7 to −3.2 ms). QTcmax interval prolongation was lower (P < 0.05) with sotalol-telithromycin than with sotalol-placebo, in relation to decreased sotalol plasma concentrations. Regression analysis showed that the relationship between sotalol plasma concentration and QTc interval duration was not modified by telithromycin co-administration. Conclusion Our results do not support a potential synergistic effect on QT interval prolongation between sotalol and telithromycin. The decrease of mean QTc interval in subjects taking telithromycin and sotalol may be explained by a decrease of sotalol concentration. PMID:16042664

  7. Oral contraceptives alter circadian rhythm parameters of cortisol, melatonin, blood pressure, heart rate, skin blood flow, transepidermal water loss, and skin amino acids of healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Reinberg, A E; Touitou, Y; Soudant, E; Bernard, D; Bazin, R; Mechkouri, M

    1996-08-01

    Sixteen healthy women users and nonusers of oral contraceptives (OC) volunteered to document a set of circadian rhythms. Nine were taking OC providing ethynyl estradiol (0.03-0.05 mg/24h, 21 days/month) combined with DL- or L-norgestrel or norethisterone. There was no group difference (p > 0.05) in median age (22 years), weight (57 kg), and height (162) cm). Data were obtained at fixed hours, 5 times/24h, during a 48-h span, in November. (Day activity from approximately 08:00 to approximately 23:00 h and night rest). Environmental conditions were controlled, using air-conditioned rooms of constant temperature (26 degrees +/- 0.5) and relative humidity 45% +/- 1. Both cosinor and ANOVA were used for statistical analyses. All circadian rhythms were validated with one exception: that of salivary melatonin was not detected in OC users. The 24h mean (M) exhibited group differences for certain variables: M was greater in OC than non-OC users for systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001), heart rate (p < 0.01), skin blood flow (p < 0.04), and transepidermal water loss (p < 0.02). M was lower in OC than non-OC users in salivary cortisol (p < 0.04) and skin amino acids (p < 0.003). No group difference was detected in any other documented rhythms: diastolic blood pressure, grip strength of both hands, oral temperature, self-rated fatigue, and the skin variables of urea, lactate, triglycerides, and acid phosphatase activity. PMID:8874983

  8. Microbial and dietary factors associated with the 8-prenylnaringenin producer phenotype: a dietary intervention trial with fifty healthy post-menopausal Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Bolca, Selin; Possemiers, Sam; Maervoet, Veerle; Huybrechts, Inge; Heyerick, Arne; Vervarcke, Stefaan; Depypere, Herman; De Keukeleire, Denis; Bracke, Marc; De Henauw, Stefaan; Verstraete, Willy; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2007-11-01

    Hop-derived food supplements and beers contain the prenylflavonoids xanthohumol (X), isoxanthohumol (IX) and the very potent phyto-oestrogen (plant-derived oestrogen mimic) 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN). The weakly oestrogenic IX can be bioactivated via O-demethylation to 8-PN. Since IX usually predominates over 8-PN, human subjects may be exposed to increased doses of 8-PN. A dietary intervention trial with fifty healthy post-menopausal Caucasian women was undertaken. After a 4 d washout period, participants delivered faeces, blank urine and breath samples. Next, they started a 5 d treatment with hop-based supplements that were administered three times per d and on the last day, a 24 h urine sample was collected. A semi-quantitative FFQ was used to estimate fat, fibre, alcohol, caffeine and theobromine intakes. The recoveries of IX, 8-PN and X in the urine were low and considerable inter-individual variations were observed. A five-fold increase in the dosage of IX without change in 8-PN concentration resulted in a significant lower IX recovery and a higher 8-PN recovery. Classification of the subjects into poor (60%), moderate (25%) and strong (15%) 8-PN producers based on either urinary excretion or microbial bioactivation capacity gave comparable results. Recent antibiotic therapy seemed to affect the 8-PN production negatively. A positive trend between methane excretion and 8-PN production was observed. Strong 8-PN producers consumed less alcohol and had a higher theobromine intake. From this study we conclude that in vivo O-demethylation of IX increases the oestrogenic potency of hop-derived products. PMID:17521469

  9. High detection rate of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum but low prevalence of anti-rickettsial antibodies in healthy pregnant women in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Keller, Christian; Krüger, Andreas; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Derschum, Henri; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pothmann, Daniela; Veit, Alexandra; Hogan, Benedikt; May, Jürgen; Girmann, Mirko; Kramme, Stefanie; Fleischer, Bernhard; Poppert, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are emerging infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Madagascar, the endemicity of tick-borne rickettsiae and their vectors has been incompletely studied. The first part of the present study was conducted in 2011 and 2012 to identify potential anthropophilic tick vectors for SFG rickettsiae on cattle from seven Malagasy regions, and to detect and characterize rickettsiae in these ticks. Amblyomma variegatum was the only anthropophilic tick species found on 262 cattle. Using a novel ompB-specific qPCR, screening for rickettsial DNA was performed on 111 A. variegatum ticks. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 96 of 111 ticks studied (86.5%). Rickettsia africae was identified as the only infecting rickettsia using phylogenetic analysis of ompA and ompB gene sequences and three variable intergenic spacers from 11 ticks. The second part of the study was a cross-sectional survey for antibodies against SFG rickettsiae in plasma samples taken from healthy, pregnant women at six locations in Madagascar, two at sea level and four between 450 and 1300m altitude. An indirect fluorescent antibody test with Rickettsia conorii as surrogate SFG rickettsial antigen was used. We found R. conorii-seropositives at all altitudes with prevalences between 0.5% and 3.1%. Our results suggest that A. variegatum ticks highly infected with R. africae are the most prevalent cattle-associated tick vectors for SFG rickettsiosis in Madagascar. Transmission of SFG rickettsiosis to humans occurs at different altitudes in Madagascar and should be considered as a relevant cause of febrile diseases. PMID:26318262

  10. The silicon supplement ‘Monomethylsilanetriol’ is safe and increases the body pool of silicon in healthy Pre-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Monomethylsilanetriol (MMST) has been used for decades as an oral silicon supplement for bone and connective tissue health, although there are no formal data on its in vivo utilisation or safety following sustained dosing. Methods To investigate whether MMST contributes to the body pool of silicon and, secondly, to establish its safety following 4 weeks’ supplementation in humans, twenty-two healthy pre-menopausal women (22–38 years) were recruited and supplemented with MMST at the maximum daily recommended dose (10.5 mg Si/day) for 4 weeks in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over design (i.e. 8 weeks in total). Fasting serum and urine samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the 4-week supplementation/placebo periods for analysis of total silicon by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, MMST by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and full serum biochemistry. Participants also reported on, by questionnaire, their health, well-being and quality of life at 0, 4 and 8 weeks. Results Overall, 4-weeks supplementation with MMST significantly increased total fasting Si concentrations in serum and urine (P ≤ 0.003; paired t-test). MMST was semi-quantifiable in serum and quantifiable in urine, but only accounted for ca. 50% and 10%, respectively, of the increased total-Si concentration. There were no reported adverse effects (i.e. changes to health and well-being) or serum biochemical changes with MMST versus placebo. Conclusions Our data indicate that oral MMST is safe, is absorbed and undergoes sufficient metabolism in vivo to raise fasting serum silicon levels, consistent with other well absorbed forms of dietary silicon (e.g. orthosilicic acid). It thus appears to be a suitable silicon supplement. PMID:23622499

  11. Women: Stay Healthy at 50+

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Organization (PSO) Program Quality Measure Tools & Resources Tools & Resources Value Surveys on Patient Safety Culture Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture Nursing Home Survey ...

  12. Healthy Heart Handbook for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk products. ■ Include lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts. ■ Choose foods that are low in ... 1 oz cooked meats, poultry, or fish 1 egg ‡ Nuts, seeds, and legumes 4–5 per week ...

  13. Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 > Staying Healthy Font: What is Alpha-1? Emphysema Alpha-1 Symptoms Diagnosing Alpha-1 Current Treatments ... Healthy What can people with Alpha-1-related emphysema do to stay as healthy as possible? First ...

  14. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  15. RELN-expressing Neuron Density in Layer I of the Superior Temporal Lobe is Similar in Human Brains with Autism and in Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C.; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. PMID:25067827

  16. Healthy doctors, healthy communities.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Donna; Katch, Ellen; Anderson, Patricia; Furlong, Mary A

    2004-01-01

    Promoting health and eliminating disease are goals of Healthy People 2010, a national initiative for all communities. Physician-directed interventions that advance these principles are most effective when directed by clinicians who regularly participate in such healthy behaviors themselves. This pilot study describes an 8-week intervention, "Well-being for You and Your Patients," for first-year medical students to experience health behavior change. In the 2-hour sessions, students set goals for changing health behavior in 6 dimensions of wellness; report their progress; and enjoy a 30-minute change-of-pace wellness activity. The authors recommend adapting the course for medical student alumni to facilitate health behavior change with small groups of adults, school-age children, teens, and elders in churches, schools, community health centers, and other community-based organizations. Through continuing medical education and Grand Rounds, residents and physicians in practice could also be trained to implement specific behavioral change strategies. PMID:15495745

  17. Healthy pets, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Wong, S K; Feinstein, L H; Heidmann, P

    1999-08-01

    Zoonoses, diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans, can pose serious health risks to immunocompromised people. Although pets can carry zoonoses, owning and caring for animals can benefit human health. Information exists about preventing transmission of zoonoses, but not all physicians and veterinarians provide adequate and accurate information to immunocompromised pet owners. This disease prevention/health promotion project provides physicians and veterinarians with information, created specifically to share with patients and clients, about the health risks and benefits of pet ownership. Further, "Healthy Pets, Healthy People" encourages communication between veterinarians, physicians, clients, and patients and can serve as a model program for a nation-wide effort to aid health professionals in making recommendations about pet ownership for immunocompromised people. PMID:10434969

  18. Severe chronic constipation of young women: 'idiopathic slow transit constipation'.

    PubMed Central

    Preston, D M; Lennard-Jones, J E

    1986-01-01

    A series of 64 women complaining of severe constipation is described, in each of whom delayed elimination of markers from the colon was demonstrated but a barium enema was normal. All completed a detailed questionnaire and the responses are compared with those obtained in an age-matched series of healthy women with no bowel complaint. In each group 40 women also recorded in a manner suitable for analysis all food eaten over a period of seven days. The patients passed about one stool weekly with the aid of laxatives, and were greatly troubled by abdominal pain, bloating, malaise and nausea, to the extent that the symptoms were a major social disability and many lost time from work. Decreased bowel frequency and other symptoms were often first noticed around the age of puberty and slowly became worse until they were severe by the third decade. In a few, the symptoms began suddenly after an abdominal operation c-accident. Comparison with the control group showed no evidence that the patients had been underweight at any time or that they took less fibre; treatment with a bran supplement did not usually help them. The patients experienced rectal sensation before defaecation less often than the control subjects and they used digital pressure to assist defaecation more frequently. The women with constipation tended to have more painful and irregular menstrual periods, and there was an increased incidence of ovarian cystectomy and hysterectomy. Hesitancy in starting to pass urine was more common, as were some somatic symptoms such as cold hands or blackouts. Attention is drawn to this distinctive combination in young women of slow total gut transit time and a colon of normal width on barium enema, associated with abdominal, anorectal, gynaecological and somatic symptoms, as a disorder which can be disabling and particularly difficult to treat. PMID:3949236

  19. Dynamic Changes of Functional Pain Connectome in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Hsuan; Tu, Cheng-Hao; Chao, Hsiang-Tai; Li, Wei-Chi; Low, Intan; Chuang, Chih-Ying; Yeh, Tzu-Chen; Cheng, Chou-Ming; Chou, Chih-Che; Chen, Li-Fen; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2016-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM) is the most prevalent gynecological problem. Many key brain systems are engaged in pain processing. In light of dynamic communication within and between systems (or networks) in shaping pain experience and behavior, the intra-regional functional connectivity (FC) in the hub regions of the systems may be altered and the functional interactions in terms of inter-regional FCs among the networks may be reorganized to cope with the repeated stress of menstrual pain in PDM. Forty-six otherwise healthy PDM subjects and 49 age-matched, healthy female control subjects were enrolled. Intra- and inter-regional FC were assessed using regional homogeneity (ReHo) and ReHo-seeded FC analyses, respectively. PDM women exhibited a trait-related ReHo reduction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, part of the default mode network (DMN), during the periovulatory phase. The trait-related hypoconnectivity of DMN-salience network and hyperconnectivity of DMN-executive control network across the menstrual cycle featured a dynamic transition from affective processing of pain salience to cognitive modulation. The altered DMN-sensorimotor network may be an ongoing representation of cumulative menstrual pain. The findings indicate that women with long-term PDM may develop adaptive neuroplasticity and functional reorganization with a network shift from affective processing of salience to the cognitive modulation of pain. PMID:27089970

  20. Dynamic Changes of Functional Pain Connectome in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting-Hsuan; Tu, Cheng-Hao; Chao, Hsiang-Tai; Li, Wei-Chi; Low, Intan; Chuang, Chih-Ying; Yeh, Tzu-Chen; Cheng, Chou-Ming; Chou, Chih-Che; Chen, Li-Fen; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2016-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM) is the most prevalent gynecological problem. Many key brain systems are engaged in pain processing. In light of dynamic communication within and between systems (or networks) in shaping pain experience and behavior, the intra-regional functional connectivity (FC) in the hub regions of the systems may be altered and the functional interactions in terms of inter-regional FCs among the networks may be reorganized to cope with the repeated stress of menstrual pain in PDM. Forty-six otherwise healthy PDM subjects and 49 age-matched, healthy female control subjects were enrolled. Intra- and inter-regional FC were assessed using regional homogeneity (ReHo) and ReHo-seeded FC analyses, respectively. PDM women exhibited a trait-related ReHo reduction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, part of the default mode network (DMN), during the periovulatory phase. The trait-related hypoconnectivity of DMN-salience network and hyperconnectivity of DMN-executive control network across the menstrual cycle featured a dynamic transition from affective processing of pain salience to cognitive modulation. The altered DMN-sensorimotor network may be an ongoing representation of cumulative menstrual pain. The findings indicate that women with long-term PDM may develop adaptive neuroplasticity and functional reorganization with a network shift from affective processing of salience to the cognitive modulation of pain. PMID:27089970

  1. A longitudinal study of the impact of chronic psychological stress on health-related quality of life and clinical biomarkers: protocol for the Australian Healthy Aging of Women Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite advancements in our understanding of the importance of stress reduction in achieving good health, we still only have limited insight into the impact of stress on cellular function. Recent studies have suggested that exposure to prolonged psychological stress may alter an individual’s physiological responses, and contribute to morbidity and mortality. This paper presents an overview of the study protocol we are using to examine the impact of life stressors on lifestyle factors, health-related quality of life and novel and established biomarkers of stress in midlife and older Australian women. The primary aim of this study is to explore the links between chronic psychological stress on both subjective and objective health markers in midlife and older Australian women. The study examines the extent to which exposure frightening, upsetting or stressful events such as natural disasters, illness or death of a relative, miscarriage and relationship conflict is correlated with a variety of objective and subjective health markers. Methods/Design This study is embedded within the longitudinal Healthy Aging of Women’s study which has collected data from midlife and older Australian women at 5 yearly intervals since 2001, and uses the Allostastic model of women’s health by Groër and colleagues in 2010. The current study expands the focus of the HOW study and will assess the impact of life stressors on quality of life and clinical biomarkers in midlife and older Australian women to explain the impact of chronic psychological stress in women. Discussion The proposed study hypothesizes that women are at increased risk of exposure to multiple or repeated stressors, some being unique to women, and the frequency and chronicity of stressors increases women’s risk of adverse health outcomes. This study aims to further our understanding of the relationships between stressful life experiences, perceived quality of life, stress biomarkers, chronic illness, and

  2. Executive functions and selective attention are favored in middle-aged healthy women carriers of the Val/Val genotype of the catechol-o-methyltransferase gene: a behavioral genetic study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits such as poor memory, the inability to concentrate, deficits in abstract reasoning, attention and set-shifting flexibility have been reported in middle-aged women. It has been suggested that cognitive decline may be due to several factors which include hormonal changes, individual differences, normal processes of aging and age-related changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a common functional polymorphism, has been related to executive performance in young healthy volunteers, old subjects and schizophrenia patients. The effect of this polymorphism on cognitive function in middle-aged healthy women is not well known. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether measures of executive function, sustained attention, selective attention and verbal fluency would be different depending on the COMT genotype and task demand. Method We genotyped 74 middle-aged healthy women (48 to 65 years old) for the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. We analyzed the effects of this polymorphism on executive functions (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test), selective attention (Stroop test), sustained attention (Continuous Performance Test) and word generation (Verbal Fluency test), which are cognitive functions that involve the frontal lobe. Results There were 27 women with the Val/Val COMT genotype, 15 with the Met/Met genotype, and 32 with the Val/Met genotype. Women carriers of the Val/Val genotype performed better in executive functions, as indicated by a lower number of errors committed in comparison with the Met/Met or Val/Met groups. The correct responses on selective attention were higher in the Val/Val group, and the number of errors committed was higher in the Met/Met group during the incongruence trial in comparison with the Val/Val group. Performance on sustained attention and the number of words generated did not show significant differences between the three genotypes. Conclusion These findings indicate that

  3. Effects of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling and swim exercise on post-exertional blood pressure in healthy young untrained and triathlon-trained men and women.

    PubMed

    Lakin, Robert; Notarius, Catherine; Thomas, Scott; Goodman, Jack

    2013-12-01

    Aerobic exercises such as running, walking and cycling are known to elicit a PEH (post-exercise hypotensive) response in both trained and UT (untrained) subjects. However, it is not known whether swim exercise produces a similar effect in normotensive individuals. The complex acute physiological responses to water immersion suggest swimming may affect BP (blood pressure) differently than other forms of aerobic exercises. We tested the hypothesis that an acute bout of swimming would fail to elicit a PEH BP response compared with an equivalent bout of stationary cycling, regardless of training state. We studied 11 UT and ten triathlon-trained young healthy normotensive [SBP/DBP (systolic BP/diastolic BP) <120/80 mmHg)] men and women (age 23±1 years) who underwent 30 min of intensity-matched cycling and swimming sessions to assess changes in BP during a 75-min seated recovery. CO (cardiac output), SV (stroke volume), TPR (total peripheral resistance), HR (heart rate), HRV (HR variability) and core and skin temperature were also assessed. In UT subjects, PEH was similar between cycling (-3.1±1 mmHg) and swimming (-5.8±1 mmHg), with the greater magnitude of PEH following swimming, reflecting a significant fall in SV between modalities (P<0.05). Trained individuals did not exhibit a PEH response following swimming (0.3±1 mmHg), yet had a significant fall in SBP at 50 min post-cycling exercise (-3.7±1 mmHg) (P<0.05). The absence of PEH after swimming in the trained group may reflect a higher cardiac sympathetic outflow [as indicated by the LF (low-frequency) spectral component of HRV) (25 and 50 min) (P<0.05)] and a slower return of vagal tone, consistent with a significant increase in HR between modalities at all time points (P<0.05). These results suggest that training may limit the potential for an effective post-exertional hypotensive response to aerobic swimming. PMID:23763298

  4. Altered resting-state functional connectivity in women with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Hoon; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Jae-Jin; Lee, Seojung; Yoon, Kang Joon; Choi, Moonjong; Jung, Young-Chul

    2015-12-30

    The biological underpinnings of the psychological factors characterizing chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have not been extensively studied. Our aim was to evaluate alterations of resting-state functional connectivity in CFS patients. Participants comprised 18 women with CFS and 18 age-matched female healthy controls who were recruited from the local community. Structural and functional magnetic resonance images were acquired during a 6-min passive-viewing block scan. Posterior cingulate cortex seeded resting-state functional connectivity was evaluated, and correlation analyses of connectivity strength were performed. Graph theory analysis of 90 nodes of the brain was conducted to compare the global and local efficiency of connectivity networks in CFS patients with that in healthy controls. The posterior cingulate cortex in CFS patients showed increased resting-state functional connectivity with the dorsal and rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Connectivity strength of the posterior cingulate cortex to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex significantly correlated with the Chalder Fatigue Scale score, while the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score was controlled. Connectivity strength to the rostral anterior cingulate cortex significantly correlated with the Chalder Fatigue Scale score. Global efficiency of the posterior cingulate cortex was significantly lower in CFS patients, while local efficiency showed no difference from findings in healthy controls. The findings suggest that CFS patients show inefficient increments in resting-state functional connectivity that are linked to the psychological factors observed in the syndrome. PMID:26602611

  5. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  6. Cytolytic T-cell response against Epstein-Barr virus in lung cancer patients and healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine whether EBV seropositive patients with lung cancer have an altered virus-specific CTL response, as compared to age-matched healthy controls and whether any variation in this response could be attributed to senescence. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from lung cancer patients, age-matched and younger healthy individuals were used to measure EBV-specific CTLs after in vitro amplification with the GLCTLVAML and RYSIFFDYM peptides followed by HLA-multimer staining. Results Lung cancer patients and aged-matched controls had significantly lesser EBV-specific CTL than younger healthy individuals. Multimer positive populations from either group did not differ with respect to the percentage of multimer positive CTLs and the intensity of multimer binding. Conclusions This study provides evidence that patients with lung cancer exhibit an EBV-specific CTL response equivalent to that of age-matched healthy counterparts. These data warrant the examination of whether young individuals have a more robust anti-tumor response, as is the case with the anti-EBV response. PMID:20525347

  7. The negative bone effects of the disease and of chronic corticosteroid treatment in premenopausal women affected by rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fassio, A; Idolazzi, L; Jaber, M A; Dartizio, C; Viapiana, O; Rossini, M; Gatti, D

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a well-known extra-articular complication in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The chronic corticosteroid treatment, the functional impairment associated with RA and the disease itself appear to be the most relevant determinants. Most of the previous studies involved postmenopausal women, in whom the estrogenic deficiency might amplify the negative effect towards bone of both RA and corticosteroid therapy. We decided to evaluate bone health in a cohort of premenopausal RA patients. The study population includes 47 premenopausal women attending our outpatient clinic for RA and twice as many healthy age-matched control women selected from the hospital personnel. The bone density at the spine and femoral neck were significantly lower in patients with RA as compared with controls. When spine bone mineral density (BMD) values were adjusted for the cumulative glucocorticoid (GC) dose alone and for the cumulative GC dose plus body mass index (BMI) the mean differences between two groups decreased but they remained statistically significant. We found no difference when the spine BMD was adjusted for cumulative GC dose, BMI and health assessment questionnaire. The difference in femoral neck BMD remained statistically significant also after all the same adjustments. In conclusion, our study shows that a BMD deficiency is frequent also in premenopausal women affected by RA, especially at femoral site and that the main determinants of this bone loss are not only the disease-related weight loss, corticosteroid therapy and functional impairment, but also the systemic effects of the disease itself. PMID:27608794

  8. Men without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships, women exhibit reduced partnership security - a reanalysis of previously published data.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Bojanowski, Viola; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Olfactory function influences social behavior. For instance, olfaction seems to play a key role in mate choice and helps detecting emotions in other people. In a previous study, we showed that people who were born without a sense of smell exhibit enhanced social insecurity. Based on the comments to this article we decided to have a closer look to whether the absence of the sense of smell affects men and women differently. Under this focus questionnaire data of 32 patients, diagnosed with isolated congenital anosmia (10 men, 22 women) and 36 age-matched healthy controls (15 men, 21 women) was reanalyzed. In result, men and women without a sense of smell reported enhanced social insecurity, but with different consequences: Men who were born without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships and women are affected such that they feel less secure about their partner. This emphasizes the importance of the sense of smell for intimate relationships. PMID:23178326

  9. Transient increase in HDL-cholesterol during weight gain by hyperalimentation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Torbjörn; Kechagias, Stergios; Carlsson, Martin; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2011-04-01

    Determination of lipid levels is fundamental in cardiovascular risk assessment. We studied the short-term effects of fast food-based hyperalimentation on lipid levels in healthy subjects. Twelve healthy men and six healthy women with a mean age of 26 ± 6.6 years and an aged-matched control group were recruited for this prospective interventional study. Subjects in the intervention group aimed for a body weight increase of 5-15% by doubling the baseline caloric intake by eating at least two fast food-based meals a day in combination with adoption of a sedentary lifestyle for 4 weeks. This protocol induced a weight gain from 67.6 ± 9.1 kg to 74.0 ± 11 kg (P < 0.001). A numerical increase in the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol occurred in all subjects during the study and this was apparent already at the first week in 16/18 subjects (mean increase at week 1: +22.0 ± 16%, range from -7 to +50%), whereas the highest level of HDL during the study as compared with baseline values varied from +6% to +58% (mean +31.6 ± 15%). The intake of saturated fat in the early phase of the trial related positively with the HDL-cholesterol-increase in the second week (r = 0.53, P = 0.028). Although the levels of insulin doubled at week 2, the increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol was only +12 ± 17%, and there was no statistically significant changes in fasting serum triglycerides. We conclude that hyperalimentation can induce a fast but transient increase in HDL-cholesterol that is of clinical interest when estimating cardiovascular risk based on serum lipid levels. PMID:20814413

  10. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as “the ball is above the cup”, where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6–11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as “the cup is above the drum” or “the bird is below the hat”. Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children’s scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of

  11. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Training and Jobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  12. Enhanced expression of a 35 kDa fragment of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor H4 in sera of healthy pregnant women and patients with hydatidiform mole

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulated data from previous studies appear to suggest a link between the overexpression of a 35 kDa fragment of serum inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor H4 (ITIH4) with cancers that are associated with up-regulated levels of oestrogens. The truncated fragment was postulated to be a product of oestrogen-induced action of kallikrein on native ITIH4. The present lectin-based proteomic analyses were performed to assess the specificity of the 35 kDa fragment of ITIH4 as a potential cancer biomarker and determine whether it was also overexpressed in the sera of cancer-negative pregnant women who are known to have high levels of plasma oestrogens. Results Our results demonstrated that the 35 kDa fragment of ITIH4 was overexpressed in healthy pregnant women and patients with hydatidiform mole, relative to the controls. The serum oestradiol levels of both groups of pregnant subjects were also confirmed to be higher than those of the control women who were not pregnant. Conclusions Overexpression of the 35 kDa fragment of ITIH4 was not restrictive to patients with cancers but also occurred in women who were pregnant and those diagnosed with hydatidiform mole. Our data implicate the limitation of the 35 kDa ITIH4 fragment as a cancer biomarker and its correlation with serum oestrogen levels. PMID:24252421

  13. [Having a child and PND/PGD access in women with a BRCA1/2 mutation? Different approach whether ill or healthy].

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Isabelle; Prodromou, Niki; Coupier, Isabelle; Huiart, Laetitia; Moretta, Jessica; Noguès, Catherine; Julian-Reynier, Claire

    2014-11-01

    Genetic tests in families with a mutation related to breast and ovarian cancers (BRCA1/2) are now offered to the persons before completion of their reproductive project. The aim of this qualitative study was to descriptively explore how the issues of reproduction are faced in women belonging to these families, and how the possible use of prenatal diagnostic (PND) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) would be faced in a theoretical context. We conducted in-depth interviews, face to face, according to the so-called Grounded Theory approach. Twenty women with a BRCA genetic mutation participated in the study (age range: 31-57 years); 12 have had a breast and/or ovarian cancer. The knowledge of having the mutation did not modify the parental project; however prophylactic anexectomy was likely to alter it in some women. If the majority of women were in favor of PGD (n = 14), medical termination of pregnancy was a constraint towards the position in relation to PND. Besides ethical and moral arguments, the women's attitudes were constructed differently according to their own personal or familial experience of the disease. The women's perceptions of the cancer severity, risk and cure were organized according to this experience. PMID:25418592

  14. Healthy store programs and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), but not the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), are associated with corner store healthfulness.

    PubMed

    DeWeese, Robin S; Todd, Michael; Karpyn, Allison; Yedidia, Michael J; Kennedy, Michelle; Bruening, Meg; Wharton, Christopher M; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2016-12-01

    In response to lack of access to healthy foods, many low-income communities are instituting local healthy corner store programs. Some stores also participate in the United States Department of Agriculture's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). This study used two assessment tools to compare the healthfulness of offerings at stores participating in local healthy store programs (upgraded stores), WIC, and/or SNAP to that of similar non-participating stores. Based on store audits conducted in 315 New Jersey corner stores in 2014, we calculated healthy food availability scores using subsections of the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Corner Stores (NEMS-CS-Availability) and a short-form corner store audit tool (SCAT). We used multivariable regression to examine associations between program participation and scores on both instruments. Adjusting for store and block group characteristics, stores participating in a local healthy store program had significantly higher SCAT scores than did non-participating stores (upgraded: M = 3.18, 95% CI 2.65-3.71; non-upgraded: M = 2.52, 95% CI 2.32-2.73); scores on the NEMS-CS-Availability did not differ (upgraded: M = 12.8, 95% CI 11.6-14.1; non-upgraded: M = 12.5, 95% CI 12.0-13.0). WIC-participating stores had significantly higher scores compared to non-participating stores on both tools. Stores participating in SNAP only (and not in WIC) scored significantly lower on both instruments compared to non-SNAP stores. WIC-participating and non-SNAP corner stores had higher healthfulness scores on both assessment tools. Upgraded stores had higher healthfulness scores compared to non-upgraded stores on the SCAT. PMID:27419041

  15. Cortical thickness and VBM in young women at risk for familial depression and their depressed mothers with positive family history.

    PubMed

    Ozalay, Ozgun; Aksoy, Burcu; Tunay, Sebnem; Simsek, Fatma; Chandhoki, Swati; Kitis, Omer; Eker, Cagdas; Gonul, Ali Saffet

    2016-06-30

    It has been demonstrated that compared to low-risk subjects, high-risk subjects for depression have structural and functional alterations in their brain scans even before the disease onset. However, it is not known if these alterations are related to vulnerability to depression or epiphenomena. One way to resolve this ambiguity is to detect the structural alterations in the high-risk subjects and determine if the same alterations are present in the probands. In this study, we recruited 24 women with the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) with recurrent episodes and their healthy daughters (the high-risk for familial depression group; HRFD). We compared structural brain scans of the patients and HRFG group with those of 24 age-matched healthy mothers and their healthy daughters at similar ages to the HRFD group; respectively. Both cortical gray matter (GM) volume and thickness analyses revealed that HRFD daughters and their MDD mothers had similar GM differences in two regions: the right temporoparietal region and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. These results suggested that the observed alterations may be related to trait clinical and neurophysiological characteristics of MDD and may present before the onset of illness. PMID:27136662

  16. Association of estrogen receptor β and estrogen-related receptor α gene polymorphisms with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shoukry, Amira; Shalaby, Sally M; Etewa, Rasha L; Ahmed, Hanan S; Abdelrahman, Hossam M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possible association of AluI and RsaI polymorphisms of estrogen receptor β (ER-β) gene and 23-bp nucleotide repeat polymorphism of estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) gene with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Egyptian women. Two-hundred postmenopausal osteoporotic women as cases and 180 healthy age-matched postmenopausal women as controls were genotyped by PCR fragment length polymorphism for AluI, allele-specific PCR for RsaI, and by sizing of PCR products on agarose gels for ERRα repeats. sRANKL levels were estimated by ELISA. BMD measurements for spine and femoral neck were performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. A significant difference between women with osteoporosis and controls regarding allele and genotype distributions of AluI G/A (OR 2.37, 95 % CI 1.77-3.18 and p < 0.001 for A allele) and ERRα polymorphisms (for the two repeats allele OR 2.08, 95 % CI 1.09-4.00, and p = 0.02). Osteoporotic women with the AluI AA + GA genotype or with the EERα 2,2 genotype had significantly lower BMD than did women with the other genotypes. Moreover, there was a significant increase of the mean values of sRANKL in carriers of AluI A, RsaI A alleles and in patients having 2,2 genotypes of ERRα (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.02, respectively). We demonstrated an association of ER-β AluI G/A and ERRα 23-repeats polymorphisms with BMD in postmenopausal Egyptian women. A possible effect of ER-β and ERRα polymorphisms on the levels of sRANKL was estimated. PMID:25903400

  17. Phalangeal quantitative ultrasound and bone mineral density in evaluating cortical bone loss: a study in postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism and subclinical iatrogenic hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Cristiana; Romagnoli, Elisabetta; Scarpiello, Addolorata; Angelozzi, Maurizio; Montesano, Teresa; Minisola, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-five postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and 30 age-matched women with subclinical hyperthyroidism (sHTH) were studied to assess cortical bone loss. One hundred two healthy women were also recruited. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and femoral total (FT), and at one-third of the radius (R). Amplitude-dependent speed of sound (ADSoS) and Ultrasound Bone Profile Index (UBPI) were also evaluated using phalangeal quantitative ultrasound (QUS). A significant correlation was found between QUS and BMD at LS (ADSoS, p < 0.05) and R (ADSoS and UBPI, p < 0.001) in controls. QUS significantly correlated with BMD at LS, FN (p < 0.01), and FT (p < 0.001) in sHTH. No correlations were found in the PHPT group. Mean T-score values of all parameters were significantly lower in patients compared with controls (p < 0.001); however, they did not differ between PHPT and sHTH patients. T-score of R, ADSoS, and UBPI was reduced compared with other sites (p < 0.001) in both diseases. In postmenopausal women with PHPT and sHTH, bone loss is mainly detectable at cortical level. However, qualitative and/or structural changes of bone could account for the lack of correlations between these 2 techniques at cortical sites. PMID:19815437

  18. Associations among maternal nutrition and infant birth outcomes in a cohort of pregnant, primarily African American, rural, Southern women: Delta Healthy Sprouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: At no point during a woman’s life is good nutrition more important than during her reproductive years as her dietary choices affect not only her health but also that of her child. Delta Healthy Sprouts is a randomized, controlled, comparative trial testing the impact of two Ma...

  19. Impact of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction on glucose regulation in healthy, normal weight middle-aged men and women.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An unresolved issue in the field of diet and health is if and how changes in meal frequency affect energy metabolism in humans. We therefore evaluated the influence of reduced meal frequency without a reduction in energy intake on glucose metabolism in normal weight healthy male and female subjects...

  20. Evolution and predictors of change in total bone mineral density over time in HIV-infected men and women in the Nutrition for Healthy Living Study

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, DL; Spiegelman, D; Knox, TK; Wilson, IB

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteopenia is common in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), yet the etiology is unclear. We evaluated the association of host factors, disease severity and ART to changes in total body bone mineral density (Total BMD) over time in HIV-infected men (n=283) and women (n=96). Methods Total BMD was measured annually by whole body dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) and medical, dietary and behavioral history was collected. The median time from first to last DXA was 2.5 years (range 0.9 to 6.8). Using a repeated measures regression model, we identified variables independently associated with percent change in Total BMD between consecutive DXA exams (n=799 intervals), adjusted for age, race, sex, menopause and smoking. We estimated percent change in Total BMD over an average interval (one year) standardized for representative levels of each determinant in males, pre- and post-menopausal women. Results Median baseline age, CD4 and viral load were 42 years, 364 cells/mm3 and 2.7 log10 copies/ml, respectively. The estimated change in Total BMD for those not on ART was −0.37%/yr (95%CI −0.76, −0.02) for men, −0.08%/yr (95%CI −0.49, 0.33) for pre-menopausal women and −1.07%/yr (95%CI −1.86, −0.28) for post-menopausal women. Greater loss of Total BMD was associated with lower albumin, lower BMI, prednisone/hydrocortisone use, tenofovir use and longer duration of ddI. Strength training and long duration of d4T and saquinavir prevented or mitigated bone loss. For those on ART for 3 years (not including the above agents), the rate of loss was −0.57%/yr (95%CI −1.00, −0.14) for men, −0.28% (95%CI −0.71, 0.15 ) for pre-menopausal women and −1.27% (95%CI −2.07, −0.47) for post menopausal women. Post-menopausal women had greater loss than pre-menopausal women and men. Conclusion Low body weight, low albumin, catabolic steroid use and menopause may accelerate bone loss, and strength training may be protective. Tenofovir and dd

  1. A randomized pilot study of a community-based weight loss intervention for African-American women: Rationale and study design of Doing Me! Sisters Standing Together for a Healthy Mind and Body

    PubMed Central

    Springfield, Sparkle; Buscemi, Joanna; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Schiffer, Linda; Sampson, Jameika; Jones, Quiana; Murdock, Tanine; Davis, Iona; Holland, Loys; Watkins, April; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the high prevalence of obesity among African-American women and modest success in behavioral weight loss interventions, the development and testing of weight management interventions using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach have been limited. Doing Me!: Sisters Standing Together for Healthy Mind and Body (Doing Me!) is an intervention adapted from an evidence-based behavioral obesity intervention using a CBPR approach. The purpose of Doing Me! is to test the feasibility and acceptability of this adapted intervention and determine its efficacy in achieving improvements in anthropometrics, diet, and physical activity. Methods Sixty African-American women, from a low-income, urban community, aged 30–65 years will be randomized to one of two arms: 16-week Doing Me! (n = 30) or waitlist control (n = 30). Doing Me! employs CBPR methodology to involve community stakeholders and members during the planning, development, implementation, and evaluation phases of the intervention. There will be thirty-two 90-minute sessions incorporating 45 min of instruction on diet, physical activity, and/or weight management plus 45 min of physical activity. Data will be collected at baseline and post-intervention (16 weeks). Discussion Doing Me! is one of the first CBPR studies to examine the feasibility/acceptability of an adapted evidence-based behavioral weight loss intervention designed for obese African-American women. CBPR may be an effective strategy for implementing a weight management intervention among this high-risk population. PMID:26079196

  2. Duodeno-Gastric-Esophageal Reflux—What is Pathologic? Comparison of Patients with Barrett’s Esophagus and Age-Matched Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgarten, Eva; Pütz, Benito; Hölscher, Arnulf H.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to analyse pH- and bile-monitoring data in patients with Barrett’s esophagus and in age- and gender-matched controls. Subjects and Methods Twenty-four consecutive Barrett’s patients (8 females, 16 males, mean age 57 years), 21 patients with esophagitis (10 females, 11 males, mean age 58 years), and 19 healthy controls (8 females, 11 males, mean age 51 years), were included. Only patients underwent endoscopy with biopsy. All groups were investigated with manometry, gastric and esophageal 24-h pH, and simultaneous bile monitoring according to a standardized protocol. A bilirubin absorption >0.25 was determined as noxious bile reflux. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) method was applied to determine the optimal cutoff value of pathologic bilirubin levels. Results Of Barrett’s patients, 79% had pathologic acidic gastric reflux (pH<4 >5% of total measuring time). However, 32% of healthy controls also had acid reflux (p < 0.05) without any symptoms. The median of esophageal bile reflux was 7.8% (lower quartile (LQ)–upper quartile (UQ) = 1.6–17.8%) in Barrett’s patients, in patients with esophagitis, 3.5% (LQ–UQ = 0.1–13.5), and in contrast to 0% (LQ–UQ = 0–1.0%) in controls, p = 0.001. ROC analysis showed the optimal dividing value for patients at more than 1% bile reflux over 24 h (75% sensitivity, 84% specificity). Conclusion An optimal threshold to differentiate between normal and pathological bile reflux into the esophagus is 1% (24-h bile monitoring with an absorbance >0.25). PMID:17436133

  3. Trabecular mineral content of the spine in women with hip fracture: CT measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Firooznia, H.; Rafii, M.; Golimbu, C.; Schwartz, M.S.; Ort, P.

    1986-06-01

    The trabecular bone mineral content (BMC) of the spine was measured by computed tomography in 185 women aged 47-84 years with vertebral fracture (n = 74), hip fracture (n = 83), and both vertebral and hip fracture (n = 28). Eighty-seven percent of vertebral-fracture patients, 38% of hip-fracture patients, and 82% of vertebral- and hip-fracture patients had spinal BMC values below the fifth percentile for healthy premenopausal women and values 64%, 9%, and 68% below the fifth percentile for age-matched control subjects. No significant loss of spinal trabecular bone was seen in patients with hip fracture. If it is assumed that the rate of trabecular bone loss is the same in the spine and femoral neck, then hip fracture (unlike osteoporotic vertebral fracture) is not associated with disproportionate loss of trabecular bone. Hip fracture occurs secondary to weakening of bone and increased incidence of falls. Bone weakening may be due to disproportionate loss of trabecular or cortical bone, proportionate loss of both, or other as yet undetermined qualitative changes in bone.

  4. The effect of past use of oral contraceptive on bone mineral density, bone biochemical markers and muscle strength in healthy pre and post menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Allali, Fadoua; El Mansouri, Laila; Abourazzak, Fatima zohra; Ichchou, Linda; Khazzani, Hamza; Bennani, Loubna; Abouqal, Redouane; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2009-01-01

    Background during adulthood, most studies have reported that oral contraceptive (OC) pills had neutral, or possibly beneficial effect on bone health. We proposed this study of pre and post menopausal women assessing BMD, bone biochemical markers and physical performance among OC past users and comparable women who have never use Ocs. Methods A cross-sectional study comparing the bone density, bone biochemical markers (osteocalcin, CTX) and three measures to assess physical performance: timed get-up-and-go test "TGUG", five-times-sit-to-stand test "5 TSTS" and 8-feet speed walk "8 FSW" of users and never users OC. We were recruited 210 women who used OC for at least 2 years with that of 200 nonusers was carried out in pre and postmenopausal women (24-86 years). Results when analysing the whole population, BMD and biochemical markers values were similar for Ocs past users and control subjects. However when analysing the subgroup of premenopausal women, there was a statistically significant difference between users and never-users in osteocalcin (15,5 ± 7 ng/ml vs 21,6 ± 9 ng/ml; p = 0,003) and CTX (0,30 ± 0,1 ng/ml vs 0,41 ± 0,2 ng/ml; p = 0,025). This difference persisted after adjustment for age, BMI, age at menarche and number of pregnancies. In contrast, in post menopausal women, there was no difference in bone biochemical markers between OC users and the control. On the other hand OC past users had a significant greater performance than did the never users group. And when analysing the physical performance tests by quartile OC duration we found a significant negative association between the three tests and the use of OC more than 10 years. Conclusion the funding show no evidence of a significant difference in BMD between Ocs users and never user control groups, a decrease in bone turn over in OC pre menopausal users and a greater physical performances in patients who used OC up than 10 years. PMID:19887010

  5. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectu