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Sample records for age-matched male controls

  1. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  2. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  3. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  4. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  5. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  6. Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Bee-Oh; O’Sullivan, David; Choi, Bum-Gwon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ± 2.8 years; weight, 48.1 ± 14.1 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ± 2.9 years; weight, 43.6 ± 10 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite® system while their plantar pressure was being recorded. [Results] The results showed a reduction in cadence, gait velocity, and step length, and an increase in step width in children with autism. Plantar pressure variables highlight the differences between the active pressure areas, especially in the hindfoot of children with autism. [Conclusion] The results suggest that children with autism have an abnormal gait compared with that of age-matched controls, and thus they need extra attention to correct these abnormal gait patterns. PMID:26957776

  7. Sensorimotor Control of Tracking Movements at Various Speeds for Stroke Patients as Well as Age-Matched and Young Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-yu

    2015-01-01

    There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides) and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals) were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s). The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE), normalized integrated jerk (NIJ) and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS), were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (P<0.01), and the values were ranked in the following order: young controls < age-matched controls control. The RMSE increased with the increase in the target speed and the NIJ and IPNS initially declined and then remained steady for all four groups, which indicated a shift from feedback to feedforward control as the target speed increased. The feedback-feedforward trade-off induced by stroke, aging and speed might be explained by a change in the transmission delay and neuromotor noise. The findings in this study improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying the sensorimotor control and neurological changes caused by stroke and aging. PMID:26030289

  8. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  9. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  10. RELN-expressing Neuron Density in Layer I of the Superior Temporal Lobe is Similar in Human Brains with Autism and in Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C.; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. PMID:25067827

  11. No consistent difference in gray matter volume between individuals with fibromyalgia and age-matched healthy subjects when controlling for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Michael C; Harris, Richard E; Sundgren, Pia C; Welsh, Robert C; Fernandes, Carlo R; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, David A

    2009-06-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for the presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p< or =.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={-28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=-.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  12. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  13. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as “the ball is above the cup”, where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6–11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as “the cup is above the drum” or “the bird is below the hat”. Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children’s scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of

  14. Intensively managed young children with type 1 diabetes consume high-fat, low-fiber diets similar to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sanjeev N; Volkening, Lisa K; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M B

    2014-05-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n = 67) aged 2 to 12 years attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared with a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared with children participating in NHANES (42% vs 30%, P = .04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs 13%, P = .03), whole grains (12% vs 5%, P = .005), and dairy (55% vs 36%, P = .001) compared with NHANES children, whereas similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs 33%, P = .2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than did NHANES children (14% vs 12% total energy intake, P = .0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared with NHANES children, children with T1D had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores (59.6 vs 49.7, P = .0006) primarily because of lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable with youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  15. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  16. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  17. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals. PMID:25790831

  18. Analysis of abstract and concrete word processing in persons with aphasia and age-matched neurologically healthy adults using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Kiran, Swathi

    2014-08-01

    The concreteness effect occurs in both normal and language-disordered populations. Research suggests that abstract and concrete concepts elicit differing neural activation patterns in healthy young adults, but this is undocumented in persons with aphasia (PWA). Three PWA and three age-matched controls were scanned using fMRI while processing abstract and concrete words. Consistent with current theories of abstract and concrete word processing, abstract words elicited activation in verbal areas, whereas concrete words additionally activated multimodal association areas. PWA show greater differences in neural activation than age-matched controls between abstract and concrete words, possibly due to an exaggerated concreteness effect. PMID:23548150

  19. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  20. Voluntary control of male sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J M; Strassberg, D S

    1991-02-01

    Forty-eight adult male volunteers attempted to suppress sexual arousal while viewing a sexually explicit videotape and generate an arousal response while viewing a neutral videotape. Attendance to the stimuli was assured by requiring subjects to provide an ongoing verbal description of the videotape they were viewing. While significant effects in controlling arousal were obtained, the degree of subject success varied as a function of the criteria used for evaluating outcome. The most conservative analysis, a simultaneous discriminant analysis procedure comparing subjects penile plethysmographic responses across the entire 3 min of each condition, revealed that in no case was a subject able to produce a pattern of sexual response that was misclassified as the condition he was attempting to emulate. Results support the value of requiring attendance to experimental stimuli and of analyzing trends/patterns of arousal across an entire experimental period in identifying attempts to "fake" sexual preferences. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:2003767

  1. Diabetes mellitus and male sexual function: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Schiavi, R C; Stimmel, B B; Mandeli, J; Rayfield, E J

    1993-08-01

    There is an extensive clinical literature on the erectile disorders of diabetic men but a paucity of controlled studies that have taken into account the effects of age, concurrent illnesses and medication on sexual function. This investigation was carried out on 40 diabetic men free from other illness or drugs that could affect sexual capacity and 40 age-matched healthy control subjects. Each subject and his female partner underwent semistructured interviews and the men had comprehensive medical evaluations and polygraphic assessment of sleep and nocturnal penile tumescence in the sleep laboratory during three nights. In comparison to control subjects, diabetic patients reported significant decreases in sexual desire, subjective arousal, erectile capacity, coital frequency and sexual satisfaction. The diabetic group also had significant decrements in duration of rapid eye movement sleep and in frequency, duration and degree of nocturnal penile tumescent episodes. There were no differences between Type 1 (insulin-dependent) and Type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetic patients in prevalence of sexual problems or in nocturnal tumescent measures. Significant relations were observed between lack of metabolic control, diabetic complications and impaired nocturnal tumescence. Sexually non-dysfunctional diabetic men had significant nocturnal penile tumescence abnormalities. Diabetic men without coital failures may have a subclinical impairment in erectile function which, although of not significant magnitude to interfere with penetration, is reflected in nocturnal penile tumescent measures. This result raises a note of caution in the interpretation of the nocturnal penile tumescence test for the differential diagnosis of diabetic erectile impotence. PMID:8405742

  2. Temporal dynamics of attentional selection in adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation allele and adult controls

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ling M.; Tassone, Flora; Rivera, Susan M.; Simon, Tony J.

    2015-01-01

    Carriers of the fragile X premutation allele (fXPCs) have an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat size within the FMR1 gene and are at increased risk of developing fragile x-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Previous research has shown that male fXPCs with FXTAS exhibit cognitive decline, predominantly in executive functions such as inhibitory control and working memory. Recent evidence suggests fXPCs may also exhibit impairments in processing temporal information. The attentional blink (AB) task is often used to examine the dynamics of attentional selection, but disagreements exist as to whether the AB is due to excessive or insufficient attentional control. In this study, we used a variant of the AB task and neuropsychological testing to explore the dynamics of attentional selection, relate AB performance to attentional control, and determine whether fXPCs exhibited temporal and/or attentional control impairments. Participants were adult male fXPCs, aged 18–48 years and asymptomatic for FXTAS (n = 19) and age-matched male controls (n = 20). We found that fXPCs did not differ from controls in the AB task, indicating that the temporal dynamics of attentional selection were intact. However, they were impaired in the letter-number sequencing task, a test of executive working memory. In the combined fXPC and control group, letter-number sequencing performance correlated positively with AB magnitude. This finding supports models that posit the AB is due to excess attentional control. In our two-pronged analysis approach, in control participants we replicated a previously observed effect and demonstrated that it persists under more stringent theoretical constraints, and we enhance our understanding of fXPCs by demonstrating that at least some aspects of temporal processing may be spared. PMID:25698960

  3. The control of male sexual responses.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Frédérique; Carrier, Serge; Charvier, Kathleen; Guertin, Pierre A; Journel, Nicolas Morel

    2013-01-01

    Male sexual responses are reflexes mediated by the spinal cord and modulated by neural circuitries involving both the peripheral and central nervous system. While the brain interact with the reflexes to allow perception of sexual sensations and to exert excitatory or inhibitory influences, penile reflexes can occur despite complete transections of the spinal cord, as demonstrated by the reviewed animal studies on spinalization and human studies on spinal cord injury. Neurophysiological and neuropharmacological substrates of the male sexual responses will be discussed in this review, starting with the spinal mediation of erection and its underlying mechanism with nitric oxide (NO), followed by the description of the ejaculation process, its neural mediation and its coordination by the spinal generator of ejaculation (SGE), followed by the occurrence of climax as a multisegmental sympathetic reflex discharge. Brain modulation of these reflexes will be discussed through neurophysiological evidence involving structures such as the medial preoptic area of hypothalamus (MPOA), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the periaqueductal gray (PAG), and the nucleus para-gigantocellularis (nPGI), and through neuropharmacological evidence involving neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-HT), dopamine and oxytocin. The pharmacological developments based on these mechanisms to treat male sexual dysfunctions will complete this review, including phosphodiesterase (PDE-5) inhibitors and intracavernous injections (ICI) for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions (ED), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) for the treatment of premature ejaculation, and cholinesterase inhibitors as well as alpha adrenergic drugs for the treatment of anejaculation and retrograde ejaculation. Evidence from spinal cord injured studies will be highlighted upon each step. PMID:23360268

  4. Quantitative Measurement of Vocal Fold Vibration in Male Radio Performers and Healthy Controls Using High-Speed Videoendoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Warhurst, Samantha; McCabe, Patricia; Heard, Rob; Yiu, Edwin; Wang, Gaowu; Madill, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Acoustic and perceptual studies show a number of differences between the voices of radio performers and controls. Despite this, the vocal fold kinematics underlying these differences are largely unknown. Using high-speed videoendoscopy, this study sought to determine whether the vocal vibration features of radio performers differed from those of non-performing controls. Method Using high-speed videoendoscopy, recordings of a mid-phonatory/i/ in 16 male radio performers (aged 25–52 years) and 16 age-matched controls (aged 25–52 years) were collected. Videos were extracted and analysed semi-automatically using High-Speed Video Program, obtaining measures of fundamental frequency (f0), open quotient and speed quotient. Post-hoc analyses of sound pressure level (SPL) were also performed (n = 19). Pearson's correlations were calculated between SPL and both speed and open quotients. Results Male radio performers had a significantly higher speed quotient than their matched controls (t = 3.308, p = 0.005). No significant differences were found for f0 or open quotient. No significant correlation was found between either open or speed quotient with SPL. Discussion A higher speed quotient in male radio performers suggests that their vocal fold vibration was characterised by a higher ratio of glottal opening to closing times than controls. This result may explain findings of better voice quality, higher equivalent sound level and greater spectral tilt seen in previous research. Open quotient was not significantly different between groups, indicating that the durations of complete vocal fold closure were not different between the radio performers and controls. Further validation of these results is required to determine the aetiology of the higher speed quotient result and its implications for voice training and clinical management in performers. PMID:24971625

  5. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Richard A; Pahnke, Aric Q; Johnson, Jeffrey M; Sachse, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06) but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06) and adult (0.91 ± 0.04) myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal that the

  6. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  7. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17 015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample. PMID:26538188

  8. Targeting male mosquito mating behaviour for malaria control.

    PubMed

    Diabate, Abdoulaye; Tripet, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Malaria vector control relies heavily on the use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS). These, together with the combined drug administration efforts to control malaria, have reduced the death toll to less than 700,000 deaths/year. This progress has engendered real excitement but the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance is challenging our ability to sustain and consolidate the substantial gains that have been made. Research is required to discover novel vector control tools that can supplement and improve the effectiveness of those currently available. Here, we argue that recent and continuing progress in our understanding of male mating biology is instrumental in the implementation of new approaches based on the release of either conventional sterile or genetically engineered males. Importantly, further knowledge of male biology could also lead to the development of new interventions, such as sound traps and male mass killing in swarms, and contribute to new population sampling tools. We review and discuss recent advances in the behavioural ecology of male mating with an emphasis on the potential applications that can be derived from such knowledge. We also highlight those aspects of male mating ecology that urgently require additional study in the future. PMID:26113015

  9. Heroin snorters versus injectors: comparison on drug use and treatment outcome in age-matched samples.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M J; Chutuape, M A; Stitzer, M L

    1998-12-01

    Drug use histories and treatment outcomes were compared for age, race and gender-matched samples of intravenous (IV; n = 28) versus intranasal (IN; n = 28) opiate abusers entering a 3-day inpatient detoxification unit. Data were derived from the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) interview. Both groups reported daily heroin use prior to detoxification, but IV users reported more days of alcohol and multiple drug use during the past 30 days. Despite age matching, IV users also started using alcohol at an earlier age and accumulated more lifetime months of regular alcohol, cocaine and multidrug use. IV users were more likely to enter treatment following the detox, but no significant outcome differences were noted at 1 and 3 months post-detoxification. The results show that intravenous, as compared to intranasal, opiate users have both a more severe pattern and a more extensive history of the use of non-opiate drugs. PMID:10933336

  10. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  11. Childhood sexual history of 20 male pedophiles vs. 24 male healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lisa J; McGeoch, Pamela G; Gans, Sniezyna Watras; Nikiforov, Konstantin; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor I

    2002-11-01

    Despite the widespread incidence of childhood sexual abuse, there is insufficient investigation into the childhood sexual history of perpetrators. In addition, there is little published on the specific similarities between childhood and adult sexual histories. The present study investigates the incidence of childhood sexual abuse in a carefully characterized sample of male pedophiles compared with a demographically similar control group. Concordance between and cognitive distortions about characteristics of childhood abuse and pedophilic behavior are also studied. Twenty men with pedophilia, heterosexual type were compared with 24 demographically similar, healthy male control subjects on a questionnaire specifically designed to assess childhood sexual history in pedophiles. Sixty percent of pedophiles compared with 4% of control subjects reported adult sexual advances as a child. Seventy-five percent of pedophiles and 22% of control subjects reported a first sexual encounter before age 14 years. About 60% concordance was found between acts experienced as a child and perpetrated as an adult. Finally, numerous inconsistencies throughout the questionnaire add preliminary support for the role of cognitive distortions with regard to childhood and adult sexual history. The present findings replicate the elevated rate of childhood sexual abuse found among pedophiles and are consistent with the notion of a causative relationship between early childhood abuse and later pedophilic behavior. PMID:12436016

  12. Fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex of adolescent male and female suicide victims.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Conley, Robert R; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2009-01-01

    Prior epidemiological, prospective intervention, and peripheral and central fatty acid composition studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acid deficiency may be associated with the pathoaetiology of depression and suicide. In the present study, we determined the fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adolescent male and female suicide victims and age-matched controls. Fatty acid composition (wt% total fatty acids) and concentrations (micromol/g) were determined in the postmortem PFC (Brodmann area 10) of male and female adolescent (aged 13-20 years) suicide victims (n=20) and age-matched controls (n=20) by gas chromatography. None of the major polyunsaturated fatty acids including the principle brain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), monounsaturated fatty acids, or saturated fatty acids differed significantly between adolescent suicide victims and controls before or after segregation by gender. The arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6): DHA ratio and adrenic acid (22:4n-6) composition were negatively correlated with age at death in controls but not in suicides, and males exhibited a greater AA:DHA ratio irrespective of cause-of-death. These results demonstrate that adolescent male and female suicide victims do not exhibit DHA deficits in the postmortem PFC relative to age-matched controls, and suggest that suicide victims do not exhibit the normal age-related decrease in adrenic acid composition and the AA:DHA ratio. PMID:19064316

  13. Biology of male fertility control: an overview of various male contraceptive approaches.

    PubMed

    Tulsiani, D R; Abou-Haila, A

    2015-04-01

    The population of our planet continues to grow at an alarming rate. If the growth continues at the present rate, the estimated current world population of about seven billion is expected to double in the next forty years. Accumulated data from surveys by the United Nations Population Control Division suggest that a majority of today's young men in many countries are willing to have fewer children than their parents did. However, the contraceptive options available to them have not changed in several decades. In spite of the general agreement that men, like women, must take full responsibility of their fertility, the availability of safe, reversible and affordable contraceptives for men have lagged behind because of the complexity of the science of the male reproductive system. Thus, the contraceptive needs of millions of men/couples go unmet every single day and results in millions of unwanted pregnancies. In this article, we intend to discuss new hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive approaches that are at various stages of research and development and may someday provide new contraceptives for men. In addition, we intend to discuss many details of three safe, effective, affordable and reversible vas-based approaches that are inching closer to being approved for use by millions of men in multiple countries. Finally, our intention is to discuss the male contraceptive pill that will soon be available to men only in Indonesia. The availability of these male contraceptives will allow both men and women to take full control of their fertility and participate in slowing down the growth of world population. PMID:25516280

  14. Importance of male fertility control in family planning.

    PubMed

    Tulsiani, Daulat R P; Abou-Haila, Aida

    2014-01-01

    The world population, currently estimated to be almost seven billion, is expected to double in less than four decades. The projected population growth will cause severe competition for existing resources, not to mention the issue of overcrowding of the planet and additional greenhouse gases that will have an adverse effect on the ecological health of the planet. A recent survey conducted by the United Nations Population Control Division shows that the majority of today's young men in many countries are willing to participate in family planning by taking full control of their fertility, an important global health issue. However, the contraceptive needs of tens of millions of men/couples go unmet every single day and results in millions of unwanted pregnancies. Ever since the approval of the birth control pill by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1960, scientists have been hoping for a male equivalent. It has, however, been a difficult road, in part because of the complicated science of the male reproductive system. It is easier to control a monthly event of ovulation in women than to regulate the production of millions of fertile spermatozoa every day in men. Thus, the contraceptive options for men have not changed in decades and are still limited to the use of condoms, a timely withdrawal/pulling out (coitus interruptus) or vasectomy, a minor surgical procedure in which the vas deferens is occluded to prevent the release of spermatozoa during ejaculation. The first two approaches have a relatively higher failure rate, whereas the last approach is largely irreversible and not suitable for younger men. In this article, we will discuss various approaches currently available for men to take control of their fertility. Our intention is to discuss the details of three similar approaches that will provide safe, affordable and reversible contraception for men and are close to being approved for use by millions of men around the globe. The availability of safe

  15. Male Courtship in Drosophila: The Conditioned Response to Immature Males and Its Genetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Gailey, Donald A.; Jackson, F. Rob; Siegel, Richard W.

    1982-01-01

    Experimentally naive male Drosophila melanogaster respond to sexually immature males with intense courtship. However, this response decreases markedly in a short period of time, and "experienced" males then avoid further courtship with immature males for 4 hr. This subsequent inhibition of the courtship response is specific to immature males; the response to virgin females remains intact. This experience-dependent modification in courtship behavior is designated as "conditioned courtship." Seven mutant strains isolated for their inability to express avoidance conditioning (on criteria independent of courtship) were all found to be mutant with respect to expression of conditioned courtship. The potential application of this phenomenon to mosaic analysis of these mutations is posed. Other results indicate that immature males constitutively release a chemical signal that is sufficient for the expression of conditioned courtship. The interpretation of conditioned courtship as a component of fitness is discussed. PMID:17246097

  16. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  17. Highly competitive reindeer males control female behavior during the rut.

    PubMed

    Body, Guillaume; Weladji, Robert B; Holand, Øystein; Nieminen, Mauri

    2014-01-01

    During the rut, female ungulates move among harems or territories, either to sample mates or to avoid harassment. Females may be herded by a male, may stay with a preferred male, or aggregate near a dominant male to avoid harassment from other males. In fission-fusion group dynamics, female movement is best described by the group's fission probability, instead of inter-harem movement. In this study, we tested whether male herding ability, female mate choice or harassment avoidance influence fission probability. We recorded group dynamics in a herd of reindeer Rangifer tarandus equipped with GPS collars with activity sensors. We found no evidence that the harassment level in the group affected fission probability, or that females sought high rank (i.e. highly competitive and hence successful) males. However, the behavior of high ranked males decreased fission probability. Male herding activity was synchronous with the decrease of fission probability observed during the rut. We concluded that male herding behavior stabilized groups, thereby increasing average group size and consequently the opportunity for sexual selection. PMID:24759701

  18. Highly Competitive Reindeer Males Control Female Behavior during the Rut

    PubMed Central

    Body, Guillaume; Weladji, Robert B.; Holand, Øystein; Nieminen, Mauri

    2014-01-01

    During the rut, female ungulates move among harems or territories, either to sample mates or to avoid harassment. Females may be herded by a male, may stay with a preferred male, or aggregate near a dominant male to avoid harassment from other males. In fission-fusion group dynamics, female movement is best described by the group’s fission probability, instead of inter-harem movement. In this study, we tested whether male herding ability, female mate choice or harassment avoidance influence fission probability. We recorded group dynamics in a herd of reindeer Rangifer tarandus equipped with GPS collars with activity sensors. We found no evidence that the harassment level in the group affected fission probability, or that females sought high rank (i.e. highly competitive and hence successful) males. However, the behavior of high ranked males decreased fission probability. Male herding activity was synchronous with the decrease of fission probability observed during the rut. We concluded that male herding behavior stabilized groups, thereby increasing average group size and consequently the opportunity for sexual selection. PMID:24759701

  19. Males on demand: the environmental-neuro-endocrine control of male sex determination in daphnids.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Gerald A; Medlock, Elizabeth K

    2015-11-01

    Branchiopod crustaceans (e.g., Daphnia sp.) and some other taxa utilize both asexual and sexual reproduction to maximize population sustainability. The decision to switch from asexual to sexual reproduction is triggered by environmental cues that foretell a potentially detrimental change in environmental conditions. This review describes the cascade of events beginning with environmental cues and ending with changes in gene expression that dictate male sex determination in daphnids, the initial event in the switch to sexual reproduction. Several environmental cues have been identified which, either in isolation or in combination, stimulate male sex determination. These cues are typically associated with change of season, exhaustion of resources or loss of habitat. Maternal daphnids receive and respond to these cues, we propose, through the secretion of neuropeptides, which suppress (hyperglycemic hormone-like neuropeptides, allatostatin) or stimulate (allatotropin) the male sex differentiation program. In response, maternal daphnids produce the male sex-determining hormone, methyl farnesoate. Methyl farnesoate binds to a protein MET that dimerizes with the protein SRC forming an active transcription factor. This complex then regulates the expression of genes, primarily doublesex (dsx), involved in programming the single-celled embryo to develop into a male. In the absence of methyl farnesoate programming, the embryo develops into a female. Epigenetic modifications of the genome as a possible mode of methyl farnesoate action and the utility of this model to decipher the role of epigenetics in sex differentiation in other species are discussed. PMID:26237283

  20. Secreted proteome profiling in human RPE cell cultures derived from donors with age related macular degeneration and age matched healthy donors.

    PubMed

    An, Eunkyung; Lu, Xiaoning; Flippin, Jessica; Devaney, Joseph M; Halligan, Brian; Hoffman, Eric P; Hoffman, Eric; Strunnikova, Nataly; Csaky, Karl; Hathout, Yetrib

    2006-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by progressive loss of central vision, which is attributed to abnormal accumulation of macular deposits called "drusen" at the interface between the basal surface of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane. In the most severe cases, drusen deposits are accompanied by the growth of new blood vessels that breach the RPE layer and invade photoreceptors. In this study, we hypothesized that RPE secreted proteins are responsible for drusen formation and choroidal neovascularization. We used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in combination with LC-MS/MS analysis and ZoomQuant quantification to assess differential protein secretion by RPE cell cultures prepared from human autopsy eyes of AMD donors (diagnosed by histological examinations of the macula and genotyped for the Y402H-complement factor H variant) and age-matched healthy control donors. In general, RPE cells were found to secrete a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, complement factors, and protease inhibitors that have been reported to be major constituents of drusen (hallmark deposits in AMD). Interestingly, RPE cells from AMD donors secreted 2 to 3-fold more galectin 3 binding protein, fibronectin, clusterin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and pigment epithelium derived factor than RPE cells from age-matched healthy donors. Conversely, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) was found to be down regulated by 2-fold in AMD RPE cells versus healthy RPE cells. Ingenuity pathway analysis grouped these differentially secreted proteins into two groups; those involved in tissue development and angiogenesis and those involved in complement regulation and protein aggregation such as clusterin. Overall, these data strongly suggest that RPE cells are involved in the biogenesis of drusen and the pathology of AMD. PMID:17022631

  1. Cadmium intake and systemic exposure in postmenopausal women and age-matched men who smoke cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ebert-McNeill, Andrea; Clark, Sara P; Miller, James J; Birdsall, Paige; Chandar, Manisha; Wu, Lucia; Cerny, Elizabeth A; Hall, Patricia H; Johnson, Maribeth H; Isales, Carlos; Chutkan, Norman; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2012-11-01

    Mean blood cadmium (B-Cd) concentrations are two- to threefold higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. The basis for this phenomenon is not well understood. We conducted a detailed, multifaceted study of cadmium exposure in smokers. Groups were older smokers (62±4 years, n = 25, 20% male) and nonsmokers (62±3 years, n = 16, 31% male). Each subject's cigarettes were machine smoked, generating individually paired measures of inhaled cadmium (I-Cd) versus B-Cd; I-Cd and B-Cd were each evaluated three times, at monthly intervals. Urine cadmium (U-Cd) was analyzed for comparison. In four smokers, a duplicate-diet study was conducted, along with a kinetic study of plasma cadmium versus B-Cd. Female smokers had a mean B-Cd of 1.21ng Cd/ml, with a nearly 10-fold range (0.29-2.74ng Cd/ml); nonsmokers had a lower mean B-Cd, 0.35ng Cd/ml (p < 0.05), and narrower range (0.20-0.61ng Cd/ml). Means and ranges for males were similar. Estimates of cadmium amounts inhaled daily for our subjects smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes/day were far less than the 15 µg Cd reported to be ingested daily via diet. This I-Cd amount was too low to alone explain the 3.5-fold elevation of B-Cd in our smokers, even assuming greater cadmium absorption via lungs than gastrointestinal tract; cadmium accumulated in smokers' lungs may provide the added cadmium. Finally, B-Cd appeared to be linearly related to I-Cd values in 75% of smokers, whereas 25% had far higher B-Cd, implying a possible heterogeneity among smokers regarding circulating cadmium concentrations and potentially cadmium toxicity. PMID:22831969

  2. The Control of Male Fertility by Spermatozoan Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lishko, Polina V.; Kirichok, Yuriy; Ren, Dejian; Navarro, Betsy; Chung, Jean-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Ion channels control the sperm ability to fertilize the egg by regulating sperm maturation in the female reproductive tract and by triggering key sperm physiological responses required for successful fertilization such as hyperactivated motility, chemotaxis, and the acrosome reaction. CatSper, a pH-regulated, calcium-selective ion channel, and KSper (Slo3) are core regulators of sperm tail calcium entry and sperm hyperactivated motility. Many other channels had been proposed as regulating sperm activity without direct measurements. With the development of the sperm patch-clamp technique, CatSper and KSper have been confirmed as the primary spermatozoan ion channels. In addition, the voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 has been identified in human sperm tail, and the P2X2 ion channel has been identified in the midpiece of mouse sperm. Mutations and deletions in sperm-specific ion channels affect male fertility in both mice and humans without affecting other physiological functions. The uniqueness of sperm ion channels makes them ideal pharmaceutical targets for contraception. In this review we discuss how ion channels regulate sperm physiology. PMID:22017176

  3. Male-male competition and parental care in collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis): an experiment controlling for differences in territory quality.

    PubMed

    Qvarnström, A; Grifffith, S C; Gustafsson, L

    2000-12-22

    Females are known to benefit from mate choice in several different ways but the relationship between these benefits has received little attention. The quality of resources provided by males, such as nest sites, and paternal care are often assumed to covary positively However, because the location of the nest affects the cost of parental care, these two benefits from mate choice can easily be confounded. To investigate the provisioning ability of successful competitors while controlling for differences in territory quality we removed early-settled pairs of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) and allowed replacement by later-arriving males or floaters (i.e.'poor competitors'). A control group of early-settled males (i.e. 'good competitors') had their females removed. Females paired to good competitors enjoyed a significantly higher reproductive success and tended to receive more parental assistance from their mates compared with females mated to poor competitors. Thus, some males seem able not only to compete successfully over resources but also to feed their offspring at a relatively higher rate. An alternative explanation, that poor competitors invested less in offspring quality in response to a lower share of paternity, could be rejected. The rate of extra-pair paternity did not differ between the two treatment groups. Our results suggest that male- male competition can sometimes facilitate female choice of superior care-givers. Thus, a female's benefit from choosing a competitive male may not be restricted to the quality of the resource he defends but can also include superior paternal care. PMID:11197133

  4. Phf7 controls male sex determination in the Drosophila germline

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu Yuan; Baxter, Ellen M.; Van Doren, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Summary Establishment of germline sexual identity is critical for production of male and female germline stem cells, and sperm vs. eggs. Here we identify PHD Finger Protein 7 (PHF7) as an important factor for male germline sexual identity in Drosophila. PHF7 exhibits male-specific expression in early germ cells, germline stem cells and spermatogonia. It is required for germline stem cell maintenance and gametogenesis in males, whereas ectopic expression in female germ cells ablates the germline. Strikingly, expression of PHF7 promotes spermatogenesis in XX germ cells when they are present in a male soma. PHF7 homologs are also specifically expressed in the mammalian testis, and human PHF7 rescues Drosophila Phf7 mutants. PHF7 associates with chromatin and both the human and fly proteins bind histone H3 N-terminal tails with a preference for dimethyl lysine 4 (H3K4me2). We propose that PHF7 acts as a conserved epigenetic “reader” that activates the male germline sexual program. PMID:22595675

  5. Hypothalamic control of the male neonatal testosterone surge.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Jenny; Herbison, Allan E

    2016-02-19

    Sex differences in brain neuroanatomy and neurophysiology underpin considerable physiological and behavioural differences between females and males. Sexual differentiation of the brain is regulated by testosterone secreted by the testes predominantly during embryogenesis in humans and the neonatal period in rodents. Despite huge advances in understanding how testosterone, and its metabolite oestradiol, sexually differentiate the brain, little is known about the mechanism that actually generates the male-specific neonatal testosterone surge. This review examines the evidence for the role of the hypothalamus, and particularly the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, in generating the neonatal testosterone surge in rodents and primates. Kisspeptin-GPR54 signalling is well established as a potent and critical regulator of GnRH neuron activity during puberty and adulthood, and we argue here for an equally important role at birth in driving the male-specific neonatal testosterone surge in rodents. The presence of a male-specific population of preoptic area kisspeptin neurons that appear transiently in the perinatal period provide one possible source of kisspeptin drive to neonatal GnRH neurons in the mouse. PMID:26833836

  6. Hypothalamic control of male aggression-seeking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Grosenick, Logan; Davidson, Thomas J.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    In many vertebrate species, certain individuals will seek out opportunities for aggression, even in the absence of threat provoking cues. While several brain areas have been implicated in generating attack in response to social threat, little is known about the neural mechanisms that promote self-initiated or “voluntary” aggression seeking when no threat is present. To explore this directly, we utilize an aggression-seeking task wherein male mice can self-initiate aggression trials to gain brief and repeated access to a weaker male that they attack. In males that exhibit rapid task learning, we find that the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl), an area with a known role in attack, is essential for aggression seeking. Using both single unit electrophysiology and population optical recording, we find that VMHvl neurons become active during aggression seeking and their activity tracks changes in task learning and extinction. Inactivation of the VMHvl reduces aggression-seeking behavior, whereas optogenetic stimulation of the VMHvl accelerates moment-to-moment aggression seeking and intensifies future attack. These data demonstrate that the VMHvl can mediate both acute attack and flexible seeking actions that precede attack. PMID:26950005

  7. Differences in fatal loss-of-control accidents between young male and female drivers.

    PubMed

    Laapotti, S; Keskinen, E

    1998-07-01

    The study describes some factors behind fatal loss-of-control accidents of young male and female drivers. These loss-of-control accidents were compared to accidents in which the driver did not lose control of the car. The data comprised all fatal car accidents of young (18-21 years old) drivers in Finland during the years 1978-1991. Only culpable drivers were included in the analysis (the number of accidents studied was 338 for males and 75 for females). All these accidents were investigated by the Road Accident Investigation Teams in Finland and the original team reports were used. The results showed that equal proportions of all male and female drivers' accidents were loss-of-control accidents. However, when male drivers lost control of their car, it usually led to a single-vehicle accident, but for female drivers the loss of control usually resulted in a collision with another car. Male drivers drove too fast and under the influence of alcohol more often in loss-of-control accidents than in other types of accidents. Typically the male drivers' loss of control accidents took place during evenings and nights. The female drivers' loss-of-control accidents usually took place in slippery road conditions. This study concludes that risky driving habits play a bigger role in male drivers' loss-of-control accidents than in male drivers' no loss-of-control accidents or in any kind of female drivers' accidents. Lack of vehicle handling skills may be crucial in female drivers' loss-of-control accidents. Advantages of studying loss-of-control accidents instead of single-vehicle accidents are discussed. PMID:9666240

  8. Endocrine correlates of male breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Athens, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Petridou, E; Giokas, G; Kuper, H; Mucci, L A; Trichopoulos, D

    2000-01-01

    We studied the relation of certain endocrine-related variables among 23 cases of male breast cancer and 76 apparently healthy male controls. There were significant inverse associations with smoking (P = 0.03), birth order (P = 0.02) and reported frequency of orgasms in later life (P = 0.0004). The study provides strong indirect evidence that endocrine factors are important in the aetiology of male breast cancer. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11027439

  9. Experienced Control in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Age Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Phyllis G.

    Adolescent determination of behavior can be viewed as the result of perceived locus of control. To investigate adolescent perceptions of control in terms of age, loci of control (internal or external), situations (community and home), and direction of control (from or over the environment), 909 adolescents (345 males, 564 females), aged 11-19,…

  10. Locus of Control, Field Dependence, and Stress Reactivity in Young Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweibinz, Janet S.

    This study examined the potential relationships between locus of control, field dependence, and stress reactivity in a sample of young adult males (N=40). Locus of control, field dependence, and stress reactivity were measured by the Rotter Locus of Control Scale, the Embedded Figures Test, and the Life Events Survey, respectively. State stress…

  11. Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy vs standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A non-randomized, age-matched single center trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Yoen TK; Bosscha, Koop; Prins, Hubert A; Lips, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the safety of single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomies with standard four-port cholecystectomies. METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2012 datas were gathered from 100 consecutive patients who received a single-port cholecystectomy. Patient baseline characteristics of all 100 single-port cholecystectomies were collected (body mass index, age, etc.) in a database. This group was compared with 100 age-matched patients who underwent a conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the same period. Retrospectively, per- and postoperative data were added. The two groups were compared to each other using independent t-tests and χ2-tests, P values below 0.05 were considered significantly different. RESULTS: No differences were found between both groups regarding baseline characteristics. Operating time was significantly shorter in the total single-port group (42 min vs 62 min, P < 0.05); in procedures performed by surgeons the same trend was seen (45 min vs 59 min, P < 0.05). Peroperative complications between both groups were equal (3 in the single-port group vs 5 in the multiport group; P = 0.42). Although not significant less postoperative complications were seen in the single-port group compared with the multiport group (3 vs 9; P = 0.07). No statistically significant differences were found between both groups with regard to length of hospital stay, readmissions and mortality. CONCLUSION: Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy has the potential to be a safe technique with a low complication rate, short in-hospital stay and comparable operating time. Single-port cholecystectomy provides the patient an almost non-visible scar while preserving optimal quality of surgery. Further prospective studies are needed to prove the safety of the single-port technique. PMID:26328034

  12. Prevalence of disordered eating and pathogenic weight control behaviors among male collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Chatterton, Justine M; Petrie, Trent A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of disordered eating and pathogenic weight control behaviors in male collegiate athletes. Male collegiate athletes (N = 732) from the across the U.S. completed questionnaires online. Results suggested that (a) most eating disturbances occur at the subclinical level, (b) exercising and dieting were the most commonly used weight control practices, and (c) athletes who participate in weight class sports are more likely to be classified as symptomatic and engage in pathogenic eating and weight control behaviors compared to endurance sport or ball game athletes. Implications for professionals working with athletes and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:23767673

  13. Self-Control Is Associated with Physical Activity and Fitness among Young Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Marja Ilona; Suihko, Johanna; Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Jallinoja, Piia

    2012-01-01

    The personality trait self-control has been associated with various adaptive outcomes. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether self-control is associated with self-reported leisure time physical activity (LTPA), Body Mass Index (BMI), muscle-fitness and aerobic fitness among young men. Participants (482 male conscripts;…

  14. Effects of a Worksite Weight-Control Programme in Obese Male Workers: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iriyama, Yae; Murayama, Nobuko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a randomized controlled crossover trial to evaluate the effects of a new worksite weight-control programme designed for men with or at risk of obesity using a combination of nutrition education and nutrition environmental interventions. Subjects and methods: Male workers with or at risk of obesity were recruited for this…

  15. Endoscopic Vasectomy of Male Feral Pigeons (Columba livia) as a Possible Method of Population Control.

    PubMed

    Heiderich, Elisabeth; Schildger, Bernd; Lierz, Michael

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate whether single-entry endoscopic vasectomy of male feral pigeons (Columba livia) significantly reduced fertility and would potentially be valuable for control of feral pigeon populations, 252 male feral pigeons were caught in the city of Berne and endoscopically vasectomized. In this procedure, approximately 1 cm of the deferent duct was removed bilaterally. Rapid, uneventful recoveries occurred in 94% (237/252) of the pigeons, whereas 6% (15/252) died because of complications associated with the procedure, consisting of perforation of the ureter (9/15), major hemorrhage (5/15), and respiratory arrest (1/15). Mean anesthesia time was 23±6 minutes. The vasectomized males were habituated to 2 pigeon houses together with fertile females. Another pigeon house with fertile pairs acted as control. All eggs laid were candled weekly to assess fertility. In the 2 pigeon houses with vasectomized males, the mean fertilization rate was 0.9% (5/563), while in the control pigeon house, the rate was 100% (39/39). The results indicate that endoscopic vasectomy of male feral pigeons may be a promising tool for field control of feral pigeon populations, especially in combination with other methods such as pigeon houses. PMID:25867661

  16. Greater memory impairment in dementing females than males relative to sex-matched healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Baxter, Leslie; Thompson, Juliann

    2016-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated sex differences in episodic memory in healthy elderly and suggested that normative data be separated by sex. The present study extended the exploration of sex differences on memory measures into two clinical populations, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Seventy-six subjects with MCI and 101 subjects with AD diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team were included. These two groups were also compared to a group of 177 healthy elderly control participants. Sex differences on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; total and delayed recall) raw scores and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were demonstrated within the healthy but not the MCI or AD groups. Calculating z scores by sex for both dementing groups based on the healthy controls suggested a larger performance gap between healthy and dementing women than between healthy and dementing men. MCI females were on average 0.48 standard deviations lower for total verbal learning compared to healthy female controls than were MCI males when compared to healthy male controls. For verbal delayed recall the gap was even larger (SD = 1.09). Similarly, on the BVMT-R, a measure of visual memory, the difference was 0.60 standard deviations for total visual learning and 0.99 standard deviations for delayed recall. This same sex difference, with females showing greater impairment compared to the controls group than did the males, was also present within the AD group. The greater memory impairment in dementing females rather than males when compared to sex-matched healthy controls was unlikely to be due to more severe illness since females performed equivalently to males on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Dementia Rating Scale, and were also similar for age, education, and apolipoprotein status. The present study suggested relatively greater memory impairment in females with MCI or AD than in controls. PMID:26735615

  17. Physiological control of elaborate male courtship: Female choice for neuromuscular systems

    PubMed Central

    Fusani, Leonida; Barske, Julia; Day, Lainy D.; Fuxjager, Matthew J.; Schlinger, Barney A.

    2015-01-01

    Males of many animal species perform specialized courtship behaviours to gain copulations with females. Identifying physiological and anatomical specializations underlying performance of these behaviours helps clarify mechanisms through which sexual selection promotes the evolution of elaborate courtship. Our knowledge about neuromuscular specializations that support elaborate displays is limited to a few model species. In this review, we focus on the physiological control of the courtship of a tropical bird, the golden-collared manakin, which has been the focus of our research for nearly 20 years. Male manakins perform physically elaborate courtship displays that are quick, accurate and powerful. Females seem to choose males based on their motor skills suggesting that neuromuscular specializations possessed by these males are driven by female choice. Male courtship is activated by androgens and androgen receptors are expressed in qualitatively and quantitatively unconventional ways in manakin brain, spinal cord and skeletal muscles. We propose that in some species, females select males based on their neuromuscular capabilities and acquired skills and that elaborate steroid-dependent courtship displays evolve to signal these traits. PMID:25086380

  18. A Continuum of Male Controls and Violence against Women: A Teaching Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Karen D.

    1991-01-01

    A model for teaching social work students and professionals about widely existing severe, subtle, and overt forms of male controls and violence against women is described. Topics addressed during a three-hour workshop ranged from sexist language to harassment, battery, and femicide. Evaluation of workshops using the model suggest participants…

  19. Male reproductive control of women who have experienced intimate partner violence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ann M; Frohwirth, Lori; Miller, Elizabeth

    2010-06-01

    Women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) are consistently found to have poor sexual and reproductive health when compared to non-abused women, but the mechanisms through which such associations occur are inadequately defined. Through face-to-face, semi-structured in-depth interviews, we gathered full reproductive histories of 71 women aged 18-49 with a history of IPV recruited from a family planning clinic, an abortion clinic and a domestic violence shelter in the United States. A phenomenon which emerged among 53 respondents (74%) was male reproductive control which encompasses pregnancy-promoting behaviors as well as control and abuse during pregnancy in an attempt to influence the pregnancy outcome. Pregnancy promotion involves male partner attempts to impregnate a woman including verbal threats about getting her pregnant, unprotected forced sex, and contraceptive sabotage. Once pregnant, male partners resort to behaviors that threaten a woman if she does not do what he desires with the pregnancy. Reproductive control was present in violent as well as non-violent relationships. By assessing for male reproductive control among women seeking reproductive health services, including antenatal care, health care providers may be able to provide education, care, and counseling to help women protect their reproductive health and physical safety. PMID:20359808

  20. Testing predictions from the male control theory of men's partner violence.

    PubMed

    Bates, Elizabeth A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test predictions from the male control theory of intimate partner violence (IPV) and Johnson's [Johnson, M. P. (1995). Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 282-294] typology. A student sample (N = 1,104) reported on their use of physical aggression and controlling behavior, to partners and to same-sex non-intimates. Contrary to the male control theory, women were found to be more physically aggressive to their partners than men were, and the reverse pattern was found for aggression to same-sex non-intimates. Furthermore, there were no substantial sex differences in controlling behavior, which significantly predicted physical aggression in both sexes. IPV was found to be associated with physical aggression to same-sex non-intimates, thereby demonstrating a link with aggression outside the family. Using Johnson's typology, women were more likely than men to be classed as "intimate terrorists," which was counter to earlier findings. Overall, these results do not support the male control theory of IPV. Instead, they fit the view that IPV does not have a special etiology, and is better studied within the context of other forms of aggression. PMID:23878077

  1. SEXUAL DISTURBANCES IN MALE DIABETICS: PHENOMENOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL ASPECTS

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, D.N.; Shukla, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY Sixty four consecutive male diabetics and fifty age matched controls were interrogated so as to assess their sexual functioning. Diabetics were further studied for autonomic/peripheral neuropathy, vasculopathy, retinopathy and nephropathy. Nearly three fourths (47 cases or 73.4%) of diabetics had sexual disturbances as against just 14 per cent of controls. Impotence of varying degrees was seen in 46 diabetics, three of them having premature ejaculation in addition. Only one case had premature ejaculation as the sole disturbance. The impotence was complete in two thirds of the cases and partial in the remaining one third. The disturbance in diabetics was insidious in onset and progressive in course with marked decline in frequency of sexual outlets and sexual desire. It appeared to be organic in nature in most of the cases. PMID:21927299

  2. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... infections.) Latex rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not ...

  3. Endostatin and physical exercise in young female and male athletes and controls.

    PubMed

    Sponder, M; Sepiol, K; Lankisch, S; Priglinger, M; Kampf, S; Litschauer, B; Fritzer-Szekeres, M; Strametz-Juranek, J

    2014-12-01

    It was suggested that endostatin, an angiogenic mediator, is influenced by physical exercise. We performed bicycle stress testing in 88 healthy non-smoking female and male individuals, divided into athlete and non-athlete groups. Serum endostatin and norepinephrine were measured at rest, after reaching maximum workload and after 20 min of recovery. At baseline, both female and male controls showed significant lower levels compared to female and male athletes (89.39±15.32 resp. 93.39±15.00 ng/ml; p<0.001 vs. 128.81±20.84 resp. 147.52±27.72; p<0.001). An increase in endostatin levels in both groups and sexes was associated with bicycle stress testing (p for all groups<0.001). The extent of endostatin increase was comparable in both groups and sexes and varied between 23-27%. Significance was obscured when the performance was entered as covariate. Acutely induced physical strain leads to an increase in endostatin levels in athletes and controls of both sexes, the extent of increase depending on the extent of workload. An athletic lifestyle with >3 h of endurance training/week seems to lead to higher long-term endostatin levels which might play a role in the connection between sports and cardiovascular prevention. PMID:25009962

  4. Heart rate variability during sleep in detoxified alcohol-dependent males: A comparison with healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Ganesha, Suhas; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Muralidharan, Kesavan; Benegal, Vivek; Gangadhar, Bangalore N.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Alcohol dependence can lead to autonomic neuropathy resulting in increased cardiac morbidity and mortality. This has previously been evaluated using heart-rate variability. Aims: We compared sleep heart-rate variability of alcohol-dependent patients with that of healthy controls in this study. Settings and Design: This study was conducted at NIMHANS, Bangalore. A case control study design was adopted. Materials and Methods: Sleep heart-rate variability of 20 male alcohol-dependent inpatients was recorded on the 5th day after detoxification. Sleep heart-rate variability was also recorded in 18 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Statistical Analysis: The groups were compared using t-test for continuous variables and Chi-squared test for discrete variables. Results: Both time and frequency domain measures were significantly lower in the patients as compared to the controls, indicating decreased HRV in alcohol-dependent individuals. Conclusions: Decreased HRV in alcohol dependence indicates potential autonomic neuropathy. PMID:23825854

  5. Developmental Trajectories of Attentional Control in Preschool Males with Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tonnsen, Bridgette L.; Grefer, Marjorie L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Roberts, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Attention problems are among the most impairing features associated with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, few studies have examined behavioral development of inhibitory control in very young children with FXS. We examined attentional control in 3-6 year boys with FXS using both an experimental inhibitory control paradigm and parent-report of attention problems. Study 1 examined attentional control in FXS compared to comparison groups matched on chronological and mental age. To determine the stability of impairments over time in FXS, Study 2 examined patterns of developmental change in an expanded longitudinal sample. Across studies, males with FXS demonstrated persistent impairments in inhibitory control and parent-reported attention problems. Inhibitory control was related to, but not solely driven by, lower mental age. Although parent-rated attention problems remained stable across ages, inhibitory control improved with time. Children with more severe attention problems often displayed initially poorer inhibitory control. However, these trajectories also improved more rapidly with age. Our findings indicate that despite persistent deficits in attentional control in young children with FXS, multi-method assessment can be used to capture developmental growth that should be further supported through early, targeted intervention. PMID:25462466

  6. Achieving a new controllable male contraception by the photothermal effect of gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-qing; Sun, Chun-yang; Wang, Feng; Wang, Yu-cai; Zhai, Yi-wen; Liang, Meng; Liu, Wen-jing; Liu, Zhi-min; Wang, Jun; Sun, Fei

    2013-06-12

    During the process of human civilization, owning household pets has become increasingly popular. However, dogs and cats may be reservoirs or vectors of transmissible diseases to humans. Confronted with the overpopulation of pets, traditional contraception methods, surgical methods of sterilization, for animals are used, namely, ovariohysterectomy and orchidectomy. Therefore, a simple, nonsurgical, controllable, more effective and less expensive contraception method is highly desirable. In this study, we show that in situ testicular injection of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-modified gold nanorods with near-infrared irradiation in male mice can achieve short-lived or permanent male infertility. In a lower hyperthermia treatment, the morphology of testes and seminiferous tubules is only partly injured, and fertility indices are decreased to 10% at day 7, then recovered to 50% at day 60. In a higher hyperthermia treatment, the morphology of testes and seminiferous tubules are totally destroyed, and fertility indices are decreased to 0 at day 7. Overall, our results indicate a potential application of plasmonic nanomaterials for male contraception. PMID:23688274

  7. Internal/External Locus of Control and Parental Verbal Interaction of At-Risk Adolescent Black Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enger, John M.; And Others

    In response to concerns about the academic and discipline problems of young black male students in a small southern town, the Positive Impact Program (PIP) was developed for at-risk black males. Two possible at-risk factors, locus of control and the quality of parental verbal interaction, were studied for participants in the PIP. Locus of control…

  8. Could sterile males be used to vector a microbiological control agent? The case of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Llácer, E; Santiago-Álvarez, C; Jacas, J A

    2013-04-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is the most threatening pest of palms worldwide. The potential of gamma-irradiated males to spread a pathogenic strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) to control this pest was studied. First, the effects of gamma irradiation (15 and 25 Gy) on the mating success and performance of adult males irradiated at age one day were studied in the laboratory. Although male longevity decreased after irradiation (118.6 vs. 244.7 days for irradiated and control males, respectively) and their testes suffered from the treatment, fecundity of mated females did not depend on the irradiation status of the male (86.8 ± 5.5 eggs in 15 days). However, egg hatching was significantly lower in couples with irradiated males (31.4% vs. 86.5% for irradiated and control couples, respectively), and this value decreased after a second mating (6.1% vs. 85.9%). Therefore, irradiation did not affect male sexual competiveness but sperm quality. Second, a semi-field assay was carried out to evaluate infestation in young Phoenix canariensis caused by different combinations of couples with irradiated and/or B. bassiana-challenged males. The number of immature stages found in infested palms was significantly higher when females mated with untreated males and lower when mated with irradiated males (either B. bassiana-infected or not). Some females from the fungus-challenged treatments showed post-mortem hyphal growth, and this horizontal transmission proves that irradiated males could act as a vector for B. bassiana and should be considered as a new method to improve the biological control of R. ferrugineus. PMID:23034248

  9. A novel effective method for the assessment of microvascular function in male patients with coronary artery disease: a pilot study using laser speckle contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Borges, J P; Lopes, G O; Verri, V; Coelho, M P; Nascimento, P M C; Kopiler, D A; Tibirica, E

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of microvascular endothelial function is essential for investigating the pathophysiology and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Although laser speckle contrast imaging technology is well accepted as a noninvasive methodology for assessing microvascular endothelial function, it has never been used to compare male patients with coronary artery disease with male age-matched healthy controls. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether laser speckle contrast imaging could be used to detect differences in the systemic microvascular functions of patients with established cardiovascular disease (n=61) and healthy age-matched subjects (n=24). Cutaneous blood flow was assessed in the skin of the forearm using laser speckle contrast imaging coupled with the transdermal iontophoretic delivery of acetylcholine and post-occlusive reactive hyperemia. The maximum increase in skin blood flow induced by acetylcholine was significantly reduced in the cardiovascular disease patients compared with the control subjects (74 vs 116%; P<0.01). With regard to post-occlusive reactive hyperemia-induced vasodilation, the patients also presented reduced responses compared to the controls (0.42±0.15 vs 0.50±0.13 APU/mmHg; P=0.04). In conclusion, laser speckle contrast imaging can identify endothelial and microvascular dysfunctions in male individuals with cardiovascular disease. Thus, this technology appears to be an efficient non-invasive technique for evaluating systemic microvascular and endothelial functions, which could be valuable as a peripheral marker of atherothrombotic diseases in men. PMID:27599202

  10. Attentional control and interpretation of facial expression after oxytocin administration to typically developed male adults.

    PubMed

    Hirosawa, Tetsu; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Okumura, Eiichi; Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Munesue, Toshio; Takesaki, Natsumi; Furutani, Naoki; Ono, Yasuki; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in attentional-inhibitory control have been reported to correlate to anger, hostility, and aggressive behavior; therefore, inhibitory control appears to play an important role in prosocial behavior. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that oxytocin (OT) exerts a prosocial effect (e.g., decreasing negative behaviors, such as aggression) on humans. However, it is unknown whether the positively valenced effect of OT on sociality is associated with enhanced attentional-inhibitory control. In the present study, we hypothesized that OT enhances attentional-inhibitory control and that the positively valenced effect of OT on social cognition is associated with enhanced attentional-inhibitory control. In a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, we tested this hypothesis using 20 healthy male volunteers. We considered a decrease in the hostility detection ratio, which reflects the positively valenced interpretation of other individuals' facial expressions, to be an index of the positively valenced effects of OT (we reused the results of our previously published study). As a measure of attentional-inhibitory control, we employed a modified version of the flanker task (i.e., a shorter conflict duration indicated higher inhibitory control). These results failed to demonstrate any significant behavioral effects of OT (i.e., neither a positively valenced effect on facial cognition nor an effect on attentional-inhibitory control). However, the enhancement of attentional-inhibitory control after OT administration significantly correlated to the positively valenced effects on the interpretation of uncertain facial cognition (i.e., neutral and ambiguous facial expressions). PMID:25659131

  11. Attentional Control and Interpretation of Facial Expression after Oxytocin Administration to Typically Developed Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hirosawa, Tetsu; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Okumura, Eiichi; Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Munesue, Toshio; Takesaki, Natsumi; Furutani, Naoki; Ono, Yasuki; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in attentional-inhibitory control have been reported to correlate to anger, hostility, and aggressive behavior; therefore, inhibitory control appears to play an important role in prosocial behavior. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that oxytocin (OT) exerts a prosocial effect (e.g., decreasing negative behaviors, such as aggression) on humans. However, it is unknown whether the positively valenced effect of OT on sociality is associated with enhanced attentional-inhibitory control. In the present study, we hypothesized that OT enhances attentional-inhibitory control and that the positively valenced effect of OT on social cognition is associated with enhanced attentional-inhibitory control. In a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, we tested this hypothesis using 20 healthy male volunteers. We considered a decrease in the hostility detection ratio, which reflects the positively valenced interpretation of other individuals’ facial expressions, to be an index of the positively valenced effects of OT (we reused the results of our previously published study). As a measure of attentional-inhibitory control, we employed a modified version of the flanker task (i.e., a shorter conflict duration indicated higher inhibitory control). These results failed to demonstrate any significant behavioral effects of OT (i.e., neither a positively valenced effect on facial cognition nor an effect on attentional-inhibitory control). However, the enhancement of attentional-inhibitory control after OT administration significantly correlated to the positively valenced effects on the interpretation of uncertain facial cognition (i.e., neutral and ambiguous facial expressions). PMID:25659131

  12. A Sex-Linked Gene Controlling the Onset of Sexual Maturity in Female and Male Platyfish (XIPHOPHORUS MACULATUS), Fecundity in Females and Adult Size in Males

    PubMed Central

    Kallman, Klaus D.; Borkoski, Valerie

    1978-01-01

    A sex-linked gene, P, controls the onset of sexual maturity in the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus. The activity of this gene is correlated with the age and size at which the gonadotropic zone of the adenohypophysis differentiates and becomes physiologically active. Immature fish of all genotypes grow at the same rate; however, as adults, males with "early" genotypes are significantly smaller than males of "late" genotypes, since growth rate declines strongly under the influence of androgenic hormone. Five alleles, P1... P5, have been identified from natural populations that under controlled conditions cause gonad maturation between eight and 73 weeks. P1P1 males become mature at eight weeks and 21 mm, P2P2 and P3P3 males between eleven and 13.5 weeks and 25 to 29 mm, and P4P4 males at 25 weeks and 37 mm. Since P5 is X-linked, no males homozygous for P5 could be produced. The difference between P2 and P3 is largely based upon their interaction with P5. P3P5 males mature at 17.5 weeks and 33.5 mm and P2P5 males at 28 weeks and 38 mm. The rate of transformation of the unmodified anal fin into a gonopodium, which is under androgenic control, is directly related to the age at initiation of sexual maturity, ranging from 3.2 weeks in P1P1 males to seven weeks in P2P 5 males. These differences may reflect different levels of circulating gonadotropic and androgenic hormones.—In two genotypes of females, initiation of vitellogenesis was closely correlated with size and this critical size was independent of age (e.g., 21 mm for P1P1 ). In a third genotype (P1P5) the minimum size for vitellogenesis decreased with increasing age, so that females would mature as early as eleven weeks, provided they had attained at least 29 mm, but at 25 weeks even females as small as 23 mm possessed ripe gonads. For P5P5 females, which become mature between 34 and 73 weeks of age, there is no correlation between size and initiation of vitellogenesis. In all four genotypes of females examined

  13. Duodeno-Gastric-Esophageal Reflux—What is Pathologic? Comparison of Patients with Barrett’s Esophagus and Age-Matched Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgarten, Eva; Pütz, Benito; Hölscher, Arnulf H.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to analyse pH- and bile-monitoring data in patients with Barrett’s esophagus and in age- and gender-matched controls. Subjects and Methods Twenty-four consecutive Barrett’s patients (8 females, 16 males, mean age 57 years), 21 patients with esophagitis (10 females, 11 males, mean age 58 years), and 19 healthy controls (8 females, 11 males, mean age 51 years), were included. Only patients underwent endoscopy with biopsy. All groups were investigated with manometry, gastric and esophageal 24-h pH, and simultaneous bile monitoring according to a standardized protocol. A bilirubin absorption >0.25 was determined as noxious bile reflux. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) method was applied to determine the optimal cutoff value of pathologic bilirubin levels. Results Of Barrett’s patients, 79% had pathologic acidic gastric reflux (pH<4 >5% of total measuring time). However, 32% of healthy controls also had acid reflux (p < 0.05) without any symptoms. The median of esophageal bile reflux was 7.8% (lower quartile (LQ)–upper quartile (UQ) = 1.6–17.8%) in Barrett’s patients, in patients with esophagitis, 3.5% (LQ–UQ = 0.1–13.5), and in contrast to 0% (LQ–UQ = 0–1.0%) in controls, p = 0.001. ROC analysis showed the optimal dividing value for patients at more than 1% bile reflux over 24 h (75% sensitivity, 84% specificity). Conclusion An optimal threshold to differentiate between normal and pathological bile reflux into the esophagus is 1% (24-h bile monitoring with an absorbance >0.25). PMID:17436133

  14. Enlarged cerebrospinal fluid spaces in opiate-dependent male patients: a stereological CT study.

    PubMed

    Danos, P; Van Roos, D; Kasper, S; Brömel, T; Broich, K; Krappel, C; Solymosi, L; Möller, H J

    1998-01-01

    Computed tomography was performed in 9 male patients with a diagnosis of opiate dependence and in 9 age-matched psychiatric controls (neurotic depression). Patients with a history or diagnosis of another substance dependence (alcohol, cocaine, cannabis) were excluded from the study. The volumes of internal and external components of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured with a point-counting stereological method. Analysis of variance with age as a covariate revealed a significant enlargement of external and external CSF spaces in male patients with opiate dependence. There was no significant correlation between the length of opiate dependence and the volumes of internal and external CSF spaces. The present results suggest that opiate dependence is associated with structural brain alterations. However, the relationship between opiate dependence and structural brain changes is complex and still not well understood. PMID:9732207

  15. Personality Profile of Male Adolescents With Tourette Syndrome: A Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Balottin, Laura; Selvini, Claudia; Luoni, Chiara; Mannarini, Stefania; Chiappedi, Matteo; Seri, Stefano; Termine, Cristiano; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2016-03-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple tics and commonly associated with behavioral problems, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The presence of specific personality traits has been documented in adult clinical populations with Tourette syndrome but has been underresearched in younger patients. We assessed the personality profiles of 17 male adolescents with Tourette syndrome and 51 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent version, along with a standardized psychometric battery. All participants scored within the normal range across all Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent version scales. Patients with Tourette syndrome scored significantly higher than healthy controls on the Obsessiveness Content Scale only (P = .046). Our findings indicate that younger male patients with Tourette syndrome do not report abnormal personality traits and have similar personality profiles to healthy peers, with the exception of obsessionality traits, which are likely to be related to the presence of comorbid obsessive compulsive symptoms rather than tics. PMID:26078419

  16. What motivates the sexual double standard? More support for male versus female control theory.

    PubMed

    Rudman, Laurie A; Fetterolf, Janell C; Sanchez, Diana T

    2013-02-01

    The present research uniquely compared male control theory (MCT) versus female control theory (FCT) to illuminate motives for the sexual double standard (SDS), whereby men gain status from engaging in casual sex or having many sexual partners, but women are stigmatized for it. Consistent with MCT, men were more likely than women to endorse the SDS and to give sexual advice in ways that reinforce it-gender differences that were mediated by hostile sexism (HS) and endorsing the SDS, respectively. The data did not support FCT's argument that women are motivated by sexual economics to restrict female sexuality (Baumeister & Twenge, 2002). Both genders discouraged women from having casual sex to protect women from social stigma and rape myths that justify violence against sexual women. In concert, the findings support MCT more than FCT and suggest that sexism, stigma, and rape myths are primary obstacles to sexual equality. PMID:23386660

  17. QT Is Longer in Drug-Free Patients with Schizophrenia Compared with Age-Matched Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Kumiko; Ozeki, Yuji; Okayasu, Hiroaki; Takano, Yumiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Hori, Hiroaki; Orui, Masami; Horie, Minoru; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2014-01-01

    The potassium voltage-gated channel KCNH2 is a well-known gene in which mutations induce familial QT interval prolongation. KCNH2 is suggested to be a risk gene for schizophrenia. Additionally, the disturbance of autonomic control, which affects the QT interval, is known in schizophrenia. Therefore, we speculate that schizophrenic patients have characteristic features in terms of the QT interval in addition to the effect of antipsychotic medication. The QT interval of patients with schizophrenia not receiving antipsychotics (n = 85) was compared with that of patients with schizophrenia receiving relatively large doses of antipsychotics (n = 85) and healthy volunteers (n = 85). The QT interval was corrected using four methods (Bazett, Fridericia, Framingham or Hodges method). In ANCOVA with age and heart rate as covariates, patients not receiving antipsychotic treatment had longer QT intervals than did the healthy volunteers, but antipsychotics prolonged the QT interval regardless of the correction method used (P<0.01). Schizophrenic patients with and without medication had a significantly higher mean heart rate than did the healthy volunteers, with no obvious sex-related differences in the QT interval. The QT interval prolongation may be manifestation of a certain biological feature of schizophrenia. PMID:24887423

  18. The sterile insect technique for controlling populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: mating vigour of sterilized males.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Clelia F; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, François; Vreysen, Marc J B; Boyer, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5:1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population's fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs. PMID:23185329

  19. The Sterile Insect Technique for Controlling Populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: Mating Vigour of Sterilized Males

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Clelia F.; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, François; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Boyer, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5∶1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population’s fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs. PMID:23185329

  20. Social control of unreliable signals of strength in male but not female crayfish, Cherax destructor.

    PubMed

    Walter, Gregory M; van Uitregt, Vincent O; Wilson, Robbie S

    2011-10-01

    The maintenance of unreliable signals within animal populations remains a highly controversial subject in studies of animal communication. Crustaceans are an ideal group for studying unreliable signals of strength because their chela muscles are cryptically concealed beneath an exoskeleton, making it difficult for competitors to visually assess an opponent's strength. In this study, we examined the importance of social avenues for mediating the possible advantages gained by unreliable signals of strength in crustaceans. To do this, we investigated the factors that determine social dominance and the relative importance of signalling and fighting during aggressive encounters in male and female freshwater crayfish, Cherax destructor. Like other species of crayfish, we expected substantial variation in weapon force for a given weapon size, making the assessment of actual fighting ability of an opponent difficult from signalling alone. In addition, we expected fighting would be used to ensure that individuals that are weak for their signal (i.e. chela) size would not achieve higher than expected dominance. For both male and female C. destructor, we found large variation in the actual force of their chela for any given weapon size, indicating that it is difficult for competitors to accurately assess an opponent's force on signal size alone. For males, these unreliable signals of strength were controlled socially through increased levels of fighting and a decreased reliance on signalling, thus directly limiting the benefits accrued to individuals employing high-quality signals (large chelae) with only low resource holding potential. However, in contrast to our predictions, we found that females primarily relied on signalling to settle disputes, resulting in unreliable signals of strength being routinely used to establish dominance. The reliance by females on unreliable signals to determine dominance highlights our poor current understanding of the prevalence and

  1. Exercise increases serum endostatin levels in female and male patients with diabetes and controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often associated with atherosclerotic changes in coronary vessels, most notably plaques. The angiostatic parameter endostatin is able to inhibit angiogenesis in tissue as well as in plaques and therefore plays an important role in physiological and pathological neovascularisation. The aim of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences and the influence of exercise on circulating endostatin levels in patients suffering from diabetes, and control subjects. Methods In total, 42 T2DM-patients and 45 control subjects were investigated. They underwent a graded physical stress test (ergometry). Serum endostatin levels were measured in venous blood at rest and directly after reaching maximum workload. Results Females showed significantly higher endostatin levels at baseline measurements compared to men, independently of their underlying disease. In both female and male T2DM-patients endostatin levels were significantly lower compared to controls. Both groups and sexes showed a significant increase of endostatin after physical stress, whereas the extent of endostatin-increase was between 10.59-15.05%. Conclusion Middle-aged healthy female individuals as well as female T2DM-patients showed higher circulating serum endostatin levels compared to males, suggesting a hormonal influence on baseline circulating endostatin amounts. Exercise-induced increase in endostatin is also observable in patients suffering from T2DM. Concerning vascularisation, lower endostatin levels in T2DM might be advantageous. Concerning plaque stability, lower levels might be prejudicial. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01165515 PMID:24393402

  2. Peripheral and Central Mechanisms Involved in the Hormonal Control of Male and Female Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, L M; Bentley, G E; Calandra, R S; Paredes, A H; Tesone, M; Wu, T J; Micevych, P E

    2016-07-01

    Reproduction involves the integration of hormonal signals acting across multiple systems to generate a synchronised physiological output. A critical component of reproduction is the luteinising hormone (LH) surge, which is mediated by oestradiol (E2 ) and neuroprogesterone interacting to stimulate kisspeptin release in the rostral periventricular nucleus of the third ventricle in rats. Recent evidence indicates the involvement of both classical and membrane E2 and progesterone signalling in this pathway. A metabolite of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), GnRH-(1-5), has been shown to stimulate GnRH expression and secretion, and has a role in the regulation of lordosis. Additionally, gonadotrophin release-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) projects to and influences the activity of GnRH neurones in birds. Stress-induced changes in GnIH have been shown to alter breeding behaviour in birds, demonstrating another mechanism for the molecular control of reproduction. Peripherally, paracrine and autocrine actions within the gonad have been suggested as therapeutic targets for infertility in both males and females. Dysfunction of testicular prostaglandin synthesis is a possible cause of idiopathic male infertility. Indeed, local production of melatonin and corticotrophin-releasing hormone could influence spermatogenesis via immune pathways in the gonad. In females, vascular endothelial growth factor A has been implicated in an angiogenic process that mediates development of the corpus luteum and thus fertility via the Notch signalling pathway. Age-induced decreases in fertility involve ovarian kisspeptin and its regulation of ovarian sympathetic innervation. Finally, morphological changes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus influence female sexual receptivity in rats. The processes mediating these morphological changes have been shown to involve the rapid effects of E2 controlling synaptogenesis in this hypothalamic nucleus. In summary, this review highlights new

  3. The effects of a slow release GnRH agonist implant on male rabbits.

    PubMed

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Groeger, Gesa; Wehrend, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Surgical castration is done in male pet rabbits for reproduction control, to reduce inter-male aggression and to control hyper-sexuality, territory marking and aggression against humans. Alternatives to surgical castration are requested because of a relatively great anaesthetic risk in rabbits. Long-term application of a GnRH agonist implant results in a fully reversible "hormonal" castration in male dogs, cats, boars and many other species. Therefore, the present study using New Zealand White hybrid and German Giant rabbits aimed to investigate the effects of a 4.7mg deslorelin implant in peripubertal male rabbits (SG; n=10), as a mean of hormonal castration. Blood samples (for testosterone measurements), body weight and testicular volume were taken on days (D) 0, 14 and 90. Surgical castration was performed on D90 for testicular histology. Age-matched animals following the same protocol without implant administration served as adult controls (n=5, CG), animals castrated on D0 served as juvenile controls (n=7, JG). Following treatment, testosterone concentrations were not reduced compared to CG; basal testosterone concentrations were only measured in JG. Spermatogenesis was not affected in SG and not different from CG. Application of a slow release GnRH agonist implant does not induce hormonal castration in male rabbits over a period of 90 days indicating that it is not a suitable alternative to surgical castration in this species. PMID:25466212

  4. The endocannabinoid system: an ancient signaling involved in the control of male fertility.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Silvia; Meccariello, Rosaria; Cobellis, Gilda; Chianese, Rosanna; Cacciola, Giovanna; Chioccarelli, Teresa; Pierantoni, Riccardo

    2009-04-01

    The effects of cannabinoids on human health have been known since the antiquities when the extract of the plant Cannabis sativa was used because of its psychoactivity. The scientific story of the cannabinoids started in the 1960s with the isolation and characterization of the active component of the plant. After the synthesis of cannabinoid analogues, the analysis of structure-effect relationships was implemented, and this had a similar effect to a positive "Pandora's box" opening. To date, numerous roles have been ascribed to the "endocannabinoid system." Here we describe its involvement in the control of male reproduction, taking into consideration possible evolutionary speculations. Indeed, the endocannabinoid system is a very ancient signaling system, being clearly present from the divergence of the protostomian/deuterostomian. PMID:19456333

  5. The effects of mesterolone, a male sex hormone in depressed patients (a double blind controlled study).

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Michael, S T; Shapiro, D M; Itil, K Z

    1984-06-01

    Based on computer EEG (CEEG) profiles, in high doses, antidepressant properties of mesterolone, a synthetic androgen, were predicted. In a double-blind placebo controlled study, the clinical effects of 300-450 mg daily mesterolone were investigated in 52 relatively young (age range 26-53 years, mean 42.7 years) male depressed outpatients. During 6 weeks of mesterolone treatment, there was a significant improvement of depressive symptomatology. However, since an improvement was also established during the placebo treatment, no statistically appreciable difference in the therapeutic effects of mesterolone was established compared to placebo. Mesterolone treatment significantly decreased both plasma testosterone and protein bound testosterone levels. Patients with high testosterone levels prior to treatment seem to have had more benefit from mesterolone treatment than patients with low testosterone levels. The degree of improvement weakly correlated to the decrease of testosterone levels during mesterolone treatment. PMID:6431212

  6. Cognitive Behavioural Suicide Prevention for Male Prisoners: A pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, D.; Tarrier, N.; Dunn, G.; Awenat, Y.; Shaw, J.; Ulph, F.; Gooding, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prisoners have an exceptional risk of suicide. Cognitive behavioural therapy for suicidal behaviour has been shown to offer considerable potential, but has yet to be formally evaluated within prisons. This study investigated the feasibility of delivering and evaluating a novel, manualised cognitive behavioural suicide prevention (CBSP) therapy for suicidal male prisoners. Methods A pilot randomised controlled trial of CBSP in addition to treatment as usual (CBSP; n=31) compared to treatment as usual alone (TAU; n=31), was conducted in a male prison in England. The primary outcome was self-injurious behaviour occurring within the past six months. Secondary outcomes were dimensions of suicidal ideation, psychiatric symptomatology, personality dysfunction and psychological determinants of suicide, including depression and hopelessness. The trial was prospectively registered (number ISRCTN59909209). Results Relative to TAU, participants receiving CBSP therapy achieved a significantly greater reduction in suicidal behaviours with a moderate treatment effect (Cohen’s d=−0.72, 95%CI: −1.71 to 0.09; baseline mean [SD], TAU: 1.39[3.28] vs CBSP: 1.06[2.10], 6 months mean [SD], TAU: 1.48[3.23] vs CBSP: 0.58[1.52]). Significant improvements were achieved on measures of psychiatric symptomatology and personality dysfunction. Improvements on psychological determinants of suicide were non-significant. More than half of participants in the CBSP group achieved a clinically significant recovery by the end of therapy, compared to a quarter of the TAU group. Conclusions The delivery and evaluation of cognitive behavioural suicide prevention therapy within a prison is feasible. CBSP therapy offers significant promise in the prevention of prison suicide and an adequately powered randomised controlled trial is warranted. PMID:26165919

  7. Evaluation of the Wise Guys Male Responsibility Curriculum: Participant-Control Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruchow, Harvey William; Brown, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although males are often the initiators of teen sexual activity, pregnancy prevention programs generally target females. To address this deficiency, the Wise Guys Male Responsibility Curriculum was developed to be delivered to adolescent males in weekly classroom sessions. Methods: Seventh grade participants (n = 124) in the Wise Guys…

  8. Consultation for Small-Sized Penis in the Egyptian Males: A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Salama, Nader

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to report penile dimensions in adult Egyptian males consulting for small-sized penis (SSP) and describe their demographics and andrological profile. A case control study was designed through retrospective data analysis of patients (n = 239) seeking advice for SSP and a control group (n = 59). This included sociodemographics, other andrological complaints, and penile dimensions (pendulous length [PL], penopubic or total length [TL], and circumference [CF]) at flaccid and erect states and the size of the prepubic fatty pad. The results reported that most patients were single, students, and smokers and had not completed a university education. Several patients reported falsely premature ejaculation (PE), penile curvature (PC), and small-sized testes. Most penile dimensions of the patients (mean, cm) were significantly lower than those of the controls, whether in flaccid (PL: 7.4 vs. 8.05, p = .008; CF: 8.7 vs. 8.98, p = .026) or erect state (PL: 11.8 vs. 13, p = .000; TL: 14.2 vs. 15, p = .000; CF: 11.3 vs. 11.8, p = .003). However, no patient presented with a pendulous penile length <4 cm in flaccid or <7 cm in erect state. In conclusion, Egyptian men consulting for SSP did not have true small organs, but their penile dimensions were slightly smaller than those of men without such complaint. The proper sexual education program is highly advisable in these situations to avoid the myths and misconceptions about sexuality. PMID:25563384

  9. Time controlled pulsatile transdermal delivery of nicotine: A phase I feasibility trial in male smokers.

    PubMed

    Hammann, Felix; Kummer, Oliver; Guercioni, Stefania; Imanidis, Georgios; Drewe, Juergen

    2016-06-28

    Nicotine substitution is a mainstay component in smoking cessation schemes. Current products including patches are poorly effective mainly because they do not give smokers the same pharmacokinetic profile of nicotine as cigarette consumption. This work evaluates a new computer operated delivery system for time controlled pulsatile transdermal administration of nicotine in a phase I clinical trial with twelve heavy smoking male volunteers. The device was affixed to the ventral side of the leading lower arm of the subjects and was programmed to deliver two pulses of drug within 16h with three delivery rates in a consecutive dose escalation study. Tolerability of the three increasing doses of nicotine was established. Plasma concentration of nicotine exhibited two peaks and one trough and reached therapeutically effective levels that behaved linearly with the drug load concentration of the device. In vivo input rate, delivered amount and elimination kinetics were deduced by pharmacokinetic modeling to analyze device performance. Timing, dose and duration of delivery were controlled by system operation parameters. Hence, feasibility of controlled pulsatile delivery of nicotine at predetermined intervals was demonstrated. After additional optimization, preprogrammed or on demand administration to meet individualized and circadian replacement needs should improve smoking cessation efficacy. PMID:27090163

  10. Income under Female versus Male Control: Hypotheses from a Theory of Gender Stratification and Data from the Third World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Rae Lesser

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes Blumberg's theory of gender stratification, which emphasizes relative male/female control of economic resources as a main predictor of multiple gender stratification consequences. Reviews evidence from Third World countries that men and women spend income differently, such that, when women lose control of income, family well-being and…

  11. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  12. Effect of the metabolic syndrome on male reproductive function: a case-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Leisegang, K; Udodong, A; Bouic, P J D; Henkel, R R

    2014-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of various risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MetS on testosterone and progesterone, and semen parameters, in a case-controlled pilot study. Male patients (n = 54) had body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and blood pressure recorded. Blood was analysed for HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Saliva was assayed for free testosterone and free progesterone. Ejaculates were analysed for volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, vitality, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation and leucocyte concentration. Participants were divided into the control group (n = 28) and the MetS group (n = 26). Differences were found between the groups for body mass index, WHR, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides and glucose. The MetS group showed significant reductions in sperm concentration (P = 0.0026), total sperm count (P = 0.0034), total motility (P = 0.0291), sperm vitality (P = 0.002), MMP (P = 0.0039), free testosterone (P = 0.0093) and free progesterone (P = 0.0130), while values for DNA fragmentation increased (P = 0.0287). Results indicate that patients with MetS have compromised sperm parameters in the absence of leucocytospermia. A reduction in free progesterone suggests that steroidogenesis cascades may be compromised. It is hypothesised that a systemic pro-inflammatory state with oxidative stress associated with MetS may provide a novel explanation. PMID:23278477

  13. Former male elite athletes have better metabolic health in late life than their controls.

    PubMed

    Laine, M K; Eriksson, J G; Kujala, U M; Kaprio, J; Loo, B-M; Sundvall, J; Bäckmand, H M; Peltonen, M; Jula, A; Sarna, S

    2016-03-01

    Elite-class athletes have longer life expectancy and lower risk for chronic noncommunicable diseases possibly because of physically active and healthier lifestyle. In this study, we assessed former male Finnish elite-class athletes' (n = 392) and their matched controls' (n = 207) body composition, and risk for the metabolic syndrome (MS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in later life. Compared with the controls, the former athletes had lower body fat percentage (24.8% vs 26.0%, P = 0.021), lower risk for MS [odds ratio (OR) 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-0.81], and NAFLD (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.42-0.88). High volume of current leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was associated with lower body fat percentage (P for trend < 0.001). When current volume of LTPA increased 1 MET h/week, the risk of MS and NAFLD decreased (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98-0.99 and OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.98, respectively). Although a career as an elite-class athlete during young adulthood may help to protect from developing metabolic syndrome, present exercise levels and volume of LTPA seem equally important as well. PMID:25758211

  14. Cardiovascular and Postural Control Interactions during Hypergravity: Effects on Cerebral Autoregulation in Males and Females

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Nandu; Blaber, Andrew; Bareille, Marie-Pierre; Beck, Arnaud; Avan, Paul; Bruner, Michelle; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    2012-07-01

    Orthostatic intolerance remains a problem upon return to Earth from the microgravity environment of spaceflight. A variety of conditions including hypovolemia, cerebral vasoconstriction, cerebral or peripheral vascular disease, or cardiac arrhythmias may result in syncope if the person remains upright. Current research indicates that there is a greater dependence on visual and somatosensory information at the beginning of space flight with a decreased otolith gain during prolonged space flight (Herault et al., 2002). The goal of the research is to further our understanding of the fundamental adaptive homeostatic mechanisms involved in gravity related changes in cardiovascular and postural function. Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and postural sensory motor control systems in male and female participants before, during, and after exposure to graded levels of hyper-G were investigated. Hypotheses: 1) Activation of skeletal muscle pump will be directly related to the degree of orthostatic stress. 2) Simultaneous measurement of heart rate, blood pressure and postural sway will predict cardio-postural stability. Blood pressure and heart rate (means and variability), postural sway, center of pressure (COP), baroreflex function, calf blood flow, middle cerebral artery blood flow, non-invasive intracranial pressure measurements, and two-breath CO2 were measured. Results from the study will be used to provide an integrated insight into mechanisms of cardio-postural control and cerebral autoregulation, which are important aspects of human health in flights to Moon, Mars and distant planets.

  15. Arterial baroreceptor reflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity following chronic myocardial infarction in male, female, and ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Pinkham, Maximilian I; Whalley, Gillian A; Guild, Sarah-Jane; Malpas, Simon C; Barrett, Carolyn J

    2015-07-15

    There is controversy regarding whether the arterial baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in heart failure is altered. We investigated the impact of sex and ovarian hormones on changes in the arterial baroreflex control of renal SNA following a chronic myocardial infarction (MI). Renal SNA and arterial pressure were recorded in chloralose-urethane anesthetized male, female, and ovariectomized female (OVX) Wistar rats 6-7 wk postsham or MI surgery. Animals were grouped according to MI size (sham, small and large MI). Ovary-intact females had a lower mortality rate post-MI (24%) compared with both males (38%) and OVX (50%) (P < 0.05). Males and OVX with large MI, but not small MI, displayed an impaired ability of the arterial baroreflex to inhibit renal SNA. As a result, the male large MI group (49 ± 6 vs. 84 ± 5% in male sham group) and OVX large MI group (37 ± 3 vs. 75 ± 5% in OVX sham group) displayed significantly reduced arterial baroreflex range of control of normalized renal SNA (P < 0.05). In ovary-intact females, arterial baroreflex control of normalized renal SNA was unchanged regardless of MI size. In males and OVX there was a significant, positive correlation between left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction and arterial baroreflex range of control of normalized renal SNA, but not absolute renal SNA, that was not evident in ovary-intact females. The current findings demonstrate that the arterial baroreflex control of renal SNA post-MI is preserved in ovary-intact females, and the state of left ventricular dysfunction significantly impacts on the changes in the arterial baroreflex post-MI. PMID:25994953

  16. Ketogenic diet does not impair spatial ability controlled by the hippocampus in male rats.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Ogura, Yuji; Furuta, Miyako; Kakehashi, Chiaki; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo

    2015-10-01

    A ketogenic diet was recently shown to reduce glutamate accumulation in synaptic vesicles, decreasing glutamate transmission. We questioned whether a ketogenic diet affects hippocampal function, as glutamate transmission is critically involved in visuospatial ability. In the present study, male Wistar rats were maintained on a ketogenic diet containing 10% protein and 90% fat with complements for 3 weeks to change their energy expenditure from glucose-dependent to fat-dependent. Control rats were fed a diet containing 10% protein, 10% fat, and 80% carbohydrates. The fat-dependent energy expenditure induced by the ketogenic diet led to decreased body weight and increased blood ketone production, though the rats in the two groups consumed the same number of calories. The ketogenic diet did not alter food preferences for the control or high-fat diet containing 10% protein, 45% fat, and 45% carbohydrates. Anxiety in the open field was not altered by ingestion the ketogenic diet. However, rats fed the ketogenic diet performed better in the Y-maze test than rats fed the control diet. No difference was observed between the two groups in the Morris water maze test. Finally, Western blot revealed that the hippocampal expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluR1) was significantly increased in mice fed a ketogenic diet. These results suggest that hippocampal function is not impaired by a ketogenic diet and we speculate that the fat-dependent energy expenditure does not impair visuospatial ability. PMID:26111645

  17. Updating control of puberty in male European sea bass: A holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Manuel; Espigares, Felipe; Felip, Alicia; Escobar, Sebastian; Molés, Gregorio; Rodríguez, Rafael; Alvarado, Maria Victoria; Gómez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia

    2015-09-15

    Puberty is the process by which an immature animal acquires the ability to reproduce for the first time; its onset occurs soon after sexual differentiation and is characterized by the beginning of gametogenesis in both sexes. Here we present new insights on when and how the onset of puberty occurs in male European sea bass, its dependence on reaching a critical size, and how it can be controlled by photoperiod, revealing the existence of a photolabile period with important applications in aquaculture. Regarding size, apparently only European sea bass above a certain size threshold attain the ability to carry out gametogenesis during their first year of life, while their smaller counterparts fail to do so. This could imply that fish need to achieve an optimal threshold of hormone production, particularly from the kisspeptin/Gnrh/Gth systems, in order to initiate and conclude puberty. However, a long-term restricted feeding regime during the second year of life did not prevent the onset of puberty, thus suggesting that the fish are able to maintain the reproductive function, even at the expense of other functions. Finally, the study of daily hormonal rhythms under different photoperiod regimes revealed the equivalence between their core values and those of seasonal rhythms, in such a way that the daily rhythms could be considered as the functional units of the seasonal rhythms. PMID:26172577

  18. Enhancing Condom Use Among Black Male Youths: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Charnigo, Richard J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Pasternak, Ryan; Terrell, Ivy W.; Ricks, JaNelle; Smith, Rachel V.; Taylor, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the efficacy of a brief intervention to promote correct and consistent use of condoms among Black male youths attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in 3 southern US cities. Methods. In 2010 to 2012, we screened (n = 1102) and enrolled (n = 702) youths aged 15 to 23 years who identified as Black and reported recent (past 2 months) sexual activity and randomized them to a private, brief, interactive intervention (n = 349) or an attention-equivalent control condition (n = 353). Assessments occurred at baseline and 2 and 6 months after the intervention. Results. At 6 months, with adjustment for age and pretest nonequivalence of the outcome variable, an estimated odds ratio (EOR) of 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07, 2.49; P = .02) indicated efficacy for correct condom use. An adjusted generalized estimating equations model with both 2- and 6-month condom use variables produced an EOR of 1.49 (95% CI = 1.06, 2.08; P = .02). We did not observe significant effects on chlamydia and gonorrhea incidence. Conclusions. This brief intervention, delivered as part of STI clinical care, could help alleviate the disproportionate STI–HIV burden among young Black men. PMID:25211749

  19. The Relationship between Personality, Anger Expression, and Perceived Family Control among Incarcerated Male Juveniles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Charlton J.; Greene, Anthony F.; Braithwaite, Harold O.

    2002-01-01

    Examines three factors that may place adolescents at risk for aggression and violence: personality, affect, and family. Using a sample of male adolescents at risk for violence, a cluster analysis was conducted to categorize these adolescents in terms of personality characteristics. Concludes that, among male delinquents, elevated psychopathology…

  20. Attachment styles and sexual dysfunctions: a case-control study of female and male sexuality.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, G; Limoncin, E; Di Tommaso, S; Mollaioli, D; Gravina, G L; Marcozzi, A; Tullii, A; Carosa, E; Di Sante, S; Gianfrilli, D; Lenzi, A; Jannini, E A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate attachment styles in a group of women and men with sexual dysfunction. We recruited 44 subjects (21 women and 23 men) with sexual dysfunction and 41 subjects (21 women and 20 men) with healthy sexual function as the control group. Validated instruments for the evaluation of male and female sexual dysfunctions (M/F SD) and a psychometric tool specifically designed to investigate attachment style were administered. In women, significant differences were found between subjects with sexual dysfunction and healthy controls. The scales indicating an insecure attachment showed: discomfort with closeness (FSD = 42.85 ± 11.55 vs CTRL = 37.38 ± 8.54; P < 0.01), relationship as secondary (FSD = 26.76 ± 2.60 vs CTRL = 18.42 ± 7.99; P < 0.01), and need for approval (FSD=26.38 ± 3.61 vs CTRL = 20.76 ± 7.36; P < 0.01). Healthy women also had significantly higher scores in secure attachment (confidence: FSD = 24.57 ± 3.89 vs CTRL = 33.42 ± 5.74; P < 0.01). Men with sexual dysfunctions differed from healthy men in confidence (MSD = 30 ± 6.33 vs CTRL = 36.05 ± 5.26; P < 0.01) and in discomfort with closeness (MSD = 39.08 ± 8 vs CTRL = 34.25 ± 7.54; P < 0.05). These results suggest that particular aspects related to insecure attachment have a determinant role in people with sexual dysfunctions. It is therefore fundamental to identify the attachment styles and relational patterns in patients receiving counselling and psychological treatments focussed on sexual problems. PMID:25119586

  1. A Web-Based Sexual Violence Bystander Intervention for Male College Students: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vivolo-Kantor, Alana; Hardin, James; Berkowitz, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Background Bystander intervention approaches offer promise for reducing rates of sexual violence on college campuses. Most interventions are in-person small-group formats, which limit their reach and reduce their overall public health impact. Objective This study evaluated the efficacy of RealConsent, a Web-based bystander approach to sexual violence prevention, in enhancing prosocial intervening behaviors and preventing sexual violence perpetration. Methods A random probability sample of 743 male undergraduate students (aged 18 to 24 years) attending a large, urban university located in the southeastern United States was recruited online and randomized to either RealConsent (n=376) or a Web-based general health promotion program (n=367). Participants were surveyed online at baseline, postintervention, and 6-months postintervention. RealConsent was delivered via a password-protected Web portal that contained six 30-minute media-based and interactive modules covering knowledge of informed consent, communication skills regarding sex, the role of alcohol and male socialization in sexual violence, empathy for rape victims, and bystander education. Primary outcomes were self-reported prosocial intervening behaviors and sexual violence perpetration. Secondary outcomes were theoretical mediators (eg, knowledge, attitudes). Results At 6-month follow-up RealConsent participants intervened more often (P=.04) and engaged in less sexual violence perpetration (P=.04) compared to controls. In addition, RealConsent participants reported greater legal knowledge of sexual assault (P<.001), greater knowledge of effective consent (P<.001), less rape myths (P<.001), greater empathy for rape victims (P<.001), less negative date rape attitudes (P<.001), less hostility toward women (P=.01), greater intentions to intervene (P=.04), less hyper-gender ideology (P<.001), less positive outcome expectancies for nonconsensual sex (P=.03), more positive outcome expectancies for intervening (P

  2. Internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction of at-risk black male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Enger, J M; Howerton, D L; Cobbs, C R

    1994-06-01

    We investigated the relationship between three factors--internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction--for at-risk Black male adolescents in the United States. Forty-two male students in Grades 6, 7, and 8 who had been identified by their teachers as being at risk completed the Locus of Control Scale for Children (Nowicki & Strickland, 1973), the Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1967), and the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (Blake, 1991). A moderate positive relationship found between self-esteem and parental verbal interaction was consistent with a previous finding for White high school students. A moderate negative relationship found between locus of control and self-esteem differed from a previous finding of no significant relationship for Black elementary children. A weak, yet significant, negative relationship was found between locus of control and parental verbal interaction. PMID:8057628

  3. Sexually dimorphic nuclei in the spinal cord control male sexual functions

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    Lower spinal cord injuries frequently cause sexual dysfunction in men, including erectile dysfunction and an ejaculation disorder. This indicates that the important neural centers for male sexual function are located within the lower spinal cord. It is interesting that the lumbar spinal segments contain several neural circuits, showing a clear sexually dimorphism that, in association with neural circuits of the thoracic and sacral spinal cord, are critical in expressing penile reflexes during sexual behavior. To date, many sex differences in the spinal cord have been discovered. Interestingly, most of these are male dominant. Substantial evidence of sexually dimorphic neural circuits in the spinal cord have been reported in many animal models, but major issues remain unknown. For example, it is not known how the different circuits cooperatively function during male sexual behavior. In this review, therefore, the anatomical and functional significance of the sexually dimorphic nuclei in the spinal cord corresponding to the expression of male sexual behavior is discussed. PMID:25071429

  4. Processing Words Varying in Personal Familiarity (Based on Reading and Spelling) by Poor Readers and Age-Matched and Reading-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Evelyne; Willows, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether performance differences between good and poor readers relate to reading-specific cognitive factors that result from engaging in reading activities and other experiential factors, the authors gave students in Grades 4 and 6 a perceptual identification test of words not only drawn from their personal lexicon but also varying in…

  5. Copulation Activity, Sperm Production and Conidia Transfer in Aedes aegypti Males Contaminated by Metarhizium anisopliae: A Biological Control Prospect

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Tanya L.; Braks, Marieta A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti worldwide, whose chemical control is difficult, expensive, and of inconsistent efficacy. Releases of Metarhizium anisopliae—exposed Ae. aegypti males to disseminate conidia among female mosquitoes by mating represents a promising biological control approach against this important vector. A better understanding of fungus virulence and impact on reproductive parameters of Ae. aegypti, is need before testing auto-dissemination strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings Mortality, mating competitiveness, sperm production, and the capacity to auto-disseminate the fungus to females up to the 5thcopulation, were compared between Aedes aegypti males exposed to 5.96 x 107 conidia per cm2 of M. anisopliae and uninfected males. Half (50%) of fungus-exposed males (FEMs) died within the first 4 days post-exposure (PE). FEMs required 34% more time to successively copulate with 5 females (165 ± 3 minutes) than uninfected males (109 ± 3 minutes). Additionally, fungus infection reduced the sperm production by 87% at 5 days PE. Some beneficial impacts were observed, FEMs were able to successfully compete with uninfected males in cages, inseminating an equivalent number of females (about 25%). Under semi-field conditions, the ability of FEMs to search for and inseminate females was also equivalent to uninfected males (both inseminating about 40% females); but for the remaining females that were not inseminated, evidence of tarsal contact (transfer of fluorescent dust) was significantly greater in FEMs compared to controls. The estimated conidia load of a female exposed on the 5th copulation was 5,200 mL-1 which was sufficient to cause mortality. Conclusion/Significance Our study is the first to demonstrate auto-dissemination of M. anisopliae through transfer of fungus from males to female Ae. aegypti during mating under semi-field conditions. Our results suggest that auto-dissemination studies

  6. Temporal Evaluation of Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia in Male Rats Secondary to Chronic Volume Overload

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yan; Plante, Eric; Janicki, Joseph S.; Brower, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    The temporal myocardial remodeling induced by chronic ventricular volume overload in male rats was examined. Specifically, left ventricular (LV) cardiomyocyte length and width, sarcomere length, and number of nuclei were measured in male rats (n = 8 to 17) at 1, 3, 5, 7, 21, 35, and 56 days after creation of an infrarenal aortocaval fistula. In contrast to previously published reports of progressive increases in cardiomyocyte length and cross-sectional area at 5 days post-fistula and beyond in female hearts, cardiomyocyte length and width did not increase significantly in males during the first 35 days of volume overload. Furthermore, a significant decrease in cardiomyocyte length relative to age-matched controls, together with a reduced number of sarcomeres per cell, was noted in male hearts at 5 days post-fistula. There was a concurrent increase in the percentage of mononucleated cardiomyocytes from 11.6% to 18% at 5 days post-fistula. These initial differences could not be attributed to cardiomyocyte proliferation, and treatment with a microtubule stabilizing agent prevented them from occurring. The subsequent significant increase in LV weight without corresponding increases in cardiomyocyte dimensions is indicative of hyperplasia. Thus, these findings indicate hyperplasia resulting from cytokinesis of cardiomyocytes is a key mechanism, independent of hypertrophy, that contributes to the significant increase in LV mass in male hearts subjected to chronic volume overload. PMID:20651227

  7. A sex-specific transcription factor controls male identity in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    PubMed

    Chong, Tracy; Collins, James J; Brubacher, John L; Zarkower, David; Newmark, Phillip A

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary transitions between hermaphroditic and dioecious reproductive states are found in many groups of animals. To understand such transitions, it is important to characterize diverse modes of sex determination utilized by metazoans. Currently, little is known about how simultaneous hermaphrodites specify and maintain male and female organs in a single individual. Here we show that a sex-specific gene, Smed-dmd-1 encoding a predicted doublesex/male-abnormal-3 (DM) domain transcription factor, is required for specification of male germ cells in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. dmd-1 has a male-specific role in the maintenance and regeneration of the testes and male accessory reproductive organs. In addition, a homologue of dmd-1 exhibits male-specific expression in Schistosoma mansoni, a derived, dioecious flatworm. These results demonstrate conservation of the role of DM domain genes in sexual development in lophotrochozoans and suggest one means by which modulation of sex-specific pathways can drive the transition from hermaphroditism to dioecy. PMID:23652002

  8. Self-Control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    PubMed Central

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18–30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie. PMID:25691873

  9. Review: Improving our knowledge of male mosquito biology in relation to genetic control programmes.

    PubMed

    Lees, Rosemary Susan; Knols, Bart; Bellini, Romeo; Benedict, Mark Q; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Bossin, Hervé Christophe; Chadee, Dave D; Charlwood, Jacques; Dabiré, Roch K; Djogbenou, Luc; Egyir-Yawson, Alexander; Gato, René; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Hassan, Mo'awia Mukhtar; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Lemperiere, Guy; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Mozuraitis, Raimondas; Pitts, R Jason; Simard, Frederic; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2014-04-01

    The enormous burden placed on populations worldwide by mosquito-borne diseases, most notably malaria and dengue, is currently being tackled by the use of insecticides sprayed in residences or applied to bednets, and in the case of dengue vectors through reduction of larval breeding sites or larviciding with insecticides thereof. However, these methods are under threat from, amongst other issues, the development of insecticide resistance and the practical difficulty of maintaining long-term community-wide efforts. The sterile insect technique (SIT), whose success hinges on having a good understanding of the biology and behaviour of the male mosquito, is an additional weapon in the limited arsenal against mosquito vectors. The successful production and release of sterile males, which is the mechanism of population suppression by SIT, relies on the release of mass-reared sterile males able to confer sterility in the target population by mating with wild females. A five year Joint FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project brought together researchers from around the world to investigate the pre-mating conditions of male mosquitoes (physiology and behaviour, resource acquisition and allocation, and dispersal), the mosquito mating systems and the contribution of molecular or chemical approaches to the understanding of male mosquito mating behaviour. A summary of the existing knowledge and the main novel findings of this group is reviewed here, and further presented in the reviews and research articles that form this Acta Tropica special issue. PMID:24252487

  10. Age-independent increases in male salivary testosterone during horticultural activity among Tsimane forager-farmers.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Benjamin C; Cummings, Daniel K; O'Connor, Kathleen A; Holman, Darryl J; Smith, Eric A; Kaplan, Hillard S; Gurven, Michael D

    2013-09-01

    Testosterone plays an important role in mediating male reproductive trade-offs in many vertebrate species, augmenting muscle and influencing behavior necessary for male-male competition and mating-effort. Among humans, testosterone may also play a key role in facilitating male provisioning of offspring as muscular and neuromuscular performance are deeply influenced by acute changes in testosterone. This study examines acute changes in salivary testosterone among 63 Tsimane men ranging in age from 16-80 (mean 38.2) years during one-hour bouts of tree-chopping while clearing horticultural plots. The Tsimane forager-horticulturalists living in the Bolivian Amazon experience high energy expenditure associated with food production, have high levels of parasites and pathogens, and display significantly lower baseline salivary testosterone than age-matched US males. Mixed-effects models controlling for BMI and time of specimen collection reveal increased salivary testosterone (p<0.001) equivalent to a 48.6% rise, after one hour of tree chopping. Age had no effect on baseline (p=0.656) or change in testosterone (p=0.530); self-reported illness did not modify testosterone change (p=0.488). A comparison of these results to the relative change in testosterone during a competitive soccer tournament in the same population reveals larger relative changes in testosterone following resource production (tree chopping), compared to competition (soccer). These findings highlight the importance of moving beyond a unidimensional focus on changes in testosterone and male-male aggression to investigate the importance of testosterone-behavior interactions across additional male fitness-related activities. Acutely increased testosterone during muscularly intensive horticultural food production may facilitate male productivity and provisioning. PMID:24187482

  11. Age-independent increases in male salivary testosterone during horticultural activity among Tsimane forager-farmers

    PubMed Central

    TRUMBLE, BENJAMIN C; CUMMINGS, DANIEL K; O’CONNOR, KATHLEEN A; HOLMAN, DARRYL J; SMITH, ERIC A; KAPLAN, HILLARD S; GURVEN, MICHAEL D

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone plays an important role in mediating male reproductive trade-offs in many vertebrate species, augmenting muscle and influencing behavior necessary for male-male competition and mating-effort. Among humans, testosterone may also play a key role in facilitating male provisioning of offspring as muscular and neuromuscular performance are deeply influenced by acute changes in testosterone. This study examines acute changes in salivary testosterone among 63 Tsimane men ranging in age from 16–80 (mean 38.2) years during one-hour bouts of tree-chopping while clearing horticultural plots. The Tsimane forager-horticulturalists living in the Bolivian Amazon experience high energy expenditure associated with food production, have high levels of parasites and pathogens, and display significantly lower baseline salivary testosterone than age-matched US males. Mixed-effects models controlling for BMI and time of specimen collection reveal increased salivary testosterone (p<0.001) equivalent to a 48.6% rise, after one hour of tree chopping. Age had no effect on baseline (p=0.656) or change in testosterone (p=0.530); self-reported illness did not modify testosterone change (p=0.488). A comparison of these results to the relative change in testosterone during a competitive soccer tournament in the same population reveals larger relative changes in testosterone following resource production (tree chopping), compared to competition (soccer). These findings highlight the importance of moving beyond a unidimensional focus on changes in testosterone and male-male aggression to investigate the importance of testosterone-behavior interactions across additional male fitness-related activities. Acutely increased testosterone during muscularly intensive horticultural food production may facilitate male productivity and provisioning. PMID:24187482

  12. Interactions between nutritional and opioidergic pathways in the control of LH secretion in male sheep.

    PubMed

    Celi, Pietro; Miller, David W; Blache, Dominique; Martin, Graeme B

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the role of opioidergic processes in the effects of nutrition on the secretion of LH pulses in the mature male sheep. In the first of three experiments, adult Merino rams were acclimatised to a maintenance diet and then allocated to one of three dietary groups (n=5): continuation of the maintenance diet (Group M); reduction to half of the maintenance allocation (Group HM); or supplementation of the maintenance diet with lupin grain (Group HD). An initial administration of naloxone (2mg/kg body weight, i.v.) was followed at 40-min intervals by three further administrations (1mg/kg). Blood was sampled every 20 min for 12h before the initial naloxone administration and then for a further 6h. LH pulse frequency after naloxone treatment was significantly higher in Group HD than in Group HM (P<0.05). The second study tested whether the response to naloxone depended on calcium status. We used 22 adult Merino rams in two consecutive experiments, one in which the rams were fed a maintenance diet, and one in which the rams were fed with the maintenance diet plus 1 kg lupin grain for 5 weeks. In both experiments, rams were allocated to groups that received one of the following treatments: (a) 0.02 g/kg calcium borogluconate+0.2mg/kg naloxone hydrochloride (Nal+Ca(2+); n=6); (b) 0.2mg/kg naloxone hydrochloride (Nal; n=6); (c) 0.02 g/kg calcium borogluconate (Ca(2+); n=5); (d) 0.1 ml/kg NaCl 0.9% (Saline; n=5). All treatments were given as a single i.v. administration daily for 5 days. Blood was sampled every 20 min for 24 h during the acclimatization period (Day 0) and on the last day (Day 5) of treatment. In the first study (under maintenance), none of the treatments affected LH pulse frequency. In the second study (the lupin-supplemented rams), LH pulse frequency was significantly increased (P<0.05) by the administration of naloxone+Ca(2+), naloxone alone and Ca(2+) alone. Overall, rams on a low plane of nutrition showed the smallest response to

  13. Randomized, Controlled Intervention Trial of Male Circumcision for Reduction of HIV Infection Risk: The ANRS 1265 Trial

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Observational studies suggest that male circumcision may provide protection against HIV-1 infection. A randomized, controlled intervention trial was conducted in a general population of South Africa to test this hypothesis. Methods and Findings A total of 3,274 uncircumcised men, aged 18–24 y, were randomized to a control or an intervention group with follow-up visits at months 3, 12, and 21. Male circumcision was offered to the intervention group immediately after randomization and to the control group at the end of the follow-up. The grouped censored data were analyzed in intention-to-treat, univariate and multivariate, analyses, using piecewise exponential, proportional hazards models. Rate ratios (RR) of HIV incidence were determined with 95% CI. Protection against HIV infection was calculated as 1 − RR. The trial was stopped at the interim analysis, and the mean (interquartile range) follow-up was 18.1 mo (13.0–21.0) when the data were analyzed. There were 20 HIV infections (incidence rate = 0.85 per 100 person-years) in the intervention group and 49 (2.1 per 100 person-years) in the control group, corresponding to an RR of 0.40 (95% CI: 0.24%–0.68%; p < 0.001). This RR corresponds to a protection of 60% (95% CI: 32%–76%). When controlling for behavioural factors, including sexual behaviour that increased slightly in the intervention group, condom use, and health-seeking behaviour, the protection was of 61% (95% CI: 34%–77%). Conclusion Male circumcision provides a degree of protection against acquiring HIV infection, equivalent to what a vaccine of high efficacy would have achieved. Male circumcision may provide an important way of reducing the spread of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. (Preliminary and partial results were presented at the International AIDS Society 2005 Conference, on 26 July 2005, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.) PMID:16231970

  14. Investigating the Relationship between Personality Traits and Self-Control and Nicotine Dependence Symptoms in Male Prisoners in Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Baniassadi, Tayebeh; Javanmard, Zeinab; Zivari-Rahman, Mahmoud; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz; Adhami, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking is the most common and cheapest addictive substance and has physical, psychological, and social side effects. Personality traits and low self-control have been identified as key factors for substance and tobacco abuse. This study examined the relationship between personality traits and self-control, and symptoms of nicotine dependence in male prisoners. Methods This was a descriptive correlational study. The research sample consisted of 384 male prisoners in Kerman, Iran. The participants were selected using simple random sampling method. The data collection tools consisted of the NEO five factor personality inventory (NEO-FFI), self-control Inventory, and the nicotine dependence symptoms inventory. Findings The mean age of the prisoners was 35.33 ± 9.28 year. The results showed a significant negative relationship between self-control and nicotine dependence. The most important predictors of prisoners’ self-control were the personality traits of conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, and temperamental neuroticism, respectively. The most important predictors of nicotine dependence in prisons were personality traits of adaptability, temperamental neuroticism, extroversion, and openness, respectively. Conclusion Personality traits and self-control have an important role in nicotine dependence; therefore, by training self-control, behaviors such as smoking and consumption of drugs can be reduced. PMID:26322215

  15. Sodium–hydrogen exchanger NHA1 and NHA2 control sperm motility and male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Su-Ren; Chen, M; Deng, S-L; Hao, X-X; Wang, X-X; Liu, Y-X

    2016-01-01

    Our previous work identified NHA1, a testis-specific sodium–hydrogen exchanger, is specifically localized on the principal piece of mouse sperm flagellum. Our subsequent study suggested that the number of newborns and fertility rate of NHA1-vaccinated female mice are significantly stepped down. In order to define the physiological function of NHA1 in spermatozoa, we generated Nha1Fx/Fx, Zp3-Cre (hereafter called Nha1 cKO) mice and found that Nha1 cKO males were viable and subfertile with reduced sperm motility. Notably, cyclic AMP (cAMP) synthesis by soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) was attenuated in Nha1 cKO spermatozoa and cAMP analogs restored sperm motility. Similar to Nha1 cKO males, Nha2Fx/Fx, Zp3-Cre (hereafter called Nha2 cKO) male mice were subfertile, indicating these two Nha genes may be functionally redundant. Furthermore, we demonstrated that male mice lacking Nha1 and Nha2 genes (hereafter called Nha1/2 dKO mice) were completely infertile, with severely diminished sperm motility owing to attenuated sAC-cAMP signaling. Importantly, principal piece distribution of NHA1 in spermatozoa are phylogenetically conserved in spermatogenesis. Collectively, our data revealed that NHA1 and NHA2 function as a key sodium–hydrogen exchanger responsible for sperm motility after leaving the cauda epididymidis. PMID:27010853

  16. The Male Sterility Locus ms3 is Present in a Fertility Controlling Gene Cluster in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a self-pollinated plant. Manual cross-pollination is used to produce limited quantities of hybrid seed. To produce large quantities of hybrid seed, insect-mediated cross-pollination is necessary. An efficient nuclear male-sterile system for hybrid seed producti...

  17. A Way of Being: A Program for Aggression Control of Male Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akande, A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the negative effects of anger and exposure to violence for male children in South Africa. Discusses the need for multiple interventions that are both individual- and environmental-centered. Offers detailed recommendations for effective culturally relevant psychoeducational policy initiatives and optimal anger replacement strategies for…

  18. Female and Male Psychologists in Academic Administration: Resource Control and Perceived Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenk, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined male and female psychologists in academic administrative positions with regard to their perceptions of their own power and their actual power within the administrative hierarchies in which they work. In the past, researchers have compared women and men in academic administrative positions with regard to parity of numbers,…

  19. Doublesex Regulates the Connectivity of a Neural Circuit Controlling Drosophila Male Courtship Song.

    PubMed

    Shirangi, Troy R; Wong, Allan M; Truman, James W; Stern, David L

    2016-06-20

    It is unclear how regulatory genes establish neural circuits that compose sex-specific behaviors. The Drosophila melanogaster male courtship song provides a powerful model to study this problem. Courting males vibrate a wing to sing bouts of pulses and hums, called pulse and sine song, respectively. We report the discovery of male-specific thoracic interneurons-the TN1A neurons-that are required specifically for sine song. The TN1A neurons can drive the activity of a sex-non-specific wing motoneuron, hg1, which is also required for sine song. The male-specific connection between the TN1A neurons and the hg1 motoneuron is regulated by the sexual differentiation gene doublesex. We find that doublesex is required in the TN1A neurons during development to increase the density of the TN1A arbors that interact with dendrites of the hg1 motoneuron. Our findings demonstrate how a sexual differentiation gene can build a sex-specific circuit motif by modulating neuronal arborization. PMID:27326931

  20. Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215

  1. Can Male Fertility Be Improved Prior to Assisted Reproduction through The Control of Uncommonly Considered Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Campagne, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Male factor infertility or subfertility is responsible for up to 50% of infertility cases. A considerable body of recent studies indicates that lifestyle as well as environmental and psychological factors can negatively affect male fertility, more than previously thought. These negative effects have been shown in many cases to be reversible. This review aims to provide a rationale for early clinical attention to these factors and presents a non-exhaustive evidence-based collection of primary relevant conditions and recommendations, specifically with a view to making first line diagnostics and recommendations. The presently available evidence suggests that considering the high cost, success rates, and possible side effects of assisted reproduction techniques (ART), such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), early efforts to improve male fertility appear to be an attainable and worthwhile primary goal. A series of searches was conducted of Medline, Cochrane and related databases from November 14th, 2010 to January 26th, 2012 with the following keywords: male, fertility, infertility, sperm defects, IVF, ICSI, healthy habits, and lifestyle. Subsequent follow-up searches were performed for upcoming links. The total number of studies contemplated were 1265; of these, 296 studies were reviewed with criteria of relevance; the date of study or review; study sample size and study type; and publishing journal impact status. Data were abstracted based upon probable general clinical relevancy and use. Only a selection of the references has been reflected here because of space limitations. The main results obtained were evidence-supported indications as to the other causes of male infertility, their early detection, and treatment. PMID:24520443

  2. Association between IRS1 Gene Polymorphism and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Case-Control Study in Korean Males

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hae Jeong; Kim, Su Kang; Kang, Won Sub; Park, Jin Kyung; Kim, Young Jong; Nam, Min; Kim, Jong Woo; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway is thought to play an important role in brain development. Altered levels of IGFs and their signaling regulators have been shown in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. In this study, we investigated whether coding region single-nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs) of the insulin receptor substrates (IRS1 and IRS2), key mediators of the IGF pathway, were associated with ASD in Korean males. Two cSNPs (rs1801123 of IRS1, and rs4773092 of IRS2) were genotyped using direct sequencing in 180 male ASD patients and 147 male control subjects. A significant association between rs1801123 of IRS1 and ASD was shown in additive (p = 0.022, odds ratio (OR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.46–0.95) and dominant models (p = 0.013, OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.37–0.89). Allele frequency analysis also showed an association between rs1801123 and ASD (p = 0.022, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46–0.94). These results suggest that IRS1 may contribute to the susceptibility of ASD in Korean males. PMID:27483248

  3. Association between IRS1 Gene Polymorphism and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Case-Control Study in Korean Males.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae Jeong; Kim, Su Kang; Kang, Won Sub; Park, Jin Kyung; Kim, Young Jong; Nam, Min; Kim, Jong Woo; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway is thought to play an important role in brain development. Altered levels of IGFs and their signaling regulators have been shown in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. In this study, we investigated whether coding region single-nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs) of the insulin receptor substrates (IRS1 and IRS2), key mediators of the IGF pathway, were associated with ASD in Korean males. Two cSNPs (rs1801123 of IRS1, and rs4773092 of IRS2) were genotyped using direct sequencing in 180 male ASD patients and 147 male control subjects. A significant association between rs1801123 of IRS1 and ASD was shown in additive (p = 0.022, odds ratio (OR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.46-0.95) and dominant models (p = 0.013, OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.37-0.89). Allele frequency analysis also showed an association between rs1801123 and ASD (p = 0.022, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46-0.94). These results suggest that IRS1 may contribute to the susceptibility of ASD in Korean males. PMID:27483248

  4. Evaluation of contact irritant and spatial repellent behavioral responses of male Aedes aegypti to vector control compounds.

    PubMed

    Said, Sukhaynah H; Grieco, John P; Achee, Nicole L

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the contact irritant (CI) and spatial repellent (SR) behaviors of male Aedes aegypti upon exposure to standard chemicals currently used for vector control under laboratory conditions. Results indicate that male Ae. aegypti test populations exhibited significant (P < 0.01) escape responses upon contact to varying doses of alphacypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, and DDT. Analysis of data generated from the SR assays indicated that only DDT elicited a significant (P < 0.01) SR response, while alphacypermethrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin elicited no directional movement in the assay system. These findings are consistent with data generated previously using female Ae. aegypti of the same strain. It is hoped that information from this study will be used to stimulate additional research of male vector behavior in response to chemical stimuli. Determining the CI and SR responses of male vectors against chemicals used in current intervention strategies is important in understanding the impact these chemical actions will have on overall vector population dynamics and therefore disease transmission. PMID:20099590

  5. A male-specific quantitative trait locus on 1p21 controlling human stature

    PubMed Central

    Sammalisto, S; Hiekkalinna, T; Suviolahti, E; Sood, K; Metzidis, A; Pajukanta, P; Lilja, H; Soro-Paavonen, A; Taskinen, M; Tuomi, T; Almgren, P; Orho-Melander, M; Groop, L; Peltonen, L; Perola, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Many genome-wide scans aimed at complex traits have been statistically underpowered due to small sample size. Combining data from several genome-wide screens with comparable quantitative phenotype data should improve statistical power for the localisation of genomic regions contributing to these traits. Objective: To perform a genome-wide screen for loci affecting adult stature by combined analysis of four previously performed genome-wide scans. Methods: We developed a web based computer tool, Cartographer, for combining genetic marker maps which positions genetic markers accurately using the July 2003 release of the human genome sequence and the deCODE genetic map. Using Cartographer, we combined the primary genotype data from four genome-wide scans and performed variance components (VC) linkage analyses for human stature on the pooled dataset of 1417 individuals from 277 families and performed VC analyses for males and females separately. Results: We found significant linkage to stature on 1p21 (multipoint LOD score 4.25) and suggestive linkages on 9p24 and 18q21 (multipoint LOD scores 2.57 and 2.39, respectively) in males-only analyses. We also found suggestive linkage to 4q35 and 22q13 (multipoint LOD scores 2.18 and 2.85, respectively) when we analysed both females and males and to 13q12 (multipoint LOD score 2.66) in females-only analyses. Conclusions: We strengthened the evidence for linkage to previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for stature and also found significant evidence of a novel male-specific QTL on 1p21. Further investigation of several interesting candidate genes in this region will help towards characterisation of this first sex-specific locus affecting human stature. PMID:15827092

  6. Control of Male and Female Fertility by the Netrin Axon Guidance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Newquist, Gunnar; Hogan, Jesse; Walker, Kirsti; Lamanuzzi, Matthew; Bowser, Micah; Kidd, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The netrin axon guidance genes have previously been implicated in fertility in C. elegans and in vertebrates. Here we show that adult Drosophila lacking both netrin genes, NetA and NetB, have fertility defects in both sexes together with an inability to fly and reduced viability. NetAB females produce fertilized eggs at a much lower rate than wild type. Oocyte development and ovarian innervation are unaffected in NetAB females, and the reproductive tract appears normal. A small gene, hog, that resides in an intron of NetB does not contribute to the NetAB phenotype. Restoring endogenous NetB expression rescues egg-laying, but additional genetic manipulations, such as restoration of netrin midline expression and inhibition of cell death have no effect on fertility. NetAB males induce reduced egg-laying in wild type females and display mirror movements of their wings during courtship. Measurement of courtship parameters revealed no difference compared to wild type males. Transgenic manipulations failed to rescue male fertility and mirror movements. Additional genetic manipulations, such as removal of the enabled gene, a known suppressor of the NetAB embryonic CNS phenotype, did not improve the behavioral defects. The ability to fly was rescued by inhibition of neuronal cell death and pan-neural NetA expression. Based on our results we hypothesize that the adult fertility defects of NetAB mutants are due to ovulation defects in females and a failure to properly transfer sperm proteins in males, and are likely to involve multiple neural circuits. PMID:23977313

  7. A randomized, controlled, multicenter contraceptive efficacy clinical trial of the intravas device, a nonocclusive surgical male sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wen-Hong; Liang, Xiao-Wei; Gu, Yi-Qun; Wu, Wei-Xiong; Bo, Li-Wei; Zheng, Tian-Gui; Chen, Zhen-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Because of unavoidable complications of vasectomy, this study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of male sterilization with a nonobstructive intravas device (IVD) implanted into the vas lumen by a mini-surgical method compared with no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV). IVDs were categorized into two types: IVD-B has a tail used for fixing to the vas deferens (fixed wing) whereas IVD-A does not. A multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in China. The study was comprised of 1459 male volunteers seeking vasectomy who were randomly assigned to the IVD-A (n = 487), IVD-B (n = 485) or NSV (n = 487) groups and underwent operation. Follow-up included visits at the 3rd–6th and 12th postoperative months. The assessments of the subjects involved regular physical examinations (including general and andrological examinations) and semen analysis. The subjects’ partners also underwent monitoring for pregnancy by monthly interviews regarding menstruation and if necessary, urine tests. There were no significant differences in pregnancy rates (0.65% for IVD-A, 0 for IVD-B and 0.21% for NSV) among the three groups (P > 0.05). The cumulative rates of complications at the 12th postoperative month were zero, 0.9% and 1.7% in the three groups, respectively. In conclusion, IVD male sterilization exhibits a low risk of long-term adverse events and was found to be effective as a male sterilization method, similar to the NSV technique. IVD male sterilization is expected to be a novel contraceptive method. PMID:24589454

  8. A Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Amateur Male Boxers and Active Non-boxers.

    PubMed

    Bolam, K A; Skinner, T L; Sax, A T; Adlard, K N; Taaffe, D R

    2016-08-01

    To examine the site-specific osteogenic effect of upper limb impact-loading activity we compared the forearm and arm bone mineral density (BMD) of male boxers to that of active controls. A cross-sectional study was performed with 30 amateur male boxers (aged 18-44 years) and 32 age-matched, non-boxing, active controls. Participants had their regional and whole body BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hand grip strength, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, vitamin D, lean and fat mass, and past and current physical activity were also assessed. Forearm and arm BMD were 1.5-2.2% higher in boxers than the control group although this was not statistically significant (p>0.05), with no significant difference for BMC (p>0.05). There were no differences between groups for spine, hip, or whole body BMD or BMC, or for body composition or hormone status. Within the arms, lean mass was associated with BMD and BMC in both boxers and the control group (BMD, r=0.60-0.76, p<0.001; BMC, r=0.67-0.82, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between amateur boxers and the control group for upper limb BMD and BMC. However, muscle mass appears to be particularly important to bone health of the upper limbs. PMID:27203576

  9. Intrauterine growth restriction programs an accelerated age-related increase in cardiovascular risk in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Backstrom, Miles A; Carter, Anthony J; Alexander, Barbara T

    2016-08-01

    Placental insufficiency programs an increase in blood pressure associated with a twofold increase in serum testosterone in male growth-restricted offspring at 4 mo of age. Population studies indicate that the inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure is amplified with age. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction programs an age-related increase in blood pressure in male offspring. Growth-restricted offspring retained a significantly higher blood pressure at 12 but not at 18 mo of age compared with age-matched controls. Blood pressure was significantly increased in control offspring at 18 mo of age relative to control counterparts at 12 mo; however, blood pressure was not increased in growth-restricted at 18 mo relative to growth-restricted counterparts at 12 mo. Serum testosterone levels were not elevated in growth-restricted offspring relative to control at 12 mo of age. Thus, male growth-restricted offspring no longer exhibited a positive association between blood pressure and testosterone at 12 mo of age. Unlike hypertension in male growth-restricted offspring at 4 mo of age, inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system with enalapril (250 mg/l for 2 wk) did not abolish the difference in blood pressure in growth-restricted offspring relative to control counterparts at 12 mo of age. Therefore, these data suggest that intrauterine growth restriction programs an accelerated age-related increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted offspring. Furthermore, this study suggests that the etiology of increased blood pressure in male growth-restricted offspring at 12 mo of age differs from that at 4 mo of age. PMID:27147668

  10. Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in male breast cancer: a case-control study in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Sara; Cyr, Diane; Lynge, Elsebeth; Orsi, Laurent; Sabroe, Svend; Merletti, Franco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Baumgardt-Elms, Cornelia; Kaerlev, Linda; Eriksson, Mikael; Hardell, Lennart; Févotte, Joëlle; Guénel, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Male breast cancer is a rare disease of largely unknown etiology. Besides genetic or hormone-related risk factors, a large number of environmental chemicals are suspected to play a role in breast cancer. The identification of occupations or occupational exposures associated with an increased incidence of breast cancer in men may help to identify mammary carcinogens in the environment. Methods Occupational risk factors of male breast cancer were investigated in a multi-centre case-control study conducted in 8 European countries, including 104 cases and 1901 controls. Lifetime work history was obtained during in-person interviews. Occupational exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (alkylphenolic compounds, phthalates, PCBs and dioxins) were assessed on a case-by-case basis from expert judgment. Results Male breast cancer incidence was more particularly increased in motor vehicle mechanics (OR=2.1, CI 1.0–4.4) with a dose-effect relationship with duration employment. It was also increased in paper makers and painters, and in workers in forestry and logging, health and social work, and manufacture of furniture. The odds ratio for exposure to alkylphenolic compounds above median was 3.8 (CI 1.5–9.5). This association persisted after adjustment for occupational exposures to other environmental estrogens. Conclusion These findings suggest that some environmental chemicals are possible mammary carcinogens. Gasoline, organic petroleum solvents or PAH can be suspected from the consistent elevated risk of male breast cancer observed in motor vehicle mechanics. Endocrine disruptors such as alkylphenolic compounds may play a role in breast cancer. PMID:20798010

  11. Efficacy of the FIFA 11+ Warm-Up Programme in Male Youth Football: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Owoeye, Oluwatoyosi B A; Akinbo, Sunday R A; Tella, Bosede A; Olawale, Olajide A

    2014-05-01

    The FIFA 11+ is a structured warm-up programme specially designed to prevent injuries among football players from age 14 years and above. However, studies to prove its efficacy are generally few and it is yet to be tested in male youth footballers and among African players. The purpose of the study was to examine the efficacy of the FIFA 11+ programme in reducing the risk of injuries among male youth football players of the Lagos Junior League. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted. All the 20 teams (414 players aged 14 -19 years) in the Premier League division were block-randomised into either an intervention (INT) or a control (CON) group. The INT group performed the FIFA 11+ exercises as warm-up during training sessions and the CON group performed usual warm-up. Participating teams were prospectively followed through an entire league season of 6 months in which they were visited every week to assess injured players for time-loss injuries in both groups. The primary outcomes were any injury to the players, injuries by type of exposure and injuries specific to the lower extremities. The secondary outcomes were injuries reported by body location, aetiology, mechanism and severity. In total, 130 injuries were recorded affecting 104 (25%) of the 416 players. Team and player compliance with the INT was 60% and 74% respectively. Based on the primary outcome measures of the study, the FIFA 11+ programme significantly reduced the overall rate of injury in the INT group by 41% [RR = 0.59 (95% CI: 0.40 - 0.86; p = 0.006)] and all lower extremity injuries by 48% [RR = 0.52 (95% CI: 0.34 - 0.82; p = 0.004)]. However, the rate of injury reduction based on secondary outcomes mostly did not reach the level of statistical significance. The FIFA 11+ programme is effective in reducing the rates of injuries in male youth football players. Key pointsThe FIFA 11+ has only been tested in randomised controlled trials conducted on female youth football players; this study

  12. Comparison of essential and toxic elements in esophagus, lung, mouth and urinary bladder male cancer patients with related to controls.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Talpur, Farah Naz; Tuzen, Mustafa; Baig, Jameel Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    There is a compelling evidence in support of negative associations between essential trace and toxic elements in different types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between carcinogenic (As, Cd, Ni) and anti-carcinogenic (Se, Zn) trace elements in scalp hair samples of different male cancerous patients (esophagus, lung, mouth, and urinary bladder). For comparative purposes, the scalp hair samples of healthy males of the same age group (ranged 35-65 years) as controls were analyzed. Both controls and patients have the same socioeconomic status, localities, dietary habits, and smoking locally made cigarette. The scalp hair samples were oxidized by 65% nitric acid: 30% hydrogen peroxide (2:1) ratio in microwave oven followed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference material of human hair BCR 397. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, and Ni were found to be significantly higher in scalp hair samples of patients having different cancers as compared to the controls, while reverse results were obtained in the case of Se and Zn levels (p < 0.01). The study revealed that the carcinogenic processes are significantly affecting the trace elements burden and mutual interaction of essential trace and toxic elements in the cancerous patients. PMID:25548013

  13. Evidence that the photoperiod controls the annual changes in testosterone secretion, testicular and body weight in subtropical male goats.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, José Alberto; Cortez, María Elena; Duarte, Gerardo; Chemineau, Philippe; Malpaux, Benoît

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the reproductive seasonality of local male goats from subtropical Mexico (26 degrees N) is controlled by photoperiod. The control group (n = 7) remained in an open shed under natural daylight. The two experimental groups (n = 6 each) were placed in light-proof buildings and exposed for 2 years (yr) to alternations of 3 months (mo) of long days and 3 mo of short days. One group was first exposed to long days and the other one to short days. Body and testicular weights were determined every 2 wk. Blood samples were obtained weekly to determine testosterone plasma concentrations. In the control group, the body weight exhibited variations (P < 0.0001) and it increased during the non-breeding season. In both treated groups, long days stimulated weight gain and short days inhibited it (P < 0.0001). In the control group, testicular weight displayed variations (P < 0.0001), and high values were registered in June. In the treated groups, a testicular weight reduction occurred 6-9 mo after the onset of the study. Afterwards, the changes in testicular size varied according to daylength (P < 0.01). The pattern of plasma testosterone concentration in the control group varied over the study (P < 0.0001) and the levels were higher from May-June to November. In both treated groups, the changes in testosterone secretion occurred according to photoperiod changes (P < 0.0001). Short days enhanced testosterone secretion one photoperiodic cycle after the onset of the study and long days inhibited it. Local male goats from subtropical Mexico are sensitive to photoperiodic changes and this environmental cue may control the timing of the breeding season in natural conditions. PMID:15460158

  14. Promoting male involvement to improve PMTCT uptake and reduce antenatal HIV infection: a cluster randomized controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the availability of a dual therapy treatment protocol and infant feeding guidelines designed to prevent mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, of the over 1 million babies born in South Africa each year, only 70% of those born to HIV positive mothers receive dual therapy. Similar to other resource-poor nations facing the integration of PMTCT into routine pregnancy and infant care, efforts in South Africa to scale up PMTCT and reduce transmission to < 5% have fallen far short of the United Nation's goal of 50% reductions in paediatric HIV by 80% coverage of mothers. Methods/Design This study proposes to evaluate the impact of combining two evidence-based interventions: a couple's risk reduction intervention with an evidence based medication adherence intervention to enhance male participation in combination with improving medication and PMTCT adherence in antenatal clinics to increase PMTCT overall reach and effectiveness. The study will use a group-randomized design, recruiting 240 couples from 12 clinics. Clinics will be randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions and effectiveness of the combined intervention to enhance PMTCT as well as reduce antenatal seroconversion by both individuals and clinics will be examined. Discussion Shared intervention elements may decrease sexual risk and enhance PMTCT uptake, e.g., increased male participation, enhanced communication, HIV counselling and testing, adherence, serostatus disclosure, suggest that a combined sexual risk reduction and adherence intervention plus PMTCT can increase male participation, increase couples' communication and encourage adherence to the PMTCT process. The findings will impact public health and will enable the health ministry to formulate policy related to male involvement in PMTCT, which will result in PMTCT. Trial registration PACTR201109000318329 PMID:21985332

  15. The Feasibility of an Exercise Intervention in Males at Risk of Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Winzer, Brooke M.; Paratz, Jennifer D.; Whitehead, Jonathan P.; Whiteman, David C.; Reeves, Marina M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility and safety of a 24-week exercise intervention, compared to control, in males with Barrett’s oesophagus, and to estimate the effect of the intervention, compared to control, on risk factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma development. Methods A randomized controlled trial of an exercise intervention (60 minutes moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise five days/week over 24 weeks; one supervised and four unsupervised sessions) versus attention control (45 minutes stretching five days/week over 24 weeks; one supervised and four unsupervised sessions) in inactive, overweight/obese (25.0–34.9 kg/m2) males with Barrett’s oesophagus, aged 18–70 years. Primary outcomes were obesity-associated hormones relevant to oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk (circulating concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance [HOMA]). Secondary outcomes included waist circumference, body composition, fitness, strength and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Outcomes were measured at baseline and 24-weeks. Intervention effects were analysed using generalised linear models, adjusting for baseline value. Results Recruitment was difficult in this population with a total of 33 participants recruited (target sample size: n = 80); 97% retention at 24-weeks. Adherence to the exercise protocol was moderate. No serious adverse events were reported. A statistically significant intervention effect (exercise minus control) was observed for waist circumference (-4.5 [95% CI -7.5, -1.4] cm; p < 0.01). Effects on primary outcomes were not statistically significant. Conclusion This small, exploratory trial provides important information to inform future trial development including recruitment rates and estimates of effect sizes on outcomes related to oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. Future trials should investigate a combined dietary and exercise intervention to

  16. Deleterious effects of obesity upon the hormonal and molecular mechanisms controlling spermatogenesis and male fertility.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Lien M; Millar, Kate; Jones, Celine; Fatum, Muhammad; Coward, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Worldwide obesity rates have nearly doubled since 1980 and currently over 10% of the population is obese. In 2008, over 1.4 billion adults aged 20 years and older had a body mass index or BMI above a healthy weight and of these, over 200 million men and nearly 300 million women were obese. While obesity can have many ramifications upon adult life, one growing area of concern is that of reproductive capacity. Obesity affects male infertility by influencing the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, thus causing detrimental effects upon spermatogenesis and subsequent fertility. In particular, evidence indicates that excess adipose tissue can alter the relative ratio of testosterone and oestrogen. Additional effects involve the homeostatic disruption of insulin, sex-hormone-binding-globulin, leptin and inhibin B, leading to diminished testosterone production and impairment to spermatogenesis. Aberrant spermatogenesis arising from obesity is associated with downstream changes in key semen parameters, defective sperm capacitation and binding, and deleterious effects on sperm chromatin structure. More recent investigations into trans-generational epigenetic inheritance further suggest that molecular changes in sperm that arise from obesity-related impaired spermatogenesis, such as modified sperm RNA levels, DNA methylation, protamination and histone acetylation, can impact upon the development of offspring. Here, we summarise our current understanding of how obesity exerts influence over spermatogenesis and subsequent fertility status, and make recommendations for future investigative research. PMID:26205254

  17. Immediate processing of erotic stimuli in paedophilia and controls: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most neuroimaging studies investigating sexual arousal in paedophilia used erotic pictures together with a blocked fMRI design and long stimulus presentation time. While this approach allows the detection of sexual arousal, it does not enable the assessment of the immediate processing of erotically salient stimuli. Our study aimed to identify neuronal networks related to the immediate processing of erotic stimuli in heterosexual male paedophiles and healthy age-matched controls. Methods We presented erotic pictures of prepubescent children and adults in an event related fMRI-design to eight paedophilic subjects and age-matched controls. Results Erotic pictures of females elicited more activation in the right temporal lobe, the right parietal lobe and both occipital lobes and erotic pictures of children activated the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in both groups. An interaction of sex, age and group was present in the right anteriolateral oribitofrontal cortex. Conclusions Our event related study design confirmed that erotic pictures activate some of the brain regions already known to be involved in the processing of erotic pictures when these are presented in blocks. In addition, it revealed that erotic pictures of prepubescent children activate brain regions critical for choosing response strategies in both groups, and that erotically salient stimuli selectively activate a brain region in paedophilic subjects that had previously been attributed to reward and punishment, and that had been shown to be implicated in the suppression of erotic response and deception. PMID:23510246

  18. Src64 controls a novel actin network required for proper ring canal formation in the Drosophila male germline.

    PubMed

    Eikenes, Åsmund Husabø; Malerød, Lene; Lie-Jensen, Anette; Sem Wegner, Catherine; Brech, Andreas; Liestøl, Knut; Stenmark, Harald; Haglund, Kaisa

    2015-12-01

    In many organisms, germ cells develop as cysts in which cells are interconnected via ring canals (RCs) as a result of incomplete cytokinesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of incomplete cytokinesis remain poorly understood. Here, we address the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of RCs in the Drosophila male germline. We uncover a hierarchy of tyrosine phosphorylation within germline cysts that positively correlates with RC age. The kinase Src64 is responsible for mediating RC tyrosine phosphorylation, and loss of Src64 causes a reduction in RC diameter within germline cysts. Mechanistically, we show that Src64 controls an actin network around the RCs that depends on Abl and the Rac/SCAR/Arp2/3 pathway. The actin network around RCs is required for correct RC diameter in cysts of developing germ cells. We also identify that Src64 is required for proper germ cell differentiation in the Drosophila male germline independent of its role in RC regulation. In summary, we report that Src64 controls actin dynamics to mediate proper RC formation during incomplete cytokinesis during germline cyst development in vivo. PMID:26628094

  19. Characteristics and Predictive Value of Blood Transcriptome Signature in Males with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Holm, Ingrid A.; Campbell, Malcolm G.; Lee, In-Hee; Brewster, Stephanie J.; Hanson, Ellen; Harris, Heather K.; Lowe, Kathryn R.; Saada, Adrianna; Mora, Andrea; Madison, Kimberly; Hundley, Rachel; Egan, Jessica; McCarthy, Jillian; Eran, Ally; Galdzicki, Michal; Rappaport, Leonard; Kunkel, Louis M.; Kohane, Isaac S.

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a spectrum of highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders in which known mutations contribute to disease risk in 20% of cases. Here, we report the results of the largest blood transcriptome study to date that aims to identify differences in 170 ASD cases and 115 age/sex-matched controls and to evaluate the utility of gene expression profiling as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of ASD. The differentially expressed genes were enriched for the neurotrophin signaling, long-term potentiation/depression, and notch signaling pathways. We developed a 55-gene prediction model, using a cross-validation strategy, on a sample cohort of 66 male ASD cases and 33 age-matched male controls (P1). Subsequently, 104 ASD cases and 82 controls were recruited and used as a validation set (P2). This 55-gene expression signature achieved 68% classification accuracy with the validation cohort (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC): 0.70 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62–0.77]). Not surprisingly, our prediction model that was built and trained with male samples performed well for males (AUC 0.73, 95% CI 0.65–0.82), but not for female samples (AUC 0.51, 95% CI 0.36–0.67). The 55-gene signature also performed robustly when the prediction model was trained with P2 male samples to classify P1 samples (AUC 0.69, 95% CI 0.58–0.80). Our result suggests that the use of blood expression profiling for ASD detection may be feasible. Further study is required to determine the age at which such a test should be deployed, and what genetic characteristics of ASD can be identified. PMID:23227143

  20. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein expression in the male excretory duct system during development.

    PubMed

    Marcorelles, Pascale; Gillet, Danièle; Friocourt, Gaëlle; Ledé, Françoise; Samaison, Laura; Huguen, Geneviève; Ferec, Claude

    2012-03-01

    Sterility due to bilateral destruction in utero or in early infancy resulting in congenital absence of the vas deferens is the rule in male patients with cystic fibrosis. To understand the developmental pattern of this anomaly, the microscopic morphology of the male excretory system was analyzed during development and the expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein was explored by immunohistochemistry. We observed that cystic fibrosis fetuses had no excretory ducts agenesis or obstruction until 22 weeks of gestation. However, a focal inflammatory pattern and mucinous plugs in the oldest cystic fibrosis case suggested a disruptive mechanism. Immunolabeling of cytoplasmic epithelial cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein was demonstrated in all cystic fibrosis and control cases with a similar pattern of expression of the protein between age-matched controls and cystic fibrosis cases. At midgestation, an apical intensification appeared in both cystic fibrosis and control cases and was stable during the remainder of fetal life. No gradient of intensity could be detected between the different segments of the excretory tract. These findings are different from those reported in adults. The absence of any morphologic anomaly until 22 weeks of gestation, the focal destruction of the epithelial structures during the second trimester, and the chronological pattern of expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator are of interest for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:21840567

  1. Corticosteroids Are Essential for Maintaining Cardiovascular Function in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Topete, Diana; Myers, Page H; Foley, Julie F; Willis, Monte S; Cidlowski, John A

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis results in the release of hormones from the adrenal glands, including glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. The physiological association between corticosteroids and cardiac disease is becoming increasingly recognized; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. To determine the biological effects of corticosteroids on the heart, we investigated the impact of adrenalectomy in C57BL/6 male mice. Animals were adrenalectomized (ADX) at 1 month of age and maintained for 3-6 months after surgery to evaluate the effects of long-term adrenalectomy on cardiac function. Morphological evaluation suggested that ADX mice showed significantly enlarged hearts compared with age-matched intact controls. These changes in morphology correlated with deficits in left ventricular (LV) function and electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities in ADX mice. Correlating with these functional defects, gene expression analysis of ADX hearts revealed aberrant expression of a large cohort of genes associated with cardiac hypertrophy and arrhythmia. Combined corticosterone and aldosterone replacement treatment prevented the emergence of cardiac abnormalities in ADX mice, whereas corticosterone replacement prevented the effects of adrenalectomy on LV function but did not block the emergence of ECG alterations. Aldosterone replacement did not preserve the LV function but prevented ECG abnormalities. Together, the data indicate that adrenal glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids either directly or indirectly have selective effects in the heart and their signaling pathways are essential in maintaining normal cardiac function. PMID:27219275

  2. XY male pseudohermaphroditism in a captive Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Padilla, Luis R; Dutton, Christopher J; Bauman, Joan; Duncan, Mary

    2005-09-01

    A 2-yr-old Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) was presented for evaluation of abnormal genitalia and infantile behavior. The oryx had a penis and a scrotum, but testes were not palpable within the scrotum or inguinal canal. The total serum testosterone for the individual was lower than in age-matched males of the same species. Surgical exploration showed markedly hypoplastic intra-abdominal gonads, which demonstrated both testicular and uterine tissue on histologic examination. After karyotype analysis, the individual was classified as an XY male pseudohermaphrodite. This condition resembles two human intersex syndromes: embryonic testicular regression syndrome and partial gonadal dysgenesis syndrome, which occur in familial lines. PMID:17312771

  3. Validation of an adaptation of Levenson's locus of control scale with adult male incarcerated sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Fay L; Palmer, Emma J; Wakeling, Helen C

    2012-02-01

    This article examines the psychometric properties of an adaptation of Levenson's Locus of Control (LoC) measure that is used by the English and Welsh Prison Service as part of the psychometric assessment battery for sexual offenders participating in the Sex Offender Treatment Programme (SOTP). Reliability and validity analyses were conducted on a sample of 2,497 sexual offenders who had completed SOTP. Internal consistency, convergent validity, and relationship to socially desirable responding were investigated. Construct validity was assessed via exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Test-retest reliability data were collected from an additional sample of 26 sexual offenders. The scale was found to have excellent internal consistency, good test-retest reliability, and weak to moderate convergent validity with measures of self-esteem, attachment styles, emotional loneliness, and social problem solving. There was a moderate correlation between the scale and socially desirable responding. EFA and CFA suggested that a four-factor solution provided an acceptable fit to the data, with the factors relating to constructs of chance, problem solving, powerful others, and internal control. The findings of the present study suggest that the adapted LoC Scale is a useful tool for assessing sexual offenders' locus of control. PMID:21788438

  4. Alterations in the steroid hormone receptor co-chaperone FKBPL are associated with male infertility: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Male infertility is a common cause of reproductive failure in humans. In mice, targeted deletions of the genes coding for FKBP6 or FKBP52, members of the FK506 binding protein family, can result in male infertility. In the case of FKBP52, this reflects an important role in potentiating Androgen Receptor (AR) signalling in the prostate and accessory glands, but not the testis. In infertile men, no mutations of FKBP52 or FKBP6 have been found so far, but the gene for FKBP-like (FKBPL) maps to chromosome 6p21.3, an area linked to azoospermia in a group of Japanese patients. Methods To determine whether mutations in FKBPL could contribute to the azoospermic phenotype, we examined expression in mouse and human tissues by RNA array blot, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and sequenced the complete gene from two azoospermic patient cohorts and matching control groups. FKBPL-AR interaction was assayed using reporter constructs in vitro. Results FKBPL is strongly expressed in mouse testis, with expression upregulated at puberty. The protein is expressed in human testis in a pattern similar to FKBP52 and also enhanced AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays. We examined sixty patients from the Japanese patient group and found one inactivating mutation and one coding change, as well as a number of non-coding changes, all absent in fifty-six controls. A second, Irish patient cohort of thirty showed another two coding changes not present in thirty proven fertile controls. Conclusions Our results describe the first alterations in the gene for FKBPL in azoospermic patients and indicate a potential role in AR-mediated signalling in the testis. PMID:20210997

  5. Effects of a ferment soy product on the adipocyte area reduction and dyslipidemia control in hypercholesterolemic adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Cheik, Nadia Carla; Rossi, Elizeu Antônio; Guerra, Ricardo Luís Fernandes; Tenório, Neuli Maria; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia Maria; Viana, Fabiana Pavan; Manzoni, Marla Simone Jovenasso; Carlos, Iracilda Zeponni; Leão da Silva, Patrícia; Vendramini, Regina Célia; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2008-01-01

    Background Available data on the effects of a fermented soy product enriched with Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus Jugurti on circulating lipids and adiposity are not completely settled. This study aimed to observe the effects of a fermented soy product enriched with Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus Jugurti on central obesity and dyslipidemia control in Wistar adult male rats. Methods Over a period of 8 weeks, animals had "ad libitum" food intake and water consumption as well as body weight and food consumption was monitored. The animals were assigned to four different experimental groups: Control Group (C); Control + Fermented Product Group (CPF); Hypercholesterolemic diet group (H); and Hypercholesterolemic + Fermented Product Group (HPF). The HPF and CPF groups received an intragastric administration of 1 ml of fermented product daily. After the experimental period the animals were killed by decapitation, blood was collected to measure cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol plasma concentration. Adipocyte circumference, lipolysis and lipogenis rates were measures using epididymal and retroperitoneal white adipose tissues. Results The results demonstrated that 1 ml/day/rat of the fermented soy product promoted important benefits such as reduced cholesterolemia in hypercholesterolemic diet group and the adipocyte circumference in both control and hypercholesterolemic diet group. Conclusion The fermented soy product enriched with Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus Jugurti decreased circulating lipids levels and reduced adipocyte area in rats. PMID:19087298

  6. Androgenic control of male-typical behavior, morphology and sex recognition is independent of the mode of sex determination: A case study on Lichtenfelder's gecko (Eublepharidae: Goniurosaurus lichtenfelderi).

    PubMed

    Golinski, Alison; Kubička, Lukáš; John-Alder, Henry; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-06-01

    Previous work on lizards has shown that many sexually dimorphic traits depend on testosterone (T), but the details of this control can vary among species. Here, we tested the role of T on the expression of morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits in Lichtenfelder's gecko (Goniurosaurus lichtenfelderi), from the lizard family Eublepharidae notable for interspecific variation in sexually dimorphic traits and the mode of sex determination. Experiments included three groups of males (intact control, surgically castrated, castrated with T replacement) and two groups of females (intact control, T supplemented). In males, castration caused reductions in 1) the size of hemipenes, 2) offensive aggression, 3) male sexual behavior in a neutral arena, 4) activity of precloacal glands, and 5) loss of male chemical cues for sex recognition. These reductions were not observed in castrated males with T replacement. Interestingly, castrated males performed sexual behavior in their home cages, which shows that the effect of T depends on the environmental context. Notably, tail vibration, previously reported as a courtship behavior in other eublepharids, is displayed by males of G. lichtenfelderi during interactions with conspecifics of both sexes, suggesting an evolutionary shift in the meaning of this signal. In females, T induced growth of hemipenes and male-typical courtship but did not induce precloacal pore activity, aggression, or mounting. In comparison to previous reports on Eublepharis macularius, our results indicate that effects of T do not depend on the mode of sex determination. Further, our results extend our understanding of the complexity of control of male traits and illustrate how lability in the effects of T can be a general mechanism causing evolutionary changes in the components of suites of functionally correlated traits. PMID:25967849

  7. Occupation and male lung cancer: a case-control study in northern Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Damber, L A; Larsson, L G

    1987-01-01

    Using a case-control study comprising about 600 men with lung cancer in northern Sweden the potential risk of different occupations and groups of occupations was studied. Longitudinal data concerning occupation, employment, and smoking habits were obtained by questionnaires. Some occupational groups (underground miners, copper smelter workers, electricians, and plumbers) exposed to previously known lung carcinogenic agents such as radon daughters, arsenic, and asbestos, had considerably increased odds ratios, which persisted after adjustment for smoking. A slightly raised odds ratio was observed in a group of blue collar workers potentially exposed to lung carcinogenic agents; this rise in the group as a whole mainly disappeared after adjustment for smoking. Farmers and foresters had strikingly low odds ratios, which could only partly be explained by their more moderate smoking habits. The population aetiological fraction attributable to occupation was estimated as 9%. PMID:3620367

  8. The Trojan Female Technique for pest control: a candidate mitochondrial mutation confers low male fertility across diverse nuclear backgrounds in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Damian K; Tompkins, Daniel M; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    Pest species represent a major ongoing threat to global biodiversity. Effective management approaches are required that regulate pest numbers, while minimizing collateral damage to nontarget species. The Trojan Female Technique (TFT) was recently proposed as a prospective approach to biological pest control. The TFT draws on the evolutionary hypothesis that maternally inherited mitochondrial genomes are prone to the accumulation of male, but not female, harming mutations. These mutations could be harnessed to provide trans-generational fertility-based control of pest species. A candidate TFT mutation was recently described in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which confers male-only sterility in the specific isogenic nuclear background in which it is maintained. However, applicability of the TFT relies on mitochondrial mutations whose male-sterilizing effects are general across nuclear genomic contexts. We test this assumption, expressing the candidate TFT-mutation bearing haplotype alongside a range of nuclear backgrounds and comparing its fertility in males, relative to that of control haplotypes. We document consistently lower fertility for males harbouring the TFT mutation, in both competitive and noncompetitive mating contexts, across all nuclear backgrounds screened. This indicates that TFT mutations conferring reduced male fertility can segregate within populations and could be harnessed to facilitate this novel form of pest control. PMID:26495040

  9. Case–control association analysis of Dopamine receptor polymorphisms in alcohol dependence: a pilot study in Indian males

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain imaging studies and knock-out animal models have derived substantial abetment for dopamine receptor (DR) subtypes as potential candidates in susceptibility to addictive disorders, including alcohol dependence (AD). Various association studies that compared the frequencies of alleles of the dopamine D1, D2, D3 and D4 receptor genes between alcohol dependent and control subjects have produced suggestive results, though some of them are discordant in nature. In the absence of genetic data from Indian population, we evaluated genetic association of three polymorphisms namely rs4532 in DRD1, rs6280 in DRD3 and 120 bp duplication in 1.2 kb upstream region of DRD4 with AD. Methods A total of 90 cases (alcohol dependent males) and 122 age and ethnicity matched healthy male controls were recruited in the study by following DSM-IV criteria. Three polymorphisms, namely rs4532 in DRD1, rs6280 in DRD3 and 120 bp duplication in 1.2 kb upstream region of DRD4 were selected (based on minor allele frequency and available literature) for genotyping by PCR-RFLP/LP method. Allele and genotype frequencies of these genetic markers were compared using Pearson’s χ2 test followed by risk assessment using odds ratio. Statistical analysis of clinical parameters such as AUDIT scores of case subjects was also performed. Results Statistically significant associations of polymorphisms in DRD1 and DRD4 with alcoholism were found. Conclusions Our results underscore that genetic variations in dopamine receptors D1 and D4 may influence genetic predisposition to alcoholism. Unavailability of comparative data from Indian population and small sample size necessitate replication of results in an independent cohort. PMID:24135011

  10. Dual control of seasonal time keeping in male and female juvenile European hamsters.

    PubMed

    Monecke, Stefanie; Amann, Birgit; Lemuth, Karin; Wollnik, Franziska

    2014-05-10

    In contrast to photoperiodic rodent species, adult circannual European hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) do not rely on melatonin as transducer of the photoperiodic message. Instead, seasonal entrainment involves a special circadian organisation which characterizes a photoperiod-sensitive phase. When days shorten a precise activity pattern ("summer pattern") switches to a weak or arrhythmic "winter pattern". At the very same day gonadal regression is initiated and the circannual clock is reset. In contrast to this difference in photoperiodic time measurement, the broad time span in which offspring are born and the birth-season dependent timing of puberty is similar to photoperiodic rodents. We investigated how juvenile European hamsters measure photoperiod to situate themselves at the proper position in the annual cycle. Activity and 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) excretion were recorded in pups of five litters born at different seasons. Pups of all litters showed an activity pattern identical with the adults' summer pattern until postnatal day 78, suggesting that the pathway known to reset the circannual clock in adults is functional. The synchronous start of reproduction in yearlings supports this. However, since puberty and gonadal regression occurred before the switch in the activity pattern, the timing of reproduction in the birth year must be controlled by other means. As in photoperiodic species melatonin might be involved, since the aMT6s excretion showed daily and seasonal rhythms from early life on. PMID:24680739

  11. Injury prevention in male veteran football players - a randomised controlled trial using "FIFA 11+".

    PubMed

    Hammes, Daniel; Aus der Fünten, Karen; Kaiser, Stephanie; Frisen, Eugen; Bizzini, Mario; Meyer, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The warm-up programme "FIFA 11+" has been shown to reduce football injuries in different populations, but so far veteran players have not been investigated. Due to differences in age, skill level and gender, a simple transfer of these results to veteran football is not recommended. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of the "FIFA 11+" in veteran football players. Twenty veteran football teams were recruited for a prospective 9-month (1 season) cluster-randomised trial. The intervention group (INT, n = 146; 45 ± 8 years) performed the "FIFA 11+" at the beginning of each training session, while the control group (CON, n = 119; 43 ± 6 years) followed its regular training routine. Player exposure hours and injuries were recorded according to an international consensus statement. No significant difference was found between INT and CON in overall injury incidence (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.91 [0.64-1.48]; P = 0.89). Only severe injuries reached statistical significance with higher incidence in CON (IRR: 0.46 [0.21-0.97], P = 0.04). Regular conduction (i.e. once a week) of the "FIFA 11+" did not prevent injuries in veteran footballers under real training and competition circumstances. The lack of preventive effects is likely due to the too low overall frequency of training sessions. PMID:25370591

  12. The Effects of Plyometric Type Neuromuscular Training on Postural Control Performance of Male Team Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Abbas; Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Arazi, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common in basketball athletes; common preventive programs for decreasing these injures may be enhancing postural control (PC) or balance with plyometric training. This study investigated the efficiency of plyometric training program within basketball practice to improve PC performance in young basketball players. Sixteen players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric + basketball training group (PT) or basketball training group (BT). All players trained twice per week, but the PT + BT followed a 6-week plyometric program implemented within basketball practice, whereas the BT followed regular practice. The star excursion balance test (SEBT) at 8 directions (anterior, A; anteromedial, AM; anterolateral, AL; medial, M; lateral, L; posterior, P; posteromedial, PM; and posterolateral, PL) was measured before and after the 6-week period. The PT group induced significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) and small to moderate effect size in the SEBT (A = 0.95, AM = 0.62, AL = 0.61, M = 0.36, L = 0.47, P = 0.27, PM = 0.25, PL = 0.24). No significant improvements were found in the BT group. Also, there were significant differences between groups in all directions except PM and PL. An integrated plyometric program within the regular basketball practice can lead to significant improvements in SEBT and consequently PC. It can be recommended that strength and conditioning professionals use PT to enhance the athletes' joint awareness and PC to reduce possible future injuries in the lower extremity. PMID:25563677

  13. A Comparison of Dynamic Postural Stability Between Asymptomatic Controls and Male Patients One Year After ACL Reconstruction (Pilot Study)

    PubMed Central

    Ataoglu, Muhammed Baybars; Hazar, Zeynep; Kafa, Nihan; Özer, Mustafa; Citaker, Seyit

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if dynamic postural stability gained one year after ACL reconstruction in patients who received rehabilitation. Methods: Seven male patients (mean age=32,66 ±6,47) who had previously undergone ACL reconstruction (ACL-R) and 7 sex-and general physical activity matched uninjured controls included to study. Mean time since original injury was 13±3,31 months. Dynamic postural control was assessed with 20° knee flexion with Star Excursion Balance test. Each participant performed 3 trials of the anterior, posterior-medial, and posterior-lateral directional components of the SEBT. Reach distances for each directional component were compared with non-injured leg and healthy controls’. Results: There was no significant difference in all directions of Star Excursion Balance test between neither the operated and uninjured knees of patients nor between patients and healthy controls (p>0,05). Conclusion: No deficits in dynamic postural stability were present average one year after ACL reconstruction in patients who received rehabilitation. It can be said that rehabilitation is effective in the recovery of dynamic postural stability.

  14. Reducing alcohol-related aggression: Effects of a self-awareness manipulation and locus of control in heavy drinking males.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Danielle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction - that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient - have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men's intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect. Participants were 102 intoxicated male heavy drinkers who completed a self-report measure of locus of control and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (Taylor, 1967). In this task, participants administered electric shocks to, and received electric shocks from, a fictitious female opponent while exposed to an environment saturated with or devoid of self-awareness cues. Results indicated that the self-awareness manipulation was associated with less alcohol-related aggression toward the female confederate for men who reported an internal, but not an external, locus of control. Findings support AMT as a theoretical framework to inform preventative interventions for alcohol-related aggression and highlight the importance of individual differences in receptivity to such interventions. PMID:26905761

  15. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients. PMID:27432261

  16. Left ventricular mass index and coronary artery disease in hypertensive black males.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, F. C.; Satterwhite, K.; Potter, C.; Craddock, K.; Beyoglu, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Thallium-201 stress scintigraphy (TSS) and echocardiography were performed on 60 consecutive black male hypertensives and compared to 60 sex-, race-, and age-matched controls. We found a higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy with repolarization abnormality in the hypertensive group; 32 of 60 (53%), compared to 10 of 60 (17%) of the controls, P < .05. Echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass index revealed a significantly higher mean value in the hypertensive group of 147 +/- 57 compared to 124 +/- 34 in the control group, P < .001. Thirty-one of 60 (52%) of the hypertensive group had a normal TSS compared to 22 of 60 (37%) of the controls. A total of 68 (38 fixed and 30 reversible) perfusion defects were noted in the hypertensive group compared to 74 (55 fixed and 19 reversible) in the controls. The severity of clinical syndromes associated with myocardial ischemia were noted in increased incidence in the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular mass index was noted to be predictive of severity of coronary disease independent of the standard risk factors. PMID:8366535

  17. Male-typical courtship, spawning behavior, and olfactory sensitivity are induced to different extents by androgens in the goldfish suggesting they are controlled by different neuroendocrine mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Ratna; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-06-01

    Male-typical reproductive behaviors vary greatly between different species of fishes with androgens playing a variety of roles that appear especially important in the gonochorist cypriniform fishes. The goldfish is an important model for the cypriniformes and while it is clear that male goldfish are fully feminized by prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α), it is not clear whether females will exhibit normal levels of male-typical reproductive behaviors as well as olfactory function when treated with androgens. To answer this question, we exposed sexually-regressed adult female goldfish to several types of androgen and monitored their tendencies to court (inspect females) and mate (spawn, or attempt to release gametes) while monitoring their olfactory sensitivity until changes in these attributes were maximized. Untreated adult males (intact) were included to determine the extent of masculinization. Treatments included the natural androgens, 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone (KT and T), administered via capsules (KT+T-implanted fish); the artificial androgen, methyltestosterone (MT), administered via capsules (MT-C); and MT administered in the fishes' water (MT-B). Male-typical olfactory sensitivity to a pheromone (15keto-PGF2α) increased in all androgen-treated groups and by week 6 was fully equivalent to that of males. Male-typical courtship behavior increased in all androgen-treated groups although slowly, and only MT-B females came to exhibit levels equivalent to those of males after 18weeks. In contrast, male-typical mating activity increased only slightly, with MT-B females reaching levels one-third that of males after 30weeks. We conclude that while androgens fully masculinize olfactory sensitivity and courtship behavior in goldfish, mating behavior is controlled by a different neuroendocrine mechanism(s) that has yet to be fully elucidated. PMID:27131392

  18. Salivary antioxidants of male athletes after aerobic exercise and garlic supplementation on: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Saati Zareei, Alireza; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species is a natural biological event in metabolism. However, the presence of antioxidants can highly reduce the negative effect of free radicals. Thus, the efficiency of antioxidant system in the physiology of exercise is very important. Design Considering the known antioxidant capacity of garlic, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on combining 14 days aerobic exercise till exhaustion with garlic extract supplementation on the antioxidant capacity of saliva. Methods Sixteen young men volunteered to participate in this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study and were randomly placed into two groups, placebo (Group I) and garlic extract (Group II). The participants performed exhaustive aerobic exercise on a treadmill before and after supplementation. Their unstimulated salivary samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 h after the activity. The antioxidant activity in terms of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) was then measured in the collected samples using their specific substrates. Results A significant increase in salivary antioxidant activity of SOD, POD, and CAT was observed in saliva of the supplement group compared to the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion The findings from this study suggest that increased activity of antioxidant enzymes could possibly decrease exercise-induced oxidative damage in male athletes. PMID:26605139

  19. Similar but Different: Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance, Body Shape Dissatisfaction, and Weight Control Behaviors among Male and Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita; Lewis, Melissa; Zhang, Yan; Blunt, Heather; Thompson, Sharon H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although females have a higher incidence of eating disorders than males, there is evidence that among college students both males and females are vulnerable to risk factors associated with eating disorders. Purpose: To explore the relationship between sociocultural attitudes towards appearance (SCATA), body shape (dis)satisfaction…

  20. Case-control study of allele frequencies of 15 short tandem repeat loci in males with impulsive violent behavior

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun; Ba, Huajie; Gao, Zhiqin; Zhao, Hanqing; Yu, Haiying; Guo, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Analysis of genetic polymorphisms in short tandem repeats (STRs) is an accepted method for detecting associations between genotype and phenotype but it has not previously been used in the study of the genetics of impulsive violent behavior. Objective Compare the prevalence of different polymorphisms in 15 STR loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA) between men with a history of impulsive violence and male control subjects without a history of impulsive violence. Methods The distributions of the alleles of the 15 STR loci were compared between 407 cases with impulsive violent behavior and 415 controls using AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ kits. Results Compared to controls, the average frequencies of the following alleles were significantly lower in individuals with a history of violent behavior: allele 10 of TH01 (OR=0.29, 95%CI=0.16-0.52, p<0.0001,), allele 8 of TPOX (OR=0.71, 95%CI=0.58-0.86, p=0.0005), allele 9 of TPOX (OR=0.65, 95%CI=0.47-0.89, p=0.0072) and allele 14 of CSF1PO (OR=0.27, 95%CI=0.11-0.68, p=0.0035). One allele was significantly higher in cases than controls: allele 11 of TPOX (OR=1.79, 95%CI=1.45-2.22, p<0.0001). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first behavioral genetic study that clearly demonstrates a close relationship between specific genetic markers and impulsive aggression in non-psychiatric offenders. Further prospective work will be needed to determine whether or not the alleles identified can be considered risk factors for impulsive aggression and, if so, the underlying mechanisms that result in this relationship. PMID:24991178

  1. Regulation of Sclerostin Production in Human Male Osteocytes by Androgens: Experimental and Clinical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Di Nisio, Andrea; De Toni, Luca; Speltra, Elena; Rocca, Maria Santa; Taglialavoro, Giuseppe; Ferlin, Alberto; Foresta, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    In this study we aimed to elucidate a possible role of T in the regulation of sclerostin, a glycoprotein secreted by osteocytes known to regulate bone mass. To this end, we evaluated the effect of T stimulation on sclerostin production and gene expression in human cultured osteocytes. In addition, we evaluated serum sclerostin levels in a cohort of 20 hypogonadal male patients, compared with 20 age-matched eugonadal controls. Stimulation with DHT decreased sclerostin expression in cultured osteocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Confirming a direct androgen receptor-mediated effect on sclerostin production, flutamide coincubation and silencing of androgen receptor gene in osteocytes abolished the DHT effects. In addition, hypogonadal patients showed higher serum sclerostin levels with respect to controls (145.87 ± 50.83 pg/mL vs 84.02 ± 32.15 pg/mL; P < .001) and in both probands and controls, serum T levels were negatively correlated with sclerostin (R = -0.664, P = 0.007, and R = -0.447, P = .045, respectively). Finally, multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that T represented the only independent predictor of sclerostin levels. In conclusion, by showing a direct correlation between T and sclerostin, both in vivo and in vitro, this study adds further support to the emerging clinical and experimental studies focusing on sclerostin as a therapeutic target for osteoporosis treatment. PMID:26393301

  2. The asymmetry of pectoralis muscles is greater in male prepubertal than in professional tennis players.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Dorado, Cecilia; Idoate, Fernando; González-Henríquez, Juan J; Serrano-Sanchez, Jose A; Calbet, Jose A L

    2016-10-01

    It is generally accepted that preadolescents have a limited capacity to develop muscle hypertrophy in response to exercise compared with older populations; however, studies are scarce and conflicting. The main aim of the present study was to assess if playing tennis is associated with the hypertrophy of dominant pectoralis muscles (PM) in professional (PRO) and in prepubescent tennis players (PRE). A secondary aim was to assess if the degree of asymmetry of PM is greater in PRO than PRE. The volume of PM of both sides was determined using magnetic resonance imaging in 8 male PRO (21.9 years), 6 male PRE (11 years, Tanner 1-2) and 12 male non-active controls (6 adults: 23.5 years; and 6 prepubescents: 10.7 years, Tanner 1-2). PRO and PRE had 15 and 30% greater volume, respectively, in the dominant than in the contralateral PM (P < .01). No significant side-to-side differences in PM volume were observed in the non-active controls (3%, P = .34 in adults and 5%, P = .17 in children). The degree of side-to-side asymmetry in PM volume was greater in PRE than in PRO (P < .05). In conclusion, tennis practice is associated with marked hypertrophy of dominant PM in tennis players, even at prepubertal age, whilst non-active age-matched control subjects display similar volumes in both sides. The larger asymmetry observed in PRE than in PRO may indicate a greater relative loading in the children or increased contralateral hypertrophy in the professionals. This study demonstrates that prepubertal children respond with marked hypertrophy to loading by tennis. PMID:26799312

  3. The Prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River Basin: Towards Sustainable Restocking of All-Male Populations for Biological Control of Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Faye, Yacinthe P. W.; Faye, Djibril S.; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non

  4. Successful birth after intracytoplasmic sperm injection for severe male factor infertility in a woman with poor response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, S P; Hsiao, C J; Too, L L; Yang, T S; Ouyang, H J; Shieh, M L; Lin, P W

    2000-02-01

    Poor responders to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) present a clinical challenge for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer. The failure of IVF for the treatment of severe male-factor infertility can now be overcome by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The infertile couple documented in this case report came to our hospital because of bilateral tubal occlusion and severe oligoasthenospermia. After three poor-response cycles to COH, one mature oocyte was retrieved and was fertilized using ICSI. Normal fertilization ensued and one good-quality, eight-celled embryo was transferred into the woman's uterus. A single gestation was confirmed by ultrasound seven weeks after transfer. Amniocentesis was performed at 16 weeks and demonstrated a normal male fetus with a karyotype of 46,XY. The patient had a spontaneous, normal, vaginal delivery of a 2,650 g healthy male infant. PMID:10677930

  5. Cerebral gray matter volume variation in female-to-male transsexuals: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Kwun; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2015-12-16

    Several studies seem to support the hypothesis that brain anatomy is associated with transsexualism. However, these studies were still limited because few neuroanatomical findings have been obtained from female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals. This study compared the cerebral regional volumes of gray matter (GM) between FtM transsexuals and female controls using a voxel-based morphometry. Twelve FtM transsexuals who had undergone sex-reassignment surgery and 15 female controls participated in this study. Both groups were age matched and right-handed, with no history of neurological illness. Fifteen female controls were recruited to determine whether GM volumes in FtM transsexuals more closely resembled individuals who shared their biological sex. MRI data were processed using SPM 8 with the diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL). FtM transsexuals showed significantly larger volumes of the thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, gyrus rectus, head of caudate nucleus, precentral gyrus, and subcallosal area compared with the female controls. However, the female controls showed a significantly larger volume in the superior temporal gyrus including Heschl's gyrus and Rolandic operculum. These findings confirm that the volume difference in brain substructures in FtM transsexuals is likely to be associated with transsexualism and that transsexualism is probably associated with distinct cerebral structures, determining gender identity. PMID:26559725

  6. Changes in gut hormone levels and negative energy balance during aerobic exercise in obese young males.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shin-ya; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Katsura, Yoshihiro; Usui, Tatsuya; Nakao, Hayato; Fujimoto, Shigeo

    2009-04-01

    We examined whether changes in gut hormone levels due to a single bout of aerobic exercise differ between obese young males and normal controls, and attempted to determine the involvement of hormonal changes during exercise in the regulation of energy balance (EB) in these obese subjects. Seven obese and seven age-matched subjects of normal weight participated in exercise and rest sessions. Subjects consumed a standardized breakfast that was followed by constant cycling exercise at 50% VO(2max) or rest for 60 min. At lunch, a test meal was presented, and energy intake (EI) and relative energy intake (REI) were calculated. Blood samples were obtained at 30 min intervals during both sessions for measurement of glucose, insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Plasma levels of PYY and GLP-1 were increased by exercise, whereas plasma ghrelin levels were unaffected by exercise. The areas under the curve (AUC) of the time courses of PYY and GLP-1 levels did not significantly differ between the two groups. In contrast, EI and REI were decreased by exercise in both groups, and energy deficit was significantly larger in obese subjects than in normal controls. The present findings suggest that short-term EB during a single exercise session might be regulated not by increased amounts of these gut hormones per se. PMID:19158129

  7. Photoperiod as a proximate factor in control of seasonality in the subtropical male Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most species of birds exhibit well-defined seasonality in their various physiological and behavioral functions like reproduction, molt, bill color etc. such that they occur at the most appropriate time of the year. Day length has been shown to be a major source of temporal information regulating seasonal reproduction and associated events in a number of avian species. The present study aims to investigate the role of photoperiod in control of seasonal cycles in the subtropical male tree sparrow (Passer montanus) and to compare its responses at Shillong (Latitude 25°34'N, Longitude 91°53'E) with those exhibited by its conspecifics and related species at other latitudes. Results Initial experiment involving study of seasonal cycles revealed that the wild tree sparrows posses definite seasonal cycles of testicular volume, molt and bill color. These cycles were found remarkably linked to annual solar cycle suggesting the possibility of their photoperiodic control. To confirm this possibility in the next experiment, the photosensitive birds were exposed to three different light-dark regimes that were close to what they experience at this latitude: 9L/15D (close to shortest day length), 12L/12D (equinox day length) and 14L/10D (close to longest day length) for 18 months. Tree sparrows showed testicular growth followed by regression and development of photorefractoriness, molting and bill color changes only under long daily photoperiods (12 L and 14 L) but not under short daily photoperiod (9 L). Birds, under stimulatory photoperiods, did not show reinitiation of the above responses after the completion of initiation regression cycle even after their exposure to these photoperiods for 18 months. This precludes the possibility of circannual rhythm generation and suggests the involvement of photoperiodic mechanism in control of their seasonal cycles. Further, replacement of body and primary feathers progressed with gonadal regression only under long days

  8. Patellar tendon and hamstring moment-arms and cross-sectional area in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and controls.

    PubMed

    Kellis, Eleftherios; Karagiannidis, Evaggelos; Patsika, Glykeria

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the moment-arm and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the patellar tendon (PT) and the hamstrings after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The right knee of five males who underwent ACL reconstruction with a PT graft and five age-matched controls was scanned using magnetic resonance image scans. Based on three-dimensional (3D) solids of the PT, CSAs and moment-arms of semitendinous (ST), biceps femoris (BF) long head and semimembranosus (SM) were estimated. Analysis of variance indicated no significant group differences in muscle moment-arms (p>0.05). 3D moment-arms of PT, ST and BF were significantly lower than the corresponding 2D values (p < 0.05). The ACL group displayed a significantly higher maximum BF CSA, a lower ST CSA (p < 0.05) but similar PT and SM CSAs compared with controls. It is concluded that any alterations in PT properties 1 year after harvesting do not affect knee muscle moment-arms compared with age-matched controls. Moment-arm estimation differed between 3D and 2D data, although it did not affect comparisons between ACL reconstruction group and controls. Design of rehabilitation programmes should take into consideration a potential alteration in hamstring morphology following surgery with a PT graft. PMID:24460238

  9. Effects of environmental endocrine disruptors, including insecticides used for malaria vector control on reproductive parameters of male rats.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Sean M; Bornman, Maria S; Joubert, Annie M; Pitts, Neville; Naidoo, Vinny; de Jager, Christiaan

    2016-06-01

    The male reproductive system is sensitive to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during critical developmental windows. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in utero-, during lactation- and directly to 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) and a mixture of DDT, deltamethrin (DM), p-nonylphenol (p-NP) and phytoestrogens, at concentrations found in a malaria-area. After dosing for 104 days, histological assessments and reproductive-endpoints were assessed. The anogenital distance (AGD) (P=0.005) was shorter in the mixture-exposed group, while the prostate mass (P=0.018) was higher in the DDT-exposed group. A higher testicular mass and abnormal histology was observed in the DDT-(P=0.019), DDE-(P=0.047) and mixture-exposed (P<0.005) groups. This study shows that in utero-, lactational- and direct exposure to EDCs present in a malaria-area negatively affects male reproductive parameters in rats. These findings raise concerns to EDC-exposures to mothers living in malaria-areas and the reproductive health of their male offspring. PMID:26928317

  10. Experimentally controlled downregulation of the histone chaperone FACT in Plasmodium berghei reveals that it is critical to male gamete fertility

    PubMed Central

    Laurentino, Eliane C; Taylor, Sonya; Mair, Gunnar R; Lasonder, Edwin; Bartfai, Richard; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Kroeze, Hans; Ramesar, Jai; Franke-Fayard, Blandine; Khan, Shahid M; Janse, Chris J; Waters, Andrew P

    2011-01-01

    Human FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) consists of the proteins SPT16 and SSRP1 and acts as a histone chaperone in the (dis)assembly of nucleosome (and thereby chromatin) structure during transcription and DNA replication. We identified a Plasmodium berghei protein, termed FACT-L, with homology to the SPT16 subunit of FACT. Epitope tagging of FACT-L showed nuclear localization with high expression in the nuclei of (activated) male gametocytes. The gene encoding FACT-L could not be deleted indicating an essential role during blood-stage development. Using a ‘promoter-swap’ approach whereby the fact-l promoter was replaced by an ‘asexual blood stage-specific’ promoter that is silent in gametocytes, transcription of fact-l in promoter-swap mutant gametocytes was downregulated compared with wild-type gametocytes. These mutant male gametocytes showed delayed DNA replication and gamete formation. Male gamete fertility was strongly reduced while female gamete fertility was unaffected; residual ookinetes generated oocysts that arrested early in development and failed to enter sporogony. Therefore FACT is critically involved in the formation of fertile male gametes and parasite transmission. ‘Promoter swapping’ is a powerful approach for the functional analysis of proteins in gametocytes (and beyond) that are essential during asexual blood-stage development. PMID:21899698

  11. Expression of fragile X mental retardation protein within the vocal control system of developing and adult male zebra finches

    PubMed Central

    Winograd, Claudia; Clayton, David; Ceman, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are cognitively impaired and have marked speech delays and deficits. Our goal was to characterize expression of FMRP, the fragile X mental retardation protein, encoded by the gene FMR1, in an animal model that learns to vocalize, namely the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata (Tgu). We cloned and sequenced the zebra finch ortholog of FMR1 (TguFmr1) and developed an antibody that recognizes TguFmrp specifically. TguFmrp has structural features similar to its human ortholog FMRP. Because FXS patients exhibit sensorimotor deficits, we examined TguFmrp expression prior to, during, and after sensorimotor song learning in zebra finches. We found that TguFmrp is expressed throughout the brain and in four major song nuclei of the male zebra finch brain, primarily in neurons. Additionally, prior to sensorimotor learning, we observed elevated TguFmrp expression in the RA of post-hatch day 30 males, compared to the surrounding telencephalon, suggesting a preparation for this stage of song learning. Finally, we observed variable TguFmrp expression in the RA of adolescent and adult males: in some males it was elevated and in others it was comparable to the surrounding telencephalon. In summary, we have characterized the zebra finch ortholog of FMRP and found elevated levels in the premotor nucleus RA at a key developmental stage for vocal learning. PMID:18835331

  12. The Integration of Genetic Propensities into Social-Control Models of Delinquency and Violence among Male Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Guang; Roettger, Michael E.; Cai, Tianji

    2008-01-01

    This study, drawing on approximately 1,100 males from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, demonstrates the importance of genetics, and genetic-environmental interactions, for understanding adolescent delinquency and violence. Our analyses show that three genetic polymorphisms--specifically, the 30-bp promoter-region variable…

  13. Effcacy of Williams LifeSkills Training in improving psychological health of Chinese male juvenile violent offenders: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Simei; Wang, Hong; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    This randomized controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST) as a means of improving the psychological health of Chinese male juvenile violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were assigned randomly to receive the usual intervention plus 8 weeks of WLST (study group, n = 33) or only the usual intervention (control group, n = 33). We found that the study group exhibited significantly decreased State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI X-1, X-2) STAX2 scores and Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) negative scores, and increased Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) tangible scores from baseline to 9 weeks later (P <0.01). In addition, a between-group difference in changes of TCSQ negative score was observed at the end of week 9 (P <0.05). These fndings suggest that WLST can improve trait anxiety, coping style, and interpersonal support in male Chinese juvenile violent offenders. PMID:25564194

  14. Cadmium affects the episodic luteinizing hormone secretion in male rats: possible age-dependent effects.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, A; Márquez, N; Piquero, S; Esquifino, A I

    1999-01-11

    Cadmium affects luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion through unknown mechanisms. The present study was undertaken to assess whether chronic exposure to low concentrations of cadmium may affect the episodic secretion of LH and if these effects are age-dependent. Male rats were given cadmium at a dose of 50 ppm in the drinking water, from day 30 to 60 or from day 60 to 90 of life. Age-matched rats with access to cadmium-free water were used as controls. At the end of the treatment, blood samples were collected every 7 min for 3 h, from 10:30 to 13.30 in conscious, freely moving rats. In control animals, mean serum LH levels and pulse duration increased with age (P < or = 0.001), and pulse frequency and the relative amplitude of LH pulses decreased (P < or = 0.001). Cadmium administration, from day 30 to 60 of life, decreased the pulse frequency and mean half-life of the hormone (P < or = 0.05, P < or = 0.01, respectively). However, no changes in any other parameters studied were observed as compared to the control group. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90, mean serum LH levels and the duration of LH pulses decreased (P < or = 0.05), whereas the pulse frequency increased (P < or = 0.05). The absolute and relative amplitude of the LH peaks and the mean half-life of the hormone were not changed after cadmium administration from day 60 to 90. These results indicate that low doses of cadmium change the pulsatile secretion of LH in male rats and that the effect of cadmium on episodic LH release was age-dependent. PMID:10048746

  15. Male-specific Y-linked transgene markers to enhance biologically-based control of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    fluorescent protein marker, and was integrated into a black pupae translocation sexing strain (T(YEGFP/bp+), allowing the identification of male adults when used in sterile male release programs for population control. A unique observation was that expression of the Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3 sperm-specific marker, which was functional in autosomal insertions, was specifically suppressed in the Y-linked insertion. This may relate to the Y chromosomal regulation of male-specific germ-line genes in Drosophila. PMID:25472528

  16. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... PREGNANCY? If the sperm contained in a male's semen reach a woman's vagina, pregnancy may occur. Condoms ... receptacle) on the end of it (to collect semen), place the condom against the top of the ...

  17. Spinal Kinematics of Adolescent Male Rowers with Back Pain in Comparison with Matched Controls During Ergometer Rowing.

    PubMed

    Ng, Leo; Campbell, Amity; Burnett, Angus; Smith, Anne; O'Sullivan, Peter

    2015-12-01

    There is a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in adolescent male rowers. In this study, regional lumbar spinal kinematics and self-reported LBP intensity were compared between 10 adolescent rowers with moderate levels of LBP relating to rowing with 10 reporting no history of LBP during a 15-minute ergometer trial using an electromagnetic tracking system. Adolescent male rowers with LBP reported increasing pain intensity during ergometer rowing. No significant differences were detected in mean upper or lower lumbar angles between rowers with and without LBP. However, compared with rowers without pain, rowers with pain: (1) had relatively less excursion of the upper lumbar spine into extension over the drive phase, (2) had relatively less excursion of the lower lumbar spine into extension over time, (3) had greater variability in upper and lower lumbar angles over the 15-minute ergometer trial, (4) positioned their upper lumbar spine closer to end range flexion for a greater proportion of the drive phase, and (5) showed increased time in sustained flexion loading in the upper lumbar spine. Differences in regional lumbar kinematics exist between adolescent male rowers with and without LBP, which may have injury implication and intervention strategies. PMID:26252195

  18. A functional polymorphism in the interleukin-1beta and severity of nicotine dependence in male schizophrenia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang Yang; Chen, Da-Chun; Tan, Yun-Long; Tan, Shu-ping; Luo, Xingguang; Zuo, Lingjun; Rao, Wenwang; Yu, Qiong; Kou, Changgui; Allen, Melissa; Correll, Christoph U; Wu, Jingqin; Soares, Jair C

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that the functional 511C/T polymorphism in the IL-1beta-gene may be implicated in the susceptibility for schizophrenia. Moreover, recent studies suggested that IL-1 participates in the progression of lung disease in smokers, which are overrepresented in schizophrenia. We aimed to investigate the possible relationship between the IL-1beta-511C/T polymorphism and smoking behavior in schizophrenia versus healthy controls in a Chinese population. The IL-1beta-511C/T polymorphism was genotyped in 638 male patients with chronic schizophrenia (smoker/never-smoker = 486/152) and 469 male controls (smoker/never-smoker = 243/226). The cigarettes smoked per day, the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) and the Fagerstrom Test for nicotine dependence (FTND) were assessed. Patients were also rated on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The results showed no significant differences in genotype and allele distribution between patients and controls, and between smokers and never-smokers in either the patient or control group. However, in patients, smokers with the C/C genotype had significantly higher HSI (p < 0.005) and FTND (p < 0.05) scores than smokers with the T/T genotype, without significant differences in controls. Furthermore, there was a linear positive correlation between the number of C alleles and the HSI (p < 0.005) in patients. Our findings suggest that the IL-1beta-511C/T polymorphism may not be related to schizophrenia or smoking status in Chinese individuals, but may affect the severity of nicotine dependence among male smokers with schizophrenia. PMID:25858413

  19. Effects of Long-Term Daily Administration of Prostaglandin-E2 on Maintaining Elevated Proximal Tibial Metaphyseal Cancellous Bone Mass in Male Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, Hua Zhu; Jee, Webster S. S.; Mori, Satoshi; Li, Xiao Jian; Kimmel, Donald B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of long-term prostaglandin E(sub 2) (PGE(sub 2)) on cancellous bone in proximal tibial metaphysis were studied in 7 month old male Sprague-Dawley rats given daily subcutaneous injections of 0, 1, 3, and 6 mg PGE(sub 2)/kg/day and sacrificed after 60, 120, and 180 days. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double fluorescent-labeled undecalcified bone specimens. After 60 days of treatment, PGE(sub 2) produced diffusely labeled trabecular bone area, increased trabecular bone area, eroded and labeled trabecular perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate at all dose levels when compared with age-matched controls. In rats given PGE(sub 2) for longer time periods (120 and 180 days), trabecular bone area, diffusely labeled trabecular bone area, labeled perimeter, mineral apposition, and bone formation rates were sustained at the elevated levels achieved earlier at 60-day treatment. The eroded perimeter continued to increase until 120 days, then plateau. The observation that continuous systemic PGE(sub 2) administration to adult male rats elevated metaphyseal cancellous bone mass to 3.5-fold of the control level within 60 days and maintained it for another 120 days indicates that the powerful skeletal anabolic effects of PGE2 can be sustained with continuous administration .

  20. Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer (EPOC) study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of exercise versus stretching in males with Barrett's oesophagus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and excessive body fat are considered principal causes of Barrett's oesophagus (a metaplastic change in the cells lining the oesophagus) and its neoplastic progression, oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Metabolic disturbances including altered levels of obesity-related cytokines, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance have also been associated with oesophageal cancer development, especially in males. Physical activity may have the potential to abrogate metabolic disturbances in males with Barrett's oesophagus and elicit beneficial reductions in body fat and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Thus, exercise may be an effective intervention in reducing oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. However, to date this hypothesis remains untested. The 'Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer Study' will determine whether 24 weeks of exercise training will lead to alterations in risk factors or biomarkers for oesophageal adenocarcinoma in males with Barrett's oesophagus. Our primary outcomes are serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 as well as insulin resistance. Body composition, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms, cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength will also be assessed as secondary outcomes. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial of 80 overweight or obese, inactive males with Barrett's oesophagus will be conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Participants will be randomized to an intervention arm (60 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training, five days per week) or a control arm (45 minutes of stretching, five days per week) for 24 weeks. Primary and secondary endpoints will be measured at baseline (week 0), midpoint (week 12) and at the end of the intervention (week 24). Discussion Due to the increasing incidence and very high mortality associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, interventions effective

  1. Impact of co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder on cognitive function in male children with Tourette syndrome: A controlled study.

    PubMed

    Termine, Cristiano; Luoni, Chiara; Fontolan, Stefania; Selvini, Claudia; Perego, Livia; Pavone, Francesca; Rossi, Giorgio; Balottin, Umberto; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2016-09-30

    Tourette syndrome (TS) and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are co-morbid neurodevelopmental conditions affecting more commonly male patients. We set out to determine the impact of co-morbid ADHD on cognitive function in male children with TS by conducting a controlled study. Participants included four matched groups of unmedicated children (age range 6-15 years): TS (n=13), TS+ADHD (n=8), ADHD (n=39), healthy controls (n=66). Following clinical assessment, each participant completed a battery of tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III, the Italian Battery for ADHD, the Tower of London test, the Corsi test, and the Digit Span test. All patient groups reported significantly lower scores than healthy controls across the neuropsychological tests involving executive functions. The TS+ADHD group was the most severely affected, followed by the ADHD group and the TS group, particularly in the tests assessing planning ability, inhibitory function, working memory and visual attention, but not auditory attention. Problems in executive functions are more common in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders than controls. Deficits in planning ability, inhibitory function, working memory and visual attention reported by children with TS appear to be more strongly related to the presence of co-morbid ADHD symptoms than core TS symptoms. PMID:27423633

  2. Reproductive function in male patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R A; Di Mauro, M; Lo Presti, D; Mongioì, L M; Russo, G; Calogero, A E

    2015-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and some of the main bio-functional spermatozoa parameters, serum gonadal hormones and didymo-epididymal ultrasound features in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). DM1 affects an increasing number of men of reproductive age. Diabetes may affect male reproduction by acting on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, causing sexual dysfunction or disrupting male accessory gland function. However, data on spermatozoa parameters and other aspects of the reproductive function in these patients are scanty. Thirty-two patients with DM1 [27.0 (25.0-30.0 years)] and 20 age-matched fertile healthy men [28.0 (27.25-30.75 years)] were enrolled. Patients with diabetic neuropathy, other endocrine disorders or conditions known to alter spermatozoa parameters were excluded. Each subject underwent semen analysis, blood withdrawal for fasting and post-prandial glycaemia, hormonal analysis and didymo-epididymal ultrasound evaluation before and after ejaculation. Patients with DM1 had a lower percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility [10.0 (7.0-12.75) vs. 45.0 (42.0-47.75) %; p < 0.01] and a higher percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal mitochondrial function than controls [47.0 (43.0-55.0) vs. 2.0 (1.0-5.0) %; p < 0.01]. Patients also had greater post-ejaculatory diameters of cephalic [11.5 (10.2-13.6) vs. 6.0 (4.0-7.0) mm; p < 0.01] and caudal epididymis [5.5 (4.00-7.55) vs. 3.0 (2.0-4.0) mm; p < 0.01] compared to controls, suggesting a lack of the physiological post-ejaculation epididymal shrinkage. Correlation analysis suggested that progressive motility was associated with fasting glucose (r = -0.68; p < 0.01). The other parameters did not show any significant difference. Patients with DM1 had a lower percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility, impaired mitochondrial function and epididymal post-ejaculatory dysfunction. These findings may explain why patients with DM1 experience fertility

  3. Adaptive Regulation of Testis Gene Expression and Control of Male Fertility by the Drosophila Harpin RNA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jiayu; Duan, Hong; Bejarano, Fernando; Okamura, Katsutomo; Fabian, Lacramioara; Brill, Julie A.; Bortolamiol-Becet, Diane; Martin, Raquel; Ruby, J. Graham; Lai, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Although endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) have been described in many species, still little is known about their endogenous utility. Here, we show that Drosophila hairpin RNAs (hpRNAs) generate an endo-siRNA class with predominant expression in testes. Although hpRNAs are universally recently evolved, we identify highly complementary protein-coding targets for all hpRNAs. Importantly, we find broad evidence for evolutionary divergences that preferentially maintain compensatory pairing between hpRNAs and targets, serving as first evidence for adaptive selection for siRNA-mediated target regulation in metazoans. We demonstrate organismal impact of hpRNA activity, since knockout of hpRNA1 derepresses its target ATP synthase-β in testes and compromises spermatogenesis and male fertility. Moreover, we reveal surprising male-specific impact of RNAi factors on germ cell development and fertility, consistent with testis-directed function of the hpRNA pathway. Finally, the collected hpRNA loci chronicle an evolutionary timeline that reflects their origins from prospective target genes, mirroring a strategy described for plant miRNAs. PMID:25544562

  4. Is Early Onset Androgenic Alopecia a Marker of Metabolic Syndrome and Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis in Young Indian Male Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Banger, Harmeet Singh; Malhotra, Suresh Kumar; Singh, Sohan; Mahajan, Mridula

    2015-01-01

    Background: Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is a common cosmetically and psychosocially distressing condition. High androgen level contributes to the development of atherosclerosis, thrombosis leading to hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Objectives: To study the clinico-epidemiological profile of AGA and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and carotid artery atherosclerosis in male patients with early onset AGA as compared to controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 100 male patients of age 18-35 years with AGA and an equal number of age-matched healthy controls attending skin and STD OPD were included. Assessment of the degree of hair loss, evaluation of MetS and carotid artery color Doppler for the atherosclerotic plaque was done in all patients. Results: Statistically significant number of patients with early onset AGA 22/100 (22%) (P < 0.05) fulfilled the criteria for MetS compared to 8/100 (8%) in the control group. There were statistically significant differences in mean values of waist circumference, serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose concentration, and very low-density lipoprotein (LDL). However, no significant differences were observed in the mean values of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. The atherosclerotic plaque was found in two patients of the study group, and no plaque was found in control patients. Conclusion: We suggest that all men with AGA should be thoroughly investigated, and lifestyle changes should be started in the early period of life so as to reduce the risk of various problems associated with MetS. AGA can be considered as an early marker for MetS. PMID:26903742

  5. Effect of an evaporative cooling and dust control system on rearing environment and performance of male broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Willis, W L; Ouart, M D; Quarles, C L

    1987-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of a micromist, high pressure, evaporative cooling and dust control system on rearing environment characteristics and performance of broiler chickens. Air of rearing chambers with the cooling and dust control system had significantly lower dust concentrations than that of chambers without the system. Birds reared with the cooling and dust control system were 45 and 165 g heavier at 4 and 7 wk of age, respectively, and had significantly higher 7-wk bursa weights than those reared without the system. Presence of the cooling and dust control system had no effect on mortality or lung weights. PMID:3432185

  6. Shang Ring versus forceps-guided adult male circumcision: a randomized controlled effectiveness study in southwestern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    KANYAGO, Samuel; RIDING, David M; MUTAKOOHA, Elichum; de la O, Alcides Lopez; SIEDNER, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Adult male circumcision (AMC) reduces HIV transmission but uptake is limited in part by current surgical methods. We randomized HIV-uninfected men (n=138) to receive Shang ring (SR) or forceps-guided (FG) AMC from a locally-trained surgeon. In as-treated analyses, more SR procedures were completed within 10 minutes (79% vs 0%, p<0.01) and more subjects reported high satisfaction (77% vs 58%, p=0.03). Healing time and pain scores were similar, though minor complication rates were higher in SR subjects (56% vs 24%, p<0.01). SR circumcision is a rapid and acceptable method of AMC and should be further evaluated to increase uptake of AMC. PMID:23599013

  7. Testosterone Plus Low-Intensity Physical Training in Late Life Improves Functional Performance, Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis, and Mitochondrial Quality Control in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wen; Wong, Siu; Li, Michelle; Liang, Wentao; Liesa, Marc; Serra, Carlo; Jasuja, Ravi; Bartke, Andrzej; Kirkland, James L.; Shirihai, Orian; Bhasin, Shalender

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone supplementation increases muscle mass in older men but has not been shown to consistently improve physical function and activity. It has been hypothesized that physical exercise is required to induce the adaptations necessary for translation of testosterone-induced muscle mass gain into functional improvements. However, the effects of testosterone plus low intensity physical exercise training (T/PT) on functional performance and bioenergetics are unknown. In this pilot study, we tested the hypothesis that combined administration of T/PT would improve functional performance and bioenergetics in male mice late in life more than low-intensity physical training alone. 28-month old male mice were randomized to receive T/PT or vehicle plus physical training (V/PT) for 2 months. Compare to V/PT control, administration of T/PT was associated with improvements in muscle mass, grip strength, spontaneous physical movements, and respiratory activity. These changes were correlated with increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and expression of markers for mitochondrial biogenesis. Mice receiving T/PT also displayed increased expression of key elements for mitochondrial quality control, including markers for mitochondrial fission-and-fusion and mitophagy. Concurrently, mice receiving T/PT also displayed increased expression of markers for reduced tissue oxidative damage and improved muscle quality. Conclusion: Testosterone administered with low-intensity physical training improves grip strength, spontaneous movements, and respiratory activity. These functional improvements were associated with increased muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and improved mitochondrial quality control. PMID:23240002

  8. Shouldice inguinal hernia repair in the male adult: the gold standard? A multicenter controlled trial in 1578 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hay, J M; Boudet, M J; Fingerhut, A; Poucher, J; Hennet, H; Habib, E; Veyrières, M; Flamant, Y

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hernia repair is the second most frequently performed operation in France and in the United States, the prevalence being 36 for every 1000 males. Lowering the recurrence rate by 1% would mean 1000 fewer operations for hernia repair per year in France. METHODS: Between 1983 and 1989, 1578 adult males with a total of 1706 nonrecurrent inguinal hernias were prospectively and randomly allotted to undergo either a Bassini's repair, Cooper's ligament, or Shouldice repair with polypropylene or a Shouldice repair with stainless steel for determination of which technique was associated with the lowest recurrence rate. Fifty-nine hernia repairs were withdrawn after inclusion. Of the 1647 remaining hernias, 52.2% were indirect, 25.6% were direct, and 23.2% were combined. Patients were seen every 6 months for 3 years and then every year. Median follow-up was 5 years 8 months (range, 3 months-8.5 years). RESULTS: At 8.5 years, 5.6% of hernias were lost to follow-up. Ninety-seven hernia repairs failed, 50% during the first 2 years. The actuarial recurrence rate was 7.94% at 8.5 years. The Shouldice repair (stainless steel or polypropylene) was associated with fewer recurrences (6.1%) than either the Bassini's (8.6%) or Cooper's ligament repair (11.2%) technique (p < 0.001). This difference remained significant even when the maximal bias test was used. Fewer recurrences (5.9%) were observed with the stainless steel wire Shouldice repair than with polypropylene version (6.5%), but the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Shouldice hernia repair provides the patient with the best chances of nonrecurrence regardless of the anatomical type of hernia. The Shouldice hernia repair should be the gold standard for inguinal hernia repair in men and serves as the basis for comparison with all other techniques, be they prosthetic or laparoscopic. PMID:8526578

  9. The vgll3 Locus Controls Age at Maturity in Wild and Domesticated Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Males

    PubMed Central

    Ayllon, Fernando; Kjærner-Semb, Erik; Furmanek, Tomasz; Wennevik, Vidar; Solberg, Monica F.; Dahle, Geir; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Glover, Kevin A.; Almén, Markus Sällman; Rubin, Carl J; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Wargelius, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Wild and domesticated Atlantic salmon males display large variation for sea age at sexual maturation, which varies between 1–5 years. Previous studies have uncovered a genetic predisposition for variation of age at maturity with moderate heritability, thus suggesting a polygenic or complex nature of this trait. The aim of this study was to identify associated genetic loci, genes and ultimately specific sequence variants conferring sea age at maturity in salmon. We performed a genome wide association study (GWAS) using a pool sequencing approach (20 individuals per river and phenotype) of male salmon returning to rivers as sexually mature either after one sea winter (2009) or three sea winters (2011) in six rivers in Norway. The study revealed one major selective sweep, which covered 76 significant SNPs in which 74 were found in a 370 kb region of chromosome 25. Genotyping other smolt year classes of wild and domesticated salmon confirmed this finding. Genotyping domesticated fish narrowed the haplotype region to four SNPs covering 2386 bp, containing the vgll3 gene, including two missense mutations explaining 33–36% phenotypic variation. A single locus was found to have a highly significant role in governing sea age at maturation in this species. The SNPs identified may be both used as markers to guide breeding for late maturity in salmon aquaculture and in monitoring programs of wild salmon. Interestingly, a SNP in proximity of the VGLL3 gene in humans (Homo sapiens), has previously been linked to age at puberty suggesting a conserved mechanism for timing of puberty in vertebrates. PMID:26551894

  10. Respiratory control and sternohyoid muscle structure and function in aged male rats: decreased susceptibility to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Skelly, J Richard; Edge, Deirdre; Shortt, Christine M; Jones, James F X; Bradford, Aidan; O'Halloran, Ken D

    2012-03-15

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a common respiratory disorder characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). We have shown that CIH causes upper airway muscle dysfunction in the rat due to oxidative stress. Ageing is an independent risk factor for the development of OSAS perhaps due to respiratory muscle remodelling and increased susceptibility to hypoxia. We sought to examine the effects of CIH on breathing and pharyngeal dilator muscle structure and function in aged rats. Aged (18-20 months), male Wistar rats were exposed to alternating cycles of normoxia and hypoxia (90 s each; F(I)O(2)=5% O(2) at nadir) or sham treatment for 8h/day for 9 days. Following CIH exposure, breathing was assessed by whole-body plethysmography. In addition, sternohyoid muscle contractile and endurance properties were examined in vitro. Muscle fibre type and cross-sectional area, and the activity of key oxidative and glycolytic enzymes were determined. CIH had no effect on basal breathing or ventilatory responses to hypoxia or hypercapnia. CIH did not alter succinate dehydrogenase or glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme activities, myosin heavy chain fibre areal density or cross-sectional area. Sternohyoid muscle force and endurance were unaffected by CIH exposure. Since we have established that this CIH paradigm causes sternohyoid muscle weakness in adult male rats, we conclude that aged rats have decreased susceptibility to CIH-induced stress. We suggest that structural remodelling with improved hypoxic tolerance in upper airway muscles may partly compensate for impaired neural regulation of the upper airway and increased propensity for airway collapse in aged mammals. PMID:22122888

  11. Diet-Induced Obesity in Male Mice Is Associated with Reduced Fertility and Potentiation of Acrylamide-Induced Reproductive Toxicity1

    PubMed Central

    Ghanayem, Burhan I.; Bai, Re; Kissling, Grace E.; Travlos, Greg; Hoffler, Undi

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of human obesity and related chronic disorders such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer is rapidly increasing. Human studies have shown a direct relationship between obesity and infertility. The objective of the current work was to examine the effect of diet-induced obesity on male fertility and the effect of obesity on susceptibility to chemical-induced reproductive toxicity. From 5 to 30 wk of age, genetically intact male C57Bl/6J mice were fed a normal diet or one in which 60% of the kilocalories were from lard. Obese mice exhibited significant differences in the mRNA of several genes within the testes in comparison to lean males. Pparg was increased 2.2-fold, whereas Crem, Sh2b1, Dhh, Igf1, and Lepr were decreased 6.7, 1.4, 3.2, 1.6, and 7.2-fold, respectively. The fertility of male mice was compared through mating with control females. Acrylamide (AA)-induced reproductive toxicity was assessed in obese or lean males treated with water or 25 mg AA kg−1 day−1 via gavage for 5 days and then mated to control females. Percent body fat and weight were significantly increased in mice fed a high-fat vs. a normal diet. Obesity resulted in significant reduction in plugs and pregnancies of control females partnered with obese vs. lean males. Serum leptin and insulin levels were each approximately 5-fold higher in obese vs. age-matched lean mice. Sperm from obese males exhibited decreased motility and reduced hyperactivated progression vs. lean mice. Treatment with AA exacerbated male infertility of obese and lean mice; however, this effect was more pronounced in obese mice. Further, females partnered with AA-treated obese mice exhibited a further decrease in the percentage of live fetuses, whereas the percentage of resorptions increased. This work demonstrated that diet-induced obesity in mice caused a significant reduction in male fertility and exacerbated AA-induced reproductive toxicity and germ cell mutagenicity. PMID:19696015

  12. Event-related brain potentials, bilateral electrodermal activity and Mangina-Test performance in learning disabled/ADHD pre-adolescents with severe behavioral disorders as compared to age-matched normal controls.

    PubMed

    Mangina, C A; Beuzeron-Mangina, J H; Grizenko, N

    2000-07-01

    The most frequently encountered developmental problems of learning disabilities/ADHD often co-exist with severe behavioral disorders. As a direct consequence, this condition opens the way to delinquency, school drop-out, depression, suicide, substance abuse, work absenteeism, and other psycho-social complications. In this paper, we are presenting a selective overview of our previous research and its clinical applications in this field as it relates to our present research data pertaining to the effects of our original Memory Workload Paradigm on the event-related brain potentials in differentiating normal and pathological pre-adolescents (learning disabled/ADHD with concomitant severe behavioral disorders such as oppositional and conduct). In addition, it provides data on the bilateral electrodermal activity during cognitive workload and Mangina-Test performance of pathological and normal pre-adolescents conducted in separate sessions. The results of our present research indicate that a significant memory load effect for the P450 latency (F(3,27)=4.98, P<0.01) and the P450 amplitude (F(3,27)=3.57, P<0.05) was present for normal pre-adolescents which was absent in pathological pre-adolescents. Moreover, enhanced N450 ERP amplitudes to our Memory Workload Paradigm in pre-frontal and frontal regions clearly differentiated normal from pathological pre-adolescents (F(1, 18)=12.21, P<0.004). Furthermore, significant differences between normal and pathological groups were found in bilateral electrodermal activity (F(1,18)=23.86, P<0.001) and on the Mangina-Test performance (F(1,18)=75.35, P<0.001). Our present research findings provide an original and valuable demonstration of an integrative and effective clinical psychophysiological application of central (ERPs), autonomic (bilateral electrodermal activity) and neuro-psychometric aspects (Mangina-Test) which characterize normal and pathological pre-adolescents and underpin the neurophysiological basis of learning disabled/ADHD with severe behavioral disorders as opposed to normal subjects. PMID:10828376

  13. Male Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Matthew T.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Osteoporosis is now recognized as a major threat to health in aging men. Morbidity and mortality, particularly following hip fracture, are substantial. Whereas trabecular bone loss starts in early adulthood, loss of cortical bone only appears to occur from mid-life onwards. Declining bioavailable estradiol levels play an integral role in male age-associated bone loss. Both pharmacologic and supportive care interventions are important for optimal care in men at increased fracture risk. PMID:22877433

  14. Retinoblastoma Protein (RB1) Controls Fate Determination in Stem Cells and Progenitors of the Mouse Male Germline1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi-En; Gwost, Ivy; Oatley, Melissa J.; Oatley, Jon M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Continual spermatogenesis is the cornerstone of male fertility and relies on the actions of an undifferentiated spermatogonial population comprised of stem cells and progenitors. A foundational spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) pool is established during postnatal development that serves as a self-renewing reservoir from which progenitor spermatogonia arise that transiently amplify in number before committing to terminal differentiation. At present, the underlying molecular mechanisms governing these actions are undefined. Using conditional mutant mouse models, we investigated whether function of the undifferentiated spermatogonial population during postnatal life is influenced by the tumor suppressor protein RB1. Spermatogenesis initiates in mice with conditional inactivation of Rb1 in prospermatogonial precursors, but the germline is progressively lost upon aging due to impaired renewal of the undifferentiated spermatogonial population. In contrast, continual spermatogenesis is sustained following Rb1 inactivation in progenitor spermatogonia, but some cells transform into a carcinoma in situ-like state. Furthermore, knockdown of Rb1 abundance within primary cultures of wild-type undifferentiated spermatogonia impairs maintenance of the SSC pool, and some cells are invasive of the basement membrane after transplant into recipient testes, indicating acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Collectively, these findings indicate that RB1 plays an essential role in establishment of a self-renewing SSC pool and commitment to the spermatogenic lineage within progenitor spermatogonia. PMID:24089198

  15. Androgen-dependent somatotroph function in a hypogonadal adolescent male: evidence for control of exogenous androgens on growth hormone release

    SciTech Connect

    Mauras, N.; Blizzard, R.M.; Rogol, A.D.

    1989-03-01

    A 14(10/12)-year-old white male with primary gonadal failure following testicular irradiation for acute lymphocytic leukemia was evaluated for poor growth. He had received 2400 rad of prophylactic cranial irradiation. The growth velocity had decelerated from 7 to 3.2 cm/yr over 3 years. His bone age was 12(0/12) years (by TW2-RUS), and his peak growth hormone (GH) response to provocative stimuli was 1.4 ng/mL. The 24-hour GH secretion was studied by drawing blood every 20 minutes for 24 hours. The resulting GH profile was analyzed by a computerized pulse detection algorithm, CLUSTER. Timed serum GH samples were also obtained after a 1 microgram/kg IV bolus injection of the GH releasing factor (GRH). The studies showed a flat 24-hour profile and a peak GH response to GRH of 3.9 ng/ml. Testosterone enanthate treatment was started, 100 mg IM every 4 weeks. Ten months after the initiation of therapy the calculated growth rate was 8.6 cm/yr. The 24-hour GH study and GRH responses were repeated at the time, showing a remarkably normal 24-hour GH secretory pattern and a peak GH response to GRH of 14.4 ng/mL. Testosterone therapy was discontinued, and 4 months later similar studies were repeated. A marked decrease in the mean 24-hour GH secretion and mean peak height occurred, but with maintenance of the GH pulse frequency. The GH response to GRH was intermediate, with a peak of 8 ng/mL. There was no further growth during those 4 months despite open epiphyses.

  16. Role of nucleus of the solitary tract noradrenergic neurons in post-stress cardiovascular and hormonal control in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Bundzikova-Osacka, Jana; Ghosal, Sriparna; Packard, Benjamin A.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Herman, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and cardiovascular dyshomeostasis. Noradrenergic neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are considered to play a role in these changes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that NTS noradrenergic A2 neurons are required for cardiovascular and HPA axis responses to both acute and chronic stress. Adult male rats received bilateral microinjection into the NTS of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to lesion A2 neurons [cardiovascular study, n= 5; HPA study, n= 5], or vehicle [cardiovascular study, n= 6; HPA study, n= 4]. Rats were exposed to acute restraint stress followed by 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS). On the last day of testing, rats were placed in a novel elevated plus maze (EPM) to test post-CVS stress responses. Lesions of NTS A2 neurons reduced the tachycardic response to acute restraint, confirming that A2 neurons promote sympathetic activation following acute stress. In addition, CVS increased the ratio of low frequency to high frequency power for heart rate variability, indicative of sympathovagal imbalance, and this effect was significantly attenuated by 6-OHDA lesion. Lesions of NTS A2 neurons reduced acute restraint-induced corticosterone secretion, but did not affect the corticosterone response to the EPM, indicating that A2 neurons promote acute HPA axis responses, but are not involved in CVS-mediated HPA axis sensitization. Collectively, these data indicate that A2 neurons promote both cardiovascular and HPA axis responses to acute stress. Moreover, A2 catecholaminergic neurons may contribute to the potentially deleterious enhancement of sympathetic drive following chronic stress. PMID:25765732

  17. The effect of non-steroidal antiandrogen flutamide on luteinizing hormone pulsatile secretion in male-to-female transsexual subjects.

    PubMed

    Giusti, M; Falivene, M R; Carraro, A; Cuttica, C M; Valenti, S; Giordano, G

    1995-06-01

    We evaluated LH pulsatile patterns before and 4 weeks after the oral administration of flutamide (750 mg/day) in 9 male-to-female transsexuals (age range 17-28 yr) requesting gender reassignment. Flutamide was given to explore the feedback role of androgens on the LHRH-LH unit in LH pulsatility in transsexuals. Seven normal age-matched men served as a control group, without receiving flutamide, due to ethical considerations. LH pulsatility was evaluated on samples collected every 15 min for 360 min. FSH, PRL, cortisol, SHBG and sex steroids were evaluated on pooled samples. LH pulses were analyzed by the Santen and Bardin algorithm, slightly modified. No differences in FSH, PRL, total- or free-testosterone, estradiol and SHBG levels were noted between transsexuals and controls. Normal circadian cortisol decline was observed in all subjects. Mean LH levels (p < 0.05) and LH pulses (p < 0.01) were significantly lower in transsexuals. Flutamide induced an increase in mean LH and testosterone levels (p < 0.01). After flutamide administration there was an increase in LH pulse frequency (P < 0.01) and the frequency and amplitude of LH pulses in transsexuals were restored to levels observed in controls. No differences in FSH, PRL or estradiol levels were found after flutamide. These data suggest that a decrease in LH pulse frequency could be an endocrine marker in male-to-female transsexuals. An increase in endogenous androgen negative feed-back could be speculated in these subjects. However, normal testosterone levels indirectly suggest that a normal that a normal qualitative LH secretion is maintained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7594235

  18. Occupational and other exposures associated with male end-stage renal disease: a case/control study.

    PubMed Central

    Steenland, N K; Thun, M J; Ferguson, C W; Port, F K

    1990-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 325 men ages 30-69 who were diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1976 and 1984, and resided in four urban areas of Michigan in 1984. Cases were selected from the Michigan Kidney Registry and excluded men with diabetic, congenital, and obstructive nephropathies. Controls were selected by random-digit dialing and were pair-matched to cases for age, race, and area of residence. Telephone interviews were conducted with 69 percent of eligible cases and 79 percent of eligible controls. Risk of ESRD was significantly related to phenacetin or acetaminophen consumption (odds ratio(OR) = 2.66), moonshine consumption (OR = 2.43), a family history of renal disease (OR = 9.30); and regular occupational exposures to solvents (OR = 1.51) or silica (OR = 1.67). Particular occupational exposures with elevated risk were solvents used as cleaning agents and degreasers (OR = 2.50) silica exposure in foundries or brick factories (OR = 1.92), and silica exposure during sandblasting (OR = 3.83). Little or no trend of increased risk with duration of exposure was found for these occupational exposures, with the exception of silica in sandblasting. Limitations of these data include representativeness of cases, possible overreporting by cases, and misclassification of exposures inherent in self-reports. PMID:2153349

  19. Buffering Syndemic Effects in a Sexual Risk-Reduction Intervention for Male Clients of Female Sex Workers: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Semple, Shirley J.; Chavarin, Claudia V.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to test the efficacy of a sexual risk intervention for male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) and examine whether efficacy was moderated by syndemic risk. Methods. From 2010 to 2014, we conducted a 2-arm randomized controlled trial (60-minute, theory-based, safer sex intervention versus a didactic time-equivalent attention control) that included 400 male clients of FSWs on the US–Mexico border with follow-up at 4, 8, and 12 months. We measured 5 syndemic risk factors, including substance use and depression. Primary outcomes were sexually transmitted infections incidence and total unprotected sex with FSWs. Results. Although participants in both groups became safer, there was no significant difference in behavior change between groups. However, baseline syndemic risk moderated intervention efficacy. At baseline, there was a positive association between syndemic risk and unprotected sex. Then at 12 months, longitudinal analyses showed the association depended on intervention participation (B = −0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = –1.22, –0.20; P = .007). Among control participants there still existed this modest association (B = 0.36; 95% CI = –0.49, 1.22; P = .09); among intervention participants there was a significant negative association (B = −0.35; 95% CI = –0.63, –0.06; P = .02). Conclusion. A brief intervention might attenuate syndemic risks among clients of FSWs. Other populations experiencing syndemic problems may also benefit from such programs. PMID:25713953

  20. Callous-Unemotional Traits Trajectories Interact with Earlier Conduct Problems and Executive Control to Predict Violence and Substance Use Among High Risk Male Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Waller, Rebecca; Fish, Ari M; Hyde, Luke W

    2015-11-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, conduct problems (CP), and deficits in executive control are all linked to the development of more severe antisocial behavior, including violence and substance use. Though previous research has examined the impact of these factors on antisocial outcomes, little work has examined trajectories of CU traits across adolescence and how these trajectories predict greater antisocial behavior in adulthood. Moreover, no study has assessed how severity of early CP and executive control may exacerbate these pathways and increase risk for later violence and substance use. The current study (a) identified trajectories of CU traits among a large, high-risk sample of adolescent males, (b) examined the relationship between CU traits trajectories and future violence and substance use, and (c) examined whether early CP and executive control moderated the effects of a high CU traits trajectory membership and high CP on violence and substance use. Results indicated that: (a) CU traits could be grouped into three stable trajectories across adolescence, (b) the 'high' CU traits trajectory, particularly in the presence of 'elevated' CP, was related to higher violence and substance use, over and above a variety of environmental risk factors, and (c) the effects the 'high' CU traits trajectory on both violence and substance and in the presence of 'elevated' CP was stronger among youth with high executive control. These findings highlight the utility of identifying subgroups of youth who differ on trajectories of CU traits for understanding the development and maintenance of severe antisocial behavior. PMID:26081013

  1. A non-randomised controlled trial of the R&R2MHP cognitive skills program in high risk male offenders with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The growing popularity of offending behavior programs has led to the interest of whether such programs are effective with mentally disordered offenders. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Reasoning and Rehabilitation program adapted for offenders with severe mental illness (R&R2 MHP). Methods A sample of 59 adult high risk males detained in a high secure hospital completed questionnaires at baseline and post treatment to assess violent attitudes, anger, coping processes and social problem-solving. An informant measure of social and psychological functioning, including disruptive behavior, was completed by staff at the same time. The data of 30 patients who participated in the group condition were compared using intention to treat analysis with 29 controls who received treatment as usual. Results 80% of group participants completed the program. In contrast to controls, significant medium-large treatment effects were found at outcome on self-reported measures of violent attitudes, social problem-solving and coping processes. Improvements were endorsed by informant ratings of disruptive behavior, social and psychological functioning. Conclusions The R&R2MHP had a comparatively low dropout rate and was effective in a sample of high risk mentally disordered offenders requiring detention in high security. Future research should use a randomized controlled design. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ACTRN12613000216718. PMID:24498962

  2. Quercetin lowers plasma uric acid in pre-hyperuricaemic males: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuanlu; Williamson, Gary

    2016-03-14

    Elevated plasma uric acid concentration is a risk factor for gout, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Quercetin, a flavonoid found in high levels in onions, tea and apples, inhibits xanthine oxidoreductase in vitro, the final step in intracellular uric acid production, indicating that quercetin might be able to lower blood uric acid in humans. We determined the effects of 4 weeks of oral supplementation of quercetin on plasma uric acid, blood pressure and fasting glucose. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial recruited twenty-two healthy males (19-60 years) with baseline plasma uric acid concentration in the higher, but still considered healthy, range (339 (SD 51) µmol/l). The intervention included one tablet containing 500 mg quercetin daily for 4 weeks, compared with placebo, with a 4-week washout period between treatments. The primary outcome was change in concentrations of plasma uric acid after 2 and 4 weeks; secondary outcome measures were changes in fasting plasma glucose, 24-h urinary excretion of uric acid and resting blood pressure. After quercetin treatment, plasma uric acid concentrations were significantly lowered by -26·5 µmol/l (95% CI, -7·6, -45·5; P=0·008), without affecting fasting glucose, urinary excretion of uric acid or blood pressure. Daily supplementation of 500 mg quercetin, containing the bioavailable amount of quercetin as present in approximately 100 g red onions, for 4 weeks, significantly reduces elevated plasma uric acid concentrations in healthy males. PMID:26785820

  3. Recruiting male partners for couple HIV testing and counselling in Malawi’s option B+ programme: an unblinded randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Nora E; Mtande, Tiwonge K; Saidi, Friday; Stanley, Christopher; Jere, Edward; Paile, Lusubiro; Kumwenda, Kondwani; Mofolo, Innocent; Ng’ambi, Wingston; Miller, William C; Hoffman, Irving; Hosseinipour, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Couples HIV testing and counselling (CHTC) is encouraged but is not widely done in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to compare two strategies for recruiting male partners for CHTC in Malawi’s option B+ prevention of mother-to-child transmission programme: invitation only versus invitation plus tracing and postulated that invitation plus tracing would be more effective. Methods We did an unblinded, randomised, controlled trial assessing uptake of CHTC in the antenatal unit at Bwaila District Hospital, a maternity hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi. Women were eligible if they were pregnant, had just tested HIV-positive and therefore could initiate antiretroviral therapy, had not yet had CHTC, were older than 18 years or 16–17 years and married, reported a male sex partner in Lilongwe, and intended to remain in Lilongwe for at least 1 month. Women were randomly assigned (1:1) to either the invitation only group or the invitation plus tracing group with block randomisation (block size=4). In the invitation only group, women were provided with an invitation for male partners to present to the antenatal clinic. In the invitation plus tracing group, women were provided with the same invitation, and partners were traced if they did not present. When couples presented they were offered pregnancy information and CHTC. Women were asked to attend a follow-up visit 1 month after enrolment to assess social harms and sexual behaviour. The primary outcome was the proportion of couples who presented to the clinic together and received CHTC during the study period and was assessed in all randomly assigned participants. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02139176. Findings Between March 4, 2014, and Oct 3, 2014, 200 HIV-positive pregnant women were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the invitation only group (n=100) or the invitation plus tracing group (n=100). 74 couples in the invitation plus tracing group and 52 in the invitation only

  4. Male contraception.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the non-hormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  5. Male contraception

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the nonhormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  6. Platelet uptake of serotonin (5-HT) during ethanol withdrawal in male alcoholics

    SciTech Connect

    Neiman, J.; Beving, H.; Malmgren, R.

    1987-06-15

    Changes in the kinetic variables of the platelet serotonin uptake, Km and Vmax, were studied in 7 male alcoholics, admitted for detoxification and in sex- and age-matched volunteers. On admission the alcoholics had lower Km values than reference subjects (p less than 0.05). During detoxification the Km values normalized. Vmax was normal throughout the study in spite of the changes in platelet count. The results of the study suggest that the affinity of serotonin to its uptake receptor is transiently increased after a period of heavy drinking.

  7. Occupational risk for male infertility: a case-control study of 218 infertile and 227 fertile men.

    PubMed

    Chia, S E; Tay, S K

    2001-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if certain occupations pose an increased risk for infertility (of no known cause) among a group of infertile men compared with a group of fertile men. A total of 640 consecutive men whose spouses were unable to conceive were recruited from an infertility clinic. Of these, 218 men (cases) were found to have no known cause for their infertility. A total of 227 men whose spouses were pregnant at the time of the study were recruited as controls. The Singapore Standard Occupational Classification was used to code the subjects' occupations. Semen parameters (density, total sperm counts, motility, viability, and normal morphology) in all of the cases were significantly poorer than those in the controls. The risk for infertility is associated with smoking adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.85 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91 to 4.24. Work, independently, is not a risk factor for infertility. Engineering technicians (adjusted OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.36 to 5.54), finance analysts (adjusted OR, 4.66; 95% CI, 1.90 to 11.40), corporate and computing managers (adjusted OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.98), and teachers (adjusted OR, 7.72; 95% CI, 1.86 to 32.10) were at a greater risk of infertility compared with "services and clerical workers." Using services and clerical workers as a reference group, certain occupations are at a higher risk for infertility. Higher work demands and possible electromagnetic field exposure could be contributory factors for infertility. PMID:11725334

  8. Control of gonadotrophin secretion by steroid hormones in castrated male transsexuals. I. Effects of oestradiol infusion on plasma levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.

    PubMed

    Goh, H H; Chew, P C; Karim, S M; Ratnam, S S

    1980-02-01

    Twenty-four infusions of oestradiol (E2) in graded doses ranging from 0--200 micrograms administered over a period of 7 hours were carried out in eleven healthy male transsexuals who had undergone sex reassignment at least 3 months previously. Plasma levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and E2 were analysed by radioimmunoassay, while sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) was measured using 3H-testosterone as the saturating ligand. Infusion of 5--200 micrograms of E2 raised plasma E2 to levels ranging from 38.4--367.8 pg/ml which present 83%--800% of levels found in a control group of sixty-three normal males. SHBG capacity remained unchanged at all doses of E2 studied. No change in plasma levels of FSH and LH was observed in control infusions and infusion of 5 micrograms of E2. From 10 micrograms-200 micrograms, suppression of plasma levels of FSH was noted at the 5--7 hour period. The suppression increased up to 20 micrograms and thereafter the levels of FSH remained constant. On the other hand, the suppression of LH increased up to the highest E2 dose (200 micrograms) studied. Further, significant suppression of LH occurred earlier than the 5--7 hours as the dose of E2 increased. These observations are consistent with the conclusions that: (1) E2 plays a part in the regulation of secretion of FSH and LH in men; and (2) at doses higher than physiological, E2 exerts a differential effect on the secretion of FSH and LH. PMID:6772356

  9. KChIP-Like Auxiliary Subunits of Kv4 Channels Regulate Excitability of Muscle Cells and Control Male Turning Behavior during Mating in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Ruan, Mei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated Kv4 channels control the excitability of neurons and cardiac myocytes by conducting rapidly activating-inactivating currents. The function of Kv4 channels is profoundly modulated by K+ channel interacting protein (KChIP) soluble auxiliary subunits. However, the in vivo mechanism of the modulation is not fully understood. Here, we identified three C. elegans KChIP-like (ceKChIP) proteins, NCS-4, NCS-5, and NCS-7. All three ceKChIPs alter electrical characteristics of SHL-1, a C. elegans Kv4 channel ortholog, currents by slowing down inactivation kinetics and shifting voltage dependence of activation to more hyperpolarizing potentials. Native SHL-1 current is completely abolished in cultured myocytes of Triple KO worms in which all three ceKChIP genes are deleted. Reexpression of NCS-4 partially restored expression of functional SHL-1 channels, whereas NCS-4(efm), a NCS-4 mutant with impaired Ca2+-binding ability, only enhanced expression of SHL-1 proteins, but failed to transport them from the Golgi apparatus to the cell membrane in body wall muscles of Triple KO worms. Moreover, translational reporter revealed that NCS-4 assembles with SHL-1 K+ channels in male diagonal muscles. Deletion of either ncs-4 or shl-1 significantly impairs male turning, a behavior controlled by diagonal muscles during mating. The phenotype of the ncs-4 null mutant could be rescued by reexpression of NCS-4, but not NCS-4(efm), further emphasizing the importance of Ca2+ binding to ceKChIPs in regulating native SHL-1 channel function. Together, these data reveal an evolutionarily conserved mechanism underlying the regulation of Kv4 channels by KChIPs and unravel critical roles of ceKChIPs in regulating muscle cell excitability and animal behavior in C. elegans. PMID:25653349

  10. Text Messaging to Improve Attendance at Post-Operative Clinic Visits after Adult Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Odeny, Thomas A.; Bailey, Robert C.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Simoni, Jane M.; Tapia, Kenneth A.; Yuhas, Krista; Holmes, King K.; McClelland, R. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background Following male circumcision for HIV prevention, a high proportion of men fail to return for their scheduled seven-day post-operative visit. We evaluated the effect of short message service (SMS) text messages on attendance at this important visit. Methodology We enrolled 1200 participants >18 years old in a two-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial at 12 sites in Nyanza province, Kenya. Participants received daily SMS text messages for seven days (n = 600) or usual care (n = 600). The primary outcome was attendance at the scheduled seven-day post-operative visit. The primary analysis was by intention-to-treat. Principal Findings Of participants receiving SMS, 387/592 (65.4%) returned, compared to 356/596 (59.7%) in the control group (relative risk [RR] = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–1.20; p = 0.04). Men who paid more than US$1.25 to travel to clinic were at higher risk for failure to return compared to those who spent ≤US$1.25 (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.35, 95% CI 1.15–1.58; p<0.001). Men with secondary or higher education had a lower risk of failure to return compared to those with primary or less education (aRR 0.87, 95% CI 0.74–1.01; p = 0.07). Conclusions Text messaging resulted in a modest improvement in attendance at the 7-day post-operative clinic visit following adult male circumcision. Factors associated with failure to return were mainly structural, and included transportation costs and low educational level. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01186575 PMID:22957034

  11. Prolonged use of Kinesiotaping does not enhance functional performance and joint proprioception in healthy young males: Randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Igor; Bottaro, Martim; Freitas, João R.; Carmo, Jake; Matheus, João P. C.; Carregaro, Rodrigo L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous (48-hour) use of Kinesiotaping (KT) on functional and proprioceptive performance in healthy, physically active men. Method Twenty-six healthy, physically active men (21.8±2.2 years old) were randomly allocated into two groups: 1) Kinesiotaping group (KG, tape applied with 40% tension for rectus femoris activation); 2) Control (CG, tape applied over rectus femoris without additional tension). Subjects attended the laboratory on five separate occasions: 1) familiarization; 2) baseline measurement without tape (BL); 3) immediately post-tape application (T0); 4) 24h (T24); and 5) 48h (T48) post-tape application. The outcomes were distance in the single (SHT) and triple hop tests (THT), vertical jump height (VJH), vertical jump power (VJP), and rate of force development (RFD). A mixed-model ANOVA was applied to verify differences between and within groups. Results No significant (p >0.05) differences were found in the SHT and THT between groups and moments. Likewise, the main effects for VJH, VJP, and RFD were not significant (p >0.05). Conclusion The present study demonstrated no significant immediate or prolonged (48h) effects of KT on functional and proprioceptive performance. PMID:27437712

  12. Two step male release strategy using transgenic mosquito lines to control transmission of vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Danilo Oliveira; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Capurro, Margareth Lara

    2014-04-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of pathogens that cause devastating human diseases such as malaria and dengue. The current increase in mean global temperature and changing sea level interfere with precipitation frequency and some other climatic conditions which, in general, influence the rate of development of insects and etiologic agents causing acceleration as the temperature rises. The most common strategy employed to combat target mosquito species is the Integrated Vector Management (IVM), which comprises the use of multiple activities and various approaches to preventing the spread of a vector in infested areas. IVM programmes are becoming ineffective; and the global scenario is threatening, requiring new interventions for vector control and surveillance. Not surprisingly, there is a growing need to find alternative methods to combat the mosquito vectors. The possibility of using transgenic mosquitoes to fight against those diseases has been discussed over the last two decades and this use of transgenic lines to suppress populations or to replace them is still under investigation through field and laboratory trials. As an alternative, the available transgenic strategies could be improved by coupling suppression and substitution strategies. The idea is to first release a suppression line to significantly reduce the wild population, and once the first objective is reached a second release using a substitution line could be then performed. Examples of targeting this approach against vectors of malaria and dengue are discussed. PMID:24513036

  13. DAT1 and COMT effects on delay discounting and trait impulsivity in male adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Asherson, Philip; Mehta, Mitul A; Faraone, Stephen V; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2010-11-01

    Choice impulsivity has been linked to dopamine function and is consistently observed in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a preference for smaller-immediate over larger-delayed rewards using choice-delay paradigms. More sophisticated delay discounting paradigms have yielded inconsistent results. Context and sample characteristics may have contributed to these variations. In this study we examine the effect of type (real vs hypothetical) and magnitude of reward as well as of variation in dopamine genes on choice impulsivity. We selected 36 male adolescents with ADHD-combined subtype (ADHD-CT) and 32 controls (mean age=15.42, SD=2.05) to form four roughly equally sized subgroups on the basis of DAT1(10/6) haplotype dosage (2 copies and <2 copies). Participants, who were also genotyped for the COMT(val158met) and DRD4(48bp-VNTR) polymorphisms, performed a hypothetical and a real-time discounting task and provided self-ratings of trait impulsivity. The ADHD-CT group discounted rewards more steeply than controls only in the hypothetical task, with delay, but not reward magnitude, influencing choices. They also rated themselves as more impulsive compared with controls. DAT1(10/6) dosage and the COMT(Val158Met) genotype predicted trait impulsivity and discounting rates in the hypothetical task, but not in the real-time task. Our results directly link variation in genes putatively influencing dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex (COMT(Val158Met)) and the striatum (DAT1(10/6)) with discounting rates in a hypothetical task (but not a real-time task) and self-ratings of trait impulsivity in ADHD-CT and healthy controls. The lack of magnitude effects in the hypothetical task suggests that discounting in this task may be influenced by different processes in ADHD-CT than in healthy controls. PMID:20736997

  14. Randomized controlled trial of Micro-Mobile Compression® on lactate clearance and subsequent exercise performance in elite male cyclists

    PubMed Central

    San Millán, Iñigo; Bing, Kristen; Brill, Carrie; Hill, John C; Miller, Larry E

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper was to assess the feasibility of Micro-Mobile Compression® (MMC) on lactate clearance following exhaustive exercise and on subsequent exercise performance. Methods Elite male cyclists were randomized to MMC (n = 8) or passive recovery (control, n = 8). MMC is incorporated into a sandal that intermittently compresses the venous plexus during non-weight bearing to augment venous return. On day 1, subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer followed by 60 minutes of seated recovery, with or without MMC. Blood lactate concentration ([La−]) was measured during exercise and recovery. Subjects returned home for 3 more hours of seated recovery, with or without MMC. On days 2 and 3, subjects exercised to exhaustion in a fixed-load cycle ergometer test at 85% peak power and then repeated the day 1 post-exercise recovery procedures. Lactate clearance data after the time to exhaustion tests on days 2 and 3 were averaged to adjust for interday variation. Results On the day after MMC or control recovery, mean time to exhaustion was 15% longer (mean difference, 2.1 minutes) in the MMC group (P = 0.30). The standardized mean difference of MMC for time to exhaustion was 0.55, defined as a moderate treatment effect. Following the graded exercise test, area under the 60-minute lactate curve was nonsignificantly lower with MMC (3.2 ± 0.4 millimolar [mM]) versus control (3.5 ± 0.4 mM, P = 0.10) and times from end of exercise to 4mM and 2mM were 2.1 minutes (P = 0.58) and 7.2 minutes (P = 0.12) shorter, although neither achieved statistical significance. Following time to exhaustion testing, the area under the 60-minute lactate curve was lower with MMC (3.2 ± 0.2 mM) versus control (3.5 ± 0.2 mM, P = 0.02) and times from end of exercise to 4mM and 2mM were 4.4 minutes (P = 0.02) and 7.6 minutes (P < 0.01) faster. The standardized mean difference of MMC on most lactate clearance parameters was >0.8, defined as a large

  15. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Resources and Publications How effective is male contraception? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... health care providers to determine which method of birth control is best for them. For men, methods of ...

  16. A cluster randomized controlled trial to increase the availability and acceptability of voluntary medical male circumcision in Zambia: The Spear and Shield Project

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Stephen M; Zulu, Robert; Jones, Deborah L; Redding, Colleen A; Cook, Ryan; Chitalu, Ndashi

    2015-01-01

    Background Widespread voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in Africa could avert an estimated 3·436 million HIV infections and 300,000 deaths over the next 10 years. Most Zambian men, however, have expressed little interest in undergoing VMMC. This study tested the effect of an intervention designed to increase demand for VMMC among these “hard to reach” men. Methods This cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted from 2012 to 2014 in Lusaka, Zambia (HIV prevalence = 20·8%). 13 Community Health Centers (CHCs) were stratified by HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) rates and patient census and randomly assigned (5:5:3) to Experimental, Control or Observation Only conditions. CHC health care providers at all 13 sites received VMMC training. Trial statisticians did not participate in randomization. 800 uncircumcised HIV-, post-VCT men, 400 per condition, were recruited; female partners were invited to participate. The primary outcome was the likelihood of VMMC by 12 months post-intervention. The trial registration is NCT 01688167. Findings 161 participants in the Experimental condition underwent VMMC as compared to 96 Control participants [adjusted odds ratio = 2·45, 95% CI = (1·24, 4·90) p = ·0166]. Post-VMMC condom use among Experimental condition participants increased compared to baseline, with no change among Control participants. No adverse events related to study participation were reported. Interpretation The Spear and Shield intervention combined with VMMC training was associated with a significant increase in the number of VMMCs performed as well as in condom use among “hard to reach” Zambian men. Results support the importance of comprehensive HIV prevention programs that increase supply of and demand for VMMC services. Funding NIH/NIMH R01MH095539. PMID:26120594

  17. Blood cell gene expression associated with cellular stress defense is modulated by antioxidant-rich food in a randomised controlled clinical trial of male smokers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant-based diets rich in fruit and vegetables can prevent development of several chronic age-related diseases. However, the mechanisms behind this protective effect are not elucidated. We have tested the hypothesis that intake of antioxidant-rich foods can affect groups of genes associated with cellular stress defence in human blood cells. Trial registration number: NCT00520819 http://clinicaltrials.gov. Methods In an 8-week dietary intervention study, 102 healthy male smokers were randomised to either a diet rich in various antioxidant-rich foods, a kiwifruit diet (three kiwifruits/d added to the regular diet) or a control group. Blood cell gene expression profiles were obtained from 10 randomly selected individuals of each group. Diet-induced changes on gene expression were compared to controls using a novel application of the gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) on transcription profiles obtained using Affymetrix HG-U133-Plus 2.0 whole genome arrays. Results Changes were observed in the blood cell gene expression profiles in both intervention groups when compared to the control group. Groups of genes involved in regulation of cellular stress defence, such as DNA repair, apoptosis and hypoxia, were significantly upregulated (GSEA, FDR q-values < 5%) by both diets compared to the control group. Genes with common regulatory motifs for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear translocator (AhR/ARNT) were upregulated by both interventions (FDR q-values < 5%). Plasma antioxidant biomarkers (polyphenols/carotenoids) increased in both groups. Conclusions The observed changes in the blood cell gene expression profiles suggest that the beneficial effects of a plant-based diet on human health may be mediated through optimization of defence processes. PMID:20846424

  18. Food Emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate Increases Internal Exposure Levels of Six Priority Controlled Phthalate Esters and Exacerbates Their Male Reproductive Toxicities in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hai-Tao; Xu, Run; Cao, Wei-Xin; Zhou, Xu; Yan, Ye-Hui-Mei; Lu, Lingeng; Xu, Qian; Shen, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs). Processed, packaged foods are popular nowadays, in which emulsifiers are frequently added as food additives. It is unclear how emulsifiers affect the bioavailability of ingested PAEs contaminants and their toxicities. The purposes of our study were to explore whether food emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate (GMS) could increase the internal exposure levels of six priority controlled PAEs and affect their reproductive toxicities when male rats are exposed to PAEs mixture (MIXPs). The male rats were exposed to MIXPs by gavage for thirty days in combination with or without given GMS. Phthalate monoesters (MPAEs), primary metabolites of PAEs, in rat urine were used as biomarkers to predict the internal exposure levels of the six PAEs, and their concentrations were determined using UPLC-MS. The reproductive toxicity was evaluated using serum testosterone levels test and histopathology of testes. Results showed that compared to PAEs exposure alone, the internal exposure levels of PAEs increased by 30%-49% in the presence of GMS. PAEs exposure led to the reduction of testosterone level by 23.4%-42.1% in the presence and absence of GMS, respectively, compared to the baseline. Testosterone levels in MIXPs+GMS and DEHP+GMS group were decreased by 9.1% and 13.6%, respectively, compared with MIXPs and DEHP group. Histopathology showed that injuries of testis (deciduous spermatids) were observed, and GMS exacerbated the injuries. The results indicated food emulsifiers chronically taken up might increase safety risks of food PAEs contaminants. PMID:27575856

  19. XG-102 administered to healthy male volunteers as a single intravenous infusion: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study

    PubMed Central

    Deloche, Catherine; Lopez-Lazaro, Luis; Mouz, Sébastien; Perino, Julien; Abadie, Claire; Combette, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of the JNK inhibitor XG-102 in a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, sequential ascending dose parallel group Phase 1 Study. Three groups of male subjects received as randomly assigned ascending single XG-102 doses (10, 40, and 80 μg/kg; 6 subjects per dose) or placebo (2 subjects per dose) as an intravenous (IV) infusion over 60 min. Safety and tolerability were assessed by physical examination, vital signs, electrocardiography, eye examination, clinical laboratory tests and adverse events (AEs). PK was analyzed using noncompartmental methods. All reported AEs were mild to moderate and neither their number nor their distribution by System Organ Class suggest a dose relationship. Only headache and fatigue were considered probably or possibly study drug related. Headache frequency was similar for active and placebo, consequently this was not considered to be drug related but probably to study conditions. The other examinations did not show clinically relevant deviations or trends suggesting a XG-102 relationship. Geometric mean half-life was similar among doses, ranging from 0.36 to 0.65 h. Geometric mean XG-102 AUC0–last increased more than linearly with dose, 90% confidence intervals (CIs) did not overlap for the two highest doses. Geometric mean dose normalized Cmax values suggest a more than linear increase with dose but 90% CIs overlap. It may be concluded that XG-102 single IV doses of 10–80 μg/kg administered over 1 h to healthy male subjects were safe and well tolerated. PMID:25505576

  20. Adverse effects of high-intensity sweeteners on energy intake and weight control in male and obesity-prone female rats

    PubMed Central

    Swithers, Susan E.; Sample, Camille H.; Davidson, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-intensity sweeteners has been proposed as a method to combat increasing rates of overweight and obesity in the human population. However, previous work with male rats suggests that consumption of such sweeteners might contribute to, rather than ameliorate, weight gain. The goals of the present experiments were to assess whether intake of high-intensity sweeteners is associated with increased food intake and body weight gain in female rats; to evaluate whether this effect depends on composition of the maintenance diet (i.e., standard chow compared to diets high in energy, fat and sugar [HE diets]); and to determine whether the phenotype of the rats with regard to propensity to gain weight on HE diets affects the consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners. The data demonstrated that female rats fed a low-fat, standard laboratory chow diet did not gain extra weight when fed yogurt dietary supplements sweetened with saccharin compared to those fed glucose-sweetened dietary supplements. However, female rats maintained on a “Westernized” diet high in fat and sugar (HE diet) showed significant increases in energy intake, weight gain and adiposity when given saccharin-sweetened compared to glucose-sweetened yogurt supplements. These differences were most pronounced in female rats known to be prone to obesity prior to the introduction of the yogurt diets. Both selectively-bred Crl:OP[CD] rats, and outbred Sprague-Dawley rats fed an HE diet showing high levels of weight gain (DIO rats) had increased weight gain in response to consuming saccharin-sweetened compared to glucose-sweetened supplements. However, in male rats fed an HE diet, saccharin-sweetened supplements produced extra weight gain regardless of obesity phenotype. These results suggest that the most negative consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners may occur in those most likely to use them for weight control, females consuming a “Westernized” diet and already prone to

  1. Adverse effects of high-intensity sweeteners on energy intake and weight control in male and obesity-prone female rats.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E; Sample, Camille H; Davidson, Terry L

    2013-04-01

    The use of high-intensity sweeteners has been proposed as a method to combat increasing rates of overweight and obesity in the human population. However, previous work with male rats suggests that consumption of such sweeteners might contribute to, rather than ameliorate, weight gain. The goals of the present experiments were to assess whether intake of high-intensity sweeteners is associated with increased food intake and body weight gain in female rats; to evaluate whether this effect depends on composition of the maintenance diet (i.e., standard chow compared with diets high in energy, fat, and sugar [HE diets]); and to determine whether the phenotype of the rats with regard to propensity to gain weight on HE diets affects the consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners. The data demonstrated that female rats fed a low-fat, standard laboratory chow diet did not gain extra weight when fed yogurt dietary supplements sweetened with saccharin compared with those fed glucose-sweetened dietary supplements. However, female rats maintained on a "Westernized" diet high in fat and sugar (HE diet) showed significant increases in energy intake, weight gain, and adiposity when given saccharin-sweetened compared with glucose-sweetened yogurt supplements. These differences were most pronounced in female rats known to be prone to obesity prior to the introduction of the yogurt diets. Both selectively bred Crl:OP[CD] rats and outbred Sprague-Dawley rats fed an HE diet showing high levels of weight gain (diet-induced obese [DIO] rats) had increased weight gain in response to consuming saccharin-sweetened compared with glucose-sweetened supplements. However, in male rats fed an HE diet, saccharin-sweetened supplements produced extra weight gain regardless of obesity phenotype. These results suggest that the most negative consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners may occur in those most likely to use them for weight control, females consuming a "Westernized" diet

  2. Food Emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate Increases Internal Exposure Levels of Six Priority Controlled Phthalate Esters and Exacerbates Their Male Reproductive Toxicities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hai-Tao; Xu, Run; Cao, Wei-Xin; Zhou, Xu; Yan, Ye-Hui-Mei; Lu, Lingeng; Xu, Qian; Shen, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs). Processed, packaged foods are popular nowadays, in which emulsifiers are frequently added as food additives. It is unclear how emulsifiers affect the bioavailability of ingested PAEs contaminants and their toxicities. The purposes of our study were to explore whether food emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate (GMS) could increase the internal exposure levels of six priority controlled PAEs and affect their reproductive toxicities when male rats are exposed to PAEs mixture (MIXPs). The male rats were exposed to MIXPs by gavage for thirty days in combination with or without given GMS. Phthalate monoesters (MPAEs), primary metabolites of PAEs, in rat urine were used as biomarkers to predict the internal exposure levels of the six PAEs, and their concentrations were determined using UPLC-MS. The reproductive toxicity was evaluated using serum testosterone levels test and histopathology of testes. Results showed that compared to PAEs exposure alone, the internal exposure levels of PAEs increased by 30%-49% in the presence of GMS. PAEs exposure led to the reduction of testosterone level by 23.4%-42.1% in the presence and absence of GMS, respectively, compared to the baseline. Testosterone levels in MIXPs+GMS and DEHP+GMS group were decreased by 9.1% and 13.6%, respectively, compared with MIXPs and DEHP group. Histopathology showed that injuries of testis (deciduous spermatids) were observed, and GMS exacerbated the injuries. The results indicated food emulsifiers chronically taken up might increase safety risks of food PAEs contaminants. PMID:27575856

  3. Effectiveness of a tailored neck training program on neck strength, movement, and fatigue in under-19 male rugby players: a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Matthew D; McLoughlin, Terence F; Gallagher, Kieran R; Gatherer, Don; Parratt, Michael TR; Perera, Jonathan R; Briggs, Tim WR

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of a tailored neck muscle conditioning program on neck muscle strength, neck muscle fatigue, and range of neck movement in 16–18-year-old male rugby players. Materials and methods Thirty-four male rugby players were divided into forward and back playing positions and randomized within these groups. Seventeen players were randomly assigned to each group. The test group was given a tailored 6-week exercise regime based on their baseline measurements to be performed three times a week in addition to their normal training and playing. The control group trained and played as normal. The outcome measures used were cervical spine range of movement, neck strength, and neck muscle fatigability. Results There were no clinically relevant statistically significant differences between the two groups. Trends identified between the two groups suggest that a tailored neck exercise program increases neck strength, particularly neck extension, and increases resistance to fatigue, as well as influencing right- and left-sided neck muscle balance. A reduction in range of movement was also demonstrated in the test group. There was a great deal of variability in range of movement and strength within this age group. No previously undiagnosed neck conditions were detected, and there were no adverse events reported. Conclusion This study has shown that neck strength, range of movement, and susceptibility of the neck muscles to fatigue can be influenced using a focused neck training regime. It forms an important basis for a larger, multicenter study to ensure the neck is given due attention in rugby training and receives the same focus of conditioning as other parts of the body. PMID:25999771

  4. High Intensity Resistance Training Methods with and without Protein Supplementation to Fight Cardiometabolic Risk in Middle-Aged Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Wittke, Andreas; Bebenek, Michael; Fröhlich, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Time-effective protocols may potentially increase people's compliance with exercise. The purpose of this paper was to compare the relative effects of 16 weeks of high intensity (resistance) training (HIT) with and without protein supplementation (HIT&P) and HVHIT (high volume/high intensity training) versus a nontraining control group on cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred and twenty untrained males 30–50 years old were randomly assigned to 3 subgroups: (a) a HIT group; (b) a HIT&P group, and (c) a waiting-control group (phase I) that crossed over to (d) high volume/high intensity training (HVHIT) during the second study phase. HIT was defined as “single set to failure protocol” while HVHIT consistently applied two sets. Protein supplementation provided an overall intake of 1.5 g/kg/body mass. Primary study endpoint was the metabolic syndrome Z-Score (MetS-Z-Score). MetS-Z-Score significantly improved in all exercise groups (p ≤ 0.001) with no significant difference between HIT, HIT&P, and HVHIT (p ≥ 0.829). However, all the exercise groups differed significantly from the CG (p < 0.001) which deteriorated significantly (p = 0.039). In conclusion, all exercise protocols were similarly effective in improving cardiometabolic risk factors. Thus, HIT may be the best choice for people with low time budgets looking to improve their cardiometabolic health. PMID:26885526

  5. Stress induced by the socially evaluated cold-pressor test cause equivalent deficiencies of sensory gating in male subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Gabriel; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Jurado-Barba, Rosa; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Roberto; Espinosa, Regina; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel; Moratti, Stephan; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel Ángel; Carlos Leza, Juan

    2015-08-30

    It is known that patients with schizophrenia show a deficiency in the prepulse inhibition reflex (PPI). These patients display abnormalities in autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and may have an altered sensitivity to stress. To date, no studies have been carried out to determine the effect of acute stress on the PPI. We investigated whether there was a differential response in reactivity to acute stress caused by the socially evaluated cold-pressor test (SECPT) in a sample of 58 chronic male patients with schizophrenia and 28 healthy control subjects. PPI, salivary cortisol and heart rate (HR) were measured. The patients were evaluated in two sessions (with and without the SECPT) 72 h apart and basal measurements were carried out and 30 min post-startle probe. We found an increase in salivary cortisol levels and the HR with SECPT condition in both groups and a significantly lower PPI% in patients with schizophrenia. The most relevant findings of this study are that the impairment of the PPI is increased by stress. Stress-induced increase in cortisol in both groups, mainly in healthy control group which allows us to hypothesize that at least such deterioration may be due to the hypercortisolemia caused by the SECPT. PMID:26154819

  6. High Intensity Resistance Training Methods with and without Protein Supplementation to Fight Cardiometabolic Risk in Middle-Aged Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Wittke, Andreas; Bebenek, Michael; Fröhlich, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Time-effective protocols may potentially increase people's compliance with exercise. The purpose of this paper was to compare the relative effects of 16 weeks of high intensity (resistance) training (HIT) with and without protein supplementation (HIT&P) and HVHIT (high volume/high intensity training) versus a nontraining control group on cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred and twenty untrained males 30-50 years old were randomly assigned to 3 subgroups: (a) a HIT group; (b) a HIT&P group, and (c) a waiting-control group (phase I) that crossed over to (d) high volume/high intensity training (HVHIT) during the second study phase. HIT was defined as "single set to failure protocol" while HVHIT consistently applied two sets. Protein supplementation provided an overall intake of 1.5 g/kg/body mass. Primary study endpoint was the metabolic syndrome Z-Score (MetS-Z-Score). MetS-Z-Score significantly improved in all exercise groups (p ≤ 0.001) with no significant difference between HIT, HIT&P, and HVHIT (p ≥ 0.829). However, all the exercise groups differed significantly from the CG (p < 0.001) which deteriorated significantly (p = 0.039). In conclusion, all exercise protocols were similarly effective in improving cardiometabolic risk factors. Thus, HIT may be the best choice for people with low time budgets looking to improve their cardiometabolic health. PMID:26885526

  7. Effects of Triclocarban on Intact Immature Male Rat

    PubMed Central

    Duleba, Antoni J.; Ahmed, Mohamed I.; Sun, Meng; Gao, Allen C.; Villanueva, Jesus; Conley, Alan J.; Turgeon, Judith L.; Benirschke, Kurt; Gee, Nancy A.; Chen, Jiangang; Green, Peter G.; Lasley, Bill L.

    2011-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC; 3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide) is an antimicrobial agent used widely in various personal hygiene products including soaps. Recently, TCC has been shown to enhance testosterone-induced effects in vitro and to enlarge accessory sex organs in castrated male rats. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of TCC on intact age-matched male rats and on human prostate LNCaP and C4–2B cells. Seven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet or a diet supplemented with TCC (0.25% in diet) for 10 days. Triclocarban induced hyperplasia of accessory sex organs in the absence of significant qualitative histological changes. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were not significantly altered by TCC treatment. In prostate cancer-derived LNCaP and C4–2B cells, TCC potentiated androgen actions via androgen receptor-dependent actions. In conclusion, TCC significantly affects intact male reproductive organs and potentiates androgen effects in prostate cancer cells. PMID:20889956

  8. Male rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Agmo, A

    1997-05-01

    The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 [13]). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems. PMID:9385085

  9. Male mating biology

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Paul I; Knols, Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colonisation and long-term mass rearing. Careful selection of mating characteristics must be combined with intensive field trials to ensure phenotypic characters are not antagonistic to longevity, dispersal, or mating behaviours in released males. Success has been achieved, even when colonised vectors were less competitive, due in part to extensive field trials to ensure mating compatibility and effective dispersal. The study of male mating biology in other dipterans has improved the success of operational SIT programmes. Contributing factors include inter-sexual selection, pheromone based attraction, the ability to detect alterations in local mating behaviours, and the effects of long-term colonisation on mating competitiveness. Although great strides have been made in other SIT programmes, this knowledge may not be germane to anophelines, and this has led to a recent increase in research in this area. PMID:19917078

  10. Aphrodisiac Use Associated with HIV Infection in Elderly Male Clients of Low-Cost Commercial Sex Venues in Guangxi, China: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guojian; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Hongman; Lan, Guanghua; Feng, Xue; Lin, Rui; Abdullah, Abu S.; Wu, Zunyou; Shi, Cynthia X.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rising HIV infection rates have been observed among elderly people in Guangxi, China. Inexpensive aphrodisiacs are available for purchase in suburban and rural areas. This study aims to investigate the association between aphrodisiac use and increased HIV risk for middle-aged and elderly men in Guangxi. Methods A matched case-control study of aphrodisiac use-associated HIV infection was performed among male subjects over 50 years old who were clients of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi. The cases were defined as clients who were HIV-positive and two controls were selected for each case. The cases and the controls were matched on the visited sex venue, age (±3 years), number of years of purchasing sex (±3 years), and educational attainment. Subjects were interviewed and tested for HIV. Paired t-test or McNemar Chi-squared test were used to compare the characteristics between the cases and controls. A stepwise conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with HIV infection. Findings This study enrolled 103 cases and 206 controls. Aphrodisiac use (P = 0.02, odds ratio (OR) = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.08–3.04), never using condom during commercial sex encounter (P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.08–3.07), and lacking a stable partner (P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR) = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.05–2.98) were found to be risk factors for HIV infection among the study groups. For subjects reporting aphrodisiac use, the frequency of purchasing sex was positively correlated with the frequency of aphrodisiac use (r = 0.3; p = 0.02). Conclusions Aphrodisiac use was significantly associated with increased HIV infection risk in men over 50 years old who purchased commercial sex in the suburban and rural areas of Guangxi. Further research and interventions should address the links between aphrodisiac use, commercial sex work, condom use, and increased HIV transmission. PMID:25286369

  11. An open system for automatic home-cage behavioral analysis and its application to male and female mouse models of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Zarringhalam, Kourosh; Ka, Minhan; Kook, Yeon-Hee; Terranova, Joseph I; Suh, Yongjoon; King, Oliver D; Um, Moonkyoung

    2012-04-01

    Changes in routine mouse home-cage behavioral activities have been used recently to study alterations of neural circuits caused by genetic and environmental modifications and by drug administration. Nevertheless, automatic assessment of mouse home-cage behaviors remains challenging due to the cost of proprietary systems and to the difficulty in adjusting systems to different monitoring conditions. Here we present software for the automatic quantification of multiple facets of mouse home-cage behaviors, suitable for continuous 24 h video monitoring. We used this program to assess behavioral changes in male and female R6/2 transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease over a 10-week period. Consistent with the well-known progressive motor coordination deficits of R6/2 mice, their hanging, rearing, and climbing activity declined as the disease progressed. R6/2 mice also exhibited frequent disturbances in their resting activity compared to wild-type mice, suggesting that R6/2 mice are more restless and wakeful. Behavioral differences were seen earlier for male R6/2 mice than female R6/2 mice, and "behavioral signatures" based on multiple behaviors enabled us to distinguish male R6/2 mice from sex- and age-matched wild-type controls as early as 5 weeks of age. These results demonstrate that the automated behavioral classification software that we developed ("OpenCage") provides a powerful tool for analyzing natural home-cage mouse behaviors, and for constructing behavioral signatures that will be useful for assessing therapeutic strategies. The OpenCage software is available under an open-source GNU General Public License, allowing other users to freely modify and extend it to suit their purposes. PMID:22266926

  12. Central control of penile erection: a re-visitation of the role of oxytocin and its interaction with dopamine and glutamic acid in male rats.

    PubMed

    Melis, Maria Rosaria; Argiolas, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Oxytocin is a potent inducer of penile erection when injected into the central nervous system. In male rats, the most sensitive brain area for the pro-erectile effect of oxytocin is the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. This nucleus and surrounding regions contain the cell bodies of all oxytocinergic neurons projecting to extra-hypothalamic brain areas and the spinal cord. This review shows that oxytocin induces penile erection also when injected in some of these areas (e.g., ventral tegmental area, ventral subiculum of the hippocampus, posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala and thoraco-lumbar spinal cord). Microinjection studies combined with intra-cerebral microdialysis and double immuno-fluorescence studies suggest that oxytocin in these areas activates directly or indirectly (mainly through glutamic acid) mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons. Dopamine released in the nucleus accumbens in turn activates neural pathways leading to the activation of incerto-hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus. This activates not only oxytocinergic neurons projecting to the spinal cord and mediating penile erection, but also those projecting to the above extra-hypothalamic areas, modulating directly or indirectly (through glutamic acid) the activity of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons controlling motivation and reward. Together these neural pathways may constitute a complex hypothetical circuit, which plays a role not only in the consummatory phase of sexual activity (erectile function and copulation), but also in the motivational and rewarding aspects of the anticipatory phase of sexual behaviour. PMID:21050872

  13. Effectiveness of 6 Months of Tailored Text Message Reminders for Obese Male Participants in a Worksite Weight Loss Program: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sohee; Steinhubl, Steven; Kim, Sohye; Bae, Woo Kyung; Han, Jong Soo; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Keehyuck; Kim, Mi Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Worksite nutrition and physical activity interventions are important to help overweight and obese employees lose weight, but costs and insufficient sustained motivation prevent the majority of these programs from succeeding. Tailored text messaging in aiding weight management has been effective in several studies, but no studies have evaluated the effect of a tailored text message service on weight loss in a worksite health promotion program. Objective We studied the efficacy of a tailored text-messaging intervention for obese male participants in a worksite weight loss program of 6 months duration. Methods The study was an unblinded, randomized controlled trial. Men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 were recruited from the Korea District Heating Corporation, the Korea Expressway Corporation, and the Korea Gas Corporation. The participants were identified by nurse managers. Participants were randomly allocated to 1 of the following 2 groups for 24 weeks: (1) intervention group, which received tailored text message reminders every other day plus 4 offline education sessions and brief counseling with monthly weight check by nurses for weight control over 6 months and (2) control group, which received the 4 offline education sessions and brief counseling with monthly weight check by nurses about weight control over 6 months. The primary outcome was the difference in weight loss at 6 months. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the intervention group’s weight loss compared with the control group. Results A total of 205 obese men were randomized into either the intervention (n=104) or the control group (n=101). At the end of 6 months, the intervention group (n=63) had lost 1.71 kg (95% CI –2.53 to –0.88) and the control group (n=59) had lost 1.56 kg (95% CI –2.45 to –0.66); the difference between the 2 groups was not significant (mean difference –0.15, 95% CI –1.36 to 1.07). At the end of

  14. Genetics Home Reference: familial male-limited precocious puberty

    MedlinePlus

    ... and luteinizing hormone triggers these cells to produce androgens. Androgens, including testosterone, are the hormones that control male ... chorionic gonadotropin. In males, the overactive receptor causes excess production of testosterone, which triggers male sexual development ...

  15. Photoperiod and melatonin treatments for controlling sperm parameters, testicular and accessory sex glands size in male Iberian ibex: A model for captive mountain ruminants.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Toledano-Díaz, A; Castaño, C; Coloma, M A; Esteso, M C; Prieto, M T; Delgadillo, J A; López-Sebastián, A

    2013-06-01

    This study examines whether photoperiod and/or melatonin treatments can improve sperm variables outside the breeding season in the Iberian ibex-a model species for wild mountain ruminants-thus helping in the collection of high quality sperm beyond the normal breeding season for depositing in genetic resource banks. Adult Iberian ibex males (n=17) were divided into four treatment groups: (1) controls under the natural photoperiod (control group; n=4), (2) treatment with melatonin implants on December 22nd, February 22nd and April 22nd (group WS-M; n=5), (3) treatment with short photoperiod cycles, i.e., 2 months of long days followed by melatonin implants (to emulate 2 months of short days) throughout the year (group PHPld+M; n=4), and (4) treatment with melatonin implants on June 22nd and August 22nd (group SS-M; n=4). The interaction treatment x season had a strong influence on testis size (P<0.05), the size of the seminal vesicles (P<0.001), the percentage of abnormal sperms (P<0.05), and percentage non-progressive (P<0.05) and progressive (P<0.001) sperm motility. In groups WS-M and PHPld+M, the normal springtime physiological reductions in testis size, non-progressive sperm motility and acrosome integrity were prevented. The values for the studied sperm variables were, however, reduced in the natural breeding season at the end of the experimental period in group PHPld+M, although not in group WS-M. The pattern of melatonin administration in group SS-M conferred no advantages on reproductive functionality. These results suggest that lengthening the short day period after the winter solstice (the WS-M treatment) extends reproductive activity in this species, allowing good quality sperm to be recovered for conservation purposes during the non-breeding season. PMID:23664101

  16. Hyperactivity persists in male and female adults with ADHD and remains a highly discriminative feature of the disorder: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Symptoms of hyperactivity are believed to fade with age leaving ADHD adults mostly inattentive and impulsive. Our aim was to test this assertion using objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Method Participants were 40 subjects with ADHD (23M/17F; 35±10 yrs) and 60 healthy adults (28M/32F; 29±9 yrs) blindly assessed using Wender-Reimherr interview ratings, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders and DSM-IV criteria. Infrared motion capture systems tracked head and leg movements during performance of a No-4’s cognitive control task. Subjects also completed the Conners’ CPT-II. Results ADHD and controls differed significantly in activity and attention. Effect sizes for activity measures (d’ = 0.7–1.6) were, on average, two-fold larger than differences in attention or impulsivity, correlated more strongly with executive function ratings and were more discriminatory (ROC area = 0.83 for activity composite, 0.65 for No-4’s distraction composite, 0.63 for Conners’ CPT-II confidence index, 0.96 for the combined activity and attention diagnostic index). This finding was true for subjects with the predominantly inattentive subtype as well as subjects with combined or predominantly hyperactive/impulsive subtype. Males and females with ADHD were equally active. The superior accuracy of activity measures was confirmed using Random Forest and predictive modeling techniques. Conclusions Objectively measured hyperactivity persists in adults with ADHD and is a more discriminative feature of the disorder than computerized measures of inattention or impulsivity. This finding supports the hypothesis that a deficient ability to sit still remains a defining feature of the disorder in adults when it is measured objectively. PMID:23134619

  17. Is transgendered male androphilia familial in non-Western populations? The case of a Samoan village.

    PubMed

    Vanderlaan, Doug P; Vokey, John R; Vasey, Paul L

    2013-04-01

    In Western populations, male gender atypicality (i.e., cross-gender behavior and identity) and male androphilia (i.e., sexual attraction to adult males) tend to cluster in particular families. Here, we examined whether this familial clustering effect extended to non-Western populations by examining the genealogical relationships of 17 Samoan transgendered androphilic males, known locally as fa'afafine, who were born in the same rural Samoan village. Specifically, we compared the genealogies of these 17 fa'afafine and those of 17 age-matched comparison males born in the same village. In addition to familial clustering, we examined birth order, sibship sex ratio, and sibship size. The fa'afafine were significantly later born than the comparison males and clustered into five and 16 distinct lineages, respectively, which constituted a statistically significant degree of family clustering among the 17 fa'afafine. Hence, the present study indicated that transgendered male androphilia is familial in this particular Samoan village, thus adding to a growing literature demonstrating that male androphilia and gender atypicality have consistent developmental correlates across populations. Discussion focused on the possible bases of this familial clustering effect and directions for future research. PMID:23187702

  18. Endogenous control of sexual size dimorphism: Gonadal androgens have neither direct nor indirect effect on male growth in a Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura picta).

    PubMed

    Kubička, Lukáš; Starostová, Zuzana; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-12-01

    Changes in the effect of gonadal androgens on male growth are considered as a possible mechanism allowing shifts in magnitude and even direction of sexual size dimorphism in vertebrates, particularly squamate reptiles. Positive effects of gonadal androgens on male growth were found in several male-larger species of lizards. Contrastingly, we document that in the male-larger Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura picta) gonadal androgens do not affect male growth under constant thermal conditions. However, the absence of a thermal gradient might prevent the potential indirect effect of gonadal androgens on growth via the influence of circulating hormones on an individual's thermoregulation and hence metabolic rate. In order to study this, we monitored the growth and body temperature of socially isolated sham-operated and castrated males of the same species in a thermal gradient. We also compared the oxygen consumption and activity between the treatment groups in the open field to test the effect of gonadal hormones on these traits potentially affecting growth. Even under a thermal gradient we found no effect of gonadal androgens on growth rate or final body dimensions. Castration also did not significantly affect oxygen consumption or activity in the open field test. Together with our previous findings, we can exclude both the direct effect of male gonadal androgens on the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism via the influence on the growth axis, and the indirect influence of gonadal androgens acting on the ontogeny of SSD through the effect on thermoregulation, metabolic rate and activity. PMID:26431613

  19. Male pattern baldness

    MedlinePlus

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  20. Right Ventricular Sex Differences in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Characterised by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Pair-Matched Case Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Andrew J.; Capener, Dave; Hammerton, Charlotte; Thomas, Steven M.; Elliot, Charlie; Condliffe, Robin; Wild, Jim M.; Kiely, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sex differences exist in both the prevalence and survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Men are less frequently affected by the condition but have worse outcome as compared to females. We sought to characterise the sex related differences in right ventricular remodelling in age matched male and female patients with IPAH using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods A case controlled pair-matched study was conducted with patients matched by age and sex. Steady state free precession (SSFP) MRI of the heart was performed at 1.5T. Cardiac volume, function and mass measurements were corrected for age, sex and BSA according to reference data. Results 40 age and sex matched patients with IPAH were identified. The mean age was 57 (SD 17) in both male and female cohorts. Men had proportionally lower right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction, RV stroke volume and LV stroke volume than females, p=0.028, p=0.007 and p=0.013, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in RV mass or haemodynamic indices of mPAP and PVR between males and females. Conclusion Male patients with IPAH have proportionally worse RV function despite similar afterload. We hypothesise that adaptive remodelling of the RV in response to increased afterload in IPAH is more effective in females. PMID:25996939

  1. Effectiveness of Comprehensive Health Education Combining Lifestyle Education and Hot Spa Bathing for Male White-Collar Employees: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 1-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Kamioka, Hiroharu; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Okada, Shinpei; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Kamada, Masamitsu; Honda, Takuya; Matsui, Yuzuru; Mutoh, Yoshiteru

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical activity is known to prevent obesity and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly people; however, the effectiveness of a comprehensive health education program for male white-collar employees is uncertain. Methods Forty-three men volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned into 2 groups. The intervention group participated in a 2-hour program comprising comprehensive health education and hot spa bathing, offered once every 2 weeks, in addition to individualized programs once a week, for 24 weeks. The control group received only general health guidance. We compared their lifestyle characteristics and physical and mental health criteria at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and 1 year after the end of the intervention. Results Rates of adherence to individualized programs were 60.0 ± 27.2% and 30.5 ± 29.6% at the end of the intervention and at 1 year after the end of the intervention, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) interaction of criteria was observed for cluster of differentiation 4+ (CD4+) cells and the ratio of cluster of differentiation 4+ to 8+ (CD4/8) cells, which were used to represent the participants' immunological function. We divided the intervention group into 2 subgroups on the basis of their attendance. Among the resulting 3 groups, significant interaction of criteria was observed for CD4+ and CD4/8 cells. In addition, the high attendance group had the highest CD4+ count and CD4/8 ratio. Conclusions Participants who attended classes and/or performed the supplementary individualized programs tended to maintain their immunological function and to experience a decrease in body fat percentage. However, few effects were noted in participants with poor adherence, even in the intervention group. PMID:19687610

  2. Improving Interference Control in ADHD Patients with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Carolin; Zaehle, Tino; Dannhauer, Moritz; Bonath, Björn; Tegelbeckers, Jana; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested as a promising alternative to psychopharmacological treatment approaches due to its local and network effects on brain activation. In the current study, we investigated the impact of tDCS over the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on interference control in 21 male adolescents with ADHD and 21 age matched healthy controls aged 13–17 years, who underwent three separate sessions of tDCS (anodal, cathodal, and sham) while completing a Flanker task. Even though anodal stimulation appeared to diminish commission errors in the ADHD group, the overall analysis revealed no significant effect of tDCS. Since participants showed a considerable learning effect from the first to the second session, performance in the first session was separately analyzed. ADHD patients receiving sham stimulation in the first session showed impaired interference control compared to healthy control participants whereas ADHD patients who were exposed to anodal stimulation, showed comparable performance levels (commission errors, reaction time variability) to the control group. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus could improve interference control in patients with ADHD. PMID:27147964

  3. Improving Interference Control in ADHD Patients with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

    PubMed

    Breitling, Carolin; Zaehle, Tino; Dannhauer, Moritz; Bonath, Björn; Tegelbeckers, Jana; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested as a promising alternative to psychopharmacological treatment approaches due to its local and network effects on brain activation. In the current study, we investigated the impact of tDCS over the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on interference control in 21 male adolescents with ADHD and 21 age matched healthy controls aged 13-17 years, who underwent three separate sessions of tDCS (anodal, cathodal, and sham) while completing a Flanker task. Even though anodal stimulation appeared to diminish commission errors in the ADHD group, the overall analysis revealed no significant effect of tDCS. Since participants showed a considerable learning effect from the first to the second session, performance in the first session was separately analyzed. ADHD patients receiving sham stimulation in the first session showed impaired interference control compared to healthy control participants whereas ADHD patients who were exposed to anodal stimulation, showed comparable performance levels (commission errors, reaction time variability) to the control group. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus could improve interference control in patients with ADHD. PMID:27147964

  4. Alternative life histories shape brain gene expression profiles in males of the same population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aubin-Horth, N.; Landry, C.R.; Letcher, B.H.; Hofmann, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) undergo spectacular marine migrations before homing to spawn in natal rivers. However, males that grow fastest early in life can adopt an alternative 'sneaker' tactic by maturing earlier at greatly reduced size without leaving freshwater. While the ultimate evolutionary causes have been well studied, virtually nothing is known about the molecular bases of this developmental plasticity. We investigate the nature and extent of coordinated molecular changes that accompany such a fundamental transformation by comparing the brain transcription profiles of wild mature sneaker males to age-matched immature males (future large anadromous males) and immature females. Of the ca. 3000 genes surveyed, 15% are differentially expressed in the brains of the two male types. These genes are involved in a wide range of processes, including growth, reproduction and neural plasticity. Interestingly, despite the potential for wide variation in gene expression profiles among individuals sampled in nature, consistent patterns of gene expression were found for individuals of the same reproductive tactic. Notably, gene expression patterns in immature males were different both from immature females and sneakers, indicating that delayed maturation and sea migration by immature males, the 'default' life cycle, may actually result from an active inhibition of development into a sneaker. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  5. A functional 12T-insertion polymorphism in the ATP1A1 promoter confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension in a male Sardinian population.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Victoria L; Pasion, Khristine A; Moran, Ann Marie; Zaninello, Roberta; Ortu, Maria Francesca; Fresu, Giovanni; Piras, Daniela Antonella; Argiolas, Giuseppe; Troffa, Chiara; Glorioso, Valeria; Masala, Wanda; Glorioso, Nicola; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Identification of susceptibility genes for essential hypertension in humans has been a challenge due to its multifactorial pathogenesis complicated by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, developmental programing and sex specific differences. These concurrent features make identification of causal hypertension susceptibility genes with a single approach difficult, thus requiring multiple lines of evidence involving genetic, biochemical and biological experimentation to establish causal functional mutations. Here we report experimental evidence encompassing genetic, biochemical and in vivo modeling that altogether support ATP1A1 as a hypertension susceptibility gene in males in Sardinia, Italy. ATP1A1 encodes the α1Na,K-ATPase isoform, the sole sodium pump in vascular endothelial and renal tubular epithelial cells. DNA-sequencing detected a 12-nucleotide long thymidine (12T) insertion(ins)/deletion(del) polymorphism within a poly-T sequence (38T vs 26T) in the ATP1A1 5'-regulatory region associated with hypertension in a male Sardinian population. The 12T-insertion allele confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension (P = 0.035; OR = 0.50 [0.28-0.93]) accounting for 12.1 mmHg decrease in systolic BP (P = 0.02) and 6.6 mmHg in diastolic BP (P = 0.046). The ATP1A1 promoter containing the 12T-insertion exhibited decreased transcriptional activity in in vitro reporter-assay systems, indicating decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression with the 12T-insertion, compared with the 12T-deletion ATP1A1 promoter. To test the effects of decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression on blood pressure, we measured blood pressure by radiotelemetry in three month-old, highly inbred heterozygous knockout ATP1A1+/- male mice with resultant 58% reduction in ATP1A1 protein levels. Male ATP1A1+/- mice showed significantly lower blood pressure (P < 0.03) than age-matched male wild-type littermate controls. Concordantly, lower ATP1A1 expression is expected to lower Na-reabsorption in the

  6. Dorsal Penile Nerve Block With Ropivacaine-Reduced Postoperative Catheter-Related Bladder Discomfort in Male Patients After Emergence of General Anesthesia: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Yi; Yi, Ming-Liang; Liao, Ren

    2016-04-01

    Catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD) is a distressing symptom complex after surgery, especially in male patients who have had urinary catheterization under general anesthesia. In this prospective, randomized, controlled trial, we compared dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB) with 0.33% ropivacaine with intravenous tramadol 1.5 mg kg in prevention of CRBD, as well as the incidences of postoperative side effects.Fifty-eight male patients aged 18 to 50 years, undergoing elective liver surgery and limb surgery with urinary catheterization, were enrolled and divided randomly into 2 groups. In the DPNB group, patients were given dorsal penile nerve block with 15 mL of 0.33% ropivacaine, and in the tramadol intravenous administration (TRAM) group, patients were given 1.5 mg kg tramadol after the completion of surgery before extubation. The primary outcome was the incidence of CRBD, and the secondary outcomes included the severity of CRBD, postoperative side effects, postoperative pain, and the acceptance of urinary catheterization. Patients were evaluated upon arrival to postanesthetic care unit (PACU), at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after patients' arrival in the PACU for outcomes.The incidence of CRBD was significantly lower in the DPNB group than in the TRAM group, either upon arrival to PACU (10.3% vs 37.9%, P = 0.015), or at 0.5 hours (3.4% vs 34.5%, P = 0.003), 1 hours (3.4% vs 37.9%, P = 0.001), 2 hours (6.9% vs 34.5%, P = 0.010), and 4 hours (6.9% vs 27.6%, P = 0.039) after patients' arrival in PACU. Compared with the TRAM group, the severity of postoperative CRBD upon arrival to PACU (P = 0.011) and at 0.5 hours (P = 0.005), 1 hours (P = 0.002), 2 hours (P = 0.005), 4 hours (P = 0.017), and 6 hours (P = 0.047) after patients' arrival in PACU were all significantly reduced in the DPNB group. The incidences of postoperative nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and sedation were decreased

  7. Graduating Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    Background: The graduation numbers for Black males are dismal, chilling, and undeniably pathetic. The nation graduates only 47% of Black males who enter the 9th grade. The infusion of federal dollars and philanthropic support will not stop the trajectory of Black males who drop out of school. Black males face an upheaval educational battle;…

  8. Oxidative stress and lung function profiles of male smokers free from COPD compared to those with COPD: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Syrine Ben; Sfaxi, Ines; Tabka, Zouhair; Saad, Helmi Ben; Rouatbi, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanisms of smoking tobacco leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are beginning to be understood. However, conclusions about the role of blood or lung oxidative stress markers were disparate. Aims To investigate the oxidative stress in blood or lung associated with tobacco smoke and to evaluate its effect on pulmonary function data and its relation with physical activity. Methods It is a case-control study. Fifty-four male-smokers of more than five pack-years (PY) and aged 40–60 years were included (29 Non-COPD, 16 COPD). Physical activity score was determined. Blood sample levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein-cys-SH (PSH), and Glutathione (GSH) were measured. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and plethysmographic measurements were performed. Correlation coefficients (r) evaluated the association between oxidative stress markers and independent variables (plethysmographic data and physical activity score). Results Non-COPD (48±6 years) and COPD (49±5 years) groups had similar tobacco consumption patterns, that is, 27±14 PY versus 30±19 PY, respectively. Compared to the Non-COPD group, the COPD group had significantly lower levels of GSH and PSH, that is, mean±SE were 40±6 versus 25±5 µg/mL and 54±10 versus 26±5 µg/g of hemoglobin, respectively. However, MDA level and FeNO values were similar. In the COPD group, none of the oxidative stress markers was significantly correlated with plethysmographic data or physical activity score. In the Non-COPD group, GSH was significantly correlated with physical activity score (r = 0.47) and PSH was significantly correlated with total lung capacity (TLC) (r=−0.50), residual volume (r = 0.41), and physical activity score (r = 0.62). FeNO was significantly correlated with TLC of the COPD group (r=−0.48). Conclusion Compared to the Non-COPD group, the COPD group had a marked decrease in blood antioxidant markers (GSH and PSH) but similar blood oxidant (MDA) or lung (Fe

  9. Effect of Text Messaging to Deter Early Resumption of Sexual Activity after Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    ODENY, Thomas A.; BAILEY, Robert C.; BUKUSI, Elizabeth A.; SIMONI, Jane M.; TAPIA, Kenneth A.; YUHAS, Krista; HOLMES, King K.; MCCLELLAND, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Resumption of sex before complete wound healing after male circumcision may increase risk of post-operative surgical complications, and HIV acquisition and transmission. We aimed to determine the effect of text messaging to deter resumption of sex before 42 days post-circumcision. METHODS We conducted a randomized trial where men >18 years old who owned mobile phones and had just undergone circumcision were randomized to receive a series of text messages (n=600) or usual care (n=600). The primary outcome was self-reported resumption of sex before 42 days. RESULTS Sex before 42 days was reported by 139/491 (28.3%) men in the intervention group and 124/493 (25.2%) in the control group (relative risk=1.13, 95% CI 0.91-1.38, p=0.3). Men were more likely to resume early if they were married or had a live-in sexual partner (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.57, 95% CI 1.18-2.08, p<0.01); in the month before circumcision had one (aRR 1.50, 95% CI 1.07-2.12, p=0.02) or >1 (aRR 1.81, 95% CI 1.24-2.66, p<0.01) sexual partner(s); had primary school or lower education (aRR 1.62, 95% CI 1.33-1.97, p< 0.001); were employed (aRR 1.35, 95% CI 1.05-1.72, p=0.02); or were 21-30 years old (aRR 1.58, 95% CI 1.01-2.47, p=0.05); 31-40 (aRR 1.91, 95% CI 1.18-3.09, p<0.01) or >40 years old (aRR 1.76, 95% CI 1.04-2.97, p=0.03) compared to <21 years old. CONCLUSIONS Text messaging as used in this trial did not reduce early resumption of sex after circumcision. We identified key risk factors for early resumption that need to be considered in circumcision programs. PMID:23846561

  10. Randomized Controlled Trial of the ShangRing for Adult Medical Male Circumcision: Safety, Effectiveness, and Acceptability of Using 7 Versus 14 Device Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Zulu, Robert; Linyama, David; Long, Sarah; Nonde, Thikazi Jere; Lai, Jaim Jou; Kashitala, Joshua; Veena, Valentine; Kasonde, Prisca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the safety, effectiveness, and acceptability of providing a reduced number of ShangRing sizes for adult voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) within routine service delivery in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial and enrolled 500 HIV-negative men aged 18–49 years at 3 clinics. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 study arms (Standard Sizing arm vs Modified Sizing arm) in a 1:1 ratio. All 14 adult ShangRing sizes (40–26 mm inner diameter, each varying by 1 mm) were available in the Standard Sizing arm; the Modified Sizing arm used every other size (40, 38, 36, 34, 32, 30, 28 mm inner diameter). Each participant was scheduled for 2 follow-up visits: the removal visit (day 7 after placement) and the healing check visit (day 42 after placement), when they were evaluated for adverse events (AEs), pain, and healing. Results: Four hundred and ninety-six men comprised the analysis population, with 255 in the Standard Sizing arm and 241 in the Modified Sizing arm. Three men experienced a moderate or severe AEs (0.6%), including 2 in the Standard Sizing arm (0.8%) and 1 in the Modified Sizing arm (0.4%). 73.2% of participants were completely healed at the scheduled day 42 healing check visit, with similar percentages across study arms. Virtually all (99.6%) men, regardless of study arm, stated that they were very satisfied or satisfied with the appearance of their circumcised penis, and 98.6% stated that they would recommend ShangRing circumcision to family/friends. Conclusions: The moderate/severe AE rate was low and similar in the 2 study arms, suggesting that provision of one-half the number of adult device sizes is sufficient for safe service delivery. Effectiveness, time to healing, and acceptability were similar in the study arms. The simplicity of the ShangRing technique, and its relative speed, could facilitate VMMC program goals. In addition, sufficiency of fewer device sizes would simplify logistics

  11. Rosa damascena oil improves SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in male patients suffering from major depressive disorders: results from a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Farnia, Vahid; Shirzadifar, Mehdi; Shakeri, Jalal; Rezaei, Mansour; Bajoghli, Hafez; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background A substantial disadvantage of psychopharmacological treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) with selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is the impact on sexual dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the oil of Rosa damascena can have a positive influence on SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction (SSRI-I SD) of male patients who are suffering from MDD and are being treated with SSRIs. Method In a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical trial, a total of 60 male patients treated with an SSRI and suffering from MDD (mean age =32 years) and SSRI-I SD were randomly assigned to take either verum (R. damascena oil) or a placebo. Patients completed self-ratings of depression and sexual function at baseline, at 4 weeks later, and at the end of the study, 8 weeks after it started. Results Over time, sexual dysfunction improved more in the verum group than in the control group. Improvements were observed in the verum group from week 4 to week 8. Self-rated symptoms of depression reduced over time in both groups, but did so more so in the verum group than in the control group. Conclusion This double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical trial showed that the administration of R. damascena oil ameliorates sexual dysfunction in male patients suffering from both MDD and SSRI-I SD. Further, the symptoms of depression reduced as sexual dysfunction improved. PMID:25834441

  12. Methionine synthase A2756G transition might be a risk factor for male infertility: Evidences from seven case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Karimian, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Abasalt

    2016-04-15

    Methionine synthase (MTR) has a crucial role in DNA synthesis and methylation reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the MTR-A2756G polymorphism with idiopathic male infertility. Blood samples were collected from 217 idiopathic infertile- and 233 healthy-men, and MTR-A2756G genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. Meta-analysis was conducted by pooling our data with the data obtained from 6 previous studies. Also, the effects of this substitution on protein structure were evaluated by bioinformatics tools. Our study revealed the association of AG-genotype, GG-genotype, and G-allele with male infertility. Meta-analysis showed a significant association between A2756G transition and male infertility. In addition, structural analysis of the transition effect on protein revealed a significant influence on MTR function (with score: 38; expected accuracy: 66%). These findings suggest that the A2756G substitution might be a genetic risk factor and a potential biomarker for idiopathic male infertility. PMID:26905524

  13. Male-produced pheromone of Spathius agrili, a parasitoid introduced for the biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The braconid, Spathius agrili, has been released in the U.S. as a biocontrol agent for the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), a very destructive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). We have identified and synthesized seven male-produced compounds. A flight tunnel bioassay identified t...

  14. Assessment of Aquaflor (c), copper sulfate and potassium permanganate for control of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare infection in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to assess different therapeutants against a mixed infection of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare in sunshine bass (SB) (Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male). Experiment 1 assessed the efficacy of copper sulfate (CuSO4), florfenicol-medicated...

  15. Somatic and psychological problems in a cohort of sexually abused boys: a six year follow up case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Price, L; Maddocks, A; Davies, S; Griffiths, L

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To obtain information about the health and well being of 108 boys six years after their involvement with the same paedophile. Methods: Case–control study of the health records of 93 male victims of a major episode of school based child sexual abuse and 93 matched controls. Interviews with a sample of their general practitioners. Results: The number and frequency of reported health problems were similar in both cases and controls. However, abused boys were more likely than controls to present with symptoms that persisted for more than a year (31 cases compared with 10 controls). Conclusions: Boys who have previously suffered sexual abuse at school did not utilise primary health care services more than a group of age matched controls. They did not present with psychological or somatic problems different from those presented by non-abused boys. However, abused boys were more likely to complain of persistent somatic or psychological problems lasting more than a year. This pattern appeared to persist after the abuse had stopped and the perpetrator imprisoned. PMID:11861230

  16. Learning of grasp control in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Duff, Susan V; Gordon, Andrew M

    2003-11-01

    This study examined whether children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) have anticipatory control of fingertip forces during lifts of familiar objects, and what type of practice (blocked or random) best enhances the retention of anticipatory control during lifts of novel objects. Eighteen children with hemiplegic CP (7 females, 11 males; 7 to 14 years of age, mean age 10 years, SD 1.8) and 18 age-matched typically developing children (8 males, 10 females; mean age 10.4 years, SD 1.7) participated in the study. In the first experiment the children lifted familiar objects of various weights and sizes five times each, while the vertical lifting (load) force was measured. Most participants demonstrated higher rates of load force increase for heavier (and larger) objects already during the first lift, indicating anticipatory control. Furthermore, the load force rates generally were similar across the five lifts for each object, suggesting that they had stable representations of the objects' properties. In the second experiment children lifted three novel objects varying in weight (but identical in volume) 27 times each, in either a blocked or a random order, followed by nine immediate and nine delayed (24 hours) retention trials. Blocked practice resulted in greater differentiation of the force rates between objects during acquisition than did random practice. Both practice schedules resulted in similar retention. These findings suggest that children with hemiplegic CP have a priori internal representations used for anticipatory force scaling with familiar objects. Furthermore, the results indicate that these children can form and retain internal representations of novel objects for anticipatory control, irrespective of the type of practice schedule employed. Thus, clinically based practice sessions that incorporate lifts with novel objects may enhance anticipatory force scaling and related prehensile function in children with hemiplegic CP. PMID:14580130

  17. Black Male Images in Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Francis

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the "super" image of the black male in films served three essential purposes: it gave blacks whatever therapy they needed from films; it had hot box office appeal; and it kept white in control of the images blacks have had of themselves. (Author/JM)

  18. Male Responses to Female Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Randomly assigned 60 male undergraduates to view film clip of professional lady wrestlers or of mud wrestling, or to no-film control. Both films produced negative changes in mood states, principally increase in aggression and decrease in social affection. Viewing films did not produce changes in men's acceptance of interpersonal violence against…

  19. Progesterone Treatment Shows Benefit in Female Rats in a Pediatric Model of Controlled Cortical Impact Injury

    PubMed Central

    Geddes, Rastafa I.; Peterson, Bethany L.; Stein, Donald G.; Sayeed, Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We recently showed that progesterone treatment can reduce lesion size and behavioral deficits after moderate-to-severe bilateral injury to the medial prefrontal cortex in immature male rats. Whether there are important sex differences in response to injury and progesterone treatment in very young subjects has not been given sufficient attention. Here we investigated progesterone’s effects in the same model of brain injury but with pre-pubescent females. Methods Twenty-eight-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats received sham (n = 14) or controlled cortical impact (CCI) (n = 21) injury, were given progesterone (8 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle injections on post-injury days (PID) 1–7, and underwent behavioral testing from PID 9–27. Brains were evaluated for lesion size at PID 28. Results Lesion size in vehicle-treated female rats with CCI injury was smaller than that previously reported for similarly treated age-matched male rats. Treatment with progesterone reduced the effect of CCI on extent of damage and behavioral deficits. Conclusion Pre-pubescent female rats with midline CCI injury to the frontal cortex have reduced morphological and functional deficits following progesterone treatment. While gender differences in susceptibility to this injury were observed, progesterone treatment produced beneficial effects in young rats of both sexes following CCI. PMID:26799561

  20. [Brain mechanisms of male sexual function].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Dou, Xin; Li, Jun-Fa; Luo, Yan-Lin

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the brain imaging studies of male sexual function in recent years from three aspects: the brain mechanism of normal sexual function, the brain mechanism of sexual dysfunction, and the mechanism of drug therapy for sexual dysfunction. Studies show that the development stages of male sexual activities, such as the excitement phase, plateau phase and orgasm phase, are controlled by different neural networks. The mesodiencephalic transition zone may play an important role in the start up of male ejaculation. There are significant differences between sexual dysfunction males and normal males in activation patterns of the brain in sexual arousal. The medial orbitofrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus in the abnormal activation pattern are correlated with sexual dysfunction males in sexual arousal. Serum testosterone and morphine are commonly used drugs for male sexual dysfunction, whose mechanisms are to alter the activating levels of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, insula, claustrum and inferior temporal gyrus. PMID:21899000

  1. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  2. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than ...

  3. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Simon, Lajos; Kozák, Lajos R; Simon, Viktória; Czobor, Pál; Unoka, Zsolt; Szabó, Ádám; Csukly, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF) transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM) transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM) obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17) and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females). We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM) structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri). These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender. PMID:24391851

  4. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  5. Prevention of multiple pregnancies in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility: randomised controlled trial of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in modified natural cycle compared with intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

    PubMed Central

    Bensdorp, A J; Tjon-Kon-Fat, R I; Bossuyt, P M M; Koks, C A M; Oosterhuis, G J E; Hoek, A; Hompes, P G A; Broekmans, F J M; Verhoeve, H R; de Bruin, J P; van Golde, R; Repping, S; Cohlen, B J; Lambers, M D A; van Bommel, P F; Slappendel, E; Perquin, D; Smeenk, J M; Pelinck, M J; Gianotten, J; Hoozemans, D A; Maas, J W M; Eijkemans, M J C; van der Veen, F; Mol, B W J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effectiveness of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle with that of intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in terms of a healthy child. Design Multicentre, open label, three arm, parallel group, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial. Setting 17 centres in the Netherlands. Participants Couples seeking fertility treatment after at least 12 months of unprotected intercourse, with the female partner aged between 18 and 38 years, an unfavourable prognosis for natural conception, and a diagnosis of unexplained or mild male subfertility. Interventions Three cycles of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer (plus subsequent cryocycles), six cycles of in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle, or six cycles of intrauterine insemination with ovarian hyperstimulation within 12 months after randomisation. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was birth of a healthy child resulting from a singleton pregnancy conceived within 12 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes were live birth, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, time to pregnancy, complications of pregnancy, and neonatal morbidity and mortality Results 602 couples were randomly assigned between January 2009 and February 2012; 201 were allocated to in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer, 194 to in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle, and 207 to intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Birth of a healthy child occurred in 104 (52%) couples in the in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer group, 83 (43%) in the in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle group, and 97 (47%) in the intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation group. This corresponds to a risk, relative to intrauterine insemination with ovarian hyperstimulation, of 1.10 (95% confidence interval

  6. Safety and immunogenicity of a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16 and 18: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Chinese males and females.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongcheng; Li, Yanping; Radley, David; Liu, Youping; Huang, Teng; Sings, Heather L; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Wei; Zhong, Xiang; Saah, Alfred J

    2012-06-13

    In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 9-15 year old Chinese males (n=100) and 9-45 year old Chinese females (n=500) from Wuzhou, Guangxi, China were randomized (1:1) to receive either quadrivalent HPV vaccine or adjuvant-containing placebo. Blood samples were obtained at day 1 and one month post-dose 3 to determine the level of vaccine-induced antibodies. Among vaccine recipients, high antibody levels were observed for each of the four HPV types and seroconversion was >96%. The vaccine was generally well tolerated, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. This study demonstrated that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine is highly immunogenic and generally well tolerated among Chinese males and females. PMID:22433961

  7. Motor Planning and Control in Autism. A Kinematic Analysis of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forti, Sara; Valli, Angela; Perego, Paolo; Nobile, Maria; Crippa, Alessandro; Molteni, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Kinematic recordings in a reach and drop task were compared between 12 preschool children with autism without mental retardation and 12 gender and age-matched normally developing children. Our aim was to investigate whether motor anomalies in autism may depend more on a planning ability dysfunction or on a motor control deficit. Planning and…

  8. PACAP Controls Adrenomedullary Catecholamine Secretion and Expression of Catecholamine Biosynthetic Enzymes at High Splanchnic Nerve Firing Rates Characteristic of Stress Transduction in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stroth, N.; Kuri, B. A.; Mustafa, T.; Chan, S.-A.

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) is a cotransmitter of acetylcholine at the adrenomedullary synapse, where autonomic regulation of hormone secretion occurs. We have previously reported that survival of prolonged metabolic stress in mice requires PACAP-dependent biosynthesis and secretion of adrenomedullary catecholamines (CAs). In the present experiments, we show that CA secretion evoked by direct high-frequency stimulation of the splanchnic nerve is abolished in native adrenal slices from male PACAP-deficient mice. Further, we demonstrate that PACAP is both necessary and sufficient for CA secretion ex vivo during stimulation protocols designed to mimic stress. In vivo, up-regulation of transcripts encoding adrenomedullary CA-synthesizing enzymes (tyrosine hydroxylase, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase) in response to both psychogenic and metabolic stressors (restraint and hypoglycemia) is PACAP-dependent. Stressor-induced alteration of the adrenomedullary secretory cocktail also appears to require PACAP, because up-regulation of galanin mRNA is abrogated in male PACAP-deficient mice. We further show that hypoglycemia-induced corticosterone secretion is not PACAP-dependent, ruling out the possibility that glucocorticoids are the main mediators of the aforementioned effects. Instead, experiments with bovine chromaffin cells suggest that PACAP acts directly at the level of the adrenal medulla. By integrating prolonged CA secretion, expression of biosynthetic enzymes and production of modulatory neuropeptides such as galanin, PACAP is crucial for adrenomedullary function. Importantly, our results show that PACAP is the dominant adrenomedullary neurotransmitter during conditions of enhanced secretory demand. PMID:23221599

  9. Rapid evolutionary change in a sexual signal: genetic control of the mutation 'flatwing' that renders male field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) mute.

    PubMed

    Tinghitella, R M

    2008-03-01

    Colonizing events may expose organisms to physical and ecological environments found nowhere else in their range. Novel selection pressures can then influence subsequent rapid evolutionary changes. Here, I investigate the genetics of one such rapid change in the sexual signal of Polynesian field crickets, Teleogryllus oceanicus, that recently colonized the Hawaiian Islands. In Hawaii, T. oceanicus encounter a deadly parasitoid fly found nowhere else in their range. In <20 generations, a wing mutation, flatwing, that eliminates the crickets' song, an important sexual signal, but protects them from the fly, spread to >90% of males on the island of Kauai. I show, using crosses between flatwing males and females from a population that has never contained flatwings, that the song-suppressing mutation is due to a change in a single sex-linked locus. Contemporary evolution of secondary sexual characteristics has only rarely been identified as the result of single-gene changes and never before as a single sex-linked locus, but sex-linked inheritance is thought to facilitate the rapid evolution of these types of traits. Because divergence of sexual signals can influence reproductive isolation, understanding how colonization events and subsequent selection affect signals, and the genetic mechanisms of such change, can shed light on processes likely to play a role in speciation. PMID:18000520

  10. Long-term effects of castration on the skeleton of male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Kessler, Matthew J; Wang, Qian; Cerroni, Antonietta M; Grynpas, Marc D; Gonzalez Velez, Olga D; Rawlins, Richard G; Ethun, Kelly F; Wimsatt, Jeffrey H; Kensler, Terry B; Pritzker, Kenneth P H

    2016-01-01

    While osteopenia (OPE) and osteoporosis (OPO) have been studied in various species of aging nonhuman primates and extensively in ovariectomized rhesus and cynomolgus macaques, there is virtually no information on the effects of castration on the skeleton of male nonhuman primates. Most information on castrated male primates comes from a few studies on the skeletons of eunuchs. This report used a subset of the Caribbean Primate Research Center's (CPRC) Cayo Santiago (CS) rhesus macaque skeletal collection to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the bone mineral density (BMD) of castrated and age-matched intact males and, thereby, determine the long-term effects of castration (orchidectomy) on bone. Lumbar vertebrae, femora, and crania were evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA) and digital radiography augmented, when fresh tissues were available, with autoradiography and histology. Results confirmed physical examinations of long bones that castration causes changes in the skeleton of male rhesus macaques similar to those found in eunuchs, including OPE and OPO of the vertebrae and femora, thinning of the skull, and vertebral fractures and kyphosis of the spine more severe than that caused by normal aging alone. Also like eunuchs, some castrated CS male rhesus monkeys had a longer life span than intact males or females. Based on these results and the effects of castration on other tissues and organs of eunuchs, on behavior, hormone profiles and possibly on cognition and visual perception of human and nonhuman primates, and other mammals, castrated male rhesus macaques should be used with caution for laboratory studies and should be considered a separate category from intact males. Despite these caveats, the castrated male rhesus macaque should make an excellent animal model in which to test hormone replacement therapies for boys and men orchidectomized for testicular and prostate cancer. PMID:25771746

  11. Islet Hypersensitivity to Glucose Is Associated With Disrupted Oscillations and Increased Impact of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Islets From Diabetes-Prone Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Kathryn L; Waters, Christopher D; Shaffer, Brett K; Verrilli, Gretchen M; Nunemaker, Craig S

    2016-05-01

    Pulsatile insulin release is the primary means of blood glucose regulation. The loss of pulsatility is thought to be an early marker and possible factor in developing type 2 diabetes. Another early adaptation in islet function to compensate for obesity is increased glucose sensitivity (left shift) associated with increased basal insulin release. We provide evidence that oscillatory disruptions may be linked with overcompensation (glucose hypersensitivity) in islets from diabetes-prone mice. We isolated islets from male 4- to 5-week-old (prediabetic) and 10- to 12-week-old (diabetic) leptin-receptor-deficient (db/db) mice and age-matched heterozygous controls. After an overnight incubation in media with 11 mM glucose, we measured islet intracellular calcium in 5, 8, 11, or 15 mM glucose. Islets from heterozygous 10- to 12-week-old mice were quiescent in 5 mM glucose and displayed oscillations with increasing amplitude and/or duration in 8, 11, and 15 mM glucose, respectively. Islets from diabetic 10- to 12-week-old mice, in contrast, showed robust oscillations in 5 mM glucose that declined with increasing glucose. Similar trends were observed at 4-5-weeks of age. A progressive left shift in maximal insulin release was also observed in islets as db/db mice aged. Reducing glucokinase activity with 1 mM D-mannoheptulose restored oscillations in 11 mM glucose. Finally, overnight low-dose cytokine exposure negatively impacted oscillations preferentially in high glucose in diabetic islets compared with heterozygous controls. Our findings suggest the following: 1) islets from frankly diabetic mice can produce oscillations, 2) elevated sensitivity to glucose prevents diabetic mouse islets from producing oscillations in normal postprandial (11-15 mM glucose) conditions, and 3) hypersensitivity to glucose may magnify stress effects from inflammation or other sources. PMID:26943366

  12. Male reproductive biology of Aedes mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Clelia F; Damiens, David; Benedict, Mark Q

    2014-04-01

    Among Aedes mosquitoes are species responsible for transmission of serious pathogens to humans. To cope with the current threats to long-term effectiveness of the traditional vector control methods, non-conventional control strategies are being developed. These include autocidal control such as the release of sterile males (sterile insect technique) and the release of Wolbachia-infected males to induce sexual sterility (incompatible insect technique) and pathogen-refractory strain replacement variations using Wolbachia. Sterile male types of techniques particularly depend on released males' ability to successfully mate with wild females. For that reason, a good understanding of male mating biology, including a thorough understanding of the reproductive system and mating capacity, increases the likelihood of success of such genetic vector control programmes. Here we review the literature concerning the reproduction of Aedes mosquitoes with an emphasis on the male biology. We consider sexual maturation, mate finding, insemination, male reproductive capacity, and the occurrence of multiple matings. We also discuss which parameters are of greatest importance for the successful implementation of autocidal control methods and propose questions for future research. PMID:24308996

  13. Blockage of the Neonatal Leptin Surge Affects the Gene Expression of Growth Factors, Glial Proteins, and Neuropeptides Involved in the Control of Metabolism and Reproduction in Peripubertal Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Mela, Virginia; Díaz, Francisca; Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Vázquez, María Jesús; Gertler, Arieh; Argente, Jesús; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Viveros, María-Paz; Chowen, Julie A

    2015-07-01

    Leptin (Lep) is important in the development of neuroendocrine circuits involved in metabolic control. Because both Lep and metabolism influence pubertal development, we hypothesized that early changes in Lep signaling could also modulate hypothalamic (HT) systems involved in reproduction. We previously demonstrated that a single injection of a Lep antagonist (Antag) on postnatal day (PND)9, coincident with the neonatal Lep peak, induced sexually dimorphic modifications in trophic factors and markers of cell turnover and neuronal maturation in the HT on PND13. Here, our aim was to investigate whether the alterations induced by Lep antagonism persist into puberty. Accordingly, male and female rats were treated with a pegylated super Lep Antag from PND5 to PND9 and killed just before the normal appearance of external signs of puberty (PND33 in females and PND43 in males). There was no effect on body weight, but in males food intake increased, subcutaneous adipose tissue decreased and HT neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide mRNA levels were reduced, with no effect in females. In both sexes, the Antag increased HT mRNA levels of the kisspeptin receptor, G protein-coupled recepter 54 (Gpr54). Expression of the Lep receptor, trophic factors, and glial markers were differently affected in the HT of peripubertal males and females. Lep production in adipose tissue was decreased in Antag-treated rats of both sexes, with production of other cytokines being differentially regulated between sexes. In conclusion, in addition to the long-term effects on metabolism, changes in neonatal Lep levels modifies factors involved in reproduction that could possibly affect sexual maturation. PMID:25856428

  14. Athletic Cardiac Adaptation in Males Is a Consequence of Elevated Myocyte Mass

    PubMed Central

    McDiarmid, Adam K.; Swoboda, Peter P.; Erhayiem, Bara; Lancaster, Rosalind E.; Lyall, Gemma K.; Broadbent, David A.; Dobson, Laura E.; Musa, Tarique A.; Ripley, David P.; Garg, Pankaj; Greenwood, John P.; Ferguson, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Background— Cardiac remodeling occurs in response to regular athletic training, and the degree of remodeling is associated with fitness. Understanding the myocardial structural changes in athlete’s heart is important to develop tools that differentiate athletic from cardiomyopathic change. We hypothesized that athletic left ventricular hypertrophy is a consequence of increased myocardial cellular rather than extracellular mass as measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Methods and Results— Forty-five males (30 athletes and 15 sedentary age-matched healthy controls) underwent comprehensive cardiovascular magnetic resonance studies, including native and postcontrast T1 mapping for extracellular volume calculation. In addition, the 30 athletes performed a maximal exercise test to assess aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold. Participants were grouped by athleticism: untrained, low performance, and high performance (O2max <60 or>60 mL/kg per min, respectively). In athletes, indexed cellular mass was greater in high- than low-performance athletes 60.7±7.5 versus 48.6±6.3 g/m2; P<0.001), whereas extracellular mass was constant (16.3±2.2 versus 15.3±2.2 g/m2; P=0.20). Indexed left ventricular end-diastolic volume and mass correlated with O2max (r=0.45, P=0.01; r=0.55, P=0.002) and differed significantly by group (P=0.01; P<0.001, respectively). Extracellular volume had an inverse correlation with O2max (r=−0.53, P=0.003 and left ventricular mass index (r=-0.44, P=0.02). Conclusions— Increasing left ventricular mass in athlete’s heart occurs because of an expansion of the cellular compartment while the extracellular volume becomes relatively smaller: a difference which becomes more marked as left ventricular mass increases. Athletic remodeling, both on a macroscopic and cellular level, is associated with the degree of an individual’s fitness. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance ECV quantification may have a future role in differentiating athlete

  15. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  16. Black Male Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feintuch, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on Ohio's bevy of education initiatives that take aim at helping African-American male students succeed. The Todd Anthony Bell National Resource Center for the African American Male at The Ohio State University is one of several initiatives that help African-American men succeed in Ohio. All the programs focus on individual…

  17. Connecting Males and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita Warren

    2011-01-01

    The problems facing males and reading continues to be a topic of concern and discussion in communities across the country. The author has interviewed school librarians and teachers, however, who are coordinating programs that are successfully connecting male students and reading. This article includes summaries of those interviews. The author has…

  18. Effects of triclocarban on intact immature male rat: augmentation of androgen action.

    PubMed

    Duleba, Antoni J; Ahmed, Mohamed I; Sun, Meng; Gao, Allen C; Villanueva, Jesus; Conley, Alan J; Turgeon, Judith L; Benirschke, Kurt; Gee, Nancy A; Chen, Jiangang; Green, Peter G; Lasley, Bill L

    2011-02-01

    Triclocarban (TCC; 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide) is an antimicrobial agent used widely in various personal hygiene products including soaps. Recently, TCC has been shown to enhance testosterone-induced effects in vitro and to enlarge accessory sex organs in castrated male rats. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of TCC on intact age-matched male rats and on human prostate LNCaP and C4-2B cells. Seven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet or a diet supplemented with TCC (0.25% in diet) for 10 days. Triclocarban induced hyperplasia of accessory sex organs in the absence of significant qualitative histological changes. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were not significantly altered by TCC treatment. In prostate cancer-derived LNCaP and C4-2B cells, TCC potentiated androgen actions via androgen receptor-dependent actions. In conclusion, TCC significantly affects intact male reproductive organs and potentiates androgen effects in prostate cancer cells. PMID:20889956

  19. The Role of the Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus and the Organum Vasculosum Lateral Terminalis in the Control of Sodium Appetite in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, Anne E.; Yee, Daniel K.; Flanagan-Cato, Loretta M.

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) and aldosterone cooperate centrally to produce a robust sodium appetite. The intracellular signaling and circuitry that underlie this interaction remain unspecified. Male rats pretreated with both deoxycorticosterone (DOC; a synthetic precursor of aldosterone) and central AngII exhibited a marked sodium intake, as classically described. Disruption of inositol trisphosphate signaling, but not extracellular-regulated receptor kinase 1 and 2 signaling, prevented the cooperativity of DOC and AngII on sodium intake. The pattern of expression of the immediate early gene product cFos was used to identify key brain regions that may underlie this behavior. In the paraventricular nuclei (PVN) of the hypothalamus, DOC pretreatment diminished both AngII-induced cFos induction and neurosecretion of oxytocin, a peptide expressed in the PVN. Conversely, in the organum vasculosum lateral terminalis (OVLT), DOC pretreatment augmented cFos expression. Immunohistochemistry identified a substantial presence of oxytocin fibers in the OVLT. In addition, when action potentials in the PVN were inhibited with intraparenchymal lidocaine, AngII-induced sodium ingestion was exaggerated. Intriguingly, this treatment also increased the number of neurons in the OVLT expressing AngII-induced cFos. Collectively, these results suggest that the behavioral cooperativity between DOC and AngII involves the alleviation of an inhibitory oxytocin signal, possibly relayed directly from the PVN to the OVLT. PMID:25009258

  20. Angiotensin type 1a receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus control cardiovascular reactivity and anxiety-like behavior in male mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; de Kloet, Annette D; Krause, Eric G

    2016-09-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that deletion of angiotensin type 1a receptors (AT1a) from the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) attenuates anxiety-like behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and cardiovascular reactivity. We used the Cre/LoxP system to generate male mice with AT1a specifically deleted from the PVN. Deletion of the AT1a from the PVN reduced anxiety-like behavior as indicated by increased time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. In contrast, PVN AT1a deletion had no effect on HPA axis activation subsequent to an acute restraint challenge but did reduce hypothalamic mRNA expression for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). To determine whether PVN AT1a deletion inhibits cardiovascular reactivity, we measured systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV) using telemetry and found that PVN AT1a deletion attenuated restraint-induced elevations in systolic blood pressure and elicited changes in HRV indicative of reduced sympathetic nervous activity. Consistent with the decreased HRV, PVN AT1a deletion also decreased adrenal weight, suggestive of decreased adrenal sympathetic outflow. Interestingly, the altered stress responsivity of mice with AT1a deleted from the PVN was associated with decreased hypothalamic microglia and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Collectively, these results suggest that deletion of AT1a from the PVN attenuates anxiety, CRH gene transcription, and cardiovascular reactivity and reduced brain inflammation may contribute to these effects. PMID:27468749

  1. Male-on-male sexual assaults: an analysis of crime scene actions.

    PubMed

    Almond, Louise; McManus, Michelle A; Ward, Lydia

    2014-05-01

    While the concept of male victimization is not a new phenomenon, the sexual assault of a male is a relatively new notion, emerging over the last 30 years in social research literature. Studies of female rape, pedophilia, and juvenile sex offenders have suggested that different styles of offending are reflected in the different types of behaviors committed by offenders at the crime scene. These studies suggest that there are three distinct themes of behavior: Control, Hostility, and Involvement. Using the crime scene actions of 305 male-on-male sexual assault from a U.K. national police database, multidimensional analysis was carried out. The proposed framework was found to be a useful way of classifying male-on-male sexual assaulters with 74% displaying a dominant theme. These resulted in 42% classified as displaying hostility, 23% as control, and 9% as involvement. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24255070

  2. Age-Related Increases in Motivation among Children with Mental Retardation and MA- and CA-Matched Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Greenberg, Mark; Crnic, Keith

    2001-01-01

    Child positive affect and task orientation in response to cognitively demanding puzzle tasks were assessed at two time points separated by 12 months in children with mild mental retardation and mental age and chronological age matched controls (ages 1-5 years). Results suggested correlates of motivation were similar for children with mild mental…

  3. Invitation Cards during Pregnancy Enhance Male Partner Involvement in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Blantyre, Malawi: A Randomized Controlled Open Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nyondo, Alinane Linda; Choko, Augustine Talumba; Chimwaza, Angela Faith; Muula, Adamson Sinjani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Male involvement (MI) is vital for the uptake of Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) interventions. Partner notification (PN) is among the strategies identified for MI in PMTCT services. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of an invitation card to the male partners as a strategy for MI in PMTCT services by comparing the proportion of pregnant women that were accompanied by their partners between the intervention and the non-intervention study groups. Methods Pregnant women attending antenatal care without a male partner at South Lunzu and Mpemba health centres in Blantyre, Malawi, were enrolled in the study from June to December 2013. In an intention-to-treat analysis, we compared all participants that were randomized in the invitation card group with the standard of care (SoC) group. Risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to assess the efficacy of the invitation card. Results Of the 462 randomized women, 65/230 (28.26%) of the women in the invitation card group reported to the antenatal care clinic with their partners compared to 44/232 (18.97%) women in the SoC group. In an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis women in the invitation card group were 50% more likely to be accompanied by their male partners than those in the SoC group RR: 1.49 (95% CI: 1.06-2.09); p = 0.02. Our random effects analysis showed that there was no clustering by site of recruitment with an inter cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 1.98x 10-3, (95% CI: 1.78 x10-7 - 0.96 x 10-1); p =0.403. Conclusion An invitation card significantly increased the proportion of women who were accompanied by their male partners for the PMTCT services. An invitation card is a feasible strategy for MI in PMTCT. PMID:25734485

  4. Eastern medicine approaches to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuehui; Ma, Hongli; Ng, Ernest H Y; Wu, Xiao-Ke

    2013-07-01

    Male factor is a common cause of infertility and the male partner must be systematically evaluated in the workup of every infertile couple. Various Eastern medical strategies have been tried with variable success. This article describes the clinical effects of Eastern medicine approaches including acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, massage, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong, which could improve the sperm parameters and motility, genital inflammatory conditions, as well as immune system disorders, sexual dysfunction, and varicocele. Acupuncture reduces inflammation, increases sperm motility, improves semen parameters, modulates the immune system, and improves sexual and ejaculatory dysfunction in male infertility. The clinical effects may be mediated via activation of somatic afferent nerves innervating the skin and muscle. Chinese herbal medicines may also exert helpful effects in male infertility, and it is worth noting that some herbal drugs may result in male infertility. Massage also exerts positive effects in male infertility. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of clinical effects are unclear. Tai chi, qi gong, and yoga have not been investigated in male infertility, but it has been reported to regulate endocrine and central or autonomic nervous systems. In conclusion, Eastern medical approaches have beneficial on reproductive effects in male infertility. However, future well-designed, randomized, clinical control trials are needed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of Eastern medical approaches for male infertility. PMID:23775386

  5. Sexually Coercive Male Chimpanzees Sire More Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Feldblum, Joseph T.; Wroblewski, Emily E.; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Paiva, Thais; Cetinkaya-Rundel, Mine; Pusey, Anne E.; Gilby, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary In sexually reproducing animals, male and female reproductive strategies often conflict [1]. In some species, males use aggression to overcome female choice [2, 3], but debate persists over the extent to which this strategy is successful. Previous studies of male aggression toward females among wild chimpanzees have yielded contradictory results about the relationship between aggression and mating behavior [4-11]. Critically, however, copulation frequency in primates is not always predictive of reproductive success [12]. We analyzed a 17-year sample of behavioral and genetic data from the Kasekela chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) community in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, to test the hypothesis that male aggression toward females increases male reproductive success. We examined the effect of male aggression toward females during ovarian cycling, including periods when the females were sexually receptive (swollen) and periods when they were not. We found that, after controlling for confounding factors, male aggression during a female’s swollen periods was positively correlated with copulation frequency. However, aggression toward swollen females was not predictive of paternity. Instead, aggression by high-ranking males toward females during their nonswollen periods was positively associated with likelihood of paternity. This indicates that long-term patterns of intimidation allow high-ranking males to increase their reproductive success, supporting the sexual coercion hypothesis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present genetic evidence of sexual coercion as an adaptive strategy in a social mammal. PMID:25454788

  6. Male Weaponry in a Fighting Cricket

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Kevin A.; Bonanno, Vanessa L.

    2008-01-01

    Sexually selected male weaponry is widespread in nature. Despite being model systems for the study of male aggression in Western science and for cricket fights in Chinese culture, field crickets (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Gryllinae) are not known to possess sexually dimorphic weaponry. In a wild population of the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus, we report sexual dimorphism in head size as well as the size of mouthparts, both of which are used when aggressive contests between males escalate to physical combat. Male G. pennsylvanicus have larger heads, maxillae and mandibles than females when controlling for pronotum length. We conducted two experiments to test the hypothesis that relatively larger weaponry conveys an advantage to males in aggressive contests. Pairs of males were selected for differences in head size and consequently were different in the size of maxillae and mandibles. In the first experiment, males were closely matched for body size (pronotum length), and in the second, they were matched for body mass. Males with proportionately larger weaponry won more fights and increasing differences in weaponry size between males increased the fighting success of the male with the larger weaponry. This was particularly true when contests escalated to grappling, the most intense level of aggression. However, neither contest duration nor intensity was related to weaponry size as predicted by models of contest settlement. These results are the first evidence that the size of the head capsule and mouthparts are under positive selection via male-male competition in field crickets, and validate 800-year-old Chinese traditional knowledge. PMID:19107188

  7. Effects of clozapine administration on body weight, glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, plasma lipids, and insulin in male C57BL/6 mice: A parallel controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hai-Yan; Liang, Hai-Xia; Liang, Guang-Rong; Zhang, Gui-Xiang; Li, Huan-De

    2008-01-01

    Background: Clozapine has been associated with metabolic adverse events (AEs) (eg, elevated body weight, blood glucose concentrations, cholesterol, triglycerides [TG]), all of which have deleterious effects on health and medication compliance. However, little focus has been directed toward finding a suitable experimental model to study the metabolic AEs associated with clozapine. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of clozapine administration for 28 days on body weight, glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, plasma lipids, and insulin in C57BL/6 mice. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were grouped and treated with clozapine 2 or 10 mg/kg or vehicle intraperitoneally QD for 28 days. Body weight was assessed on days 0 (baseline), 7, 14, 21, and 28, and glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, insulin (calculated by insulin resistance index [IRI]), and plasma lipids (including total cholesterol, TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were assessed on day 29. Results: Sixty 10-week-old, male C57BL/6 mice were included in the study and were divided into 3 groups (20 mice per group). The body weight significantly decreased in the clozapine 10-mg-treated group on days 14, 21, and 28 compared with the vehicle group (mean [SD] body weight: 21.61 [1.05] vs 22.79 [1.11], 22.53 [1.05] vs 24.17 [1.24], and 22.21 [1.07] vs 24.99 [1.39] g, respectively; all, P < 0.05). In the clozapine 10-mg/kg group, blood glucose concentrations significantly increased 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after glucose administration compared with the vehicle group (mean [SD]: 6.67 [1.25], 25.34 [5.85], 12.68 [3.39], and 7.52 [1.45] mmol/L, respectively, vs 4.61 [0.78], 21.54 [6.55], 11.46 [3.46], and 6.55 [1.42] mmol/L, respectively; all P < 0.05). The clozapine 10-mg/kg group also had significant increases in plasma insulin concentrations compared with the vehicle group (12.70 [5.27] vs 7.62 [4.54] μIU/mL; P < 0.05) and

  8. Neural correlates of antidepressant-related sexual dysfunction: a placebo-controlled fMRI study on healthy males under subchronic paroxetine and bupropion.

    PubMed

    Abler, Birgit; Seeringer, Angela; Hartmann, Antonie; Grön, Georg; Metzger, Coraline; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia

    2011-08-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common side effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like paroxetine in the treatment of depression, imposing a considerable risk on medication adherence and hence therapeutic success. Bupropion, a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, is recommended as an alternative treatment without adverse effects concerning sexual arousal and libido. We investigated the neural bases of paroxetine-related subjective sexual dysfunction when compared with bupropion and placebo. We scanned 18 healthy, heterosexual males in a randomized, double-blind, within-subject design while watching video clips of erotic and nonerotic content under steady-state conditions after taking 20 mg of paroxetine, 150 mg of bupropion, and placebo for 7 days each. Under paroxetine, ratings of subjective sexual dysfunction increased compared with placebo or bupropion. Activation along the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), including subgenual, pregenual, and midcingulate cortices, in the ventral striatum and midbrain was decreased when compared with placebo. In contrast, bupropion let subjective ratings and ACC activations unchanged and increased activity of brain regions including posterior midcingulate cortex, mediodorsal thalamus, and extended amygdala relative to placebo and paroxetine. Brain regions that have been related to the processing of motivational (ventral striatum), emotional, and autonomic components of erotic stimulation (anterior cingulate) in previous studies showed reduced responsiveness under paroxetine in our study. Drug effects on these regions may be part of the mechanism underlying SSRI-related sexual dysfunction. Increased activation under bupropion may point to an opposite effect that may relate to the lack of impaired sexual functioning. PMID:21544071

  9. HsfA2 Controls the Activity of Developmentally and Stress-Regulated Heat Stress Protection Mechanisms in Tomato Male Reproductive Tissues1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Stefan; Paupière, Marine Josephine; Theres, Klaus; Bovy, Arnaud; Schleiff, Enrico; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Male reproductive tissues are more sensitive to heat stress (HS) compared to vegetative tissues, but the basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. Heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) regulate the transcriptional changes required for protection from HS. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), HsfA2 acts as coactivator of HsfA1a and is one of the major Hsfs accumulating in response to elevated temperatures. The contribution of HsfA2 in heat stress response (HSR) and thermotolerance was investigated in different tissues of transgenic tomato plants with suppressed HsfA2 levels (A2AS). Global transcriptome analysis and immunodetection of two major Hsps in vegetative and reproductive tissues showed that HsfA2 regulates subsets of HS-induced genes in a tissue-specific manner. Accumulation of HsfA2 by a moderate HS treatment enhances the capacity of seedlings to cope with a subsequent severe HS, suggesting an important role for HsfA2 in regulating acquired thermotolerance. In pollen, HsfA2 is an important coactivator of HsfA1a during HSR. HsfA2 suppression reduces the viability and germination rate of pollen that received the stress during the stages of meiosis and microspore formation but had no effect on more advanced stages. In general, pollen meiocytes and microspores are characterized by increased susceptibility to HS due to their lower capacity to induce a strong HSR. This sensitivity is partially mitigated by the developmentally regulated expression of HsfA2 and several HS-responsive genes mediated by HsfA1a under nonstress conditions. Thereby, HsfA2 is an important factor for the priming process that sustains pollen thermotolerance during microsporogenesis. PMID:26917685

  10. Sneaker "jack" males outcompete dominant "hooknose" males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small "sneaker" males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy under a wide range of conditions. Game theory suggests that sneaker males compensate for these disadvantages by investing disproportionately in spermatogenesis, by producing more sperm per unit body mass (the "fair raffle") and/or by producing higher quality sperm (the "loaded raffle"). Here, we test these models by competing sperm from sneaker "jack" males against sperm from dominant "hooknose" males in Chinook salmon. Using two complementary approaches, we reject the fair raffle in favor of the loaded raffle and estimate that jack males were ∼1.35 times as likely as hooknose males to fertilize eggs under controlled competitive conditions. Interestingly, the direction and magnitude of this skew in paternity shifted according to individual female egg donors, suggesting cryptic female choice could moderate the outcomes of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species. PMID:24455130

  11. Experimentally increased badge size increases male competition and reduces male parental care in the collared flycatcher

    PubMed Central

    Qvarnstroöm, A.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental enlargement of sexually selected traits that are energetically cheap to produce is expected to reveal costs resulting from increased risk of predation or social competition. Given a trade-off between sexually selected traits and life history traits such costs may be expected to affect not only the males themselves but also their offspring. In this study I manipulated the size of the forehead patch, a sexually selected trait that functions as a badge of status in male collared flycatchersFicedula albicollis). First, I found that a male's likelihood to establish a breeding territory with respect to his original badge size was affected by the treatment such that old males (older than or equal to two years) with relatively small original badges enjoyed an increased likelihood of establishing a breeding territory while young males (yearlings) suffered a reduced likelihood of establishment when their badges were enlarged as compared to unchanged. Second, young males with enlarged badges that were able to establish a territory fed their nestlings less in relation to their females compared to the control males. However, the females adjusted their parental effort to such an extent that no significant differences were observed in total feeding rate nor in reproductive success between the two groups of males. These results suggest that experimentally enlarged badge size in the collared flycatcher may result in increased male competition and that males have to trade their effort spent in male contest against their parental effort.

  12. Controlling the Black School-Age Male: Psychotropic Medications and the Circumvention of Public Law 94-142 and Section 504

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Terence D.

    2009-01-01

    Public schools have historically embedded mechanisms for control within their policies and procedures through a variety of means. This article investigates a moderately sized integrated public school system in an upscale to low socioeconomic Big Ten university community in Illinois. Through descriptive measures, the author examines the racial…

  13. Seasonal neuronal plasticity in song-control and auditory forebrain areas in subtropical nonmigratory and palearctic-indian migratory male songbirds.

    PubMed

    Surbhi; Rastogi, Ashutosh; Malik, Shalie; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-10-01

    This study examines whether differences in annual life-history states (LHSs) among the inhabitants of two latitudes would have an impact on the neuronal plasticity of the song-control system in songbirds. At the times of equinoxes and solstices during the year (n = 4 per year) corresponding to different LHSs, we measured the volumetric changes and expression of doublecortin (DCX; an endogenous marker of the neuronal recruitment) in the song-control nuclei and higher order auditory forebrain regions of the subtropical resident Indian weaverbirds (Ploceus philippinus) and Palearctic-Indian migratory redheaded buntings (Emberiza bruniceps). Area X in basal ganglia, lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN), HVC (proper name), and robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) were enlarged during the breeding LHS. Both round and fusiform DCX-immunoreactive (DCX-ir) cells were found in area X and HVC but not in LMAN or RA, with a significant seasonal difference. Also, as shown by increase in volume and by dense, round DCX-ir cells, the neuronal incorporation was increased in HVC alone during the breeding LHS. This suggests differences in the response of song-control nuclei to photoperiod-induced changes in LHSs. Furthermore, DCX immunoreactivity indicated participation of the cortical caudomedial nidopallium and caudomedial mesopallium in the song-control system, albeit with differences between the weaverbirds and the buntings. Overall, these results show seasonal neuronal plasticity in the song-control system closely associated with annual reproductive LHS in both of the songbirds. Differences between species probably account for the differences in the photoperiod-response system between the relative refractory weaverbirds and absolute refractory redheaded buntings. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2914-2929, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991695

  14. Functional Impairment in Adult Sleepwalkers: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. Participants: There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Citation: Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in

  15. Ginseng and male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kar Wah; Wong, Alice ST

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is often referred to as the King of all herbs, and is found to be a promising agent to improve general well-being. Ginseng has also been reputed as an aphrodisiac, and is used to treat sexual dysfunction as well as to enhance sexual behavior in traditional Chinese medical practices. Data from animal studies have shown a positive correlation among ginseng, libido, and copulatory performances, and these effects have been confirmed in case-control studies in human. In addition, ginseng is found to improve the sperm quality and count of healthy individuals as well as patients with treatment-related infertility. These actions are mostly attributed to ginsenosides, the major pharmacological active components of ginseng. This review compiles the current knowledge about the multifaceted effects of ginseng on male reproductive function, and also focuses on its mechanisms of action that may represent novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of male reproductive diseases or disorders. PMID:24381805

  16. Neighborhood Characteristics as Predictors of Male to Female and Female to Male Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract-level, couples' perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of…

  17. Naltrexone effects on male sexual behavior, corticosterone, and testosterone in stressed male rats.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Bonilla-Jaime, H; Vázquez-Palacios, G; Martínez-García, R

    2009-02-16

    Chronic physical or psychological stress disrupts male reproductive function. Studies in our laboratory have shown that stress by immersion in cold water (ICW) and by electrical foot shocks (EFS) has inhibitory effects on male sexual behavior; these effects do not seem to be mediated by an increase in corticosterone, nor by a decrease in testosterone. On the other hand, it is known that endogenous opioids are released in the brain in response to these same stressors; consequently, they could be participating in the impairment of sexual behavior, as well as in the changes in corticosterone and testosterone caused by stress. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX) on male sexual behavior, corticosterone, and testosterone in both stressed sexually experienced and naive male rats. Sexually experienced adult male rats were assigned to one of the following groups (n=10 each): 1) control group, males without sexual evaluation; 2) control group, rats injected ip with saline, non-stressed; 3) control group, rats injected with NTX (3 mg/kg) non-stressed; 4) rats injected ip with saline, and stressed by EFS; 5) rats injected ip with NTX (1.5 mg/kg) and stressed by EFS; 6) rats injected ip with saline and stressed by ICW; 7) rats injected ip with NTX (1.5 mg/kg) and stressed by ICW; 8) rats injected ip with NTX (3 mg/kg) and stressed by ICW. Naive males were assigned to the same control groups but only stressed by ICW and the NTX dose used was 3 mg/kg. Injections were given 30 min before stress sessions. Stress was applied on 20 consecutive days. Male sexual behavior was assessed 15 min after EFS or 30 min after ICW, on days 1, 4, 8, 12, 15, and 20. Trunk blood was collected at the end of the experiments on day 20 of stress. Corticosterone and testosterone were evaluated by HPLC. Mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies were longer in control saline naive males compared to control saline sexually experienced males on the

  18. Male skin care needs.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stephen M; Ford, Kay

    2008-08-01

    Male skin care has undergone significant development over the past decade, with many companies now marketing skin care products directly to the male consumer. Despite the claims of many of these companies, few over-the-counter products have data to support their efficacy at a clinical level. A basic, effective regimen for preventive male skin care should include twice-daily facial cleansing and twice-daily moisturizer application, which should include sunscreen during the day. This article focuses on topical therapies directed at the maintenance and repair of photoaged male skin. The future holds promise for new developments in skin care. However, in the absence of significant scientific breakthroughs, the most cost-effective intervention will continue to be prevention. PMID:18620985

  19. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable than in females because of the longer urethra.

  20. Breast enlargement in males

    MedlinePlus

    Gynecomastia; Breast enlargement in a male ... The condition may occur in one or both breasts. It begins as a small lump beneath the nipple, which may be tender. One breast may be larger than the other. Enlarged breasts ...

  1. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum , meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, ...

  2. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  3. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  4. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Reproductive System » Male Reproductive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  5. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Catheterization is accomplished by inserting a catheter (a hollow tube, often with and inflatable balloon tip) into ... catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable ...

  6. Male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jepson, A S; Fentiman, I S

    1998-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, often with a late presentation and poor prognosis. The mainstay of treatment is modified radical mastectomy, with axillary node dissection to assess stage, prognosis and the need for adjuvant treatment. When matched for age, tumour size, grade and axillary nodal status, the prognosis is similar for males and females. Concerted efforts must be made to educate both the public and health professionals, in order to make earlier diagnoses and thereby improve prognosis. PMID:10622057

  7. Targeting the adolescent male.

    PubMed

    Pitt, E

    1986-01-01

    The National Urban League regards too early parenting among adolescents as an issue requiring high level, active attention from all segments of the Black community. Poverty, single parent households and adolescent pregnancies are not exclusively female problems. The role that males play has been missing from too many studies of these phenomena. In light of the fact that most sexual activity is male initiated, and most sexual behavior is male influenced, it becomes clear that there will be no resolution of the problem of teenage pregnancy without directing greater attention to the male. The issue of male responsibility is skirted too often due to parental pride on the part of mothers and fathers when their male children seek sexual relations with female partners. It is viewed as a sign that they are developing sexually within the norm. This is especially true, in many instances, in female headed households where the mother is concerned that she may not be providing her son with an adequate male role model. Sexual activity by female adolescents, however, is generally not condoned. This confusing double standard is further compounded by the disjointed fashion in which American society responds to adolescent sexuality on the whole. Although the home should be the focal point, many parents reluctantly admit an inability to communicate effectively about sex with their pre-adolescent children. Thus, the school, church, community and social agencies have all been enlisted in this task. The National Urban League's initiative in this area is expected to have significant impact on the course of adolescent sexuality and reproductive responsibility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3745498

  8. An In-Depth Comparison of the Male Pediatric and Adult Urinary Proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Froehlich, John W.; Vaezzadeh, Ali R.; Kirchner, Marc; Briscoe, Andrew C.; Hofmann, Oliver; Hide, Winston; Steen, Hanno; Lee, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the male pediatric infant urinary proteome by parallel proteomic analysis of normal healthy adult (n =6) and infant (n =6) males and comparison to available published data. A total of 1584 protein groups were identified. Of these, 708 proteins were identified in samples from both cohorts. Although present in both cohorts, 136 of these common proteins were significantly enriched in urine from adults and 94 proteins were significantly enriched in urine from infants. Using Gene Ontology, we found that the infant-enriched or specific subproteome (743 proteins) had an overrepresentation of proteins that are involved in translation and transcription, cellular growth and metabolic processes. In contrast, the adult enriched or specific subproteome (364 proteins) showed an overexpression of proteins involved in immune response and cell adhesion. This study demonstrates that the non-diseased male urinary proteome is quantitatively affected by age, has age-specific subproteomes, and identifies a common subproteome with no age-dependent abundance variations. These findings highlight the importance of age-matching in urinary proteomics. PMID:23707565

  9. A Study of the Relationship between Code Switching and the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence That Language Use Modulates Neural Indices of Language Processing and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Angelique Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals sometimes outperform age-matched monolinguals on non-language tasks involving cognitive control. But the bilingual advantage is not consistently found in every experiment and may reflect specific attributes of the bilinguals tested. The goal of this dissertation was to determine if the way in which bilinguals use language, specifically…

  10. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  11. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  12. Male-male homosexology: seven short discourses.

    PubMed

    Money, John

    2004-09-01

    Homosexology is that branch of the science of sexology that deals with same sex relationships. It is subdivided into ideation, imagery, and praxis. Praxeology is the science of praxis. There are two doctrines by which homosexuality is defined: elective and developmental. Elective is like joining a political party and is more likely bisexual than exclusively homosexual. Complete developmental homosexuality is a state of being and is characteristically immutable. Both types of homosexuality are determined multivariately and sequentially, not univariately. Male and female mammals are phylogenically programmed to be reciprocal, not identical, in the praxeology of their courtship and mating. In primate, notably human, evolution, the eyes have taken over from the nose as organs of erotic arousal, but the molecular biology of how this happens in individual development, gay, straight or ambivalent, remains to be ascertained. The different personal histories of homosexual development also remain to be ascertained and cataloged. PMID:15506674

  13. Techniques of Male Circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A.

    2013-01-01

    Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the reader on surgical aspects of male circumcision aiding in making appropriate choice of a technique to offer patients. Pubmed search was done with the keywords: Circumcision, technique, complications, and history. Relevant articles on techniques of circumcision were selected for the review. Various methods of circumcision including several devices are in use for male circumcision. These methods can be grouped into three: Shield and clamp, dorsal slit, and excision. The device methods appear favored in the pediatric circumcision while the risk of complications increases with increasing age of the patient at surgery. PMID:24470842

  14. Novel Genetic Loci Control Calcium Absorption and Femur Bone Mass as Well as Their Response to Low Calcium Intake in Male BXD Recombinant Inbred Mice.

    PubMed

    Reyes Fernandez, Perla C; Replogle, Rebecca A; Wang, Libo; Zhang, Min; Fleet, James C

    2016-05-01

    Low dietary calcium (Ca) intake during growth limits peak bone mass but physiological adaptation can prevent this adverse effect. To assess the genetic control on the physiologic response to dietary Ca restriction (RCR), we conducted a study in 51 BXD lines fed either 0.5% (basal) or 0.25% (low) Ca diets from ages 4 to 12 weeks (n = 8/line/diet). Ca absorption (CaAbs), femur bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) were examined. ANCOVA with body size as covariate was used to detect significant line and diet main effects, and line-by-diet interactions. Body size-corrected residuals were used for linkage mapping and to estimate heritability (h(2) ). Loci controlling the phenotypes were identified using composite interval mapping on each diet and for the RCR. h(2) of basal phenotypes (0.37-0.43) and their RCR (0.32-0.38) was moderate. For each phenotype, we identified multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) on each diet and for the RCR. Several loci affected multiple traits: Chr 1 (88.3-90.6 cM, CaAbs, BMC), Chr 4 (45.8-49.2 cM, CaAbs, BMD, BMC), Chr 8 (28.6-31.6 cM, CaAbs, BMD, RCR), and Chr 15 (13.6-24 cM, BMD, BMC; 32.3-36 cM, CaAbs RCR, BMD). This suggests that gene clusters may regulate interdependent bone-related phenotypes. Using in silico expression QTL (eQTL) mapping and bioinformatic tools, we identified novel candidates for the regulation of bone under Ca stress (Ext1, Deptor), and for the first time, we report genes modulating Ca absorption (Inadl, Sc4mol, Sh3rf1, and Dennd3), and both Ca and bone metabolism (Tceanc2, Tll1, and Aadat). Our data reveal gene-by-diet interactions and the existence of novel relationships between bone and Ca metabolism during growth. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26636428

  15. Why do female mice mate with multiple males?

    PubMed

    Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Raveh, Shirley; Hettyey, Attila; Beissmann, Helmut; Penn, Dustin J

    2013-01-01

    Females often show multi-male mating (MMM), but the adaptive functions are unclear. We tested whether female house mice (Mus musculus musculus) show MMM when they can choose their mates without male coercion. We released 32 females into separate enclosures where they could choose to mate with two neighboring males that were restricted to their own territories. We also tested whether females increase MMM when the available males appeared unable to exclude intruders from their territories. To manipulate territorial intrusion, we introduced scent-marked tiles from the neighboring males into males' territories, or we rearranged tiles within males' own territories as a control. Each female was tested in treatment and control conditions and we conducted paternity analyses on the 57 litters produced. We found that 46 % of litters were multiply sired, indicating that multiple paternity is common when females can choose their mates. Intrusion did not increase multiple paternity, though multiple paternity was significantly greater in the first trial when the males were virgins compared to the second trial. Since virgin male mice are highly infanticidal, this finding is consistent with the infanticide avoidance hypothesis. We also found that multiple paternity was higher when competing males showed small differences in their amount of scent marking, suggesting that females reduce MMM when they can detect differences in males' quality. Finally, multiple paternity was associated with increased litter size but only in the intrusion treatment, which suggests that the effect of multiple paternity on offspring number is dependent on male-male interactions. PMID:24273373

  16. Treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Gianpiero D; Kocent, Justin; Monahan, Devin; Neri, Queenie V; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Major difficulties exist in the accurate and meaningful diagnosis of male reproductive dysfunction, and our understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of male infertility has proven quite complex.The numerous spermatozoa produced in mammals and other species provides some degree of protection against adverse environmental conditions represented by physical and chemical factors that can reduce reproductive function and increase gonadal damage even resulting in testicular cancer or congenital malformations. The wide fluctuations of sperm production in men, both geographical and temporal, may reflect disparate environmental exposures, occurring on differing genetic backgrounds, in varying psychosocial conditions, and leading to the diversified observed outcomes.Sperm analysis is still the cornerstone in diagnosis of male factor infertility, indeed, individually compromised semen paramaters while adequately address therapeutic practices is progressively flanked by additional tests. Administration of drugs, IUI, correction of varicocele, and, to a certain extent, IVF although they may not be capable of restoring fertility itself often result in childbearing. PMID:24782020

  17. Adverse Effects of a Clinically Relevant Dose of Hydroxyurea Used for the Treatment of Sickle Cell Disease on Male Fertility Endpoints

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kea M.; Niaz, Mohammad S.; Brooks, Cynthia M.; Roberson, Shannon I.; Aguinaga, Maria P.; Hills, Edward R.; Rice, Valerie Montgomery; Bourne, Phillip; Bruce, Donald; Archibong, Anthony E.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine: 1) whether the adult male transgenic sickle cell mouse (Tg58 × Tg98; TSCM), exhibits the patterns of reproductive endpoints (hypogonadism) characteristic of men with sickle cell disease (SCD) and 2) whether hydroxyurea (HU) exacerbates this condition. In Experiment 1, blood samples were collected from adult age-matched TSCM and ICR mice (ICRM) (N = 10/group) for plasma testosterone measurements. Subsequently, mice were sacrificed, testes excised and weighed and stored spermatozoa recovered for the determination of sperm density, progressive motility and percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology. In experiment 2, adult male TSCM were orally treated with 25 mg HU/kg body weight/day for 28 or 56 days. Control mice received the vehicle for HU (saline) as described above. At the end of the treatment periods, blood samples were collected for quantification of circulating testosterone. Subsequently, mice were sacrificed, testes and epididymides were recovered and weighed and one testis per mouse was subjected to histopathology. Stored spermatozoa were recovered for the determination of indices of sperm quality mentioned in Experiment 1. Testis weight, stored sperm density, progressive motility, percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology and plasma testosterone concentrations of TSCM were significantly lower by 40, 65, 40, 69 and 66%, respectively than those of ICRM. These data indicate that adult TSCM used in this study suffered from hypogonadism, characteristically observed among adult male SCD patients. In Experiment 2, HU treatment significantly decreased testis weight on day 28, (0.09 ± 0.004g) that was further decreased on day 56 (0.06 ± 0.003g; treatment x time interaction) compared with controls (day 28, 0.15 ± 0.01g; day 56, 2, 0.16 ± 0.01g). Concomitant with a 52% shrinkage (P<0.001) in area of testes in 56 days of HU treatment, testes from HU-treated TSCM exhibited significant atrophic degeneration

  18. The Effects of 52 Weeks of Soccer or Resistance Training on Body Composition and Muscle Function in +65-Year-Old Healthy Males--A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Krustrup, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The effects of 52 weeks of soccer or resistance training were investigated in untrained elderly men. The subjects aged 68.1±2.1 yrs were randomised into a soccer (SG; n = 9), a resistance (RG; n = 9) and a control group (CG; n = 8). The subjects in SG and RG, respectively, trained 1.7±0.3 and 1.8±0.3 times weekly on average during the intervention period. Muscle function and body composition were determined before and after 16 and 52 weeks of the intervention period. In SG, BMI was reduced by 1.5% and 3.0% (p<0.05) after 16 and 52 weeks, respectively, unchanged in RG and 2% higher (p<0.05) in CG after 52 weeks of the intervention period. In SG, the response to a glucose tolerance test was 16% lower (p<0.05) after 16 wks, but not after 52 wks, compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in RG and CG. In SG, superoxide dismutase-2 expression was 59% higher (p<0.05) after 52 wks compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in RG and CG. In RG, upper body lean mass was 3 and 2% higher (p<0.05) after 16 and 52 wks, respectively, compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in SG and CG. In RG, Akt-2 expression increased by 28% (p<0.01) and follistatin expression decreased by 38% (p<0.05) during the 52-wk intervention period, and was unchanged in SG and CG. Thus, long-term soccer training reduces BMI and improves anti-oxidative capacity, while long-term resistance training impacts muscle protein enzyme expression and increases lean body mass in elderly men. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01530035. PMID:26886262

  19. The Effects of 52 Weeks of Soccer or Resistance Training on Body Composition and Muscle Function in +65-Year-Old Healthy Males – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Krustrup, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The effects of 52 weeks of soccer or resistance training were investigated in untrained elderly men. The subjects aged 68.1±2.1 yrs were randomised into a soccer (SG; n = 9), a resistance (RG; n = 9) and a control group (CG; n = 8). The subjects in SG and RG, respectively, trained 1.7±0.3 and 1.8±0.3 times weekly on average during the intervention period. Muscle function and body composition were determined before and after 16 and 52 weeks of the intervention period. In SG, BMI was reduced by 1.5% and 3.0% (p<0.05) after 16 and 52 weeks, respectively, unchanged in RG and 2% higher (p<0.05) in CG after 52 weeks of the intervention period. In SG, the response to a glucose tolerance test was 16% lower (p<0.05) after 16 wks, but not after 52 wks, compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in RG and CG. In SG, superoxide dismutase-2 expression was 59% higher (p<0.05) after 52 wks compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in RG and CG. In RG, upper body lean mass was 3 and 2% higher (p<0.05) after 16 and 52 wks, respectively, compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in SG and CG. In RG, Akt-2 expression increased by 28% (p<0.01) and follistatin expression decreased by 38% (p<0.05) during the 52-wk intervention period, and was unchanged in SG and CG. Thus, long-term soccer training reduces BMI and improves anti-oxidative capacity, while long-term resistance training impacts muscle protein enzyme expression and increases lean body mass in elderly men. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01530035 PMID:26886262

  20. Male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ottini, Laura; Palli, Domenico; Rizzo, Sergio; Federico, Mario; Bazan, Viviana; Russo, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Male breast cancer (MaleBC) is a rare disease, accounting for <1% of all male tumors. During the last few years, there has been an increase in the incidence of this disease, along with the increase in female breast cancer (FBC). Little is known about the etiology of MaleBC: hormonal, environmental and genetic factors have been reported to be involved in its pathogenesis. Major risk factors include clinical disorders carrying hormonal imbalances, radiation exposure and, in particular, a positive family history (FH) for BC, the latter suggestive of genetic susceptibility. Rare mutations in high-penetrance genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) confer a high risk of BC development; low-penetrance gene mutations (i.e. CHEK-2) are more common but involve a lower risk increase. About 90% of all male breast tumors have proved to be invasive ductal carcinomas, expressing high levels of hormone receptors with evident therapeutic returns. The most common clinical sign of BC onset in men is a painless palpable retroareolar lump, which should be evaluated by means of mammography, ultrasonography and core biopsy or fine needle aspiration (FNA). To date, there are no published data from prospective randomized trials supporting a specific therapeutic approach in MaleBC. Tumor size together with the number of axillary nodes involved are the main prognostic factors and should guide the treatment choice. Locoregional approaches include surgery and radiotherapy (RT), depending upon the initial clinical presentation. When systemic treatment (adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic) is delivered, the choice between hormonal and or chemotherapy (CT) should depend upon the clinical and biological features, according to the FBC management guidelines. However great caution is required because of high rates of age-related comorbidities. PMID:19427229

  1. Genetics of Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Neto, Filipe Tenorio Lira; Bach, Phil Vu; Najari, Bobby Baback; Li, Philip Shihua; Goldstein, Marc

    2016-10-01

    While 7 % of the men are infertile, currently, a genetic etiology is identified in less than 25 % of those men, and 30 % of the infertile men lack a definitive diagnosis, falling in the "idiopathic infertility" category. Advances in genetics and epigenetics have led to several proposed mechanisms for male infertility. These advances may result in new diagnostic tools, treatment approaches, and better counseling with regard to treatment options and prognosis. In this review, we focus on clinical aspects of male infertility and the role of genetics in elucidating etiologies and the potential of treatments. PMID:27502429

  2. Testosterone and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Ohlander, Samuel J; Lindgren, Mark C; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-05-01

    Hypogonadism and its therapies have a significant impact on male fertility potential. It is necessary to determine the etiology to treat and counsel the patient appropriately on therapeutic options. For the hypogonadal male on exogenous testosterone, management should begin with cessation of the exogenous testosterone and supplemental subcutaneous human chorionic gonadotropin and an oral follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-inducing agent to allow reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenesis. Further supplemental therapy with recombinant FSH in some patients may be necessary to achieve optimal semen parameters. PMID:27132576

  3. Eating disorders in males.

    PubMed

    Robb, Adelaide S; Dadson, Michele J

    2002-04-01

    Eating disorders are one of the rare psychiatric disorders with a large preponderance of female patients. The other articles in this issue review eating disorders in children and adolescents and focus primarily on female patients. This article reviews the eating disorders that occur in male children and teenagers, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder named muscle dysmorphobia, and obesity. This article reviews subgroups of boys who are at higher risk for developing eating disorders. The article commences with the difference in male perceptions of body image and dieting behaviors. PMID:12109328

  4. Genetic aspects of communication during male-male competition in the Madagascar hissing cockroach: honest signalling of size.

    PubMed

    Clark, D C; Moore, A J

    1995-08-01

    Male Madagascar hissing cockroaches, Gromphadorhina portentosa, engage in agonistic contests with other males and produce audible sounds or 'hisses' during these interactions. Hisses are used to maintain, rather than to establish, social relationships among males. The agonistic hisses of males are variable and could be used as signals to communicate size or competitive ability of an individual. In this study we examined how size influences male-male competition, as well as the genetic variation and covariation of male body size and components of the agonistic hiss. We found that male size affected the outcome of agonistic interactions between pairs of males: a male that dominated in a pair was significantly larger than the male that was subordinate. However, we found no differences in the hisses produced by dominant and subordinate males after controlling for male weight. We estimated heritabilities, evolvability and genetic correlations for male size and characteristics of the hiss from a full-sib analysis of brothers. The patterns of heritabilities and evolvabilities were very similar. The heritabilities of both male weight and duration of the hiss were significantly greater than zero. There was a significant positive genetic correlation between duration of the agonistic hiss and male weight, and a significant negative genetic correlation between hiss duration and the beginning dominant frequency. There was also a positive phenotypic correlation and a negative environmental correlation between male weight and hiss duration. Thus, hiss duration can signal the present influence of the environment on male size, whereas information from hiss duration and beginning dominant frequency can signal the male's ability to transmit genetic influence for size.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7558888

  5. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Andersen, A E

    1984-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa or bulimia in adolescent males occurs ten times less frequently than in adolescent females. When they occur, however, they can be clearly identified and differentiated from disorders also associated with weight loss such as swallowing phobias. Early diagnosis and treatment leads to improved outcome. While the formal psychopathology of male anorectics is similar to that of females, there is often a different motivation for the initial weight loss in males. They are more often concerned with attaining an idealized male body and avoiding teasing or criticism about their appearance. When males become ill, they tend to develop the full anorectic syndrome or not to become ill at all. Recognition of the special needs of adolescent males for individualized treatment increases the change of optimal outcome. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia in the teenage male should be seen as an ineffective method of dealing with developmental crises by gaining a sense of effectiveness and control through weight reduction and food restriction. Treatment seeks to improve quickly the starvation-related aspects of the illness while attempting to find more appropriate methods of dealing with the life crises prompting the illness. The real goal of treatment is to make the anorectic or bulimic illness unnecessary by encouraging the patient to continue the work of individuation and separation so that challenges in development and problems in living are resolved in a direct rather than an indirect way through an eating disorder. PMID:6596548

  6. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  7. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  8. Black Males Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincy, Ronald B., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the overall economic gains in the 1990s, many young black men continue to have the poorest life chances of anyone in our society. Joblessness and low earnings among these less-educated young adults are contributing to reductions in marriage, increases in nonmarital childbearing, and a host of other social problems. In "Black Males Left…

  9. Acute effect of cycling intervention on carotid arterial hemodynamics: basketball athletes versus sedentary controls

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the acute effects of a cycling intervention on carotid arterial hemodynamics between basketball athletes and sedentary controls. Methods Ten young long-term trained male basketball athletes (BA) and nine age-matched male sedentary controls (SC) successively underwent four bouts of exercise on a bicycle ergometer at the same workload. Hemodynamic variables at right common carotid artery were determined at rest and immediately following each bout of exercise. An ANCOVA was used to compare differences between the BA and SC groups at rest and immediately following the cycling intervention. The repeated ANOVA was used to assess differences between baseline and each bout of exercise within the BA or SC group. Results In both groups, carotid hemodynamic variables showed significant differences at rest and immediately after the cycling intervention. At rest, carotid arterial stiffness was significantly decreased and carotid arterial diameter was significantly increased in the BA group as compared to the SC group. Immediately following the cycling intervention, carotid arterial stiffness showed no obvious changes in the BA group but significantly increased in the SC group. It is worth noting that while arterial stiffness was lower in the BA group than in the SC group, the oscillatory shear index (OSI) was significantly higher in the BA group than in the SC group both at rest and immediately following the cycling intervention. Conclusion Long-term basketball exercise had a significant impact on common carotid arterial hemodynamic variables not only at rest but also after a cycling intervention. The role of OSI in the remodeling of arterial structure and function in the BA group at rest and after cycling requires clarification. PMID:25602805

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on Hyperactivity and Inattention in Male Children and Adolescents: BACHI Study Protocol (ANZCTRN12612000827831)

    PubMed Central

    Kean, James D.; Kaufman, Jordy; Lomas, Justine; Goh, Antionette; White, David; Simpson, David; Scholey, Andrew; Singh, Hemant; Sarris, Jerome; Zangara, Andrea; Stough, Con

    2015-01-01

    Clinical diagnoses of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the use of prescription medications for its treatment have increased in recent years. Current treatments may involve the administration of amphetamine-type substances, a treatment path many parents are apprehensive to take. Therefore, alternative pharmacological treatments are required. Few nutritional or pharmacological alternatives that reduce ADHD associated symptoms (hyperactivity and inattention) have been subjected to rigorous clinical trials. Bacopa monnieri is a perennial creeping herb. CDRI 08 is a special extract of Bacopa monnieri which has been subjected to hundreds of scientific studies and has been shown in human randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to improve memory, attention, and mood. It is hypothesised that chronic administration of CDRI 08 will improve attention, concentration and behaviour in children with high levels of hyperactivity and/or inattention. This paper reports the protocol for the first 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups trial examining the efficacy and safety of CDRI 08 in male children aged 6–14 years with high levels of inattention and hyperactivity. The primary outcome variable will be the level of hyperactivity and inattention measured by the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS). Secondary outcome variables include cognition, mood, sleep, and EEG. Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12612000827831. PMID:26633481

  11. Dosimetry considerations in the enhanced sensitivity of male Wistar rats to chronic ethylene glycol-induced nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, R.A. Wilson, D.M.; Hard, G.C.; Stebbins, K.E.; Bartels, M.J.; Soelberg, J.J.; Dryzga, M.D.; Gingell, R.; McMartin, K.E.; Snellings, W.M.

    2008-04-15

    less sensitive strain), a significant difference was observed in oxalate clearances between young rats (i.e. Wistar clearance < F344) but not in age-matched old rats. Regardless, the ratios of oxalate:inulin clearances in these two strains of rats, including those exposed to ethylene glycol, were all < 1, suggesting that a fraction of the filtered oxalate is reabsorbed. Other species, including humans, typically have clearance ratios > 1 and are more effective at clearing oxalic acid by both glomerular filtration and active secretion. Thus, the lower renal clearance and kidney accumulation of oxalates in male Wistar rats enhances their sensitivity, which will be a factor in human risk assessments. The benchmark dose values (BMD05, BMDL05) were 170 mg/kg/day and 150 mg/kg/day for nephropathy, and 170 mg/kg/day and 160 mg/kg/day for birefringent crystals, using incidence times severity data in each case. The NOAEL of 150 mg/kg/day is the same as that reported after 16-week exposure and appears to be a threshold dose below which no renal toxicity occurs, regardless of exposure duration.

  12. Conflict over Male Parentage in Social Insects

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Mutual policing is an important mechanism that maintains social harmony in group-living organisms by suppressing the selfish behavior of individuals. In social insects, workers police one another (worker-policing) by preventing individual workers from laying eggs that would otherwise develop into males. Within the framework of Hamilton's rule there are two explanations for worker-policing behavior. First, if worker reproduction is cost-free, worker-policing should occur only where workers are more closely related to queen- than to worker-produced male eggs (relatedness hypothesis). Second, if there are substantial costs to unchecked worker reproduction, worker-policing may occur to counteract these costs and increase colony efficiency (efficiency hypothesis). The first explanation predicts that patterns of the parentage of males (male parentage) are associated with relatedness, whereas the latter does not. We have investigated how male parentage varies with colony kin structure and colony size in 50 species of ants, bees, and wasps in a phylogenetically controlled comparative analysis. Our survey revealed that queens produced the majority of males in most of the species and that workers produced more than half of the males in less than 10% of species. Moreover, we show that male parentage does not vary with relatedness as predicted by the relatedness hypothesis. This indicates that intra- and interspecific variation in male parentage cannot be accounted for by the relatedness hypothesis alone and that increased colony efficiency is an important factor responsible for the evolution of worker-policing. Our study reveals greater harmony and more complex regulation of reproduction in social insect colonies than that expected from simple theoretical expectations based on relatedness only. PMID:15328531

  13. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  14. Male genital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  15. Newborn male circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Sorokan, S Todd; Finlay, Jane C; Jefferies, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    The circumcision of newborn males in Canada has become a less frequent practice over the past few decades. This change has been significantly influenced by past recommendations from the Canadian Paediatric Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics, who both affirmed that the procedure was not medically indicated. Recent evidence suggesting the potential benefit of circumcision in preventing urinary tract infection and some sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, has prompted the Canadian Paediatric Society to review the current medical literature in this regard. While there may be a benefit for some boys in high-risk populations and circumstances where the procedure could be considered for disease reduction or treatment, the Canadian Paediatric Society does not recommend the routine circumcision of every newborn male. PMID:26435672

  16. Male osteoporosis: A review.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Antonio; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil, Jorge; Ibarz, Elena; Gracia, Luis

    2012-12-18

    Osteoporosis in men is a heterogeneous disease that has received little attention. However, one third of worldwide hip fractures occur in the male population. This problem is more prevalent in people over 70 years of age. The etiology can be idiopathic or secondary to hypogonadism, vitamin D deficiency and inadequate calcium intake, hormonal treatments for prostate cancer, use of toxic and every disease or drug use that alters bone metabolism.Risk factors such as a previous history of fragility fracture should be assessed for the diagnosis. However, risk factors in men are very heterogeneous. There are significant differences in the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis between men and women fundamentally due to the level of evidence in published trials supporting each treatment. New treatments will offer new therapeutic prospects. The goal of this work is a revision of the present status knowledge about male osteoporosis. PMID:23362466

  17. Male osteoporosis: A review

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Antonio; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil, Jorge; Ibarz, Elena; Gracia, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis in men is a heterogeneous disease that has received little attention. However, one third of worldwide hip fractures occur in the male population. This problem is more prevalent in people over 70 years of age. The etiology can be idiopathic or secondary to hypogonadism, vitamin D deficiency and inadequate calcium intake, hormonal treatments for prostate cancer, use of toxic and every disease or drug use that alters bone metabolism. Risk factors such as a previous history of fragility fracture should be assessed for the diagnosis. However, risk factors in men are very heterogeneous. There are significant differences in the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis between men and women fundamentally due to the level of evidence in published trials supporting each treatment. New treatments will offer new therapeutic prospects. The goal of this work is a revision of the present status knowledge about male osteoporosis. PMID:23362466

  18. A maleness gene in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Krzywinska, Elzbieta; Dennison, Nathan J; Lycett, Gareth J; Krzywinski, Jaroslaw

    2016-07-01

    The molecular pathways controlling gender are highly variable and have been identified in only a few nonmammalian model species. In many insects, maleness is conferred by a Y chromosome-linked M factor of unknown nature. We have isolated and characterized a gene, Yob, for the M factor in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Yob, activated at the beginning of zygotic transcription and expressed throughout a male's life, controls male-specific splicing of the doublesex gene. Silencing embryonic Yob expression is male-lethal, whereas ectopic embryonic delivery of Yob transcripts yields male-only broods. This female-killing property may be an invaluable tool for creation of conditional male-only transgenic Anopheles strains for malaria control programs. PMID:27365445

  19. Selenium status of idiopathic infertile Nigerian males.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, Babatunde

    2005-04-01

    Selenium concentration in the sera and seminal plasma of 60 infertile males (40 oligospermia and 20 azoospermia) and 40 males with proven evidence of fertility (normospermia; control group) were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were correlated with spermatogram and hormonal levels in order to determine their relationship and significance in male infertility. The mean serum concentrations of selenium was found to be significantly increased in oligospermic compared to azoospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.01), whereas the seminal plasma level was significantly higher in azoospermic compared to oligospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.001). Thus, the ratio of serum selenium to seminal plasma selenium was 1: 1 in controls, 4: 1 in oligospermia, and 1: 2 in azoospermic subject.A significant inverse correlation was observed between serum selenium level and sperm count (p < 0.01). Similarly, seminal plasma selenium correlated with spermatozoa motility, viability, and morphology. Serum selenium level shows positive correlation with the serum testosterone level (p < 0.01). In conclusion, there appears to be a physiological balance in the distribution of selenium in serum and seminal plasma compartment of control males. A disturbance in this balance has a significant influence on spermatogenesis. Selenium appears to have a positive influence on Leydig cells, thus influencing the secretion of testosterone. PMID:15851828

  20. Male Body Contouring.

    PubMed

    Singh, Babu; Keaney, Terrence; Rossi, Anthony M

    2015-09-01

    Men are increasingly turning to dermatologists and plastic surgeons to request procedures that correct or enhance physical features. With the advent of this emerging new patient population, alterations in preexisting aesthetic techniques, gender-specific uses of existing devices and overall approaches need to be revisited and adapted to obtain results that are suitable for the male patient. Recently, body contouring has become one of the most sought out procedures by men. Although the majority of clinical studies involving body contouring esthetics are performed with female patients, gains from such studies can be extrapolated to men. Body contouring can be broadly classified as non-invasive or invasive, depending on the modality used. Non-invasive contouring is most frequently performed with devices that target subcutaneous adipose with focused electrical or thermal energy, including low-level laser, cryolipolysis, ultrasonography, and radiofrequency. Invasive body contouring modalities useful for male body contouring include liposuction, pectoral and abdominal wall etching, jawline fillers, synthetic deoxycholic acid injections, and solid silicone implants. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the unique aspects, strategies, and modalities used in aesthetic body contouring for the male patient. PMID:26355627

  1. Adolescent male health

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years. PMID:19119350

  2. Magnetoreception Regulates Male Courtship Activity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Wei; Her, Jim-Long; Wu, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The possible neurological and biophysical effects of magnetic fields on animals is an area of active study. Here, we report that courtship activity of male Drosophila increases in a magnetic field and that this effect is regulated by the blue light-dependent photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY). Naïve male flies exhibited significantly increased courtship activities when they were exposed to a ≥ 20-Gauss static magnetic field, compared with their behavior in the natural environment (0 Gauss). CRY-deficient flies, cryb and crym, did not show an increased courtship index in a magnetic field. RNAi-mediated knockdown of cry in cry-GAL4-positive neurons disrupted the increased male courtship activity in a magnetic field. Genetically expressing cry under the control of cry-GAL4 in the CRY-deficient flies restored the increase in male courtship index that occurred in a magnetic field. Interestingly, artificially activating cry-GAL4-expressing neurons, which include large ventral lateral neurons and small ventral lateral neurons, via expression of thermosensitive cation channel dTrpA1, also increased the male courtship index. This enhancement was abolished by the addition of the cry-GAL80 transgene. Our results highlight the phenomenon of increased male courtship activity caused by a magnetic field through CRY-dependent magnetic sensation in CRY expression neurons in Drosophila. PMID:27195955

  3. Spontaneous male death and monogyny in the dark fishing spider.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Steven K; Wagner, William E; Hebets, Eileen A

    2013-08-23

    Monogyny (male monogamy) is found in a diverse assemblage of taxa, and recent theoretical work reveals that a male-biased sex ratio can favour the evolution of this relatively rare mating system. We integrate this theoretical framework with field observations and laboratory experiments involving the sexually size dimorphic fishing spider, Dolomedes tenebrosus, to test the prediction that this species exhibits monogyny. Field surveys revealed a male-biased sex ratio, likely resulting from different life-history strategies (early male maturation). Results from mating trials supported our prediction of monogyny as we discovered that males mate with a single female. Unexpectedly, however, we observed that mating results in obligate male death and genital mutilation. Additional field observations of released individuals suggest that males are not limited by their ability to encounter additional females. Controlled laboratory assays demonstrated that males discriminate among virgin and non-virgin female silk cues, consistent with predictions of first-male sperm precedence. In summary, we report a novel case of male self-sacrifice in a species that exhibits female-biased sexual size dimorphism, male-biased sex ratio, genital mutilation and a suggestion of first-male sperm precedence; all of which are consistent with theoretical predictions of the evolution of monogyny. PMID:23784928

  4. Spontaneous male death and monogyny in the dark fishing spider

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Steven K.; Wagner, William E.; Hebets, Eileen A.

    2013-01-01

    Monogyny (male monogamy) is found in a diverse assemblage of taxa, and recent theoretical work reveals that a male-biased sex ratio can favour the evolution of this relatively rare mating system. We integrate this theoretical framework with field observations and laboratory experiments involving the sexually size dimorphic fishing spider, Dolomedes tenebrosus, to test the prediction that this species exhibits monogyny. Field surveys revealed a male-biased sex ratio, likely resulting from different life-history strategies (early male maturation). Results from mating trials supported our prediction of monogyny as we discovered that males mate with a single female. Unexpectedly, however, we observed that mating results in obligate male death and genital mutilation. Additional field observations of released individuals suggest that males are not limited by their ability to encounter additional females. Controlled laboratory assays demonstrated that males discriminate among virgin and non-virgin female silk cues, consistent with predictions of first-male sperm precedence. In summary, we report a novel case of male self-sacrifice in a species that exhibits female-biased sexual size dimorphism, male-biased sex ratio, genital mutilation and a suggestion of first-male sperm precedence; all of which are consistent with theoretical predictions of the evolution of monogyny. PMID:23784928

  5. Male Influences on Fertility: Needs for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marciano, Teresa Donati

    1979-01-01

    A study comparing the processes of arriving at fertility decisions in marriage shows that the husband's preference for children or for childlessness controls more often than the wife's preference in either case. Using two childless samples and one sample with children, the strong effect of male preference was found. (Author)

  6. Health Needs and Concerns of Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, Winifred J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined male college students' (N=159) concerns in the areas of alcohol and other drug use, automobile safety, weight and dieting, smoking, sexuality, coping and stress, and selection and utilization of health care services. Identified major problems with alcohol use, automobile safety, weight control, stress, and sexuality. Also identified…

  7. Gynecomastia in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Lemaine, Valerie; Cayci, Cenk; Simmons, Patricia S.; Petty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as an enlargement of the male breast. It is often benign, and can be the source of significant embarrassment and psychological distress. A general medical history and careful physical examination are essential to distinguish normal developmental variants from pathological causes. Treatment is geared toward the specific etiology when identified. In the majority of cases of pubertal gynecomastia, observation and reassurance are the mainstays of therapy as the condition usually resolves naturally. Pharmacological treatment and surgery are recommended only in selected cases. PMID:24872741

  8. [Male breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Vehmanen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is rare in men. Diagnosis of the illness may be delayed due to the fact that the doctor and the patient fail to suspect it. Male breast cancer is treated mainly on the same principles as female breast cancer. A man affected with breast cancer should always be directed to genetic testing, as inherited mutations increasing the risk of developing cancer are more common than in female breast cancer. Most breast cancers in men are hormone receptor positive. Among hormone treatments, the antiestrogen tamoxifen exhibits the best efficacy both in early-state and advanced cases. PMID:27188086

  9. Aromatase inhibitors for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Peter N

    2012-12-01

    Some men with severely defective sperm production commonly have excess aromatase activity, reflected by low serum testosterone and relatively elevated estradiol levels. Aromatase inhibitors can increase endogenous testosterone production and serum testosterone levels. Treatment of infertile males with the aromatase inhibitors testolactone, anastrazole, and letrozole has been associated with increased sperm production and return of sperm to the ejaculate in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Use of the aromatase inhibitors anastrazole (1 mg/day) and letrozole (2.5 mg/day) represent off-label use of these agents for impaired spermatogenesis in men with excess aromatase activity (abnormal testosterone/estradiol [T/E] ratios). Side effects have rarely been reported. Randomized controlled trials are needed to define the magnitude of benefit of aromatase inhibitor treatment for infertile men. PMID:23103016

  10. Rival male chemical cues evoke changes in male pre- and post-copulatory investment in a flour beetle

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Sarah M.; Solino, Joanna H.; Mitchell, Christopher; Blount, Jonathan D.; Okada, Kensuke; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    Males can gather information on the risk and intensity of sperm competition from their social environment. Recent studies have implicated chemosensory cues, for instance cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in insects, as a key source of this information. Here, using the broad-horned flour beetle (Gnatocerus cornutus), we investigated the importance of contact-derived rival male CHCs in informing male perception of sperm competition risk and intensity. We experimentally perfumed virgin females with male CHCs via direct intersexual contact and measured male pre- and post-copulatory investment in response to this manipulation. Using chemical analysis, we verified that this treatment engendered changes to perfumed female CHC profiles, but did not make perfumed females “smell” mated. Despite this, males responded to these chemical changes. Males increased courtship effort under low levels of perceived competition (from 1–3 rivals), but significantly decreased courtship effort as perceived competition rose (from 3–5 rivals). Furthermore, our measurement of ejaculate investment showed that males allocated significantly more sperm to perfumed females than to control females. Together, these results suggest that changes in female chemical profile elicited by contact with rival males do not provide males with information on female mating status, but rather inform males of the presence of rivals within the population and thus provide a means for males to indirectly assess the risk of sperm competition. PMID:26167098

  11. Lisping and male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Van de Putte, Anneleen

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the popular stereotype that gay men lisp by evaluating to what extent listeners associated dental or frontal articulation/lisping with gayness. Fifteen heterosexual males and 15 heterosexual females listened to 275 samples of read speech and judged the sexual orientation of the speakers. A total of 175 of the samples were of homosexual men, 74 (42.3 %) of which had been identified with lisping in a previous study; 100 were of heterosexual men, 18 (18 %) of which had been identified with lisping previously. Based on the ratings of the listeners of the present study, lisping speakers were significantly more often judged to be homosexual. This was true for the group as a whole as well as for the subgroup of homosexual and heterosexual men separately. Furthermore, there was no significant gender difference with respect to associating lisping with gayness. Male and female judges associated lisping with gayness to a similar degree. Additional analysis showed that overall 56.2 % of the time the judges were correct in their judgment of the speakers' sexual orientation. The results of this study confirmed previous preliminary findings that suggested that frontal or dental articulation/lisping is a feature that listeners associate with gayness. The reason for this association remains to be clarified. PMID:24578106

  12. [Treatment of male infertility].

    PubMed

    Jardin, A

    1995-10-28

    Progress in medically assisted procreation has made it possible to obtain an embryon with a single spermatozoid or even a single spermatid. But such advanced technology must not overshadow the basic principles of patient management since there are many other medical or surgical possibilities for improving male fertility. Although the physiological mechanisms leading to azoospermia are relatively well understood, many questions remain as to the origin of oligo-asthenoteratospermia. Varicocela had been incriminated by many authors: in 25% of the cases, surgical care is followed by pregnancy. Other factors including autoimmunity, infection, environment and drugs also have an effect. Careful history taking can identify the main causes of male infertility before the problem of procreation occurs and in cases of definitive azoospermia the principles of management are relatively simple. The true problem is the fact that new techniques such as in vitro fertilization have acquired popularity in the general population but cannot be accepted as the gold standard by the medical community. It must not be forgotten that these artificial techniques cause a major psychological trauma to the couple and can lead to difficult situations (multiple pregnancies, extra embryos) with no totally satisfactory solution. PMID:8545356

  13. Developmental Transitions in Male Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The article defines and elaborates on eight transitions in male sexuality, the first being the gender identity transition, and the last being the male climacteric. It discusses society's lack of support. Originally presented at the American Sociological Association Session on the Male Role in Society, New York City, 1976. (LPG)

  14. Male hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naifar, M; Rekik, N; Messedi, M; Chaabouni, K; Lahiani, A; Turki, M; Abid, M; Ayedi, F; Jamoussi, K

    2015-06-01

    The role of androgens in cardiovascular disease is still controversial in men. In this study, we investigated metabolic disorders in Tunisian hypogonadal men compared with healthy controls. Forty hypogonadal men and 80 control subjects were enrolled. Patients with a history of pre-existing panhypopituitarism, thyroid dysfunction or inflammatory disease were excluded. Glycaemia, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), lipid profile, insulin, testosterone and gonadotrophins were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed by homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (Homa IR). Waist circumference, body mass index and blood pressure were significantly higher in patients compared with controls. Glycemia, HbA1c, fasting serum insulin and Homa IR were significantly increased among hypogonadal men. In univariate analysis, testosterone levels were inversely correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, glycaemia, HbA1C, insulin, Homa IR and hsCRP. In multivariate analysis including all significant variables, initial testosterone level was the only independent risk factor for developing dyslipidaemia. With logistic regression, male hypogonadism was an independent risk factor for MS (P < 0.001). We conclude that low testosterone level plays a central role in the development of metabolic syndrome. Further prospective data are required to establish the causative link. PMID:25040289

  15. Voice-Message–Based mHealth Intervention to Reduce Postoperative Penetrative Sex in Recipients of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in the Western Cape, South Africa: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Donald; Toefy, Yoesrie; Esterhuizen, Tonya; McCaul, Michael; Petzold, Max; Diwan, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an increased risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, in the postoperative period after receiving voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In South Africa, over 4 million men are being targeted with VMMC services but the health system is not able to offer quality counseling. More innovative strategies for communicating with and altering behavior in men and their partners in the postoperative period after VMMC are needed. Objective This paper presents a study protocol to test the effectiveness of an mHealth intervention designed to task-shift behavior change communication from health care personnel to an automated phone message system, encouraging self-care. Methods A single-blind, randomized controlled trial will be used. A total of 1188 participants will be recruited by nurses or clinicians at clinics in the study districts that have a high turnover of VMMC clients. The population will consist of men aged 18 years and older who indicate at the precounseling session that they possess a mobile phone and consent to participating in the study. Consenting participants will be randomized into either the control or intervention arm before undergoing VMMC. The control arm will receive the standard of care (pre- and postcounseling). The intervention arm will received standard of care and will be sent 38 messages over the 6-week recovery period. Patients will be followed up after 42 days. The primary outcome is self-reported sexual intercourse during the recovery period. Secondary outcomes include nonpenetrative sexual activity, STI symptoms, and perceived risk of acquiring HIV. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat. Results Enrollment is completed. Follow-up is ongoing. Loss to follow-up is under 10%. No interim analyses have been conducted. Conclusions The intervention has the potential of reducing risky sexual behavior after VMMC. The platform itself can be used for many other areas of health that require task

  16. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success. PMID:18410290

  17. Personality, Executive Control, and Neurobiological Characteristics Associated with Different Forms of Risky Driving

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Thomas G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Eldeb, Manal; Tremblay, Jacques; Vingilis, Evelyn; Nadeau, Louise; Pruessner, Jens; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Background Road crashes represent a huge burden on global health. Some drivers are prone to repeated episodes of risky driving (RD) and are over-represented in crashes and related morbidity. However, their characteristics are heterogeneous, hampering development of targeted intervention strategies. This study hypothesized that distinct personality, cognitive, and neurobiological processes are associated with the type of RD behaviours these drivers predominantly engage in. Methods Four age-matched groups of adult (19–39 years) males were recruited: 1) driving while impaired recidivists (DWI, n = 36); 2) non-alcohol reckless drivers (SPEED, n = 28); 3) drivers with a mixed RD profile (MIXED, n = 27); and 4) low-risk control drivers (CTL, n = 47). Their sociodemographic, criminal history, driving behaviour (by questionnaire and simulation performance), personality (Big Five traits, impulsivity, reward sensitivity), cognitive (disinhibition, decision making, behavioural risk taking), and neurobiological (cortisol stress response) characteristics were gathered and contrasted. Results Compared to controls, group SPEED showed greater sensation seeking, disinhibition, disadvantageous decision making, and risk taking. Group MIXED exhibited more substance misuse, and antisocial, sensation seeking and reward sensitive personality features. Group DWI showed greater disinhibition and more severe alcohol misuse, and compared to the other RD groups, the lowest level of risk taking when sober. All RD groups exhibited less cortisol increase in response to stress compared to controls. Discussion Each RD group exhibited a distinct personality and cognitive profile, which was consistent with stimulation seeking in group SPEED, fearlessness in group MIXED, and poor behavioural regulation associated with alcohol in group DWI. As these group differences were uniformly accompanied by blunted cortisol stress responses, they may reflect the disparate behavioural consequences of

  18. New frontiers in nonhormonal male contraception

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, C. Yan; Mruk, Dolores D.

    2015-01-01

    The world’s population is nearing 6.8 billion, and we are in need of a male contraceptive that is safe, effective, reversible and affordable. Hormonal approaches, which employ different formulations of testosterone administered in combination with other hormones, have shown considerable promise in clinical trials, and they are currently at the forefront of research and development. However, the long-term effects of using hormones throughout a male’s reproductive life for contraception are unknown, and it may take decades before this information becomes available. Because of this, many investigators are aiming to bring a nonhormonal male contraceptive to the consumer market. Indeed, there are several distinct but feasible avenues in which fertility can be regulated without affecting the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis. In this review, we discuss several approaches for fertility control involving the testis that one day may lead to the development of a nonhormonal male contraceptive. PMID:20933122

  19. Male Mosquitoes as Vehicles for Insecticide

    PubMed Central

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The auto-dissemination approach has been shown effective at treating cryptic refugia that remain unaffected by existing mosquito control methods. This approach relies on adult mosquito behavior to spread larvicide to breeding sites at levels that are lethal to immature mosquitoes. Prior studies demonstrate that ‘dissemination stations,’ deployed in mosquito-infested areas, can contaminate adult mosquitoes, which subsequently deliver the larvicide to breeding sites. In some situations, however, preventative measures are needed, e.g., to mitigate seasonal population increases. Here we examine a novel approach that combines elements of autocidal and auto-dissemination strategies by releasing artificially reared, male mosquitoes that are contaminated with an insecticide. Methodology Laboratory and field experiments examine for model-predicted impacts of pyriproxyfen (PPF) directly applied to adult male Aedes albopictus, including (1) the ability of PPF-treated males to cross-contaminate females and to (2) deliver PPF to breeding sites. Principal Findings Similar survivorship was observed in comparisons of PPF-treated and untreated males. Males contaminated both female adults and oviposition containers in field cage tests, at levels that eliminated immature survivorship. Field trials demonstrate an ability of PPF-treated males to transmit lethal doses to introduced oviposition containers, both in the presence and absence of indigenous females. A decline in the Ae. albopictus population was observed following the introduction of PPF-treated males, which was not observed in two untreated field sites. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate that, in cage and open field trials, adult male Ae. albopictus can tolerate PPF and contaminate, either directly or indirectly, adult females and immature breeding sites. The results support additional development of the proposed approach, in which male mosquitoes act as vehicles for insecticide delivery

  20. Meiosis in male Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Bruce D.; Yan, Rihui; Tsai, Jui-He

    2012-01-01

    Meiosis entails sorting and separating both homologous and sister chromatids. The mechanisms for connecting sister chromatids and homologs during meiosis are highly conserved and include specialized forms of the cohesin complex and a tightly regulated homolog synapsis/recombination pathway designed to yield regular crossovers between homologous chromatids. Drosophila male meiosis is of special interest because it dispenses with large segments of the standard meiotic script, particularly recombination, synapsis and the associated structures. Instead, Drosophila relies on a unique protein complex composed of at least two novel proteins, SNM and MNM, to provide stable connections between homologs during meiosis I. Sister chromatid cohesion in Drosophila is mediated by cohesins, ring-shaped complexes that entrap sister chromatids. However, unlike other eukaryotes Drosophila does not rely on the highly conserved Rec8 cohesin in meiosis, but instead utilizes two novel cohesion proteins, ORD and SOLO, which interact with the SMC1/3 cohesin components in providing meiotic cohesion. PMID:23087836

  1. Overactive bladder in males

    PubMed Central

    Dmochowski, Roger R.; Gomelsky, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms is considerable in both men and women and the impact on quality of life (QOL) is equally substantial. Ironically, despite nearly equal prevalence, OAB symptoms in men are infrequently treated, and often with medical therapies aimed at bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). In this review, we examine the pathophysiology of OAB and its evaluation in the context of benign prostatic hypertrophy and concomitant BOO. We then consider the efficacy and safety of individual therapeutic options for lower urinary tract symptoms in men, focusing on the mainstays of medical therapy: α-adrenergic blockers, 5-α reductase inhibitors, and antimuscarinic agents. Finally, we aim to comment on new therapeutic strategies and targets that may one day be available for the treatment of male OAB. PMID:21789068

  2. Population density influences male-male competition in guppies.

    PubMed

    Jirotkul

    1999-12-01

    This study tested the general prediction that population density affects male-male competition, female mate choice and the opportunity for sexual selection. By manipulating the density of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, while keeping the sex ratio constant, I found that male mating tactics were phenotypically plastic with respect to density. As density increased, males decreased their courtship displays. Male-male competition and mate searching were highest at intermediate densities. Population density had no significant effect on the total number of copulations, copulatory tactics or the percentage of postcopulatory guarding. Female preference for males with a higher percentage of orange coloration was similar at all density levels. The 'opportunity for sexual selection', which estimates the upper limit to which a selected trait can shift if directional selection is operating and was calculated as the variance in number of copulations per male divided by the square of the mean number of copulations, was negatively associated with population density. This may be due to the decrease in male-male competition at high density rather than female preference which was similar across density treatments. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10600137

  3. What makes male mice paternal?

    PubMed

    Elwood, R W

    1986-07-01

    Both copulation and postcopulatory cohabitation with pregnant females reduce infanticide and enhance paternal responsiveness in male CS1 mice. The effectiveness of copulation in this process, however, depends on the number of occasions that males have previously encountered infants. Infanticidal males which have been subordinated in brief encounters with other males are less likely to commit infanticide in subsequent tests than are those which became dominant to other males. Males which copulate and cohabit with a relatively large female are less likely to be infanticidal than are those with a relatively small female. These data suggest that males are subordinated after copulation by their mates and that this subordination is a factor in the reduction of infanticide and the initiation of paternal responsiveness. PMID:3729896

  4. How does lead induce male infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Vigeh, Mohsen; Smith, Derek R.; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2011-01-01

    An important part of male infertility of unknown etiology may be attributed to various environmental and occupational exposures to toxic substances, such as lead. The reproductive effects of lead are complex and appear to involve multiple pathways, not all of which are fully understood. It is still unclear, for example, if male reproductive issues in lead-exposed persons are mostly related to the disruption of reproductive hormones, whether the problems are due to the lead’s direct effects on the gonads, or both? This question has been difficult to answer, because lead, especially at high levels, may adversely affect many human organs. Although lead can potentially reduce male fertility by decreasing sperm count and motility, inducing abnormal morphology and affecting functional parameters; not all studies have been able to clearly demonstrate such findings. In addition, research has shown that the blood-testis barrier can protect testicular cells from direct exposure to high levels of blood lead. For these reasons and considering the wide spectrum of lead toxicity on reproductive hormones, the present review suggests that lead’s main influence on male reproduction probably occurs by altering the reproductive hormonal axis and the hormonal control on spermatogenesis, rather than by a direct toxic effect on the seminiferous tubules of the testes. As blood lead concentrations below the currently accepted worker protection standard may still adversely affect male fertility, future studies should aim to establish more concrete links between lead exposure (especially at low levels) and subsequent male infertility. Research should also pay more attention to lead’s effects on reducing male fertility rates based on not only hormonal axis alteration, but also on the changes in sperm characteristic among exposed subjects. PMID:25356074

  5. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well. PMID:23286540

  6. Effects of the antitumor drug OSI-906, a dual inhibitor of IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor, on the glycemic control, β-cell functions, and β-cell proliferation in male mice.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Yoshida, Eiko; Shimizu, Mari; Horigome, Yuka; Tuno, Takayuki; Hayasaka, Moe; Abe, Shiori; Fuse, Masahiro; Togashi, Yu; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2014-06-01

    The IGF-1 receptor has become a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer. The efficacy of OSI-906 (linstinib), a dual inhibitor of IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor, for solid cancers has been examined in clinical trials. The effects of OSI-906, however, on the blood glucose levels and pancreatic β-cell functions have not yet been reported. We investigated the impact of OSI-906 on glycemic control, insulin secretion, β-cell mass, and β-cell proliferation in male mice. Oral administration of OSI-906 worsened glucose tolerance in a dose-dependent manner in the wild-type mice. OSI-906 at a dose equivalent to the clinical daily dose (7.5 mg/kg) transiently evoked glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2-deficient mice and mice with diet-induced obesity, both models of peripheral insulin resistance, exhibited more severe glucose intolerance after OSI-906 administration than glucokinase-haploinsufficient mice, a model of impaired insulin secretion. Phloridzin improved the hyperglycemia induced by OSI-906 in mice. In vitro, OSI-906 showed no effect on insulin secretion from isolated islets. After daily administration of OSI-906 for a week to mice, the β-cell mass and β-cell proliferation rate were significantly increased. The insulin signals in the β-cells were apparently unaffected in those mice. Taken together, the results suggest that OSI-906 could exacerbate diabetes, especially in patients with insulin resistance. On the other hand, the results suggest that the β-cell mass may expand in response to chemotherapy with this drug. PMID:24712877

  7. Dispersal of Engineered Male Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Capurro, Margareth L.; Alphey, Luke; Donnelly, Christl A.; McKemey, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue fever, have been genetically engineered for use in a sterile insect control programme. To improve our understanding of the dispersal ecology of mosquitoes and to inform appropriate release strategies of ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti detailed knowledge of the dispersal ability of the released insects is needed. Methodology/Principal Findings The dispersal ability of released ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti at a field site in Brazil has been estimated. Dispersal kernels embedded within a generalized linear model framework were used to analyse data collected from three large scale mark release recapture studies. The methodology has been applied to previously published dispersal data to compare the dispersal ability of ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti in contrasting environments. We parameterised dispersal kernels and estimated the mean distance travelled for insects in Brazil: 52.8m (95% CI: 49.9m, 56.8m) and Malaysia: 58.0m (95% CI: 51.1m, 71.0m). Conclusions/Significance Our results provide specific, detailed estimates of the dispersal characteristics of released ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti in the field. The comparative analysis indicates that despite differing environments and recapture rates, key features of the insects’ dispersal kernels are conserved across the two studies. The results can be used to inform both risk assessments and release programmes using ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti. PMID:26554922

  8. Vasopressin Effectively Suppresses Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Woo-Sung; Park, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Yun-Hee; You, Young-Ah; Kim, In Cheul; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2013-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (VP) is neurohypophysial hormone has been implicated in stimulating contractile activity of the male reproductive tract in the testis. Higher levels of VP decrease sperm count and motility. However, very little is known about the involvement of VP in controlling mammalian reproductive process. The goal of this study was to confirm that effect of VP receptor (AVPR2) on sperm function in capacitation condition. Deamino [Cys 1, D-ArgS] vasopressin (dDAVP), an AVPR2 agonist that operates only on AVPR2, was used. Also, Mouse spermatozoa were incubated with various concentrations of dDAVP (10−11–10−5 M) and sperm motility, capacitation status, Protein Kinase A activity (PKA), tyrosine phosphorylation, fertilization, and embryo development were assessed using computer-assisted sperm analysis, Combined Hoechst 33258/chlortetracycline fluorescence, Western blotting, and in vitro fertilization, respectively. AVPR2 was placed on the acrosome region and mid-piece in cauda epididymal spermatozoa, but the caput epididymal spermatozoa was mid-piece only. The high dDAVP treatment (10−8 and 10−5 M) significantly decreased sperm motility, intracellular pH and PKA substrates (approximately 55 and 22 kDa) and increased Ca2+ concentration. The highest concentration treatment significantly decreased PKA substrate (approximately 23 kDa) and tyrosine phosphorylation (approximately 30 kDa). VP detrimentally affected capacitation, acrosome reaction, and embryo development. Treatment with the lowest concentration (10−11 M) was not significantly different. Our data have shown that VP stimulates ion transport across sperm membrane through interactions with AVPR2. VP has a detrimental effect in sperm function, fertilization, and embryonic development, suggesting its critical role in the acquisition of fertilizing ability of mouse spermatozoa. These research findings will enable further study to determine molecular mechanism associated with fertility in

  9. Mate choice and male behaviour following castration and replacement of testosterone in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos ).

    PubMed

    Klint, T

    1985-11-01

    Male sexual behaviour was controlled by castration and testosterone replacement. The first experiment shows that, within a group of similarly coloured and castrated male mallards, females preferred males treated with testosterone. The second experiment shows that a testosterone-treated male was always preferred by the females, irrespective of plumage colour, in a choice between a wild and a white mallard drake. The results shows that testosterone dependent male cues is important in mate choice in the mallard duck. PMID:24896699

  10. Effect of endosulfan on male reproductive development.

    PubMed

    Saiyed, Habibullah; Dewan, Aruna; Bhatnagar, Vijay; Shenoy, Udyavar; Shenoy, Rathika; Rajmohan, Hirehall; Patel, Kumud; Kashyap, Rekha; Kulkarni, Pradip; Rajan, Bagalur; Lakkad, Bhadabhai

    2003-12-01

    There is experimental evidence of adverse effects of endosulfan on the male reproductive system, but there are no human data. Therefore, we undertook a study to examine the relationship between environmental endosulfan exposure and reproductive development in male children and adolescents. The study population was composed of 117 male schoolchildren (10-19 years of age) of a village situated at the foothills of cashew plantations, where endosulfan had been aerially sprayed for more than 20 years, and 90 comparable controls with no such exposure history. The study parameters included recording of clinical history, physical examination, sexual maturity rating (SMR) according to Tanner stages, and estimation of serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and endosulfan residues (70 study and 47 control subjects). Mean +/- SE serum endosulfan levels in the study group (7.47 +/- 1.19 ppb) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in controls (1.37 +/- 0.40 ppb). Multiple regression analysis showed that SMR scoring for development of pubic hair, testes, penis, and serum testosterone level was positively related to age and negatively related to aerial exposure to endosulfan (AEE; p < 0.01). Serum LH levels were significantly positively related to AEE after controlling for age (p < 0.01). The prevalence of congenital abnormalities related to testicular descent (congenital hydrocele, undescended testis, and congenital inguinal hernia) among study and controls subjects was 5.1% and 1.1%, respectively, but the differences were statistically nonsignificant. Our study results suggest that endosulfan exposure in male children may delay sexual maturity and interfere with sex hormone synthesis. Our study is limited by small sample size and nonparticipation. PMID:14644673

  11. Subthalamic Stimulation Reduces Vowel Space at the Initiation of Sustained Production: Implications for Articulatory Motor Control in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sidtis, John J.; Alken, Amy G.; Tagliati, Michele; Alterman, Ron; Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stimulation of the subthalamic nuclei (STN) is an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease, but complaints of speech difficulties after surgery have been difficult to quantify. Speech measures do not convincingly account for such reports. Objective: This study examined STN stimulation effects on vowel production, in order to probe whether DBS affects articulatory posturing. The objective was to compare positioning during the initiation phase with the steady prolongation phase by measuring vowel spaces for three “corner” vowels at these two time frames. Methods: Vowel space was measured over the initial 0.25 sec of sustained productions of high front (/i/), high back (/u/) and low vowels (/a/), and again during a 2 sec segment at the midpoint. Eight right-handed male subjects with bilateral STN stimulation and seven age-matched male controls were studied based on their participation in a larger study that included functional imaging. Mean values: age = 57±4.6 yrs; PD duration = 12.3±2.7 yrs; duration of DBS = 25.6±21.2 mos, and UPDRS III speech score = 1.6±0.7. STN subjects were studied off medication at their therapeutic DBS settings and again with their stimulators off, counter-balanced order. Results: Vowel space was larger in the initiation phase compared to the midpoint for both the control and the STN subjects off stimulation. With stimulation on, however, the initial vowel space was significantly reduced to the area measured at the mid-point. For the three vowels, the acoustics were differentially affected, in accordance with expected effects of front versus back position in the vocal tract. Conclusions: STN stimulation appears to constrain initial articulatory gestures for vowel production, raising the possibility that articulatory positions normally used in speech are similarly constrained. PMID:27003219

  12. Male brain ages faster: the age and gender dependence of subcortical volumes.

    PubMed

    Király, András; Szabó, Nikoletta; Tóth, Eszter; Csete, Gergő; Faragó, Péter; Kocsis, Krisztián; Must, Anita; Vécsei, László; Kincses, Zsigmond Tamás

    2016-09-01

    Effects of gender on grey matter (GM) volume differences in subcortical structures of the human brain have consistently been reported. Recent research evidence suggests that both gender and brain size influences volume distribution in subcortical areas independently. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of the interplay between brain size, gender and age contributing to volume differences of subcortical GM in the human brain. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 53 healthy males and 50 age-matched healthy females. Total GM volume was determined using voxel-based morphometry. We used model-based subcortical segmentation analysis to measure the volume of subcortical nuclei. Main effects of gender, brain volume and aging on subcortical structures were examined using multivariate analysis of variance. No significant difference was found in total brain volume between the two genders after correcting for total intracranial volume. Our analysis revealed significantly larger hippocampus volume for females. Additionally, GM volumes of the caudate nucleus, putamen and thalamus displayed a significant age-related decrease in males as compared to females. In contrast to this only the thalamic volume loss proved significant for females. Strikingly, GM volume decreases faster in males than in females emphasizing the interplay between aging and gender on subcortical structures. These findings might have important implications for the interpretation of the effects of unalterable factors (i.e. gender and age) in cross-sectional structural MRI studies. Furthermore, the volume distribution and changes of subcortical structures have been consistently related to several neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, etc.). Understanding these changes might yield further insight in the course and prognosis of these disorders. PMID:26572143

  13. Examining cortical thickness in male and female DWI offenders.

    PubMed

    Dedovic, Katarina; Pruessner, Jens; Tremblay, Jacques; Nadeau, Louise; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Lepage, Martin; Brown, Thomas G

    2016-04-21

    Some sex differences have been detected in driving while impaired by alcohol (DWI) offenders. However, understanding of the key factors contributing to DWI among male and female drivers remains elusive, limiting development of targeted interventions. Sex-based neurocognitive analyses could provide the much-needed insight. We examined whether male DWI offenders show cortical thickness anomalies that differ from those in female DWI offenders, when compared to their respective controls. Moderating role of sex and alcohol use on DWI status was also investigated. Sixty-one DWI offenders (29 male; 32 female) and 58 controls (29 male; 29 female) completed an anatomical brain scan and assessments on other relevant characteristics. Only male DWI offenders had reduced cortical thickness in the right dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a region involved in cognitive control. Lower cortical thickness was associated with increased odds of DWI status only among males who have not engaged in very hazardous pattern of alcohol misuse in the previous 12 months. Thus, for these male DWI drivers, interventions that could impact PCC could be most advantageous. Continued multidimensional sex analysis of the neural characteristics of male and female DWI offenders is warranted. PMID:27016386

  14. Male recombination in Brazilian populations of Drosophila ananassae.

    PubMed

    Goñi, Beatriz; Matsuda, Muneo; Tobari, Yoshiko N

    2016-07-01

    With few exceptions, spontaneous crossing over does not normally occur in male Drosophila. Drosophila ananassae males show considerable amounts of crossing over. In wild males of D. ananassae from Asian (2008) and Brazilian populations (1986 and 2007) variable frequencies of meiotic crossing over, estimated from chiasmata counts, suggested the existence of factors controlling male crossing over in these populations. To corroborate for such prediction, we present data on spontaneous recombination in F1 males of D. ananassae heterozygous for chromosomes of the same Brazilian populations (1986) and marker chromosomes using three testers stocks. Mean recombination value was low, although high variability existed between individual frequencies. Recombination frequencies between lines in each tester stock were not significantly different, excepting when the 3ple-px and 3ple-cy testers were compared (p < 0.05). These two testers differ in respect to the regional distribution of crossovers. The occurrence of recombination in chromosomes 2 and 3 in F1 males tested with e(65) se; bri ru was not related, suggesting they are under independent genetic control. Our data are consistent with proposed genetic factors controlling male crossing over in the tester stocks and to the presence of enhancers and suppressors of male crossing over segregating in the Brazilian populations (1986). PMID:27314475

  15. Self-care telephone talks as a health-promotion intervention in urban home-living persons 75+ years of age: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Sundsli, Kari; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a telephone-based self-care intervention among urban living individuals 75+ years of age by comparing self-reported perceived health, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency before and after the intervention. Materials and methods In a randomized controlled study, 15 persons answered a questionnaire about perceived health, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency. In a sex- and age-matched control group (n=15), the same questions were answered. Data were collected before and after intervention. An open-ended question about experiences of the intervention was included in the last questionnaire. The intervention consisted of a first meeting with health professionals and additional five self-care telephone calls. The control group did not receive any intervention or attention except for the questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study group. To compare the intervention group and control group on nominal and ordinal levels, the McNemar test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, respectively, were chosen. Results Thirty individuals (14 females and 16 males) participated in the study, ranging in age between 75 and 93 years. A significant difference was obtained in the intervention group regarding mental health. Mental health improved significantly in the intervention group (P=0.037). In the control group, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency showed worse outcome results after the intervention (19 weeks). Conclusion Self-care telephone talks improved mental health significantly in our sample, and mental health focus could be understood as a possible condition for health promotion to take place. Structured self-care telephone talks have proved to be successful and a relevant method to use in practice. PMID:24421638

  16. Androgen-mediated development of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats: dependence on animal age during interval of androgen replacement in castrated males

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, C.; Oslapas, R.; Nayyar, R.; Paloyan, E.

    1986-07-01

    When male Long-Evans rats at age 8 weeks were radiation treated (40 microCi Na131I), thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas were observed at age 24 months with a high incidence of 94%. Castration of males prior to irradiation significantly reduced this tumor incidence to 60%. When testosterone (T) was replaced in castrated, irradiated male rats, differentially increased incidences of thyroid tumors occurred. Immediate (age 2-6 mo) or early (age 6-12 mo) T replacement at approximate physiologic levels led to thyroid follicular tumor incidences of 100 and 82%, respectively, whereas intermediate (12-18 mo) or late (18-24 mo) T treatment led to only 70 and 73% incidences, respectively. Continuous T replacement (2-24 mo) in castrated irradiated male rats raised thyroid tumor incidence to 100%. Since elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a reported requisite for development of radiation-associated thyroid tumors, the effects of T on serum TSH levels were examined. Mean serum TSH values in all irradiated animal groups were significantly elevated above age-matched nonirradiated animals at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Serum TSH levels were higher in continuous T-replaced irradiated castrates than in intact, irradiated males, whereas such intact male TSH levels were greater than those for irradiated castrates without T treatment. Interval T replacement in castrated male rats was associated with increased serum TSH levels during the treatment interval and with lowered TSH levels after discontinuation of T treatment, particularly in irradiated rats. However, when irradiated, castrated males received late T replacement (age 18-24 mo), there was no elevation of TSH at the end of the treatment interval. An indirect effect of T via early stimulation of TSH may be partly responsible for the high incidence of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats.

  17. Male tolerance and male-male bonds in a multilevel primate society.

    PubMed

    Patzelt, Annika; Kopp, Gisela H; Ndao, Ibrahima; Kalbitzer, Urs; Zinner, Dietmar; Fischer, Julia

    2014-10-14

    Male relationships in most species of mammals generally are characterized by intense intrasexual competition, with little bonding among unrelated individuals. In contrast, human societies are characterized by high levels of cooperation and strong bonds among both related and unrelated males. The emergence of cooperative male-male relationships has been linked to the multilevel structure of traditional human societies. Based on an analysis of the patterns of spatial and social interaction in combination with genetic relatedness data of wild Guinea baboons (Papio papio), we show that this species exhibits a multilevel social organization in which males maintain strong bonds and are highly tolerant of each other. Several "units" of males with their associated females form "parties," which team up as "gangs." Several gangs of the same "community" use the same home range. Males formed strong bonds predominantly within parties; however, these bonds were not correlated with genetic relatedness. Agonistic interactions were relatively rare and were restricted to a few dyads. Although the social organization of Guinea baboons resembles that of hamadryas baboons, we found stronger male-male affiliation and more elaborate greeting rituals among male Guinea baboons and less aggression toward females. Thus, the social relationships of male Guinea baboons differ markedly from those of other members of the genus, adding valuable comparative data to test hypotheses regarding social evolution. We suggest that this species constitutes an intriguing model to study the predictors and fitness benefits of male bonds, thus contributing to a better understanding of the evolution of this important facet of human social behavior. PMID:25201960

  18. The sterile male technique: irradiation negatively affects male fertility but not male courtship.

    PubMed

    Magris, Martina; Wignall, Anne E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2015-04-01

    The sterile male technique is a common method to assign paternity, widely adopted due to its relative simplicity and low cost. Male sterility is induced by exposure to sub lethal doses of chemosterilants or irradiation, the dosage of which has to be calibrated for every species to provide successful male sterilisation, without affecting male physiology and behaviour. While the physiological effects of sterilisation are usually assessed for each study, the behavioural ones are rarely analysed in detail. Using the orb web spider Argiope keyserlingi as a model we first tested (1) the validity of the thread assay, which simulates male courtship behaviour in a standardised context, as a proxy representing courtship on a female web. We then investigated (2) the effectiveness of male sterilisation via irradiation and (3) its consequences on male courtship behaviour. Our results validate the thread assay and the sterile male technique as legitimate tools for the study of male courtship behaviour and fertilisation success. We show that these techniques are time and cost effective and reduce undesirable variation, thereby creating opportunities to study and understand the mechanisms underlying sexual selection. PMID:25794431

  19. Efficiency of the male effect with photostimulated bucks does not depend on their familiarity with goats.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, A L; Bedos, M; Aroña, R M; Flores, J A; Hernández, H; Moussu, C; Briefer, E F; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2016-05-01

    In ewes, the ovulatory response of females exposed to familiar rams is lower than the response of those exposed to novel ones. In goats, males rendered sexually active by exposure to long days are more efficient to induce ovulation in seasonal anestrous females than untreated males. Two experiments were conducted to determine 1) whether male goats remain familiar to females after 45days of separation; and 2) whether photostimulated males are able to stimulate the sexual activity of females, independently of their familiarity with them. In Experiment 1, three groups of goats (n=10 goats per group) were put in contact with males (n=2 per group) during 10days in November (familiarization period). These males were called familiar males. After 15, 30 and 45days of separation from the males, females of each group were exposed to familiar or novel males during 10min. In each test, goats in contact with novel males displayed more distress bleats, escapes, head butts, and sniffing than those in contact with familiar males (P<0.05). In Experiment 2, we used sexually inactive (n=4 control males), and sexually active males (n=4 photostimulated males). In February, two groups of goats (n=50 each) were put in contact with control or photostimulated males (n=2 each) during 10days ("familiar" control or photostimulated male, respectively). After 45days of separation from the males, both groups of females were further divided into two groups (n=25 goats per group). In April, two groups were re-exposed to "familiar" control or "familiar" photostimulated males (n=2 per group), whereas the other two groups were exposed to "novel" control or "novel" photostimulated males (n=2 per group). The photostimulated males displayed a higher level of sexual behavior than the controls. The proportion of goats that ovulated and displayed estrus was higher when exposed to the photostimulated males than when exposed to control ones (≥80% vs. 0%; P<0.05). These proportions did not differ between

  20. Educating Black Males with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Shawn Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Much of the scholarship on Black males in the educational literature focuses on the achievement gap; their underrepresentation in gifted and advanced placement programs; their overrepresentation in special education programs and their high rates of school suspensions and expulsions. Although overrepresented in special education, Black males with…

  1. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  2. Quantitative Genomics of Male Reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the review was to establish the current status of quantitative genomics for male reproduction. Genetic variation exists for male reproduction traits. These traits are expensive and time consuming traits to evaluate through conventional breeding schemes. Genomics is an alternative to...

  3. Willingness to Disclose Symptoms to a Male Physician: Effects of the Physician's Physical Attractiveness, Body Area of Symptom and the Patient's Self-Esteem, Locus of Control and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jerald W.

    Two experiments involving 49 male and 49 female college students were conducted to determine the effects of physician physical attractiveness on the patients' disclosures of personal information (symptoms). In the first experiment, subjects rated pictures of physicians for physical attractiveness and reported their willingness to disclose and…

  4. Efficacy of florfenicol, copper sulfate and potassium permanganate in controlling a natural infection of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunshine bass (Morone chrysops female ' Morone saxatilis male) naturally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare were randomly assigned to six treatments: 1) two treatments of waterborne exposures to copper sulfate (CuSO4), at 2.1 and at 4.2 mg/L (approximately one and two pe...

  5. [Clinical characteristics of male osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-07-01

    As men are less likely than women to develop osteoporosis, male osteoporosis remains poorly understood. However, elderly men have a clearly reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for fractures. In Japan, one in four patients with osteoporosis is male. Male osteoporosis is associated with not only reduction in androgen, but also estrogen, and differs from postmenopausal osteoporosis in that decreased bone formation is involved and that age-related changes in cortical bone structure and perforation of the trabeculae of cancellous bone are unlikely to occur. The proportion of secondary osteoporosis is higher for men than women;therefore, differential diagnosis is important in the diagnosis of male osteoporosis. In addition, it is recommended that bone mineral density be measured at the femoral neck or total hip in men. Men have a worse prognosis following fractures than women, and management of male osteoporosis is highly important for extending healthy life expectancy. PMID:27346307

  6. Male gender identity and sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chused, J F

    1999-12-01

    One consequence of a heightened interest in intersubjectivity in the current psychoanalytic literature has been a relative neglect of the examination of unconscious fantasies. Presenting material from the analysis of three males, each of whom, in childhood and/or adolescence, hid his penis between his legs and looked at himself in a mirror naked, the author demonstrates the importance of attending to both unconscious fantasies and their manifestations within the interactive field of analysis. The first patient is a young child with a gender identity disorder, whose wish to be like his mother was a response to the emotional loss of her during early childhood. The second patient is an adolescent, whose behaviour in front of a mirror was a manifestation of his desire to possess his mother and be her, to humiliate and sadistically control her, and at the same time, to experience the masochistic sexual gratification of being a seemingly helpless victim. The third patient, a 48-year-old male, came to analysis filled with suicidal impulses and self-hatred related to homosexual impulses. His repeated examination of himself in a mirror, with penis hidden, reflected severe castration anxiety, related to an ambivalent relationship with an angry mother and a longing for attention from an unavailable father. The article closes with a description of the similarities and differences in the dynamics of these three males as well as a discussion of the meaning of similar behaviour in other males seen in consultation. PMID:10669962

  7. Genomic Landscape of Developing Male Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tin-Lap; Pang, Alan Lap-Yin; Rennert, Owen M.; Chan, Wai-Yee

    2010-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a highly orchestrated developmental process by which spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa. This process involves many testis- or male germ cell-specific gene products whose expressions are strictly regulated. In the past decade the advent of high-throughput gene expression analytical techniques has made functional genomic studies of this process, particularly in model animals such as mice and rats, feasible and practical. These studies have just begun to reveal the complexity of the genomic landscape of the developing male germ cells. Over 50% of the mouse and rat genome are expressed during testicular development. Among transcripts present in germ cells, 40% – 60% are uncharacterized. A number of genes, and consequently their associated biological pathways, are differentially expressed at different stages of spermatogenesis. Developing male germ cells present a rich repertoire of genetic processes. Tissue-specific as well as spermatogenesis stage-specific alternative splicing of genes exemplifies the complexity of genome expression. In addition to this layer of control, discoveries of abundant presence of antisense transcripts, expressed psuedogenes, non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) including long ncRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and retrogenes all point to the presence of multiple layers of expression and functional regulation in male germ cells. It is anticipated that application of systems biology approaches will further our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of spermatogenesis.† PMID:19306351

  8. Infant Male Circumcision: Healthcare Provider Knowledge and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Starzyk, Erin J.; Kelley, Michele A.; Caskey, Rachel N.; Schwartz, Alan; Kennelly, Joan F.; Bailey, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives The emerging science demonstrates various health benefits associated with infant male circumcision and adult male circumcision; yet rates are declining in the United States. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that healthcare providers present evidence-based risk and benefit information for infant male circumcision to parent(s) and guardian(s). The purpose of this study was to assess providers’ level of infant male circumcision knowledge and to identify the associated characteristics. Methods An online survey was administered to healthcare providers in the family medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics medical specialties at an urban academic health center. To assess infant male circumcision knowledge, a 17 point summary score was constructed to identify level of provider knowledge within the survey. Results Ninety-two providers completed the survey. Providers scored high for the following knowledge items: adverse event rates, protects against phimosis and urinary tract infections, and does not prevent hypospadias. Providers scored lower for items related to more recent research: protection against cervical cancer, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and reduction in HIV acquisition. Two models were constructed looking at (1) overall knowledge about male circumcision, and (2) knowledge about male circumcision reduction in HIV acquisition. Pediatricians demonstrated greater overall infant male circumcision knowledge, while obstetricians exhibited significantly greater knowledge for the HIV acquisition item. Conclusion Providers’ knowledge levels regarding the risks and benefits of infant male circumcision are highly variable, indicating the need for system-based educational interventions. PMID:25635664

  9. Oral contraceptive use in women changes preferences for male facial masculinity and is associated with partner facial masculinity.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P; Petrie, Marion; Jones, Benedict C; Roberts, S Craig

    2013-09-01

    Millions of women use hormonal contraception and it has been suggested that such use may alter mate preferences. To examine the impact of oral contraceptive (pill) use on preferences, we tested for within-subject changes in preferences for masculine faces in women initiating pill use. Between two sessions, initiation of pill use significantly decreased women's preferences for male facial masculinity but did not influence preferences for same-sex faces. To test whether altered preference during pill use influences actual partner choice, we examined facial characteristics in 170 age-matched male partners of women who reported having either been using or not using the pill when the partnership was formed. Both facial measurements and perceptual judgements demonstrated that partners of women who used the pill during mate choice have less masculine faces than partners of women who did not use hormonal contraception at this time. Our data (A) provide the first experimental evidence that initiation of pill use in women causes changes in facial preferences and (B) documents downstream effects of these changes on real-life partner selection. Given that hormonal contraceptive use is widespread, effects of pill use on the processes of partner formation have important implications for relationship stability and may have other biologically relevant consequences. PMID:23528282

  10. Thyroid, spermatogenesis, and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Rajender, Singh; Monica, Marie Gray; Walter, Lee; Agarwal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Since the identification of thyroid hormone receptors on the testes, thyroid has been suggested to have a significant impact on the male reproductive tract, spermatogenesis, and male fertility. Several research articles on the role of thyroid in spermatogenesis or male infertility have been published in the last three decades. We conducted an exhaustive literature search was conducted in order to create an up-to-date review of literature. This review aims to discuss the impact of thyroid on testicular development, spermatogenesis, hypo- or hyper- thyroidism and male infertility, and the management of thyroid related abnormal semen profile. The literature revealed that thyroid significantly impacts testicular development and that abnormal thyroid profile affects semen quality and male fertility by compromising testicular size, sperm motility and ejaculate volume. A clear link exists between thyroid hormones, testicular development and spermatogenesis. Thyroid disease negatively affects spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. In such cases, infertility is reversible, but more studies need to be conducted, especially in post-pubertal males to cement the current findings. PMID:21622096

  11. [Personality tests and gender identification in male transsexuals].

    PubMed

    Coussinoux, S; Gallarda, T; Smith, J; Bourdel, M C; Cordier, B; Brémont, C; Poirier, M F; Haddou, M; Olié, J P

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research project was to study gender identification in male transsexuals compared to male and female controls, using the Rorschach test and the MMPI. In the international literature, many researches have shown that the nature of the human response on Rorschach card III is linked to gender identification, as is the MMPI Mf scale. Ten untreated male homosexual transsexuals and 18 treated and operated male homosexual transsexuals were compared to 10 male and 12 female controls regarding verbal IQ, human content on Rorschach card III and the MMPI Mf scale. Absence of hormonal treatment for the first group of transsexuals was checked by a blood test at the time of the psychological testing. Responses on Rorschach card III were scored according to different kinds of human contents: male (M), female (F), gender-unidentified/neutral (N), bisexual (B), feminine then masculine or the opposite (M/F), and nonhuman (NH). N, B, M/F and NH responses were rare in all Rorschach protocols. As expected, responses given by participants in the control group were significantly more consistent with their anatomical sex than with the opposite sex. Untreated transsexuals do not differ from treated and operated transsexuals on Rorschach data, and both transsexual groups give significantly more female human representations than male controls. Transsexuals' results are similar to female controls. Untreated transsexuals' mean score on the MMPI Mf scale is significantly higher than that of treated and operated transsexuals' score, in the male profile (biological sex). Both groups of transsexuals score higher on the Mf scale in the male profile than in the female profile. The mean Mf score in the male profile is significantly higher than that of male controls, whereas, in the female profile, the mean Mf score is similar to that of female controls. This study shows that for both groups of transsexuals, results are homogenous in respect of Rorschach and MMPI, showing hyper

  12. Degenerated intervertebral disc prolapse and its association of collagen I alpha 1 Spl gene polymorphism: A preliminary case control study of Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Anjankar, Shailendra D; Poornima, Subhadra; Raju, Subodh; Jaleel, MA; Bhiladvala, Dilnavaz; Hasan, Qurratulain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Degenerated disc disease (DDD) is a common disorder responsible for increased morbidity in a productive age group. Its etiology is multifactorial and genetic factors have been predominantly implicated. Disc prolapse results due to tear in the annulus, which is a fibrous structure composed largely of type I collagen. Functional polymorphism at the Sp1 site of the collagen I alpha 1 (COL1A1) gene has shown a positive association with DDD in Dutch and Greek populations. The purpose of this study was to assess COL1A1 Sp1 gene polymorphism in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: Fifty clinically and radiologically proven patients with disc prolapse requiring surgery were included as cases and 50 healthy, age-matched volunteers served as controls. After isolating DNA from their blood sample, genotyping for COL1A1 polymorphism (rs1800012) was performed and identified as GG, GT, and TT. Results: The mean age and body mass index in cases and controls were similar. 76% of the patients were males. The most common site of disc degeneration was L4–L5 (36%), followed by L5–S1 (34%). Homozygous–GG, heterozygous GT, and homozygous TT genotypes were seen in 38 (76%), 10 (20%) and 2 (4%) cases respectively, controls had similar percentage of genotypes as well. The alleles in cases and the control group showed no significant difference (P = 0.6744) and followed the Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium in the study population. Conclusion: The COL1A1 (rs1800012) is in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in the present subset of Indian population. But taken as a single factor, it was not found to be associated with DDD in this preliminary study. Disc degeneration is multifactorial and also anticipated to be a result of multiple genes involvement and gene-gene interaction. PMID:26806964

  13. Ultrasonic Songs of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Previously it was shown that male mice, when they encounter female mice or their pheromones, emit ultrasonic vocalizations with frequencies ranging over 30–110 kHz. Here, we show that these vocalizations have the characteristics of song, consisting of several different syllable types, whose temporal sequencing includes the utterance of repeated phrases. Individual males produce songs with characteristic syllabic and temporal structure. This study provides a quantitative initial description of male mouse songs, and opens the possibility of studying song production and perception in an established genetic model organism. PMID:16248680

  14. Neighborhood Characteristics as Predictors of Male to Female and Female to Male Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract–level, couples’ perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of couples 18 years of age and older who were first interviewed in 1995. The path analysis shows that poverty is associated with perceived social cohesion and perceived social control as hypothesized. However, there is no significant mediation effect for social control or social cohesion on any type of violence. In the path analysis, Black ethnicity is associated with social cohesion, which is associated with MFPV. Intimate partner violence (IPV), as a form of domestic violence, may not be as concentrated in high-poverty neighborhoods as criminal violence. IPV may be more determined by personal and dyadic characteristics than criminal violence. PMID:20040713

  15. Tobacco and Alcohol in Relation to Male Breast Cancer: An Analysis of the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Michael B.; Guénel, Pascal; Gapstur, Susan M.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Michels, Karin B.; Casagrande, John T.; Cooke, Rosie; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Ewertz, Marianne; Falk, Roni T.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gkiokas, George; Habel, Laurel A.; Hsing, Ann W.; Johnson, Kenneth; Kolonel, Laurence N.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lynge, Elsebeth; Lubin, Jay H.; McCormack, Valerie A.; Negri, Eva; Olsson, Håkan; Parisi, Dominick; Petridou, Eleni Th.; Riboli, Elio; Sesso, Howard D.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Thomas, David B.; Willett, Walter C.; Brinton, Louise A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly due to its relative rarity. Although tobacco and alcohol exposures are known carcinogens, their association with male breast cancer risk remains ill-defined. Methods The Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project consortium provided 2,378 cases and 51,959 controls for analysis from 10 case-control and 10 cohort studies. Individual participant data were harmonized and pooled. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate study design-specific (case-control/cohort) odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), which were then combined using fixed effects meta-analysis. Results Cigarette smoking status, smoking pack-years, duration, intensity, and age at initiation were not associated with male breast cancer risk. Relations with cigar and pipe smoking, tobacco chewing, and snuff use were also null. Recent alcohol consumption and average grams of alcohol consumed per day were also not associated with risk; only one sub-analysis of very high recent alcohol consumption (>60 grams/day) was tentatively associated with male breast cancer (ORunexposed referent=1.29, 95%CI:0.97–1.71; OR>0–<7 g/day referent=1.36, 95%CI:1.04–1.77). Specific alcoholic beverage types were not associated with male breast cancer. Relations were not altered when stratified by age or body mass index. Conclusions In this analysis of the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project we found little evidence that tobacco and alcohol exposures were associated with risk of male breast cancer. Impact Tobacco and alcohol do not appear to be carcinogenic for male breast cancer. Future studies should aim to assess these exposures in relation to subtypes of male breast cancer. PMID:25515550

  16. Nutrient supplementation: improving male fertility fourfold.

    PubMed

    Mora-Esteves, Cesar; Shin, David

    2013-07-01

    Oxidative stress can contribute to impairment in spermatogenesis leading to male-factor infertility. The effectiveness of various antioxidants (such as carnitine, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, carotenoids, glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, zinc, folic acid, and coenzyme Q10) is variable with respect to improving semen parameters and pregnancy rates. A recent Cochrane review determined that men taking antioxidants had a statistically significant increase in both live birth rates and pregnancy rates. For those undergoing assisted reproduction, the odds ratio that antioxidant use would improve pregnancy rates was 4.18, with a 4.85-fold improvement in live birth rate also noted. Further investigation with randomized, controlled clinical trials is needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in the medical management and treatment of male infertility. PMID:23775385

  17. Occupational mercury exposure and male reproductive health

    SciTech Connect

    Alcser, K.H.; Brix, K.A.; Fine, L.J.; Kallenbach, L.R.; Wolfe, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study was designed to investigate the relationship of male occupational exposure to elemental mercury and several reproductive outcomes. All subjects worked at least 4 months between 1953 and 1966 at a plant that used elemental mercury; 247 white male employees who had the highest exposures were compared to 255 matched nonexposed employees. Individual exposure to mercury was estimated from urinary mercury measurement records. Information on reproductive history and potential confounding variables was obtained through personal interview with each of the employees and with a subset of their wives. No associations were demonstrated between mercury exposure and decreased fertility or increased rates of major malformations or serious childhood illnesses. After controlling for previous miscarriage history, mercury exposure was not a significant risk factor for miscarriage. Because of this study's potential problems with long-term recall, further studies of the effect of mercury on pregnancy outcome are warranted in other populations.

  18. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Weierstall, Roland; Nandi, Corina; Bambonyé, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2016-01-01

    Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female. PMID:26779084

  19. Comparison of circadian rhythms in male and female humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Deroshia, C. W.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Rosenblatt, W. S.; Hetherington, N. W.

    1977-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (RT) data were obtained from 12 female and 27 male subjects. The subjects were housed in a facility where the environment was controlled. Human male and female RT and HR exhibit a circadian rhythm with an excursion of about 1.2 C and 30 beats/min, respectively. The acrophases, amplitudes, and level crossings are only slightly different between the sexes. The male HR and RT circadian wave forms are more stable than those of the females. However, the actual RT and HR of males were always lower than that of females at all time points around the clock. The HR during sleep in females is 15 per cent below the daily mean heart rate and in males, 22 per cent.

  20. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Weierstall, Roland; Nandi, Corina; Bambonyé, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female. PMID:26779084

  1. MedlinePlus: Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Male Infertility? (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Living With How a Man's Diet Affects Fertility Too (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics) Related Issues Finasteride (Propecia/Proscar) and ...

  2. Time course of androgenic modulation of odor preferences and odor cues in male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus.

    PubMed

    Ferkin, M H

    1992-12-01

    During the breeding season, male meadow voles prefer female over male odors and females prefer male over female odors. Testosterone control of males' odor preferences and production of odors attractive to females differ. A male meadow vole's preference for female versus male odor was still evident 1 week after castration, but not 1 week later. This preference was reinstated in testosterone-treated male voles 2 weeks after the onset of hormone replacement. The attractiveness of male odors to females did not disappear until 3 weeks after castration. The attractiveness of male odors was reinstated 1 week after castrated males were treated with testosterone. The time course for the androgenic modulation of production of odors attractive to females may facilitate breeding. For example, at the end of the breeding season males may emit an odor that is still attractive to females. Similarly, at the beginning of the breeding season males may emit an odor that is attractive to females. PMID:1478635

  3. The adult well male examination.

    PubMed

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Tortorello, Michelle

    2012-05-15

    The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should include substance use; risk factors for sexually transmitted infections; diet and exercise habits; and symptoms of depression. Physical examination should include blood pressure and body mass index screening. Men with sustained blood pressures greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Lipid screening is warranted in all men 35 years and older, and in men 20 to 34 years of age who have cardiovascular risk factors. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm should occur between 65 and 75 years of age in men who have ever smoked. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening men for osteoporosis or skin cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has provisionally recommended against prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer because the harms of testing and overtreatment outweigh potential benefits. Screening for colorectal cancer should begin at 50 years of age in men of average risk and continue until at least 75 years of age. Screening should be performed by high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years combined with [corrected] fecal occult blood testing every three years. [corrected]. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for testicular cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunizations should be recommended according to guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:22612046

  4. Effect of whole body vibration frequency on neuromuscular activity in ACL-deficient and healthy males.

    PubMed

    Giombini, A; Menotti, F; Laudani, L; Piccinini, A; Fagnani, F; Di Cagno, A; Macaluso, A; Pigozzi, F

    2015-09-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to enhance muscle activity via reflex pathways, thus having the potential to contrast muscle weakness in individuals with rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of neuromuscular activation during WBV over a frequency spectrum from 20 to 45 Hz between ACL-deficient and healthy individuals. Fifteen males aged 28±4 with ACL rupture and 15 age-matched healthy males were recruited. Root mean square (RMS) of the surface electromyogram from the vastus lateralis in both limbs was computed during WBV in a static half-squat position at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, and normalized to the RMS while maintaining the half-squat position without vibration. The RMS of the vastus lateralis in the ACL-deficient limb was significantly greater than in the contralateral limb at 25, 30, 35 and 40 Hz (P<0.05) and in both limbs of the healthy participants (dominant limb at 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05; non dominant limb at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05). The greater neuromuscular activity in the injured limb compared to the uninjured limb of the ACL-deficient patients and to both limbs of the healthy participants during WBV might be due to either augmented excitatory or reduced inhibitory neural inflow to motoneurons of the vastus lateralis through the reflex pathways activated by vibratory stimuli. The study provides optimal WBV frequencies which might be used as reference values for ACL-deficient patients. PMID:26424928

  5. Effect of whole body vibration frequency on neuromuscular activity in ACL-deficient and healthy males

    PubMed Central

    Giombini, A; Menotti, F; Piccinini, A; Fagnani, F; Di Cagno, A; Macaluso, A; Pigozzi, F

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to enhance muscle activity via reflex pathways, thus having the potential to contrast muscle weakness in individuals with rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of neuromuscular activation during WBV over a frequency spectrum from 20 to 45 Hz between ACL-deficient and healthy individuals. Fifteen males aged 28±4 with ACL rupture and 15 age-matched healthy males were recruited. Root mean square (RMS) of the surface electromyogram from the vastus lateralis in both limbs was computed during WBV in a static half-squat position at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, and normalized to the RMS while maintaining the half-squat position without vibration. The RMS of the vastus lateralis in the ACL-deficient limb was significantly greater than in the contralateral limb at 25, 30, 35 and 40 Hz (P<0.05) and in both limbs of the healthy participants (dominant limb at 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05; non dominant limb at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05). The greater neuromuscular activity in the injured limb compared to the uninjured limb of the ACL-deficient patients and to both limbs of the healthy participants during WBV might be due to either augmented excitatory or reduced inhibitory neural inflow to motoneurons of the vastus lateralis through the reflex pathways activated by vibratory stimuli. The study provides optimal WBV frequencies which might be used as reference values for ACL-deficient patients. PMID:26424928

  6. Adolescent Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Nanagas, Vivian C.; Stolfi, Adrienne; Nanagas, Maria T.; Eberhart, Gregory M.; Alter, Sherman J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1) uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice. PMID:27336012

  7. Group structure predicts variation in proximity relationships between male-female and male-infant pairs of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, S; Maldonado-Chaparro, A A; Stoinski, T S

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between conspecifics are influenced by both ecological factors and the social organization they live in. Systematic variation of both--consistent with predictions derived from socioecology models--is well documented, but there is considerable variation within species and populations that is poorly understood. The mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei) is unusual because, despite possessing morphology associated with male contest competition (e.g., extreme sexual dimorphism), they are regularly observed in both single-male and multimale groups. Both male-female and male-infant bonds are strong because males provide protection against infanticide and/or predation. Risk of these threats varies with social structure, which may influence the strength of social relationships among group members (including females and offspring, if females with lower infant mortality risk are less protective of infants). Here, we investigate the relationship between group structure and the strength of proximity relationships between males and females, males and infants, and females and offspring. Data come from 10 social groups containing 1-7 adult males, monitored by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund's Karisoke Research Center in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. After controlling for group size and infant age, association strength was similar for male-female pairs across group types with both dominant and nondominant males, but male-infant relationships were strongest in single-male groups where paternity certainty was high and animals had fewer social partners to choose from. The male:female and male:infant ratios better predicted both male-female and male-infant associations than the absolute number of males, females, or infants did. The fewer the number of males per female or infant, the more both pair types associated. Dominant males in groups containing fewer males had higher eigenvector centrality (a measure of importance in a social network) than dominant males in groups

  8. Male victims of sexual assault: phenomenology, psychology, physiology.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Clayton M; Beckson, Mace

    2011-01-01

    Myths, stereotypes, and unfounded beliefs about male sexuality, in particular male homosexuality, are widespread in legal and medical communities, as well as among agencies providing services to sexual assault victims. These include perceptions that men in noninstitutionalized settings are rarely sexually assaulted, that male victims are responsible for their assaults, that male sexual assault victims are less traumatized by the experience than their female counterparts, and that ejaculation is an indicator of a positive erotic experience. As a result of the prevalence of such beliefs, there is an underreporting of sexual assaults by male victims; a lack of appropriate services for male victims; and, effectively, no legal redress for male sexual assault victims. By comparison, male sexual assault victims have fewer resources and greater stigma than do female sexual assault victims. Many male victims, either because of physiological effects of anal rape or direct stimulation by their assailants, have an erection, ejaculate, or both during the assault. This is incorrectly understood by assailant, victim, the justice system, and the medical community as signifying consent by the victim. Studies of male sexual physiology suggest that involuntary erections or ejaculations can occur in the context of nonconsensual, receptive anal sex. Erections and ejaculations are only partially under voluntary control and are known to occur during times of extreme duress in the absence of sexual pleasure. Particularly within the criminal justice system, this misconception, in addition to other unfounded beliefs, has made the courts unwilling to provide legal remedy to male victims of sexual assault, especially when the victim experienced an erection or an ejaculation during the assault. Attorneys and forensic psychiatrists must be better informed about the physiology of these phenomena to formulate evidence-based opinions. PMID:21653264

  9. Assessment of environmental factors affecting male fertility.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R L; Sherins, R J; Lee, I P

    1979-06-01

    ppm boron displayed a significant loss of germinal elements, although most of the Leydig and Sertoli cells appeared normal. Testicular atrophy was associated with a decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter and a marked reduction of spermatocytes and spermatogenic cells. These morphologic alterations were associated with a concomitant reduction of H, SDH, and LDH-X specific activities. In contrast, the specific activities of G3PDH and MDH were significantly elevated above control. The increase in these enzyme activities can be attributed to the relative enrichment of spermatogonial cells during the loss of spermatocytes and spermiogenic cells. Boron-induced male germinal aplasia was also associated with significantly elevated plasma FSH while plasma LH and testosterone levels were not significantly altered. Plasma testosterone levels were unaltered. Male fertility studies demonstrated that at the 500 ppm boron level, fertility was unaffected. However, at 1000 and 2000 ppm boron, male fertility was significantly reduced. Most effects were reversible within 5 weeks. However, the male group receiving 2000 ppm boron for 60 days remained sterile. There was no dose-related decrease in litter size or fetal death in utero. Therefore, the boron-induced infertility was apparently not due to a dominant lethal effect but rather to germinal aplasia. Boron appears toxic to spermatogenic cells at testicular concentrations of 6-8 ppm. PMID:446458

  10. Scented males and choosy females: does male odor influence female mate choice in the Mediterranean fruit fly?

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd E; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine; Nishimoto, Jon

    2007-12-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), displays a lek mating system characterized by a high level of female discrimination among potential mates. The basis of female choice is not understood, but recent studies indicate that male exposure to the aroma of certain plant structures or essential oils may increase mating success. In particular, exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) enhances male mating frequency, and several sterile-male release programs against C. capitata have incorporated 'aromatherapy' (large-scale exposure of pre-release insects to GRO) to increase the effectiveness of control efforts. We investigated the mechanism underlying female preference for GRO-exposed males. Two sets of experiments were conducted. In the first, we monitored female attraction to (1) freshly killed flies, or (2) paper discs that contained hexane extracts from varying treatments. In these tests, females were sighted more often (1) near GRO-exposed than non-exposed males (even when the males were visually concealed) and (2) near extracts from GRO-exposed than non-exposed males. These findings suggest a 'perfume effect', whereby female mate choice is mediated by olfactory differences. In the second set, we compared (1) mate choice between intact females and females from which both antennae had been surgically removed, and (2) mating success between intact males and males from which both antennae had been surgically removed before GRO exposure. Intact females preferred GRO-exposed males, whereas females lacking both antennae rarely mated and showed no preference between GRO-exposed and non-exposed males. In the opposite treatment (intact females but surgically altered males), GRO-exposed males lacking both antennae mated as frequently as GRO-exposed intact males. These data suggest that female choice was dependent on olfactory perception of male odor but that male mating success did not depend on olfactory perception of GRO aroma, suggesting, in

  11. Foot placement control and gait instability among people with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Jesse C.; Kautz, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Gait instability is a common problem following stroke, as evidenced by increases in fall risk and fear of falling. However, the mechanism underlying gait instability is currently unclear. We recently found that young, healthy humans use a consistent gait stabilization strategy of actively controlling their mediolateral foot placement based on the concurrent mechanical state of the stance limb. In the present work, we tested whether people with stroke (n = 16) and age-matched controls (n = 19) used this neuromechanical strategy. Specifically, we used multiple linear regressions to test whether (1) swing phase gluteus medius (GM) activity was influenced by the simultaneous state of the stance limb and (2) mediolateral foot placement location was influenced by swing phase GM activity and the mechanical state of the swing limb at the start of the step. We found that both age-matched controls and people with stroke classified as having a low fall risk (Dynamic Gait Index [DGI] score >19) essentially used the stabilization strategy previously described in young controls. In contrast, this strategy was disrupted for people with stroke classified as higher fall risk (DGI control foot placement may contribute to poststroke instability. PMID:26437301

  12. Sexual differentiation traits in functional males with female genital apertures (male symbol fga) in the woodlice Armadillidium vulgare Latr. (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Azzouna, Atf; Greve, Pierre; Martin, Gilbert

    2004-08-01

    This study reports the results of examination of the gonadal morphology and ultrastructural features of the androgenic hormone (AH)-producing androgenic gland cells of laboratory stocks of functional male woodlice, Armadillidium vulgare, with female genital apertures ( male symbol fga), with and without experimentally induced infections of the sex-ratio-distorting endobacterial parasite, Wolbachia. Males ( male symbol fga) have been reported in wild populations containing individuals infected with this maternally transmitted sex-ratio-distorting parasite. We report a reduction of testicular segment (utricle) number, androgenic gland cell hypertrophy, and electron-dense ultrastructural cytological features in male symbol fga males. The presence of the Wolbachia parasite had no effect on the features we examined. These results suggest that male symbol fga males are produced as the result of a delayed expression/action of the male sex-determining AH which causes a "lag-phase" delay in male differentiation in genetic males and is not due to the presence, in genetic females, of a hypothetical, epigenetic "M" gene as suggested by Rigaud and Juchault. Our results favor the interpretation of males as true genetic (ZZ) males in which the delayed AH action appears to involve cellular AH trafficking pathways which may be controlled by an impaired autosomal gene responsible for AH action. PMID:15242750

  13. Supplementary feeding affects the breeding behaviour of male European treefrogs (Hyla arborea)

    PubMed Central

    Meuche, Ivonne; Grafe, T Ulmar

    2009-01-01

    Background We investigated the effects of energetic constraints on the breeding behaviour of male European treefrogs Hyla arborea and how calling males allocated additional energy supplied by feeding experiments. Results Presence in the chorus was energetically costly indicated by both fed and unfed males losing weight. Males that were supplied with additional energy did not show longer chorus tenure. Instead, fed males returned sooner to the chorus. Additionally, fed males called more often than control males, a novel response for anurans. A significantly higher calling rate was noted from males even 31 nights after supplementary feeding. Conclusion This strategy of allocating additional energy reserves to increasing calling rate is beneficial given the preference of female hylids for males calling at high rates and a female's ability to detect small incremental increases in calling rate. PMID:19128468

  14. Association of exposure to phenols and idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minjian; Tang, Rong; Fu, Guangbo; Xu, Bin; Zhu, Pengfei; Qiao, Shanlei; Chen, Xiaojiao; Xu, Bo; Qin, Yufeng; Lu, Chuncheng; Hang, Bo; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2013-04-15

    Widespread human exposure to phenols has been documented recently, and some phenols which are potential endocrine disruptors have demonstrated adverse effects on male reproduction in animal and in vitro studies. However, implications about exposure to phenols and male infertility are scarce in humans. Case-control study of 877 idiopathic infertile men and 713 fertile controls was conducted. Urinary levels of bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, pentachlorophenol, triclosan, 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), 4-n-octylphenol (4-n-OP) and 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) and semen parameters were measured. After multivariate adjustment, we found 4-t-OP, 4-n-OP and 4-n-NP exposure was associated with idiopathic male infertility (p-value for trend: <0.0001, 0.014 and 0.001, respectively). Aside from these associations, 4-t-OP and 4-n-NP exposure was also associated with idiopathic male infertility with abnormal semen parameters. Moreover, we observed significant associations between sum alkylphenols (APs) exposure and idiopathic male infertility. There were no relationships between exposure to other phenols and idiopathic male infertility in the present study. Our study provides the first evidence that exposure to APs (4-t-OP, 4-n-OP and 4-n-NP) is associated with idiopathic male infertility. PMID:23435201

  15. Enhanced male coloration after immune challenge increases reproductive potential.

    PubMed

    Velando, A; Beamonte-Barrientos, R; Torres, R

    2014-08-01

    In many animal species, females select a mate on the basis of the expression of secondary sexual traits. A prevalent theory suggests that male ornaments are reliable indicators of immunocompetence, because the cost of immune function prevents cheating. However, sexual signalling is a component of male reproductive effort, and an immune challenge may also alter his perceived future prospects and hence signalling effort. In this study, blue-footed booby males (Sula nebouxii) were inoculated with a diphtheria-tetanus vaccine during courtship to investigate the consequences of mounting an immune response on signalling effort. We found that, after this immune challenge, on average, males increased their signalling effort but lost more body mass compared with control males. Importantly, vaccination affected the partner's reproductive decisions: compared with control females, females paired with vaccinated males laid eggs earlier and increased clutch volume in pairs that laid early. Overall, our results suggest that blue-footed booby males invest more in sexual signals when future breeding opportunities are at risk, eliciting a greater reproductive investment by their partners. Increased signalling effort by infected individuals may contrast the idea of sexual ornaments as signals of infection status. PMID:24846565

  16. Diabetes, sleep disorders, and male sexual function.

    PubMed

    Schiavi, R C; Stimmel, B B; Mandeli, J; Rayfield, E J

    1993-08-01

    The prevalence and role of sleep disorders in the sexual problems of diabetic patients remain unexplored. This study was conducted on 40 diabetic men carefully screened to exclude the confounding effects of other medical illnesses or drugs likely to impair sexual function and 40 age-matched healthy volunteers. They underwent an extensive psychosexual interview, medical and psychiatric evaluations, and three recorded nights in a sleep laboratory. Electroencephalogram, eye movements, muscle tone, and nocturnal penile tumescence were monitored continuously. Respiratory airflow and bilateral anterior tibialis recordings were obtained during the first sleep session. Diabetic men had significantly higher prevalences of respiratory and periodic leg movement disturbances during sleep. There was clinical, although not nocturnal penile tumescence, evidence suggesting that respiratory abnormalities during sleep are associated with erectile difficulties in diabetic men. Future studies should include blood oxygenation and respiratory effort measures to clarify the significance of sleep-related airflow disturbances in diabetic patients. PMID:8399810

  17. Testosterone treatment diminishes sickness behavior in male songbirds.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Noah T; Hays, Quentin R; Bentley, George E; Wingfield, John C

    2009-06-01

    Males of many vertebrate species are typically more prone to disease and infection than female conspecifics, and this sexual difference is partially influenced by the immunosuppressive properties of testosterone (T) in males. T-induced immunosuppression has traditionally been viewed as a pleiotropic handicap, rather than an adaptation. Recently, it has been hypothesized that suppression of sickness behavior, or the symptoms of infection, may have adaptive value if sickness interferes with the expression of T-mediated behaviors important for male reproductive success. We conduct a classic hormone replacement experiment to examine if T suppresses sickness behavior in a seasonally-breeding songbird, Gambel's white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). Triggered experimentally by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sickness behavior includes decreased activity, anorexia, and weight loss. Gonadectomized (GDX) males that were treated with silastic implants filled with T exhibited suppression of behavioral and physiological responses to LPS compared to GDX and sham-GDX controls given empty implants. Sickness responses of control groups were statistically indistinguishable. T-implanted birds had significantly higher plasma T than control groups and levels were within the range associated with aggressive interactions during male-to-male contests. These findings imply that suppression of sickness behavior could occur when T is elevated to socially-modulated levels. Alternatively, it is possible that this suppressive effect is mediated through a stress-induced mechanism, as corticosterone levels were elevated in T-implanted subjects compared to controls. We propose that males wounded and infected during contests may gain a brief selective advantage by suppressing sickness responses that would otherwise impair competitive performance. The cost of immunosuppression would be manifested in males through an increased susceptibility to disease, which is presumably

  18. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  19. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  1. Evolving ideas about the male refractory period.

    PubMed

    Turley, Kenneth R; Rowland, David L

    2013-08-01

    The male refractory period (MRP) continues to be a topic of discussion and debate within the field of sexual medicine. To date explanations rely on central descending (efferent) influences involving specific neurotransmitter systems. Herein we explore the issue of the male refractory period, identifying problems with current explanations, specifying the parameters of an adequate model, and suggesting possible mechanisms mediating this phenomenon. We review the literature regarding existing explanations for the MRP and look to other systems of physiological regulation that might provide a model for the conceptualization of the MRP. Our approach differs from traditional explanations in that it emphasizes the possible roles of various peripheral, rather than central, feedback (afferent) systems that affect peripheral autonomic functioning and response. Yet our approach is consistent with other peripheral regulatory feedback systems controlling autonomic response related to such processes as heart rate, respiration, and gut motility. Although direct empirical research supporting our approach is lacking, sufficient evidence exists to support the idea that such processes are not only possible but likely with respect to the male refractory period. We suggest several lines of research that might provide empirical support for this approach. PMID:23470051

  2. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    PubMed

    Diaz, A M

    1998-06-01

    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context. PMID:12348800

  3. The sexual habits of males who molest.

    PubMed

    Lim, L E; Yap, A K; Ong, S H; Chan, A O; Chan, K L

    2000-10-01

    To gain better understanding into the causes of molesting behaviour in males, we examined a prison cohort of molesters and compared them with a control group comprising thieves. The molesters were older, had attained a higher educational level and were more likely to be married. They had their initial sexual intercourse at an older age but tended to have multiple sexual relationships and were less likely to report having viewed pornographic material. Three months prior to committing their offences, molesters seemed to engage in less sexual activity. The implications are that molesters had a need for more explicit sexual contact but were unable to sustain ongoing, stable, intimate sexual relationships. PMID:11281351

  4. Infertility in the male dog.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M S

    1992-09-01

    The diagnosis and characterization of infertility in the male dog depends largely on the initial history and semen evaluation and on following the course of infertility over time. The diagnostic testing described here is helpful for guiding therapy, but the prognosis in serious cases of infertility is usually poor. Cases of subfertility that are not progressive have a better prognosis with optimal breeding management. Finally, the clinician should remember that some insults to the testes are reversible with time so it is important not to administer therapy that will interfere with the dog's ability to recover. Client education is an important part of the management of male dog infertility because it is not uncommon for various drugs to be administered by the breeder, or at the breeder's request, without a sufficient diagnostic work-up. In addition, errors of breeding management may play a role in male dog infertility or limit the success of treatment. PMID:1421819

  5. [Therapeutic issues concerning male fertility].

    PubMed

    Bernard, V; Bouvattier, C; Christin-Maitre, S

    2014-10-01

    Men reproductive health has long been ignored although it is responsible for 50% of couple's infertility. However, in recent years, the understanding of endocrine physiology underlying testis development and spermatogenesis has enabled the development of new therapeutic strategies. Some concern the management of male infertility. Others are dealing with finding an effective male contraceptive. In this review, we first present the management of infertility, in patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. We then describe the major improvements for Klinefelter patient's infertility. Finally, we review the different hormonal and non-hormonal methods for male contraception, currently in development. Efficacy and safety of the some non-hormonal methods remain to be demonstrated so far in humans. PMID:25617918

  6. Male Reference Group Identity Dependence: A Theory of Male Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Jay C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theory of male identity developed to address the question of why men vary in their masculinity ideology and in their conformity to standards of masculinity. An overview of relevant masculinity research, theoretical foundations for the construct of reference group identity dependence, theoretical postulates, associated behavioral, and…

  7. Male chest enhancement: pectoral implants.

    PubMed

    Benito-Ruiz, J; Raigosa, J M; Manzano-Surroca, M; Salvador, L

    2008-01-01

    The authors present their experience with the pectoral muscle implant for male chest enhancement in 21 patients. The markings and technique are thoroughly described. The implants used were manufactured and custom made. The candidates for implants comprised three groups: group 1 (18 patients seeking chest enhancement), group 2 (1 patient with muscular atrophy), and group 3 (2 patients with muscular injuries). Because of the satisfying results obtained, including significant enhancement of the chest contour and no major complications, this technique is used for an increasing number of male cosmetic surgeries. PMID:17676376

  8. [Genetic evaluation of male homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Gasztonyi, Z

    1998-02-01

    The family trees of 16 homosexual males are evaluated in the material of their Genetic Counselling Clinic. The familial cluster of three cases corresponded to the X-linked recessive inheritance. The results of family, twin and adoption studies are reviewed and the recent findings of molecular genetic and brain researches are summarised. Male homosexuality comprises of different subgroups, but one major entity is caused by X-linked recessive gene(s). This genetic background represent a predisposition which is triggered or suppressed by external factors. PMID:9489379

  9. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior.

    PubMed

    Ul Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (ii) no methoprene but fed on a protein diet; (iii) methoprene and sugar-fed only; and (iv) sugar-fed, 14-d-old males acted as controls. Treatments had no effect on a male's ability to depress the female remating receptivity in comparison to the control. Females mated with protein-deprived males showed higher remating receptivity than females first mated with protein-fed males. Methoprene and protein diet interaction had a positive effect on male mating success during the first and second mating of females. Significantly more females first mated with sugar-fed males remated with protein-fed males and females first mated with methoprene treated and protein-fed males were more likely to remate with similarly treated males. Females mating latency (time to start mating) was significantly shorter with protein-fed males, and mating duration was significantly longer with protein-fed males compared with protein-deprived males. These results are discussed in the context of methoprene and/or dietary protein as prerelease treatment of sterile males in area-wide control of melon fly integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT). PMID:24376160

  10. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior

    PubMed Central

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (ii) no methoprene but fed on a protein diet; (iii) methoprene and sugar-fed only; and (iv) sugar-fed, 14-d-old males acted as controls. Treatments had no effect on a male's ability to depress the female remating receptivity in comparison to the control. Females mated with protein-deprived males showed higher remating receptivity than females first mated with protein-fed males. Methoprene and protein diet interaction had a positive effect on male mating success during the first and second mating of females. Significantly more females first mated with sugar-fed males remated with protein-fed males and females first mated with methoprene treated and protein-fed males were more likely to remate with similarly treated males. Females mating latency (time to start mating) was significantly shorter with protein-fed males, and mating duration was significantly longer with protein-fed males compared with protein-deprived males. These results are discussed in the context of methoprene and/or dietary protein as prerelease treatment of sterile males in area-wide control of melon fly integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT). PMID:24376160

  11. Remating behavior in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) females is affected by male juvenile hormone analog treatment but not by male sterilization.

    PubMed

    Abraham, S; Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Peralta, P A; Yusef, V; Ruiz, J; Cladera, J L; Vera, M T; Segura, D F

    2013-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been proposed as an area-wide method to control the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). This technique requires sterilization, a procedure that affects, along with other factors, the ability of males to modulate female sexual receptivity after copulation. Numerous pre-release treatments have been proposed to counteract the detrimental effects of irradiation, rearing and handling and increase SIT effectiveness. These include treating newly emerged males with a juvenile hormone mimic (methoprene) or supplying protein to the male's diet to accelerate sexual maturation prior to release. Here, we examine how male irradiation, methoprene treatment and protein intake affect remating behavior and the amount of sperm stored in inseminated females. In field cage experiments, we found that irradiated laboratory males were equally able to modulate female remating behavior as fertile wild males. However, females mated with 6-day-old, methoprene-treated males remated more and sooner than females mated with naturally matured males, either sterile or wild. Protein intake by males was not sufficient to overcome reduced ability of methoprene-treated males to induce refractory periods in females as lengthy as those induced by wild and naturally matured males. The amount of sperm stored by females was not affected by male irradiation, methoprene treatment or protein intake. This finding revealed that factors in addition to sperm volume intervene in regulating female receptivity after copulation. Implications for SIT are discussed. PMID:23340454

  12. Increased low back pain prevalence in females than in males after menopause age: evidences based on synthetic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wáng, Jùn-Qīng; Káplár, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Female sex hormones play an important role in the etiology and pathophysiology of a variety of musculoskeletal degenerative diseases. Postmenopausal women show accelerated disc degeneration due to relative estrogen deficiency. This literature review aims to validate or falsify this hypothesis, i.e., while overall females have higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) across all age groups, this male vs. female difference in LBP prevalence further increases after female menopause age. The literature search was performed on PubMed on January 2, 2016. The search word combination was (low back pain) AND prevalence AND [(males OR men) AND (females OR women)]. The following criteria were taken to include the papers for synthetic analysis: (I) only English primary literatures on nonspecific pain; (II) only prospective studies on general population, but not population with occupational LBP causes, of both males and female subjects studied using the same LBP criterion, ages-specific information available, and males and female subjects were age-matched; (III) studies without major quality flaws. In total 98 studies with 772,927 subjects were analyzed. According to the information in the literature, participant subjects were divided into four age groups: (I) school age children group: 6–19 years; (II) young and middle aged group: 20–50 years; (III) mixed age group: data from studies did not differentiate age groups; (IV) elderly group: ≥50 years old. When individual studies were not weighted by participant number and each individual study is represented as one entry regardless of their sample size, the median LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.310, 1.140, 1.220, and 1.270 respectively for the four age groups. When individual studies were weighted by participant number, the LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.360, 1.127, 1.185, and 1.280 respectively for the four groups. The higher LBP prevalence in school age girls than in school age boys is likely

  13. Male foraging efficiency, but not male problem-solving performance, influences female mating preferences in zebra finches

    PubMed Central

    Chantal, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that females would prefer males with better cognitive abilities as mates. However, little is known about the traits reflecting enhanced cognitive skills on which females might base their mate-choice decisions. In particular, it has been suggested that male foraging performance could be used as an indicator of cognitive capacity, but convincing evidence for this hypothesis is still lacking. In the present study, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) modify their mating preferences after having observed the performance of males on a problem-solving task. Specifically, we measured the females’ preferences between two males once before and once after an observation period, during which their initially preferred male was incapable of solving the task contrary to their initially less-preferred male. We also conducted a control treatment to test whether the shift in female preferences was attributable to differences between the two stimulus males in their foraging efficiency. Finally, we assessed each bird’s performance in a color associative task to check whether females can discriminate among males based on their learning speed. We found that females significantly increased their preference toward the most efficient male in both treatments. Yet, there was no difference between the two treatments and we found no evidence that females assess male cognitive ability indirectly via morphological traits. Thus, our results suggest that females would not use the males’ problem-solving performance as an indicator of general cognitive ability to gain indirect fitness benefits (i.e., good genes) but rather to assess their foraging efficiency and gain direct benefits.

  14. Correlation between Y chromosome microdeletion and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Liu, X G; Hu, H Y; Guo, Y H; Sun, Y P

    2016-01-01

    Dyszoospermia due to genetic factors is the leading cause of male infertility. To explore the correlation between azoospermia factor (AZF) microdeletion of the Y chromosome and male infertility, we evaluated AZF microdeletion on the long arm of the Y chromosome in 166 infertile males and 50 fertile males using multiplex polymerase chain reactions amplification and gel electrophoresis. The results demonstrated that 28 individuals had varying degrees of microdeletion in the AZF region (16.90%); 12 out of the 76 males with azoospermia and 16 out of the 90 males with oligospermia had AZF microdeletion. AZF microdeletion was not observed in any of the healthy controls. In addition, 53.60% of the AZF microdeletions occurred in the AZFc region. It can be concluded that AZF microdeletion on the long arm of the Y chromosome can result in male spermatogenesis dysfunction. Detection of AZF microdeletion can provide a theoretical basis for genetic counseling, as well as improve the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. PMID:27323142

  15. Leading Causes of Death in Males United States, 2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... Native Males by Age Group, 2013 Asian or Pacific Islander Males by Age Group, 2013 Hispanic Males ... Native Males by Age Group, 2011 Asian or Pacific Islander Males by Age Group, 2011 Hispanic Males ...

  16. Sexual Assault of Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stermac, Lana; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the circumstances and characteristics of sexual assaults against adult males presenting to a crisis unit in a large metropolitan area. Most victims were young gay men, many of whom had physical or cognitive disabilities making them particularly vulnerable. Results suggest a need for increased awareness of acquaintance sexual assault in…

  17. Male Osteoporosis in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    D'Amelio, Patrizia; Isaia, Giovanni Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is now recognized as an important public health problem in elderly men as fragility fractures are complicated by increased morbidity, mortality, and social costs. This review comprises an overview of recent findings in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of male osteoporosis, with particular regard to the old population. PMID:26457082

  18. Ferocious Fighting between Male Grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual’s role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725

  19. Psychology Constructs the Female; or The Fantasy Life of the Male Psychologist (With Some Attention to the Fantasies of His Friends, the Male Biologist and the Male Anthropologist)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisstein, Naomi

    1971-01-01

    The author examines several theories and experiments dealing with the sexual basis of behavioral differences of males and females. She concludes that the cultural biases concerning women permeate current research in the behavioral sciences because of the lack of controls and poor methodologies. (MB)

  20. Molecular analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The ultimate aims of the project are to understand the molecular mechanism of the disruption in pollen development which occurs in cytoplasmic male sterile plants and to understand the control of respiratory energy flow in the higher plant cell. A mitochondrial locus termed S-pcf segregates with sterility and with an alteration in respiration in Petunia. This cloned locus contains three genes, an abnormal fused gene termed pcf, a gene for a subunit of an NADH dehydrogenase complex, and a small ribosomal subunit protein. The pcf gene is comprised of partial sequences of ATPase subunit 9, cytochrome oxidase subunit II, and an unidentified reading frame. Components of the S-Pcf locus will be introduced into the nuclear of a fertile genotype under the control of appropriate regulatory signals, and polypeptide products of introduced genes will be directed to the mitochondrion with a transit peptide. By examining transgenic plants, we can determine what elements of the locus are critical for altered respiration or sterility. Such knowledge could explain how mitochondrial DNA affects pollen development in the large number of plant species which exhibit the agronomically important trait of male sterility. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Graduating Black Males: A Generic Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Black males face a difficult educational battle. Across America, graduation statistics for Black males are sobering. The purpose of this study was to explore why Black males drop out of school and to examine the current employment status of the study participants. The research took place in rural North Carolina. Fifteen Black American male high…

  2. Photoperiod and gonadal hormones influence odor preferences of the male meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus.

    PubMed

    Ferkin, M H; Gorman, M R

    1992-05-01

    Male meadow voles housed in a long photoperiod (14 h light/day, LP) preferred female to male odors, whereas males maintained in a short photoperiod (10 h light/day, SP) did not display preferences for odors of either sex. These odor-preference patterns matched those of free-living males during spring and autumn, respectively. The preference of LP male voles for female over male odors was eliminated by gonadectomy and reinstated by treatment with testosterone. In SP males, although gonadectomy did not affect odor choices, a preference for female odors was induced by testosterone treatment. Treatment with estradiol did not alter odor preferences of LP or SP males. In conjunction with previous result, the present findings suggest that hormonal responsiveness of neural substrates that control odor preferences are sexually dimorphic and may reflect sex differences in reproductive strategies. PMID:1615048

  3. Effectiveness of a Web- and Mobile Phone-Based Intervention to Promote Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in Middle-Aged Males: Randomized Controlled Trial of the ManUp Study

    PubMed Central

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kolt, Gregory S; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Caperchione, Cristina M; George, Emma S; Ding, Hang; Hooker, Cindy; Karunanithi, Mohan; Maeder, Anthony J; Noakes, Manny; Tague, Rhys; Taylor, Pennie; Viljoen, Pierre; Mummery, W Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Background The high number of adult males engaging in low levels of physical activity and poor dietary practices, and the health risks posed by these behaviors, necessitate broad-reaching intervention strategies. Information technology (IT)-based (Web and mobile phone) interventions can be accessed by large numbers of people, yet there are few reported IT-based interventions targeting males’ physical activity and dietary practices. Objective This study examines the effectiveness of a 9-month IT-based intervention (ManUp) to improve the physical activity, dietary behaviors, and health literacy in middle-aged males compared to a print-based intervention. Methods Participants, recruited offline (eg, newspaper ads), were randomized into either an IT-based or print-based intervention arm on a 2:1 basis in favor of the fully automated IT-based arm. Participants were adult males aged 35-54 years living in 2 regional cities in Queensland, Australia, who could access the Internet, owned a mobile phone, and were able to increase their activity level. The intervention, ManUp, was based on social cognitive and self-regulation theories and specifically designed to target males. Educational materials were provided and self-monitoring of physical activity and nutrition behaviors was promoted. Intervention content was the same in both intervention arms; only the delivery mode differed. Content could be accessed throughout the 9-month study period. Participants’ physical activity, dietary behaviors, and health literacy were measured using online surveys at baseline, 3 months, and 9 months. Results A total of 301 participants completed baseline assessments, 205 in the IT-based arm and 96 in the print-based arm. A total of 124 participants completed all 3 assessments. There were no significant between-group differences in physical activity and dietary behaviors (P≥.05). Participants reported an increased number of minutes and sessions of physical activity at 3 months (exp(β)=1

  4. Choosy males from the underground: male mating preferences in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies ( Poecilia mexicana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plath, Martin; Seggel, Uta; Burmeister, Heike; Heubel, Katja U.; Schlupp, Ingo

    2006-03-01

    Atlantic mollies ( Poecilia mexicana) inhabit a variety of surface habitats, but they also occur in a sulfur cave in southern Mexico. We examined male mate choice relative to female body size in the cave population and in the most closely related surface-dwelling population from a nearby river. Males from both populations were either light- or dark-reared and could choose between two differently sized females either on the basis of visual cues in light or on the basis of solely nonvisual cues in darkness. Sexual preferences were estimated from the degree of association. Cave molly males always showed a preference for the larger female, both in light and in darkness. Among the surface males, only light-reared males showed a preference in the visual cues test, but not in darkness. In a control experiment, we demonstrated that male association preferences directly translate into actual mating preferences. Apparently, using visual cues for mate choice is the ancestral state in this system, and using nonvisual cues has evolved as a novel trait in the cave population. We discuss the evolution of nonvisual male mate choice in the context of changed environmental conditions, namely the absence of light, hypoxia, and toxic hydrogen sulfide in the cave.

  5. Choosy males from the underground: male mating preferences in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana).

    PubMed

    Plath, Martin; Seggel, Uta; Burmeister, Heike; Heubel, Katja U; Schlupp, Ingo

    2006-03-01

    Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) inhabit a variety of surface habitats, but they also occur in a sulfur cave in southern Mexico. We examined male mate choice relative to female body size in the cave population and in the most closely related surface-dwelling population from a nearby river. Males from both populations were either light- or dark-reared and could choose between two differently sized females either on the basis of visual cues in light or on the basis of solely nonvisual cues in darkness. Sexual preferences were estimated from the degree of association. Cave molly males always showed a preference for the larger female, both in light and in darkness. Among the surface males, only light-reared males showed a preference in the visual cues test, but not in darkness. In a control experiment, we demonstrated that male association preferences directly translate into actual mating preferences. Apparently, using visual cues for mate choice is the ancestral state in this system, and using nonvisual cues has evolved as a novel trait in the cave population. We discuss the evolution of nonvisual male mate choice in the context of changed environmental conditions, namely the absence of light, hypoxia, and toxic hydrogen sulfide in the cave. PMID:16404589

  6. Conspicuous Coloration in Males of the Damselfly Nehalennia irene (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae): Do Males Signal Their Unprofitability to Other Males?

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Christopher D.; Andrés, José A.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    In damselflies, sexual colour dimorphism is commonly explained as a consequence of selection on traits that increase male attractiveness to females. However, while many species in the damselfly family Coenagrionidae (Insecta: Odonata) are sexually dimorphic, the males do not engage in displays, and male competition for mates resembles a “scramble”. An alternative explanation for the sexual differences in coloration within these species is that sexual dimorphism has evolved as a sex-related warning signal, with males signalling their uprofitability as mates to other males, thereby avoiding harassment from conspecifics. We evaluated an underlying assumption of the theory that male-male harassment rate is influenced by colour by comparing harassment of males of the species Nehalennia irene that had been painted to make them appear: (i) similar to an unaltered male (blue), (ii) different from a male (orange) and (iii) more similar to a female (black). When caged together we found that blue-painted males experienced significantly lower harassment than black-painted males. When unpainted males were caged with each type of painted male we found that blue-painted males and the unpainted males housed in the same cages experienced lower rates of harassment than males housed in cages where some males were painted black, suggesting that a single, reliable signal of unprofitability may benefit the individuals that carry it. While our results do not in themselves demonstrate that sexual colour dimorphism originally evolved as an intra-specific warning signal, they do show that harassment is influenced by coloration, and that such selection could conceivably maintain male coloration as a warning signal. PMID:26587979

  7. Conspicuous Coloration in Males of the Damselfly Nehalennia irene (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae): Do Males Signal Their Unprofitability to Other Males?

    PubMed

    Beatty, Christopher D; Andrés, José A; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2015-01-01

    In damselflies, sexual colour dimorphism is commonly explained as a consequence of selection on traits that increase male attractiveness to females. However, while many species in the damselfly family Coenagrionidae (Insecta: Odonata) are sexually dimorphic, the males do not engage in displays, and male competition for mates resembles a "scramble". An alternative explanation for the sexual differences in coloration within these species is that sexual dimorphism has evolved as a sex-related warning signal, with males signalling their uprofitability as mates to other males, thereby avoiding harassment from conspecifics. We evaluated an underlying assumption of the theory that male-male harassment rate is influenced by colour by comparing harassment of males of the species Nehalennia irene that had been painted to make them appear: (i) similar to an unaltered male (blue), (ii) different from a male (orange) and (iii) more similar to a female (black). When caged together we found that blue-painted males experienced significantly lower harassment than black-painted males. When unpainted males were caged with each type of painted male we found that blue-painted males and the unpainted males housed in the same cages experienced lower rates of harassment than males housed in cages where some males were painted black, suggesting that a single, reliable signal of unprofitability may benefit the individuals that carry it. While our results do not in themselves demonstrate that sexual colour dimorphism originally evolved as an intra-specific warning signal, they do show that harassment is influenced by coloration, and that such selection could conceivably maintain male coloration as a warning signal. PMID:26587979

  8. Promotores' perspectives on a male-to-male peer network.

    PubMed

    Macia, Laura; Ruiz, Hector Camilo; Boyzo, Roberto; Documet, Patricia Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Little documentation exists about male community health workers (promotores) networks. The experiences of promotores can provide input on how to attract, train, supervise and maintain male promotores in CHW programs. We present the experience and perspectives of promotores who participated in a male promotores network assisting Latino immigrant men in an emerging Latino community. All promotores in this community-based participatory study received payment for work 10 hours a week. We conducted qualitative interviews with all promotores starting the program, after 5 and 13 months. Three main themes emerged: 1) Men decided to become promotores to help others, yet appreciated being paid. 2) Promotores' learning experience was ongoing and was facilitated by a cooperative dynamic among them. Learning how to listen was crucial for promotores 3) Promotores experienced difficulty separating their personal lives form their role as a promotor We conclude that paying promotores facilitates the fulfillment of their drive to serve the community. Enhancing listening abilities needs to be part of promotores' training curricula. Finally, it is advisable to build a project with many opportunities for promotores and project staff to share professional and non-professional time and discuss their challenges. PMID:27102810

  9. Changes in CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+, and Immunoglobulin M-Positive Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome-Affected Pigs and Age-Matched Uninfected Wasted and Healthy Pigs Correlate with Lesions and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Load in Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Darwich, Laila; Segalés, Joaquim; Domingo, Mariano; Mateu, Enric

    2002-01-01

    Forty-one 8- to 12-week-old wasted pigs were selected from several conventional farms with histories of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and classified into two groups according to their porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection status, as determined by in situ hybridization (ISH). Twenty-four pigs tested positive for PCV2 (PCV2-positive group), while 17 pigs tested negative for PCV2 (PCV2-negative group). In addition, eight uninfected healthy pigs from an experimental farm were used as controls. Heparinized blood samples were taken to obtain peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+ (double-positive [DP]), and immunoglobulin M-positive (IgM+) cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry with appropriate monoclonal antibodies. Histopathological studies were done to evaluate the apparent degrees of lymphocyte depletion in different lymphoid organs (superficial inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, tonsils, and spleen) and to determine the viral load of the PCV2 genome by using an ISH technique. Animals of the PCV2-positive group showed a significant downshift of the CD8+ and DP cell subsets compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, in PCV2-positive pigs, the amount of PCV2 genome in lymphoid tissues was related to the degree of cell depletion in those tissues (P < 0.05) as well as to the relative decrease in IgM+ and CD8+ cells in peripheral blood. These data support the notion that PCV2-positive pigs might have an impaired immune response. PMID:11874858

  10. Influence of gonadal hormones on odours emitted by male meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus).

    PubMed

    Ferkin, M H; Gorman, M R; Zucker, I

    1992-08-01

    Free-living male meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) emit odours that are attractive to females at the beginning, but not at the end, of the breeding season. The effect of gonadal hormones on female-attractant cues was examined in males born and reared in long (14 h light day-1) and short (10 h light day-1) photoperiods that simulate daylengths in the breeding and nonbreeding seasons, respectively. Gonadectomy affected the attractant properties of odours emitted by long photoperiod, but not short photoperiod, males. Long photoperiod females preferred odours of intact rather than those of gonadectomized long photoperiod males, and odours of gonadectomized long photoperiod males rather than those of intact short photoperiod males. Females did not show a preference between the odours of intact and castrated short photoperiod males. Gonadal hormone replacement in males affected female responses to the odours emitted by long photoperiod, but not short photoperiod, gonadectomized males. Long photoperiod females did not display a preference between odours of intact long photoperiod males and gonadectomized long photoperiod males treated with testosterone or oestradiol. We conclude that in spring and summer gonadal hormones increase attractiveness of male odours; this effect may require aromatization of testosterone to oestradiol. Substrates that control attractiveness of odour cues in male voles appear to be unresponsive to androgens during the nonbreeding season. PMID:1404090

  11. Differences in Retinal Structure and Function between Aging Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats are Strongly Influenced by the Estrus Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chaychi, Samaneh; Polosa, Anna; Lachapelle, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Biological sex and age are considered as two important factors that may influence the function and structure of the retina, an effect that might be governed by sexual hormones such as estrogen. The purpose of this study was to delineate the influence that biological sex and age exert on the retinal function and structure of rodents and also clarify the effect that the estrus cycle might exert on the retinal function of female rats. Method The retinal function of 50 normal male and female albino Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was investigated with the electroretinogram (ERG) at postnatal day (P) 30, 60, 100, 200, and 300 (n = 5–6 male and female rats/age). Following the ERG recording sessions, retinal histology was performed in both sexes. In parallel, the retinal function of premenopausal and menopausal female rats aged P540 were also compared. Results Sex and age-related changes in retinal structure and function were observed in our animal model. However, irrespective of age, no significant difference was observed in ERG and retinal histology obtained from male and female rats. Notwithstanding the above we did however notice that between P60 and P200 there was a gradual increase in ERG amplitudes of female rats compared to males. Furthermore, the ERG of premenopausal female rats aged 18 months old (P540) was larger compared to age-matched menopausal female rats as well as that of male rats. Conclusion Our results showed that biological sex and age can influence the retinal function and structure of albino SD rats. Furthermore, we showed that cycled female rats have better retinal function compared to the menopausal female rats suggesting a beneficial effect of the estrus cycle on the retinal function. PMID:26317201

  12. Understanding male cancer patients' barriers to participating in cancer rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Handberg, C; Lomborg, K; Nielsen, C V; Oliffe, J L; Midtgaard, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to describe male cancer survivors' barriers towards participation in cancer rehabilitation as a means to guiding future targeted men's cancer rehabilitation. Symbolic Interactionism along with the interpretive descriptive methodology guided the study of 35 male cancer survivors representing seven cancer types. Data were generated through a 5-month fieldwork study comprising participant observations, semi-structured individual interviews and informal conversations. The analyses revealed two overarching findings shedding light on male cancer survivors' barriers to rehabilitation: 'Fear of losing control' and 'Striving for normality'. While 'Fear of losing control' signified what the men believed rehabilitation would invoke: 'Reduced manliness', 'Sympathy and dependency' and 'Confrontation with death', 'Striving for normality' was based on what the men believed rehabilitation would hinder: 'Autonomy and purpose', 'Solidarity and fellowship' and 'Forget and move on'. This study of male cancer survivors' and cancer rehabilitation documents how masculine ideals may constitute barriers for participation in rehabilitation and provides insights about why men are underrepresented in rehabilitation. The findings can guide practice to develop research-based rehabilitation approaches focused on preserving control and normality. Further empirical evidence is needed to: (1) explore the conduct of health professionals' towards male cancer patients and (2) address gender inequalities in cancer rehabilitation. PMID:26223855

  13. Evaluation of strategies for the release of male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Superior for a proposed sterile-male-release program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaye, C.A.; Heinrich, J.W.; Genovese, J.H.; Hanson, L.H.; McDonald, R.B.; Slade, J.W.; Swink, W.D.

    2003-01-01

    Successful implementation of a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control technique that uses sterilized males to reduce reproduction presently depends on the importation of large numbers of males outside of the target population. Strategies were examined for releasing male sea lampreys from Lakes Michigan and Huron into the Lake Superior spawning population and the ability of these introduced males to compete with resident males and spawn with resident females. During 1987, 553 (9%) of 6,324 imported fertile males released at 12 shoreline and one offshore site in Lake Superior were recaptured. Most remained within 20 km of the release site and entered the first stream encountered. During 1988, 393 (18%) of 2,208 imported fertile males released directly into three spawning rivers were recaptured. In both cases, animals released early during the spawning run were more likely to be recaptured than those released later. Introduced males successfully competed with resident males and spawned with resident females. Demonstrating that male sea lampreys could reproduce successfully when relocated supported subsequent large-scale field trials of the sterile-male-release technique.

  14. Developmental stress increases reproductive success in male zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Crino, Ondi L; Prather, Colin T; Driscoll, Stephanie C; Good, Jeffrey M; Breuner, Creagh W

    2014-11-22

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to stress during development can have sustained effects on animal phenotype and performance across life-history stages. For example, developmental stress has been shown to decrease the quality of sexually selected traits (e.g. bird song), and therefore is thought to decrease reproductive success. However, animals exposed to developmental stress may compensate for poor quality sexually selected traits by pursuing alternative reproductive tactics. Here, we examine the effects of developmental stress on adult male reproductive investment and success in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). We tested the hypothesis that males exposed to developmental stress sire fewer offspring through extra-pair copulations (EPCs), but invest more in parental care. To test this hypothesis, we fed nestlings corticosterone (CORT; the dominant avian stress hormone) during the nestling period and measured their adult reproductive success using common garden breeding experiments. We found that nestlings reared by CORT-fed fathers received more parental care compared with nestlings reared by control fathers. Consequently, males fed CORT during development reared nestlings in better condition compared with control males. Contrary to the prediction that developmental stress decreases male reproductive success, we found that CORT-fed males also sired more offspring and were less likely to rear non-genetic offspring compared with control males, and thus had greater overall reproductive success. These data are the first to demonstrate that developmental stress can have a positive effect on fitness via changes in reproductive success and provide support for an adaptive role of developmental stress in shaping animal phenotype. PMID:25297860

  15. Male reprotoxicity and endocrine disruption

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Sarah; Catlin, Natasha; Heger, Nicholas; McDonnell, Elizabeth V.; Pacheco, Sara E.; Saffarini, Camelia; Sandrof, Moses A.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian reproductive tract development is a tightly regulated process that can be disrupted following exposure to drugs, toxicants, endocrine disrupting chemicals or other compounds via alterations to gene and protein expression or epigenetic regulation. Indeed, the impacts of developmental exposure to certain toxicants may not be fully realized until puberty or adulthood when the reproductive tract becomes sexually mature and altered functionality is manifested. Exposures that occur later in life, once development is complete, can also disrupt the intricate hormonal and paracrine interactions responsible for adult functions, such as spermatogenesis. In this chapter, the biology and toxicology of the male reproductive tract is explored, proceeding through the various life stages including in utero development, puberty, adulthood and senescence. Special attention is given to the discussion of endocrine disrupting chemicals, chemical mixtures, low dose effects, transgenerational effects, and potential exposure-related causes of male reproductive tract cancers. PMID:22945574

  16. Sugar administration to newly emerged Aedes albopictus males increases their survival probability and mating performance.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Romeo; Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, Fabrizio; Brunelli, Paolo; Medici, Anna; Urbanelli, Sandra; Carrieri, Marco

    2014-04-01

    Aedes albopictus male survival in laboratory cages is no more than 4-5 days when kept without any access to sugar indicating their need to feed on a sugar source soon after emergence. We therefore developed a device to administer energetic substances to newly emerged males when released as pupae as part of a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme, made with a polyurethane sponge 4 cm thick and perforated with holes 2 cm in diameter. The sponge was imbibed with the required sugar solution and due to its high retention capacity the sugar solution was available for males to feed for at least 48 h. When evaluated in lab cages, comparing adults emerged from the device with sugar solution vs the device with water only (as negative control), about half of the males tested positive for fructose using the Van Handel anthrone test, compared to none of males in the control cage. We then tested the tool in semi-field and in field conditions with different sugar concentrations (10%, 15%, and 20%) and compared results to the controls fed with water only. Males were recaptured by a battery operated manual aspirator at 24 and 48 h after pupae release. Rather high share 10-25% of captured males tested positive for fructose in recollections in the vicinity of the control stations, while in the vicinity of the sugar stations around 40-55% of males were positive, though variability between replicates was large. The sugar positive males in the control test may have been released males that had access to natural sugar sources found close to the release station and/or wild males present in the environment. Only a slight increase in the proportion of positive males was obtained by increasing the sugar concentration in the feeding device from 10% to 20%. Surprisingly, modification of the device to add a black plastic inverted funnel above the container reduced rather than increased the proportion of fructose positive males collected around the station. No evidence of difference in the

  17. Male-mediated developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

  18. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Harton, Gary L; Tempest, Helen G

    2012-01-01

    Infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family. Despite this, the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered. Nevertheless, more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified. This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically: chromosomal aneuploidy, structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions. Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans. Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin, but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts. Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm. Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed, as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases. Clinical recommendations where possible will be made, as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility. PMID:22120929

  19. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

  20. Inspiratory muscle performance in endurance-trained elderly males during incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Chlif, Mehdi; Keochkerian, David; Temfemo, Abdou; Choquet, Dominique; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the inspiratory muscle performance during an incremental exercise of twelve fit old endurance-trained athletes (OT) with that of fit young athletes (YT) and healthy age-matched controls (OC). The tension-time index (TT0.1) was determined according to the equation TT0.1=P0.1/PImax×ti/ttot, where P0.1 is the mouth occlusion pressure, PImax the maximal inspiratory pressure and ti/ttot the duty cycle. For a given VCO2, OT group displayed P0.1, P0.1/PImax ratio, TT0.1 and effective impedance of the respiratory muscle values which were lower than OC group and higher than YT group. At maximal exercise, P0.1/PImax ratio and TT0.1 was still lower in the OT group than OC group and higher than YT group. This study showed lower inspiratory muscle performance attested by a higher (TT0.1) during exercise in the OT group than YT group, but appeared to be less marked in elderly men having performed lifelong endurance training compared with sedentary elderly subjects. PMID:26994757

  1. The dyadic adjustment of female-to-male transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Fleming, M; MacGowan, B; Costos, D

    1985-02-01

    Dyadic adjustment, sexual activities, and marital stability in the relationships of female-to-male transsexuals and their spouses were examined. Participants were 22 female-to-male transsexuals who had undergone some form of surgery to alter their anatomical sex, their spouses, and a control group of married or cohabitating nontranssexual men and women. Participants were administered the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and additional items to assess quantitatively their marital relationships. The transsexuals and their spouses were also asked open-ended interview questions concerning marital and life adjustments. Generally, the transsexuals and their spouses reported good and mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships that are in many ways comparable to those of the matched control group. These findings lend support to the previous clinical interview studies that have reported that female-to-male transsexuals form stable and enduring intimate relationships. PMID:3977583

  2. The influence of conspecific chemical cues on walking behavior of Ixodes ricinus males.

    PubMed

    Zemek, Rostislav; Bouman, Edwin A P; Dusbábek, Frantisek

    2007-01-01

    The influence of female and male cues on the male searching behavior of the sheep tick, Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae), was studied under constant laboratory conditions by means of a computerized video tracking system. Males were released into an open glass arena in which one half had been exposed for 1 h to 5 freely walking unfed females or five males. The obtained track data were analyzed to reveal if male walking pattern was random or affected by cues of conspecifics left on the arena surface. The results showed that males spent significantly more time and walked a significantly longer distance in the area with female cues compared to the control area. Moreover, the walking path of males was more tortuous on the cues half than the control half. In contrast, walking behavior of males was not affected by male cues in any observed parameter. These results provide the first evidence that unfed females leave sex-specific semiochemicals on a substrate during their walk and that these cues have an effect on male searching behavior. Since this effect was not observed when female cues were 24-h old, the semiochemicals seem to either evaporate or are subject to degradation. The biological significance of these findings for mate-searching in I. ricinus males is discussed. PMID:17380275

  3. Pituitary and testis responsiveness of young male sheep exposed to testosterone excess during fetal development.

    PubMed

    Recabarren, Mónica P; Rojas-Garcia, Pedro P; Einspanier, Ralf; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Sir-Petermann, Teresa; Recabarren, Sergio E

    2013-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone induces reproductive disturbances in both female and male sheep. In females, it alters the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis. In males, prenatal testosterone excess reduces sperm count and motility. Focusing on males, this study tested whether pituitary LH responsiveness to GNRH is increased in prenatal testosterone-exposed males and whether testicular function is compromised in the testosterone-exposed males. Control males (n=6) and males born to ewes exposed to twice weekly injections of 30  mg testosterone propionate from days 30 to 90 and of 40  mg testosterone propionate from days 90 to 120 of gestation (n=6) were studied at 20 and 30 weeks of age. Pituitary and testicular responsiveness was tested by administering a GNRH analog (leuprolide acetate). To complement the analyses, the mRNA expression of LH receptor (LHR) and that of steroidogenic enzymes were determined in testicular tissue. Basal LH and testosterone concentrations were higher in the testosterone-exposed-males. While LH response to the GNRH analog was higher in the testosterone-exposed males than in the control males, testosterone responses did not differ between the treatment groups. The testosterone:LH ratio was higher in the control males than in the testosterone-exposed males of 30 weeks of age, suggestive of reduced Leydig cell sensitivity to LH in the testosterone-exposed males. The expression of LHR mRNA was lower in the testosterone-exposed males, but the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes did not differ between the groups. These findings indicate that prenatal testosterone excess has opposing effects at the pituitary and testicular levels, namely increased pituitary sensitivity to GNRH at the level of pituitary and decreased sensitivity of the testes to LH. PMID:23579187

  4. Experience restores innate female preference for male ultrasonic vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Kathryn N.; Liu, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Mouse models are increasingly contributing to our understanding of the neural genetics of sensory processing and memory. For example, strain differences have helped elucidate basic mechanisms of age-related hearing loss and auditory fear conditioning. Assessing sensory differences arising in acoustic communication contexts is also important for understanding natural audition. While this topic has not been well studied, it is currently being addressed through auditory neuroethological studies in the CBA/CaJ strain, where insights will help lay a foundation for future neural genetic studies. Here, we focus on the responses of adult females to ultrasonic vocalizations of males. We tested a group of female mice in a place-preference paradigm before and after auditory and olfactory experience with a male. A control group was housed with other female cagemates between trials. All females showed an initial preference for male calls that rapidly decayed over the course of a trial. However, only females that had been pair-housed with a male during the inter-trial interval displayed a reinstated interest in male vocalizations, suggesting possible group differences in the assessment of the calls’ behavioral relevance. These findings provide a timeframe during which auditory processing of male ultrasounds might be expected to show a difference depending on behavioral relevance, and also suggest an importance of social interactions in maintaining call recognition. PMID:20345895

  5. Oestrogen action and male fertility: experimental and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangdong; Li, Haiwen; Jia, Lina; Li, Xiru; Rahman, Nafis

    2015-10-01

    A proper balance between androgen and oestrogen is fundamental for normal male reproductive development and function in both animals and humans. This balance is governed by the cytochrome P450 aromatase, which is expressed also under spatio-temporal control. Oestrogen receptors ERα and/or ERβ, together with the membrane-associated G-protein-coupled functional ER (GPER), mediate the effects of oestrogen in the testis. Oestrogen action in male reproduction is more complex than previously predicted. The androgen/oestrogen balance and its regulation in the masculinisation programming window (MPW) during foetal life is the most critical period for the development of the male reproductive system. If this balance is impaired during the MPW, the male reproductive system may be negatively affected. Recent data from genetically modified mice and human infertile patients have shown that oestrogens may promote the engulfment of live Leydig cells by macrophages leading to male infertility. We also discuss recent data on environmental oestrogen exposure in men and rodents, where a rodent-human distinction is crucial and analyse some aspects of male fertility potentially related to impaired oestrogen/androgen balance. PMID:26160724

  6. An update on male hypogonadism therapy

    PubMed Central

    Surampudi, Prasanth; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Wang, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Men who have symptoms associated with persistently low serum total testosterone level should be assessed for testosterone replacement therapy. Areas covered Acute and chronic illnesses are associated with low serum testosterone and these should be recognized and treated. Once the diagnosis of male hypogonadism is made, the benefits of testosterone treatment usually outweigh the risks. Without contraindications, the patient should be offered testosterone replacement therapy. The options of testosterone delivery systems (injections, transdermal patches/gels, buccal tablets, capsules and implants) have increased in the last decade. Testosterone improves symptoms and signs of hypogonadism such as sexual function and energy, increases bone density and lean mass and decreases visceral adiposity. In men who desire fertility and who have secondary hypogonadism, testosterone can be withdrawn and the patients can be placed on gonadotropins. New modified designer androgens and selective androgen receptor modulators have been in preclinical and clinical trials for some time. None of these have been assessed for the treatment of male hypogonadism. Expert opinion Despite the lack of prospective long-term data from randomized, controlled clinical trials of testosterone treatment on prostate health and cardiovascular disease risk, the available evidence suggests that testosterone therapy should be offered to symptomatic hypogonadal men. PMID:24758365

  7. Or47b-neurons promote male-mating success in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lone, Shahnaz Rahman; Venkataraman, Archana; Srivastava, Manishi; Potdar, Sheetal; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila performs elaborate well-defined rituals of courtship, which involve several types of sensory inputs. Here, we report that Or47b-neurons promote male-mating success. Males with Or47b-neurons silenced/ablated exhibit reduced copulation frequency and increased copulation latency. Copulation latency of Or47b-manipulated flies increased proportionately with size of the assay arena, whereas in controls it remained unchanged. While competing for mates, Or47b-ablated males are outperformed by intact controls. These results suggest the role of Or47b-neurons in promoting male-mating success. PMID:26018835

  8. Ego development in female-to-male transsexual couples.

    PubMed

    Fleming, M; Costos, D; MacGowan, B

    1984-12-01

    The ego development of 22 postoperative female-to-male transsexuals and their spouses or lovers with whom they had been living for a year or more was investigated. The transsexuals, their spouses, and a control group of 22 couples were administered the Washington University Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development, a projective measure of ego functioning. Ego development refers to the framework of meaning that the individual brings to an experience. The construct of ego development incorporates a series of sequential stages that integrate various frames of reference including cognitive style, interpersonal style, conscious preoccupation, and impulse control. These processes have received little attention in studies on female-to-male transsexuals who have successfully negotiated the social barrier of cross-living to the extent that they are living the male role in a heterosexual relationship. No significant differences in the distribution of ego development scores were found between the transsexuals and the control males, or between the transsexuals' spouses and the control spouses. Over 93% of the transsexuals and their spouses scored above the conformist level of ego development. These findings are discussed in terms of some of the previous literature on conformist thinking by transsexuals. PMID:6517690

  9. Unnecessary Roughness? School Sports, Peer Networks, and Male Adolescent Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreager, Derek A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which participation in high school interscholastic sports contributes to male violence. Deriving competing hypotheses from social control, social learning, and masculinity theories, I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test if (1) type of sport and (2) peer athletic…

  10. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  11. Multimodel Substance Use Intervention Program for Male Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alfred S.; Terras, Arlene; Glassman, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    In this prevention-early intervention project, court-adjudicated male adolescents were randomly assigned to either a program participant group, or to a control group. Results showed that the program group reported a significantly greater degree of reduction in drug use/abuse, and in the selling of drugs, but not in alcohol use, or in illegal…

  12. Mating sequence, dominance and paternity success in captive male tammar wallabies.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Emily F; Rudd, Carl D; Temple-Smith, Peter D; Sofronidis, George; Paris, Damien; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2005-07-01

    The tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) is a small, promiscuous, macropodid marsupial. Females usually produce a single young each year and there is a clear dominance hierarchy between adult males. The dominant male usually mates first and then guards the female to prevent access to her by other males. In this study, agonistic encounters and mating behaviour were observed to determine male dominance hierarchies in six groups of captive tammars consisting of a total of 23 males and 50 females. Mating behaviour was observed immediately post-partum when females were in oestrus and was correlated with plasma testosterone concentrations. Male mating sequences were recorded, and the paternity of offspring was determined by using seven macropodid marsupial microsatellites. Rates of sexual checking and aggression by males housed with females in oestrus in the non-breeding season were lower than in the breeding season. These males also had lower concentrations of testosterone, but were still able to sire young. High testosterone concentrations neither ensured dominance nor appeared to control directly the level of sexual activity. Females usually mated with more than one male. The dominant male most often secured the initial copulation (60%), but the first-mating male did not always secure parentage, with second and third matings resulting in as many young as first matings. Using these data, we were unable to discount first sire, last sire or equal chance models of paternity in this species. Half the young (50%) were sired by the dominant alpha male, but of the remaining progeny, the beta male sired more (35%) than gamma and delta males (15%). Dominance therefore is only a moderately effective predictor of paternity in the tammar. Although the dominant males gained most first matings and individually sired half of the offspring, the subdominant males still contributed significantly to the population, at least in captivity. PMID:15985638

  13. Sensory Integration Regulating Male Courtship Behavior in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Krstic, Dimitrije; Boll, Werner; Noll, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The courtship behavior of Drosophila melanogaster serves as an excellent model system to study how complex innate behaviors are controlled by the nervous system. To understand how the underlying neural network controls this behavior, it is not sufficient to unravel its architecture, but also crucial to decipher its logic. By systematic analysis of how variations in sensory inputs alter the courtship behavior of a naïve male in the single-choice courtship paradigm, we derive a model describing the logic of the network that integrates the various sensory stimuli and elicits this complex innate behavior. This approach and the model derived from it distinguish (i) between initiation and maintenance of courtship, (ii) between courtship in daylight and in the dark, where the male uses a scanning strategy to retrieve the decamping female, and (iii) between courtship towards receptive virgin females and mature males. The last distinction demonstrates that sexual orientation of the courting male, in the absence of discriminatory visual cues, depends on the integration of gustatory and behavioral feedback inputs, but not on olfactory signals from the courted animal. The model will complement studies on the connectivity and intrinsic properties of the neurons forming the circuitry that regulates male courtship behavior. PMID:19214231

  14. Motor function benefits of visual restoration measured in age-related cataract and simulated patients: Case-control and clinical experimental studies

    PubMed Central

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Nagura, Takeo; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Negishi, Kazuno; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure gait velocity in cataract and simulated patients. The study was performed on 239 cataract patients, 115 age-matched subjects, and 11 simulated patients. We measured gait velocity and analyzed gait using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Mean gait velocity before and 2 and 7 months after cataract surgery was 0.91 ± 0.19, 1.04 ± 0.21, and 1.06 ± 0.21 m/s, respectively, for males and 0.84 ± 0.22, 0.91 ± 0.24, and 0.92 ± 0.25 m/s, respectively, for females. The increase after surgery was significant in both groups at 7 months (P < 0.05). Gait velocity was significantly slower in cataract patients compared with controls before surgery, but no longer different after surgery. In simulated patients, mean velocity was 87.0 ± 11.4% of normal vision with a 3° visual field and 92.4 ± 12.3% of normal when counting fingers. Initial velocity was 89.1 ± 14.6% of normal vision with a 3° visual field and 92.7 ± 11.6% of normal when counting fingers. There was a significant difference between normal and impaired visual function (P < 0.05). The results demonstrate the close relationship between visual function and gait in cataract patients and simulated patients. PMID:26420727

  15. A Phase I Clinical Study of a Live Attenuated Bordetella pertussis Vaccine - BPZE1; A Single Centre, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Escalating Study of BPZE1 Given Intranasally to Healthy Adult Male Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Thorstensson, Rigmor; Trollfors, Birger; Al-Tawil, Nabil; Jahnmatz, Maja; Bergström, Jakob; Ljungman, Margaretha; Törner, Anna; Wehlin, Lena; Van Broekhoven, Annie; Bosman, Fons; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Mielcarek, Nathalie; Locht, Camille

    2014-01-01

    Background Acellular pertussis vaccines do not control pertussis. A new approach to offer protection to infants is necessary. BPZE1, a genetically modified Bordetella pertussis strain, was developed as a live attenuated nasal pertussis vaccine by genetically eliminating or detoxifying 3 toxins. Methods We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study of BPZE1 given intranasally for the first time to human volunteers, the first trial of a live attenuated bacterial vaccine specifically designed for the respiratory tract. 12 subjects per dose group received 103, 105 or 107 colony-forming units as droplets with half of the dose in each nostril. 12 controls received the diluent. Local and systemic safety and immune responses were assessed during 6 months, and nasopharyngeal colonization with BPZE1 was determined with repeated cultures during the first 4 weeks after vaccination. Results Colonization was seen in one subject in the low dose, one in the medium dose and five in the high dose group. Significant increases in immune responses against pertussis antigens were seen in all colonized subjects. There was one serious adverse event not related to the vaccine. Other adverse events were trivial and occurred with similar frequency in the placebo and vaccine groups. Conclusions BPZE1 is safe in healthy adults and able to transiently colonize the nasopharynx. It induces immune responses in all colonized individuals. BPZE1 can thus undergo further clinical development, including dose optimization and trials in younger age groups. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01188512 PMID:24421886

  16. Neural Mechanisms of Verb Argument Structure Processing in Agrammatic Aphasic and Healthy Age-Matched Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Fix, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior peri-sylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions on the basis of argument structure complexity. The aim of…

  17. Male Infertility: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chan, S. L.

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation of the subfertile male starts with the basic history and physical examination, which often provide indication of probable cause. Aside from analysis of properly collected semen, most cases require very few tests. Etiology can be classified as pretesticular, testicular, and post-testicular. Treatment can be more specific if a definite cause is found. Unfortunately, about 25% of patients are idiopathic, and non-specific treatments generally yield unacceptably low conception rates. Improvement will occur as more becomes known, through animal research and clinical application, about the physiology of spermatogenesis and the pathological processes that can affect it. PMID:21253072

  18. Male sexual dysfunction in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Christopher CK; Singam, Praveen; Hong, Goh Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

    2011-01-01

    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care. PMID:21643001

  19. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Diana . E-mail: d.anderson1@bradford.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, the public has become more aware that exposure of males to certain agents can adversely affect their offspring and cause infertility and cancer. The hazards associated with exposure to ionising radiation have been recognised for nearly a century, but interest was aroused when a cluster of leukaemia cases was identified in young children living in Seascale, close to the nuclear processing plant at Sellafield in West Cumbria. There was a civil court case on behalf of two of the alleged victims of paternal irradiation at Seascale against British Nuclear Fuels. The case foundered on 'the balance of probabilities'. Nevertheless, there was support for paternal exposure from Japanese experimental X-ray studies in mice. The tumours were clearly heritable as shown by F2 transmission. Also, effects of a relatively non-toxic dose of radiation (1Gy) on cell proliferation transmitted to the embryo were manifested in the germ line of adult male mice even after two generations. In addition in humans, smoking fathers appear to give rise to tumours in the F{sub 1} generation. Using rodent models, developmental abnormalities/congenital malformations and tumours can be studied after exposure of males in an extended dominant lethal assay and congenital malformations can be determined which have similar manifestations in humans. The foetuses can also be investigated for skeletal malformations and litters can be allowed to develop to adulthood when tumours, if present, can be observed. Karyotype analysis can be performed on foetuses and adult offspring to determine if induced genetic damage can be transmitted. Using this study design, cyclophosphamide, 1,3-butadiene and urethane have been examined and each compound produced positive responses: cyclophosphamide in all endpoints examined, 1,3-butadiene in some and urethane only produced liver tumours in F{sub 1} male offspring. This suggests the endpoints are determined by independent genetic events. The results from

  20. Male reproductive health and infertility.

    PubMed

    Frey, Keith A

    2010-09-01

    Primary care physicians have an essential role and opportunity in positively impacting the reproductive health of men. Although men are less likely than women to consistently seek preventive services, an office visit for any reason should be seen as an opportunity to introduce the idea of reproductive health. Additionally, primary care physicians can and should initiate the diagnostic workup for infertile couples in their practices. The initial assessment for the male partner consists of a thorough history and physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests, including a semen analysis. PMID:20705204

  1. Male sexual dysfunction in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher Ck; Singam, Praveen; Hong, Goh Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

    2011-07-01

    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care. PMID:21643001

  2. Television viewing and obesity in adult males.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, L A; Friedman, G M

    1989-01-01

    We estimated the extent to which time spent watching television is associated with obesity and super-obesity among 6,138 employed adult males