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Sample records for age-matched normal controls

  1. Age-Matched, Case-Controlled Comparison of Clinical Indicators for Development of Entropion and Ectropion

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Kevin S.; Czyz, Craig N.; Cahill, Kenneth V.; Foster, Jill A.; Burns, John A.; Everman, Kelly R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze the clinical findings associated with involutional entropion and ectropion and compare them to each other and to age-matched controls. Methods. Prospective, age-matched cohort study involving 30 lids with involutional entropion, 30 lids with involutional ectropion, and 52 age-matched control lids. Results. The statistically significant differences associated with both the entropion and ectropion groups compared to the control group were presence of a retractor dehiscence, presence of a “white line,” occurrence of orbital fat prolapse in the cul-de-sac, decreased lower lid excursion, increased lid laxity by the snapback test, and an increased lower lid distraction. Entropion also differed from the control group with an increased lid crease height and decreased lateral canthal excursion. Statistically significant differences associated with entropion compared to ectropion were presence of a retractor dehiscence, decreased lateral canthal excursion, and less laxity in the snapback test. Conclusion. Entropic and ectropic lids demonstrate clinically and statistically significant anatomical and functional differences from normal, age-matched lids. Many clinical findings associated with entropion are also present in ectropion. Entropion is more likely to develop with a pronounced retractor deficiency. Ectropion is more likely to develop with diminished elasticity as measured by the snapback test. PMID:24734167

  2. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  3. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  4. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  5. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  6. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  7. Oral contraceptive use among female elite athletes and age-matched controls and its relation to low back pain.

    PubMed

    Brynhildsen, J; Lennartsson, H; Klemetz, M; Dahlquist, P; Hedin, B; Hammar, M

    1997-10-01

    Exogenous and endogenous female sex steroids may influence the risk of low back pain. The fact that back pain is a very common symptom during pregnancy supports this theory. Back pain is also more common among female than male athletes. Oral contraceptives have been suggested to increase the risk of low back pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the prevalence of low back pain is higher among oral contraceptive users than non-users and if it differs between women taking part in different sports. A questionnaire was sent to female elite athletes in volleyball (n = 205), basketball (n = 150), and soccer (n = 361) as well as to age-matched controls (n = 113). The questionnaire comprised questions about age, constitution, occupation, parity, and use of contraceptive method as well as previous and current back pain and possible consequences of the back problems. The response rate was 85%. Between 42% and 52% of the women in the different groups used oral contraceptives. The groups were similar in most background variables, except that the volleyball and basketball players were taller. The prevalence of current low back pain was between 21% and 34% in the different athlete groups, with an average of 30%, whereas only 18% of the controls suffered from low back pain (p 0.01). The prevalence of low back pain within each group--athletes as well as controls--was similar in women who used and did not use oral contraceptives. This study does not support the theory that low back pain is affected by the use of oral contraceptives. Instead, constitutional factors and mechanical stress during intense physical activity are probably more important.

  8. Preserved Learning during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J.; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit–symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol–digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol–digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. Results: The repetition of the same symbol–digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the

  9. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  10. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference “creatinine independent” GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys. PMID:27651734

  11. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference “creatinine independent” GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys.

  12. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control.

    PubMed

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-09-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference "creatinine independent" GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys. PMID:27651734

  13. Functional Aspects of Gait in Essential Tremor: A Comparison with Age-Matched Parkinson’s Disease Cases, Dystonia Cases, and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Rao, Ashwini K.

    2015-01-01

    Background An understanding of the functional aspects of gait and balance has wide ramifications. Individuals with balance disorders often restrict physical activity, travel, and social commitments to avoid falling, and loss of balance confidence, itself, is a source of disability. We studied the functional aspects of gait in patients with essential tremor (ET), placing their findings within the context of two other neurological disorders (Parkinson’s disease [PD] and dystonia) and comparing them with age-matched controls. Methods We administered the six-item Activities of Balance Confidence (ABC-6) Scale and collected data on number of falls and near-falls, and use of walking aids in 422 participants (126 ET, 77 PD, 46 dystonia, 173 controls). Results Balance confidence was lowest in PD, intermediate in ET, and relatively preserved in dystonia compared with controls. This ordering reoccurred for each of the six ABC-6 items. The number of near-falls and falls followed a similar ordering. Use of canes, walkers, and wheelchairs was elevated in ET and even greater in PD. Several measures of balance confidence (ABC-6 items 1, 4, 5, and 6) were lower in torticollis cases than in those with blepharospasm, although the two groups did not differ with respect to falls or use of walking aids. Discussion Lower balance confidence, increased falls, and greater need for walking aids are variably features of a range of movement disorder patients compared to age-matched controls. While most marked among PD patients, these issues affected ET patients as well and, to a small degree, some patients with dystonia. PMID:26056611

  14. Semiquantitative proteomic analysis of human hippocampal tissues from Alzheimer’s disease and age-matched control brains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia affecting people over 65 years of age. The hallmarks of AD are the extracellular deposits known as amyloid β plaques and the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, both of which are the principal players involved in synaptic loss and neuronal cell death. Tau protein and Aβ fragment 1–42 have been investigated so far in cerebrospinal fluid as a potential AD biomarkers. However, an urgent need to identify novel biomarkers which will capture disease in the early stages and with better specificity remains. High-throughput proteomic and pathway analysis of hippocampal tissue provides a valuable source of disease-related proteins and biomarker candidates, since it represents one of the earliest affected brain regions in AD. Results In this study 2954 proteins were identified (with at least 2 peptides for 1203 proteins) from both control and AD brain tissues. Overall, 204 proteins were exclusively detected in AD and 600 proteins in control samples. Comparing AD and control exclusive proteins with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) literature-based proteome, 40 out of 204 AD related proteins and 106 out of 600 control related proteins were also present in CSF. As most of these proteins were extracellular/secretory origin, we consider them as a potential source of candidate biomarkers that need to be further studied and verified in CSF samples. Conclusions Our semiquantitative proteomic analysis provides one of the largest human hippocampal proteome databases. The lists of AD and control related proteins represent a panel of proteins potentially involved in AD pathogenesis and could also serve as prospective AD diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:23635041

  15. Sicca symptoms in Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma: a comparison with age-matched controls and correlation with disease variables.

    PubMed

    Wangkaew, Suparaporn; Kasitanon, Nuntana; Sivasomboon, Chate; Wichainun, Ramjai; Sukitawut, Waraporn; Louthrenoo, Worawit

    2006-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of ocular and oral sicca symptoms in Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and scleroderma (Scl). The ocular symptoms and sign (the Schirmer's 1 test) and the oral sicca symptoms and sign (the Saxon's test) in each of 50 RA, SLE and Scl patients were compared with their age-matched controls. The correlation between the presence of sicca symptoms and signs with their clinical activity was also determined. Ocular sicca symptoms were found more common in patients with RA (38% vs 18%, p < 0.05), SLE (36% vs 14%, p < 0.05) and Scl (54% vs 16%, p < 0.01), and oral sicca symptoms were found more common in SLE (22% vs 0%, p < 0.01), and Scl (16% vs 4%, p < 0.05) than their controls. However, only RA patients had a significantly higher proportion of positive Schimer-1 test compared with their controls (p < 0.01). There was no strong correlation between sicca symptoms or signs and other clinical or laboratory variables (age, disease duration, disease activity, disease severity, and antibody to Ro and La antigens) in these three groups. In conclusion, sicca symptoms were seen significantly more common in Thai patients with connective tissue diseases, but the symptoms did not show a good correlation with the clinical and laboratory variables.

  16. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  17. Comparison of younger and older breast cancer survivors and age-matched controls on specific and overall QoL domains

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Victoria L.; Wagner, Lynne I.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Daggy, Joanne; Smith, Lisa; Cohee, Andrea; Ziner, Kim W.; Haase, Joan E.; Miller, Kathy; Pradhan, Kamnesh; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Cella, David; Ansari, Bilal; Sledge, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Younger survivors (YS) of breast cancer often report more survivorship symptoms such as fatigue, depression, sexual difficulty, and cognitive problems than older survivors (OS). We sought to determine the effect of breast cancer and age at diagnosis on Quality of Life (QoL) by comparing 3 groups: 1) YS diagnosed at age 45 or before, 2) OS diagnosed between 55 and 70, and, 3) for the YS, age-matched controls (AC) of women not diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods Using a large Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) data base, we recruited 505 YS who were ages 45 or younger when diagnosed and 622 OS diagnosed at 55 to 70. YS, OS, and AC were compared on physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and overall QoL variables. Results Compared to both AC and to OS, YS reported more depressive symptoms (p=.005) and fatigue (p<.001), poorer self-reported attention function (p<.001), and poorer sexual function (p<.001) than either comparison group. However, YS also reported a greater sense of personal growth (p<.001) and perceived less social constraint (p<.001) from their partner than AC. Conclusions YS reported worse functioning than AC relative to depression, fatigue, attention, sexual function, and spirituality. Perhaps even more important, YS fared worse than both AC and OS on body image, anxiety, sleep, marital satisfaction, and fear of recurrence, indicating that YS are at greater risk for long term QoL problems than survivors diagnosed at a later age. PMID:24891116

  18. RELN-expressing Neuron Density in Layer I of the Superior Temporal Lobe is Similar in Human Brains with Autism and in Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C.; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. PMID:25067827

  19. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p < 0.05 for the overall physiologic state effect (lactation vs. control), and a within tissue pairwise comparison of p < 0.01. The proportion of false positives, an estimate of the ratio of false positives in the list of differentially expressed genes, was calculated for each tissue. The number of differentially expressed genes was 420 in the liver, 337 in the duodenum, 402 in the jejunum, and 523 in the ileum. The list of differentially expressed genes was in turn analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) to detect biological pathways that were overrepresented. In all tissues, sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-regulated genes involved in cholesterol synthesis showed increased mRNA expression, with the fewest changes detected in the jejunum. We detected increased Scap mRNA in the liver only, suggesting an explanation for the difference in response to lactation between the liver and small intestine. Expression of Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In

  20. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  1. Intensively-Managed Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes Consume High-Fat, Low-Fiber Diets Similar to Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sanjeev N.; Volkening, Lisa K.; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n=67), ages 2–12 years, attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared to a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, n=1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared to children participating in NHANES (42% vs. 30%, p=0.04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs. 13%, p=0.03), whole grains (12% vs. 5%, p=0.005), and dairy (55% vs. 36%, p=0.001) compared to NHANES children while similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs. 33%, p=0.2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than NHANES children (14% vs. 12% total energy intake, p=0.0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared to NHANES children, children with T1D had higher HEI-2005 scores (59.6 vs. 49.7, p=0.0006) primarily due to lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable to youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  2. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  3. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain.

  4. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  5. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals.

  6. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals. PMID:25790831

  7. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  8. Plasma antibodies to Abeta40 and Abeta42 in patients with Alzheimer's disease and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wuhua; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Matsubara, Etsuro; Deguchi, Kentaro; Murakami, Tetsuro; Harigaya, Yasuo; Ikeda, Masaki; Amari, Masakuni; Kuwano, Ryozo; Abe, Koji; Shoji, Mikio

    2008-07-11

    Antibodies to amyloid beta protein (Abeta) are present naturally or after Abeta vaccine therapy in human plasma. To clarify their clinical role, we examined plasma samples from 113 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 205 normal controls using the tissue amyloid plaque immunoreactivity (TAPIR) assay. A high positive rate of TAPIR was revealed in AD (45.1%) and age-matched controls (41.2%), however, no significance was observed. No significant difference was observed in the MMS score or disease duration between TAPIR-positive and negative samples. TAPIR-positive plasma reacted with the Abeta40 monomer and dimer, and the Abeta42 monomer weakly, but not with the Abeta42 dimer. TAPIR was even detected in samples from young normal subjects and young Tg2576 transgenic mice. Although the Abeta40 level and Abeta40/42 ratio increased, and Abeta42 was significantly decreased in plasma from AD groups when compared to controls, no significant correlations were revealed between plasma Abeta levels and TAPIR grading. Thus an immune response to Abeta40 and immune tolerance to Abeta42 occurred naturally in humans without a close relationship to the Abeta burden in the brain. Clarification of the mechanism of the immune response to Abeta42 is necessary for realization of an immunotherapy for AD. PMID:18534566

  9. Plasma antibodies to Abeta40 and Abeta42 in patients with Alzheimer's disease and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wuhua; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Matsubara, Etsuro; Deguchi, Kentaro; Murakami, Tetsuro; Harigaya, Yasuo; Ikeda, Masaki; Amari, Masakuni; Kuwano, Ryozo; Abe, Koji; Shoji, Mikio

    2008-07-11

    Antibodies to amyloid beta protein (Abeta) are present naturally or after Abeta vaccine therapy in human plasma. To clarify their clinical role, we examined plasma samples from 113 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 205 normal controls using the tissue amyloid plaque immunoreactivity (TAPIR) assay. A high positive rate of TAPIR was revealed in AD (45.1%) and age-matched controls (41.2%), however, no significance was observed. No significant difference was observed in the MMS score or disease duration between TAPIR-positive and negative samples. TAPIR-positive plasma reacted with the Abeta40 monomer and dimer, and the Abeta42 monomer weakly, but not with the Abeta42 dimer. TAPIR was even detected in samples from young normal subjects and young Tg2576 transgenic mice. Although the Abeta40 level and Abeta40/42 ratio increased, and Abeta42 was significantly decreased in plasma from AD groups when compared to controls, no significant correlations were revealed between plasma Abeta levels and TAPIR grading. Thus an immune response to Abeta40 and immune tolerance to Abeta42 occurred naturally in humans without a close relationship to the Abeta burden in the brain. Clarification of the mechanism of the immune response to Abeta42 is necessary for realization of an immunotherapy for AD.

  10. Computed tomography-guided in vivo cardiac orientation and correlation with ECG in individuals without structural heart disease and in age-matched obese and older individuals.

    PubMed

    Sathananthan, Gnalini; Aggarwal, Gunjan; Zahid, Simmi; Byth, Karen; Chik, William; Friedman, Daniel; Thiagalingam, Aravinda

    2015-05-01

    The cardiac axis in a structurally normal heart is influenced by a number of factors. We investigated the anatomical and electrical cardiac axes in middle-aged individuals without structural heart disease and compared this with age-matched obese and older individuals without structural heart disease. A retrospective study of controls included those between 30 and 60 years old with a normal body mass index (BMI), who were then compared with obese individuals between 30 and 60 years old and with individuals more than 60 years old with a normal BMI. The anatomical cardiac axis was determined along the long axis by cardiac computed tomography (CT) and correlated with the electrical cardiac axis on a surface electrocardiogram (ECG) in the frontal plane. A total of 124 patients were included. In the controls (n = 59), the mean CT axis was 38.1° ± 7.8° whilst the mean ECG axis was 51.8° ± 26.6°, Pearson r value 0.12 (P = 0.365). In the obese (n = 36), the mean CT axis was 25.1° ± 6.2° whilst the mean ECG axis was 20.1° ± 23.9°, Pearson r value 0.05 (P = 0.808). In the older group (n = 29), the mean CT axis was 34.4° ± 9.1° whilst the mean ECG axis was 34.4° ± 30.3°, Pearson r value 0.26 (P = 0.209). Obese individuals have a more leftward rotation of both axes than age-matched normals (P <0.0001), which could be secondary to elevation of the diaphragm. Older individuals have a more leftward rotation only of their electrical cardiac axis (P = 0.01), which could be a normal variant or reflect underlying conduction disturbances in this age group.

  11. Control of normal chirality at hexagonal interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Haraldsen, Jason T; Fishman, Randy Scott

    2010-01-01

    We study the net chirality created by the Dzyaloshinkii-Moriya interaction (DMI) at the boundary between hexagonal layers of magnetic and non-magnetic materials. It is shown that another mechanism besides elastic torsion is required to understand the change in chirality observed in Dy/Y multilayers during field-cooling. The paper shows that due to the overlap between magnetic and non-magnetic atoms, interfacial steps may produce a DMI normal to the interface in magnetic heterostructures.

  12. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  13. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Richard A; Pahnke, Aric Q; Johnson, Jeffrey M; Sachse, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06) but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06) and adult (0.91 ± 0.04) myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal that the

  14. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  15. Normalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Eduardo J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses cornerstone of Montessori theory, normalization, which asserts that if a child is placed in an optimum prepared environment where inner impulses match external opportunities, the undeviated self emerges, a being totally in harmony with its surroundings. Makes distinctions regarding normalization, normalized, and normality, indicating how…

  16. SPC without Control Limits and Normality Assumption: A New Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez-Lopez, J. A.; Lopez-Juarez, I.

    Control Charts (CC) are important Statistic Process Control (SPC) tools developed in the 20's to control and improve the quality of industrial production. The use of CC requires visual inspection and human judgement to diagnoses the process quality properly. CC assume normal distribution in the observed variables to establish the control limits. However, this is a requirement difficult to meet in practice since skewness distributions are commonly observed. In this research, a novel method that neither requires control limits nor data normality is presented. The core of the method is based on the FuzzyARTMAP (FAM) Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that learns special and non-special patterns of variation and whose internal parameters are determined through experimental design to increase its efficiency. The proposed method was implemented successfully in a manufacturing process determining the statistical control state that validate our method.

  17. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  18. Cas Proteins in Normal and Pathological Cell Growth Control

    PubMed Central

    Tikhmyanova, Nadezhda; Little, Joy L.; Golemis, Erica A.

    2009-01-01

    Proteins of the CAS (Crk-Associated Substrate) family (BCAR1/p130Cas, NEDD9/HEF1/Cas-L, EFS/SIN and CASS4/HEPL) are integral players in normal and pathological cell biology. CAS proteins act as scaffolds to regulate protein complexes controlling migration and chemotaxis, apoptosis, cell cycle, and differentiation, and have more recently been linked to a role in progenitor cell function. Reflecting these complex functions, over-expression of CAS proteins has now been strongly linked to poor prognosis and increased metastasis in cancer, as well as resistance to first-line chemotherapeutics in multiple tumor types including breast and lung cancers, glioblastoma, and melanoma. Further, CAS proteins have also been linked to additional pathological conditions including inflammatory disorders, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, as well as developmental defects. This review will explore the roles of the CAS proteins in normal and pathological states in the context of the many mechanistic insights into CAS protein function that have emerged in the past decade. PMID:19937461

  19. Controlled Vocabularies Boost International Participation and Normalization of Searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola M.

    2006-01-01

    The Global Change Master Directory's (GCMD) science staff set out to document Earth science data and provide a mechanism for it's discovery in fulfillment of a commitment to NASA's Earth Science progam and to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites' (CEOS) International Directory Network (IDN.) At the time, whether to offer a controlled vocabulary search or a free-text search was resolved with a decision to support both. The feedback from the user community indicated that being asked to independently determine the appropriate 'English" words through a free-text search would be very difficult. The preference was to be 'prompted' for relevant keywords through the use of a hierarchy of well-designed science keywords. The controlled keywords serve to 'normalize' the search through knowledgeable input by metadata providers. Earth science keyword taxonomies were developed, rules for additions, deletions, and modifications were created. Secondary sets of controlled vocabularies for related descriptors such as projects, data centers, instruments, platforms, related data set link types, and locations, along with free-text searches assist users in further refining their search results. Through this robust 'search and refine' capability in the GCMD users are directed to the data and services they seek. The next step in guiding users more directly to the resources they desire is to build a 'reasoning' capability for search through the use of ontologies. Incorporating twelve sets of Earth science keyword taxonomies has boosted the GCMD S ability to help users define and more directly retrieve data of choice.

  20. Volunteers for biomedical research. Recruitment and screening of normal controls.

    PubMed

    Shtasel, D L; Gur, R E; Mozley, P D; Richards, J; Taleff, M M; Heimberg, C; Gallacher, F; Gur, R C

    1991-11-01

    We examined the process of accruing healthy control subjects for biomedical research on brain function. Of 1670 responders to newspaper advertising, 23.1% were uninterested when learning more about the studies, and 50.9% of those remaining were found by structured telephone screening to meet exclusionary criteria for having a history of psychiatric, neurologic, or medical disease that might affect brain function. Of 312 volunteers passing the telephone screening who came to an in-person evaluation by a physician and agreed to participate, 49.7% were found to meet exclusionary criteria, and only 157 were admitted to the study. This underscores the importance of attending to the issue of screening and assessment of "normal volunteers." Alternative strategies should be considered for enriching the pool.

  1. Waking genioglossal electromyogram in sleep apnea patients versus normal controls (a neuromuscular compensatory mechanism).

    PubMed

    Mezzanotte, W S; Tangel, D J; White, D P

    1992-05-01

    Pharyngeal collapse in obstructive sleep apnea patients is likely a product of a sleep-related decrement in pharyngeal dilator muscle activity superimposed upon abnormal airway anatomy. We postulate that during wakefulness, increased pharyngeal dilator muscle activity in apnea patients compensates for diminished airway size thus maintaining patency. We studied the waking genioglossus (GG) electromyogram (EMG) activity in 11 OSA patients and 14 age-matched controls to determine if GG activity is higher in the awake state in apnea patients than controls. To make this determination, we developed a reproducible methodology whereby true maximal GG EMG could be defined and thus basal activity quantitated as a percentage of this maximal value. Therefore, direct comparisons of basal activity between individuals was possible. We observed apnea patients to have significantly greater basal genioglossal activity compared to controls (40.6 +/- 5.6% vs. 12.7 +/- 1.7% of maximum). This difference persisted when size-matched subsets were compared. This augmented GG activity in apnea patients could be reduced with positive airway pressure. We speculate that this neuromuscular compensation present during wakefulness in apnea patients may be lost during sleep leading to airway collapse.

  2. Waking genioglossal electromyogram in sleep apnea patients versus normal controls (a neuromuscular compensatory mechanism).

    PubMed Central

    Mezzanotte, W S; Tangel, D J; White, D P

    1992-01-01

    Pharyngeal collapse in obstructive sleep apnea patients is likely a product of a sleep-related decrement in pharyngeal dilator muscle activity superimposed upon abnormal airway anatomy. We postulate that during wakefulness, increased pharyngeal dilator muscle activity in apnea patients compensates for diminished airway size thus maintaining patency. We studied the waking genioglossus (GG) electromyogram (EMG) activity in 11 OSA patients and 14 age-matched controls to determine if GG activity is higher in the awake state in apnea patients than controls. To make this determination, we developed a reproducible methodology whereby true maximal GG EMG could be defined and thus basal activity quantitated as a percentage of this maximal value. Therefore, direct comparisons of basal activity between individuals was possible. We observed apnea patients to have significantly greater basal genioglossal activity compared to controls (40.6 +/- 5.6% vs. 12.7 +/- 1.7% of maximum). This difference persisted when size-matched subsets were compared. This augmented GG activity in apnea patients could be reduced with positive airway pressure. We speculate that this neuromuscular compensation present during wakefulness in apnea patients may be lost during sleep leading to airway collapse. PMID:1569196

  3. Control Systems with Normalized and Covariance Adaptation by Optimal Control Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T. (Inventor); Burken, John J. (Inventor); Hanson, Curtis E. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Disclosed is a novel adaptive control method and system called optimal control modification with normalization and covariance adjustment. The invention addresses specifically to current challenges with adaptive control in these areas: 1) persistent excitation, 2) complex nonlinear input-output mapping, 3) large inputs and persistent learning, and 4) the lack of stability analysis tools for certification. The invention has been subject to many simulations and flight testing. The results substantiate the effectiveness of the invention and demonstrate the technical feasibility for use in modern aircraft flight control systems.

  4. Retinas from albino rats are more susceptible to ischaemic damage than age-matched pigmented animals.

    PubMed

    Safa, R; Osborne, N N

    2000-04-17

    Age- and sex-matched pigmented (Lister Hooded) and albino (Wistar) rats were used in this study. The retinas of the animals were subjected to pressure-induced ischaemia (35 min, 120 mmHg) and reperfusion (3 days) in precisely the same way. The b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) in the pigmented animals recovered to normal levels while those of the albino rats were reduced by more than 80%. Moreover, the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity associated with a sub-set of amacrine cells was almost completely obliterated in the retinas from the albino rats but unaffected in the retinas of the pigmented rats. Also, in certain areas of the retina from albino rats there was a suggestion that the calretinin-immunoreactivity was affected. This was never seen in the retinas of the pigmented animals. The GABA-immunoreactivity in the retina of both albino and pigmented rats appeared to be unaffected by ischaemia/reperfusion. The data presented show that retinas from albino rats are more susceptible to ischaemia/reperfusion than retinas from pigmented animals. The results also show that reduction of the b-wave of the ERG and changes in the nature of the ChAT immunoreactivity represent sensitive markers to detect the effect of ischaemia/reperfusion to the retina.

  5. Intelligence and Regional Brain Volumes in Normal Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flashman, Laura A.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Flaum, Michael; Swayze, Victor W., II

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between brain size and intelligence was examined in 90 normal volunteers. Results support the notion of a modest relationship between brain size and measures of global intelligence and suggest diffuse brain involvement on performance tasks that require integration and use of multiple cognitive domains. (Author/SLD)

  6. Motor Planning and Control in Autism. A Kinematic Analysis of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forti, Sara; Valli, Angela; Perego, Paolo; Nobile, Maria; Crippa, Alessandro; Molteni, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Kinematic recordings in a reach and drop task were compared between 12 preschool children with autism without mental retardation and 12 gender and age-matched normally developing children. Our aim was to investigate whether motor anomalies in autism may depend more on a planning ability dysfunction or on a motor control deficit. Planning and…

  7. Saccades Improve Postural Control: A Developmental Study in Normal Children

    PubMed Central

    Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dual-task performance is known to affect postural stability in children. This study focused on the effect of oculomotor tasks like saccadic eye movements on postural stability, studied in a large population of children by recording simultaneously their eye movements and posture. Materials and Methods Ninety-five healthy children from 5.8 to 17.6 years old were examined. All children were free of any vestibular, neurological, ophtalmologic and orthoptic abnormalities. Postural control was measured with a force platform TechnoConcept®, and eye movements with video oculography (MobilEBT®). Children performed two oculomotor tasks: fixation of a stable central target and horizontal saccades. We measured the saccade latency and the number of saccades during fixation as well as the surface, length and mean velocity of the center of pressure. Results During postural measurement, we observed a correlation between the age on the one hand and a decrease in saccade latency as well as an improvement in the quality of fixation on the other. Postural sway decreases with age and is reduced in the dual task (saccades) in comparison with a simple task of fixation. Discussion - Conclusion These results suggest a maturation of neural circuits controlling posture and eye movements during childhood. This study also shows the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor system and the postural system. Engaging in oculomotor tasks results in a reduction of postural sway. PMID:24278379

  8. Gate-voltage-controlled spin and valley polarization transport in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal MoS₂ junction.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai; Shao, Jianmei; Yao, Daoxin; Yang, Guowei

    2014-02-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are extensively explored due to the remarkable physical property and the great potential for post-silicon electronics since the landmark achievement of graphene. The monolayer (ML) MoS2 with a direct energy gap is a typical 2D material and promising candidate for a wide range of device applications. The extensive efforts so far have focused on the optical valley control applications of ML MoS2 rather than the electrical control of spin and valley transport. However, the electrical manipulation of spin injection and transport is essential to realize practical spintronics applications. Here, we theoretically demonstrated that the valley and spin transport can be electrically manipulated by a gate voltage in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal monolayer MoS2 junction device. It was found that the fully valley- and spin-polarized conductance can be achieved due to the spin-valley coupling of valence-band edges together with the exchange field, and both the amplitude and direction of the fully spin-polarized conductance can be modulated by the gate voltage. These findings not only provided deep understanding to the basic physics in the spin and valley transport of ML MoS2 but also opened an avenue for the electrical control of valley and spin transport in monolayer dichalcogenide-based devices. PMID:24417464

  9. Gate-voltage-controlled spin and valley polarization transport in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal MoS₂ junction.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai; Shao, Jianmei; Yao, Daoxin; Yang, Guowei

    2014-02-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are extensively explored due to the remarkable physical property and the great potential for post-silicon electronics since the landmark achievement of graphene. The monolayer (ML) MoS2 with a direct energy gap is a typical 2D material and promising candidate for a wide range of device applications. The extensive efforts so far have focused on the optical valley control applications of ML MoS2 rather than the electrical control of spin and valley transport. However, the electrical manipulation of spin injection and transport is essential to realize practical spintronics applications. Here, we theoretically demonstrated that the valley and spin transport can be electrically manipulated by a gate voltage in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal monolayer MoS2 junction device. It was found that the fully valley- and spin-polarized conductance can be achieved due to the spin-valley coupling of valence-band edges together with the exchange field, and both the amplitude and direction of the fully spin-polarized conductance can be modulated by the gate voltage. These findings not only provided deep understanding to the basic physics in the spin and valley transport of ML MoS2 but also opened an avenue for the electrical control of valley and spin transport in monolayer dichalcogenide-based devices.

  10. Seasonal variation of imipramine binding in the blood platelets of normal controls and depressed patients

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, R.C.; Meltzer, H.Y.

    1988-02-01

    Imipramine binding (IB) was studied in the blood platelets from normal controls and depressed patients over a 4-year period (1981-1984) to determine if seasonal variation was present in Bmax or KD. Bimonthly variation in the Bmax of IB was found in normal controls studied longitudinally. No such variation was found when individual values from normal controls were examined on a monthly or seasonal basis. Bmax in depressed patients showed a significant seasonal, but not monthly, variation. KD of IB varied in normal controls using monthly or seasonal data, but not in the probably more reliable bimonthly data. These results suggest that IB studies comparing groups of subjects should match groups for season of the year or, for greater accuracy, month of the year.

  11. Optimal Redundancy Management in Reconfigurable Control Systems Based on Normalized Nonspecificity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, N.Eva; Klir, George J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the notion of normalized nonspecificity is introduced. The nonspecifity measures the uncertainty of the estimated parameters that reflect impairment in a controlled system. Based on this notion, a quantity called a reconfiguration coverage is calculated. It represents the likelihood of success of a control reconfiguration action. This coverage links the overall system reliability to the achievable and required control, as well as diagnostic performance. The coverage, when calculated on-line, is used for managing the redundancy in the system.

  12. The APOE Genotype in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Mehlig, Kirsten; Rosengren, Annika; Torén, Kjell; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wikkelsö, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Amyloid plaque has been reported in brain biopsies from patients with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and proposed as a significant feature of the pathophysiology. Presence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) allele is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aims To compare the distribution of APOE genotype in iNPH patients with an age-matched population-based control group and with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Methods APOE genotype frequencies were determined in 77 iNPH patients (50 men and 27 women, mean age 71.7 years) diagnosed with iNPH, a sample of 691 AD patients and 638 age-matched population controls (299 men and 339 women) from the INTERGENE cohort. Results The APOE distribution did not differ significantly between the iNPH patients and the control population. The per e4-allele odds-ratio (OR) of iNPH was given by OR = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (0.50, 1.60) that was considerably smaller than the per-allele OR of AD, OR = 5.34 (4.10, 7.00). Conclusion The results suggest that the APOE-related risk of AD in patients with iNPH is not higher than in the general population. PMID:27441602

  13. Controlling the number of graphene sheets exfoliated from graphite by designed normal loading and frictional motion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seungjun; Lu, Wei

    2014-07-14

    We use molecular dynamics to study the exfoliation of patterned nanometer-sized graphite under various normal loading conditions for friction-induced exfoliation. Using highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) as well as both amorphous and crystalline SiO{sub 2} substrate as example systems, we show that the exfoliation process is attributed to the corrugation of the HOPG surface and the atomistic roughness of the substrate when they contact under normal loading. The critical normal strain, at which the exfoliation occurs, is higher on a crystalline substrate than on an amorphous substrate. This effect is related to the atomistic flatness and stiffness of the crystalline surface. We observe that an increase of the van der Waals interaction between the graphite and the substrate results in a decrease of the critical normal strain for exfoliation. We find that the magnitude of the normal strain can effectively control the number of exfoliated graphene layers. This mechanism suggests a promising approach of applying designed normal loading while sliding to pattern controlled number of graphene layers or other two-dimensional materials on a substrate surface.

  14. Deductive and inductive reasoning in Parkinson's disease patients and normal controls: review and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Natsopoulos, D; Katsarou, Z; Alevriadou, A; Grouios, G; Bostantzopoulou, S; Mentenopoulos, G

    1997-09-01

    In the present study, fifty-four subjects were tested; twenty-seven with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and twenty-seven normal controls matched in age, education, verbal ability, level of depression, sex and socio-economic status. The subjects were tested on eight tasks. Five of the tasks were the classic deductive reasoning syllogisms, modus ponens, modus tollendo tollens, affirming the consequent, denying the antecedent and three-term series problems phrased in a factual context (brief scripts). Three of the tasks were inductive reasoning, including logical inferences, metaphors and similes. All tasks were presented to subjects in a multiple choice format. The results, overall, have shown nonsignificant differences between the two groups in deductive and inductive reasoning, an ability traditionally associated with frontal lobes involvement. Of the comparisons performed between subgroups of the patients and normal controls concerning disease duration, disease onset and predominant involvement of the left and/or right hemisphere, significant differences were found between patients with earlier disease onset and normal controls and between bilaterally affected patients and normal controls, demonstrating an additive effect of lateralization to reasoning ability.

  15. Monoamine oxidases and alcoholism. I. Studies in unrelated alcoholics and normal controls

    SciTech Connect

    Parsian, A.; Suarez, B.K.; Fisher, L.

    1995-10-09

    Low platelet MAO activity has been associated with alcoholism. In order to evaluate the role of MAO genes in susceptibility to alcoholism, we have taken a biochemical and molecular genetic approach. The sample consisted of 133 alcoholic probands who were classified by subtypes of alcoholism and 92 normal controls. For those subjects typed for platelet MAO activity, alcoholics (N = 74) were found not to differ from the non-alcoholic controls (N = 34). Neither was there a significant difference between type I and type II alcoholics or between either subtype and normal controls. However, we do find significant differences between male and female alcoholics, but not between male and female controls. The allele frequency distribution for the MAO-A and MAO-B dinucleotide repeats is different between the alcoholic sample (N = 133) and the normal control sample (N = 92). In a two-way analysis of variance of MAO-B activity as a function of the allelic variation of each marker locus and diagnosis, there is no evidence for mean differences in activity levels for the different alleles. Our findings do not rule out a role for the MAO-B gene in controlling the enzyme activity because the dinucleotide repeats are located in introns. 52 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. The anabolic activity of bone tissue, suppressed by disuse, is normalized by brief exposure to extremely low-magnitude mechanical stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, C.; Xu, G.; Judex, S.

    2001-01-01

    It is generally believed that mechanical signals must be large in order to be anabolic to bone tissue. Recent evidence indicates, however, that extremely low-magnitude (<10 microstrain) mechanical signals readily stimulate bone formation if induced at a high frequency. We examined the ability of extremely low-magnitude, high-frequency mechanical signals to restore anabolic bone cell activity inhibited by disuse. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to six groups: baseline control, age-matched control, mechanically stimulated for 10 min/day, disuse (hind limb suspension), disuse interrupted by 10 min/day of weight bearing, and disuse interrupted by 10 min/day of mechanical stimulation. After a 28 day protocol, bone formation rates (BFR) in the proximal tibia of mechanically stimulated rats increased compared with age-matched control (+97%). Disuse alone reduced BFR (-92%), a suppression only slightly curbed when disuse was interrupted by 10 min of weight bearing (-61%). In contrast, disuse interrupted by 10 min per day of low-level mechanical intervention normalized BFR to values seen in age-matched controls. This work indicates that this noninvasive, extremely low-level stimulus may provide an effective biomechanical intervention for the bone loss that plagues long-term space flight, bed rest, or immobilization caused by paralysis.

  17. Normal facial age and gender perception in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Garga; Nakayama, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia is characterized by a severe deficit in face-identity recognition. Most developmental prosopagnosics do not report deficits of facial age or gender perception. We developed tasks for evaluating facial age and gender processing and used them in the largest group of developmental prosopagnosics (N = 18) tested on facial age and gender perception. Care was taken to ensure that the tests were sufficiently sensitive to subtle deficits and required holistic processing as assessed by strong inversion effects in control subjects. Despite severe facial identity deficits, developmental prosopagnosics largely performed these discriminations comparably to controls. The common descriptor "faceblind" implied by the term prosopagnosia is inaccurate as certain kinds of nonidentity facial information, which we call physiognomic features, are processed well by both prosopagnosics and age-matched controls alike. Normal facial age and gender perception in developmental prosopagnosics is consistent with parallel processing models in the cognitive architecture of face processing.

  18. Control-Plate Regression (CPR) Normalization for High-Throughput Screens with Many Active Features.

    PubMed

    Murie, C; Barette, C; Lafanechère, L; Nadon, R

    2014-06-01

    Systematic error is present in all high-throughput screens, lowering measurement accuracy. Because screening occurs at the early stages of research projects, measurement inaccuracy leads to following up inactive features and failing to follow up active features. Current normalization methods take advantage of the fact that most primary-screen features (e.g., compounds) within each plate are inactive, which permits robust estimates of row and column systematic-error effects. Screens that contain a majority of potentially active features pose a more difficult challenge because even the most robust normalization methods will remove at least some of the biological signal. Control plates that contain the same feature in all wells can provide a solution to this problem by providing well-by-well estimates of systematic error, which can then be removed from the treatment plates. We introduce the robust control-plate regression (CPR) method, which uses this approach. CPR's performance is compared to a high-performing primary-screen normalization method in four experiments. These data were also perturbed to simulate screens with large numbers of active features to further assess CPR's performance. CPR performs almost as well as the best performing normalization methods with primary screens and outperforms the Z-score and equivalent methods with screens containing a large proportion of active features.

  19. Normal scaling in globally conserved interface-controlled coarsening of fractal clusters.

    PubMed

    Peleg, A; Conti, M; Meerson, B

    2001-09-01

    We find that globally conserved interface-controlled coarsening of diffusion-limited aggregates exhibits dynamic scale invariance (DSI) and normal scaling. This is demonstrated by a numerical solution of the Ginzburg-Landau equation with a global conservation law. The general sharp-interface limit of this equation is introduced and reduced to volume preserving motion by mean curvature. A simple example of globally conserved interface-controlled coarsening system: the sublimation/deposition dynamics of a solid and its vapor in a small closed vessel, is presented in detail. The results of the numerical simulations show that the scaled form of the correlation function has a power-law tail accommodating the fractal initial condition. The coarsening length exhibits normal dynamic scaling. A decrease of the cluster radius with time, predicted by DSI, is observed. The difference between global and local conservation is discussed.

  20. Training and transfer-of-learning effects in disabled and normal readers: evidence of specific deficits.

    PubMed

    Benson, N J; Lovett, M W; Kroeber, C L

    1997-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the specificity of training and transfer deficits in disabled readers, aged 7 to 9 years. Forty-eight children (reading disabled, age-matched normal controls, and reading-level-matched normal controls) participated in both a reading and a nonreading (music) acquisition paradigm. Children received instruction in grapheme-phoneme and symbol-note correspondence patterns, respectively. Posttraining tests (one day and one week) following rule training compared performance on trained exemplar items with performance on untrained transfer items. Results revealed that normal readers were able to transfer their rule knowledge in both the reading and nonreading (music) acquisition paradigms, while disabled readers were proficient only in the music task, and thus demonstrated transfer deficits specific to learning printed language. Transfer was optimally facilitated for all readers when training procedures included not only presentation of exemplars, but also cues for rule derivation and explicit statement of pattern invariances. PMID:9073377

  1. Low Empathy in Deaf and Hard of Hearing (Pre)Adolescents Compared to Normal Hearing Controls

    PubMed Central

    Netten, Anouk P.; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy. Methods The study group (mean age 11.9 years) consisted of 122 deaf and hard of hearing children (52 children with cochlear implants and 70 children with conventional hearing aids) and 162 normal hearing children. The two groups were compared using self-reports, a parent-report and observation tasks to rate the children’s level of empathy, their attendance to others’ emotions, emotion recognition, and supportive behavior. Results Deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than normal hearing children, regardless of their type of hearing device. The level of emotion recognition was equal in both groups. During observations, deaf and hard of hearing children showed more attention to the emotion evoking events but less supportive behavior compared to their normal hearing peers. Deaf and hard of hearing children attending mainstream education or using oral language show higher levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than deaf and hard of hearing children who use sign (supported) language or attend special education. However, they are still outperformed by normal hearing children. Conclusions Deaf and hard of hearing children, especially those in special education, show lower levels of empathy than normal hearing children, which can have consequences for initiating and maintaining relationships. PMID:25906365

  2. Acquisition of a new color name in amnesics and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Dopkins, S; Kovner, R; Goldmeier, E

    1990-06-01

    Six Korsakoffs amnesics, three mixed amnesics, and eight normal controls were taught the meaning of "bice", the word for a particular shade of blue-green. The conceptual interpretation that the Korsakoffs developed for "bice" differed in three respects from the one that the controls developed. (1) Although both Korsakoffs and controls applied the term more liberally to pens than to other objects, two of the Korsakoffs showed an extreme form of this tendency. (2) The Korsakoffs tended to generalize more broadly along the spectral dimension in using the term. (3) Whereas there was a positive relationship, in the data for the controls, between measures of syntactic and semantic awareness concerning "bice", there was no such relationship in the Korsakoffs data. It was concluded that the Korsakoffs had difficulty mastering the new word, and difficulty specifically in integrating their representation for the word with the rest of their lexical knowledge. PMID:2387156

  3. Autonomic control of the cerebral circulation during normal and impaired peripheral circulatory control

    PubMed Central

    Cencetti, S; Lagi, A; Cipriani, M; Fattorini, L; Bandinelli, G; Bernardi, L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether oscillations in the cerebrovascular circulation undergo autonomic modulation in the same way as cardiovascular oscillations.
DESIGN—Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular oscillations were monitored at rest and during sympathetic stimulation (head up tilt). The association with and transmission of the oscillations in the sympathetic (low frequency, LF) and respiratory (high frequency, HF) bands was assessed.
SUBJECTS—13 healthy volunteers, 10 subjects with vasovagal syncope, and 12 patients with complicated non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Power spectrum analysis of cerebral blood flow velocity, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate. Coherence analysis was used to study the association between each pair of oscillations. Phase analysis showed the delay of the oscillations in the cardiovascular signals with respect to the cerebrovascular signals.
RESULTS—The power in the sympathetic (LF) components in all the oscillations increased during head up tilt (p < 0.01) in the controls and in the subjects with vasovagal syncope, but not in patients with diabetes. Significant coherence (> 0.5) in the LF band was present between cerebrovascular and cardiovascular oscillations in most of the controls and in subjects with vasovagal syncope, but not in the diabetic patients (< 50% of the patients). In the LF band, cerebrovascular oscillations preceded the cardiovascular oscillations (p < 0.05) at rest in all groups: the phase shifts were reduced (p < 0.05) during head up tilt for all cardiovascular signals in healthy and syncopal subjects, but only for heart rate in diabetic patients.
CONCLUSIONS—The cerebrovascular resistance vessels are subject to autonomic modulation; low frequency oscillations in cerebral blood flow velocity precede the resulting fluctuations in other cardiovascular signals. Autonomic neuropathy and microvascular stiffness in diabetic patients reduces this modulation

  4. Tangential blowing for control of strong normal shock - Boundary layer interactions on inlet ramps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwendemann, M. F.; Sanders, B. W.

    1982-01-01

    The use of tangential blowing from a row of holes in an aft facing step is found to provide good control of the ramp boundary layer, normal shock interaction on a fixed geometry inlet over a wide range of inlet mass flow ratios. Ramp Mach numbers of 1.36 and 1.96 are investigated. The blowing geometry is found to have a significant effect on system performance at the highest Mach number. The use of high-temperature air in the blowing system, however, has only a slight effect on performance. The required blowing rates are significantly high for the most severe test conditions. In addition, the required blowing coefficient is found to be proportional to the normal shock pressure rise.

  5. Academic task persistence of normally achieving ADHD and control boys: performance, self-evaluations, and attributions.

    PubMed

    Hoza, B; Pelham, W E; Waschbusch, D A; Kipp, H; Owens, J S

    2001-04-01

    The authors examined academic task persistence, pretask expectancies, self-evaluations, and attributions of boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as compared with control boys. Participants were 83 ADHD boys and 66 control boys, all normally achieving. Prior to the task, performance expectancies were assessed. After a success-failure manipulation with find-a-word puzzles, performance on subsequent trials, self-evaluations, and attributions were evaluated. Compared with controls, ADHD boys solved fewer test puzzles, quit working more often, and found fewer words on a generalization task. Consistent with these behavioral findings, research assistants rated ADHD boys as less effortful and less cooperative than control boys. Although ADHD boys did not differ significantly from controls in their posttask self-evaluations, they did differ significantly from controls in some aspects of their attributions. Attributional data indicated that ADHD boys endorsed luck as a reason for success more strongly and lack of effort as a reason for failure less strongly than controls. PMID:11393604

  6. Validation of endogenous control reference genes for normalizing gene expression studies in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ayakannu, Thangesweran; Taylor, Anthony H; Willets, Jonathon M; Brown, Laurence; Lambert, David G; McDonald, John; Davies, Quentin; Moss, Esther L; Konje, Justin C

    2015-09-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful technique used for the relative quantification of target genes, using reference (housekeeping) genes for normalization to ensure the generation of accurate and robust data. A systematic examination of the suitability of endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in endometrial cancer tissues is absent. The aims of this study were therefore to identify and evaluate from the thirty-two possible reference genes from a TaqMan(®) array panel their suitability as an internal control gene. The mathematical software packages geNorm qBasePLUS identified Pumilio homolog 1 (Drosophila) (PUM1), ubiquitin C (UBC), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1), mitochondrial ribosomal protein L19 (MRPL19) and peptidylpropyl isomerase A (cyclophilin A) (PPIA) as the best reference gene combination, whilst NormFinder identified MRPL19 as the best single reference gene, with importin 8 (IPO8) and PPIA being the best combination of two reference genes. BestKeeper ranked MRPL19 as the most stably expressed gene. In addition, the study was validated by examining the relative expression of a test gene, which encodes the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). A significant difference in CB1 mRNA expression between malignant and normal endometrium using MRPL19, PPIA, and IP08 in combination was observed. The use of MRPL19, IPO8 and PPIA was identified as the best reference gene combination for the normalization of gene expression levels in endometrial carcinoma. This study demonstrates that the arbitrary selection of endogenous control reference genes for normalization in qRT-PCR studies of endometrial carcinoma, without validation, risks the production of inaccurate data and should therefore be discouraged.

  7. Robust controller design for flexible structures using normalized coprime factor plant descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Ernest S.

    1993-01-01

    Stabilization is a fundamental requirement in the design of feedback compensators for flexible structures. The search for the largest neighborhood around a given design plant for which a single controller produces closed-loop stability can be formulated as an H(sub infinity) control problem. The use of normalized coprime factor plant descriptions, in which the plant perturbations are defined as additive modifications to the coprime factors, leads to a closed-form expression for the maximum neighborhood boundary allowing optimal and suboptimal H(sub infinity) compensators to be computed directly without the usual gamma iteration. A summary of the theory on robust stabilization using normalized coprime factor plant descriptions is presented, and the application of the theory to the computation of robustly stable compensators for the phase version of the Control-Structures Interaction (CSI) Evolutionary Model is described. Results from the application indicate that the suboptimal version of the theory has the potential of providing the bases for the computation of low-authority compensators that are robustly stable to expected variations in design model parameters and additive unmodeled dynamics.

  8. Peripherally induced EMG silent periods. Normal physiology and disorders of motor control.

    PubMed

    Ford, B; Fahn, S; Pullman, S L

    1995-01-01

    Periods of relative or absolute EMG suppression induced by peripheral stimulation have been described using a variety of experimental paradigms in normal subjects and in conditions of abnormal motor control. Peripherally induced silent periods represent complex inhibitory modulations of muscle activity and can be reproducibly evoked by cutaneous or mixed nerve electrical or mechanical stimuli. Features of the electromyographic suppression which most easily permit analysis include the degree of EMG inhibition, the latency and duration of the response, and the timing of the return of normal EMG activity following the stimulus, or S-X interval. When exteroceptive reflexes in craniocervical muscles are studied, alternating periods of EMG inhibition and facilitation have been described. Experiments designed to isolate the various contributants to EMG silence have not revealed a unitary electrophysiological basis for all of the silent period responses elicited by peripheral means. Thus, silent periods share a multifactorial origin that depends upon segmental spinal mechanisms which are heavily influenced by descending suprasegmental pathways. Because these mechanisms are affected in a variety of central disorders of motor control, study of peripherally induced silent periods may provide a window on the abnormal physiology of selected CNS diseases. Further study is required to elucidate the electrophysiology of peripherally induced silent periods, and to clarify the alterations in these negative motor phenomena that occur in central disorders of motor control. PMID:8848978

  9. Control of target-normal-sheath-accelerated protons from a guiding cone

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, D. B.; Zhuo, H. B.; Yang, X. H.; Yu, T. P.; Shao, F. Q.; Pukhov, A.

    2015-06-15

    It is demonstrated through particle-in-cell simulations that target-normal-sheath-accelerated protons can be well controlled by using a guiding cone. Compared to a conventional planar target, both the collimation and number density of proton beams are substantially improved, giving a high-quality proton beam which maintained for a longer distance without degradation. The effect is attributed to the radial electric field resulting from the charge due to the hot target electrons propagating along the cone surface. This electric field can effectively suppress the spatial spread of the protons after the expansion of the hot electrons.

  10. System parameters for erythropoiesis control model: Comparison of normal values in human and mouse model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The computer model for erythropoietic control was adapted to the mouse system by altering system parameters originally given for the human to those which more realistically represent the mouse. Parameter values were obtained from a variety of literature sources. Using the mouse model, the mouse was studied as a potential experimental model for spaceflight. Simulation studies of dehydration and hypoxia were performed. A comparison of system parameters for the mouse and human models is presented. Aside from the obvious differences expected in fluid volumes, blood flows and metabolic rates, larger differences were observed in the following: erythrocyte life span, erythropoietin half-life, and normal arterial pO2.

  11. Experimental Investigation of Normal Shock Boundary-Layer Interaction with Hybrid Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vyas, Manan A.; Hirt, Stefanie M.; Anderson, Bernhard H.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid flow control, a combination of micro-ramps and micro-jets, was experimentally investigated in the 15x15 cm Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Full factorial, a design of experiments (DOE) method, was used to develop a test matrix with variables such as inter-ramp spacing, ramp height and chord length, and micro-jet injection flow ratio. A total of 17 configurations were tested with various parameters to meet the DOE criteria. In addition to boundary-layer measurements, oil flow visualization was used to qualitatively understand shock induced flow separation characteristics. The flow visualization showed the normal shock location, size of the separation, path of the downstream moving counter-rotating vortices, and corner flow effects. The results show that hybrid flow control demonstrates promise in reducing the size of shock boundary-layer interactions and resulting flow separation by means of energizing the boundary layer.

  12. Reward value-based gain control: divisive normalization in parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Louie, Kenway; Grattan, Lauren E; Glimcher, Paul W

    2011-07-20

    The representation of value is a critical component of decision making. Rational choice theory assumes that options are assigned absolute values, independent of the value or existence of other alternatives. However, context-dependent choice behavior in both animals and humans violates this assumption, suggesting that biological decision processes rely on comparative evaluation. Here we show that neurons in the monkey lateral intraparietal cortex encode a relative form of saccadic value, explicitly dependent on the values of the other available alternatives. Analogous to extra-classical receptive field effects in visual cortex, this relative representation incorporates target values outside the response field and is observed in both stimulus-driven activity and baseline firing rates. This context-dependent modulation is precisely described by divisive normalization, indicating that this standard form of sensory gain control may be a general mechanism of cortical computation. Such normalization in decision circuits effectively implements an adaptive gain control for value coding and provides a possible mechanistic basis for behavioral context-dependent violations of rationality.

  13. Digital-computer normal shock position and restart control of a Mach 2.5 axisymmetric mixed-compression inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neiner, G. H.; Cole, G. L.; Arpasi, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    Digital computer control of a mixed-compression inlet is discussed. The inlet was terminated with a choked orifice at the compressor face station to dynamically simulate a turbojet engine. Inlet diffuser exit airflow disturbances were used. A digital version of a previously tested analog control system was used for both normal shock and restart control. Digital computer algorithms were derived using z-transform and finite difference methods. Using a sample rate of 1000 samples per second, the digital normal shock and restart controls essentially duplicated the inlet analog computer control results. At a sample rate of 100 samples per second, the control system performed adequately but was less stable.

  14. Prevalence of tinea pedis in psoriasis, compared to atopic dermatitis and normal controls--a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Leibovici, Vera; Ramot, Yuval; Siam, Rula; Siam, Ihab; Hadayer, Noa; Strauss-Liviatan, Nurith; Hochberg, Malka

    2014-12-01

    There are discrepancies in the literature regarding the prevalence of tinea pedis in psoriasis. The aim of this investigation was to conduct a cross-sectional study of the prevalence of tinea pedis in psoriasis compared to atopic dermatitis patients and normal controls. We enrolled 232 psoriatic patients, 190 atopic dermatitis patients and 202 normal controls, between the years 2010 and 2013. The prevalence of tinea pedis was 13.8% in psoriasis patients, not significantly different from that in atopic dermatitis patients 8.4% (P = 0.092)), but significantly higher than in normal controls 7.4% (P = 0.043). Both gender and age affected the prevalence of tinea pedis in psoriasis and normal controls, while only age affected the prevalence of tinea pedis in atopic dermatitis. Regarding gender, there was higher prevalence of tinea pedis in men: 19.1% (P = 0.019) in psoriasis and 12.1% (P = 0.013) in normal controls. Age affected the prevalence of tinea pedis in normal controls (P < 0.001), psoriasis patients (P = 0.001) and atopic dermatitis patients (P = 0.001), with higher prevalence with increasing age. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common species in psoriasis (71.9%), atopic dermatitis (75.0%) and normal controls (73.3%). Our study found a relatively high prevalence of tinea pedis among psoriasis patients.

  15. Overexpression of neurotrophin-3 in skeletal muscle alters normal and injury-induced limb control.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M D; Vancura, R; Williams, J M; Riekhof, J T; Taylor, B K; Wright, D E

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic overexpression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in mice increases the number of surviving proprioceptive sensory components, including primary sensory neurons, gamma motoneurons and muscle spindles. The numbers of surviving alpha motoneurons are not affected by NT-3 overexpression (Wright et al., Neuron 19: 503-517, 1997). We have assessed the consequences NT-3-stimulated increase in the proprioceptive sensory system by measuring locomotive abilities of mice that overexpress NT-3 in all skeletal muscles (myo/NT-3 mice). In adulthood, one myo/NT-3 transgenic line continues to express NT-3 at high levels in muscle and maintains a hypertrophied proprioceptive system (high-OE myo/NT-3 mice). Compared to wildtypes, high-OE myo/NT-3 mice have nine times the amount of NT-3 protein in the medial gastrocnemius at six weeks of age. Although appearing normal during ordinary activity, high-OE myo/NT-3 mice display a distinct clasping phenotype when lifted by the tail. High-OE myo/NT-3 mice show severe locomotor deficits when performing beam walking and rotorod testing. These mice also demonstrate aberrant foot positioning during normal walking. However, following sciatic nerve crush, overexpression of NT-3 prevents further abnormalities in paw positioning, suggesting NT-3 may attenuate sensorimotor deficits that occur in response to sciatic nerve injury. Our results suggest that increases in proprioceptive sensory neurons, spindles and gamma motoneurons, along with continued postnatal NT-3 overexpression in muscle significantly disrupt normal locomotor control. Importantly, however, NT-3 may lessen initial deficits and thus improve functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury, suggesting these mice may serve as a good model to study NT-3's role in neuroprotection of proprioceptive afferents. PMID:11794730

  16. Presence of Fleischer ring and prominent corneal nerves in keratoconus relatives and normal controls

    PubMed Central

    Kriszt, Ágnes; Losonczy, Gergely; Berta, András; Takács, Lili

    2015-01-01

    AIM To examine the occurrence of commonly known clinical signs of keratoconus (KC), i.e. Fleischer ring, prominent corneal nerves and thinning, among unaffected family members of KC patients and healthy control individuals. METHODS Data of both eyes of 117 relatives of KC patients having no manifest disease based on videokeratography indices (KC relatives), and 142 controls were used for Pearson correlation and t-test statistics. Correlation of Fleischer ring, prominent corneal nerves and central pachymetry data were tested with each other and with videokeratography indices (KSI, KISA, 3 and 6 mm Fourier asymmetry, and I-S). RESULTS A moderate correlation was found between Fleischer ring and all examined topographical indices. Most important correlation was present with 6 mm Fourier asymmetry, and corneal pachymetry (r=0.272, P<0.001; r=-0.234, P=0.027, respectively). Similar correlations were found with prominent corneal nerves (r=0.234, P<0.001 for 6 mm Fourier asymmetry and r=-0.235, P=0.0265 for pachymetry). KC family members who exhibited Fleischer ring or prominent nerves had thinner and more asymmetric corneas than those without Fleischer ring or prominent corneal nerves (P<0.05 for pachymetry and topographic indices with t-test and Mann-Whitney rank sum test). Though rarely, Fleischer ring and prominent corneal nerves occurred among normal controls, indicating the existence of forme fruste cases in the normal population. Control subjects, who had corneal Fleischer ring or prominent nerves had corneas more similar to KC than other controls (t-test: increased KSI and KISA, P=0.048 and 0.012, respectively). CONCLUSION In KC family members and healthy individuals, Fleischer ring and prominent corneal nerves are associated with features of KC and may suggest a possibility of forme fruste KC. Searching for the possible presence of Fleischer ring or prominent nerves on the cornea may help in the decision whether or not to diagnose subclinical KC in a borderline

  17. How the differential load induced by normal fault scarps controls the distribution of monogenic volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccaferri, Francesco; Acocella, Valerio; Rivalta, Eleonora

    2016-04-01

    Understanding shallow magma transfer and the related vent distribution is crucial for volcanic hazard. In the present study we investigate the link between the stress induced by topographic scarps and the distribution of monogenic volcanoes at divergent plate boundaries. With a numerical model of dyke propagation we show that vertical dykes beneath a normal fault scarp tend to deflect towards the footwall side of the scarp. This effect increases with the scarp height, is stronger for dykes propagating underneath the hanging wall side, and decreases with the distance from the scarp. A comparison to the East African Rift System, Afar and Iceland shows that: 1) the inner rift structure, which shapes the topography, controls shallow dyke propagation; 2) differential loading due to mass redistribution affects magma propagation over a broad scale range (100 - 105 m). Our results find application to any volcanic field with tectonics- or erosion-induced topographic variations.

  18. Brain parenchymal density measurements by CT in demented subjects and normal controls

    SciTech Connect

    Gado, M.; Danziger, W.L.; Chi, D.; Hughes, C.P.; Coben, L.A.

    1983-06-01

    Parachymal density measurements of 14 regions of gray and white matter from each cerebral hemisphere were made from CT scans of 25 subjects who had varying degrees of dementia as measured by a global Clinical Dementia Rating, and also from CT scans of 33 normal control subjects. There were few significant differences between the two groups in the mean density value for each of the regions examined, although several individual psychometric tests did correlate with density changes. Moreover, for six regions in the cerebral cortex, and for one region in the thalamus of each hemisphere, we found no significant correlation between the gray-white matter density difference and dementia. There was, however, a loss of the discriminability between the gray and white matter with an increase in the size of the ventricles. These findings may be attributed to the loss of white matter volume.

  19. How the differential load induced by normal fault scarps controls the distribution of monogenic volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccaferri, F.; Acocella, V.; Rivalta, E.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding shallow magma transfer and the related vent distribution is crucial for volcanic hazard. Here we investigate how the stress induced by topographic scarps linked to normal faults affects the distribution of monogenic volcanoes at divergent plate boundaries. Our numerical models of dyke propagation below a fault scarp show that the dykes tend to propagate toward and erupt on the footwall side. This effect, increasing with the scarp height, is stronger for dykes propagating underneath the hanging wall side and decreases with the distance from the scarp. A comparison to the East African Rift System, Afar and Iceland shows that (1) the inner rift structure, which shapes the topography, controls shallow dyke propagation; (2) differential loading due to mass redistribution affects magma propagation over a broad scale range (100-105 m). Our results find application to any volcanic field with tectonics- or erosion-induced topographic variations and should be considered in any volcanic hazard assessment.

  20. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  1. Thermal control of the spin pumping damping in ferromagnetic/normal metal interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, S. M.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Azevedo, A.

    2014-03-01

    A model is presented for the control of the magnetic relaxation in a ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) in contact with a normal metal (NM) under a thermal gradient applied across the thickness of the bilayer. We show that the thermal gradient modifies the spin pumping damping created by the contact of the NM with the FMI. This results from the bulk magnon spin current generated through the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect that superimposes to the spin pumping current at the FMI/NM interface, changing the FMI magnetic damping. The results of the model explain the experimental data on the control of the magnetic relaxation by thermal gradients measured by the linewidth of the ferromagnetic resonance absorption and by the attenuation of spin-wave packets propagating along a film of single-crystal yttrium iron garnet covered by a very thin platinum layer. Depending on the sign of the gradient, the relaxation rate can be increased or decreased, leading in the latter case to an apparent amplification.

  2. Aging and insulin signaling differentially control normal and tumorous germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Shih-Han; Tseng, Chen-Yuan; Wan, Chih-Ling; Su, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Chang-Che; Pi, Haiwei; Hsu, Hwei-Jan

    2015-02-01

    Aging influences stem cells, but the processes involved remain unclear. Insulin signaling, which controls cellular nutrient sensing and organismal aging, regulates the G2 phase of Drosophila female germ line stem cell (GSC) division cycle in response to diet; furthermore, this signaling pathway is attenuated with age. The role of insulin signaling in GSCs as organisms age, however, is also unclear. Here, we report that aging results in the accumulation of tumorous GSCs, accompanied by a decline in GSC number and proliferation rate. Intriguingly, GSC loss with age is hastened by either accelerating (through eliminating expression of Myt1, a cell cycle inhibitory regulator) or delaying (through mutation of insulin receptor (dinR) GSC division, implying that disrupted cell cycle progression and insulin signaling contribute to age-dependent GSC loss. As flies age, DNA damage accumulates in GSCs, and the S phase of the GSC cell cycle is prolonged. In addition, GSC tumors (which escape the normal stem cell regulatory microenvironment, known as the niche) still respond to aging in a similar manner to normal GSCs, suggesting that niche signals are not required for GSCs to sense or respond to aging. Finally, we show that GSCs from mated and unmated females behave similarly, indicating that female GSC-male communication does not affect GSCs with age. Our results indicate the differential effects of aging and diet mediated by insulin signaling on the stem cell division cycle, highlight the complexity of the regulation of stem cell aging, and describe a link between ovarian cancer and aging.

  3. Aging and insulin signaling differentially control normal and tumorous germline stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Shih-Han; Tseng, Chen-Yuan; Wan, Chih-Ling; Su, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Chang-Che; Pi, Haiwei; Hsu, Hwei-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aging influences stem cells, but the processes involved remain unclear. Insulin signaling, which controls cellular nutrient sensing and organismal aging, regulates the G2 phase of Drosophila female germ line stem cell (GSC) division cycle in response to diet; furthermore, this signaling pathway is attenuated with age. The role of insulin signaling in GSCs as organisms age, however, is also unclear. Here, we report that aging results in the accumulation of tumorous GSCs, accompanied by a decline in GSC number and proliferation rate. Intriguingly, GSC loss with age is hastened by either accelerating (through eliminating expression of Myt1, a cell cycle inhibitory regulator) or delaying (through mutation of insulin receptor (dinR) GSC division, implying that disrupted cell cycle progression and insulin signaling contribute to age-dependent GSC loss. As flies age, DNA damage accumulates in GSCs, and the S phase of the GSC cell cycle is prolonged. In addition, GSC tumors (which escape the normal stem cell regulatory microenvironment, known as the niche) still respond to aging in a similar manner to normal GSCs, suggesting that niche signals are not required for GSCs to sense or respond to aging. Finally, we show that GSCs from mated and unmated females behave similarly, indicating that female GSC–male communication does not affect GSCs with age. Our results indicate the differential effects of aging and diet mediated by insulin signaling on the stem cell division cycle, highlight the complexity of the regulation of stem cell aging, and describe a link between ovarian cancer and aging. PMID:25470527

  4. Rat Optic Nerve Head Anatomy within 3D Histomorphometric Reconstructions of Normal Control Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Pazos, Marta; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Cepurna, William O.; Johnson, Elaine C.; Morrison, John C.; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to three-dimensionally (3D) characterize the principal macroscopic and microscopic relationships within the rat optic nerve head (ONH) and quantify them in normal control eyes. Perfusion-fixed, trephinated ONH from 8 normal control eyes of 8 Brown Norway Rats were 3D histomorphometrically reconstructed, visualized, delineated and parameterized. The rat ONH consists of 2 scleral openings, (a superior neurovascular and inferior arterial) separated by a thin connective tissue strip we have termed the “scleral sling”. Within the superior opening, the nerve abuts a prominent extension of Bruch's Membrane (BM) superiorly and is surrounded by a vascular plexus, as it passes through the sclera, that is a continuous from the choroid into and through the dural sheath and contains the central retinal vein (CRV), (inferiorly). The inferior scleral opening contains the central retinal artery and three long posterior ciliary arteries which obliquely pass through the sclera to obtain the choroid. Bruch's Membrane Opening (BMO) is irregular and vertically elongated, enclosing the nerve (superiorly) and CRV and CRA (inferiorly). Overall mean BMO Depth, BMO Area, Choroidal Thickness and peripapillary Scleral Thickness were 29 μm, 56.5 × 103 μm2, 57 μm and 104 μm respectively. Mean anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO) and posterior scleral canal opening (PSCO) radii were 201 ± 15 μm and 204 ± 16 μm, respectively. Mean optic nerve area at the ASCO and PSCO were 46.3 × 103 ± 4.4 × 103 μm2 and 44.1 × 103 ± 4.5 × 103 μm2 respectively. In conclusion, the 3D complexity of the rat ONH and the extent to which it differs from the primate have been under-appreciated within previous 2D studies. Properly understood, these anatomic differences may provide new insights into the relative susceptibilities of the rat and primate ONH to elevated intraocular pressure. PMID:26021973

  5. Alternative normalization methods demonstrate widespread cortical hypometabolism in untreated de novo Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    BERTI, V.; POLITO, C.; BORGHAMMER, P.; RAMAT, S.; MOSCONI, L.; VANZI, E.; DE CRISTOFARO, M. T.; DE LEON, M.; SORBI, S.; PUPI, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Previous positron emission tomography (PET) [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) studies in Parkinson’s disease (PD) demonstrated that moderate to late stage patients display widespread cortical hypometabolism, whereas early stage PD patients exhibit little or no cortical changes. However, recent studies suggested that conventional data normalization procedures may not always be valid, and demonstrated that alternative normalization strategies better allow detection of low magnitude changes. We hypothesized that these alternative normalization procedures would disclose more widespread metabolic alterations in de novo PD. Methods [18F]FDG PET scans of 26 untreated de novo PD patients (Hoehn & Yahr stage I-II) and 21 age-matched controls were compared using voxel-based analysis. Normalization was performed using gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) reference regions and Yakushev normalization. Results Compared to GM normalization, WM and Yakushev normalization procedures disclosed much larger cortical regions of relative hypometabolism in the PD group with extensive involvement of frontal and parieto-temporal-occipital cortices, and several subcortical structures. Furthermore, in the WM and Yakushev normalized analyses, stage II patients displayed more prominent cortical hypometabolism than did stage I patients. Conclusion The use of alternative normalization procedures, other than GM, suggests that much more extensive cortical hypometabolism is present in untreated de novo PD patients than hitherto reported. The finding may have implications for our understanding of the basic pathophysiology of early-stage PD. PMID:22695340

  6. Characterizing structure connectivity correlation with the default mode network in Alzheimer's patients and normal controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jia; Xu, Peng; Song, Chao; Yao, Li; Zhao, Xiaojie

    2012-03-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a kind of effective measure to do non-invasive investigation on brain fiber structure at present. Studies of fiber tracking based on DTI showed that there was structural connection of white matter fiber among the nodes of resting-state functional network, denoting that the connection of white matter was the basis of gray matter regions in functional network. Nevertheless, relationship between these structure connectivity regions and functional network has not been clearly indicated. Moreover, research of fMRI found that activation of default mode network (DMN) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) was significantly descended, especially in hippocampus and posterior cingulated cortex (PCC). The relationship between this change of DMN activity and structural connection among functional networks needs further research. In this study, fast marching tractography (FMT) algorithm was adopted to quantitative calculate fiber connectivity value between regions, and hippocampus and PCC which were two important regions in DMN related with AD were selected to compute white matter connection region between them in elderly normal control (NC) and AD patient. The fiber connectivity value was extracted to do the correlation analysis with activity intensity of DMN. Results showed that, between PCC and hippocampus of NC, there exited region with significant high connectivity value of white matter fiber whose performance has relatively strong correlation with the activity of DMN, while there was no significant white matter connection region between them for AD patient which might be related with reduced network activation in these two regions of AD.

  7. PET imaging and quantitation of Internet-addicted patients and normal controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ha-Kyu; Kim, Hee-Joung; Jung, Haijo; Son, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Yun, Mijin; Shin, Yee-Jin; Lee, Jong-Doo

    2002-04-01

    Internet addicted patients (IAPs) have widely been increased, as Internet games are becoming very popular in daily life. The purpose of this study was to investigate regional brain activation patterns associated with excessive use of Internet games in adolescents. Six normal controls (NCs) and eight IAPs who were classified as addiction group by adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling were participated. 18F-FDG PET studies were performed for all adolescents at their rest and activated condition after 20 minutes of each subject's favorite Internet game. To investigate quantitative metabolic differences in both groups, all possible combinations of group comparison were carried out using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM 99). Regional brain activation foci were identified on Talairach coordinate. SPM results showed increased metabolic activation in occipital lobes for both groups. Higher metabolisms were seen at resting condition in IAPs than that of in NCs. In comparison to both groups, IAPs showed different patterns of regional brain metabolic activation compared with that of NCs. It suggests that addictive use of Internet games may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents.

  8. Prolyl-isomerase Pin1 controls normal and cancer stem cells of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Rustighi, Alessandra; Zannini, Alessandro; Tiberi, Luca; Sommaggio, Roberta; Piazza, Silvano; Sorrentino, Giovanni; Nuzzo, Simona; Tuscano, Antonella; Eterno, Vincenzo; Benvenuti, Federica; Santarpia, Libero; Aifantis, Iannis; Rosato, Antonio; Bicciato, Silvio; Zambelli, Alberto; Del Sal, Giannino

    2014-01-01

    Mammary epithelial stem cells are fundamental to maintain tissue integrity. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are implicated in both treatment resistance and disease relapse, and the molecular bases of their malignant properties are still poorly understood. Here we show that both normal stem cells and CSCs of the breast are controlled by the prolyl-isomerase Pin1. Mechanistically, following interaction with Pin1, Notch1 and Notch4, key regulators of cell fate, escape from proteasomal degradation by their major ubiquitin-ligase Fbxw7α. Functionally, we show that Fbxw7α acts as an essential negative regulator of breast CSCs' expansion by restraining Notch activity, but the establishment of a Notch/Pin1 active circuitry opposes this effect, thus promoting breast CSCs self-renewal, tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. In human breast cancers, despite Fbxw7α expression, high levels of Pin1 sustain Notch signaling, which correlates with poor prognosis. Suppression of Pin1 holds promise in reverting aggressive phenotypes, through CSC exhaustion as well as recovered drug sensitivity carrying relevant implications for therapy of breast cancers. PMID:24357640

  9. Differences in the responses of heterozygous carriers of colorblindness and normal controls to briefly presented stimuli.

    PubMed

    Cohn, S A; Emmerich, D S; Carlson, E A

    1989-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to investigate the possible effects of X-inactivation (Lyon, 1961) on female carriers of colorblindness. The results of the first experiment, like those of Grützner et al. (1976), were consistent with the prediction of the Lyon (1961) hypothesis that the retinas of female carriers are composed of mosaic patches of colorblind and normal areas. In this first experiment, rows and columns of colored spots were presented tachistoscopically, and subjects were asked to identify the colors of the spots. In the second experiment, plates from the Ishihara test of colorblindness were presented tachistoscopically and subjects were asked to identify the number which was embedded in the pattern of colored dots. Both experiments support the Lyon hypothesis in that female carriers were found to have more difficulty in perceiving patterns of colored stimuli than did control subjects, and they suggest that the amount of time that a carrier has to scan colored stimuli plays an important role in her ability to accurately perceive them. PMID:2800352

  10. A Developmental Study of Static Postural Control and Superimposed Arm Movements in Normal and Slowly Developing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Janet M.

    Selected electromyographic parameters underlying static postural control in 4, 6, and 8 year old normally and slowly developing children during performance of selected arm movements were studied. Developmental delays in balance control were assessed by the Cashin Test of Motor Development (1974) and/or the Williams Gross Motor Coordination Test…

  11. Teaching normal birth, normally.

    PubMed

    Hotelling, Barbara A

    2009-01-01

    Teaching normal-birth Lamaze classes normally involves considering the qualities that make birth normal and structuring classes to embrace those qualities. In this column, teaching strategies are suggested for classes that unfold naturally, free from unnecessary interventions. PMID:19436595

  12. Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development--The importance of quality control procedures.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Simon; Albaugh, Matthew D; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Hudziak, James J; Mateos-Pérez, J M; Labbe, Aurelie; Evans, Alan C; Karama, Sherif

    2016-01-15

    Several reports have described cortical thickness (CTh) developmental trajectories, with conflicting results. Some studies have reported inverted-U shape curves with peaks of CTh in late childhood to adolescence, while others suggested predominant monotonic decline after age 6. In this study, we reviewed CTh developmental trajectories in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development, and in a second step, evaluated the impact of post-processing quality control (QC) procedures on identified trajectories. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual subjects with repeated scanning (1-3 per subject, total scans n=753) from 4.9 to 22.3years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear) was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models. The majority of brain regions showed linear monotonic decline of CTh. There were few areas of cubic trajectories, mostly in bilateral temporo-parietal areas and the right prefrontal cortex, in which CTh peaks were at, or prior to, age 8. When controlling for total brain volume, CTh trajectories were even more uniformly linear. The only sex difference was faster thinning of occipital areas in boys compared to girls. The best-fit model for whole brain mean thickness was a monotonic decline of 0.027mm per year. QC procedures had a significant impact on identified trajectories, with a clear shift toward more complex trajectories (i.e., quadratic or cubic) when including all scans without QC (n=954). Trajectories were almost exclusively linear when using only scans that passed the most stringent QC (n=598). The impact of QC probably relates to decreasing the inclusion of scans with CTh underestimation secondary to movement artifacts, which are more common in younger subjects. In summary, our results suggest that CTh follows a simple linear decline in most cortical areas by age 5, and all areas by age 8. This study further supports the crucial importance of implementing post-processing QC in CTh studies

  13. Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development--The importance of quality control procedures.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Simon; Albaugh, Matthew D; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Hudziak, James J; Mateos-Pérez, J M; Labbe, Aurelie; Evans, Alan C; Karama, Sherif

    2016-01-15

    Several reports have described cortical thickness (CTh) developmental trajectories, with conflicting results. Some studies have reported inverted-U shape curves with peaks of CTh in late childhood to adolescence, while others suggested predominant monotonic decline after age 6. In this study, we reviewed CTh developmental trajectories in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development, and in a second step, evaluated the impact of post-processing quality control (QC) procedures on identified trajectories. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual subjects with repeated scanning (1-3 per subject, total scans n=753) from 4.9 to 22.3years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear) was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models. The majority of brain regions showed linear monotonic decline of CTh. There were few areas of cubic trajectories, mostly in bilateral temporo-parietal areas and the right prefrontal cortex, in which CTh peaks were at, or prior to, age 8. When controlling for total brain volume, CTh trajectories were even more uniformly linear. The only sex difference was faster thinning of occipital areas in boys compared to girls. The best-fit model for whole brain mean thickness was a monotonic decline of 0.027mm per year. QC procedures had a significant impact on identified trajectories, with a clear shift toward more complex trajectories (i.e., quadratic or cubic) when including all scans without QC (n=954). Trajectories were almost exclusively linear when using only scans that passed the most stringent QC (n=598). The impact of QC probably relates to decreasing the inclusion of scans with CTh underestimation secondary to movement artifacts, which are more common in younger subjects. In summary, our results suggest that CTh follows a simple linear decline in most cortical areas by age 5, and all areas by age 8. This study further supports the crucial importance of implementing post-processing QC in CTh studies

  14. Specificity of neuropsychological impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a comparison with social phobic and normal control subjects.

    PubMed

    Cohen, L J; Hollander, E; DeCaria, C M; Stein, D J; Simeon, D; Liebowitz, M R; Aronowitz, B R

    1996-01-01

    Specificity of neuropsychological dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was assessed by comparing neuropsychological performance in 65 OCD patients, 17 social phobic patients, and 32 normal control subjects. Although both patient groups showed visual constructional impairment relative to normal subjects, only patients with social phobia showed executive dysfunction. Nonconcurrent state anxiety did not correlate with neuropsychological performance. Among anxiety disorders, neuropsychological dysfunction may not be specific to OCD, but the functions implicated may differ across patient groups.

  15. Psychopathology of Eating Disorders: A Controlled Comparison of Bulimic, Obese, and Normal Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Donald A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Symptom Checklist-90, the Beck Depression Inventory, and a body image assessment were administered to 15 bulimic, 15 normal, and 15 obese women. Results showed that bulimics evidenced significantly more psychopathology than did normal and obese subjects; bulimics were more depressed, anxious,…

  16. Maturation of Speech and Language Functional Neuroanatomy in Pediatric Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devous, Michael D., Sr.; Altuna, Dianne; Furl, Nicholas, Cooper, William; Gabbert, Gretchen; Ngai, Wei Tat; Chiu, Stephanie; Scott, Jack M., III; Harris, Thomas S.; Payne, J. Kelly; Tobey, Emily A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the relationship between age and resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in regions associated with higher order language skills using a population of normal children, adolescents, and young adults. Method: rCBF was measured in 33 normal participants between the ages of 7 and 19 years using single photon…

  17. Control-group feature normalization for multivariate pattern analysis of structural MRI data using the support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Linn, Kristin A; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Doshi, Jimit; Davatzikos, Christos; Shinohara, Russell T

    2016-05-15

    Normalization of feature vector values is a common practice in machine learning. Generally, each feature value is standardized to the unit hypercube or by normalizing to zero mean and unit variance. Classification decisions based on support vector machines (SVMs) or by other methods are sensitive to the specific normalization used on the features. In the context of multivariate pattern analysis using neuroimaging data, standardization effectively up- and down-weights features based on their individual variability. Since the standard approach uses the entire data set to guide the normalization, it utilizes the total variability of these features. This total variation is inevitably dependent on the amount of marginal separation between groups. Thus, such a normalization may attenuate the separability of the data in high dimensional space. In this work we propose an alternate approach that uses an estimate of the control-group standard deviation to normalize features before training. We study our proposed approach in the context of group classification using structural MRI data. We show that control-based normalization leads to better reproducibility of estimated multivariate disease patterns and improves the classifier performance in many cases.

  18. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study

    PubMed Central

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD. PMID:27672476

  19. Comparing the PPAT Drawings of Boys with AD/HD and Age-Matched Controls Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munley, Maripat

    2002-01-01

    Explores whether children with AD/HD respond differently to a specific art directive. Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale to evaluate the drawings, results indicate three elements that would most accurately predict the artists into the AD/HD group: color prominence, details of objects and environments, and line quality. (Contains 29…

  20. Processing Words Varying in Personal Familiarity (Based on Reading and Spelling) by Poor Readers and Age-Matched and Reading-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Evelyne; Willows, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether performance differences between good and poor readers relate to reading-specific cognitive factors that result from engaging in reading activities and other experiential factors, the authors gave students in Grades 4 and 6 a perceptual identification test of words not only drawn from their personal lexicon but also varying in…

  1. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study

    PubMed Central

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD.

  2. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study.

    PubMed

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie; Krantic, Slavica

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD. PMID:27672476

  3. Application of automated MRI volumetric measurement techniques to the ventricular system in schizophrenics and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Shenton, M E; Kikinis, R; McCarley, R W; Metcalf, D; Tieman, J; Jolesz, F A

    1991-09-01

    As an initial approach to computer-automated segmentation of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) vs. brain parenchyma in MR scans, and the transformation of these data sets into volumetric information and 3D display, we examined the ventricular system in a sample of ten chronic schizophrenics with primarily positive symptoms and 12 normal subjects. While no significant differences were noted between groups on volumetric measures of ventricular brain ratio or lateral ventricle size, normals showed a pattern of left greater than right lateral ventricular volume asymmetry not present in the schizophrenics. Within the schizophrenic group, departure from the normal left greater than right pattern was highly correlated with thought disorder.

  4. Positive and negative affect recognition in schizophrenia: a comparison with substance abuse and normal control subjects.

    PubMed

    Bell, M; Bryson, G; Lysaker, P

    1997-11-14

    This study had three aims: to compare a schizophrenia sample (n = 50) with a substance abuse (n = 25) and normal sample (n = 81) on affect recognition; to compare differences in their performance between positive and negative affect recognition; and to introduce a new videotape method of stimulus presentation. Subjects were asked to identify the predominant affect depicted in 21 5-10-s vignettes containing three trials of seven affect states. Results demonstrate significant group differences: normal subjects scored in the normal or mild range, substance abuse (s/a) subjects scored in the mild and moderate ranges, and the schizophrenia sample scored predominantly in the moderate to severe ranges. Accuracies were 92.3% for the normal sample, 77.2 for the s/a sample and 64.8 for the schizophrenia sample. Response dispersions were 97.6% for the schizophrenia group, 69% for the s/a sample and 38% in the normal sample. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed a group by type of affect interaction with schizophrenia subjects showing far greater differential impairment on negative affect recognition. Difficulty of item did not contribute to this difference. Test-retest reliability at 5 months for this new method was r = 0.76, and stability of categorization was very high over 5 months (weighted kappa = 0.93). These affect recognition deficits in schizophrenia are discussed as they relate to lateralization of brain function, high EE families, social skills impairment and implications for rehabilitation services. PMID:9463840

  5. Echocardiographic Assessment of Cardiac Changes During Normal Pregnancy Among Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    Adeyeye, V. O.; Balogun, M. O.; Adebayo, R. A.; Makinde, O. N.; Akinwusi, P. O.; Ajayi, E. A.; Ogunyemi, S. A.; Akintomide, A. O.; Ajayi, E. O.; Adeyeye, A. G.; Ojo, T. O.; Abiodun, O. O.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pregnancy is a physiological process associated with an increased hemodynamic load and cardiac structural remodeling. Limited echocardiographic information exists on cardiac chambers, left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions, and LV mass during trimesters of normal pregnancy among African women. MATERIALS AND METHODS Echocardiography was done at the beginning of the second trimester, beginning of the third trimester, and middle of the third trimester for 100 normal pregnant women and at one visit for age-matched 100 nonpregnant women. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 software. Analysis of variance was used to compare within trimesters, and a P value of <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS The mean (SD) ages of the patients and controls were 28.20 (±5.91) and 28.35 (±6.06) years, respectively (age range = 19–44 years, P = 0.86). Cardiac chambers, LV systolic function, and LV mass and its index increased significantly during pregnancy. A significant increase in A-wave velocity but slight increase in E-wave velocity and a reduction in tissue e′ velocity at the septal margin but a progressive increase in a′ velocity were also observed (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Cardiac chamber dimensions, LV wall thickness, and mass, most indices of LV systolic and diastolic function, though within normal range, were significantly higher in pregnant than in nonpregnant Nigerian women.

  6. Echocardiographic Assessment of Cardiac Changes During Normal Pregnancy Among Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    Adeyeye, V. O.; Balogun, M. O.; Adebayo, R. A.; Makinde, O. N.; Akinwusi, P. O.; Ajayi, E. A.; Ogunyemi, S. A.; Akintomide, A. O.; Ajayi, E. O.; Adeyeye, A. G.; Ojo, T. O.; Abiodun, O. O.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pregnancy is a physiological process associated with an increased hemodynamic load and cardiac structural remodeling. Limited echocardiographic information exists on cardiac chambers, left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions, and LV mass during trimesters of normal pregnancy among African women. MATERIALS AND METHODS Echocardiography was done at the beginning of the second trimester, beginning of the third trimester, and middle of the third trimester for 100 normal pregnant women and at one visit for age-matched 100 nonpregnant women. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 software. Analysis of variance was used to compare within trimesters, and a P value of <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS The mean (SD) ages of the patients and controls were 28.20 (±5.91) and 28.35 (±6.06) years, respectively (age range = 19–44 years, P = 0.86). Cardiac chambers, LV systolic function, and LV mass and its index increased significantly during pregnancy. A significant increase in A-wave velocity but slight increase in E-wave velocity and a reduction in tissue e′ velocity at the septal margin but a progressive increase in a′ velocity were also observed (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Cardiac chamber dimensions, LV wall thickness, and mass, most indices of LV systolic and diastolic function, though within normal range, were significantly higher in pregnant than in nonpregnant Nigerian women. PMID:27656092

  7. High-resolution Manometry and Globus: Comparison of Globus, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Normal Controls Using High-resolution Manometry

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won Seok; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Ja Hyun; Lee, Sang Hyuk; Hur, Woon Je; Choe, Young Gil; Lee, Sang Hyuk; Park, Jung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Globus is a foreign body sense in the throat without dysphagia, odynophagia, esophageal motility disorders, or gastroesophageal reflux. The etiology is unclear. Previous studies suggested that increased upper esophageal sphincter pressure, gastroesophageal reflux and hypertonicity of esophageal body were possible etiologies. This study was to quantify the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressure, contractile front velocity (CFV), proximal contractile integral (PCI), distal contractile integral (DCI) and transition zone (TZ) in patient with globus gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) without globus, and normal controls to suggest the correlation of specific high-resolution manometry (HRM) findings and globus. Methods Fifty-seven globus patients, 24 GERD patients and 7 normal controls were studied with HRM since 2009. We reviewed the reports, and selected 5 swallowing plots suitable for analysis in each report, analyzed each individual plot with ManoView. The 5 parameters from each plot in 57 globus patients were compared with that of 24 GERD patients and 7 normal controls. Results There was no significant difference in the UES pressure, CFV, PCI and DCI. TZ (using 30 mmHg isobaric contour) in globus showed significant difference compared with normal controls and GERD patients. The median values of TZ were 4.26 cm (interquartile range [IQR], 2.30-5.85) in globus patients, 5.91 cm (IQR, 3.97-7.62) in GERD patients and 2.26 cm (IQR, 1.22-2.92) in normal controls (P = 0.001). Conclusions HRM analysis suggested that UES pressure, CFV, PCI and DCI were not associated with globus. Instead increased length of TZ may be correlated with globus. Further study comparing HRM results in globus patients within larger population needs to confirm their correlation. PMID:24199007

  8. The control of ccn2 (ctgf) gene expression in normal and scleroderma fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Leask, A; Sa, S; Holmes, A; Shiwen, X; Black, C M; Abraham, D J

    2001-06-01

    Although the role of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) in initiating fibrosis is well established, the role that TGFbeta plays in maintaining fibrosis is unclear. The gene encoding connective tissue growth factor (ccn2; ctgf), which promotes fibrosis, is not normally expressed in dermal fibroblasts unless TGFbeta is present. However, in dermal fibroblasts cultured from lesional areas of scleroderma, ccn2 (ctgf) is expressed constitutively. The contribution of several elements in the ccn2 (ctgf) promoter to basal and TGFbeta induced ccn2 (ctgf) expression in normal and scleroderma fibroblasts has been investigated. A functional SMAD binding site in the ccn2 (ctgf) promoter that is necessary for the TGFbeta mediated induction of this gene has been identified. The previously termed TGFbeta responsive enhancer (TGFbetaRE) in the ccn2 (ctgf) promoter has been found to be necessary for basal promoter activity in normal fibroblasts. The SMAD element is not necessary for the high ccn2 (ctgf) promoter activity seen in scleroderma fibroblasts. However, mutation of the previously termed TGFbetaRE reduces ccn2 (ctgf) promoter activity in scleroderma fibroblasts to that seen in normal fibroblasts. Thus, the maintenance of the scleroderma phenotype, as assessed by a high degree of ccn2 (ctgf) promoter activity, appears to be relatively independent of SMAD action and seems to reflect increased basal promoter activity.

  9. The Effects of Rate Controlled Speech on the Listening Comprehension of Learning Disabled and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teach, Joan K.

    The study explored the differences in the abilities of 20 learning disabled (LD) students (6-8 years old) and 19 normal Ss to perform on listening tasks. In phase I, performance levels were assessed on the Goldman Fristoe Woodcock Test of Auditory Discrimination and a listening comprehension skill battery (the Durrell Listening-Reading Series,…

  10. Automatic Camera Control System for a Distant Lecture with Videoing a Normal Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suganuma, Akira; Nishigori, Shuichiro

    The growth of a communication network technology enables students to take part in a distant lecture. Although many lectures are conducted in universities by using Web contents, normal lectures using a blackboard are still held. The latter style lecture is good for a teacher's dynamic explanation. A way to modify it for a distant lecture is to…

  11. Control of normally on/off characteristics in hydrogenated diamond metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. W.; Liao, M. Y.; Imura, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Shibata, N.; Ikuhara, Y.; Koide, Y.

    2015-09-01

    Normally on/off operation in hydrogenated diamond (H-diamond) metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) is reproducibly controlled by annealing at 180 °C. The transfer characteristics of the MISFETs reveal that the threshold gate voltage changes from 0.8 ± 0.1 to -0.5 ± 0.1 V after annealing, which indicates the MISFETs switch from normally on to normally off operation. Annealing also shifts the flat-band voltage in the capacitance-voltage curve of MIS capacitors from zero to -0.47 V. The mechanism behind the switch of normally on/off characteristics induced by annealing is explained by a change of transfer doping as follows. Adsorbed acceptors at the insulator/H-diamond interface allow the holes to accumulate in the H-diamond channel layer, so the MISFETs before annealing show normally on characteristics. Annealing causes loss of the adsorbed acceptors or provides compensatory positive charge in the insulator oxide, so the hole density in the H-diamond channel layer decreases markedly, and the MISFETs show normally off characteristics.

  12. Comparison of Gene Expression and Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiling between Phenotypically Normal Cloned Pigs and Conventionally Bred Controls

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengting; Li, Jian; Lin, Lin; Nielsen, Anders Lade; Sørensen, Charlotte Brandt; Vajta, Gábor; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiuqing; Du, Yutao; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Animal breeding via Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) has enormous potential in agriculture and biomedicine. However, concerns about whether SCNT animals are as healthy or epigenetically normal as conventionally bred ones are raised as the efficiency of cloning by SCNT is much lower than natural breeding or In-vitro fertilization (IVF). Thus, we have conducted a genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation profiling between phenotypically normal cloned pigs and control pigs in two tissues (muscle and liver), using Affymetrix Porcine expression array as well as modified methylation-specific digital karyotyping (MMSDK) and Solexa sequencing technology. Typical tissue-specific differences with respect to both gene expression and DNA methylation were observed in muscle and liver from cloned as well as control pigs. Gene expression profiles were highly similar between cloned pigs and controls, though a small set of genes showed altered expression. Cloned pigs presented a more different pattern of DNA methylation in unique sequences in both tissues. Especially a small set of genomic sites had different DNA methylation status with a trend towards slightly increased methylation levels in cloned pigs. Molecular network analysis of the genes that contained such differential methylation loci revealed a significant network related to tissue development. In conclusion, our study showed that phenotypically normal cloned pigs were highly similar with normal breeding pigs in their gene expression, but moderate alteration in DNA methylation aspects still exists, especially in certain unique genomic regions. PMID:22022462

  13. Religious Coping and Locus of Control in Normal Pregnancy: Moderating Effects Between Pregnancy Worries and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Puente, Cecilia Peñacoba; Morales, Dolores Marín; Monge, Francisco Javier Carmona

    2015-10-01

    Most studies about coping in pregnancy focus on risk pregnancies where it has generally been found that the use of religious coping has a positive effect, although to our knowledge there are no studies that associate religious coping to locus of control. We analyzed, in a sample of 285 Spanish women with normal pregnancies, the effect of both variables on psychiatric symptoms and on the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and pregnancy worries. The results show no association between locus of control and religious coping. Locus of control has a significant influence on the pregnant women's mental health, while religious coping just adds an additional influence. PMID:24833162

  14. Electrocortical Measures during a Lexical Decision Task: A Comparison between Elementary School-Aged Normal and Dyslexic Readers and Adult Normal and Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Shaul, Shelley; Breznitz, Zvia

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the differences in performance between 30 dyslexic readers in 4th grade, 30 dyslexic readers attending university, and age-matched normal readers for both groups on a lexical decision task to evaluate the underlying factors of dyslexia that persist into adulthood. In both age groups, the dyslexic readers were significantly…

  15. Possibility of elevated parathyroid function in patients with calcium-containing nephrolithiasis as compared with normal controls.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T; Hirano, Y; Ueda, D; Niijima, T

    1987-01-01

    109 patients with calcium-containing nephrolithiasis and 10 normal controls underwent oral calcium load test. After thorough examination, 6 of the 109 patients were diagnosed as having primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and the remainder as having normocalcemic nephrolithiasis without PHPT. Following the oral calcium load test, the latter were operationally divided into 3 groups - normocalciuric nephrolithiasis (NN), n = 78; absorptive hypercalciuria (AH), n = 10, and renal hypercalciuria (RH), n = 15 - according to the criteria reported by Pak et al. Before the oral calcium load test, nephrogenous adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (NcAMP), urinary adenosine 3'-5'-monophosphate (urinary cAMP), and plasma immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were determined to evaluate parathyroid function. This function, as assessed by mean basal NcAMP in the NN, AH and RH groups as well as the PHPT group, was significantly increased as compared with that in the normal controls. Within the NcAMP-elevated 4 groups, the mean basal NcAMP was highest in the PHPT group followed by the RH, AH and NN groups. In view of the mean basal NcAMP, disregarding the PHPT group, the NN and AH groups seemed to be intermediate types between the normal controls and the RH groups. Similar, but less distinctive results were obtained in the determination of urinary cAMP and plasma iPTH. On the other hand, when leaving the PHPT group out, the mean basal urinary calcium creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr) was highest in the RH group followed by the AH and NN groups, and lowest in normal controls, suggesting that the NN and AH groups were intermediate between normal controls and the RH group. The mean basal urinary Ca/Cr ratio in the PHPT group was moderately elevated but not remarkable. Almost similar tendencies were observed in 24-hour urinary calcium excretions on a calcium-restricted diet. A weakly positive correlation (r = 0.232, p less than 0.05) between basal NcAMP and basal urinary Ca/Cr ratio was observed in

  16. Simulation of normal, carrier and affected controls for large-scale genotyping of cattle for factor XI deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyaya, P N; Jha, M; Muraleedharan, P; Gupta, R R; Rathod, R N; Mehta, H H; Khoda, V K

    2006-01-01

    An insertion mutation within exon 12 of the factor XI gene has been described in Holstein cattle. This has opened the prospect for large-scale screening of cattle using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for the rapid identification of heterozygous animals. To facilitate such a screening process, the mutant and normal alleles of factor XI gene, represented by 244- and 320-bp PCR amplified fragments, were individually cloned in Escherichia coli using a multicopy plasmid cloning vehicle to generate pFXI-N and pFXI-M, respectively. The authenticity of the inserts was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. A nested PCR method was developed, by which PCR amplicons generated from primers with annealing sites on the recombinant plasmids and by flanking the insert were used as templates for amplification of the diagnostic products using factor XI gene-specific primers. An equimolar mixture of both PCR amplicons, originating from pFXI-N and pFXI-M, constituted the carrier control while the individual amplicons were the affected and normal controls. The controls were used as references for in-gel comparison to screen a population of 307 cattle and 259 water buffaloes; the frequency of the mutant allele was found to be 0. No DNA size standards were required in this study. The simulated control DNA samples representing normal, carrier and affected cattle have the potential to help in large-scale screening of a cattle population for individuals that are carriers or affected by factor XI deficiency.

  17. How are normal sleeping controls selected? A systematic review of cross-sectional insomnia studies and a standardized method to select healthy controls for sleep research.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Louise; Espie, Colin A; Kyle, Simon D; Biello, Stephany M

    2015-06-01

    There appears to be some inconsistency in how normal sleepers (controls) are selected and screened for participation in research studies for comparison with insomnia patients. The purpose of the current study is to assess and compare methods of identifying normal sleepers in insomnia studies, with reference to published standards. We systematically reviewed the literature on insomnia patients, which included control subjects. The resulting 37 articles were systematically reviewed with reference to the five criteria for normal sleep specified by Edinger et al. In summary, these criteria are as follows: evidence of sleep disruption, sleep scheduling, general health, substance/medication use, and other sleep disorders. We found sleep diaries, polysomnography (PSG), and clinical screening examinations to be widely used with both control subjects and insomnia participants. However, there are differences between research groups in the precise definitions applied to the components of normal sleep. We found that none of the reviewed studies applied all of the Edinger et al. criteria, and 16% met four criteria. In general, screening is applied most rigorously at the level of a clinical disorder, whether physical, psychiatric, or sleep. While the Edinger et al. criteria seem to be applied in some form by most researchers, there is scope to improve standards and definitions in this area. Ideally, different methods such as sleep diaries and questionnaires would be used concurrently with objective measures to ensure normal sleepers are identified, and descriptive information for control subjects would be reported. Here, we have devised working criteria and methods to be used for the assessment of normal sleepers. This would help clarify the nature of the control group, in contrast to insomnia subjects and other patient groups.

  18. Comparative pharmacokinetics of senkyunolide I in a rat model of migraine versus normal controls.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Han; Hong, Yan-Long; Feng, Yi; Xu, De-Sheng; Liang, Shuang; Lin, Xiao; Shen, Lan

    2012-06-01

    Senkyunolide I is an active ingredient of Rhizoma Chuanxiong, a Chinese medicinal herb commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular ailments. In the present paper, we describe the isolation and elucidation of senkyunolide I from the ethanol extract of Rhizoma Chuanxiong and its pharmacokinetic behavior after intravenous and oral administration to normal and migrainous rats. After intravenous administration, senkyunolide I was rapidly distributed (V ( z )/F 2.07 ± 0.43 L/kg) and eliminated from the plasma (CL( z ) 2.56 ± 0.29 L/h/kg and t (1/2z ) 0.56 ± 0.13 h). After administration orally to normal rats at two dosages (20 and 72 mg/kg), the pharmacokinetic parameters of senkyunolide I were as follows: T (max) 0.25 ± 0.06 and 0.38 ± 0.11 h, C (max) 5,236.3 ± 802.8 and 22,071.9 ± 3,456.1 mg/L, Area under the curve(AUC)((0-t)) 5,217.5 ± 1,029.5 and 21,480.2 ± 3,003.1 μg h/L, respectively. Its oral absolute bioavailability at the two dosages was 67.2 and 76.9%, respectively. Intriguingly, migraine caused some significant changes in its pharmacokinetic parameter. For example, when compared with its pharmacokinetic behavior in normal rats at the two dosages, on average, its clearance decreased by 68% and volume of distribution increased by 342% in migrainous rats, both of which contributed to its several-fold increase in t (1/2z) and AUC. C (max) and AUC of senkyunolide I increased almost proportionally with dose between 20 and 72 mg/kg and the pharmacokinetics fit linear kinetic feature. The pharmacokinetic parameters of senkyunolide I were significantly different in normal and migrainous rats, which should be taken into account during the design of a clinical dosage regimen for senkyunolide I.

  19. Abnormal sensory integration affects balance control in hemiparetic patients within the first year after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Clarissa B.; Medeiros, Ítalo R. T.; Greters, Mario G.; Frota, Norberto A. F.; Tavares Lucato, Leandro; Scaff, Milberto; Conforto, Adriana B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Impairments in balance can be a consequence of changes in the motor, sensory, and integrative aspects of motor control. Abnormal sensory reweighting, i.e., the ability to select the most appropriate sensory information to achieve postural stability, may contribute to balance impairment. The Sensory Organization Test is a component of Computerized Dynamic Posturography that evaluates the impact of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory inputs, as well as sensory reweighting, under conditions of sensory conflict. The aim of this study is to compare balance control in hemiparetic patients during the first year post-stroke and in age-matched neurologically normal subjects using the Berg Balance Scale and Computerized Dynamic Posturography. METHODS: We compared the Berg Balance Scale and Sensory Organization Test scores in 21 patients with hemiparesis after first-ever ischemic stroke and in 21 age-matched, neurologically normal subjects. An equilibrium score was defined for each Sensory Organization Test condition. RESULTS: Berg Balance Scale scores were significantly lower in the patients than in the neurologically normal subjects. Equilibrium scores were significantly lower in the patients than in the neurologically normal subjects for those Sensory Organization Test conditions that did not provide appropriate somatosensory information and under conditions of sensory conflict. A history of falls was more frequent in patients with lower equilibrium scores. CONCLUSION: During the first year after a stroke, defective sensory reweighting significantly impacts balance control in hemiparetic patients. These results are important for the planning of effective rehabilitation interventions. PMID:22189728

  20. Influence of sleep onset on upper-airway muscle activity in apnea patients versus normal controls.

    PubMed

    Mezzanotte, W S; Tangel, D J; White, D P

    1996-06-01

    Current evidence suggests that patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may have augmented pharyngeal dilator muscle activity during wakefulness, to compensate for deficient anatomy. However, the isolated effect of sleep on the activity of these muscles (comparing OSA patients with controls) has not been studied. We therefore determined waking levels of genioglossus (GG) and tensor palatini (TP) muscle activity (% of maximum electromyographic [EMG] activity) in 10 OSA patients and eight controls, and then assessed the impact of the first two breaths of sleep (theta electroencephalographic [EEG] activity) following a period of stable wakefulness. Apnea patients demonstrated greater genioglossal (27.4 +/- 4.0 versus 10.7 +/- 2.1%) and tensor palatini (31.9 +/- 6.5 versus 10.6 +/- 1.9%) EMG activity than did controls during wakefulness. This augmented muscle activity in apnea patients could be reduced to near control levels during wakefulness with the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to the upper airway. At sleep onset, control subjects demonstrated small but consistent decrements in the activity of both the TP and GG muscles. On the other hand, apnea patients demonstrated large, significantly greater decrements in TP EMG at sleep onset than did the control subjects. The effect of sleep on GG EMG in apnea patients was inconsistent, with most (n = 7) demonstrating large (significantly larger than controls) decrements in genioglossal activity. However, three OSA patients demonstrated small increments in GG EMG at sleep onset despite falling TP EMG and obstructive apnea or hypopnea. We conclude that sleep onset is associated with significantly larger decrements in TP muscle EMG activity in OSA patients than in controls, which may represent a loss of neuromuscular compensation that is present during wakefulness. However, our results for the GG muscle were more variable, and did not always support this hypothesis.

  1. Autonomous monitoring of control hardware to predict off-normal conditions using NIF automatic Alignment Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A; Wilhelmsen, K; Leach, R; Kamm, V M; Burkhart, S; Lowe-Webb, R; Cohen, S

    2011-07-20

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high power laser system capable of supporting high-energy-density experimentation as a user facility for the next 30 years. In order to maximize the facility availability, preventive maintenance enhancements are being introduced into the system. An example of such an enhancement is a camera-based health monitoring system, integrated into the automated alignment system, which provides an opportunity to monitor trends in measurements such as average beam intensity, size of the beam, and pixel saturation. The monitoring system will generate alerts based on observed trends in measurements to allow scheduled pro-active maintenance before routine off-normal detection stops system operations requiring unscheduled intervention.

  2. Effects of positive and negative feedback on behavior control in hyperactive and normal boys.

    PubMed

    Worland, J

    1976-01-01

    The hypothesis that hyperactive boys have relatively less response to negative feedback than to positive feedback was studied. Sixteen hyperactive boys and 16 controls were compared on two tasks under different feedback conditions. Feedback conditions were no feedback, positive feedback, and negative feedback. Tasks were symbol encoding and correcting spelling words. Hyperactives and controls were compared in amount of time on-task and amount of work correctly completed. Hyperactives were on-task significantly more under conditions of negative feedback than under positive feedback, but negative feedback significantly increased errors on the spelling correction task. Controls were equally responsive to positive, negative, or no feedback. Hyperactives accomplished significantly less than controls on the coding task, but performed as well as controls on the spelling correction task, which was administered to each boy at his own level of spelling ability. The results imply that while consistent negative feedback can reduce off-task behavior for hyperactives, it can also decrease the accuracy of the work they are doing.

  3. Serum TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and MMP-1 in patients with systemic sclerosis, primary Raynaud's phenomenon, and in normal controls

    PubMed Central

    Young-Min, S; Beeton, C; Laughton, R; Plumpton, T; Bartram, S; Murphy, G; Black, C; Cawston, T

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Excess tissue matrix accumulates in systemic sclerosis (SSc), accounting for both visceral and dermal fibrosis. It is suggested that decreased serum levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or increased levels of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) may account for this matrix accumulation.
OBJECTIVE—To measure serum levels of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and collagenase-1 (MMP-1), in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc), limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc), primary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), and in normal controls.
METHODS—Serum samples from patients with dcSSc (n=83), lcSSc (n=87), RP (n=80), and normal controls (n=98) were analysed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for total TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and MMP-1. Results from each assay were analysed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Dunn's multiple comparison post-test was then applied between groups.
RESULTS—TIMP-1 levels were significantly raised in dcSSc and lcSSc groups compared with the RP group and normal controls (p<0.01 to p<0.001). In the dcSSc group, TIMP-1 levels were significantly higher in early disease (<2 years) than in late stage disease (>4 years) (p<0.05). This was not found for the lcSSc group. Serum TIMP-2 and MMP-1 levels in dcSSc and lcSSc did not differ significantly from those in normal controls. Increased levels of TIMPs were not convincingly associated with organ disease. No assay result correlated with autoantibody status (anti-topoisomerase 1 (anti-Scl-70), anticentromere antibody, or anti-RNA polymerase). No significant differences in serum TIMP-1, TIMP-2, or MMP-1 levels were shown in the RP group compared with normal controls.
CONCLUSIONS—Raised TIMP-1 levels in the SSc groups support the hypothesis that matrix accumulation occurs in SSc at least in part owing to decreased degradation. Moreover, the variation in TIMP-1 levels between the early and late disease stages of dc

  4. Effect of visual stimulus using central and peripheral visual field on postural control of normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Park, Du-Jin

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of visual stimulus using central and peripheral vision fields on postural control. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects consisted of 40 young adult volunteers (15 males, 25 females) who had been informed of the study purpose and procedure. The subjects were randomly divided into four groups of differing visual stimulus. Each group was given visual intervention in a standing position for 3 minutes. Postural control was evaluated before and after visual intervention. [Results] The results of the functional reach test and body sway test showed significant differences among the four groups. [Conclusion] The two-way peripheral vision-field group showed significantly more body sway after visual intervention than the other three groups. This finding may suggest two-way peripheral vision field is a more effective visual stimulus for training postural control and balance.

  5. Effect of visual stimulus using central and peripheral visual field on postural control of normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Park, Du-Jin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of visual stimulus using central and peripheral vision fields on postural control. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects consisted of 40 young adult volunteers (15 males, 25 females) who had been informed of the study purpose and procedure. The subjects were randomly divided into four groups of differing visual stimulus. Each group was given visual intervention in a standing position for 3 minutes. Postural control was evaluated before and after visual intervention. [Results] The results of the functional reach test and body sway test showed significant differences among the four groups. [Conclusion] The two-way peripheral vision-field group showed significantly more body sway after visual intervention than the other three groups. This finding may suggest two-way peripheral vision field is a more effective visual stimulus for training postural control and balance. PMID:27390412

  6. Comprehending Psychological Defenses: Developmental Differences between Normal and Disturbed Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Andrew; Rybash, John

    Investigated were similarities and differences in the ability of 26 normally developing and 26 conduct-disordered children and adolescents to comprehend psychologically defensive behavior and the cognitive processes underlying differences due to age. Matched by cognitive level, subjects viewed vignettes depicting another child behaving…

  7. Reading Strategies of Bilingual Normally Progressing and Dyslexic Readers in Hindi and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Ashum; Jamal, Gulgoona

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the reading accuracy of dyslexic readers in comparison to chronological age-matched normally progressing readers in Hindi and English using word reading tasks, matched for spoken frequency of usage, age of acquisition, imageability, and word length. Both groups showed significantly greater reading accuracy in Hindi than in…

  8. Orthographic Context and the Acquisition of Orthographic Knowledge in Normal and Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Peter F.; Messbauer, Vera C. S.

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the acquisition of orthographic knowledge of novel words that are presented in an indistinct context, that is a context with many orthographically similar words, would be more difficult for dyslexic than for normal readers. Participants were 19 Dutch dyslexic children (mean age 10;9 years), 20 age-matched and 20…

  9. Predictive Value of Morphological Features in Patients with Autism versus Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgen, H.; Hellemann, G. S.; de Jonge, M. V.; Beemer, F. A.; van Engeland, H.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the predictive power of morphological features in 224 autistic patients and 224 matched-pairs controls. To assess the relationship between the morphological features and autism, we used the receiver operator curves (ROC). In addition, we used recursive partitioning (RP) to determine a specific pattern of abnormalities that is…

  10. Cone-beam CT analysis of patients with obstructive sleep apnea compared to normal controls

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ruben; Looney, Stephen; Kalathingal, Sajitha; De Rossi, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the upper airway dimensions of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and control subjects using a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit commonly applied in clinical practice in order to assess airway dimensions in the same fashion as that routinely employed in a clinical setting. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis utilizing existing CBCT scans to evaluate the dimensions of the upper airway in OSA and control subjects. The CBCT data of sixteen OSA and sixteen control subjects were compared. The average area, average volume, total volume, and total length of the upper airway were computed. Width and anterior-posterior (AP) measurements were obtained on the smallest axial slice. Results OSA subjects had a significantly smaller average airway area, average airway volume, total airway volume, and mean airway width. OSA subjects had a significantly larger airway length measurement. The mean A-P distance was not significantly different between groups. Conclusion OSA subjects have a smaller upper airway compared to controls with the exception of airway length. The lack of a significant difference in the mean A-P distance may indicate that patient position during imaging (upright vs. supine) can affect this measurement. Comparison of this study with a future prospective study design will allow for validation of these results. PMID:27051634

  11. Synchrony of corticostriatal-midbrain activation enables normal inhibitory control and conflict processing in recovering alcoholic men

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, T.; Müller-Oehring, E.M.; Sullivan, E.V.; Pfefferbaum, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with inhibitory control deficits, possibly related to abnormalities in frontoparietal cortical and midbrain function and connectivity. Methods We examined functional connectivity and microstructural fiber integrity between frontoparietal and midbrain structures using a Stroop Match-to-Sample task with functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in 18 alcoholics and 17 controls. Manipulation of color cues and response repetition sequences modulated cognitive demands during Stroop conflict. Results Despite similar lateral frontoparietal activity and functional connectivity in alcoholics and controls when processing conflict, controls deactivated the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), whereas alcoholics did not. Posterior cingulum fiber integrity predicted the degree of PCC deactivation in controls but not alcoholics. Also, PCC activity was modulated by executive control demands: activated during response switching and deactivated during response repetition. Alcoholics showed the opposite pattern: activation during repetition and deactivation during switching. Here, in alcoholics, greater deviations from the normal PCC activity correlated with higher amounts of lifetime alcohol consumption. A functional dissociation of brain network connectivity between the groups further showed that controls exhibited greater corticocortical connectivity between middle cingulate, posterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortices than alcoholics. By contrast, alcoholics exhibited greater midbrain-orbitofrontal cortical network connectivity than controls. Degree of microstructural fiber integrity predicted robustness of functional connectivity. Conclusion Thus, even subtle compromise of microstructural connectivity in alcoholism can influence modulation of functional connectivity and underlie alcohol-related cognitive impairment. PMID:22137506

  12. Sensory control of normal movement and of movement aided by neural prostheses.

    PubMed

    Prochazka, Arthur

    2015-08-01

    Signals from sensory receptors in muscles and skin enter the central nervous system (CNS), where they contribute to kinaesthesia and the generation of motor commands. Many lines of evidence indicate that sensory input from skin receptors, muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs play the predominant role in this regard. Yet in spite of over 100 years of research on this topic, some quite fundamental questions remain unresolved. How does the CNS choose to use the ability to control muscle spindle sensitivity during voluntary movements? Do spinal reflexes contribute usefully to load compensation, given that the feedback gain must be quite low to avoid instability? To what extent do signals from skin stretch receptors contribute? This article provides a brief review of various theories, past and present, that address these questions. To what extent has the knowledge gained resulted in clinical applications? Muscles paralyzed as a result of spinal cord injury or stroke can be activated by electrical stimulation delivered by neuroprostheses. In practice, at most two or three sensors can be deployed on the human body, providing only a small fraction of the information supplied by the tens of thousands of sensory receptors in animals. Most of the neuroprostheses developed so far do not provide continuous feedback control. Instead, they switch from one state to another when signals from their one or two sensors meet pre-set thresholds (finite state control). The inherent springiness of electrically activated muscle provides a crucial form of feedback control that helps smooth the resulting movements. In spite of the dissimilarities, parallels can be found between feedback control in neuroprostheses and in animals and this can provide surprising insights in both directions. PMID:26047134

  13. Validation of Tuba1a as Appropriate Internal Control for Normalization of Gene Expression Analysis during Mouse Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Aditi; Dobersch, Stephanie; Dammann, Reinhard H.; Bellusci, Saverio; Ilinskaya, Olga N.; Braun, Thomas; Barreto, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The expression ratio between the analysed gene and an internal control gene is the most widely used normalization method for quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression analysis. The ideal reference gene for a specific experiment is the one whose expression is not affected by the different experimental conditions tested. In this study, we validate the applicability of five commonly used reference genes during different stages of mouse lung development. The stability of expression of five different reference genes (Tuba1a, Actb Gapdh, Rn18S and Hist4h4) was calculated within five experimental groups using the statistical algorithm of geNorm software. Overall, Tuba1a showed the least variability in expression among the different stages of lung development, while Hist4h4 and Rn18S showed the maximum variability in their expression. Expression analysis of two lung specific markers, surfactant protein C (SftpC) and Clara cell-specific 10 kDA protein (Scgb1a1), normalized to each of the five reference genes tested here, confirmed our results and showed that incorrect reference gene choice can lead to artefacts. Moreover, a combination of two internal controls for normalization of expression analysis during lung development will increase the accuracy and reliability of results. PMID:25723738

  14. Relative roles of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in the control of inhibin secretion in normal men.

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, R I; Matsumoto, A M; Burger, H G; de Kretser, D M; Bremner, W J

    1988-01-01

    The glycoprotein hormone inhibin is produced by the Sertoli cells of the testis under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and is postulated in turn to inhibit FSH secretion. Luteinizing hormone (LH) is not recognized to have an important role in the control of inhibin secretion in any species. To determine the relative roles of FSH and LH in the control of inhibin secretion in man, we examined the effects of selective FSH and LH replacement on serum inhibin levels in normal men whose endogenous gonadotropins were suppressed by testosterone (T). After a 3-mo control period, nine men received 200 mg T enanthate i.m. weekly for 3-9 mo. During T treatment, serum LH and FSH levels were markedly suppressed and serum inhibin levels fell to 40% of control values. While continuing T, 3-5 mo of treatment with purified hFSH (n = 4) or hLH (n = 4) increased the respective serum gonadotropin level into the upper normal range and significantly increased inhibin levels back to 64 and 55% of control values, respectively. Supraphysiological LH replacement with high doses of human chorionic gonadotropin (n = 3) returned serum inhibin levels to 63% of control values. In no case did inhibin levels return fully to control levels. In conclusion, serum inhibin levels fell during gonadotropin suppression and were partially and approximately equally restored by either FSH or LH treatment. FSH presumably acts directly on the Sertoli cell to increase inhibin secretion whereas LH may act via increases in intratesticular T levels and/or other factor(s). Images PMID:3138288

  15. Intellectual differences between schizophrenic patients and normal controls across the adult lifespan.

    PubMed

    Kondel, Tejinder K; Mortimer, Ann M; Leeson, Verity C; Laws, Keith R; Hirsch, Steven R

    2003-12-01

    A debate persists about whether IQ declines during the duration of schizophrenia or whether an early deficit remains static across the lifespan. To examine this, we measured estimated current IQ (Quick Test Revised: QTR) and estimated premorbid IQ (National Adult Reading Test: NART) in schizophrenic patients (n=110) and matched healthy controls (n=71) across a wide age range (20-88). Age correlated negatively with NART and QTR IQ for schizophrenic patients, but not for controls. A subset of 23 schizophrenic patients was also retested on the NART after 4 years to determine NART stability and they showed no significant change. We propose that the lower NART IQ in older patients reflects a lower 'starting point' and that this may be related to lower educational opportunities in older patients.

  16. Voice Handicap in Essential Tremor: A Comparison with Normal Controls and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Gerbin, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Background Although voice tremor is one of the most commonly noted clinical features of essential tremor (ET), there are nearly no published data on the handicap associated with it. Methods The Voice Handicap Index (VHI) was self-administered by participants enrolled in a research study at Columbia University Medical Center. The VHI quantifies patients’ perceptions of handicap due to voice difficulties. Data from 98 ET cases were compared with data from 100 controls and 85 patients with another movement disorder (Parkinson’s disease, PD). Results Voice tremor was present on examination in 25 (25.5%) ET cases; 12 had mild voice tremor (ETMild VT) and 13 had marked voice tremor (ETMarked VT). VHI scores were higher in ET cases than controls (p = 0.02). VHI scores among ETMarked VT were similar to those of PD cases; both were significantly higher than controls (p<0.001). The three VHI subscale scores (physical, functional, emotional) were highest in ETMarked VT, with values that were similar to those observed in PD. Discussion The voice handicap associated with ET had multiple (i.e., physical, functional, and emotional) dimensions. Moreover, ET cases with marked voice tremor on examination had a level of self-reported voice handicap that was similar to that observed in patients with PD. PMID:23450107

  17. Differential Role of Leptin as an Immunomodulator in Controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis in Normal and Leptin-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Radheshyam; Bhattacharya, Parna; Ismail, Nevien; Dagur, Pradeep K.; Joshi, Amritanshu B.; Razdan, Kundan; McCoy, J. Philip; Ascher, Jill; Dey, Ranadhir; Nakhasi, Hira L.

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. There are no vaccines and available drugs against leishmaniasis are toxic. Immunomodulators that specifically boost the anti-microbial activities of the immune cells could alleviate several of these limitations. Therefore, finding novel immunomodulators for VL therapy is a pressing need. This study is aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory role of leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone capable of regulating the immune response, in L. donovani-infected mice. We observed that recombinant leptin treatment reduced splenic parasite burden compared with non-treated infected normal mice. Decrease in parasite burden correlated with an induction of innate immune response in antigen-presenting cells that showed an increase in nitric oxide, enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine (interferon gamma [IFNγ], interleukin12 [IL]12, and IL1β) response in the splenocytes, indicating host-protecting Th1 response mediated by leptin. Moreover, in infected normal mice, leptin treatment induced IFNγ production from both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, compared with non-treated infected mice. Alternatively, leptin-deficient (Ob/Ob) mice had higher splenic and liver parasite burden compared with the infected normal mice. However, leptin treatment failed to reduce the splenic parasite burden and improve a host-protective cytokine response in these mice. In addition, in contrast to dendritic cells (DCs) from a normal mouse, Ob/Ob mouse–derived DCs showed a defect in the induction of innate immune response on Leishmania infection that could not be reversed by leptin treatment. Therefore, our findings reveal that leptin has a differential immunomodulatory effect in controlling VL in normal and Ob/Ob mice. PMID:27114296

  18. MRI evaluation of brain iron in earlier- and later-onset Parkinson's disease and normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Bartzokis, G; Cummings, J L; Markham, C H; Marmarelis, P Z; Treciokas, L J; Tishler, T A; Marder, S R; Mintz, J

    1999-02-01

    Tissue iron levels in the extrapyramidal system of earlier- and later-onset Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects were evaluated in vivo using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method. The method involves scanning subjects in both high- and low-field MRI instruments, measuring tissue relaxation rate (R2), and calculating the field-dependent R2 increase (FDRI) which is the difference between the R2 measured with the two MRI instruments. In tissue, only ferritin iron is known to increase R2 in a field-dependent manner and the FDRI measure is a specific measure of this tissue iron pool. Two groups of male subjects with PD and two age-matched groups of normal control males were studied. The two groups of six subjects with PD consisted of subjects with earlier- or later-onset (before or after age 60) PD. FDRI was measured in five subcortical structures: the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR), substantia nigra compacta (SNC), globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate nucleus, and in one comparison region; the frontal white matter. Earlier-onset PD subjects had significant (p < 0.05) increases in FDRI in the SNR, SNC, putamen, and globus pallidus, while later-onset PD subjects had significantly decreased FDRI in the SNR when compared to their respective age-matched controls. Controlling for illness duration or structure size did not meaningfully alter the results. Published post-mortem studies on SN iron levels indicate decreased ferritin levels and increased free iron levels in the SN of older PD subjects, consistent with the decreased FDRI observed in our later-onset PD sample, which was closely matched in age to the post-mortem PD samples. The FDRI results suggest that disregulation of iron metabolism occurs in PD and that this disregulation may differ in earlier- versus later-onset PD. PMID:10215476

  19. Proteins that mediate protein aggregation and cytotoxicity distinguish Alzheimer's hippocampus from normal controls.

    PubMed

    Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Balasubramaniam, Meenakshisundaram; Parcon, Paul A; Barger, Steven W; Griffin, W Sue T; Alla, Ramani; Tackett, Alan J; Mackintosh, Samuel G; Petricoin, Emanuel; Zhou, Weidong; Shmookler Reis, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are distinguished by characteristic protein aggregates initiated by disease-specific 'seed' proteins; however, roles of other co-aggregated proteins remain largely unexplored. Compact hippocampal aggregates were purified from Alzheimer's and control-subject pools using magnetic-bead immunoaffinity pulldowns. Their components were fractionated by electrophoretic mobility and analyzed by high-resolution proteomics. Although total detergent-insoluble aggregates from Alzheimer's and controls had similar protein content, within the fractions isolated by tau or Aβ1-42 pulldown, the protein constituents of Alzheimer-derived aggregates were more abundant, diverse, and post-translationally modified than those from controls. Tau- and Aβ-containing aggregates were distinguished by multiple components, and yet shared >90% of their protein constituents, implying similar accretion mechanisms. Alzheimer-specific protein enrichment in tau-containing aggregates was corroborated for individuals by three analyses. Five proteins inferred to co-aggregate with tau were confirmed by precise in situ methods, including proximity ligation amplification that requires co-localization within 40 nm. Nematode orthologs of 21 proteins, which showed Alzheimer-specific enrichment in tau-containing aggregates, were assessed for aggregation-promoting roles in C. elegans by RNA-interference 'knockdown'. Fifteen knockdowns (71%) rescued paralysis of worms expressing muscle Aβ, and 12 (57%) rescued chemotaxis disrupted by neuronal Aβ expression. Proteins identified in compact human aggregates, bound by antibody to total tau, were thus shown to play causal roles in aggregation based on nematode models triggered by Aβ1-42 . These observations imply shared mechanisms driving both types of aggregation, and/or aggregate-mediated cross-talk between tau and Aβ. Knowledge of protein components that promote protein accrual in diverse aggregate types implicates common

  20. Lactate: brain fuel in human traumatic brain injury: a comparison with normal healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Thomas C; Martin, Neil A; Horning, Michael A; McArthur, David L; Hovda, David A; Vespa, Paul; Brooks, George A

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that lactate shuttling helps support the nutritive needs of injured brains. To that end, we utilized dual isotope tracer [6,6-(2)H2]glucose, that is, D2-glucose, and [3-(13)C]lactate techniques involving arm vein tracer infusion along with simultaneous cerebral (arterial [art] and jugular bulb [JB]) blood sampling. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with nonpenetrating brain injuries (n=12) were entered into the study following consent of patients' legal representatives. Written and informed consent was obtained from control volunteers (n=6). Patients were studied 5.7±2.2 (mean±SD) days post-injury; during periods when arterial glucose concentration tended to be higher in TBI patients. As in previous investigations, the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgluc, i.e., net glucose uptake) was significantly suppressed following TBI (p<0.001). However, lactate fractional extraction, an index of cerebral lactate uptake related to systemic lactate supply, approximated 11% in both healthy control subjects and TBI patients. Further, neither the CMR for lactate (CMRlac, i.e., net lactate release), nor the tracer-measured cerebral lactate uptake differed between healthy controls and TBI patients. The percentages of lactate tracer taken up and released as (13)CO2 into the JB accounted for 92% and 91% for control and TBI conditions, respectively, suggesting that most cerebral lactate uptake was oxidized following TBI. Comparisons of isotopic enrichments of lactate oxidation from infused [3-(13)C]lactate tracer and (13)C-glucose produced during hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis (GNG) showed that 75-80% of (13)CO2 released into the JB was from lactate and that the remainder was from the oxidation of glucose secondarily labeled from lactate. Hence, either directly as lactate uptake, or indirectly via GNG, peripheral lactate production accounted for ∼70% of carbohydrate (direct lactate uptake+uptake of glucose from lactate) consumed by the

  1. Effects of Hybrid Flow Control on a Normal Shock Boundary-Layer Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirt, Stefanie M.; Vyas, Manan A.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid flow control, a combination of micro-ramps and steady micro-jets, was experimentally investigated in the 15x15 cm Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A central composite design of experiments method, was used to develop response surfaces for boundary-layer thickness and reversed-flow thickness, with factor variables of inter-ramp spacing, ramp height and chord length, and flow injection ratio. Boundary-layer measurements and wall static pressure data were used to understand flow separation characteristics. A limited number of profiles were measured in the corners of the tunnel to aid in understanding the three-dimensional characteristics of the flowfield.

  2. Lactate: Brain Fuel in Human Traumatic Brain Injury: A Comparison with Normal Healthy Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Neil A.; Horning, Michael A.; McArthur, David L.; Hovda, David A.; Vespa, Paul; Brooks, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the hypothesis that lactate shuttling helps support the nutritive needs of injured brains. To that end, we utilized dual isotope tracer [6,6-2H2]glucose, that is, D2-glucose, and [3-13C]lactate techniques involving arm vein tracer infusion along with simultaneous cerebral (arterial [art] and jugular bulb [JB]) blood sampling. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with nonpenetrating brain injuries (n=12) were entered into the study following consent of patients' legal representatives. Written and informed consent was obtained from control volunteers (n=6). Patients were studied 5.7±2.2 (mean±SD) days post-injury; during periods when arterial glucose concentration tended to be higher in TBI patients. As in previous investigations, the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgluc, i.e., net glucose uptake) was significantly suppressed following TBI (p<0.001). However, lactate fractional extraction, an index of cerebral lactate uptake related to systemic lactate supply, approximated 11% in both healthy control subjects and TBI patients. Further, neither the CMR for lactate (CMRlac, i.e., net lactate release), nor the tracer-measured cerebral lactate uptake differed between healthy controls and TBI patients. The percentages of lactate tracer taken up and released as 13CO2 into the JB accounted for 92% and 91% for control and TBI conditions, respectively, suggesting that most cerebral lactate uptake was oxidized following TBI. Comparisons of isotopic enrichments of lactate oxidation from infused [3-13C]lactate tracer and 13C-glucose produced during hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis (GNG) showed that 75–80% of 13CO2 released into the JB was from lactate and that the remainder was from the oxidation of glucose secondarily labeled from lactate. Hence, either directly as lactate uptake, or indirectly via GNG, peripheral lactate production accounted for ∼70% of carbohydrate (direct lactate uptake+uptake of glucose from lactate) consumed by the

  3. Static postural sway, proprioception, and maximal voluntary quadriceps contraction in patients with knee osteoarthritis and normal control subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, B; Mockett, S; Doherty, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate whether subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) have reduced static postural control, knee proprioceptive acuity, and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the quadriceps compared with normal controls, and to determine possible independent predictors of static postural sway.
METHODS—77 subjects with symptomatic and radiographic knee OA (58 women, 19 men; mean age 63.4 years, range 36-82) and 63 controls with asymptomatic and clinically normal knees (45 women, 18 men; mean age 63 years, range 46-85) underwent assessment of static postural sway. 108 subjects (59 patients, 49 controls) also underwent assessment of knee proprioceptive activity and MVC (including calculation of quadriceps activation). In patients with knee OA knee pain, stiffness, and functional disability were assessed using the WOMAC Index. The height (m) and weight (kg) of all subjects was assessed.
RESULTS—Compared with controls, patients with knee OA were heavier (mean difference 15.3 kg, p<0.001), had increased postural lateral sway (controls: median 2.3, interquartile (IQ) range 1.8-2.9; patients: median 4.7, IQ range 1.9-4.7, p<0.001), reduced proprioceptive acuity (controls: mean 7.9, 95% CI 6.9 to 8.9; patients: mean 12.0, 95% CI 10.5 to 13.6, p<0.001), weaker quadriceps strength (controls: mean 22.5, 95% CI 19.9 to 24.6; patients: mean 14.7, 95% CI 12.5 to 16.9, p<0.001), and less percentage activation of quadriceps (controls: mean 87.4, 95% CI 80.7 to 94.2; patients: mean 66.0, 95% CI 58.8 to 73.2, p<0.001). The significant predictors of postural sway were knee pain and the ratio of MVC/body weight.
CONCLUSIONS—Compared with age and sex matched controls, subjects with symptomatic knee OA have quadriceps weakness, reduced knee proprioception, and increased postural sway. Pain and muscle strength may particularly influence postural sway. The interaction between physiological, structural, and functional abnormalities in knee OA

  4. A comparison of mood-dependent memory in bipolar disorder and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Nutt, Rachel M; Lam, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    Mood-dependent memory was investigated in a sample of 28 individuals, with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder I but not during acute episodes, and 30 non-clinical controls by using the word lists from Wechsler Memory Scale--Third Edition and abstract inkblot recognition. Positive or negative mood induction procedures were used prior to and after the stimuli were presented. After either the same or contrasting high or low mood inductions, participants attempted to recall the word list and performed an inkblot recognition task. Bipolar patients were significantly better at the inkblot recognition in the same mood state, showing mood-dependent memory. No differences were found in the verbal recall task. This study paves the way for further investigation into memory differences of this sort in mood disorders.

  5. Evaluation of Serum Lead Levels in Children with Constipation and Normal Controls in Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Maleknejad, Shohreh; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Rahbar, Morteza; Safaei, Afshin; Ghomashpasand, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Objective Constipation is a major debilitating problem in children. We aimed to assess the serum lead levels of 2-13 year-old children complaining from constipation who referred to our center in Guilan province, Northern Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was done on ninety 2-13 year-old children referring to 17th Shahrivar Hospital, complaining from constipation (case group) and 90 healthy children The demographic data as well as the children's serum lead levels were evaluated and recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Chi-square test was used as applicable. Findings Lead poisoning was significantly more frequent in the case group (37.8%) compared with the control group (8.9%). The frequency of lead poisoning in the case group compared with the control group, was significantly higher in children <7 years old (40.2% vs. 10%), boys (40.9% vs. 9.3%), girls (34.8% vs 8.3%), residents of old houses (43.1% vs. 9.7%), residents of new houses (28.1% vs. 8.5%), residents of low-traffic areas (26.8% vs. 5.3%), urban residents (40.5% vs. 9.9%), children whose fathers had low risk (33.3% vs. 10.9%) and high risk jobs (40.7% vs. 3.8%). Conclusion The frequency of lead poisoning was higher in children suffering from constipation.No significant difference was found between the two groups with respect to their sex, age, father's job, and living in urban or rural areas. PMID:24427495

  6. Psychological and behavioral differences among females classified as bulimic, obligatory exerciser and normal control.

    PubMed

    Krejci, R C; Sargent, R; Forand, K J; Ureda, J R; Saunders, R P; Durstine, J L

    1992-05-01

    The compulsion to maintain a lean body shape while living in a society obsessed with food may encourage the use of dieting, binge eating and purging behaviors in young women. The body of literature on bulimia nervosa (Boskind-Lodahl and Sirlin 1977; Fairburn and Cooper 1984; Katzman and Wolchik 1984; Scott 1988) clearly establishes its relationship to the current American fashion for thinness and the value placed on physical attractiveness for self-esteem. This notion promotes a multitude of weight control strategies ranging from self-starvation (Humphrey 1983; Brownell and Foreyth 1986) to cigarette smoking (Klesges and Klesges 1988), many of which may have a profound influence on maintenance of good health. Similar to weight control, exercise behavior could be viewed as falling on a continuum from reasonable efforts to maintain physical fitness to a preoccupation with exercise that is far out of proportion to the expected benefits of a 30-minute, three to five day a week routine. Characteristics of obligatory exercise have been described by several researchers and include maintaining a rigid schedule of intense exercise; resisting temptation to lapse into nonexercising; feelings of guilt and anxiety when the exercise schedule is violated; compensatory increase in exercise to make up for lapses; pushing oneself even when tired, ill, or injured; mental preoccupation with exercise; and detailed recordkeeping on exercise (Yates et al. 1983; Blumenthal et al. 1984; Nudelman et al. 1988). In a competitive society, obsessive exercise behaviors may be linked to the development of rigid dietary guidelines while one strives toward the "optimal" lean-fat ratio of body composition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1603874

  7. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in depressed premenopausal women: elevated blood testosterone concentrations compared to normal controls.

    PubMed

    Baischer, W; Koinig, G; Hartmann, B; Huber, J; Langer, G

    1995-01-01

    To assess the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in major depression, a multihormonal study was carried out in 20 depressed premenopausal women. Serum concentrations of LH, FSH, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and GnRH-stimulated LH and FSH were measured before initiation of treatment (on the first day after menstruation) and during clomipramine treatment (same time one menstrual cycle later). Significantly higher blood concentrations of testosterone were found in untreated patients compared to normal controls. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between Hamilton depression scores and estradiol concentrations of patients. The efficacy of clomipramine treatment was not related to hormonal parameters.

  8. Malformed mdx myofibers have normal cytoskeletal architecture yet altered EC coupling and stress-induced Ca2+ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Christopher W.

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle function is dependent on its highly regular structure. In studies of dystrophic (dy/dy) mice, the proportion of malformed myofibers decreases after prolonged whole muscle stimulation, suggesting that the malformed myofibers are more prone to injury. The aim of this study was to assess morphology and to measure excitation-contraction (EC) coupling (Ca2+ transients) and susceptibility to osmotic stress (Ca2+ sparks) of enzymatically isolated muscle fibers of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles from young (2–3 mo) and old (8–9 mo) mdx and age-matched control mice (C57BL10). In young mdx EDL, 6% of the myofibers had visible malformations (i.e., interfiber splitting, branched ends, midfiber appendages). In contrast, 65% of myofibers in old mdx EDL contained visible malformations. In the mdx FDB, malformation occurred in only 5% of young myofibers and 11% of old myofibers. Age-matched control mice did not display the altered morphology of mdx muscles. The membrane-associated and cytoplasmic cytoskeletal structures appeared normal in the malformed mdx myofibers. In mdx FDBs with significantly branched ends, an assessment of global, electrically evoked Ca2+ signals (indo-1PE-AM) revealed an EC coupling deficit in myofibers with significant branching. Interestingly, peak amplitude of electrically evoked Ca2+ release in the branch of the bifurcated mdx myofiber was significantly decreased compared with the trunk of the same myofiber. No alteration in the basal myoplasmic Ca2+ concentration (i.e., indo ratio) was seen in malformed vs. normal mdx myofibers. Finally, osmotic stress induced the occurrence of Ca2+ sparks to a greater extent in the malformed portions of myofibers, which is consistent with deficits in EC coupling control. In summary, our data show that aging mdx myofibers develop morphological malformations. These malformations are not associated with gross disruptions in cytoskeletal or t

  9. Corneal Biomechanical Assessment Using Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology in Keratoconic and Normal Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-Fei; Wang, Li-Qiang; Bai, Hua; Wang, Qun; Jiang, Jing-Jing; Wu, Ying; Gao, Min

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the corneal biomechanical properties of keratoconic patients and age-matched controls using corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology (Corvis ST). Methods. Sixty keratoconic eyes from 47 keratoconus patients and 60 normal eyes from 60 controls were enrolled in this prospective study. Tomography and biomechanical parameters of all eyes were obtained with the Pentacam and Corvis ST, respectively. Intraocular pressure was measured using a Goldmann applanation tonometer. Results. The tomography and biomechanical parameters of the keratoconic corneas were significantly different from those of the normal corneas except for the anterior chamber angle, first applanation length, the highest concavity time, and peak distance. The deformation amplitude was the best predictive parameter (area under the curve: 0.882), with a sensitivity of 81.7%, although there was a significant overlap between keratoconic and normal corneas that ranged from 1.0 to 1.4 mm. In both the keratoconus and control groups, the deformation amplitude was negatively correlated with intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, and corneal volume at 3 and 5 mm. Conclusions. Corvis ST offers an alternative method for measuring corneal biomechanical properties. The possibility of classifying keratoconus based on deformation amplitude deserves clinical attention. PMID:24800059

  10. N-acetylaspartate normalization in bipolar depression after lamotrigine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Croarkin, Paul E; Thomas, M Albert; Port, John D; Baruth, Joshua M; Choi, Doo-Sup; Abulseoud, Osama A; Frye, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a general marker of neuronal viability, and total NAA (tNAA), the combined signal of NAA and N-acetylaspartylglutamate, in bipolar depression before and after lamotrigine treatment. Given that NAA is synthesized through direct acetylation of aspartate by acetyl-coenzyme A-L-aspartate-N-acetyltransferase, we hypothesized that treatment with lamotrigine would be associated with an increase in NAA level. Methods Patients with bipolar depression underwent two-dimensional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the anterior cingulate at baseline (n = 15) and after 12 weeks of lamotrigine treatment (n = 10). A group of age-matched healthy controls (n = 9) underwent scanning at baseline for comparison. Results At baseline, patients with bipolar depression had significantly lower NAA [mean standard deviation (SD) = 1.13 (0.21); p = 0.02] than controls [mean (SD) = 1.37 (0.27)]. Significant increases in NAA [mean (SD) = 1.39 (0.21); p = 0.01] and tNAA [mean (SD) = 1.61 (0.25); p = 0.02] levels were found after 12 weeks of lamotrigine treatment. Conclusions These data suggest an NAA deficit in bipolar depression that is normalized after lamotrigine treatment. Future research is warranted to evaluate whether baseline NAA level is a potential biomarker for identifying lamotrigine response patterns and whether this functional brain change has an associated clinical response. PMID:25495884

  11. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide restores normal breathing stability and improves autonomic control during experimental heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Del Rio, Rodrigo; Marcus, Noah J.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic imbalance and breathing instability are major contributors to the progression of heart failure (CHF). Potentiation of the carotid body (CB) chemoreflex has been shown to contribute to these effects. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) recently has been proposed to mediate CB hypoxic chemoreception. We hypothesized that H2S synthesis inhibition should decrease CB chemoreflex activation and improve breathing stability and autonomic function in CHF rats. Using the irreversible inhibitor of cystathione γ-lyase dl-propargylglycine (PAG), we tested the effects of H2S inhibition on resting breathing patterns, the hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses, and the hypoxic sensitivity of CB chemoreceptor afferents in rats with CHF. In addition, heart rate variability (HRV) and systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) were calculated as an index of autonomic function. CHF rats, compared with sham rats, exhibited increased breath interval variability and number of apneas, enhanced CB afferent discharge and ventilatory responses to hypoxia, decreased HRV, and increased low-frequency SBPV. Remarkably, PAG treatment reduced the apnea index by 90%, reduced breath interval variability by 40–60%, and reversed the enhanced hypoxic CB afferent and chemoreflex responses observed in CHF rats. Furthermore, PAG treatment partially reversed the alterations in HRV and SBPV in CHF rats. Our results show that PAG treatment restores breathing stability and cardiac autonomic function and reduces the enhanced ventilatory and CB chemosensory responses to hypoxia in CHF rats. These results support the idea that PAG treatment could potentially represent a novel pathway to control sympathetic outflow and breathing instability in CHF. PMID:23449938

  12. Hunger modulates behavioral disinhibition and attention allocation to food-associated cues in normal-weight controls.

    PubMed

    Loeber, Sabine; Grosshans, Martin; Herpertz, Stephan; Kiefer, Falk; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2013-12-01

    Overeating, weight gain and obesity are considered as a major health problem in Western societies. At present, an impairment of response inhibition and a biased salience attribution to food-associated stimuli are considered as important factors associated with weight gain. However, recent findings suggest that the association between an impaired response inhibition and salience attribution and weight gain might be modulated by other factors. Thus, hunger might cause food-associated cues to be perceived as more salient and rewarding and might be associated with an impairment of response inhibition. However, at present, little is known how hunger interacts with these processes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether hunger modulates response inhibition and attention allocation towards food-associated stimuli in normal-weight controls. A go-/nogo task with food-associated and control words and a visual dot-probe task with food-associated and control pictures were administered to 48 normal-weight participants (mean age 24.5 years, range 19-40; mean BMI 21.6, range 18.5-25.4). Hunger was assessed twofold using a self-reported measure of hunger and a measurement of the blood glucose level. Our results indicated that self-reported hunger affected behavioral response inhibition in the go-/nogo task. Thus, hungry participants committed significantly more commission errors when food-associated stimuli served as distractors compared to when control stimuli were the distractors. This effect was not observed in sated participants. In addition, we found that self-reported hunger was associated with a lower number of omission errors in response to food-associated stimuli indicating a higher salience of these stimuli. Low blood glucose level was not associated with an impairment of response inhibition. However, our results indicated that the blood glucose level was associated with an attentional bias towards food-associated cues in the visual dot probe task

  13. The effect of serum vitamin D normalization in preventing recurrences of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhzadeh, Mahboobeh; Lotfi, Yones; Mousavi, Abdollah; Heidari, Behzad; Bakhshi, Enyatollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a condition with recurrent attacks in a significant proportion of patients. The present case- control study was conducted to assess the influence of serum vitamin D normalization on recurrent attacks of vitamin D deficient patients. Methods: Diagnosis of BPPV was made based on history and clinical examination and exclusion of other conditions. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) was measured using ELISA method and a levels of < 20 ng/ml was considered a deficiency of vitamin D. Inclusion criteria were as follows: history of recurrent attacks and serum 25-OHD<20.ng/ml. While the patients with history of trauma, surgery and chronic systemic diseases were excluded. The patients were classified into two groups: treatment and control, intermittently. Both groups received Epley rehabilitation therapy one session per week for 4 weeks but the treatment group received an additional supplement of 50.000 IU of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) weekly for two months to achieve serum 25-OHD ≥ 30 ng/ml and the study patients were followed-up for 6 months. Results: Twenty-seven patients were allocated to each group. At baseline, serum 25-OHD was similar (10.7±2.3 vs 11.41±1.9, P=0.23). At month 2, serum 25-OHD in the treatment group increased significantly to ≥ 30 ng/ ml, whereas serum 25-OHD in the control group remained unchanged (34.2±3.3 vs 10.6 10.6±2.2 ng/ml, P=0.001). During the follow-up period, attacks of BPPV in the treatment group decreased significantly compared with the control group (14.8% vs 96.3% OR= 0.18, P=0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that the normalization of serum vitamin D significantly reduces BPPV recurrences.

  14. Diet quality in obese/overweight individuals with/without metabolic syndrome compared to normal weight controls

    PubMed Central

    Yosaee, Somaye; Esteghamati, Alireza; Nazari Nasab, Mahdiyeh; Khosravi, Ahmad; Alinavaz, Mina; Hosseini, Banafshe; Djafarian, Kurosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a serious public health concern worldwide; however, the pathogenesis of this disease has not been yet cleared. This study aimed to compare diet quality in obese/overweight participants with/without metabolic syndrome with normal weight controls. Methods: This was a comparative study on 147 Iranian adults under treatment at the Endocrinology Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. They were assigned into three groups (normal weight, obese weight with/without MetS) according to the inclusion- exclusion criteria. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the NCEP ATPIII consensus criteria. Healthy Eating Index Data were obtained from the validated FFQ to determine the diet quality index scores, using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Results: Our findings demonstrated that FBS, TG, SBP, WC and weight were higher among MetS patients compared to the both weight matched and non-weight matched participants, while HDL-c was lowest in this group (p<0.05). A statistically significant difference was found between healthy weight controls and obese/overweight participants with/without MetS in HEI-2010, and 9 of the 12 HEI-2010 components score (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our study revealed that low diet quality was a risk factor in developing MetS PMID:27493920

  15. The small Rho GTPase Rac1 controls normal human dermal fibroblasts proliferation with phosphorylation of the oncoprotein c-myc

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolova, Ekaterina; Mitev, Vanio; Zhelev, Nikolai; Deroanne, Christophe F. . E-mail: yves.poumay@fundp.ac.be

    2007-08-03

    Proliferation of dermal fibroblasts is crucial for the maintenance of skin. The small Rho GTPase, Rac1, has been identified as a key transducer of proliferative signals in various cell types, but in normal human dermal fibroblasts its significance to cell growth control has not been studied. In this study, we applied the method of RNA interference to suppress endogenous Rac1 expression and examined the consequences on human skin fibroblasts. Rac1 knock-down resulted in inhibition of DNA synthesis. This effect was not mediated by inhibition of the central transducer of proliferative stimuli, ERK1/2 or by activation of the pro-apoptotic p38. Rather, as a consequence of the suppressed Rac1 expression we observed a significant decrease in phosphorylation of c-myc, revealing for the first time that in human fibroblasts Rac1 exerts control on proliferation through c-myc phosphorylation. Thus Rac1 activates proliferation of normal fibroblasts through stimulation of c-myc phosphorylation without affecting ERK1/2 activity.

  16. Emissions of parent, nitrated, and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from indoor corn straw burning in normal and controlled combustion conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Wei, Siye; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Lv, Yan; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bin; Wu, Haisuo; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Emission factors (EFs) of parent polycyclic aromatic (pPAHs), nitrated PAHs (nPAHs), and oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) were measured for indoor corn straw burned in a cooking brick stove in both normal and controlled burning conditions. EFs of total 28 pPAHs, 6 nPAHs and 4 oPAHs were 7.9±3.4, 6.5±1.6×10-3, and 6.1±1.4×10-1 mg/kg, respectively. By controlling the burning conditions, it was found that the influence of fuel charge size on EFs of the pPAHs and derivatives was insignificant. Measured EFs increased significantly in a fast burning mainly because of the oxygen deficient atmosphere formed in the stove chamber with a small volume. In both restricted and enhance air supply conditions, EFs of pPAHs, nPAHs and oPAHs were significantly higher than those measured in normal burning conditions. Though EFs varied in different burning conditions, the composition profiles and calculated isomer ratios were similar without significant differences. The results from the stepwise regression model showed that fuel burning rate, air supply amount, and modified combustion efficiency were three most significant influencing factors, explaining 72-85% of the total variations. PMID:24494494

  17. Comparison of oral health status between children with cerebral palsy and normal children in India: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Nidhi; Singh, Bijay; Chhabra, Kumar Gaurav; Patil, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present research was to describe and compare the oral health of children with cerebral palsy (CP) with the normal children in India. Materials and Methods: Fifty children with CP of the age range 7-17 years and fifty normal children were selected for the study. An oral examination was carried out and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT) index, oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) index, Angles malocclusion were charted along with other significant dental findings. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and Kruskal–Wallis one-way ANOVA test. Results: The mean dmft/DMFT of the CP group was 4.11 ± 2.62, while that of controls was 2.95 ± 2.75, which showed higher caries prevalence in the CP group. There was a significant association between the dmft/DMFT (P = 0.03), OHI-S (P = 0.001), and Angles Class 2 malocclusion and CP. Conclusions: Cerebral palsy group had higher caries, poor oral hygiene and Class 2 malocclusion when compared to controls primarily because of their compromised general health condition and also less dental awareness. Effort should be made for better organization of preventive dental care and promoting dental health of this challenged population. PMID:25810598

  18. Ubiquitous Expression of MAKORIN-2 in Normal and Malignant Hematopoietic Cells and Its Growth Promoting Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, King Yiu; Chan, Kathy Yuen Yee; Tsang, Kam Sze; Chen, Yang Chao; Kung, Hsiang-fu; Ng, Pak Cheung; Li, Chi Kong; Leung, Kam Tong; Li, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Makorin-2 (MKRN2) is a highly conserved protein and yet its functions are largely unknown. We investigated the expression levels of MKRN2 and RAF1 in normal and malignant hematopoietic cells, and leukemia cell lines. We also attempted to delineate the role of MKRN2 in umbilical cord blood CD34+ stem/progenitor cells and K562 cell line by over-expression and inhibition of MKRN2 through lentivirus transduction and shRNA nucleofection, respectively. Our results provided the first evidence on the ubiquitous expression of MKRN2 in normal hematopoietic cells, embryonic stem cell lines, primary leukemia and leukemic cell lines of myeloid, lymphoid, erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages. The expression levels of MKRN2 were generally higher in primary leukemia samples compared with those in age-matched normal BM cells. In all leukemia subtypes, there was no significant correlation between expression levels of MKRN2 and RAF1. sh-MKRN2-silenced CD34+ cells had a significantly lower proliferation capacity and decreased levels of the early stem/progenitor subpopulation (CFU-GEMM) compared with control cultures. Over-expression of MKRN2 in K562 cells increased cell proliferation. Our results indicated possible roles of MKRN2 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. PMID:24675897

  19. Estradiol differently affects melanin synthesis of malignant and normal melanocytes: a relationship with clock and clock-controlled genes.

    PubMed

    Poletini, Maristela Oliveira; de Assis, Leonardo Vinicius Monteiro; Moraes, Maria Nathalia; Castrucci, Ana Maria de Lauro

    2016-10-01

    Melanin production within melanocytes is regulated, among others, by estradiol, whose effects on melanogenesis are still not completely elucidated. Here we show that although 10(-7) M 17β-estradiol (E2) increased tyrosinase mRNA levels in B16-F10 malignant melanocytes, there was a transient decrease and abolishment of the temporal variation of melanin content. Both parameters were much higher in the malignant than in normal Melan-a cells. Considering that silencing clock machinery in human melanocytes increases melanogenesis, we investigated clock gene expression in those cell lines. Except for Melan-a Bmal1 and B16-F10 Per2 expression of control cells, Per1, Per2, and Bmal1 expression increased independently of cell type or E2 treatment after 24 h. However, melanoma cells showed a marked increase in Per1 and Bma11 expression in response to E2 at the same time points, what may rule out E2 as a synchronizer agent since the expression of those genes were not in antiphase. Next, we investigated the expression of Xpa, a clock-controlled gene, which in Melan-a cells, peaked at 18 h, and E2 treatment shifted this peak to 24 h, whereas B16-F10 Xpa expression peaked at 24 h in both control and E2 group, and it was higher compared to Melan-a cells in both groups. Therefore, malignant and normal melanocytes display profound differences on core elements of the local clock, and how they respond to E2, what is most probably determinant of the differences seen on melanin synthesis and Tyrosinase and Xpa expression. Understanding these processes at the molecular level could bring new strategies to treat melanoma. PMID:27535239

  20. Differences in the association of peripheral insulin and cognitive function in non-diabetic Alzheimer's disease cases and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Pavlik, Valory; Massman, Paul; Barber, Robert; Doody, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance increases the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, but higher insulin levels may be cognitively protective after a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The role of peripheral insulin as a predictor of cognitive decline both before and after an AD diagnosis needs further elucidation. We studied 197 AD cases and 198 normal controls enrolled in the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium. Standardized protocols were used to collect age, gender, education, body mass index (BMI), serum insulin (not restricted to fasting), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipids, smoking and cardiovascular disease history, and neuropsychological tests including Mini-Mental State Examination, American National Adult Reading Test (AMNART) errors, Controlled Word Association Test (COWAT), Boston Naming Test, Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMSR) Digit Span, Trails A and B, WMSR Logical Memory (LM) I and II, and Visual Reproduction (VR) I and II. We used linear regression to test the contribution of log-transformed serum insulin to each score, adjusting for age, gender, education, and BMI. In the AD cases, higher serum insulin was associated with worse performance on the COWAT (p < 0.001) and Trails B (p = 0.04). In controls, higher serum insulin was associated with worse performance on the AMNART (p = 0.001), COWAT (p = 0.007), Digit Span (p = 0.004), LM I (p = 0.004), LM II (p = 0.009), and marginally with VR II (p = 0.076). Adjustment for HbA1c, APOE4, and cardiovascular disease, or restricting the sample to mild AD, did not alter these associations. In non-demented older individuals, higher peripheral insulin appears to be associated with worse cognitive performance in multiple domains, but is not a consistent predictor in AD cases. These findings indicate the need for additional research on the role of insulin in the transition between normal and impaired cognitive function.

  1. Body Composition Is Normal in Term Infants Born to Mothers With Well-Controlled Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Au, Cheryl P.; Raynes-Greenow, Camille H.; Turner, Robin M.; Carberry, Angela E.; Jeffery, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study aims to describe body composition in term infants of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared with infants of mothers with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This cross-sectional study included 599 term babies born at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Neonatal body fat percentage (BF%) was measured within 48 h of birth using air-displacement plethysmography. Glycemic control data were based on third-trimester HbA1c levels and self-monitoring blood glucose levels. Associations between GDM status and BF% were investigated using linear regression adjusted for relevant maternal and neonatal variables. RESULTS Of 599 babies, 67 (11%) were born to mothers with GDM. Mean ± SD neonatal BF% was 7.9 ± 4.5% in infants with GDM and 9.3 ± 4.3% in infants with NGT, and this difference was not statistically significant after adjustment. Good glycemic control was achieved in 90% of mothers with GDM. CONCLUSIONS In this study, neonatal BF% did not differ by maternal GDM status, and this may be attributed to good maternal glycemic control. PMID:23223404

  2. Oronasopharyngeal suction versus no suction in normal, term and vaginally born infants: a prospective randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gungor, Sadettin; Teksoz, Ertan; Ceyhan, Temel; Kurt, Ercan; Goktolga, Umit; Baser, Iskender

    2005-10-01

    This prospective randomised controlled trial aimed to compare the effects of oronasopharyngeal suction with those of no suction in normal, term and vaginally born infants and was performed at a Turkish tertiary hospital from June 2003 to January 2004. A total of 140 newborns were enrolled in the trial (n = 70 per group). The no suction group showed lower mean heart rates through the 3rd and 6th minutes and higher SaO(2) values through the first 6 mins of life (P < 0.001). The maximum time to reach SaO2 of >or= 92% (6 vs. 11 min) and >or= 86% (5 vs. 8 min) were shorter in the no suction group (P < 0.001).

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow in mood disorders. I. Comparison of major depressives and normal controls at rest

    SciTech Connect

    Sackeim, H.A.; Prohovnik, I.; Moeller, J.R.; Brown, R.P.; Apter, S.; Prudic, J.; Devanand, D.P.; Mukherjee, S. )

    1990-01-01

    We measured regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique in 41 patients with major depressive disorder and 40 matched, normal controls during an eyes-closed, resting condition. The depressed group had a marked reduction in global cortical blood flow. To examine topographic abnormalities, traditional multivariate analyses were applied, as well as a new scaled subprofile model developed to identify abnormal functional neural networks in clinical samples. Both approaches indicated that the depressed sample had an abnormality in topographic distribution of blood flow, in addition to the global deficit. The scaled subprofile model identified the topographic abnormality as being due to flow reduction in the depressed patients in selective frontal, central, superior temporal, and anterior parietal regions. This pattern may reflect dysfunction in the parallel distributed cortical network involving frontal and temporoparietal polymodal association areas. The extent of this topographic abnormality, as revealed by the scaled subprofile model, was associated with both patient age and severity of depressive symptoms.

  4. A Randomized, Controlled Trial to Assess the Effect of Topical Insulin Versus Normal Saline in Pressure Ulcer Healing.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Shine; Agnihotri, Meenakshi; Kaur, Sukhpal

    2016-06-01

    Insulin has been used in wound healing to increase wound collagen, granulation tissue, wound tensile strength, and local production of insulin-like growth factors by fibroblasts. Saline is a widely used irrigating and wound dressing solution. Patients admitted to an acute care facility who had a Grade 2 or Grade 3 pressure ulcer were recruited to participate in a randomized, controlled trial to compare the effect of normal saline-impregnated gauze and insulin dressing in pressure ulcer healing. Persons with immunodeficiency, diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, osteomyelitis, and peripheral vascular illness were not eligible for the study. Study participants were randomized to receive either normal saline dressing gauze or insulin dressing twice daily for 7 days. At baseline, patient demographic data and ulcer history were recorded. Baseline and follow-up ulcer assessments (days 4 and day 7) included ulcer measurement (length and width) and completion of the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH version 3.0) tool. Patients in the control group received dressings of sterile gauze soaked with normal saline; patients in the intervention group received topical insulin (1 U/cm2 wound area). The insulin was sprayed over the wound surface with an insulin syringe, allowed to dry for 15 minutes, and then covered with sterile gauze. To ascertain the safety of study participants, blood glucose levels were measured with a glucometer 10 minutes before and 1 hour after the topical insulin application in the intervention group. Treatment efficacy was deter- mined by assessing the reduction in wound area and PUSH scores at follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed; data are expressed as mean ± SD and percentage for continuous and categorical variables respectively. The differences in PUSH score and ulcer sizes between the 2 groups were analyzed using independent t-test, and within-group differences were analyzed using ANOVA with repeated measures; Greenhouse-Geisser correction was

  5. A Randomized, Controlled Trial to Assess the Effect of Topical Insulin Versus Normal Saline in Pressure Ulcer Healing.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Shine; Agnihotri, Meenakshi; Kaur, Sukhpal

    2016-06-01

    Insulin has been used in wound healing to increase wound collagen, granulation tissue, wound tensile strength, and local production of insulin-like growth factors by fibroblasts. Saline is a widely used irrigating and wound dressing solution. Patients admitted to an acute care facility who had a Grade 2 or Grade 3 pressure ulcer were recruited to participate in a randomized, controlled trial to compare the effect of normal saline-impregnated gauze and insulin dressing in pressure ulcer healing. Persons with immunodeficiency, diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, osteomyelitis, and peripheral vascular illness were not eligible for the study. Study participants were randomized to receive either normal saline dressing gauze or insulin dressing twice daily for 7 days. At baseline, patient demographic data and ulcer history were recorded. Baseline and follow-up ulcer assessments (days 4 and day 7) included ulcer measurement (length and width) and completion of the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH version 3.0) tool. Patients in the control group received dressings of sterile gauze soaked with normal saline; patients in the intervention group received topical insulin (1 U/cm2 wound area). The insulin was sprayed over the wound surface with an insulin syringe, allowed to dry for 15 minutes, and then covered with sterile gauze. To ascertain the safety of study participants, blood glucose levels were measured with a glucometer 10 minutes before and 1 hour after the topical insulin application in the intervention group. Treatment efficacy was deter- mined by assessing the reduction in wound area and PUSH scores at follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed; data are expressed as mean ± SD and percentage for continuous and categorical variables respectively. The differences in PUSH score and ulcer sizes between the 2 groups were analyzed using independent t-test, and within-group differences were analyzed using ANOVA with repeated measures; Greenhouse-Geisser correction was

  6. Twenty-four-hour osteocalcin, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen, and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen rhythms in normal and growth-retarded children.

    PubMed

    Saggese, G; Baroncelli, G I; Bertelloni, S; Cinquanta, L; DiNero, G

    1994-04-01

    The relationships between spontaneous variations in serum 24-h osteocalcin (OC), carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) concentrations and GH secretion, measured as GH response to provocative pharmacologic stimuli and spontaneous GH secretion during 24 h, were evaluated in prepubertal normal children and in GH-deficient and GH-secreting short normal children (SNC). All the subjects showed a circadian rhythm in smoothed 24-h OC and PICP mean data with higher nocturnal values in comparison with diurnal values. Conversely, serum PIINP concentrations did not vary throughout the day. In children with classic GH deficiency and nonclassic GH deficiency, mean 24-h serum levels and smoothed 24-h mean data for OC, PICP, and PIIINP were significantly reduced (p < 0.001) with respect to age-matched controls. SNC showed mean 24-h OC concentrations similar (p = NS) to those we found in age-matched controls, but they had significantly lower (p < 0.001) diurnal 12-h mean data in comparison with controls. SNC also showed both 24-h PICP and PIIINP mean data and smoothed 24-h PICP and PIIINP mean data significantly lower (from p < 0.02 to p < 0.001) at all the time points of measurement in comparison with controls. Twenty-four-hour PICP and PIIINP mean data were positively related to spontaneous 24-h GH concentrations (r = 0.77, p < 0.005 and r = 0.69, p < 0.005, respectively) and growth velocity (r = 0.85, p < 0.005, and r = 0.70, p < 0.005, respectively), whereas 24-h OC mean data were not.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8047377

  7. SPM-based count normalization provides excellent discrimination of mild Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment from healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, Igor; Hammers, Alexander; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Scheurich, Armin; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Peters, Jürgen; Bartenstein, Peter; Lieb, Klaus; Schreckenberger, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Statistical comparisons of [(18)F]FDG PET scans between healthy subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) usually require normalization of regional tracer uptake via ROIs defined using additional software. Here, we validate a simple SPM-based method for count normalization. FDG PET scans of 21 mild, 15 very mild AD, 11 aMCI patients and 15 age-matched controls were analyzed. First, we obtained relative increases in the whole patient sample compared to controls (i.e. areas relatively preserved in patients) with proportional scaling to the cerebral global mean (CGM). Next, average absolute counts within the cluster with the highest t-value were extracted. Statistical comparisons of controls versus three patients groups were then performed using count normalization to CGM, sensorimotor cortex (SMC) as standard, and to the cluster-derived counts. Compared to controls, relative metabolism in aMCI patients was reduced by 15%, 20%, and 23% after normalization to CGM, SMC, and cluster-derived counts, respectively, and 11%, 21%, and 25% in mild AD patients. Logistic regression analyses based on normalized values extracted from AD-typical regions showed that the metabolic values obtained using CGM, SMC, and cluster normalization correctly classified 81%, 89% and 92% of aMCI and controls; classification accuracies for AD groups (very mild and mild) were 91%, 97%, and 100%. The proposed algorithm of fully SPM-based count normalization allows for a substantial increase of statistical power in detecting very early AD-associated hypometabolism, and very high accuracy in discriminating mild AD and aMCI from healthy aging. PMID:18691659

  8. KSTAR stability and rotation control results for high normalized beta plasmas exceeding the ideal MHD no-wall stability limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Jeon, Y. M.; Lee, S. G.; Ko, W. H.; Hahn, S. H.; Bak, J. G.; You, K.-I.; Park, J. K.; Choi, M. J.; Yun, G. S.; Park, H. K.

    2013-10-01

    Plasma stability parameters in KSTAR have reached and exceeded the n = 1 ideal no-wall limit computed for H-mode profiles. Normalized beta up to 2.9 has been achieved and sustained with plasma internal inductance near 0.75. The ratio βN/li has exceeded 3.6 (an 80% increase over the prior year). Plasma stored energy has exceeded 0.5 MJ. Non-axisymmetric field spectra with dominant n = 2 component were applied to alter the plasma rotation profile by non-resonant neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV). The rotation profile was significantly altered without tearing activity or mode locking. Changing the in-vessel control coil current in steps altered rotation in a controlled fashion without hysteresis. The core rotation was lowered by 50% as measured by charge exchange spectroscopy, x-ray crystal spectrometer, and supported by magnetic diagnostics. H-mode energy confinement was maintained at reduced rotation while the resultant profile was peaked, as found in L-mode. Tearing mode onset conditions and mode locking criteria due to the applied n = 1, 2 applied fields were investigated. Additionally, ELMs were mitigated using sufficient n = 2 field strength by using midplane coils alone. Advances from the recent run campaign will be reported. Supported by U.S. DOE grant DE-FG02-99ER54524.

  9. A new EEG synchronization strength analysis method: S-estimator based normalized weighted-permutation mutual information.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dong; Pu, Weiting; Liu, Jing; Bian, Zhijie; Li, Qiuli; Wang, Lei; Gu, Guanghua

    2016-10-01

    Synchronization is an important mechanism for understanding information processing in normal or abnormal brains. In this paper, we propose a new method called normalized weighted-permutation mutual information (NWPMI) for double variable signal synchronization analysis and combine NWPMI with S-estimator measure to generate a new method named S-estimator based normalized weighted-permutation mutual information (SNWPMI) for analyzing multi-channel electroencephalographic (EEG) synchronization strength. The performances including the effects of time delay, embedding dimension, coupling coefficients, signal to noise ratios (SNRs) and data length of the NWPMI are evaluated by using Coupled Henon mapping model. The results show that the NWPMI is superior in describing the synchronization compared with the normalized permutation mutual information (NPMI). Furthermore, the proposed SNWPMI method is applied to analyze scalp EEG data from 26 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects and 20 age-matched controls with normal cognitive function, who both suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The proposed methods NWPMI and SNWPMI are suggested to be an effective index to estimate the synchronization strength.

  10. A new EEG synchronization strength analysis method: S-estimator based normalized weighted-permutation mutual information.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dong; Pu, Weiting; Liu, Jing; Bian, Zhijie; Li, Qiuli; Wang, Lei; Gu, Guanghua

    2016-10-01

    Synchronization is an important mechanism for understanding information processing in normal or abnormal brains. In this paper, we propose a new method called normalized weighted-permutation mutual information (NWPMI) for double variable signal synchronization analysis and combine NWPMI with S-estimator measure to generate a new method named S-estimator based normalized weighted-permutation mutual information (SNWPMI) for analyzing multi-channel electroencephalographic (EEG) synchronization strength. The performances including the effects of time delay, embedding dimension, coupling coefficients, signal to noise ratios (SNRs) and data length of the NWPMI are evaluated by using Coupled Henon mapping model. The results show that the NWPMI is superior in describing the synchronization compared with the normalized permutation mutual information (NPMI). Furthermore, the proposed SNWPMI method is applied to analyze scalp EEG data from 26 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects and 20 age-matched controls with normal cognitive function, who both suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The proposed methods NWPMI and SNWPMI are suggested to be an effective index to estimate the synchronization strength. PMID:27451314

  11. Mechanical controls on the spatial and temporal variability of faulting mechanisms in sandstone along the Moab normal fault, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davatzes, N. C.; Aydin, A.

    2003-12-01

    Segmentation is a fundamental characteristic of faults. However, the effect of segmentation on the process of fault development, the architecture of the fault zone, and the properties of faults are poorly understood. Along the Moab fault, a basin scale normal fault with ~1 km of throw in SE Utah, segmentation is associated with localized changes in the density and types of structures associated with faulting in sandstone. Changes in the types of structural elements are associated with fault development by two different mechanisms in sandstone: (1) cataclastic shear failure that produces deformation bands and (2) the repeated formation and subsequent shearing of joints that leads to the formation of a brecciated fault zone. Deformation bands are prevalent along the entire length of the fault system and band density is greatest within relays between normal fault segments that are subjected to a component of strike-parallel contraction. The joints and sheared joints only occur at intersections between normal fault segments and relays that are subjected to strike-parallel extension where they overprint deformation bands. We contend that spatial variation of the faulting mechanisms in sandstone is associated with the stress perturbation around the fault. We used the geometry and kinematics of the fault segments and an estimated burial depth of 2 km to simulate the mechanical behavior of the fault system in linear elastic boundary element models using Poly3D. We looked specifically for changes in the stress state that would cause a transition from deformation band formation to joint formation because joints are the youngest structural elements wherever they occur. Joints form normal to the least compressive principal stress when this stress exceeds the tensile strength of the rock. We also note that cataclasis in deformation bands represent a loss of volume, whereas jointing and breccia formation are dilatant processes. Consequently the mean stress can act as an

  12. DIET CONTROLS NORMAL AND TUMOROUS GERMLINE STEM CELLS VIA INSULIN-DEPENDENT AND -INDEPENDENT MECHANISMS IN DROSOPHILA

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hwei-Jan; LaFever, Leesa; Drummond-Barbosa, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    The external environment influences stem cells, but this process is poorly understood. Our previous work showed that germline stem cells (GSCs) respond to diet via neural insulin-like peptides (DILPs) that act directly on the germ line to upregulate stem cell division and cyst growth under a protein-rich diet in Drosophila. Here, we report that DILPs specifically control the G2 phase of the GSC cell cycle via phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) and dFOXO, and that a separate diet mediator regulates the G1 phase. Furthermore, GSC tumors, which escape the normal stem cell regulatory microenvironment, or niche, still respond to diet via both mechanisms, indicating that niche signals are not required for GSCs to sense or respond to diet. Our results document the effect of diet and insulin-like signals on the cell cycle of stem cells within an intact organism, and demonstrate that the response to diet requires multiple signals. Moreover, the retained ability of GSC tumors to respond to diet parallels the long known connections between diet, insulin signaling, and cancer risk in humans. PMID:18068153

  13. The association between impaired turning and normal straight walking in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Crenna, P; Carpinella, I; Rabuffetti, M; Calabrese, E; Mazzoleni, P; Nemni, R; Ferrarin, M

    2007-07-01

    Turning whilst walking was investigated by gait analysis in a group of Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients with mild clinical impairment and no significant abnormalities in stride parameters and kinematics of steady-state, linear walking. Comparison with age-matched controls demonstrated that patients approached turns with a slower step and completed turning with a greater number of steps. Moreover, the normal cranio-caudal sequence, whereby rotation of the head toward the intended direction of travel is followed by rotation of the trunk, was replaced by nearly simultaneous rotation of head and trunk and decreased relative head excursion after the second turning step. The evidence of abnormal inter-segmental coordination during turning in mildly affected, normally walking patients suggests that task-specific pathophysiological mechanisms, not necessary related to basic locomotor deficits, underlie disturbed directional changes in PD. Furthermore, turning-related neural systems may be more vulnerable to functional impairments associated with PD, as compared with linear walking. Hierarchically higher control levels involved in the turning ability may explain the observed unexpected association.

  14. Normal-weight and overweight female adolescents with and without extreme weight-control behaviours: Emotional distress and body image concerns.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Sáez, Soledad; Pascual, Aitziber; Salaberria, Karmele; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse emotional distress and concerns related to body image in 712 normal-weight and overweight adolescent girls. A total of 12.3 per cent of the normal-weight girls and 25 per cent of the overweight girls showed extreme weight-control behaviours. In normal-weight adolescents, their engagement in extreme weight-control behaviours was associated with high levels of somatic symptoms, a drive for thinness and control over eating. In overweight girls, high levels of drive for thinness and anxiety were associated with extreme weight-control behaviours. Finally, the implications for preventive and therapeutic programmes are discussed.

  15. Measuring Recent Thymic Emigrants in Blood of Normal and HIV-1–Infected Individuals before and after Effective Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linqi; Lewin, Sharon R.; Markowitz, Martin; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Skulsky, Eva; Karanicolas, Rose; He, Yuxian; Jin, Xia; Tuttleton, Sarah; Vesanen, Mika; Spiegel, Hans; Kost, Rhonda; van Lunzen, Jan; Stellbrink, Hans-Juergen; Wolinsky, Steven; Borkowsky, William; Palumbo, Paul; Kostrikis, Leondios G.; Ho, David D.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the thymus in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains unclear. We developed an assay to quantify the number of recent thymic emigrants in blood based on the detection of a major excisional DNA byproduct (termed α1 circle) of T cell receptor rearrangement. By studying 532 normal individuals, we found that α1 circle numbers in blood remain high for the first 10–15 yr of life, a sharp drop is seen in the late teen years, and a gradual decline occurs thereafter. Compared with age-matched uninfected control individuals, α1 circle numbers in HIV-1–infected adults were significantly reduced; however, there were many individuals with normal α1 circle numbers. In 74 individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, we found no appreciable effect on α1 circle numbers in those whose baseline values were already within the normal range, but significant increases were observed in those with a preexisting impairment. The increases in α1 circle numbers were, however, numerically insufficient to account for the rise in levels of naive T lymphocytes. Overall, it is difficult to invoke thymic regenerative failure as a generalized mechanism for CD4 lymphocyte depletion in HIV-1 infection, as α1 circle numbers are normal in a substantial subset of HIV-1–infected individuals. PMID:10477556

  16. Determination of patterns of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging and dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Alavi, A.; Chawluk, J.; Hurtig, H.; Dann, R.; Rosen, M.; Kushner, M.; Silver, F.; Reivich, M.

    1985-05-01

    Regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRGlc) were measured using 18F-FDG and positron emission tomography (PET) in 14 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (age=64), 9 elderly controls (age=61), and 9 young controls (age=28). PET studies were performed without sensory stimulation or deprivation. Metabolic rates in individual brain regions were determined using an atlas overlay. Relative metabolic rates (rCMRGl c/global CMRGlc) were determined for all subjects. Comparison of young and elderly controls demonstrated significant decreases in frontal metabolism (rho<0.005) and right inferior parietal (IP) metabolism (rho<0.02) with normal aging. Patients with mild-moderate AD (NMAD) (n=8) when compared to age-matched controls, showed further reduction in right IP metabolism (rho<0.02). SAD patients also demonstrated metabolic decrements in left hemisphere language areas (rho<0.01). This latter finding is consistent with language disturbance observed late in the course of the disease. Out data reveal progressive changes in patterns of cerebral glucose utilization with aging and demential with reflect salient clinical features of these processes.

  17. Comparison of athletes with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias with two groups of healthy athletes and a group of normal control subjects.

    PubMed

    Jordaens, L; Missault, L; Pelleman, G; Duprez, D; De Backer, G; Clement, D L

    1994-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death in well-trained athletes is most often superimposed on the presence of structural heart disease. However, some athletes die suddenly in the absence of overt heart disease. To improve identification of athletes at high risk for ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular repolarization, the signal-averaged electrocardiogram (ECG), and the echocardiogram from 13 male athletes with symptomatic VT and without evidence of manifest cardiac disease were compared with data obtained in 3 matched control groups (15 apparently healthy professional road cyclists, 10 professional basketball players, and 15 normal control subjects without any sports activity). All patients had apparently normal QRS duration on the routine ECG, and none were taking antiarrhythmic drugs. Echocardiography and signal-averaged electrocardiography were useful in distinguishing the group of athletes with tachyarrhythmias from the group of normal nonsporting controls, but not from both groups of normal athletes. The QT interval (V4) and the QT interval corrected with the cubic root were shorter for the nonsporting controls. Three parameters for QT dispersion showed significant differences (p < 0.003) between athletes with disease and all other groups. It is concluded that although significant differences were detected between normal subjects and the 3 groups of athletes by routine ECG, the signal-averaged ECG, and echocardiography, only an increased QT dispersion from the 12-lead ECG was helpful in distinguishing athletes with VT from other athletes.

  18. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition reveals an important role for the renin system in the control of normal and high blood pressure in man.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, G A; Markandu, N D; Smith, S J; Sagnella, G A; Morton, J J

    1983-01-01

    Captopril, given for 5 days to normotensive healthy subjects caused a significant fall in blood pressure. The fall in mean supine blood pressure was greater on a low sodium diet (10 mmols/day) - 19.6% and was less on a high sodium diet (350 mmols/day) - 11% compared to the normal sodium intake (120 mmols/day) when the fall in blood pressure was 16.5%. Patients with essential hypertension who were studied on their normal diet had a similar fall in blood pressure for a given plasma renin activity. It seems likely that the predominant mechanism whereby captopril lowers blood pressure is through the inhibition of the formation of angiotensin II. If this is so, our results suggest that the renin system is an important control of both normal and high blood pressure when on a normal sodium intake. PMID:6315274

  19. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition reveals an important role for the renin system in the control of normal and high blood pressure in man.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, G A; Markandu, N D; Smith, S J; Sagnella, G A; Morton, J J

    1983-01-01

    Captopril, given for 5 days to normotensive healthy subjects caused a significant fall in blood pressure. The fall in mean supine blood pressure was greater on a low sodium diet (10 mmols/day) - 19.6% and was less on a high sodium diet (350 mmols/day) - 11% compared to the normal sodium intake (120 mmols/day) when the fall in blood pressure was 16.5%. Patients with essential hypertension who were studied on their normal diet had a similar fall in blood pressure for a given plasma renin activity. It seems likely that the predominant mechanism whereby captopril lowers blood pressure is through the inhibition of the formation of angiotensin II. If this is so, our results suggest that the renin system is an important control of both normal and high blood pressure when on a normal sodium intake.

  20. PAN-811 inhibits oxidative stress-induced cell death of human Alzheimer's disease-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells via suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Valery M; Dancik, Chantée M; Pan, Weiying; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Lebowitz, Michael S; Ghanbari, Hossein A

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in neurotoxicity associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased oxidative stress has been shown to be a prominent and early feature of vulnerable neurons in AD. Olfactory neuroepithelial cells are affected at an early stage. Exposure to oxidative stress induces the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes cell damage in the form of protein, lipid, and DNA oxidations. Elevated ROS levels are also associated with increased deposition of amyloid-beta and formation of senile plaques, a hallmark of the AD brain. If enhanced ROS exceeds the basal level of cellular protective mechanisms, oxidative damage and cell death will result. Therefore, substances that can reduce oxidative stress are sought as potential drug candidates for treatment or preventative therapy of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. PAN-811, also known as 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone or Triapine, is a small lipophilic compound that is currently being investigated in several Phase II clinical trials for cancer therapy due to its inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase activity. Here we show PAN-811 to be effective in preventing or reducing ROS accumulation and the resulting oxidative damages in both AD-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells.

  1. Effectiveness of Zinc Supplementation to Full Term Normal Infants: A Community Based Double Blind, Randomized, Controlled, Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishna, K. V.; Hemalatha, R.; Geddam, J. J. Babu; Kumar, P. Ajey; Balakrishna, N.; Shatrugna, Veena

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed to test whether zinc supplementation, if initiated early, can prevent stunting and promote optimum body composition in full term infants. For this, full term pregnant women from low income urban community were enrolled and were followed-up for 24 months postpartum. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from maternal weight and height that were collected one month after delivery. Infants' weight, and length, head, chest and mid upper arm circumferences and skin fold thicknesses at triceps, biceps and subscapular area were collected at baseline (before randomization) and once in three months up till 24 months. Three hundred and twenty four infants were randomized and allocated to zinc (163) or placebo (161) groups respectively. Supplementation of zinc was initiated from 4 months of age and continued till children attained 18 months. The control (placebo) group of children received riboflavin 0.5 mg/day, whereas the intervention (zinc) group received 5 mg zinc plus riboflavin 0.5 mg/day. When infants were 18 months old, dietary intakes (in 78 children) were calculated by 24 hour diet recall method and hemoglobin, zinc, copper and vitamin A were quantified in blood samples collected from 70 children. The results showed prevalence of undernutrition (body mass index <18.5) in 37% of the mothers. Mean±SD calorie consumption and zinc intakes from diets in infants were 590±282.8 Kcal/day and 0.97±0.608 mg/day respectively. Multiple linear regression models demonstrated maternal weight as a strong predictor of infants' weight and length at 18 months of age. As expected, diarrhea duration impacted infants' linear growth and weight gain adversely. Zinc supplementation for a mean period of 190 days, starting from 4 months up to 18 months of age, in full term normal infants, consuming an average energy of 590 Kcal/day, had significant effect on the skin fold thicknesses, but not on their linear growth. Trial Registration Clinical Trail Registration India

  2. Myotonic Dystrophy: Increased expression of the normal allele in CDM infants muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Radvanyi, H.H.; Gourdon, G.; Junien, C. |

    1994-09-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is an autosomal dominant multisystemic disorder characterized by a highly variable clinical phenotype. The mutation has been identified as an unstable trinucleotide CTG repeat in the 3{prime} untranslated region of the myotonin-protein kinase (MT-PK) gene. Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM), which represents the most severe phenotype, is exclusively maternally inherited. Recent studies, analysis by Northern blots and RT-PCR provided apparently conflicting results on the mutated allele expression in samples from congenitally affected children. The level of expression of the mutant allele depends on the extent of the repeat in the adult form and is no longer expressed when over 800-1300 repeats, whether in adult forms or in CDM. Could this decrease account for the late onset forms? However, the differences between the two phenotypes cannot be explained by the same mechanism. Alternatively, these differences could be due to differences in expression of the normal allele. We analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR the expression of the MT-PK gene in muscle samples from four CDM infants and two aged-matched normal controls. In two of these, the mutant allele (3.3 and 8 kb) was undetectable on Northern blots. We observed an increased expression of the MT-PK gene (10- to 20-fold) in tissues of severely affected congenital patients which can be attributed to the normal allele. Since expression of the normal allele is either normal or slightly decreased in the adult form, the dramatic increase in the congenital form could reflect a disturbance in muscle differentiation. Expression studies of MT-PK at different stages of development and, especially after the 20th week, are therefore required.

  3. FMRI Brain Activation in a Finnish Family with Specific Language Impairment Compared with a Normal Control Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugdahl, Kenneth; Gundersen, Hilde; Brekke, Cecilie; Thomsen, Tormod; Rimol, Lars Morten; Ersland, Lars; Niemi, Jussi

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in brain activation in a family with SLI as compared to intact individuals with normally developed language during processing of language stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to monitor changes in neuronal activation in temporal and frontal lobe areas in 5…

  4. Epigenomic analysis of the HOX gene loci reveals mechanisms that may control canonical expression patterns in AML and normal hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D H; Young, M A; Lamprecht, T L; Helton, N M; Fulton, R; O'Laughlin, M; Fronick, C; Magrini, V; Demeter, R T; Miller, C A; Klco, J M; Wilson, R K; Ley, T J

    2015-06-01

    HOX genes are highly expressed in many acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples, but the patterns of expression and associated regulatory mechanisms are not clearly understood. We analyzed RNA sequencing data from 179 primary AML samples and normal hematopoietic cells to understand the range of expression patterns in normal versus leukemic cells. HOX expression in AML was restricted to specific genes in the HOXA or HOXB loci, and was highly correlated with recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities. However, the majority of samples expressed a canonical set of HOXA and HOXB genes that was nearly identical to the expression signature of normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Transcriptional profiles at the HOX loci were similar between normal cells and AML samples, and involved bidirectional transcription at the center of each gene cluster. Epigenetic analysis of a subset of AML samples also identified common regions of chromatin accessibility in AML samples and normal CD34(+) cells that displayed differences in methylation depending on HOX expression patterns. These data provide an integrated epigenetic view of the HOX gene loci in primary AML samples, and suggest that HOX expression in most AML samples represents a normal stem cell program that is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms at specific regulatory elements.

  5. Epigenomic analysis of the HOX gene loci reveals mechanisms that may control canonical expression patterns in AML and normal hematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, David H.; Young, Margaret A.; Lamprecht, Tamara L.; Helton, Nichole M.; Fulton, Robert; O’Laughlin, Michelle; Fronick, Catrina; Magrini, Vincent; Demeter, Ryan T.; Miller, Christopher A.; Klco, Jeffery M.; Wilson, Richard K.; Ley, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    HOX genes are highly expressed in many acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples, but the patterns of expression and associated regulatory mechanisms are not clearly understood. We analyzed RNA sequencing data from 179 primary AML samples and normal hematopoietic cells to understand the range of expression patterns in normal versus leukemic cells. HOX expression in AML was restricted to specific genes in the HOXA or HOXB loci, and was highly correlated with recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities. However, the majority of samples expressed a canonical set of HOXA and HOXB genes that was nearly identical to the expression signature of normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Transcriptional profiles at the HOX loci were similar between normal cells and AML samples, and involved bidirectional transcription at the center of each gene cluster. Epigenetic analysis of a subset of AML samples also identified common regions of chromatin accessibility in AML samples and normal CD34+ cells that displayed differences in methylation depending on HOX expression patterns. These data provide an integrated epigenetic view of the HOX gene loci in primary AML samples, and suggest that HOX expression in most AML samples represents a normal stem cell program that is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms at specific regulatory elements. PMID:25600023

  6. Mechanical property and tissue mineral density differences among severely suppressed bone turnover (SSBT) patients, osteoporotic patients, and normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Tjhia, Crystal K; Odvina, Clarita V; Rao, D Sudhaker; Stover, Susan M; Wang, Xiang; Fyhrie, David P

    2011-12-01

    Pathogenesis of atypical fractures in patients on long term bisphosphonate therapy is poorly understood, and the type, the manner in which they occur and the fracture sites are quite different from the usual osteoporotic fractures. We hypothesized that the tissue-level mechanical properties and mean degree of mineralization of the iliac bone would differ among 1) patients with atypical fractures and severely suppressed bone turnover (SSBT) associated with long-term bisphosphonate therapy, 2) age-matched, treatment-naïve osteoporotic patients with vertebral fracture, 3) age-matched normals and 4) young normals. Large differences in tissue-level mechanical properties and/or mineralization among these groups could help explain the underlying mechanism(s) for the occurrence of typical osteoporotic and the atypical femoral shaft fractures. Elastic modulus, contact hardness, plastic deformation resistance, and tissue mineral densities of cortical and trabecular bone regions of 55 iliac bone biopsies--12 SSBT patients (SSBT; aged 49-77), 11 age-matched untreated osteoporotic patients with vertebral fracture (Osteoporotic), 12 age-matched subjects without bone fracture (Age-Matched Normal), and 20 younger subjects without bone fracture (Young Normal)--were measured using nanoindentation and quantitative backscattered electron microscopy. For cortical bone nanoindentation properties, only plastic deformation resistance was different among the groups (p<0.05), with greater resistance to plastic deformation in the SSBT group compared to all other groups. For trabecular bone, all nanoindentation properties and mineral density of the trabecular bone were different among the groups (p<0.05). The SSBT group had greater plastic deformation resistance and harder trabecular bone compared to the other three groups, stiffer bone compared to the Osteoporotic and Young Normal groups, and a trend of higher mineral density compared to the Age-Matched Normal and Osteoporotic groups. Lower

  7. Xenon contrast CT-CBF scanning of the brain differentiates normal age-related changes from multi-infarct dementia and senile dementia of Alzheimer type

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, H.; Meyer, J.S.; Okayasu, H.; Shaw, T.G.; Kandula, P.; Rogers, R.L.

    1984-07-01

    Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and partition coefficients (L lambda) were measured during inhalation of stable xenon gas with serial CT scanning among normal volunteers (N . 15), individuals with multi-infarct dementia (MID, N . 10), and persons with senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT, N . 8). Mean gray matter flow values were reduced in both MID and SDAT. Age-related declines in LCBF values in normals were marked in frontal cortex and basal ganglia. LCBF values were decreased beyond normals in frontal and temporal cortices and thalamus in MID and SDAT, in basal ganglia only in MID. Unlike SDAT and age-matched normals, L lambda values were reduced in fronto-temporal cortex and thalamus in MID. Multifocal nature of lesions in MID was apparent. Coefficients of variation for LCBFs were greater in MID compared with SDAT and/or age-matched normals.

  8. Reduced bone mass and normal calcium metabolism in systemic sclerosis with and without calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Di Munno, O; Mazzantini, M; Massei, P; Ferdeghini, M; Pitaro, N; Latorraca, A; Ferri, C

    1995-07-01

    Forty-three female patients with systemic sclerosis divided into subgroups based on the extent of skin involvement and the presence of calcinosis, and 50 sex and age-matched healthy controls were investigated for bone mineral density (BMD) on the basis of radial (dual photon absorptiometry, Osteograph, NIM), lumbar, and total body measurements (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, Lunar DPX, Lunar Corp.), and for parameters of calcium metabolism. The patients showed a lower BMD (mean +/- SD; mg/cm2) than the controls at the radial (313 +/- 69 vs 347 +/- 73; p < 0.005), lumbar (974 +/- 143 vs 1081 +/- 154; p < 0.005), and total body (997 +/- 82 vs 1075 +/- 109; p < 0.05) determinations. The patients with the diffuse form of skin involvement had lower values than those with the limited form. There was a negative correlation between BMD and the duration of the disease. The presence of calcinosis was not found to have any effect on BMD. Calcium metabolism was found to be normal in each subgroup. It may be concluded that generalized osteoporosis is a feature of systemic sclerosis, with and without calcinosis. The extent and duration of the disease may play a role in determining bone loss. PMID:7586976

  9. CDK2 differentially controls normal cell senescence and cancer cell proliferation upon exposure to reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Chae Young; Lee, Seung-Min; Park, Sung Sup; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} differently adjusted senescence and proliferation in normal and cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exposure transiently decreased PCNA levels in normal cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exposure transiently increased CDK2 activity in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21{sup Cip1} is likely dispensable when H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induces senescence in normal cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suggestively, CDK2 and PCNA play critical roles in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell fate decision. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species modulate cell fate in a context-dependent manner. Sublethal doses of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decreased the level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in normal cells (including primary human dermal fibroblasts and IMR-90 cells) without affecting cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity, leading to cell cycle arrest and subsequent senescence. In contrast, exposure of cancer cells (such as HeLa and MCF7 cells) to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased CDK2 activity with no accompanying change in the PCNA level, leading to cell proliferation. A CDK2 inhibitor, CVT-313, prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cancer cell proliferation. These results support the notion that the cyclin/CDK2/p21{sup Cip1}/PCNA complex plays an important role as a regulator of cell fate decisions.

  10. Effect of oronasopharyngeal suction on arterial oxygen saturation in normal, term infants delivered vaginally: a prospective randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Modarres Nejad, V; Hosseini, R; Sarrafi Nejad, A; Shafiee, G

    2014-07-01

    Oronasopharyngeal suction (ONPS) with a suction bulb at birth is a traditional practice in the initial management of healthy infants in Iran and many other countries. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of oronasopharyngeal suction (ONPS) with those of no suction in normal, term newborns delivered vaginally. A total of 170 healthy term infants of first and single uncomplicated pregnancies, with clear amniotic fluid, vaginal delivery and cephalic presentation, enrolled in the trial during labour. Newborns were randomised into one of the two groups, according to the use of the ONPS procedure. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) levels, heart rates, blood gases of umbilical cord and Apgar scores were determined. The mean SaO2 values over the first and fifth min of birth were similar in the two groups. The maximum time to reach SaO2 of ≥ 92% was shorter in the no suction group. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean of heart rates, respiratory rates and Apgar scores between the groups. Apgar scores at 5 and 10 min were between 8 and 10 for all infants, respectively. Newborns receiving suction showed a statistically significant, lower mean partial carbon dioxide pressure (PCO2) and a significantly higher partial oxygen pressure (PO2) of umbilical artery. Although the differences were statistically significant, these were not considered clinically significant because values remained within normal ranges. According to this study, ONPS is not recommended as a routine procedure in normal, term infants delivered vaginally.

  11. Anomalous negative electrocaloric effect in a relaxor/normal ferroelectric polymer blend with controlled nano- and meso-dipolar couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiaoshi; Yang, Tiannan; Zhang, Tian; Chen, Long-Qing; Zhang, Q. M.

    2016-04-01

    In general, a dielectric material will eject (or absorb) heat when an electric field is applied and absorb (or eject) heat when the field is removed, under isothermal condition, which is known as the normal (or negative) electrocaloric (EC) effect. For some applications, it is highly desired that an EC material will absorb heat (cooling the surrounding) without subsequent heating under an electric pulse. Here, we show that such an EC material can be realized in a properly designed hybrid normal ferroelectric/relaxor ferroelectric polymer blend in which the normal ferroelectric component induces dipole ordering in the relaxor polymer in the poled state, which can be switched to a de-poled state by an external field. More importantly, the de-poled state can be maintained by the relaxor component when the de-poling field is removed. Consequently, the hybrid blend exhibits a large cooling (an isothermal entropy change ΔS = 11.5 J kg-1 K-1) without the subsequent heating upon the application of an electric pulse.

  12. A two one-sided parametric tolerance interval test for control of delivered dose uniformity--part 3--investigation of robustness to deviations from normality.

    PubMed

    Novick, Steven; Christopher, David; Dey, Monisha; Lyapustina, Svetlana; Golden, Michael; Leiner, Stefan; Wyka, Bruce; Delzeit, Hans-Joachim; Novak, Chris; Larner, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The robustness of the parametric tolerance interval test, which was proposed by the Food and Drug Administration for control of delivered dose uniformity in orally inhaled and nasal drug products, is investigated in this article using different scenarios for deviations from a univariate normal distribution. The studied scenarios span a wide range of conditions, the purpose of which is to provide an understanding of how the test performs depending on the nature and degree of the deviation from normality. Operating characteristic curves were generated to compare the performance of the test for different types of distributions (normal and non-normal) having the same proportion of doses in the tails (on one or both sides) outside the target interval. The results show that, in most cases, non-normality does not increase the probability of accepting a batch of unacceptable quality (i.e., the test is robust) except in extreme situations, which do not necessarily represent commercially viable products. The results also demonstrate that, in the case of bimodal distributions where the life-stage means differ from each other by up to 24% label claim, the test's criterion on life-stage means does not affect pass rates because the tolerance interval portion of the test reacts to shifting means as well.

  13. Leptin and Adiponectin Modulate the Self-renewal of Normal Human Breast Epithelial Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Esper, Raymond M; Dame, Michael; McClintock, Shannon; Holt, Peter R; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Wicha, Max S; Brenner, Dean E

    2015-12-01

    Multiple mechanisms are likely to account for the link between obesity and increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, are of particular interest due to their opposing biologic functions and associations with breast cancer risk. In the current study, we investigated the effects of leptin and adiponectin on normal breast epithelial stem cells. Levels of leptin in human adipose explant-derived conditioned media positively correlated with the size of the normal breast stem cell pool. In contrast, an inverse relationship was found for adiponectin. Moreover, a strong linear relationship was observed between the leptin/adiponectin ratio in adipose conditioned media and breast stem cell self-renewal. Consistent with these findings, exogenous leptin stimulated whereas adiponectin suppressed breast stem cell self-renewal. In addition to local in-breast effects, circulating factors, including leptin and adiponectin, may contribute to the link between obesity and breast cancer. Increased levels of leptin and reduced amounts of adiponectin were found in serum from obese compared with age-matched lean postmenopausal women. Interestingly, serum from obese women increased stem cell self-renewal by 30% compared with only 7% for lean control serum. Taken together, these data suggest a plausible explanation for the obesity-driven increase in postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Leptin and adiponectin may function as both endocrine and paracrine/juxtacrine factors to modulate the size of the normal stem cell pool. Interventions that disrupt this axis and thereby normalize breast stem cell self-renewal could reduce the risk of breast cancer.

  14. Assessment of Defense Styles and Mechanisms in Iranian Patients Suffering from Obsessive Compulsive or Panic Disorders versus Normal Controls using Persian Version of Defense Style Questionnaire-40

    PubMed Central

    Shabanpour, Ruhollah; Zahiroddin, Ali Reza; Janbozorgi, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare defense styles and mechanisms in adult patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder (PD) with normal subjects in Iran. Methods Defensive patterns of 22 patients with OCD, 28 patients with PD and those of 116 normal individuals (as a control group) were assessed using the Farsi version of Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The content validity of this questionnaire was done prior to the initiation of the present study. Results Both groups of patients with OCD or PD used more immature and less mature styles compared to the control group. No significant difference was observed in the use of neurotic style between the two groups. Conclusion It is suggested that immature defenses may have an important role in the pathogenesis of OCD and PD. PMID:23056115

  15. Ki-67 Expression in Sclerosing Adenosis and Adjacent Normal Breast Terminal Ductal Lobular Units: A Nested Case-Control Study from the Mayo Benign Breast Disease Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Aziza; Hoskin, Tanya L.; Stallings-Mann, Melody L.; Degnim, Amy C.; Radisky, Derek C.; Frost, Marlene H.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Hartmann, Lynn C.; Visscher, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sclerosing adenosis (SA) increases risk for invasive breast cancer (BC) 2.1 times relative to that in the general population. Here, we sought to evaluate whether the proliferation marker Ki-67 stratifies risk among women with SA. Methods A nested case-control sample of patients with SA was obtained from the Mayo Clinic Benign Breast Disease Cohort. Ki-67 expression was evaluated in SA lesions and in the adjacent normal terminal duct lobular units (TDLU) in women who did (cases, n =133) or did not (controls, n =239) develop BC. Ki67 was scored by intensity and number of positively stained cells per one high-power field (magnification, ×40) (40×HPF) for both SA and normal TDLU. Associations of Ki-67 expression with case-control status were assessed using conditional logistic regression. Results Higher Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with case-control status in both SA (P=.03) and normal background TDLU (P=.006). For the SA lesion, >2 average positively stained cells/40×HPF showed an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.1–3.4) compared to samples with an average of ≤2 positively stained cells. For background TDLU, lobules with >2 but ≤6 average positively stained cells showed an adjusted OR of 1.3 to 1.5, whereas those with an average of >6 positively stained cells had an OR of 2.4 (95% CI, 1.1–5.3) compared to those with an average of <2 positively stained cells. Conclusions Among women with SA, increased Ki-67 expression in either the SA lesion or the normal background TDLU carried an approximately 2-fold increased odds of subsequent BC as compared to lower Ki-67 expression. PMID:25863475

  16. Genetic predisposition in patients with hypertension and normal ejection fraction to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Fazakas, Ádám; Szelényi, Zsuzsanna; Szénási, Gábor; Nyírő, Gábor; Szabó, Péter M; Patócs, Attila; Tegze, Narcis; Fekete, Bertalan C; Molvarec, Attila; Nagy, Bálint; Jakus, Judit; Örsi, Ferenc; Karádi, István; Vereckei, András

    2016-02-01

    The role of oxidative stress (OXS) due to myocardial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) uncoupling related to oxidative depletion of its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) emerged in the pathogenesis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. We determined the prevalence of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes encoding enzymes related to OXS, BH4 metabolism, and NOS function in ≥60-year-old 94 patients with hypertension and 18 age-matched controls with normal ejection fraction. Using echocardiography, 56/94 (60%) patients with hypertension had left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (HTDD+ group) and 38/94 (40%) patients had normal LV diastolic function (HTDD- group). Four SNPs (rs841, rs3783641, rs10483639, and rs807267) of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1, the rate-limiting enzyme in BH4 synthesis, one (rs4880) of manganese superoxide dismutase, and one (rs1799983) of endothelial NOS genes were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction method and Taqman probes. Protein carbonylation, BH4, and total biopterin levels were measured from plasma samples. No between-groups difference in minor allele frequency of SNPs was found. We calculated a genetic score indicating risk for OXS based on the minor allele frequencies of the SNPs. A high genetic risk for OXS was significantly associated with HTDD+ even after adjustment for confounding variables (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]:4.79 [1.12-20.54]; P = .035). In both patient groups protein carbonylation (P < .05 for both), plasma BH4 (P < .01 for both) and in the HTDD+ group total biopterin (P < .05) increased versus controls. In conclusion, in patients with hypertension and normal ejection fraction, a potential precursor of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, a partly genetically determined increased OXS, seems to be associated with the presence of LV diastolic dysfunction. PMID:26778769

  17. Risk Factors and Markers for Acute Myocardial Infarction With Angiographically Normal Coronary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Maria; Ekenbäck, Christina; Agewall, Stefan; Brolin, Elin B; Caidahl, Kenneth; Cederlund, Kerstin; Collste, Olov; Eurenius, Lars; Frick, Mats; Younis-Hassan, Shams; Henareh, Loghman; Jernberg, Tomas; Malmqvist, Karin; Spaak, Jonas; Sörensson, Peder; Hofman-Bang, Claes; Tornvall, Per

    2015-09-15

    Myocardial Infarction with normal coronary arteries (MINCA) is common with a prevalence of 1% to 12% of all myocardial infarctions. The pathogenic mechanisms of MINCA are still unknown, but endothelial dysfunction has been suggested as a possible cause. To investigate risk factors and markers for MINCA, we conducted a case-control study. Considering the reported low prevalence of classical risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) in some but not all studies, our hypothesis was that endothelial function and intima-media thickness (IMT) were better, respectively lower, than CHD controls. One hundred patients with MINCA fulfilling diagnostic criteria according to the European Society of Cardiology/American Collage of Cardiology/American Heart Association universal definition of myocardial infarction with myocarditis excluded by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging were investigated. Risk factors, endothelial function (EndoPAT), and IMT were compared to gender- and age-matched patients with myocardial infarction and CHD, respectively healthy controls. Smoking, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus, inflammatory disease, and psychiatric disorders were more common in patients with MINCA than in healthy controls. In contrast to patients with CHD, the lipid profile was antiatherogenic with low low-density lipoprotein and high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. There were no major differences between the groups regarding endothelial function and IMT that were in the normal range. In conclusion, the present study showed that MINCA was associated with many established cardiovascular risk factors without major differences in atherosclerosis markers. MINCA patients recalled a high prevalence of emotional stress before admission that together with previous psychiatric vulnerability and female gender speaks strongly in favor of Takotsubo syndrome being an important cause of MINCA. PMID:26251000

  18. Gradual telomere shortening and increasing chromosomal instability among PanIN grades and normal ductal epithelia with and without cancer in the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoko; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki; Izumiyama-Shimomura, Naotaka; Hamayasu, Hideki; Fujiwara, Mutsunori; Tomita, Ken-Ichiro; Hiraishi, Naoki; Nakamura, Ken-Ichi; Ishikawa, Naoshi; Aida, Junko; Takubo, Kaiyo; Arai, Tomio

    2015-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports a key role for telomere dysfunction in carcinogenesis due to the induction of chromosomal instability. To study telomere shortening in precancerous pancreatic lesions, we measured telomere lengths using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization in the normal pancreatic duct epithelium, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs), and cancers. The materials employed included surgically resected pancreatic specimens without cancer (n = 33) and with invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 36), as well as control autopsy cases (n = 150). In comparison with normal ducts, telomere length was decreased in PanIN-1, -2 and -3 and cancer. Furthermore, telomeres were shorter in cancer than in PanIN-1 and -2. Telomere length in cancer was not associated with histological type, lesion location, or cancer stage. PanINs with or without cancer showed similar telomere lengths. The incidences of atypical mitosis and anaphase bridges, which are morphological characteristics of chromosomal instability, were negatively correlated with telomere length. The telomeres in normal duct epithelium became shorter with aging, and those in PanINs or cancers were shorter than in age-matched controls, suggesting that telomere shortening occurs even when histological changes are absent. Our data strongly suggest that telomere shortening occurs in the early stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis and progresses with precancerous development. Telomere shortening and chromosomal instability in the duct epithelium might be associated with carcinogenesis of the pancreas. Determination of telomere length in pancreatic ductal lesions may be valuable for accurate detection and risk assessment of pancreatic cancer.

  19. Repeated tongue and hand strength measurements in normal adults and individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Carol; Frank, Elaine; Montgomery, Allen; Nichols, Michele; McDade, Hiram

    2005-11-01

    Changes in tongue and hand strength measurements of men with Parkinson's Disease and aged-matched controls across multiple days were examined. The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument measured tongue and hand strength during four consecutive days and at day 11. Peak tongue strength measurements occurred on day 3 with a small decrease on day 4, which was maintained at day 11, indicating a significant increase in tongue strength measurements with task repetition in multiple days. No change in hand strength measurements was noted over days. Significant differences in mean tongue and hand strength measurements between the PD and age-matched control group were found. Tongue and hand strength measurements were lower for the PD group compared with the control group on average across days.

  20. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and erythrocyte glutathione dependent enzymes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Ngah, W Z; Shamaan, N A; Said, M H; Azhar, M T

    1993-01-01

    Plasma gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (gamma-GT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were determined in normal and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. No difference in enzyme activities was observed in the three major races of the Malaysian population, i.e. Malay, Chinese and Indian patients. However, plasma gamma-GT, erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase (GST) and GPx activities were significantly increased in all NPC patients, while GR activity remained unchanged. Patients with elevated plasma gamma-GT activities also had increased GST and GPx activities. Plasma gamma-GT and GPx activities were then found to be affected by treatment. Patients with plasma gamma-GT activity greater than 70 IU/l had very poor prognoses but patients with decreased gamma-GT activities were found to be in remission.

  1. A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults123

    PubMed Central

    Stote, Kim S; Baer, David J; Spears, Karen; Paul, David R; Harris, G Keith; Rumpler, William V; Strycula, Pilar; Najjar, Samer S; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ingram, Donald K; Longo, Dan L; Mattson, Mark P

    2009-01-01

    Background Although consumption of 3 meals/d is the most common pattern of eating in industrialized countries, a scientific rationale for this meal frequency with respect to optimal health is lacking. A diet with less meal frequency can improve the health and extend the lifespan of laboratory animals, but its effect on humans has never been tested. Objective A pilot study was conducted to establish the effects of a reduced-meal-frequency diet on health indicators in healthy, normal-weight adults. Design The study was a randomized crossover design with two 8-wk treatment periods. During the treatment periods, subjects consumed all of the calories needed for weight maintenance in either 3 meals/d or 1 meal/d. Results Subjects who completed the study maintained their body weight within 2 kg of their initial weight throughout the 6-mo period. There were no significant effects of meal frequency on heart rate, body temperature, or most of the blood variables measured. However, when consuming 1 meal/d, subjects had a significant increase in hunger; a significant modification of body composition, including reductions in fat mass; significant increases in blood pressure and in total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations; and a significant decrease in concentrations of cortisol. Conclusions Normal-weight subjects are able to comply with a 1 meal/d diet. When meal frequency is decreased without a reduction in overall calorie intake, modest changes occur in body composition, some cardiovascular disease risk factors, and hematologic variables. Diurnal variations may affect outcomes. PMID:17413096

  2. Improving small RNA-seq by using a synthetic spike-in set for size-range quality control together with a set for data normalization.

    PubMed

    Locati, Mauro D; Terpstra, Inez; de Leeuw, Wim C; Kuzak, Mateusz; Rauwerda, Han; Ensink, Wim A; van Leeuwen, Selina; Nehrdich, Ulrike; Spaink, Herman P; Jonker, Martijs J; Breit, Timo M; Dekker, Rob J

    2015-08-18

    There is an increasing interest in complementing RNA-seq experiments with small-RNA (sRNA) expression data to obtain a comprehensive view of a transcriptome. Currently, two main experimental challenges concerning sRNA-seq exist: how to check the size distribution of isolated sRNAs, given the sensitive size-selection steps in the protocol; and how to normalize data between samples, given the low complexity of sRNA types. We here present two separate sets of synthetic RNA spike-ins for monitoring size-selection and for performing data normalization in sRNA-seq. The size-range quality control (SRQC) spike-in set, consisting of 11 oligoribonucleotides (10-70 nucleotides), was tested by intentionally altering the size-selection protocol and verified via several comparative experiments. We demonstrate that the SRQC set is useful to reproducibly track down biases in the size-selection in sRNA-seq. The external reference for data-normalization (ERDN) spike-in set, consisting of 19 oligoribonucleotides, was developed for sample-to-sample normalization in differential-expression analysis of sRNA-seq data. Testing and applying the ERDN set showed that it can reproducibly detect differential expression over a dynamic range of 2(18). Hence, biological variation in sRNA composition and content between samples is preserved while technical variation is effectively minimized. Together, both spike-in sets can significantly improve the technical reproducibility of sRNA-seq.

  3. Multivariate normality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Falls, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    Sets of experimentally determined or routinely observed data provide information about the past, present and, hopefully, future sets of similarly produced data. An infinite set of statistical models exists which may be used to describe the data sets. The normal distribution is one model. If it serves at all, it serves well. If a data set, or a transformation of the set, representative of a larger population can be described by the normal distribution, then valid statistical inferences can be drawn. There are several tests which may be applied to a data set to determine whether the univariate normal model adequately describes the set. The chi-square test based on Pearson's work in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is often used. Like all tests, it has some weaknesses which are discussed in elementary texts. Extension of the chi-square test to the multivariate normal model is provided. Tables and graphs permit easier application of the test in the higher dimensions. Several examples, using recorded data, illustrate the procedures. Tests of maximum absolute differences, mean sum of squares of residuals, runs and changes of sign are included in these tests. Dimensions one through five with selected sample sizes 11 to 101 are used to illustrate the statistical tests developed.

  4. Mechanisms of adaptation in rat small intestine: regional differences in quantitative morphology during normal growth and experimental hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Mayhew, T M; Carson, F L

    1989-01-01

    The gross and microscopical dimensions of small intestines from three groups of rats were investigated by morphometric (mainly stereological) methods. The groups were chosen to represent relatively 'steady state' situations: normal growth (over a 12 week period) and intestinal hyperplasia due to streptozotocin-diabetes of 12 weeks duration. Four intestinal segments were sampled along each intestine. For normal groups, no interaction effects were found, suggesting that growth affected all regions of the small intestine in the same way. Older rats were heavier and their intestines were longer and narrower. In addition, villous surface area was more extensive and the villi differed in shape. Volumes of crypts, submucosa and muscularis externa were all reduced. Diabetic animals weighed less than age-matched controls and their intestines were wider but not significantly longer. All surface areas and volumes were increased substantially. However, hypertrophy of the muscularis externa was not detected by measuring muscularis thickness. Villi altered their shape. At least for villous height, the effects of diabetes were greater in terminal segments. These findings are discussed in the context of the reported effects of age and experimental hyperplasia (including diabetes) on intestinal architecture and behaviour. PMID:2532638

  5. Emissions of parent, nitrated, and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from indoor corn straw burning in normal and controlled combustion conditions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Wei, Siye; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Lv, Yan; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bing; Wu, Haisuo; Tao, Shu

    2013-10-01

    Emission factors (EFs) of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs), nitrated PAHs (nPAHs), and oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) were measured for indoor corn straw burned in a brick cooking stove under different burning conditions. The EFs of total 28 pPAHs, 6 nPAHs and 4 oPAHs were (7.9 +/- 3.4), (6.5 +/- 1.6) x 10(-3), and (6.1 +/- 1.4) x 10(-1) mg/kg, respectively. Fuel charge size had insignificant influence on the pollutant emissions. Measured EFs increased significantly in a fast burning due to the oxygen deficient atmosphere formed in the stove chamber. In both restricted and enhanced air supply conditions, the EFs of pPAHs, nPAHs and oPAHs were significantly higher than those measured in normal burning conditions. Though EFs varied among different burning conditions, the composition profiles and calculated isomer ratios were similar, without significant differences. The results from the stepwise regression model showed that fuel burning rate, air supply amount, and modified combustion efficiency were the three most significant influencing factors, explaining 72%-85% of the total variations.

  6. A fuzzy logic controller based approach to model the switching mechanism of the mammalian central carbon metabolic pathway in normal and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Abhijit; Paul, Debjyoti; De, Rajat K

    2016-07-19

    Dynamics of large nonlinear complex systems, like metabolic networks, depend on several parameters. A metabolic pathway may switch to another pathway in accordance with the current state of parameters in both normal and cancer cells. Here, most of the parameter values are unknown to us. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) has been developed here for the purpose of modeling metabolic networks by approximating the reasons for the behaviour of a system and applying expert knowledge to track switching between metabolic pathways. The simulation results can track the switching between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, as well as glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways (PPP) in normal cells. Unlike normal cells, pyruvate kinase (M2 isoform) (PKM2) switches alternatively between its two oligomeric forms, i.e. an active tetramer and a relatively low activity dimer, in cancer cells. Besides, there is a coordination among PKM2 switching and enzymes catalyzing PPP. These phenomena help cancer cells to maintain their high energy demand and macromolecular synthesis. However, the reduction of initial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to a very low concentration, decreasing initial glucose uptake, destroying coordination between glycolysis and PPP, and replacement of PKM2 by its relatively inactive oligomeric form (dimer) or inhibition of the translation of PKM2 may destabilize the mutated control mechanism of the mammalian central carbon metabolic (CCM) pathway in cancer cells. The performance of the model is compared appropriately with some existing ones. PMID:27225801

  7. A fuzzy logic controller based approach to model the switching mechanism of the mammalian central carbon metabolic pathway in normal and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Abhijit; Paul, Debjyoti; De, Rajat K

    2016-07-19

    Dynamics of large nonlinear complex systems, like metabolic networks, depend on several parameters. A metabolic pathway may switch to another pathway in accordance with the current state of parameters in both normal and cancer cells. Here, most of the parameter values are unknown to us. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) has been developed here for the purpose of modeling metabolic networks by approximating the reasons for the behaviour of a system and applying expert knowledge to track switching between metabolic pathways. The simulation results can track the switching between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, as well as glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways (PPP) in normal cells. Unlike normal cells, pyruvate kinase (M2 isoform) (PKM2) switches alternatively between its two oligomeric forms, i.e. an active tetramer and a relatively low activity dimer, in cancer cells. Besides, there is a coordination among PKM2 switching and enzymes catalyzing PPP. These phenomena help cancer cells to maintain their high energy demand and macromolecular synthesis. However, the reduction of initial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to a very low concentration, decreasing initial glucose uptake, destroying coordination between glycolysis and PPP, and replacement of PKM2 by its relatively inactive oligomeric form (dimer) or inhibition of the translation of PKM2 may destabilize the mutated control mechanism of the mammalian central carbon metabolic (CCM) pathway in cancer cells. The performance of the model is compared appropriately with some existing ones.

  8. Normal telomere lengths found in cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Tian, X C; Xu, J; Yang, X

    2000-11-01

    Success of cloning using adult somatic cells has been reported in sheep, mice and cattle. The report that 'Dolly' the sheep, the first clone from an adult mammal, inherited shortened telomeres from her cell donor and that her telomeres were further shortened by the brief culture of donor cells has raised serious scientific and public concerns about the 'genetic age' and potential developmental problems of cloned animals. This observation was challenged by a recent report that showed calves cloned from fetal cells have longer telomeres than their age-matched controls. The question remains whether Dolly's short telomeres were an exception or a general fact, which would differ from the telomeres of fetal-derived clones. PMID:11062462

  9. Fatty acid status and behavioural symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in adolescents: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Colter, Ashley L; Cutler, Caroline; Meckling, Kelly Anne

    2008-01-01

    Background Most studies of Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on either young children or older adults. The current study compared 11 ADHD adolescents with 12 age-matched controls. The purpose was to examine differences in dietary intake, particularly of essential fatty acids, and determine whether this could explain the typical abnormalities in red blood cell fatty acids observed in previous studies of young children. A secondary purpose was to determine if there were relationships between circulating concentrations of essential fatty acids and specific ADHD behaviours as measured by the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-L). Methods Eleven ADHD adolescents and twelve age-matched controls were recruited through newspaper ads, posters and a university website. ADHD diagnosis was confirmed by medical practitioners according to DSM-IV criteria. Blood, dietary intake information as well as behavioural assessments were completed. Results Results showed that ADHD adolescents consumed more energy and fat than controls but had similar anthropometry. ADHD children consumed equivalent amounts of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids to controls, however they had significantly lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and total omega-3 fatty acids, higher omega-6 fatty acids and a lower ratio of n-3:n-6 fatty acids than control subjects. In addition, low omega-3 status correlated with higher scores on several Conners' behavioural scales. Conclusion These data suggest that adolescents with ADHD continue to display abnormal essential fatty acid profiles that are often observed in younger children and distinctly different from normal controls of similar age. Further these red blood cell fatty acid differences are not explained by differences in intake. This suggests that there are metabolic differences in fatty acid handling between ADHD adolescents and normal controls. The value of omega-3 supplements to improve fatty acid profiles and possibly

  10. 24-h blood pressure monitoring in normal tension glaucoma: night-time blood pressure variability.

    PubMed

    Plange, N; Kaup, M; Daneljan, L; Predel, H G; Remky, A; Arend, O

    2006-02-01

    Systemic arterial hypotension, hypertension and altered ocular blood flow are known risk factors in glaucoma. In this study, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and controls to evaluate blood pressure variability. In all, 51 patients with NTG and 28 age-matched controls were included in this prospective study. A 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (SpaceLabs Medical Inc., Redmond, USA) was performed and systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures were measured every 30 min during daytime (0800-2000) and night time (0000-0600). To evaluate blood pressure variability a variability index was defined as the s.d. of blood pressure measurements. Night-time blood pressure depression ('dip') was calculated (in percent of the daytime blood pressures). Patients with NTG exhibited higher night-time diastolic (P = 0.01) and mean arterial blood pressure values (P = 0.02) compared to controls, whereas systolic blood pressure data were not significantly different. The variability indices of night-time systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure measurements were significantly increased in patients with NTG compared to controls (P < 0.05). The night-time blood pressure depression of systolic (P = 0.47), diastolic (P = 0.11) and mean arterial blood pressures (P = 0.28) was not significantly different between patients with NTG and controls. In conclusion, patients with NTG showed increased variability of night-time blood pressure measurements compared to controls. Increased fluctuation of blood pressure may lead to ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation and may cause ischaemic episodes at the optic nerve head. PMID:16239898

  11. Statin action favors normalization of the plasma lipidome in the atherogenic mixed dyslipidemia of MetS: potential relevance to statin-associated dysglycemia.

    PubMed

    Meikle, Peter J; Wong, Gerard; Tan, Ricardo; Giral, Philippe; Robillard, Paul; Orsoni, Alexina; Hounslow, Neil; Magliano, Dianna J; Shaw, Jonathan E; Curran, Joanne E; Blangero, John; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Chapman, M John

    2015-12-01

    The impact of statin treatment on the abnormal plasma lipidome of mixed dyslipidemic patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), a group at increased risk of developing diabetes, was evaluated. Insulin-resistant hypertriglyceridemic hypertensive obese males (n = 12) displaying MetS were treated with pitavastatin (4 mg/day) for 180 days; healthy normolipidemic age-matched nonobese males (n = 12) acted as controls. Statin treatment substantially normalized triglyceride (-41%), remnant cholesterol (-55%), and LDL-cholesterol (-39%), with minor effect on HDL-cholesterol (+4%). Lipidomic analysis, normalized to nonHDL-cholesterol in order to probe statin-induced differences in molecular composition independently of reduction in plasma cholesterol, revealed increment in 132 of 138 lipid species that were subnormal at baseline and significantly shifted toward the control group on statin treatment. Increment in alkyl- and alkenylphospholipids (plasmalogens) was prominent, and consistent with significant statin-induced increase in plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid levels. Comparison of the statin-mediated lipidomic changes in MetS with the abnormal plasma lipidomic profile characteristic of prediabetes and T2D in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study and San Antonio Family Heart Study cohorts by hypergeometric analysis revealed a significant shift toward the lipid profile of controls, indicative of a marked trend toward a normolipidemic phenotype. Pitavastatin attenuated the abnormal plasma lipidome of MetS patients typical of prediabetes and T2D.

  12. Hyperspectral Image-Based Night-Time Vehicle Light Detection Using Spectral Normalization and Distance Mapper for Intelligent Headlight Control.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heekang; Kwon, Soon; Kim, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a vehicle light detection method using a hyperspectral camera instead of a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) or Complementary metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) camera for adaptive car headlamp control. To apply Intelligent Headlight Control (IHC), the vehicle headlights need to be detected. Headlights are comprised from a variety of lighting sources, such as Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), High-intensity discharge (HID), and halogen lamps. In addition, rear lamps are made of LED and halogen lamp. This paper refers to the recent research in IHC. Some problems exist in the detection of headlights, such as erroneous detection of street lights or sign lights and the reflection plate of ego-car from CCD or CMOS images. To solve these problems, this study uses hyperspectral images because they have hundreds of bands and provide more information than a CCD or CMOS camera. Recent methods to detect headlights used the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM), and Euclidean Distance Mapper (EDM). The experimental results highlight the feasibility of the proposed method in three types of lights (LED, HID, and halogen). PMID:27399720

  13. Hyperspectral Image-Based Night-Time Vehicle Light Detection Using Spectral Normalization and Distance Mapper for Intelligent Headlight Control

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heekang; Kwon, Soon; Kim, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a vehicle light detection method using a hyperspectral camera instead of a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) or Complementary metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) camera for adaptive car headlamp control. To apply Intelligent Headlight Control (IHC), the vehicle headlights need to be detected. Headlights are comprised from a variety of lighting sources, such as Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), High-intensity discharge (HID), and halogen lamps. In addition, rear lamps are made of LED and halogen lamp. This paper refers to the recent research in IHC. Some problems exist in the detection of headlights, such as erroneous detection of street lights or sign lights and the reflection plate of ego-car from CCD or CMOS images. To solve these problems, this study uses hyperspectral images because they have hundreds of bands and provide more information than a CCD or CMOS camera. Recent methods to detect headlights used the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM), and Euclidean Distance Mapper (EDM). The experimental results highlight the feasibility of the proposed method in three types of lights (LED, HID, and halogen). PMID:27399720

  14. Empathy and recognition of facial expressions of emotion in sex offenders, non-sex offenders and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Gery, Isabelle; Miljkovitch, Raphaële; Berthoz, Sylvie; Soussignan, Robert

    2009-02-28

    Research conducted on empathy and emotional recognition in sex offenders is contradictory. The present study was aimed to clarify this issue by controlling for some affective and social variables (depression, anxiety, and social desirability) that are presumed to influence emotional and empathic measures, using a staged multicomponent model of empathy. Incarcerated sex offenders (child molesters), incarcerated non-sex offenders, and non-offender controls (matched for age, gender, and education level) performed a recognition task of facial expressions of basic emotions that varied in intensity, and completed various self-rating scales designed to assess distinct components of empathy (perspective taking, affective empathy, empathy concern, and personal distress), as well as depression, anxiety, and social desirability. Sex offenders were less accurate than the other participants in recognizing facial expressions of anger, disgust, surprise and fear, with problems in confusing fear with surprise, and disgust with anger. Affective empathy was the only component that discriminated sex offenders from non-sex offenders and was correlated with accuracy recognition of emotional expressions. Although our findings must be replicated with a larger number of participants, they support the view that sex offenders might have impairments in the decoding of some emotional cues conveyed by the conspecifics' face, which could have an impact on affective empathy.

  15. Performance Characteristics of a Normal-shock Side Inlet Located Downstream of a Canard Control Surface at Mach Numbers of 1.5 and 1.8/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, Murray; Beke, Andrew

    1952-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a downward canted normal-shock side (scoop) inlet located downstream of a triangular control surface are presented for free-stream Mach numbers of 1.5 and 1.8 in terms of total pressure recovery and mass flow ratio for various boundary-layer removal systems,angles of attack, control surface deflections and adverse yaw. An engine operating condition for a hypothetical turbojet engine is established, and the match point characteristics of the engine-inlet configuration are summarized. 520::It is shown that the diffuser performance increases with increased boundary-layer removal and decreases because of the presence of the wake from the forward control surface. At the higher angles of attack the wake passes over the inlet and does not affect the inlet performance. Adverse yaw reduces the total pressure recovery values below those for the unawed case. Magnitudes of the total pressure recovery were below the theoretical normal-shock recovery for the respective test Mach numbers.

  16. Normalizing Rejection.

    PubMed

    Conn, Vicki S; Zerwic, Julie; Jefferson, Urmeka; Anderson, Cindy M; Killion, Cheryl M; Smith, Carol E; Cohen, Marlene Z; Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Herrick, Linda; Topp, Robert; Benefield, Lazelle E; Loya, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Getting turned down for grant funding or having a manuscript rejected is an uncomfortable but not unusual occurrence during the course of a nurse researcher's professional life. Rejection can evoke an emotional response akin to the grieving process that can slow or even undermine productivity. Only by "normalizing" rejection, that is, by accepting it as an integral part of the scientific process, can researchers more quickly overcome negative emotions and instead use rejection to refine and advance their scientific programs. This article provides practical advice for coming to emotional terms with rejection and delineates methods for working constructively to address reviewer comments. PMID:26041785

  17. Effects of age of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in cocaine abusers and normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J.

    1995-05-01

    We measured the effect of age on serotonin 5-HT2 receptor availability and compared it with the effects on dopamine D2 receptors on 19 chronic cocaine abusers (35.2{plus_minus}9.8 years, range 18-54 years old) and 19 age matched normal controls using positron emission tomography (PET) and F-18 N-methylspiperone (NMS). 5-HT2 Receptor availability was measure din frontal (FR), occipital (OC), cingulate (CI) and orbitofrontal (OF) cortices using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest to that in the cerebelium (CB) which is a function of Bmax/Kd. D2 receptor availability in the basal ganglia was measured using the {open_quotes}ratio index{close_quotes} (slope of striatum/CB versus time over 180 min of the scan) which is a function of Bmax. 5-HT2 Receptor availability differed among regions and were as follows: CI>OF>OC>FC.5-HT2 Receptor availability decreased significantly with age. This effect was more accentuated for 5-HT2 receptor availability in FR than in OC(df=1, p<0.025). Striatal dopamine D2 receptors were also found to decrease significantly with age (r=0.63, p<0.007). In a given subject, D2 receptor availability was significantly correlated with 5-HT2 receptor availability in FR (r=0.51, p<0.035) but not in OC. The values for 5-HT2 receptor availability were not different in normal subjects and cocaine abusers. These results document a decline in 5-HT2 and D2 receptors with age and document an association between frontal 5-HT2 and striatal D2 receptor availability. These results did not show any changes in 5-HT2 receptor availability in cocaine abusers as compared to control subjects.

  18. Cerebral blood flow in normal and abnormal sleep and dreaming

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hata, T.; Karacan, I.

    1987-07-01

    Measurements of regional or local cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the xenon-133 inhalation method and stable xenon computerized tomography CBF (CTCBF) method were made during relaxed wakefulness and different stages of REM and non-REM sleep in normal age-matched volunteers, narcoleptics, and sleep apneics. In the awake state, CBF values were reduced in both narcoleptics and sleep apneics in the brainstem and cerebellar regions. During sleep onset, whether REM or stage I-II, CBF values were paradoxically increased in narcoleptics but decreased severely in sleep apneics, while in normal volunteers they became diffusely but more moderately decreased. In REM sleep and dreaming CBF values greatly increased, particularly in right temporo-parietal regions in subjects experiencing both visual and auditory dreaming.

  19. ENU mutagenesis screening for dominant behavioral mutations based on normal control data obtained in home-cage activity, open-field, and passive avoidance tests.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yumiko; Furuse, Tamio; Yamada, Ikuko; Masuya, Hiroshi; Kushida, Tomoko; Shibukawa, Yoko; Nakai, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kimio; Kaneda, Hideki; Gondo, Yoichi; Noda, Tetsuo; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Wakana, Shigeharu

    2010-01-01

    To establish the cutoff values for screening ENU-induced behavioral mutations, normal variations in mouse behavioral data were examined in home-cage activity (HA), open-field (OF), and passive-avoidance (PA) tests. We defined the normal range as one that included more than 95% of the normal control values. The cutoffs were defined to identify outliers yielding values that deviated from the normal by less than 5% for C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, DBF(1), and N(2) (DXDB) progenies. Cutoff values for G1-phenodeviant (DBF(1)) identification were defined based on values over +/- 3.0 SD from the mean of DBF(1) for all parameters assessed in the HA and OF tests. For the PA test, the cutoff values were defined based on whether the mice met the learning criterion during the 2nd (at a shock intensity of 0.3 mA) or the 3rd (at a shock intensity of 0.15 mA) retention test. For several parameters, the lower outliers were undetectable as the calculated cutoffs were negative values. Based on the cutoff criteria, we identified 275 behavioral phenodeviants among 2,646 G1 progeny. Of these, 64 were crossed with wild-type DBA/2J individuals, and the phenotype transmission was examined in the G2 progeny using the cutoffs defined for N(2) mice. In the G2 mice, we identified 15 novel dominant mutants exhibiting behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity in the HA or OF tests, hypoactivity in the OF test, and PA deficits. Genetic and detailed behavioral analysis of these ENU-induced mutants will provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying behavior.

  20. Low Angle Normal Fault System Controls the Structure Evolution of Baiyun Deepwater Basin and Its Lithosphere Thinning, Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Ren, J.; Yang, L.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the transition area from ~30 km to weakly thinned continental crust (<12 km) in Baiyun deepwater basin, Northern South China Sea leads to two questions: What controls extreme crustal thinning and what is the nature of Baiyun basin. The 3D seismic data newly acquired show that Baiyun basin is an asymmetric half graben mainly controlled by a set of north-dipping normal faults converging in deep. By employing the principle of back-stripping, we estimate the fault dips and slip amount would be in the absence of post-rift sediments and seawater loading. Results show these Middle Eocene faults were extremely active, with a high accumulation horizontal displacement (> 10 km) and an initial very low angle (<7°), followed by a rotated into sub-horizontal. A general scenario for extension of the uppermost continental crust probably includes simultaneous operation of low angle normal fault (F1) as well as parallel arrays of step-faults (domino-faults, f2-f9). Under such a scenario, it shows no obvious extension discrepancy in Baiyun basin. Our results indicate that Baiyun sag preserves information recording the continent thinning before the seafloor spreading, and it could be an abandoned inner rifted basin.

  1. Normal development.

    PubMed

    Girard, Nadine; Koob, Meriam; Brunel, Herv

    2016-01-01

    Numerous events are involved in brain development, some of which are detected by neuroimaging. Major changes in brain morphology are depicted by brain imaging during the fetal period while changes in brain composition can be demonstrated in both pre- and postnatal periods. Although ultrasonography and computed tomography can show changes in brain morphology, these techniques are insensitive to myelination that is one of the most important events occurring during brain maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is therefore the method of choice to evaluate brain maturation. MRI also gives insight into the microstructure of brain tissue through diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Metabolic changes are also part of brain maturation and are assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Understanding and knowledge of the different steps in brain development are required to be able to detect morphologic and structural changes on neuroimaging. Consequently alterations in normal development can be depicted. PMID:27430460

  2. Time-dependent diffusion in skeletal muscle with the random permeable barrier model (RPBM): Application to normal controls and chronic exertional compartment syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Sigmund, Eric E.; Novikov, Dmitry S.; Sui, Dabang; Ukpebor, Obehi; Baete, Steven; Babb, James S.; Liu, Kecheng; Feiweier, Thorsten; Kwon, Jane; Mcgorty, KellyAnne; Bencardino, Jenny; Fieremans, Els

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To collect diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at multiple diffusion times Td in skeletal muscle in normal subjects and chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) patients and analyze the data with the random permeable barrier model (RPBM) for biophysical specificity. Materials and Methods Using an IRB-approved HIPAA-compliant protocol, seven patients with clinical suspicion of CECS and eight healthy volunteers underwent DTI of the calf muscle in a Siemens MAGNETOM Verio 3-T scanner at rest and after treadmill exertion at 4 different diffusion times. Radial diffusion values λrad were computed for each of 7 different muscle compartments and analyzed with RPBM to produce estimates of free diffusivity D0, fiber diameter a, and permeability κ. Fiber diameter estimates were compared with measurements from literature autopsy reference for several compartments. Response factors (post/pre-exercise ratios) were computed and compared between normal controls and CECS patients using a mixed-model two-way analysis of variance. Results All subjects and muscle compartments showed nearly time-independent diffusion along and strongly time-dependent diffusion transverse to the muscle fibers. RPBM estimates of fiber diameter correlated well with corresponding autopsy reference. D0 showed significant (p<0.05) increases with exercise for volunteers, and a increased significantly (p<0.05) in volunteers. At the group level, response factors of all three parameters showed trends differentiating controls from CECS patients, with patients showing smaller diameter changes (p=0.07), and larger permeability increases (p=0.07) than controls. Conclusions Time-dependent diffusion measurements combined with appropriate tissue modeling can provide enhanced microstructural specificity for in vivo tissue characterization. In CECS patients, our results suggest that high-pressure interfiber edema elevates free diffusion and restricts exercise-induced fiber dilation. Such specificity may be

  3. Improved cognition after control of risk factors for multi-infarct dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.; Judd, B.W.; Tawaklna, T.; Rogers, R.L.; Mortel, K.F.

    1986-10-24

    A cohort of 52 patients (30 men and 22 women) with multi-infarct dementia (MID) has been followed up prospectively for a mean interval of 22.2 months. Clinical course has been documented by serial history taking and interviews and neurological, medical, and psychological examinations, and correlated with measurements of cerebral blood flow. The clinical course and cognitive performance have been compared with those of age-matched normal volunteers and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Patients with MID were subdivided into hypertensive and normotensive groups, and also into those displaying stabilized or improved cognition and those whose condition deteriorated. Among hypertensive patients with MID, improved cognition and clinical course correlated with control of systolic blood pressure within upper limits of normalf (135 to 150 mm Hg), but if systolic blood pressure was reduced below this level, patients with MID deteriorated. Among normotensive patients with MID, improved cognition was associated with cessation of smoking cigarettes.

  4. The Effects of BDNF Val66Met Gene Polymorphism on Serum BDNF and Cognitive Function in Methamphetamine-Dependent Patients and Normal Controls: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Su, Hang; Tao, Jingyan; Zhang, Jie; Xie, Ying; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Yu; Han, Bin; Lu, Yuling; Sun, Haiwei; Wei, Youdan; Zou, Shengzhen; Wu, Wenxiu; Zhang, Jiajia; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Xiangyang; He, Jincai

    2015-10-01

    Studies suggest that a functional polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF Val66Met) may contribute to methamphetamine dependence. We hypothesized that this polymorphism had a role in cognitive deficits in methamphetamine-dependent patients and in the relationship of serum BDNF with cognitive impairments. We conducted a case-control study by assessing 194 methamphetamine-dependent patients and 378 healthy volunteers without history of drug use on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and the presence of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and serum BDNF levels. We showed no significant differences in genotype and allele distributions between the methamphetamine-dependent patients and controls. Some aspects of cognitive function significantly differed in the 2 groups. The serum BDNF levels in methamphetamine-dependent patients were significantly higher than those of the healthy controls. In the patients, partial correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between serum BDNF and the delayed memory index score. The RBANS scores showed statistically significant BDNF level × genotype interaction. Further regression analyses showed a significant positive association between BDNF levels and the RBANS total score, immediate memory or attention index among Val homozygote patients, whereas a significant negative association of BDNF levels with the RBANS total score, visuospatial/constructional, or language index was found among Met/Val heterozygous patients. We demonstrated significant impairment on some aspects of cognitive function and increased BDNF levels in methamphetamine-dependent patients as well as genotypic differences in the relationships between BDNF levels and RBANS scores on the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism only in these patients.

  5. Differential control of Notch1 gene transcription by Klf4 and Sp3 transcription factors in normal versus cancer-derived keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Chiara; Pantano, Serafino; Dotto, G Paolo

    2010-04-28

    In specific cell types like keratinocytes, Notch signaling plays an important pro-differentiation and tumor suppressing function, with down-modulation of the Notch1 gene being associated with cancer development. Besides being controlled by p53, little else is known on regulation of Notch1 gene expression in this context. We report here that transcription of this gene is driven by a TATA-less "sharp peak" promoter and that the minimal functional region of this promoter, which extends from the -342 bp position to the initiation codon, is differentially active in normal versus cancer cells. This GC rich region lacks p53 binding sites, but binds Klf4 and Sp3. This finding is likely to be of biological significance, as Klf4 and, to a lesser extent, Sp3 are up-regulated in a number of cancer cells where Notch1 expression is down-modulated, and Klf4 over-expression in normal cells is sufficient to down-modulate Notch1 gene transcription. The combined knock-down of Klf4 and Sp3 was necessary for the reverse effect of increasing Notch1 transcription, consistent with the two factors exerting an overlapping repressor function through their binding to the Notch1 promoter.

  6. Evidence for Coupled Biogenesis of Yeast Gap1 Permease and Sphingolipids: Essential Role in Transport Activity and Normal Control by Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Lauwers, Elsa; Grossmann, Guido

    2007-01-01

    Current models for plasma membrane organization integrate the emerging concepts that membrane proteins tightly associate with surrounding lipids and that biogenesis of surface proteins and lipids may be coupled. We show here that the yeast general amino acid permease Gap1 synthesized in the absence of sphingolipid (SL) biosynthesis is delivered to the cell surface but undergoes rapid and unregulated down-regulation. Furthermore, the permease produced under these conditions but blocked at the cell surface is inactive, soluble in detergent, and more sensitive to proteases. We also show that SL biogenesis is crucial during Gap1 production and secretion but that it is dispensable once Gap1 has reached the plasma membrane. Moreover, the defects displayed by cell surface Gap1 neosynthesized in the absence of SL biosynthesis are not compensated by subsequent restoration of SL production. Finally, we show that down-regulation of Gap1 caused by lack of SL biogenesis involves the ubiquitination of the protein on lysines normally not accessible to ubiquitination and close to the membrane. We propose that coupled biogenesis of Gap1 and SLs would create an SL microenvironment essential to the normal conformation, function, and control of ubiquitination of the permease. PMID:17553927

  7. Functional reentry and circus movement arrhythmias in the small intestine of normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Wim J E P; Stephen, B; Karam, S M

    2012-04-01

    In a few recent studies, the presence of arrhythmias based on reentry and circus movement of the slow wave have been shown to occur in normal and diseased stomachs. To date, however, reentry has not been demonstrated before in any other part of the gastrointestinal system. No animals had to be killed for this study. Use was made of materials obtained during the course of another study in which 11 rats were treated with streptozotocin and housed with age-matched controls. After 3 and 7 mo, segments of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were isolated and positioned in a tissue bath. Slow wave propagation was recorded with 121 extracellular electrodes. After the experiment, the propagation of the slow waves was reconstructed. In 10 of a total of 66 intestinal segments (15%), a circus movement of the slow wave was detected. These reentries were seen in control (n = 2) as well as in 3-mo (n = 2) and 7-mo (n = 6) diabetic rats. Local conduction velocities and beat-to-beat intervals during the reentries were measured (0.42 ± 0.15 and 3.03 ± 0.67 cm/s, respectively) leading to a wavelength of 1.3 ± 0.5 cm and a circuit diameter of 4.1 ± 1.5 mm. This is the first demonstration of a reentrant arrhythmia in the small intestine of control and diabetic rats. Calculations of the size of the circuits indicate that they are small enough to fit inside the intestinal wall. Extrapolation based on measured velocities and rates indicate that reentrant arrhythmias are also possible in the distal small intestine of larger animals including humans.

  8. Total antioxidant capacity is significantly lower in cocaine-dependent and methamphetamine-dependent patients relative to normal controls: results from a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Jessica; Winhusen, Theresa; Storkson, Jayne; Lewis, Daniel; Pariza, Michael W.; Somoza, Eugene; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress can result in damage to the brain and other organs. To protect from oxidative damage, the human body possesses molecular defense systems, based on the activity of antioxidants, and enzymatic defense systems, including the enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx). While pre-clinical research has shown that stimulant use is associated with oxidative damage, oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense systems have not been evaluated in clinical samples of stimulant-dependent patients. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the link between stimulant dependence and oxidative stress. Methods Peripheral blood samples from 174 methamphetamine (n=48) and/or cocaine-dependent (n=126) participants as well as 30 normal control participants were analyzed for the enzyme activities of CAT, SOD and GPx in the erythrocytes, and the total antioxidant capacity and the malondialdehyde concentration in the plasma. Results We could show an association of stimulant dependence with a depletion of total antioxidant capacity to 54.6±4.7 %, which correlates with a reduced activity of the SOD to 71.3±0.03 % compared to healthy control participants (100 %). Conclusion Stimulant-dependent patients had significantly lower antioxidant capacity relative to controls, suggesting that they may be at greater risk for oxidative damage to the brain and other organs. PMID:25087849

  9. SPR Detection and Discrimination of the Oligonucleotides Related to the Normal and the Hybrid bcr-abl Genes by Two Stringency Control Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsishin, M. J.; Ushenin, Iu. V.; Rachkov, A. E.; Solatkin, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we applied two stringency control strategies for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection of DNA hybridization and discrimination of completely and partially complementary 24-mer sequences. These sequences are specific to the human normal bcr and the hybrid bcr-abl genes, protein products of which are responsible for some leukemia. SPR sensors based on resonance phenomena in nanoscale gold films are well suited for label-free, real-time investigations of the macromolecule interactions. Thermodynamic parameters obtained using the web server DINAMelt allowed supposing the possibility for realization (a) stringency control based on the ionic strength of the hybridization buffer and (b) stringency control based on the temperature elevation. The first one resulted in that the discrimination index of completely complementary and partially complementary oligonucleotides depending on the target concentration varied from 1.3 to 1.8 in 2 × SSC and from 2.0 to 2.9 in 0.5 × SSC. For implementation of the second stringency control strategy, SPR spectrometer measuring flow cell with built-in high-precision temperature control and regulation as well as corresponding software was created. It is shown that the duplexes formed by the immobilized probes mod-Ph and completely complementary oligonucleotides P1 remained without significant changes until ~50 °C, while the duplexes formed with partially complementary oligonucleotide Bcrex14 almost entirely disrupted at 40 °C. Thus, the absolutely effective thermodiscrimination of this pair of oligonucleotides was achieved in this temperature range (40-50 °C).

  10. Regional blood flow in the normal and ischemic brain is controlled by arteriolar smooth muscle cell contractility and not by capillary pericytes

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert A; Tong, Lei; Yuan, Peng; Murikinati, Sasidhar; Gupta, Shobhana; Grutzendler, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Summary The precise regulation of cerebral blood flow is critical for normal brain function and its disruption underlies many neuropathologies. The extent to which smooth muscle-covered arterioles or pericyte-covered capillaries control vasomotion during neurovascular coupling remains controversial. We found that capillary pericytes in mice and humans do not express smooth muscle actin and are morphologically and functionally distinct from adjacent precapillary smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Using optical imaging we investigated blood flow regulation at various sites on the vascular tree in living mice. Optogenetic, whisker stimulation or cortical spreading depolarization caused microvascular diameter or flow changes in SMC but not pericyte-covered microvessels. During early stages of brain ischemia, transient SMC but not pericyte constrictions were a major cause of hypoperfusion leading to thrombosis and distal microvascular occlusions. Thus, capillary pericytes are not contractile and regulation of cerebral blood flow in physiological and pathological conditions is mediated by arteriolar smooth muscle cells. PMID:26119027

  11. The hypotensive effect of acute and chronic AMP-activated protein kinase activation in normal and hyperlipidemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Fiona H.; Ewart, Marie-Ann; McNaughton, Eilidh; Cooney, Josephine; Spickett, Corinne M.; Kennedy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is present in the arterial wall and is activated in response to cellular stressors that raise AMP relative to ADP/ATP. Activation of AMPK in vivo lowers blood pressure but the influence of hyperlipidemia on this response has not been studied. ApoE−/− mice on high fat diet for 6 weeks and age-matched controls were treated with the AMPK activator, AICAR daily for two weeks. Under anesthesia, the carotid artery was cannulated for blood pressure measurements. Aortic tissue was removed for in vitro functional experiments and AMPK activity was measured in artery homogenates by Western blotting. ApoE−/− mice had significantly raised mean arterial pressure; chronic AICAR treatment normalized this but had no effect in normolipidemic mice, whereas acute administration of AICAR lowered mean arterial pressure in both groups. Chronic AICAR treatment increased phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase in normolipidemic but not ApoE−/− mice. In aortic rings, AMPK activation induced vasodilation and an anticontractile effect, which was attenuated in ApoE−/− mice. This study demonstrates that hyperlipidemia dysregulates the AMPK pathway in the arterial wall but this effect can be reversed by AMPK activation, possibly through improving vessel compliance. PMID:26196300

  12. Control of Viremia Enables Acquisition of Resting Memory B Cells with Age and Normalization of Activated B Cell Phenotypes in HIV-Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Muema, Daniel M.; Macharia, Gladys N.; Hassan, Amin S.; Mwaringa, Shalton M.; Fegan, Greg W.; Berkley, James A.; Urban, Britta C.

    2015-01-01

    HIV affects the function of all lymphocyte populations, including B cells. Phenotypic and functional defects of B cells in HIV-infected adults have been well characterized, but defects in children have not been studied to the same extent. We determined the proportion of B cell subsets and frequencies of Ag-specific memory B cells in peripheral blood from HIV-infected children and healthy controls, using flow cytometry and B cell ELISPOT, respectively. In addition, we measured the quantities and avidities of plasma Abs against various Ags by ELISA. We also determined plasma levels of BAFF and expression of BAFF receptors on B cells. Children with high HIV viremia had increased proportions of activated mature B cells, tissue-like memory B cells and plasmablasts, and low proportions of naive B cells when compared with community controls and children with low HIV viremia, similar to adults infected with HIV. HIV-infected groups had lower proportions of resting memory B cells than did community controls. Notably, high HIV viremia prevented the age-dependent accumulation of class-switched resting memory B cells. HIV-infected children, regardless of the level of viremia, showed lower quantities and avidities of IgG and lower frequencies of memory B cells against Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines. The HIV-infected children had an altered BAFF profile that could have affected their B cell compartment. Therefore, B cell defects in HIV-infected children are similar to those seen in HIV-infected adults. However, control of HIV viremia is associated with normalization of activated B cell subsets and allows age-dependent accumulation of resting memory B cells. PMID:26116511

  13. Control of Viremia Enables Acquisition of Resting Memory B Cells with Age and Normalization of Activated B Cell Phenotypes in HIV-Infected Children.

    PubMed

    Muema, Daniel M; Macharia, Gladys N; Hassan, Amin S; Mwaringa, Shalton M; Fegan, Greg W; Berkley, James A; Nduati, Eunice W; Urban, Britta C

    2015-08-01

    HIV affects the function of all lymphocyte populations, including B cells. Phenotypic and functional defects of B cells in HIV-infected adults have been well characterized, but defects in children have not been studied to the same extent. We determined the proportion of B cell subsets and frequencies of Ag-specific memory B cells in peripheral blood from HIV-infected children and healthy controls, using flow cytometry and B cell ELISPOT, respectively. In addition, we measured the quantities and avidities of plasma Abs against various Ags by ELISA. We also determined plasma levels of BAFF and expression of BAFF receptors on B cells. Children with high HIV viremia had increased proportions of activated mature B cells, tissue-like memory B cells and plasmablasts, and low proportions of naive B cells when compared with community controls and children with low HIV viremia, similar to adults infected with HIV. HIV-infected groups had lower proportions of resting memory B cells than did community controls. Notably, high HIV viremia prevented the age-dependent accumulation of class-switched resting memory B cells. HIV-infected children, regardless of the level of viremia, showed lower quantities and avidities of IgG and lower frequencies of memory B cells against Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines. The HIV-infected children had an altered BAFF profile that could have affected their B cell compartment. Therefore, B cell defects in HIV-infected children are similar to those seen in HIV-infected adults. However, control of HIV viremia is associated with normalization of activated B cell subsets and allows age-dependent accumulation of resting memory B cells.

  14. Diurnal rhythms of free estradiol and cortisol during the normal menstrual cycle in women with major depression.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ai-Min; Ji, Yi-Fu; Van Someren, Eus J W; Hofman, Michel A; Liu, Rong-Yu; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2004-02-01

    To investigate whether depression is accompanied by changes in diurnal rhythms of free estradiol and cortisol in different phases of the menstrual cycle, we measured these two hormone levels in saliva samples collected every 2 h for 24 h from 15 healthy normally cycling women and 12 age-matched normally cycling women suffering from major depression taking antidepressants. The assessments were repeated four times over one menstrual cycle: during menstruation and in the late follicular/peri-ovulating, early to mid-luteal and late luteal phases, respectively. Quantification with a nonlinear periodic regression model revealed distinct diurnal rhythms in free estradiol and free cortisol in all subjects. For the diurnal cortisol rhythm, significant differences were found in the peak-width and ultradian amplitude among different menstrual phases, both in controls and depressed patients, while no significant differences were found between the two groups. The diurnal estradiol rhythm, on the other hand, was quite consistent among different menstrual phases within both groups, while the depressed patients had overall larger amplitudes than controls, which is negatively correlated with disease duration. Significant positive correlations between the two hormone rhythms were found for 24-h mean level (mesor), peak, and trough in late luteal phase, and for ultradian harmonics in early to mid-luteal phase in controls, but only for ultradian harmonics in late follicular/peri-ovulating phase and for acrophase in the menstruation phase in depressed patients. A sub-analysis was also performed in patients who received Fluoxetine (n = 7). The findings implicate a close correlation between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, both of which may be involved in depression.

  15. The serum levels of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis during attack, remission and in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Spacek, Jiri; Jilek, Petr; Buchta, Vladimir; Forstl, Miroslav; Hronek, Miloslav; Holeckova, Magdalena

    2005-11-01

    The real cause of recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis (RVVC) is concealed and the etiopathogenesis of this disease remains to be determined. In a cohort study, concentrations of metals in 44 patients with RVVC and 30 healthy age-matched women were measured and compared. The concentrations of serum calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) were measured photometrically, the zinc (Zn) levels were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. For statistical analysis were used the Student's t-tests (paired analysis for attack vs. remission; non-paired analysis for patient vs. control). Although all measured metals were within normal ranges the patients with RVVC had in contrast to the healthy controls significantly lower levels of serum Ca, Mg and Zn and insignificantly higher levels of Fe. These relative changes may contribute to the development of attacks in patients with RVVC. PMID:16262875

  16. Molecular control of normal and acrocona mutant seed cone development in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and the evolution of conifer ovule-bearing organs.

    PubMed

    Carlsbecker, Annelie; Sundström, Jens F; Englund, Marie; Uddenberg, Daniel; Izquierdo, Liz; Kvarnheden, Anders; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Engström, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Reproductive organs in seed plants are morphologically divergent and their evolutionary history is often unclear. The mechanisms controlling their development have been extensively studied in angiosperms but are poorly understood in conifers and other gymnosperms. Here, we address the molecular control of seed cone development in Norway spruce, Picea abies. We present expression analyses of five novel MADS-box genes in comparison with previously identified MADS and LEAFY genes at distinct developmental stages. In addition, we have characterized the homeotic transformation from vegetative shoot to female cone and associated changes in regulatory gene expression patterns occurring in the acrocona mutant. The analyses identified genes active at the onset of ovuliferous and ovule development and identified expression patterns marking distinct domains of the ovuliferous scale. The reproductive transformation in acrocona involves the activation of all tested genes normally active in early cone development, except for an AGAMOUS-LIKE6/SEPALLATA (AGL6/SEP) homologue. This absence may be functionally associated with the nondeterminate development of the acrocona ovule-bearing scales. Our morphological and gene expression analyses give support to the hypothesis that the modern cone is a complex structure, and the ovuliferous scale the result of reductions and compactions of an ovule-bearing axillary short shoot in cones of Paleozoic conifers.

  17. Time-dependent diffusion in skeletal muscle with the random permeable barrier model (RPBM): application to normal controls and chronic exertional compartment syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Sigmund, Eric E; Novikov, Dmitry S; Sui, Dabang; Ukpebor, Obehi; Baete, Steven; Babb, James S; Liu, Kecheng; Feiweier, Thorsten; Kwon, Jane; McGorty, Kellyanne; Bencardino, Jenny; Fieremans, Els

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to carry out diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at multiple diffusion times Td in skeletal muscle in normal subjects and chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) patients and analyze the data with the random permeable barrier model (RPBM) for biophysical specificity. Using an institutional review board approved HIPAA-compliant protocol, seven patients with clinical suspicion of CECS and eight healthy volunteers underwent DTI of the calf muscle in a Siemens MAGNETOM Verio 3 T scanner at rest and after treadmill exertion at four different T(d) values. Radial diffusion values λ(rad) were computed for each of seven different muscle compartments and analyzed with RPBM to produce estimates of free diffusivity D(0), fiber diameter a, and permeability κ. Fiber diameter estimates were compared with measurements from literature autopsy reference for several compartments. Response factors (post/pre-exercise ratios) were computed and compared between normal controls and CECS patients using a mixed-model two-way analysis of variance. All subjects and muscle compartments showed nearly time-independent diffusion along and strongly time-dependent diffusion transverse to the muscle fibers. RPBM estimates of fiber diameter correlated well with corresponding autopsy reference. D(0) showed significant (p < 0.05) increases with exercise for volunteers, and a increased significantly (p < 0.05) in volunteers. At the group level, response factors of all three parameters showed trends differentiating controls from CECS patients, with patients showing smaller diameter changes (p = 0.07), and larger permeability increases (p = 0.07) than controls. Time-dependent diffusion measurements combined with appropriate tissue modeling can provide enhanced microstructural specificity for in vivo tissue characterization. In CECS patients, our results suggest that high-pressure interfiber edema elevates free diffusion and restricts exercise

  18. Altered transcriptome signature of phenotypically normal skin fibroblasts heterozygous for CDKN2A in familial melanoma: relevance to early intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Henry T.; Cassidy, Pamela; Leachman, Sancy; Pfeffer, Lawrence M.; Kopelovich, Levy

    2013-01-01

    Familial melanoma (FM) is a dominantly heritable cancer that is associated with mutations in the tumor suppressor CDKN2A/p16. In FM, a single inherited “hit” occurs in every somatic cell, enabling interrogation of cultured normal skin fibroblasts (SFs) from FM gene carriers as surrogates for the cell of tumor origin, namely the melanocyte. We compared the gene expression profile of SFs from FM individuals with two distinct CDKN2A/p16 mutations (V126D-p16 and R87P-p16) with the gene expression profile of SFs from age-matched individuals without p16 mutations and with no family history of melanoma. We show an altered transcriptome signature in normal SFs bearing a single-hit inherited mutation in the CDKN2A/p16 gene, wherein some of these abnormal alterations recapitulate changes observed in the corresponding cancer. Significantly, the extent of the alterations is mutation-site specific with the R87P-p16 mutation being more disruptive than the V126D-p16 mutation. We also examined changes in gene expression after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation to define potential early biomarkers triggered by sun exposure. UV treatment of SFs from FM families induces distinct alterations in genes related to cell cycle regulation and DNA damage responses that are also reported to be dysregulated in melanoma. Importantly, these changes were diametrically opposed to UV-induced changes in SF from normal controls. We posit that changes identified in the transcriptome of SF from FM mutation carriers represent early events critical for melanoma development. As such, they may serve as specific biomarkers of increased risk as well as molecular targets for personalized prevention strategies in high-risk populations. PMID:23371019

  19. Evidence for the genetic control of estradiol-regulated responses. Implications for variation in normal and pathological hormone-dependent phenotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, J. S.; Jensen, S. M.; Lunceford, J. K.; Kahn, M. W.; Zheng, Y.; Falase, E. A.; Lyttle, C. R.; Teuscher, C.

    1997-01-01

    The ovarian steroid hormone estrogen (E2) elicits a multiplicity of both systemic and uterotropic responses in vivo. For example, the administration of E2 to ovariectomized (Ovx) and sexually immature rodents leads to uterine-specific inflammatory infiltrates. In this study, we quantitated the number of eosinophils and BM8+, Ia+, and CD4+ cells in uteri obtained from adult Ovx control and E2-treated C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, and (C57BL/6J x C3H/HeJ) (B6C3) F1 hybrid mice. All three strains exhibited a significant increase in the number of uterine eosinophils and BM8+ macrophages after E2 treatment. However, C57BL/6J and B6C3 F1 hybrid mice responded with a greater number of infiltrating eosinophils and macrophages as compared with C3H/HeJ. A similar analysis of Ia+ and CD4+ cells showed that E2 treatment either down-regulates or does not affect the number of such cells in all three strains. Genome exclusion mapping using a (C57BL/6J x C3H/HeJ) x C3H/HeJ backcross population localized Est1, the major locus controlling the number of eosinophils infiltrating the uterus after E2 treatment, to chromosome 4. In addition, suggestive linkage to marker loci on chromosomes 10 and 16 was detected and evidence for locus interaction is presented. Our results conclusively demonstrate that E2-regulated/ dependent responses can be genetically controlled, indicating that the phenotypic variation observed in both the normal and pathological effects of E2 may, in part, be due to a genetic component. PMID:9176411

  20. A control profile of adult children of alcoholics: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, D H; Weatherford, V; Kaufman, E; Broenen, R E

    1994-01-01

    In order to more precisely investigate the nature of control and self-control issues for adult children of alcoholics (ACA), a group of ACAs was compared to a group of sex and age matched healthy normals and a sex matched group of college students on the Shapiro Control Inventory (SCI). The SCI provides a profile that is both general domain (positive sense of control, desire/efforts for control, agency of control, and mode of control) and domain specific (body, mind, interpersonal, self, career, environment). Analysis of variance and subsequent planned comparisons on the SCI showed significant differences between the ACA and the two comparison groups in general domain sense of control, in three of the four general domain mode quadrants, and in the domain specific areas of body, mind, interpersonal, and career. Individual areas where ACA subjects felt most out of control were weight, significant other, and family of origin; 89.5% felt concern with self-concept, stress, and relationship with significant other. Although a small subset of ACAs had a strikingly high "in control" profile, most did not. Finally, the sense of control profile of ACAs is compared with two clinical populations--borderline and depression--and is shown to fall midway between the clinical and normative groups. Guidelines and suggestions for further research are offered.

  1. A randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of nutritional supplementation on visual function in normal, and age-related macular disease affected eyes: design and methodology [ISRCTN78467674

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Hannah; Eperjesi, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Background Age-related macular disease is the leading cause of blind registration in the developed world. One aetiological hypothesis involves oxidation, and the intrinsic vulnerability of the retina to damage via this process. This has prompted interest in the role of antioxidants, particularly the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, in the prevention and treatment of this eye disease. Methods The aim of this randomised controlled trial is to determine the effect of a nutritional supplement containing lutein, vitamins A, C and E, zinc, and copper on measures of visual function in people with and without age-related macular disease. Outcome measures are distance and near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, colour vision, macular visual field, glare recovery, and fundus photography. Randomisation is achieved via a random number generator, and masking achieved by third party coding of the active and placebo containers. Data collection will take place at nine and 18 months, and statistical analysis will employ Student's t test. Discussion A paucity of treatment modalities for age-related macular disease has prompted research into the development of prevention strategies. A positive effect on normals may be indicative of a role of nutritional supplementation in preventing or delaying onset of the condition. An observed benefit in the age-related macular disease group may indicate a potential role of supplementation in prevention of progression, or even a degree reversal of the visual effects caused by this condition. PMID:14594455

  2. Usefulness of rate regulation through continuous ventricular pacing in patients with drug-controlled slower atrial fibrillation and normal or depressed left ventricular systolic function.

    PubMed

    Chiladakis, John; Koutsogiannis, Nikolaos; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas; Zagli, Fani; Arvanitis, Panagiotis; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios

    2008-11-01

    We studied 33 clinically stable patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF), implanted with a ventricular demand rate-responsive (VVIR) pacemaker or an automatic defibrillator, in order to evaluate whether continuous right ventricular apex pacing (VP) conferring rate regulation may be advantageous when compared with slower drug-controlled AF. Devices were chronically programmed at ventricular backup pacing. Patients were divided in two groups according to their normal (n = 17) or depressed (n = 16) left ventricular systolic function (LVSF). Ventricular function was studied by using tissue Doppler and color M-mode and echocardiography, as well as B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurements. Baseline data during AF were compared to corresponding measurements following a 1-month pacing period after the devices were programmed at a base rate of 70 beats/min. In both groups, VP worsened some indexes of left and right ventricular function (P < 0.05) without significantly affecting cardiac output, left ventricular filling pressures and BNP (P = not significant). We conclude that VP should not be considered advantageous compared to slower AF.

  3. Land 3D-seismic data: Preprocessing quality control utilizing survey design specifications, noise properties, normal moveout, first breaks, and offset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raef, A.

    2009-01-01

    The recent proliferation of the 3D reflection seismic method into the near-surface area of geophysical applications, especially in response to the emergence of the need to comprehensively characterize and monitor near-surface carbon dioxide sequestration in shallow saline aquifers around the world, justifies the emphasis on cost-effective and robust quality control and assurance (QC/QA) workflow of 3D seismic data preprocessing that is suitable for near-surface applications. The main purpose of our seismic data preprocessing QC is to enable the use of appropriate header information, data that are free of noise-dominated traces, and/or flawed vertical stacking in subsequent processing steps. In this article, I provide an account of utilizing survey design specifications, noise properties, first breaks, and normal moveout for rapid and thorough graphical QC/QA diagnostics, which are easy to apply and efficient in the diagnosis of inconsistencies. A correlated vibroseis time-lapse 3D-seismic data set from a CO2-flood monitoring survey is used for demonstrating QC diagnostics. An important by-product of the QC workflow is establishing the number of layers for a refraction statics model in a data-driven graphical manner that capitalizes on the spatial coverage of the 3D seismic data. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

  4. Impaired emotional facial expression recognition in alcoholics, opiate dependence subjects, methadone maintained subjects and mixed alcohol-opiate antecedents subjects compared with normal controls.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Charles; Foisy, Marie-Line; Philippot, Pierre; Dan, Bernard; Tecco, Juan; Noël, Xavier; Hess, Ursula; Pelc, Isidore; Verbanck, Paul

    2003-08-01

    The present study aims to explore whether an impairment in emotional facial expressions (EFE) decoding is specific to alcoholism compared with opiate dependence. An EFE decoding test consisting of 16 photographs of EFE portraying happiness, anger, sadness and disgust was administered to five different groups of 30 subjects each: recently detoxified alcoholics (RA); opiate addicts under methadone maintenance treatment (OM); detoxified opiate addicts (OA); detoxified subjects with both alcohol and opiate dependence antecedents (DAO); and normal controls (NC). Repeated measures analysis of variance using a multivariate approach was conducted on EFE decoding accuracy scores with group as the between-subjects factor. Accuracy scores were significantly lower in RA and DAO than in OM and OA, which had significantly lower scores than NC. Low accuracy scores in RA and DAO confirm previous results indicating that alcoholism is associated with impaired EFE recognition. Results in OM and OA indicate that opiate dependence is also associated with an impaired EFE decoding but less than in alcoholism. Alcohol and opiate chronic consumption could both exercise a deleterious effect on EFE-decoding brain function, alcohol having the most severe impact. Alternatively, EFE-decoding problems could be present before the development of alcohol and opiate dependence, with an additional effect of chronic alcohol consumption on EFE decoding. In this context, EFE-decoding impairment could reflect a more general emotional intelligence deficit in addicted populations.

  5. Altered Expression Patterns of Inflammation-Associated and Trophic Molecules in Substantia Nigra and Striatum Brain Samples from Parkinson's Disease, Incidental Lewy Body Disease and Normal Control Cases

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Douglas G.; Lue, Lih-Fen; Serrano, Geidy; Adler, Charles H.; Caviness, John N.; Sue, Lucia I.; Beach, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of inflammation has been consistently associated with pathology in Parkinson's disease (PD)-affected brains, and has been suggested as a causative factor. Dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta, whose loss results in the clinical symptoms associated with PD, are particularly susceptible to inflammatory damage and oxidative stress. Inflammation in the striatum, where SN dopaminergic neurons project, is also a feature of PD brains. It is not known whether inflammatory changes occur first in striatum or SN. Many animal models of PD have implicated certain inflammatory molecules with dopaminergic cell neuronal loss; however, there have been few studies to validate these findings by measuring the levels of these and other inflammatory factors in human PD brain samples. This study also included samples from incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD) cases, since ILBD is considered a non-symptomatic precursor to PD, with subjects having significant loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-producing neurons. We hypothesized that there may be a progressive change in key inflammatory factors in ILBD samples intermediate between neurologically normal and PD. To address this, we used a quantitative antibody-array platform (Raybiotech-Quantibody arrays) to measure the levels of 160 different inflammation-associated cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and related molecules in extracts of SN and striatum from clinically and neuropathologically characterized PD, ILBD, and normal control cases. Patterns of changes in inflammation and related molecules were distinctly different between SN and striatum. Our results showed significantly different levels of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-15, monokine induced by gamma interferon, and IL-6 soluble receptor in SN between disease groups. A different panel of 13 proteins with significant changes in striatum, with IL-15 as the common feature, was identified. Although the ability to detect some proteins was limited by sensitivity

  6. Evaluation of internal control genes for qRT-PCR normalization in tissues and cell culture for antiviral studies of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Su, Jianguo; Zhang, Rongfang; Dong, Jie; Yang, Chunrong

    2011-03-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has become one of the most commonly used techniques for RNA expression. To obtain more reliable results with biological significance, it requires data normalization using an appropriate internal control gene. Here, we cloned partial sequence of elongation factor 1α (EF1α) gene from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The stabilities of four commonly used internal control genes encoding 18S rRNA, β-actin, EF1α, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were integratedly assessed using the geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper programs. Integrative analyses of qRT-PCR data indicated that the stability ranking of the examined genes was 18S rRNA > EF1α > GAPDH > β-actin in gill, head kidney, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin, spleen, and trunk kidney tissues in untreated grass carp. When the same calculations were done in spleen tissue at different time points post grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, the gene ranking was 18S rRNA > β-actin > GAPDH > EF1α. The rank ordering of expression stability was EF1α > β-actin>18S rRNA > GAPDH in C. idella kidney (CIK) cell culture stimulated by poly(I:C). The recommended ranking was EF1α > GAPDH > β-actin>18S rRNA in CIK cells infected by GCRV. The results indicated that 18S rRNA was the best invariant internal control gene in individual level in grass carp, EF1α was the most suitable in CIK cell culture stimulated by poly(I:C) or infected by GCRV. As an assay, EF1α was employed to examine the changes of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5) after virus infection in CIK cells. These data laid the foundation for more precise results in qRT-PCR studies of gene expression in grass carp.

  7. Dolomitization and over-dolomitization in the Vajont limestone (Dolomiti Bellunesi, Italy) controlled by Mesozoic normal faults: a microstructural and diagenesis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortinovis, Silvia; Swennen, Rudy; Bistacchi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The Vajont Gorge (Dolomiti Bellunesi, Italy) provides spectacular outcrops of Jurassic limestones (Vajont Limestone Formation) in which Mesozoic faults and fracture corridors are continuously exposed. Some of these faults acted as conduits for Mg-enriched hydrothermal fluids resulting in structurally-controlled dolomitization of the limestone. The dolomitization resulted in several dolomite bodies (100-200 m thick and several hundreds of meters along fault strike) that are particularly interesting as reservoir analogues for hydrocarbon, CO2, or water-bearing systems. The dolomitization process occurred after deposition and compaction of the oolitic limestone (dolomitization post-dates a dissolution event that affected the internal parts of the oolites), but before the Alpine contractional deformation. In fact, the meso-structural data collected in the Vajont Gorge allowed the reconstruction of a 3D model showing that the circulation of the dolomitizing fluids into the limestone host rock, but also the late stage of porosity reduction (strong pore filling due to over-dolomitization) were controlled by normal faults and fracture corridors interpreted as Pre-Alpine (Jurassic or Cretaceous). Later on, the influence of Alpine (Tertiary) deformation have been very limited in the studied volume. For instance dolomite veins are sometimes overprinted by bed-inclined stylolites consistent with Alpine shortening axes, but no large Alpine fault is present in the studied outcrops. Cathodoluminescence microscopy allowed recognizing different growth stages saddle dolomite crystals, which point to varying precipitation conditions during three main stages of dolomitization. Dolomite and calcite crystal twinning suggests deformation under increasing temperature conditions, consistent with intracrystalline plasticity deformation mechanisms. The presence of cataclasites composed of hydrothermal dolostone clasts, in turn cemented by dolomite, or of dolomite veins and compaction

  8. Loss of telomeric DNA during aging of normal and trisomy 21 human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Vaziri, H.; Uchida, I.; Lan Wei; Harley, C.B. ); Schaechter, F.; Cohen, D. ); Xiaoming Zhu; Effros, R. )

    1993-04-01

    The telomere hypothesis of cellular aging proposes that loss of telomeric DNA (TTAGGG) from human chromosomes may ultimately cause cell-cycle exit during replicative senescence. Since lymphocytes have a limited replicative capacity and since blood cells were previously shown to lose telomeric DNA during aging in vivo, the authors wished to determine (a) whether accelerated telomere loss is associated with the premature immunosenescence of lymphocytes in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and (b) whether telomeric DNA is also lost during aging of lymphocytes in vitro. To investigate the effects of aging and trisomy 21 on telomere loss in vivo, genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes of 140 individuals (age 0--107 years), including 21 DS patients (age 0--45 years). Digestion with restriction enzymes HinfI and RsaI generated terminal restriction fragments (TRFs), which were detected by Southern analysis using a telomere-specific probe ([sup 32]P-(C[sub 3]TA[sub 2])[sub 3]). The rate of telomere loss was calculated from the decrease in mean TRF length, as a function of donor age. DS patients showed a significantly higher rate of telomere loss with donor age (133 [+-] 15 bp/year) compared with age-matched controls (41 [+-] 7.7 bp/year) (P < .0005), suggesting that accelerated telomere loss is a biomarker of premature immunosenescence of DS patients and that it may play a role in this process. Telomere loss during aging in vitro was calculated for lymphocytes from four normal individuals, grown in culture for 10--30 population doublings. The rate of telomere loss was [approximately]120 bp/cell doubling, comparable to that seen in other somatic cells. Moreover, telomere lengths of lymphocytes from centenarians and from older DS patients were similar to those of senescent lymphocytes in culture, which suggests that replicative senescence could partially account for aging of the immune system in DS patients and in elderly individuals. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Pravastatin normalizes ET-1-induced contraction in the aorta of type 2 diabetic OLETF rats by suppressing the KSR1/ERK complex.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Shingo; Taguchi, Kumiko; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Kamata, Katsuo; Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2012-10-01

    Endothelin (ET)-1 is a likely candidate for a key role in diabetic vascular complications. In the present study, we hypothesized that treatment with pravastatin (an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase) would normalize the ET-1-induced contraction in aortas isolated from type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats. Contractile responses were examined by measuring isometric force in endothelium-denuded aortic helical strips from four groups: Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO; genetic control), OLETF (type 2 diabetic), pravastatin-treated LETO, and pravastatin-treated OLETF rats. Both immunoblot analysis and immunoprecipitation assays were used to examine Src, protein phosphatase (PP)2A, kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR)1, and ERK signaling pathway protein levels and activities. In endothelium-denuded aortas isolated from OLETF rats at the chronic stage of diabetes (56-60 wk) (vs. those from age-matched LETO rats), we found the following: 1) ET-1-induced contraction was enhanced, 2) ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased, 3) phosphorylations of KSR1 and PP2A were reduced (i.e., enhancement of the kinase active state), 4) ERK1/2-KSR1 complexes were increased, and 5) Src tyrosine kinase activity was diminished. Endothelium-denuded aortas isolated from OLETF rats treated with pravastatin (10 mg/kg po, daily for 4 wk) exhibited normalized ET-1-induced contractions and suppressed ET-1-stimulated ERK phosphorylation, with the associated phosphorylated KSR1 and phosphorylated PP2A levels being increased toward normal levels. These results suggest that in type 2 diabetic rats, pravastatin normalizes ET-1-induced contraction in aortic smooth muscle via a suppression of PP2A/KSR1/ERK activities after an enhancement of Src kinase activity.

  10. Neural Circuits for Cognitive Appetite Control in Healthy and Obese Individuals: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tuulari, Jetro J.; Karlsson, Henry K.; Hirvonen, Jussi; Salminen, Paulina; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    The mere sight of foods may activate the brain’s reward circuitry, and humans often experience difficulties in inhibiting urges to eat upon encountering visual food signals. Imbalance between the reward circuit and those supporting inhibitory control may underlie obesity, yet brain circuits supporting volitional control of appetite and their possible dysfunction that can lead to obesity remain poorly specified. Here we delineated the brain basis of volitional appetite control in healthy and obese individuals with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-seven morbidly obese women (mean BMI = 41.4) and fourteen age-matched normal-weight women (mean BMI = 22.6) were scanned with 1.5 Tesla fMRI while viewing food pictures. They were instructed to inhibit their urge to eat the foods, view the stimuli passively or imagine eating the foods. Across all subjects, a frontal cortical control circuit was activated during appetite inhibition versus passive viewing of the foods. Inhibition minus imagined eating (appetite control) activated bilateral precunei and parietal cortices and frontal regions spanning anterior cingulate and superior medial frontal cortices. During appetite control, obese subjects had lower responses in the medial frontal, middle cingulate and dorsal caudate nuclei. Functional connectivity of the control circuit was increased in morbidly obese versus control subjects during appetite control, which might reflect impaired integrative and executive function in obesity. PMID:25658479

  11. A placebo controlled comparison of the effects of metoprolol and celiprolol on echo-Doppler measurements of cardiovascular function in normal volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Silke, B; Thompson, A; Leitch, A; Riddell, J G

    1995-01-01

    1. This study used a continuous-wave echo-Doppler method (Exerdrop) to investigate the effects of beta-adrenoceptor antagonism and partial agonism on cardiovascular responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. 2. A double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled comparison of metoprolol (50 mg) and celiprolol (200 mg) was undertaken in nine normal volunteers; single oral doses of medication were administered at weekly intervals. Rest and exercise (supine bicycle) haemodynamics were assessed at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h following dosing. 3. Before dosing and after placebo, the aortic flow velocity, acceleration and velocity integral increased progressively during exercise, as did heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac output. 4. Following metoprolol 50 mg, heart rate was significantly reduced without change in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Echo-Doppler peak acceleration and velocity decreased at rest. On exercise, heart rate and systolic blood pressure fell significantly; the increase in acceleration was significantly blunted compared with placebo (a decrease of 15.2% at rest and 22.9% at 75 watts; P < 0.01 vs placebo). Peak velocity fell significantly by 75 watts exercise. 5. Celiprolol 200 mg at rest significantly increased systolic blood pressure, peak acceleration and velocity. On exercise celiprolol, in contrast to metoprolol, did not reduce peak acceleration or peak velocity; however exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure were significantly reduced. The difference between celiprolol and metoprolol in respect of peak acceleration persisted over the 8 h of the study. 6. These differences between metoprolol and celiprolol are compatible with the partial agonism of celiprolol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8527266

  12. Enantioselective effects of levodropropizine and dropropizine on psychomotor functions in normal volunteers: a placebo-controlled, double-blind comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gatti, G; Barzaghi, N; Dominijanni, R; Cordaro, C; Perucca, E

    1993-01-01

    Levodropropizine is the l-isomer of dropropizine, a racemic drug widely used as a cough suppressant. Compared with the racemate, levodropropizine retains equal antitussive activity but exhibits considerably lower central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects in animal models. In order to assess whether the same differential pharmacodynamic profile also applies to man, a double-blind placebo-controlled study was carried out to investigate the effects of single oral doses (60 and 120 mg) of levodropropizine and dropropizine on subjective alertness (scored on visual analogue scales), general tolerability and psychomotor function tests (cancellation, tapping, choice reaction times and critical flicker fusion frequency) in ten normal volunteers. Treatments were administered in random sequence at intervals of at least one week, evaluation procedures being carried out at times 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 h after dosing. Following intake of a 60 mg levodropizine dose, subjective effects and objective estimates of psychomotor function were superimposable to those recorded after placebo. There was a trend for 60 mg dropropizine and 120 mg levodropropizine to produce detrimental effects at occasional evaluations, although the changes associated with these treatments could not be differentiated from placebo on the basis of most subjective scores and psychomotor function tests. Conversely, administration of 120 mg dropropizine was consistently associated with subjective CNS impairment and with reduced performance (compared to baseline) in recognition time, critical flicker fusion thresholds and possibly tapping rate, for up to three hours after dosing. These data are consistent with evidence that racemic dropropizine adversely affects central nervous system function to a greater extent compared with the levo-isomer.

  13. Enantioselective effects of levodropropizine and dropropizine on psychomotor functions in normal volunteers: a placebo-controlled, double-blind comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gatti, G; Barzaghi, N; Dominijanni, R; Cordaro, C; Perucca, E

    1993-01-01

    Levodropropizine is the l-isomer of dropropizine, a racemic drug widely used as a cough suppressant. Compared with the racemate, levodropropizine retains equal antitussive activity but exhibits considerably lower central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects in animal models. In order to assess whether the same differential pharmacodynamic profile also applies to man, a double-blind placebo-controlled study was carried out to investigate the effects of single oral doses (60 and 120 mg) of levodropropizine and dropropizine on subjective alertness (scored on visual analogue scales), general tolerability and psychomotor function tests (cancellation, tapping, choice reaction times and critical flicker fusion frequency) in ten normal volunteers. Treatments were administered in random sequence at intervals of at least one week, evaluation procedures being carried out at times 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 h after dosing. Following intake of a 60 mg levodropizine dose, subjective effects and objective estimates of psychomotor function were superimposable to those recorded after placebo. There was a trend for 60 mg dropropizine and 120 mg levodropropizine to produce detrimental effects at occasional evaluations, although the changes associated with these treatments could not be differentiated from placebo on the basis of most subjective scores and psychomotor function tests. Conversely, administration of 120 mg dropropizine was consistently associated with subjective CNS impairment and with reduced performance (compared to baseline) in recognition time, critical flicker fusion thresholds and possibly tapping rate, for up to three hours after dosing. These data are consistent with evidence that racemic dropropizine adversely affects central nervous system function to a greater extent compared with the levo-isomer. PMID:8223138

  14. Qualitative analysis of the role of self-weighing as a strategy of weight control for weight-loss maintainers in comparison with a normal, stable weight group.

    PubMed

    Carrard, Isabelle; Kruseman, Maaike

    2016-10-01

    Self-weighing seems to have a primary role in weight-loss maintenance. The use of this strategy may help correct even slight weight regain and contribute to long-term weight stability. However, self-weighing has also been associated with negative psychological health consequences in specific subgroups. This study aimed to explore the use and the behavioral and psychological consequences of self-weighing in a group of weight-loss maintainers (WLoMs). We chose a qualitative design to conduct this investigation. Eighteen WLoMs were interviewed and compared to a matched comparison group of 18 participants with a lifelong normal stable weight (NSW). Analyses showed that most WLoMs needed regular self-weighing to be aware of their weight. The weight displayed on the scale helped WLoMs sustain the continuous efforts needed to maintain weight loss and also at times triggered corrective actions that were sometimes drastic. Weight changes generated both negative and positive affect among WLoMs, who could experience anxiety because of self-weighing or have their self-esteem impaired in the case of weight gain. In comparison, the NSW group rarely used self-weighing. They relied on a conscious way of living to control their weight and needed fewer strategies. NSW participants simply went back to their routine when they felt a slight increase in their weight, without experiencing consequences on their mood or self-esteem. Regular self-weighing as a component of weight-loss maintenance should be encouraged to help WLoMs regulate their food and physical activity, provided that potential consequences on psychological well-being, including self-esteem, are screened and addressed when needed. PMID:27374738

  15. Gradual Telomere Shortening and Increasing Chromosomal Instability among PanIN Grades and Normal Ductal Epithelia with and without Cancer in the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Yoko; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki; Izumiyama-Shimomura, Naotaka; Hamayasu, Hideki; Fujiwara, Mutsunori; Tomita, Ken-ichiro; Hiraishi, Naoki; Nakamura, Ken-ichi; Ishikawa, Naoshi; Aida, Junko; Takubo, Kaiyo; Arai, Tomio

    2015-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports a key role for telomere dysfunction in carcinogenesis due to the induction of chromosomal instability. To study telomere shortening in precancerous pancreatic lesions, we measured telomere lengths using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization in the normal pancreatic duct epithelium, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs), and cancers. The materials employed included surgically resected pancreatic specimens without cancer (n = 33) and with invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 36), as well as control autopsy cases (n = 150). In comparison with normal ducts, telomere length was decreased in PanIN-1, −2 and −3 and cancer. Furthermore, telomeres were shorter in cancer than in PanIN-1 and −2. Telomere length in cancer was not associated with histological type, lesion location, or cancer stage. PanINs with or without cancer showed similar telomere lengths. The incidences of atypical mitosis and anaphase bridges, which are morphological characteristics of chromosomal instability, were negatively correlated with telomere length. The telomeres in normal duct epithelium became shorter with aging, and those in PanINs or cancers were shorter than in age-matched controls, suggesting that telomere shortening occurs even when histological changes are absent. Our data strongly suggest that telomere shortening occurs in the early stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis and progresses with precancerous development. Telomere shortening and chromosomal instability in the duct epithelium might be associated with carcinogenesis of the pancreas. Determination of telomere length in pancreatic ductal lesions may be valuable for accurate detection and risk assessment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:25658358

  16. Differences in risk factors for neurophysiologically confirmed carpal tunnel syndrome and illness with similar symptoms but normal median nerve function: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To explore whether risk factors for neurophysiologically confirmed carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) differ from those for sensory symptoms with normal median nerve conduction, and to test the validity and practical utility of a proposed definition for impaired median nerve conduction, we carried out a case–control study of patients referred for investigation of suspected CTS. Methods We compared 475 patients with neurophysiological abnormality (NP+ve) according to the definition, 409 patients investigated for CTS but classed as negative on neurophysiological testing (NP-ve), and 799 controls. Exposures to risk factors were ascertained by self-administered questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. Results NP+ve disease was associated with obesity, use of vibratory tools, repetitive movement of the wrist or fingers, poor mental health and workplace psychosocial stressors. NP-ve illness was also related to poor mental health and occupational psychosocial stressors, but differed from NP+ve disease in showing associations also with prolonged use of computer keyboards and tendency to somatise, and no relation to obesity. In direct comparison of NP+ve and NP-ve patients (the latter being taken as the reference category), the most notable differences were for obesity (OR 2.7, 95 % CI 1.9-3.9), somatising tendency (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9), diabetes (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.9-3.1) and work with vibratory tools (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.9-2.2). Conclusions When viewed in the context of earlier research, our findings suggest that obesity, diabetes, use of hand-held vibratory tools, and repeated forceful movements of the wrist and hand are causes of impaired median nerve function. In addition, sensory symptoms in the hand, whether from identifiable pathology or non-specific in origin, may be rendered more prominent and distressing by hand activity, low mood, tendency to somatise, and psychosocial stressors at work

  17. Seventy-year-old habitual volleyball players have larger tibial cross-sectional area and may be differentiated from their age-matched peers by the osteogenic index in dynamic performance.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, T; Linnamo, V; Komi, P V; Selänne, H; Heinonen, A

    2010-07-01

    The osteogenicity of a given exercise may be estimated by calculating an osteogenic index (OI) consisting of magnitude and rate of strain. Volleyball involves repetitive jumping and requires high power output and thus may be expected to be beneficial to bone and performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine if habitual volleyball playing is reflected in OI. Ten elderly habitual volleyball players [age 69.9 (SD 4.4) years] and ten matched controls volunteered [age 69.7 (4.2) years] as subjects. Distal tibia (d), tibial mid-shaft (50) and femoral neck (FN) bone characteristics were measured using pQCT and DXA. To estimate skeletal rigidity, cross-sectional area (ToA(50)), and compressive (BSI(d)) and bending strength indices (SSImax(50)) were calculated. Maximal performance was assessed with eccentric ankle plantar flexion, isometric leg press and countermovement jump (CMJ). A fast Fourier transform (FFT) was calculated from the acceleration of the center of mass during the CMJ. Maximal acceleration (MAG) and mean magnitude frequency (MMF) were selected to represent the constituents of OI. OI was calculated as the sum of the products of magnitudes and corresponding frequencies. Volleyball players had 7% larger ToA(50) and 37% higher power in CMJ, 15% higher MAG and 36% higher OI (P controls. No difference was observed in leg press, plantar flexion or the MMF (P >or= 0.646). In conclusion, habitual volleyball players may be differentiated from their matched peers by their dynamic jumping performance, and the differences are reflected in the magnitude but not rate of loading.

  18. The effects of spatial, temporal, and control variables on the free-recall serial position curve of retardates and equal-MA normals.

    PubMed

    Spitz, H H; Winters, J J; Johnson, S J; Carroll, J G

    1975-01-01

    In Experiment I seven pictures were sequentially illuminated at a 3-see rate through seven translucent windows. A different window provided the starting point for each of seven tests. Retarded and normal Ss of equal MA produced equivalent free recall and reliable recency effects. Although groups did not differ significantly at any portion of the curve, only the normals produced a significant primacy effect. The spatial end anchors produced no significant primacy or recency effects. In Experiment II total presentation time remained the same but the pictures were presented at a 1-sec rate. Variations in elapsed time and number of Presentations produced a negative primacy effect, a result attributed to the prevention of selective rehearsal and the resultant interaction of trace decay and order of recall. Superior recall by the normals, particularly in the recency portion of the curve, was attributed to group differences in order of recall strategies.

  19. Cancellous bone lamellae strongly affect microcrack propagation and apparent mechanical properties: Separation of patients with osteoporotic fracture from normal controls using a 2D nonlinear finite element method (biomechanical stereology)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang; Zauel, Roger R.; Rao, D. Sudhaker; Fyhrie, David P.

    2009-01-01

    Biomechanical stereology is proposed as a two-dimensional (2D) finite element (FE) method to estimate the ability of bone tissue to sustain damage and to separate patients with osteoporotic fracture from normal controls. Briefly, 2D nonlinear compact tension FE models were created from quantitative back scattered electron images taken of iliac crest bone specimens collected from the individuals with or without osteoporotic fracture history. The effects of bone mineral microstructure on predicted bone fracture toughness and microcrack propagation were examined. The 2D FE models were used as surrogates for the real bone tissues. The calculated microcrack propagation results and bone mechanical properties were examined as surrogates for measurements from mechanical testing of actual specimens. The results for the 2D FE simulation separated patients with osteoporotic fracture from normal controls even though only the variability in tissue mineral microstructure was used to build the models. The models were deliberately created to ignore all differences in mean mineralization. Hence, the current results support the following hypotheses: (1) that material heterogeneity is important to the separation of patients with osteoporotic fracture from normal controls and; and (2) that 2D nonlinear finite element modeling can produce surrogate mechanical parameters that separate patients with fracture from normal controls. PMID:18378204

  20. Heart Rate Variability in Breast Cancer Survivors After the First Year of Treatments: A Case-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Caro-Morán, Elena; Fernández-Lao, Carolina; Galiano-Castillo, Noelia; Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    The same aggressive treatments that have led to a reduction in the breast cancer may also have adverse effects on cardiac autonomic balance. The objective of this study was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) between breast cancer survivors in the first year posttreatment and healthy women, controlling for known confounders. This descriptive case-controlled study included 22 breast cancer survivors and 22 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Short-term HRV was measured using an accepted methodology to assess the cardiac autonomic balance. One-way analysis of covariance results revealed that heart rate was significantly higher (F = 15.86, p < .001) and the standard deviation of normal-to-normal (NN) interval (F = 19.93, p = .001), square root of mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (F = 18.72, p = .001), HRV index (F = 5.44, p = .025), and high-frequency (F = 5.77, p = .03) values were significantly lower in the breast cancer survivors than in the matched controls. The principal finding of the presence of a cardiovascular imbalance in breast cancer survivors in comparison to healthy age-matched controls suggests that HRV study could be a clinically useful tool to detect cardiovascular disease in early-stage breast cancer survivors.

  1. Importance of rate control or rate regulation for improving exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation and normal left ventricular function: a randomised controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Levy, T; Walker, S; Mason, M; Spurrell, P; Rex, S; Brant, S; Paul, V

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine the importance of rhythm regulation or rate control in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) and normal left ventricular function.
PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS—Thirty six patients with a mixed fast and slow ventricular response rate to their AF were randomised to either His bundle ablation (HBA) and VVIR pacemaker (HBA group) or VVI pacemaker and atrioventricular modifying drugs (Med group). Outcomes assessed at one, three, six, and 12 months included exercise duration and quality of life.
RESULTS—Exercise duration significantly improved from baseline in both groups. There was no difference in outcome between the groups (Med +40% v HBA +20%, p = NS). The heart rate profile on exercise was similarly slowed in both groups compared to baseline. Quality of life significantly improved in both treatment arms for the modified Karolinska questionnaire (KQ) (Med +50% v HBA +50%, p = NS) and the Nottingham health profile (NHP) (Med +40% v HBA +20%, p = NS). However, for the individual symptom scores of each questionnaire more were improved in the Med group (KQ-Med 6 improved v HBA 4, NHP-Med 3 v HBA 1). Left ventricular function was equally preserved by both treatments during follow up.
CONCLUSION—In these patients control of ventricular response rate with either HBA + VVIR pacemaker or atrioventricular modifying drugs + VVI pacemaker will lead to a significant improvement in exercise duration and quality of life. Rhythm regulation by HBA did not confer additional benefit, suggesting rate control alone is necessary for the successful symptomatic treatment of these patients in permanent AF.


Keywords: ablation; atrial fibrillation; pacemaker; atrioventricular modifying drugs PMID:11156667

  2. Post-operative quality of life in children with severe perthes disease: differences to matched controls and correlation with clinical function.

    PubMed

    Palmen, Nina K; Zilkens, Christoph; Rosenthal, Dietmar; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Hefter, Harald; Westhoff, Bettina

    2014-10-27

    The diagnosis of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) has a considerable influence on the daily life of the patients with restrictions in their leisure time activities. This might influence their mood. Until now this aspect of the disease has been neglected. Therefore the objective of the study was to evaluate the health related quality of life (HRQoL) of children with severe LCPD who had an extensive surgery with pelvic/femoral osteotomy. The KIDSCREEN-10 and the modified Modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) -questionnaire were administered to 17 children (16 boys and 1 girl) aged 5 to 11 years at the time of surgery. Analyses of mHHS were made preoperatively and at the time of the follow-up examination at least 2 years postoperatively. KIDSCREEN-analyses were made postoperatively. The follow-up results were compared to an age-matched normal control group. Correlations were computed between KIDSCREEN-10 and mHHS pre- and post-operatively. The postoperative calculated KIDSCREEN-10-T-value [70.2 (SD 12.7)] was higher than the mean T-value of the control-group [56.6 (SD 10.4)]. The mHHS improved from 54.4 (SD 19.9) to a score of 99.5 (SD 1.5) postoperatively. A strong correlation was found between the preoperative mHHS and the postoperative KIDSCREEN-10-T-value (Spearman's-rho 0.67, P=0.003). After containment improving surgery and a mean follow-up period of 4.2 years the HRQoL-status is even better compared with a healthy age-matched control group. As well an excellent clinical function could be achieved. PMID:25568729

  3. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  4. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Information Page Synonym(s): Hydrocephalus - Normal Pressure Table ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus? Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is an abnormal ...

  5. The Nature and Control of Postural Adaptations of Boys with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przysucha, Eryk P.; Taylor, M. Jane; Weber, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the nature of postural adaptations and control tendencies, between 7 (n = 9) and 11-year-old boys (n = 10) with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and age-matched, younger (n = 10) and older (n = 9) peers in a leaning task. Examination of anterior-posterior, medio-lateral, maximum and mean area of sway, and path length…

  6. lpxC and yafS are the Most Suitable Internal Controls to Normalize Real Time RT-qPCR Expression in the Phytopathogenic Bacteria Dickeya dadantii

    PubMed Central

    Oger-Desfeux, Christine; Pineau-Chapelle, Emilie; Van Gijsegem, Frederique; Nasser, William; Reverchon, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Background Quantitative RT-PCR is the method of choice for studying, with both sensitivity and accuracy, the expression of genes. A reliable normalization of the data, using several reference genes, is critical for an accurate quantification of gene expression. Here, we propose a set of reference genes, of the phytopathogenic bacteria Dickeya dadantii and Pectobacterium atrosepticum, which are stable in a wide range of growth conditions. Results We extracted, from a D. dadantii micro-array transcript profile dataset comprising thirty-two different growth conditions, an initial set of 49 expressed genes with very low variation in gene expression. Out of these, we retained 10 genes representing different functional categories, different levels of expression (low, medium, and high) and with no systematic variation in expression correlating with growth conditions. We measured the expression of these reference gene candidates using quantitative RT-PCR in 50 different experimental conditions, mimicking the environment encountered by the bacteria in their host and directly during the infection process in planta. The two most stable genes (ABF-0017965 (lpxC) and ABF-0020529 (yafS) were successfully used for normalization of RT-qPCR data. Finally, we demonstrated that the ortholog of lpxC and yafS in Pectobacterium atrosepticum also showed stable expression in diverse growth conditions. Conclusions We have identified at least two genes, lpxC (ABF-0017965) and yafS (ABF-0020509), whose expressions are stable in a wide range of growth conditions and during infection. Thus, these genes are considered suitable for use as reference genes for the normalization of real-time RT-qPCR data of the two main pectinolytic phytopathogenic bacteria D. dadantii and P. atrosepticum and, probably, of other Enterobacteriaceae. Moreover, we defined general criteria to select good reference genes in bacteria. PMID:21637857

  7. Normal Untreated Jurkat Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a) Temperature elevation; b) Serum starvation; and c) Centrifugal force. The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments.

  8. Large-scale RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of 4043 Cancers and 548 Normal Tissue Controls across 12 TCGA Cancer Types

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Li; Bian, Xiu Wu; Li, Di Kang; Xu, Chuan; Wang, Guang Ming; Xia, Qing You; Xiong, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has accrued RNA-Seq-based transcriptome data for more than 4000 cancer tissue samples across 12 cancer types, translating these data into biological insights remains a major challenge. We analyzed and compared the transcriptomes of 4043 cancer and 548 normal tissue samples from 21 TCGA cancer types, and created a comprehensive catalog of gene expression alterations for each cancer type. By clustering genes into co-regulated gene sets, we identified seven cross-cancer gene signatures altered across a diverse panel of primary human cancer samples. A 14-gene signature extracted from these seven cross-cancer gene signatures precisely differentiated between cancerous and normal samples, the predictive accuracy of leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) were 92.04%, 96.23%, 91.76%, 90.05%, 88.17%, 94.29%, and 99.10% for BLCA, BRCA, COAD, HNSC, LIHC, LUAD, and LUSC, respectively. A lung cancer-specific gene signature, containing SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 genes, accurately distinguished lung cancer from other cancer samples, the predictive accuracy of LOOCV for TCGA and GSE5364 data were 95.68% and 100%, respectively. These gene signatures provide rich insights into the transcriptional programs that trigger tumorigenesis and metastasis, and many genes in the signature gene panels may be of significant value to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. PMID:26292924

  9. A comparison of calls subjected to a malpractice claim versus ‘normal calls’ within the Swedish Healthcare Direct: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Ernesäter, Annica; Engström, Maria; Winblad, Ulrika; Holmström, Inger K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to compare communication patterns in calls subjected to a malpractice claim with matched controls. Setting In many countries, telephone advice nursing is patients’ first contact with healthcare. Telenurses’ assessment of callers’ symptoms and needs are based on verbal communication only, and problems with over-triage and under-triage have been reported. Participants A total sample of all reported medical errors (n=33) during the period 2003–2010 within Swedish Healthcare Direct was retrieved. Corresponding calls were thereafter identified and collected as sound files from the manager in charge at the respective call centres. For technical reasons, calls from four of the cases were not possible to retrieve. For the present study, matched control calls (n=26) based on the patient's age, gender and main symptom presented by the caller were collected. Results Male patients were in majority (n=16), and the most common reasons for calling were abdominal pain (n=10) and chest pain (n=5). There were statistically significant differences between the communication in the cases and controls: telenurses used fewer open-ended medical questions (p<0.001) in the cases compared to the control calls; callers provided telenurses with more medical information in the control calls compared to the cases (p=0.001); and telenurses used more facilitation and patient activation activities in the control calls (p=0.034), such as back-channel response (p=0.001), compared to the cases. Conclusions The present study shows that telenurses in malpractice claimed calls used more closed-ended questioning compared to those in control calls, who used more open-ended questioning and back-channel response, which provided them with richer medical descriptions and more information from the caller. Hence, these communicative techniques are important in addition to solid medical and nursing competence and sound decision aid systems. PMID:25280808

  10. The effect of rizatriptan, ergotamine, and their combination on human peripheral arteries: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Seidelin, Kaj; Stepanavage, Michael; Lines, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Aims To compare the peripheral vasoconstrictor effects of ergotamine, rizatriptan, and their combination, in normal subjects. Methods This was a double-blind, four-way, crossover study. Sixteen young male volunteers, selected as responders to the vasoconstrictor effect of 0.5 mg ergotamine i.v., were administered 10 mg oral rizatriptan, 0.25 mg i.v. ergotamine, 10 mg oral rizatriptan +0.25 mg i.v. ergotamine, and placebo. The vasoconstrictor effect on peripheral arteries was measured with strain gauge plethysmography up to 8 h after dosing. The 8 h assessment period was divided into two 4 h intervals to assess the immediate (0–4 h) vs sustained effect (4–8 h) of treatment. Results For the 0–4 h interval, the decreases in peripheral systolic blood pressure gradients were: placebo (−1 mmHg [95% CI: −3, 1])normal subjects, rizatriptan 10 mg orally had only a small transient vasoconstrictor effect on peripheral arteries compared with the sustained and more pronounced effect of 0.25 mg i.v. ergotamine. Furthermore, rizatriptan exerted no additional effect on ergotamine-induced constriction of peripheral arteries when the two drugs were given in combination. PMID:12100223

  11. Physical performance of nontransplanted childhood ALL survivors is comparable to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Taskinen, Mervi H; Kurimo, Marita; Kanerva, Jukka; Hovi, Liisa

    2013-05-01

    Physical fitness is an essential feature of overall health. Our objective was to compare the physical performance between nontransplanted acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients (study patients), healthy controls, and ALL patients after stem cell transplantation (SCT). Forty-five ALL patients (median age, 13.3 y) treated without cranial irradiation were compared with 34 ALL patients (12.0 y) treated with SCT and total body irradiation and 522 age-matched and sex-matched controls. Their physical performance was assessed by 6 muscle tests measuring speed and dynamic endurance, flexibility, acceleration, maximal speed, and speed differentiation. The patients were tested at a minimum of 3 years after treatment. The muscle test results of the study patients did not differ from that of the healthy controls. The study patients had normal body mass indexes (BMI). Only 42% of them exercised at least once a week. Those who exercised >3 times a week and those with a BMI below median had better results. SCT patients had inferior results in 4 out of 6 tests. The physical performance of nontransplanted ALL patients did not differ from that of healthy controls. A higher physical exercise activity and a BMI below median positively correlated with better muscle performance, supporting the importance of encouraging ALL survivors to exercise and avoid obesity.

  12. Co-Segregation of Social Cognition, Executive Function and Local Processing Style in Children with ASD, Their Siblings and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Droste, Katharina; van Steijn, Daphne J.; de Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive research proposes that social cognition (SC), executive functions (EF) and local processing style (weak CC) may be fruitful areas for research into the familial-genetic underpinnings of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The performance of 140 children with ASD, 172 siblings and 127 controls on tasks measuring SC (face recognition,…

  13. Are There More Bowel Symptoms in Children with Autism Compared to Normal Children and Children with Other Developmental and Neurological Disorders?: A Case Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, R. A.; Farnworth, H.; Wright, B.; Allgar, V.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable controversy as to whether there is an association between bowel disorders and autism. Using a bowel symptom questionnaire we compared 51 children with autism spectrum disorder with control groups of 35 children from special school and 112 from mainstream school. There was a significant difference in the reporting of certain…

  14. A method for the simulation of normal, carrier and affected controls for PCR-RFLP screening of a genetic disease in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyaya, P N; Mehta, H H; Rathod, R N

    2000-12-01

    A technique is described that may be used to create in vitro mutations in PCR templates to generate affected and carrier controls for diagnostic testing when DNA from such individuals is not easily obtained. The method is demonstrated for a PCR-RFLP diagnostic test of the genetic disorder BLAD (Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency). PMID:11090268

  15. Differential Effects of High-Carbohydrate and High-Fat Diet Composition on Metabolic Control and Insulin Resistance in Normal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Aparicio-Trapala, María A.; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; Torres-Lopez, Jorge E.; Mendez, Jose D.; Aguilar-Mariscal, Hidemi; Olvera-Hernández, Viridiana; Palma-Cordova, Leydi C.; Diaz-Zagoya, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    The macronutrient component of diets is critical for metabolic control and insulin action. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high fat diets (HFDs) vs. high carbohydrate diets (HCDs) on metabolic control and insulin resistance in Wistar rats. Thirty animals divided into five groups (n = 6) were fed: (1) Control diet (CD); (2) High-saturated fat diet (HSFD); (3) High-unsaturated fat diet (HUFD); (4) High-digestible starch diet, (HDSD); and (5) High-resistant starch diet (HRSD) during eight weeks. HFDs and HCDs reduced weight gain in comparison with CD, however no statistical significance was reached. Calorie intake was similar in both HFDs and CD, but rats receiving HCDs showed higher calorie consumption than other groups, (p < 0.01). HRSD showed the lowest levels of serum and hepatic lipids. The HUFD induced the lowest fasting glycemia levels and HOMA-IR values. The HDSD group exhibited the highest insulin resistance and hepatic cholesterol content. In conclusion, HUFD exhibited the most beneficial effects on glycemic control meanwhile HRSD induced the highest reduction on lipid content and did not modify insulin sensitivity. In both groups, HFDs and HCDs, the diet constituents were more important factors than caloric intake for metabolic disturbance and insulin resistance. PMID:22754464

  16. Comparison of qualitative and quantitative imaging characteristics of [11C]PiB and [18F]flutemetamol in normal control and Alzheimer's subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mountz, James M.; Laymon, Charles M.; Cohen, Ann D.; Zhang, Zheng; Price, Julie C.; Boudhar, Sanaa; McDade, Eric; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Klunk, William E.; Mathis, Chester A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neuritic amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the hallmark pathologic lesions of Alzheimer's disease, are thought to develop before the symptoms of brain failure are clinically detectable. Imaging methods capable of detecting the presence of neuritic amyloid plaques should improve a clinician's ability to identify Alzheimer's disease during the earliest symptomatic phase and to identify at-risk individuals presymptomatically. Currently the best studied amyloid imaging ligand is [11C]Pittsburgh Compound B ([11C]PiB). However, the 20-minute half-life of this radiotracer limits its use. This study is designed to evaluate the performance characteristics of [18F]flutemetamol and to independently compare results to [11C]PiB in the same subjects. Methods Twenty-three subjects, 15 cognitively normal (NL) and 8 with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's Dementia (AD), underwent [11C]PiB and [18F]flutemetamol PET scans within 28 days of study enrollment. We studied both normal and AD subjects to assess the uptake characteristics across a range of amyloid positivity. Blinded visual reads were conducted by five raters. Correlation analyses were performed between cortical SUVR for the two tracers and also between rater scores and SUVR for each tracer. Overall reader accuracy for classifying scans as amyloid positive or negative was determined for each tracer using SUVR classification as the standard. Results The linear correlation coefficient between global cortical SUVR for the two tracers was R2 = 0.85, indicating that both tracers have similar retention characteristics. The two tracers were well correlated for rater-determined AD-like positivity (Cohen κ = 0.82). Averaged visual ratings and global cortical SUVR disagreed on their classification in 2/23 [11C]PiB scans and 4/23 [18F]flutemetamol scans. Conclusions [11C]PiB and [18F]flutemetamol have similar retention characteristics across a range of amyloid negative to positive subjects. Both tracers

  17. Acute effects of violent video-game playing on blood pressure and appetite perception in normal-weight young men: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Siervo, M; Sabatini, S; Fewtrell, M S; Wells, J C K

    2013-12-01

    Watching television and playing video game being seated represent sedentary behaviours and increase the risk of weight gain and hypertension. We investigated the acute effects of violent and non-violent video-game playing on blood pressure (BP), appetite perception and food preferences. Forty-eight young, normal-weight men (age: 23.1±1.9 years; body mass index: 22.5±1.9 kg/m(2)) participated in a three-arm, randomized trial. Subjects played a violent video game, a competitive, non-violent video game or watched TV for 1 h. Measurements of BP, stress and appetite perception were recorded before a standardized meal (∼300 kcal) and then repeated every 15 min throughout the intervention. Violent video-game playing was associated with a significant increase in diastolic BP (Δ±s.d.=+7.5±5.8 mm Hg; P=0.04) compared with the other two groups. Subjects playing violent video games felt less full (P=0.02) and reported a tendency towards sweet food consumption. Video games involving violence appear to be associated with significant effects on BP and appetite perceptions compared with non-violent gaming or watching TV.

  18. Acute effects of violent video-game playing on blood pressure and appetite perception in normal-weight young men: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Siervo, M; Sabatini, S; Fewtrell, M S; Wells, J C K

    2013-12-01

    Watching television and playing video game being seated represent sedentary behaviours and increase the risk of weight gain and hypertension. We investigated the acute effects of violent and non-violent video-game playing on blood pressure (BP), appetite perception and food preferences. Forty-eight young, normal-weight men (age: 23.1±1.9 years; body mass index: 22.5±1.9 kg/m(2)) participated in a three-arm, randomized trial. Subjects played a violent video game, a competitive, non-violent video game or watched TV for 1 h. Measurements of BP, stress and appetite perception were recorded before a standardized meal (∼300 kcal) and then repeated every 15 min throughout the intervention. Violent video-game playing was associated with a significant increase in diastolic BP (Δ±s.d.=+7.5±5.8 mm Hg; P=0.04) compared with the other two groups. Subjects playing violent video games felt less full (P=0.02) and reported a tendency towards sweet food consumption. Video games involving violence appear to be associated with significant effects on BP and appetite perceptions compared with non-violent gaming or watching TV. PMID:24084510

  19. Are there more bowel symptoms in children with autism compared to normal children and children with other developmental and neurological disorders?: A case control study.

    PubMed

    Smith, R A; Farnworth, H; Wright, B; Allgar, V

    2009-07-01

    There is considerable controversy as to whether there is an association between bowel disorders and autism. Using a bowel symptom questionnaire we compared 51 children with autism spectrum disorder with control groups of 35 children from special school and 112 from mainstream school. There was a significant difference in the reporting of certain bowel symptoms (constipation, diarrhoea, flatulence) and food faddiness between the autism group and the mainstream school control group. There was no significant difference between the autism group and children in the special schools except for faddiness, which is an autism specific symptom and not a bowel symptom. This study confirms previously reported findings of an increase in bowel symptoms in children with autism. It would appear, however, that this is not specifically associated with autism as bowel symptoms were reported in similar frequency to a comparison group of children with other developmental and neurological disorders.

  20. Age-Related Increases in Motivation among Children with Mental Retardation and MA- and CA-Matched Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Greenberg, Mark; Crnic, Keith

    2001-01-01

    Child positive affect and task orientation in response to cognitively demanding puzzle tasks were assessed at two time points separated by 12 months in children with mild mental retardation and mental age and chronological age matched controls (ages 1-5 years). Results suggested correlates of motivation were similar for children with mild mental…

  1. Fault localization controlled by fluid infiltration into mylonites: Formation and strength of low-angle normal faults in the midcrustal brittle-plastic transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selverstone, Jane; Axen, Gary J.; Luther, Amy

    2012-06-01

    Minidetachments (MDs) found in the uppermost footwall of the Whipple low-angle normal fault record physical and chemical conditions of LANF formation and early history. MDs are subparallel to the Whipple LANF and mimic features of that fault on a small scale. Principal slip surfaces and R1 Riedel shear fractures parallel C and C' planes, respectively, in adjacent mylonites. Thus, MDs likely formed subparallel to planes of maximum shear stress and were not severely misoriented during initial rupture of intact rock. Damage zones contain secondary epidote, titanite, chlorite, calcite, and felspars. Breccias record volume gains via enrichment in all elements relative to immobile Fe-Ti-Zr-P, and ultracataclasites record volume losses. Epidote and titanite are locally porphyroclastic in mylonites; cataclasites contain both old shattered fragments and new euhedral grains of these minerals. Pseudosections constrain alteration, the end of mylonitization, and cataclasis to T = 380-420°C. Fluid inclusions with 17-20 wt% CaCl2 were entrapped at 270-290, 170-200, and 80-130 MPa, consistent with a drop from lithostatic toward hydrostatic Pfluid at ˜9.5 km depth. MDs thus record (1) infiltration of reactive fluids into a mid-crustal shear zone; (2) reaction strengthening at the locus of maximum infiltration and sealing; (3) brittle fault slip triggered by fluid overpressure; and (4) permanent embrittlement following reduction of Pfluid. The brittle-plastic transition and crustal strength maximum were strongly modified by fluid- and reaction-driven mineralogical changes. At any given point in space or time, this "transition" may thus be very thin, corresponding to the thickness of the altered zones surrounding nascent LANFs.

  2. Increased Interstitial Concentrations of Glutamate and Pyruvate in Vastus Lateralis of Women with Fibromyalgia Syndrome Are Normalized after an Exercise Intervention – A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gerdle, Björn; Ernberg, Malin; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa; Larsson, Britt; Kosek, Eva; Christidis, Nikolaos; Ghafouri, Bijar

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is associated with central alterations, but controversies exist regarding the presence and role of peripheral factors. Microdialysis (MD) can be used in vivo to study muscle alterations in FMS. Furthermore for chronic pain conditions such as FMS, the mechanisms for the positive effects of exercise are unclear. This study investigates the interstitial concentrations of algesics and metabolites in the vastus lateralis muscle of 29 women with FMS and 28 healthy women before and after an exercise intervention. Methods All the participants went through a clinical examination and completed a questionnaire. In addition, their pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in their upper and lower extremities were determined. For both groups, MD was conducted in the vastus lateralis muscle before and after a 15-week exercise intervention of mainly resistance training of the lower limbs. Muscle blood flow and interstitial muscle concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, glucose, and glycerol were determined. Results FMS was associated with significantly increased interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate. After the exercise intervention, the FMS group exhibited significant decreases in pain intensity and in mean interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and glucose. The decrease in pain intensity in FMS correlated significantly with the decreases in pyruvate and glucose. In addition, the FMS group increased their strength and endurance. Conclusion This study supports the suggestion that peripheral metabolic and algesic muscle alterations are present in FMS patients and that these alterations contribute to pain. After an exercise intervention, alterations normalized, pain intensity decreased (but not abolished), and strength and endurance improved, all findings that suggest the effects of exercise are partially peripheral. PMID:27695113

  3. Differential Expression of Complement Markers in Normal and AMD Transmitochondrial Cybrids

    PubMed Central

    Nashine, Sonali; Chwa, Marilyn; Kazemian, Mina; Thaker, Kunal; Lu, Stephanie; Nesburn, Anthony; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Kenney, M. Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Variations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and abnormalities in the complement pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study was designed to determine the effects of mtDNA from AMD subjects on the complement pathway. Methods Transmitochondrial cybrids were prepared by fusing platelets from AMD and age-matched Normal subjects with Rho0 (lacking mtDNA) human ARPE-19 cells. Quantitative PCR and Western blotting were performed to examine gene and protein expression profiles, respectively, of complement markers in these cybrids. Bioenergetic profiles of Normal and AMD cybrids were examined using the Seahorse XF24 flux analyzer. Results Significant decreases in the gene and protein expression of complement inhibitors, along with significantly higher levels of complement activators, were found in AMD cybrids compared to Older-Normal cybrids. Seahorse flux data demonstrated that the bioenergetic profiles for Older-Normal and Older-AMD cybrid samples were similar to each other but were lower compared to Young-Normal cybrid samples. Conclusion In summary, since all cybrids had identical nuclei and differed only in mtDNA content, the observed changes in components of complement pathways can be attributed to mtDNA variations in the AMD subjects, suggesting that mitochondrial genome and retrograde signaling play critical roles in this disease. Furthermore, the similar bioenergetic profiles of AMD and Older-Normal cybrids indicate that the signaling between mitochondria and nuclei are probably not via a respiratory pathway. PMID:27486856

  4. Identify the Atrophy of Alzheimer’s Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Normal Aging Using Morphometric MRI Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiangyu; Li, Zhaoxia; Jing, Bin; Liu, Han; Li, Dan; Li, Haiyun

    2016-01-01

    Quantitatively assessing the medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures atrophy is vital for early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and accurately tracking of the disease progression. Morphometry characteristics such as gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness have been proved to be valuable measurements of brain atrophy. In this study, we proposed a morphometric MRI analysis based method to explore the cross-sectional differences and longitudinal changes of GMV and cortical thickness in patients with AD, MCI (mild cognitive impairment) and the normal elderly. High resolution 3D MRI data was obtained from ADNI database. SPM8 plus DARTEL was carried out for data preprocessing. Two kinds of z-score map were calculated to, respectively, reflect the GMV and cortical thickness decline compared with age-matched normal control database. A volume of interest (VOI) covering MTL structures was defined by group comparison. Within this VOI, GMV, and cortical thickness decline indicators were, respectively, defined as the mean of the negative z-scores and the sum of the normalized negative z-scores of the corresponding z-score map. Kruskal–Wallis test was applied to statistically identify group wise differences of the indicators. Support vector machines (SVM) based prediction was performed with a leave-one-out cross-validation design to evaluate the predictive accuracies of the indicators. Linear least squares estimation was utilized to assess the changing rate of the indicators for the three groups. Cross-sectional comparison of the baseline decline indicators revealed that the GMV and cortical thickness decline were more serious from NC, MCI to AD, with statistic significance. Using a multi-region based SVM model with the two indicators, the discrimination accuracy between AD and NC, MCI and NC, AD and MCI was 92.7, 91.7, and 78.4%, respectively. For three-way prediction, the accuracy was 74.6%. Furthermore, the proposed two indicators could also identify the

  5. Growth hormone secretory characteristics of sex-linked dwarf and normal-sized chickens reared on a control or on a 3,3',5-triiodothyronine-supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Buyse, J; Tixier-Biochard, M; Berghman, L R; Huybrechts, L M; Decuypere, E

    1994-03-01

    This study examined the pulsatile presence of growth hormone (GH) in the plasma--which reflects its pulsatile release--of 8-week-old male sex-linked dwarf (dwdw) or normal-sized (Dwdw) chickens from a brown-egg layer strain reared on a control or on a 0.5 ppm triiodothyronine(T3)-supplemented diet. The overall GH mean, amplitude, and baseline levels of control dw chickens were significantly higher than those of control Dw chickens. No differences in peak length or peak frequency between genotypes were observed. Dietary T3 supplementation abolished the pulsatile GH release in both genotypes. T3 treatment depressed the mean GH levels of Dw but not of dw chickens.

  6. Normalization method for video images

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoe, G.W.; Hush, D.R.

    1992-12-31

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for automatically and adaptively normalizing analog signals representative of video images in object detection systems. Such normalization maximizes the average information content of the video images and, thereby, provides optimal digitized images for object detection and identification. The present invention manipulates two system control signals -- gain control signal and offset control signal -- to convert an analog image signal into a transformed analog image signal, such that the corresponding digitized image contains the maximum amount of information achievable with a conventional object detection system. In some embodiments of the present invention, information content is measured using parameters selected from image entropy, image mean, and image variance.

  7. Black tea is not significantly different from water in the maintenance of normal hydration in human subjects: results from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ruxton, Carrie H; Hart, Valerie A

    2011-08-01

    There is a belief that caffeinated drinks, such as tea, may adversely affect hydration. This was investigated in a randomised controlled trial. Healthy resting males (n 21) were recruited from the general population. Following 24 h of abstention from caffeine, alcohol and vigorous physical activity, including a 10 h overnight fast, all men underwent four separate test days in a counter-balanced order with a 5 d washout in between. The test beverages, provided at regular intervals, were 4 × 240 ml black (i.e. regular) tea and 6 × 240 ml black tea, providing 168 or 252 mg of caffeine. The controls were identical amounts of boiled water. The tea was prepared in a standardised way from tea bags and included 20 ml of semi-skimmed milk. All food taken during the 12 h intervention period was controlled, and subjects remained at rest. No other beverages were offered. Blood was sampled at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 h, and a 24 h urine sample was collected. Outcome variables were whole blood cell count, Na, K, bicarbonate, total protein, urea, creatinine and osmolality for blood; and total volume, colour, Na, K, creatinine and osmolality for urine. Although data for all twenty-one participants were included in the analysis (mean age 36 years and mean BMI 25·8 kg/m(2)), nineteen men completed all conditions. Statistical analysis, using a factorial ANOVA approach within PROC MIXED, revealed no significant differences between tea and water for any of the mean blood or urine measurements. It was concluded that black tea, in the amounts studied, offered similar hydrating properties to water. PMID:21450118

  8. Differences of biased recall memory for emotional information among children and adolescents of mothers with MDD, children and adolescents with MDD, and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Fattahi Asl, Abouzar; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mollazade, Javad; Aflakseir, Abdolaziz

    2015-08-15

    This study examines explicit memory bias for emotional information in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants were a convenient sample of 28 children and adolescents of mothers with MDD, 28 children and adolescents with MDD, and 29 healthy controls. Their age range was 11-17 years old. The groups were matched for gender ratio, mean age, and the years of educational level. They were assessed by the Recall Task. Emotional stimuli consisted of three sets of words namely sad, happy, and neutral words. Children and adolescents of mothers with MDD similar to children and adolescents with MDD recalled more sadness stimuli in comparison with the controls. In other words, they showed an explicit memory bias towards sad stimuli. Also, healthy children significantly recalled more happy words than the other two groups. There was no significant difference among the three groups for the recall of neutral stimuli. Current findings support that there is a recall memory bias for emotional information in children with MDD. These children more than healthy children recall sad words. Moreover, healthy children recall happy words more than children with MDD. PMID:25998002

  9. Differences of biased recall memory for emotional information among children and adolescents of mothers with MDD, children and adolescents with MDD, and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Fattahi Asl, Abouzar; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mollazade, Javad; Aflakseir, Abdolaziz

    2015-08-15

    This study examines explicit memory bias for emotional information in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants were a convenient sample of 28 children and adolescents of mothers with MDD, 28 children and adolescents with MDD, and 29 healthy controls. Their age range was 11-17 years old. The groups were matched for gender ratio, mean age, and the years of educational level. They were assessed by the Recall Task. Emotional stimuli consisted of three sets of words namely sad, happy, and neutral words. Children and adolescents of mothers with MDD similar to children and adolescents with MDD recalled more sadness stimuli in comparison with the controls. In other words, they showed an explicit memory bias towards sad stimuli. Also, healthy children significantly recalled more happy words than the other two groups. There was no significant difference among the three groups for the recall of neutral stimuli. Current findings support that there is a recall memory bias for emotional information in children with MDD. These children more than healthy children recall sad words. Moreover, healthy children recall happy words more than children with MDD.

  10. Effects of a 30-mL Epidural Normal Saline Bolus on Time to Full Motor Recovery in Parturients Who Received Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia With 0.125% Bupivacaine With 2 µg/mL of Fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Couture, Darren; Osborne, Lisa; Peterson, Jeffery A; Clements, Sharon M; Sanders, Andrew; Spring, Julie A; Spence, Dennis L

    2016-06-01

    Previous research suggests that an epidural bolus of 30 mL of normal saline after vaginal delivery may decrease the time for recovery from motor block. A double-blind, randomized controlled study was conducted in 46 parturients to determine if a 30-mL normal saline bolus or sham administered via epidural approach after delivery reduces the time to full motor recovery and the time to 2-dermatome regression. No significant difference was found in time to full motor recovery (saline group 83.18 ± 54 minutes vs control group 100.23 ± 48 minutes, P = .27) or time to 2-dermatome sensory regression (saline group 29.32 ± 16.35 minutes vs control group 36.14 ± 14.39 minutes, P = .15). Results suggest no advantage to the administration of a saline bolus after delivery to hasten the motor recovery in parturients. A post hoc power analysis suggested a sample size of 204 subjects would have been needed to show a difference for this dilute local anesthetic regimen. There were no complications to the technique, which suggests that it is safe to perform, but the difference in recovery (approximately 17 minutes) from a dilute local anesthetic dose may not be clinically significant. PMID:27501650

  11. Conductivity Modulation in a gated Normal-CDW-Normal configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Saumya; Lake, Roger

    There is considerable interest in switching by exploiting a voltage controlled phase transition, and one such phase is the charge density wave phase that occurs in a number of quasi one dimensional and two dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Voltage controlled switching of the charge density wave transition in 1T-TaS2 has recently been demonstrated. We consider a transistor geometry with normal metal contacts and a channel of CDW material. The interaction is modeled with a negative U Hubbard term. Normal-CDW-temperature-U phase diagrams show the regime of the CDW in the ideal lattice. The wavelength of the CDW in the transistor channel is determined by both the conditions of Fermi surface nesting and also the condition of commensurability with the channel length between the two normal leads. Moving the Fermi level of the channel first results in phase boundaries within the CDW as the conditions of commensurability and Fermi surface nesting become incompatible. Moving the Fermi level from half filling by few tens of meV causes a collapsing of the CDW gap and an effective CDW-normal transition, leaving vestiges of the CDW in the channel. The transition is accompanied by one to two orders of magnitude increase in the conductivity. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No. 1124733 and the Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) Nanoelectronic Research Initiative as a part of the Nanoelectronics for 2020 and Beyond (NEB-2020) program.

  12. ID4 controls luminal lineage commitment in normal mammary epithelium and inhibits BRCA1 function in basal-like breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura A; Holliday, Holly; Swarbrick, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Inhibitor of differentiation (ID) proteins are key regulators of development and tumorigenesis. One member of this family, ID4, controls lineage commitment during mammary gland development by acting upstream of key developmental pathways. Recent evidence suggests an emerging role for ID4 as a lineage-dependent proto-oncogene that is overexpressed and amplified in a subset of basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs), conferring poor prognosis. Several lines of evidence suggest ID4 may suppress BRCA1 function in BLBC and in doing so, define a subset of BLBC patients who may respond to therapies traditionally used in BRCA1-mutant cancers. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the requirement for ID4 in mammary lineage commitment and the role for ID4 in BLBC. We address current shortfalls in this field and identify important areas of future research. PMID:27412917

  13. Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies and early miscarriages in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Toulis, Konstantinos A; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Tsolakidou, Konstantina; Hilidis, Ilias; Fragkos, Marios; Polyzos, Stergios A; Gerofotis, Antonios; Kita, Marina; Bili, Helen; Vavilis, Dimitrios; Daniilidis, Michail; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Papadimas, Ioannis

    2013-08-01

    We have previously hypothesized that early miscarriage in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis might be the result of a cross-reactivity process, in which blocking autoantibodies against thyrotropin receptor (TSHr-Ab) antagonize hCG action on its receptor on the corpus luteum. To test this hypothesis from the clinical perspective, we investigated the presence of TSHr-Ab in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with apparently unexplained, first-trimester recurrent miscarriages compared to that in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with documented normal fertility. A total of 86 subjects (43 cases and 43 age-matched controls) were finally included in a case-control study. No difference in the prevalence of TSHr-Ab positivity was detected between cases and controls (Fisher's exact test, p value = 1.00). In patients with recurrent miscarriages, TSHr-Ab concentrations did not predict the number of miscarriages (univariate linear regression, p value = 0.08). These results were robust in sensitivity analyses, including only cases with full investigation or those with three or more miscarriages. We conclude that no role could be advocated for TSHr-Ab in the aetiology of recurrent miscarriages in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  14. Theory of Mind in Williams Syndrome Assessed Using a Nonverbal Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Melanie A.; Coltheart, Max; Langdon, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined Theory of Mind in Williams syndrome (WS) and in normal chronological age-matched and mental age-matched control groups, using a picture sequencing task. This task assesses understanding of pretence, intention and false belief, while controlling for social-script knowledge and physical cause-and-effect reasoning. The task was…

  15. Control of heart rate variability by cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity during voluntary static exercise in humans with tetraplegia.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Matsukawa, Kanji; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Sakaguchi, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Kotaro; Onari, Kiyoshi

    2007-11-01

    Heart rate (HR) is controlled solely by via cardiac parasympathetic outflow in tetraplegic individuals, who lack supraspinal control of sympathetic outflows and circulating catecholamines but have intact vagal pathways. A high-frequency component (HF; at 0.15-0.40 Hz) of the power spectrum of HR variability and its relative value against total power (HF/Total) were assessed using a wavelet transform to identify cardiac parasympathetic outflow. The relative contribution of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic outflows to controlling HR was estimated by comparing the HF/Total-HR relationship between age-matched tetraplegic and normal men. Six tetraplegic men with complete cervical spinal cord injury performed static arm exercise at 35% of the maximal voluntary contraction until exhaustion. Although resting cardiac output and arterial blood pressure were lower in tetraplegic than normal subjects, HR, HF, and HF/Total were not statistically different between the two groups. When tetraplegic subjects developed the same force during exercise as normal subjects, HF and HF/Total decreased to 67-90% of the preexercise control and gradually recovered 1.5 min after exercise. The amount and time course of the changes in HF/Total during and after exercise coincided well between both groups. In contrast, the increase in HR at the start of exercise was blunted in tetraplegic compared with normal subjects, and the HR recovery following exercise was also delayed. It is likely that, although the withdrawal response of cardiac parasympathetic outflow is preserved in tetraplegic subjects, sympathetic decentralization impairs the rapid acceleration of HR at the onset of exercise and the rapid deceleration following exercise. PMID:17761788

  16. Clinical Relevance of Specific Cognitive Complaints in Determining Mild Cognitive Impairment from Cognitively Normal States in a Study of Healthy Elderly Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ávila-Villanueva, Marina; Rebollo-Vázquez, Ana; Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M.; Valentí, Meritxell; Medina, Miguel; Fernández-Blázquez, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ). Materials and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI). The EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints. All participants also underwent a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological battery. Combined exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Item Response Theory (IRT) were performed to identify the underlying structure of the EMQ. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses were conducted to study whether single cognitive complaints were able to predict MCI. Results: A suitable five-factor solution was found. Each factor focused on a different cognitive domain. Interestingly, just three of them, namely Forgetfulness of Immediate Information (FII), Executive Functions (EF) and Prospective Memory (PM) proved to be effective in distinguishing between cognitively healthy individuals and MCI. Based on these results we propose a shortened EMQ version comprising 10 items (EMQ-10). Discussion: Not all cognitive complaints have the same clinical relevance. Only subjective complaints on specific cognitive domains are able to discriminate MCI. We encourage clinicians to use the EMQ-10 as a useful tool to quantify and monitor the progression of individuals who report cognitive complaints. PMID:27757082

  17. Anti-mullerian hormone concentration during the third trimester of pregnancy and puerperium: a longitudinal case-control study in normal and diabetic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gerli, Sandro; Favilli, Alessandro; Brozzetti, Annalisa; Torlone, Elisabetta; Pugliese, Brunella; Pericoli, Silvia; Bini, Vittorio; Falorni, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    To assess if anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations decrease during the third trimester of pregnancy and puerperium and whether this is correlated to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). AMH serum concentrations were determined by ELISA, with lowest detection limit of 0.08 ng/ml, during the third trimester of pregnancy and puerperium in 34 patients with GDM and in 32 healthy control pregnant women. Three blood samples were collected at 28-32, 34-36 weeks' gestation and 40 days after delivery, respectively. No differences in AMH concentration between GDM and healthy pregnant women were found at any follow-up time. On the contrary, significant differences in delta AMH values between the first and the second sample (p < 0.0001), the second and the third sample (p < 0.0001), and the first and the third sample (p = 0.004) were found in both groups. The multivariate analysis showed that maternal age was not correlated to delta AMH variations. The analysis of AMH concentrations did not show a significant relationship with body mass index-variation, newborn and placental weight, and GDM, while only maternal age was significantly correlated with AMH concentrations in all blood samples. A significant decrease in AMH values was observed during the third trimester of pregnancy and this was independent on maternal age. GDM does not seem to influence the AMH concentrations during pregnancy and after delivery.

  18. Pancreatitis, very early compared with normal start of enteral feeding (PYTHON trial): design and rationale of a randomised controlled multicenter trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In predicted severe acute pancreatitis, infections have a negative effect on clinical outcome. A start of enteral nutrition (EN) within 24 hours of onset may reduce the number of infections as compared to the current practice of starting an oral diet and EN if necessary at 3-4 days after admission. Methods/Design The PYTHON trial is a randomised controlled, parallel-group, superiority multicenter trial. Patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis (Imrie-score ≥ 3 or APACHE-II score ≥ 8 or CRP > 150 mg/L) will be randomised to EN within 24 hours or an oral diet and EN if necessary, after 72 hours after hospital admission. During a 3-year period, 208 patients will be enrolled from 20 hospitals of the Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group. The primary endpoint is a composite of mortality or infections (bacteraemia, infected pancreatic or peripancreatic necrosis, pneumonia) during hospital stay or within 6 months following randomisation. Secondary endpoints include other major morbidity (e.g. new onset organ failure, need for intervention), intolerance of enteral feeding and total costs from a societal perspective. Discussion The PYTHON trial is designed to show that a very early (< 24 h) start of EN reduces the combined endpoint of mortality or infections as compared to the current practice of an oral diet and EN if necessary at around 72 hours after admission for predicted severe acute pancreatitis. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN18170985 PMID:21392395

  19. The Normalized Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Kathleen H.

    1997-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the normalized child, the ultimate goal of Montessori education. First outlines children's basic needs, then describes traits of the normalized child, including love of order, work, silence and working alone; mutual aid and cooperation; profound spontaneous concentration; obedience; independence and initiative;…

  20. Quality control for normal liquid-based cytology: Rescreening, high-risk HPV targeted reviewing and/or high-risk HPV detection?

    PubMed Central

    Depuydt, Christophe E; Arbyn, Marc; Benoy, Ina H; Vandepitte, Johan; Vereecken, Annie J; Bogers, Johannes J

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to compare the number of CIN2+cases detected in negative cytology by different quality control (QC) methods. Full rescreening, high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV)-targeted reviewing and HR HPV detection were compared. Randomly selected negative cytology detected by BD FocalPoint™ (NFR), by guided screening of the prescreened which needed further review (GS) and by manual screening (MS) was used. A 3-year follow-up period was available. Full rescreening of cytology only detected 23.5% of CIN2+ cases, whereas the cytological rescreening of oncogenic positive slides (high-risk HPV-targeted reviewing) detected 7 of 17 CIN2+ cases (41.2%). Quantitative real-time PCR for 15 oncogenic HPV types detected all CIN2+ cases. Relative sensitivity to detect histological CIN2+ was 0.24 for full rescreening, 0.41 for HR-targeted reviewing and 1.00 for HR HPV detection. In more than half of the reviewed negative cytological preparations associated with histological CIN2+cases no morphologically abnormal cells were detected despite a positive HPV test. The visual cut-off for the detection of abnormal cytology was established at 6.5 HR HPV copies/cell. High-risk HPV detection has a higher yield for detection of CIN2+ cases as compared to manual screening followed by 5% full review, or compared to targeted reviewing of smears positive for oncogenic HPV types, and show diagnostic properties that support its use as a QC procedure in cytologic laboratories. PMID:18544049

  1. Effects of Unilateral Cochlear Implantation on Balance Control and Sensory Organization in Adult Patients with Profound Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Parietti-Winkler, Cécile; Lion, Alexis; Montaut-Verient, Bettina; Grosjean, Rémy; Gauchard, Gérome C.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies were interested in the consequence of vestibular dysfunction related to cochlear implantation on balance control. This pilot study aimed to assess the effects of unilateral cochlear implantation on the modalities of balance control and sensorimotor strategies. Posturographic and vestibular evaluations were performed in 10 patients (55 ± 20 years) with profound hearing loss who were candidates to undergo unilateral multichannel cochlear implantation. The evaluation was carried out shortly before and one year after surgery. Posturographic tests were also performed in 10 age-matched healthy participants (63 ± 16 years). Vestibular compensation was observed within one year. In addition, postural performances of the patients increased within one year after cochlear implantation, especially in the more complex situations, in which sensory information is either unavailable or conflicting. Before surgery, postural performances were higher in the control group compared to the patients' group. One year after cochlear implantation, postural control was close to normalize. The improvement of postural performance could be explained by a mechanism of vestibular compensation. In addition, the recovery of auditory information which is the consequence of cochlear implantation could lead to an extended exploration of the environment possibly favoring the development of new balance strategies. PMID:26583121

  2. Postural control deficits in people with fibromyalgia: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Postural instability and falls are increasingly recognized problems in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). The purpose of this study was to determine whether FM patients, compared to age-matched healthy controls (HCs), have differences in dynamic posturography, including sensory, motor, and limits of stability. We further sought to determine whether postural instability is associated with strength, proprioception and lower-extremity myofascial trigger points (MTPs); FM symptoms and physical function; dyscognition; balance confidence; and medication use. Last, we evaluated self-reported of falls over the past six months. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we compared middle-aged FM patients and age-matched HCs who underwent computerized dynamic posturography testing and completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised (FIQR) and balance and fall questionnaires. All subjects underwent a neurological and musculoskeletal examination. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and explore the relationships between variables. The relationships between subjective, clinical and objective variables were evaluated by correlation and regression analyses. Results Twenty-five FM patients and twenty-seven HCs (combined mean age ± standard deviation (SD): 48.6 ± 9.7 years) completed testing. FM patients scored statistically lower on composite sensory organization tests (primary outcome; P < 0.010), as well as with regard to vestibular, visual and somatosensory ratio scores on dynamic posturography. Balance confidence was significantly different between groups, with FM patients reporting less confidence than HCs (mean ± SD: 81.24 ± 19.52 vs. 98.52 ± 2.45; P < 0.001). Interestingly, 76% to 84% of FM patients had gastrocnemius and/or anterior tibialis MTPs. Postural stability was best predicted by dyscognition, FIQR score and body mass index. Regarding falls, 3 (11%) of 27 HCs had fallen only once during the past 6 months, whereas 18 (72

  3. A Study of the Relationship between Code Switching and the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence That Language Use Modulates Neural Indices of Language Processing and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Angelique Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals sometimes outperform age-matched monolinguals on non-language tasks involving cognitive control. But the bilingual advantage is not consistently found in every experiment and may reflect specific attributes of the bilinguals tested. The goal of this dissertation was to determine if the way in which bilinguals use language, specifically…

  4. Normality in analytical psychology.

    PubMed

    Myers, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Although C.G. Jung's interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault's criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung's work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault's own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung's disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  5. Normal Functioning Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  6. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  7. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  8. Normal Variants in Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Daniel R; Bryg, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Echocardiography is a powerful and convenient tool used routinely in the cardiac evaluation of many patients. Improved resolution and visualization of cardiac anatomy has led to the discovery of many normal variant structures that have no known pathologic consequence. Importantly, these findings may masquerade as pathology prompting unnecessary further evaluation at the expense of anxiety, cost, or potential harm. This review provides an updated and comprehensive collection of normal anatomic variants on both transthoracic and transesophageal imaging. PMID:27612473

  9. Inflammageing assessed by MMP9 in normal Japanese individuals and the patients with Werner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Makoto; Chiba, Junji; Matsuura, Masaaki; Iwaki-Egawa, Sachiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Age-associated minor inflammation: inflammageing may explain human ageing mechanism(s). Our previous study reported a significant increase in the serum level of highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with normal ageing and the patients with Werner syndrome (WS). To further study the minor inflammatory condition associated with ageing, another possible ageing biomarker: matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) was examined in the sera from 217 normal Japanese individuals aged between 1 and 100 years and 41 mutation-proven Japanese WS aged between 32 and 70 years. MMP9 was assayed by ELISA. The serum level of MMP9 was elevated significantly (p < 0.001) with normal ageing from both sexes as hsCRP. In contrast to normal ageing, the serum MMP9 level in WS decreased significantly with calendar age (p < 0.05). The MMP9 level (ng/mL) in WS (147.2 ± 28.5) was not significantly different in comparison with those from age-matched normal adult population aged between 25 and 70 years (109.1 ± 9.4), nor normal elderly population aged between 71 and 100 years (179.9 ± 16.1). Although both normal ageing and WS were associated with minor inflammation, the inflammatory parameters such as serum MMP9 and hsCRP changed differently between normal ageing and WS. The WS-specific chronic inflammation including skin ulcer and diabetes mellitus may contribute the different behavior of both ageing biomarkers from normal ageing. PMID:27195193

  10. Controlled cross-over study in normal subjects of naloxone-preceding-lactate infusions; respiratory and subjective responses: relationship to endogenous opioid system, suffocation false alarm theory and childhood parental loss

    PubMed Central

    Preter, M.; Lee, S. H.; Petkova, E.; Vannucci, M.; Kim, S.; Klein, D. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The expanded suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) hypothesizes that dysfunction in endogenous opioidergic regulation increases sensitivity to CO2, separation distress and panic attacks. In panic disorder (PD) patients, both spontaneous clinical panics and lactate-induced panics markedly increase tidal volume (TV), whereas normals have a lesser effect, possibly due to their intact endogenous opioid system. We hypothesized that impairing the opioidergic system by naloxone could make normal controls parallel PD patients' response when lactate challenged. Whether actual separations and losses during childhood (childhood parental loss, CPL) affected naloxone-induced respiratory contrasts was explored. Subjective panic-like symptoms were analyzed although pilot work indicated that the subjective aspect of anxious panic was not well modeled by this specific protocol. Method Randomized cross-over sequences of intravenous naloxone (2 mg/kg) followed by lactate (10 mg/kg), or saline followed by lactate, were given to 25 volunteers. Respiratory physiology was objectively recorded by the LifeShirt. Subjective symptomatology was also recorded. Results Impairment of the endogenous opioid system by naloxone accentuates TV and symptomatic response to lactate. This interaction is substantially lessened by CPL. Conclusions Opioidergic dysregulation may underlie respiratory pathophysiology and suffocation sensitivity in PD. Comparing specific anti-panic medications with ineffective anti-panic agents (e.g. propranolol) can test the specificity of the naloxone + lactate model. A screen for putative anti-panic agents and a new pharmacotherapeutic approach are suggested. Heuristically, the experimental unveiling of the endogenous opioid system impairing effects of CPL and separation in normal adults opens a new experimental, investigatory area. PMID:20444308

  11. Force normalization in paraplegics.

    PubMed

    Serra-Añó, P; García-Massó, X; Pellicer, M; González, L-M; López-Pascual, J; Giner-Pascual, M; Toca-Herrera, J L

    2012-06-01

    The principal aim of our study was the determination of the effectiveness of a standardized ratio, allometric scaling model and a gamma function model in normalizing the isometric torque data of spinal cord patients and healthy subjects. For this purpose we studied a sample of 21 healthy males and 23 spinal cord injury males. The experiment consisted of the measurement of the force of the upper limb movement executed by all the subjects. We also determined anthropometric variables with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The experimental data were analyzed with 3 force normalization methods. Our results indicate that the most important confounding variable was the fat free mass of the dominant upper limb (r>0.36, p<0.05). With the standardization by body mass and allometric scaling model, the normalized torque was influenced by body size variables. However, the normalized torque by the gamma function model was independent of body size measures. Paraplegics were weaker (p<0.05) in extension movements when the data were normalized by the gamma function model. In summary, this study shows that the gamma function model with fat free mass of the dominant upper limb was more effective than the standardized ratio in removing the influence of body size variables. PMID:22377940

  12. Thigh Muscle Strength in Senior Athletes and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Jean L; Salacinski, Amanda J; Hunt, Sarah E; Greenspan, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is commonly recommended to counteract aging-related muscle weakness. While numerous exercise intervention studies on the elderly have been performed, few have included elite senior athletes, such as those who participate in the National Senior Games. The extent to which participation in highly competitive exercise affects muscle strength is unknown, as well as the extent to which such participation mitigates any aging-related strength losses. The purpose of this study was to examine isometric thigh muscle strength in selected athletes of the National Senior Games and healthy noncompetitive controls of similar age, as well as to investigate strength changes with aging in both groups. In all, 95 athletes of the Games and 72 healthy controls participated. Of the senior athletes, 43 were runners, 12 cyclists, and 40 swimmers. Three trials of isometric knee flexion and extension strength were collected using a load cell affixed to a custom-designed chair. Strength data were normalized to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-obtained lean mass of the leg. A 3-factor multivariate analysis of variance (group × gender × age group) was performed, which included both the extension and flexion variables ([alpha] = 0.05). Athletes exhibited 38% more extension strength and 66% more flexion strength than the controls (p < 0.001). Strength did not decrease with advancing age in either the athletes or the controls (p = 0.345). In conclusion, senior athletes who participate in highly competitive exercise have greater strength than healthy aged-matched individuals who do not. Neither group displayed the expected strength losses with aging. Our subject cohorts, however, were not typical of those over age 65 years because individuals with existing health conditions were excluded from the study. PMID:19972628

  13. Functional Impairment in Adult Sleepwalkers: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. Participants: There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Citation: Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in

  14. A functional tracking task to assess frontal plane motor control in post stroke gait.

    PubMed

    Reissman, Megan E; Dhaher, Yasin Y

    2015-07-16

    The ability to execute appropriate medio-lateral foot placements during gait is thought to require active frontal plane control and to be critical in maintaining upright posture during gait. The aggregate frontal plane metrics of step width and step width variability have been assessed for post-stroke populations, but only under normal walking conditions. However, in the case of stroke, limb specific differences in sensory-motor control are likely. Thus, an investigation of limb specific motor control characteristics under tracking task conditions is needed to appropriately characterize frontal plane sensory-motor control post-stroke. Chronic stroke subjects (n=15) and age matched control subjects (n=10) tracked static, bilateral foot placement targets at self-selected walking speeds and completed a free walking trial. Variability and error of tracking performance were analyzed for step width and foot placement. Stroke subjects demonstrated reduced ability to control step width variability and foot placement variability, compared to control subjects. Step width variability and affected limb foot placement variability were sensitive to task complexity, increasing significantly in response to a decrease in step width target size. These results show that stroke mediated changes in the sensory-motor integration processes are manifested as inter-limb differences in frontal plane motor variability during a gait tracking task, with an additional sensitivity to task complexity. Additionally, the proposed step width tracking paradigm presents a clinically reproducible motor control metric that can be used for diagnostic assessment or as a potential outcome for a gait training regimen. PMID:26037229

  15. Multiscale entropy identifies differences in complexity in postural control in women with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Busa, Michael A; Jones, Stephanie L; Hamill, Joseph; van Emmerik, Richard E A

    2016-03-01

    Loss of postural center-of-pressure complexity (COP complexity) has been associated with reduced adaptability that accompanies disease and aging. The aim of this study was to identify if COP complexity is reduced: (1) in those with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) compared to controls; (2) when vision is limited compared to remaining intact; and (3) during more demanding postural conditions compared to quiet standing. Additionally, we explored the relationship between the COP complexity and disease severity, fatigue, cutaneous sensation and central motor drive. Twelve women with MS and 12 age-matched controls were tested under quiet standing and postural maximal lean conditions with normal and limited vision. The key dependent variable was the complexity index (CI) of the center of pressure. We observed a lower CI in the MS group compared to controls in both anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions (p's<0.002), during the performance of maximal self-regulated leans (AP: p<0.001; ML: p=0.018), and under limited vision (AP: p=0.001; ML: p=0.006). No group-by-vision interaction (p>0.05) was observed, indicating that limiting vision did not impact COP complexity differently in the two groups. Decreased cutaneous sensitivity was associated with lower CI values in the AP direction among those with MS (r(2)=0.57); all other measures did not exhibit significant relationships. The findings reported here suggest that (1) MS is associated with diminished COP complexity under both normal and challenging postures, and (2) complexity is strongly correlated with cutaneous sensitivity, suggesting the unique contribution of impaired somatosensation on postural control deficits in persons with MS.

  16. Relating micromechanical properties and mineral densities in severely suppressed bone turnover patients, osteoporotic patients, and normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Tjhia, Crystal K; Stover, Susan M; Rao, D Sudhaker; Odvina, Clarita V; Fyhrie, David P

    2012-07-01

    Mineralization of bone, from the tissue level to whole bones, is associated with mechanical properties. The relationship between bone tissue mineralization and micromechanical properties may be affected by age, disease, and drug treatment. Patients with severely suppressed bone turnover (SSBT) suffered atypical fractures while on bisphosphonate treatment. The role of tissue level mineralization in predicting material level properties of SSBT bone may be different from that of other osteoporotic patients and of normal subjects. The aim of this study was to compare the relationships between mineralization and micromechanical properties of bone biopsies from patients with SSBT, bisphosphonate-naive osteoporotic patients with typical vertebral fracture, and normal young and age-matched subjects. We used nanoindentation and quantitative backscattered electron microscopy to characterize the elastic modulus, contact hardness, plastic deformation resistance, and tissue mineralization of the biopsies at site-matched locations within each biopsy. The linear mineralization-mechanical property relationships were different among the groups with respect to the intercepts for only cortical bone tissue but not the slopes for cortical and trabecular bone tissues. For a given mineral density, there was a trend of greater plastic deformation resistance in SSBT cortical bone compared to young normal bone. Similarly, there was a trend of greater plastic deformation resistance in osteoporotic trabecular bone compared to young normal bone for a given mineral density. The age-matched normal group had higher elastic modulus and a trend of higher contact hardness compared to the young normal group for a given mineral density. However, the mechanical property-mineralization relationships within an individual were weak, and only 21 of 53 biopsies that were analyzed had at least one significant association between mineralization and a mechanical property measurement for either cortical or

  17. Normals to a Parabola

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Given a parabola in the standard form y[superscript 2] = 4ax, corresponding to three points on the parabola, such that the normals at these three points P, Q, R concur at a point M = (h, k), the equation of the circumscribing circle through the three points P, Q, and R provides a tremendous opportunity to illustrate "The Art of Algebraic…

  18. Normal Psychosexual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    1971-01-01

    Normal sexual development is reviewed with respect to physical maturation, sexual interests, sex drive", psychosexual competence and maturity, gender role, object choice, children's concepts of sexual differences, sex role preference and standards, and psychosexual stages. Biologic, psychoanalytic and psychosocial theories are briefly considered.…

  19. Normal Birth Crossword Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2006-01-01

    In this column, readers are introduced to Dawn Kersula and a crossword puzzle she designed to refresh and empower Lamaze childbirth education class participants with normal-birth information. The column's author goes on to demonstrate several ways crossword puzzles can be used in Lamaze classes. PMID:17322944

  20. Temporal Resolution of the Normal Ear in Listeners with Unilateral Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Dey, Ratul; Davessar, Jai Lal

    2015-12-01

    Unilateral hearing loss (UHL) leads to an imbalanced input to the brain and results in cortical reorganization. In listeners with unilateral impairments, while the perceptual deficits associated with the impaired ear are well documented, less is known regarding the auditory processing in the unimpaired, clinically normal ear. It is commonly accepted that perceptual consequences are unlikely to occur in the normal ear for listeners with UHL. This study investigated whether the temporal resolution in the normal-hearing (NH) ear of listeners with long-standing UHL is similar to those in listeners with NH. Temporal resolution was assayed via measuring gap detection thresholds (GDTs) in within- and between-channel paradigms. GDTs were assessed in the normal ear of adults with long-standing, severe-to-profound UHL (N = 13) and age-matched, NH listeners (N = 22) at two presentation levels (30 and 55 dB sensation level). Analysis indicated that within-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were not significantly different than those for the NH subject group, but the between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were poorer (by greater than a factor of 2) than those for the listeners with NH. The hearing thresholds in the normal or impaired ears were not associated with the elevated between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL. Contrary to the common assumption that auditory processing capabilities are preserved for the normal ear in listeners with UHL, the current study demonstrated that a long-standing unilateral hearing impairment may adversely affect auditory perception--temporal resolution--in the clinically normal ear. From a translational perspective, these findings imply that the temporal processing deficits in the unimpaired ear of listeners with unilateral hearing impairments may contribute to their overall auditory perceptual difficulties.

  1. Normal-reflection image

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Fehler, Michael C.

    2003-01-01

    Common-angle wave-equation migration using the double-square-root is generally less accurate than the common-shot migration because the wavefield continuation equation for thc former involves additional approximations compared to that for the latter. We present a common-angle wave-equation migration that has the same accuracy as common-shot wave-equation migration. An image obtained from common-angle migration is a four- to five-dimensional output volume for 3D cases. We propose a normal-reflection imaging condition for common-angle migration to produce a 3D output volume for 3D migration. The image is closely related to the normal-reflection coefficients at interfaces. This imaging condition will allow amplitude-preserving migration to generate an image with clear physical meaning.

  2. Optimal reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR data from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast tumors controlling for tumor cell content and decay of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Tramm, Trine; Sørensen, Brita S; Overgaard, Jens; Alsner, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Reliable determination of gene-expression levels from qRT-PCR requires accurate normalization of target genes to reference genes in order to remove nonbiological variation. Reference genes are ideally constitutively expressed in every cell, but many genes used for normalization has been shown to vary with tissue type, cellular proliferation, cancer progression, and degradation of nucleic acids. Gene-expression analysis is increasingly performed on degraded mRNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE), giving the option of examining retrospective cohorts. The aim of this study was to select robust reference genes showing stable expression over time in FFPE, controlling for various content of tumor tissue and decay of mRNA because of variable length of storage of the tissue. Sixteen reference genes were quantified by qRT-PCR in 40 FFPE breast tumor samples, stored for 1 to 29 years. Samples included 2 benign lesions and 38 carcinomas with varying tumor content. Stability of the reference genes were determined by the geNorm algorithm. mRNA was successfully extracted from all samples, and the 16 genes quantified in the majority of samples. Results showed 14% loss of amplifiable mRNA per year, corresponding to a half-life of 4.6 years. The 4 most stable expressed genes were CALM2, RPL37A, ACTB, and RPLP0. Several of the other examined genes showed considerably instability over time (GAPDH, PSMC4, OAZ1, IPO8). In conclusion, we identified 4 genes robustly expressed over time and independent of neoplastic tissue content in the FFPE block. Other widely used reference genes were concluded to be less suited for retrospective analysis of FFPE breast samples.

  3. Advancing Normal Birth

    PubMed Central

    Lothian, Judith

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this column, the associate editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education provides an overview of research on the benefits of promoting and protecting the normal, physiologic processes of childbirth and the risks of interfering with those processes without clear medical indication. The associate editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote, support, and protect natural, safe, and healthy birth.

  4. Teaching Normal Birth Interactively

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2004-01-01

    In this column, the author provides examples of teaching strategies that childbirth educators may utilize to illustrate each of the six care practices supported by Lamaze International to promote normal birth: labor begins on its own, freedom of movement throughout labor, continuous labor support, no routine interventions, non-supine (e.g., upright or side-lying) positions for birth, and no separation of mother and baby with unlimited opportunity for breastfeeding. PMID:17273389

  5. New Insights into the Disease Progression Control Mechanisms by Comparing Long-Term-Nonprogressors versus Normal-Progressors among HIV-1-Positive Patients Using an Ion Current-Based MS1 Proteomic Profiling.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaomeng; Nair, Bindukumar; Mahajan, Supriya D; Jiang, Xiaosheng; Li, Jun; Shen, Shichen; Tu, Chengjian; Hsiao, Chiu-Bin; Schwartz, Stanley A; Qu, Jun

    2015-12-01

    For decades, epidemiological studies have found significant differences in the susceptibility to disease progression among HIV-carrying patients. One unique group of HIV-1-positive patients, the long-term-nonprogressors (LTNP), exhibits far superior ability in virus control compared with normal-progressors (NP), which proceed to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) much more rapidly. Nonetheless, elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of virus control in LTNP is highly valuable in disease management and treatment but remains poorly understood. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) have been known to play important roles in innate immune responses and thereby would be of great interest for the investigation of the mechanisms of virus defense in LTNP. Here, we described the first comparative proteome analysis of PBMC from LTNP (n = 10) and NP (n = 10) patients using a reproducible ion-current-based MS1 approach, which includes efficient and reproducible sample preparation and chromatographic separation followed by an optimized pipeline for protein identification and quantification. This strategy enables analysis of many biological samples in one set with high quantitative precision and extremely low missing data. In total, 925 unique proteins were quantified under stringent criteria without missing value in any of the 20 subjects, and 87 proteins showed altered expressions between the two patient groups. These proteins are implicated in key processes such as cytoskeleton organization, defense response, apoptosis regulation, intracellular transport, etc., which provided novel insights into the control of disease progressions in LTNP versus NP, and the expression and phosphorylation states of key regulators were further validated by immunoassay. For instance, (1) SAMH1, a potent and "hot" molecule facilitating HIV-1 defense, was for the first time found elevated in LTNP compared with NP or healthy controls; elevated proteins from IFN-α response pathway may

  6. DISJUNCTIVE NORMAL SHAPE MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Nisha; Mesadi, Fitsum; Cetin, Mujdat; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    A novel implicit parametric shape model is proposed for segmentation and analysis of medical images. Functions representing the shape of an object can be approximated as a union of N polytopes. Each polytope is obtained by the intersection of M half-spaces. The shape function can be approximated as a disjunction of conjunctions, using the disjunctive normal form. The shape model is initialized using seed points defined by the user. We define a cost function based on the Chan-Vese energy functional. The model is differentiable, hence, gradient based optimization algorithms are used to find the model parameters. PMID:27403233

  7. Motor function benefits of visual restoration measured in age-related cataract and simulated patients: Case-control and clinical experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Nagura, Takeo; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Negishi, Kazuno; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-09-30

    The aim of the present study was to measure gait velocity in cataract and simulated patients. The study was performed on 239 cataract patients, 115 age-matched subjects, and 11 simulated patients. We measured gait velocity and analyzed gait using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Mean gait velocity before and 2 and 7 months after cataract surgery was 0.91 ± 0.19, 1.04 ± 0.21, and 1.06 ± 0.21 m/s, respectively, for males and 0.84 ± 0.22, 0.91 ± 0.24, and 0.92 ± 0.25 m/s, respectively, for females. The increase after surgery was significant in both groups at 7 months (P < 0.05). Gait velocity was significantly slower in cataract patients compared with controls before surgery, but no longer different after surgery. In simulated patients, mean velocity was 87.0 ± 11.4% of normal vision with a 3° visual field and 92.4 ± 12.3% of normal when counting fingers. Initial velocity was 89.1 ± 14.6% of normal vision with a 3° visual field and 92.7 ± 11.6% of normal when counting fingers. There was a significant difference between normal and impaired visual function (P < 0.05). The results demonstrate the close relationship between visual function and gait in cataract patients and simulated patients.

  8. Motor function benefits of visual restoration measured in age-related cataract and simulated patients: Case-control and clinical experimental studies

    PubMed Central

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Nagura, Takeo; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Negishi, Kazuno; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure gait velocity in cataract and simulated patients. The study was performed on 239 cataract patients, 115 age-matched subjects, and 11 simulated patients. We measured gait velocity and analyzed gait using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Mean gait velocity before and 2 and 7 months after cataract surgery was 0.91 ± 0.19, 1.04 ± 0.21, and 1.06 ± 0.21 m/s, respectively, for males and 0.84 ± 0.22, 0.91 ± 0.24, and 0.92 ± 0.25 m/s, respectively, for females. The increase after surgery was significant in both groups at 7 months (P < 0.05). Gait velocity was significantly slower in cataract patients compared with controls before surgery, but no longer different after surgery. In simulated patients, mean velocity was 87.0 ± 11.4% of normal vision with a 3° visual field and 92.4 ± 12.3% of normal when counting fingers. Initial velocity was 89.1 ± 14.6% of normal vision with a 3° visual field and 92.7 ± 11.6% of normal when counting fingers. There was a significant difference between normal and impaired visual function (P < 0.05). The results demonstrate the close relationship between visual function and gait in cataract patients and simulated patients. PMID:26420727

  9. Ability of Cirrus™ HD-OCT Optic Nerve Head Parameters to Discriminate Normal from Glaucomatous Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mwanza, Jean-Claude; Oakley, Jonathan D; Budenz, Donald L; Anderson, Douglas R

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the ability of optic nerve head (ONH) parameters measured with spectral domain Cirrus™ HD-OCT to discriminate between normal and glaucomatous eyes and to compare them to the discriminating ability of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements performed with Cirrus™ HD-OCT. Design Evaluation of diagnostic test or technology. Participants Seventy-three subjects with glaucoma and one hundred and forty-six age-matched normal subjects. Methods Peripapillary ONH parameters and RNFL thickness were measured in one randomly selected eye of each participant within a 200×200 pixel A-scan acquired with Cirrus™ HD-OCT centered on the ONH. Main Outcome Measures ONH topographic parameters, peripapillary RNFL thickness, and the area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). Results For distinguishing normal from glaucomatous eyes, regardless of disease stage, the six best parameters (expressed as AUC) were vertical rim thickness (VRT, 0.963), rim area (RA, 0.962), RNFL thickness at clock-hour 7 (0.957), RNFL thickness of the inferior quadrant (0.953), vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR, 0.951) and average RNFL thickness (0.950). The AUC for distinguishing between normal and eyes with mild glaucoma was greatest for RNFL thickness of clock-hour 7 (0.918), VRT (0.914), RA (0.912), RNFL thickness of inferior quadrant (0.895), average RNFL thickness (0.893) and VCDR (0.890). There were no statistically significant differences between AUCs for the best ONH parameters and RNFL thickness measurements (p > 0.05). Conclusions Cirrus™ HD-OCT ONH parameters are able to discriminate between eyes that are normal from those with glaucoma or even mild glaucoma. There is no difference in the ability of ONH parameters and RNFL thickness measurement, as measured with Cirrus™ OCT, to distinguish between normal and glaucomatous eyes. PMID:20920824

  10. [Normal and disordered sleep].

    PubMed

    Arnulf, I

    2007-07-01

    Normal sleep is a complex and reversible state of brain functioning, including reduced inputs and outputs, blunted reflexes, and metabolic and cognitive changes. Evidence supports a role for sleep in the consolidation of an array of learning and memory tasks. Sleep deprivation and fragmentation result in executive dysfunction, increased appetite/weight and cellular stress. Sleep is a vital, complex but plastic function that can be modulated depending on individual heritage and motivation. The major role of sleep in attention and memory raises about concern the reduction in sleep duration recently pointed in teenagers and young adults. Sleep disorders are numerous and various. Their mechanism is not always identified, but may result from a central dysfunction in sleep-wake (e.g. narcolepsy) or circadian (e.g. advanced sleep phase syndrome) systems, from the sleep-related loss of compensation of reflexes normally effective during wakefulness (breathing is the most vulnerable function during sleep), or from other diseases preventing sleep (e.g. psychiatric insomnia, restless legs syndrome). PMID:17652992

  11. Oxidative stress in normal-weight obese syndrome.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, Laura; Galvano, Fabio; Orlandi, Carmine; Bianchi, Alessia; Di Giacomo, Claudia; La Fauci, Luca; Acquaviva, Rosaria; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2010-11-01

    The normal-weight obese (NWO) syndrome was identified in women whose body weight (BW) and BMI are normal but whose fat mass (FM) is >30%. In these subjects, an early inflammatory status has been demonstrated. The aim was to verify whether oxidative stress occurs in NWO. Sixty age-matched white Italian women were studied and subdivided as follows: 20 normal-weight individuals (NW) (BMI <25 kg/m(2); FM% <30%); 20 NWO (BMI <25 kg/m(2); FM% >30%); 20 preobese-obese (OB) (BMI >25 kg/m(2); FM% >30%). Anthropometric, body composition (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) variables, plasma levels of some cytokines, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-)), antioxidant nonproteic capacity (ANPC) were measured and compared between groups. Glucose and lipid metabolism parameters were assessed. GSH and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) levels resulted lower in OB and NWO compared to NW (P < 0.01). LOOH levels resulted higher in OB and NWO (P < 0.01). ANPC in NWO was lower than NW but higher with respect to OB (P < 0.01). Correlation analysis revealed strong associations between GSH levels and BW, BMI, FM% (R = -0.45, at least P < 0.05); waist circumference (W) (R = -0.33, P < 0.05); FFM% (R = 0.45, P < 0.01); IL-1α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-15 (R = -0.39, -0.33, -0.36 -0.34, respectively, P < 0.05); triglycerides (R = -0.416, P < 0.05). LOOH levels were negatively related to FFM% (R = -0.413, P < 0.05) and positively to FM%, IL-15, TNF-α, insulin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides (R = 0.408, R = 0.502, R = 0.341, R = 0.412, R = 0.4036, R = 0.405, R = 0.405, respectively, P < 0.05). The study clearly indicates that NWO, besides being in early inflammatory status, are contextually exposed to an oxidative stress related to metabolic abnormalities occurring in obesity.

  12. Pornography, normalization, and empowerment.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Martin S; Williams, Colin J; Kleiner, Sibyl; Irizarry, Yasmiyn

    2010-12-01

    Opponents and proponents of erotic representations (referred to hereafter as "pornography") have described the effects of pornography from their perspective. Little, however, has been done in the way of research to investigate these claims from the consumer's point of view. This especially has been so regarding the positive impact of such consumption on a person's sex life. Using a study group of 245 college students, we examined this question in a framework of scripting theory. We wanted to see whether viewing pornography appeared to expand sexual horizons through normalization and facilitate a willingness to explore new sexual behaviors and sexual relationships through empowerment. The data supported this viewpoint and further showed the effects to be mediated by gender and sexual preference identity. They suggested, however, that established scripts were extended rather than abandoned. We conclude with connections between our findings and the widespread viewing of pornography in contemporary society. PMID:20127507

  13. Writing errors by normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Rita; Torre, Paola; Antonello, Rodolfo M; Fabbro, Franco; Cazzato, Giuseppe; Bava, Antonio

    2003-08-01

    Writing is a complex process requiring visual memory, attention, phonological and semantic operations, and motor performance. For that reason, it can easily be disturbed by interfering with attention, memory, by interfering subvocalization, and so on. With 16 female third-year students (23.4 +/- 0.8 yr.) from the University of Trieste, we investigated the production of errors in three experimental conditions (control, articulatory suppression, and tapping). In the articulatory suppression condition, the participants produced significantly more linguistic impairments (such as agrammatism, unrelated substitutions, sentence omissions, and semantically deviant sentences), which are similar to linguistic impairments found in aphasia. On the tapping condition there were more perseverations, deletions, and substitutions of both letters and words. These data suggest that writing is not an automatic skill. Only after many years of experience and practice of processing information (through cortical to subcortical channels) can writing be considered an automatic skill. Limited experimental conditions can disrupt the writing system of normal subjects, probably interfering with the cortical to subcortical loops, and link normality to pathology. PMID:14604043

  14. A cyclophosphamide-sensitive cell compartment is essential for homologous protection conferred by licensed vaccines for the control of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sadeyen, Jean-Rémy; Kaiser, Pete; Stevens, Mark P; Dziva, Francis

    2015-07-17

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) exert substantial economic costs on poultry producers worldwide. Vaccination is an attractive method of control, but the immunological basis of protection is poorly understood. Here, we examine the effect of intramuscular injection of cyclophosphamide or saline on homologous protection induced by licensed inactivated or live-attenuated APEC O78 vaccines in chickens. In saline-treated birds, both vaccines induced significant APEC-specific IgY and protection against homologous challenge, as evidenced by enumeration of tissue-associated bacteria and analysis of pathology. In cyclophosphamide-treated birds, B cells were severely depleted whereas percentages of circulating CD4- and CD8-positive T cells were normal as detected by flow cytometry. Further, such birds did not produce APEC-specific IgY and were as susceptible to challenge as age-matched unvaccinated controls. The data indicate that homologous protection conferred by licensed APEC vaccines strictly requires a cyclophosphamide-sensitive cell population that includes B cells. PMID:26087298

  15. Depressogenic vulnerability and gender-specific patterns of neuro-immune dysregulation: What the ratio of cortisol to C-reactive protein can tell us about loss of normal regulatory control

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Edward C.; Sundy, John S.; Erkanli, Alaattin

    2014-01-01

    . Although results suggested GR downregulation in women but not men, such differences did not mediate the observed associations. With the use of the CORT/CRP ratio, we showed that vulnerability factors for depression are associated with a loss of normal regulatory controls resulting in gender-specific patterns of neuro-immune dysregulation. That GR downregulation did not influence these associations suggests that the loss of regulatory controls in at risk individuals is primarily at the level of the hormone. Beyond the individual contribution of each component of the CORT/CRP ratio, disruption of normal neuroimmune regulatory feedback provides a plausible biological framework useful in understanding biobehavioral vulnerabilities to depression in a gender specific manner. The CORT/CRP ratio may be a viable biomarker not only for delineating risk for MDD but also progression and treatment responses among patients with MDD; possibilities that are testable in future studies. PMID:25241020

  16. The effect of 6 and 15 MV on intensity-modulated radiation therapy prostate cancer treatment: plan evaluation, tumour control probability and normal tissue complication probability analysis, and the theoretical risk of secondary induced malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, M; Aldridge, S; Guerrero Urbano, T; Nisbet, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 and 15-MV photon energies on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) prostate cancer treatment plan outcome and to compare the theoretical risks of secondary induced malignancies. Methods Separate prostate cancer IMRT plans were prepared for 6 and 15-MV beams. Organ-equivalent doses were obtained through thermoluminescent dosemeter measurements in an anthropomorphic Aldersen radiation therapy human phantom. The neutron dose contribution at 15 MV was measured using polyallyl-diglycol-carbonate neutron track etch detectors. Risk coefficients from the International Commission on Radiological Protection Report 103 were used to compare the risk of fatal secondary induced malignancies in out-of-field organs and tissues for 6 and 15 MV. For the bladder and the rectum, a comparative evaluation of the risk using three separate models was carried out. Dose–volume parameters for the rectum, bladder and prostate planning target volume were evaluated, as well as normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and tumour control probability calculations. Results There is a small increased theoretical risk of developing a fatal cancer from 6 MV compared with 15 MV, taking into account all the organs. Dose–volume parameters for the rectum and bladder show that 15 MV results in better volume sparing in the regions below 70 Gy, but the volume exposed increases slightly beyond this in comparison with 6 MV, resulting in a higher NTCP for the rectum of 3.6% vs 3.0% (p=0.166). Conclusion The choice to treat using IMRT at 15 MV should not be excluded, but should be based on risk vs benefit while considering the age and life expectancy of the patient together with the relative risk of radiation-induced cancer and NTCPs. PMID:22010028

  17. Utero-placental vascularisation in normal and preeclamptic and intra-uterine growth restriction pregnancies: third trimester quantification using 3D power Doppler with comparison to placental vascular morphology (EVUPA): a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jie; Chabot-Lecoanet, Anne-Claire; Perdriolle-Galet, Estelle; Christov, Christophe; Hossu, Gabriela; Cherifi, Aboubaker; Morel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia (PE) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) are two major pregnancy complications related to chronic utero-placental hypoperfusion. Three-dimensional power Doppler (3DPD) angiography has been used for the evaluation of utero-placental vascularisation and three vascular indices have been calculated: the vascularisation index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularisation-FI (VFI). However, several technical endpoints hinder the clinical use of 3DPD as physical characteristics and machine settings may affect 3DPD indices, and so its clinical significance is not yet clear. Objectives The primary objective is to better understand the clinical significance of 3DPD indices by evaluating the relationship between these indices and placental morphometry. Secondary objectives are (i) to determine the impact of machine settings and physical characteristics on 3DPD indices, and (ii) to evaluate physio-pathological placental vascularisation patterns. Methods and analysis This is a prospective controlled study. We expect to include 112 women: 84 with normal pregnancies and 28 with PE and/or IUGR (based on our former cohort study on 3DPD indices for PE and/or IUGR prediction (unpublished data)). Within 72 h before planned or semi-urgent caesarean section, utero-placental 3DPD images with five different machine settings will be acquired. Placentas will be collected and examined after surgery and stereological indices (volume density, surface density, length density) calculated. The 3DPD indices (VI, FI and VFI) of the placenta and adjacent myometrium will be calculated. Correlation between Doppler and morphological indices will be evaluated by Pearson or Spearman tests. Agreement between 3DPD indices and morphological indices will be assessed by Bland and Altman plots. The impact of Doppler settings and maternal characteristics on 3DPD indices will be evaluated with a multivariate linear regression model. Ethics The study and related consent forms have

  18. Adolescence. What is normal?

    PubMed

    Offer, D; Ostrov, E; Howard, K I

    1989-06-01

    We present in some detail what constitutes normal behavior, or mental health, among teenagers. Our data are based on the results of a specially devised psychological questionnaire by one of us (D.O.). This questionnaire has been shown to reliably distinguish mentally healthy from psychiatrically disturbed populations. Results are presented across three decades (1960s, 1970s, and 1980s), across genders, and across the high school years. A conceptual framework is presented to help the clinician working with adolescents to understand the fluctuation in psychopathology among youth. Adolescent density in the total population is shown to be a significant factor in determining the rate of disturbance among teenagers. Our research findings demonstrate that the rate of behavioral disturbance among adolescents is the same as in other parts of the life cycle. The clinician working with adolescents tends to underestimate the severity of adolescent problems because of the near-universal belief that all adolescents undergo "adolescent turmoil." We have found that adolescents who are experiencing turmoil need professional help.

  19. Brain spatial normalization.

    PubMed

    Bug, William; Gustafson, Carl; Shahar, Allon; Gefen, Smadar; Fan, Yingli; Bertrand, Louise; Nissanov, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Neuroanatomical informatics, a subspecialty of neuroinformatics, focuses on technological solutions to neuroimage database access. Its current main goal is an image-based query system that is able to retrieve imagery based on anatomical location. Here, we describe a set of tools that collectively form such a solution for sectional material and that are available to investigators to use on their own data sets. The system accepts slide images as input and yields a matrix of transformation parameters that map each point on the input image to a standardized 3D brain atlas. In essence, this spatial normalization makes the atlas a spatial indexer from which queries can be issued simply by specifying a location on the reference atlas. Our objective here is to familiarize potential users of the system with the steps required of them as well as steps that take place behind the scene. We detail the capabilities and the limitations of the current implementation and briefly describe the enhancements planned for the near future.

  20. [Normal aging and cognition].

    PubMed

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle. PMID:16527210

  1. The normal antireflux mechanism.

    PubMed

    Paterson, W G

    2001-08-01

    The normal antireflux mechanism consists of several components, any one of which may malfunction and render an individual prone to the development of GERD. The LES is clearly the most important component because gastroesophageal reflux almost always occurs when the sphincter pressure equals that of the stomach. Usually, an LES pressure of just 2 to 3 mm Hg above intragastric pressure is sufficient to prevent reflux. Other factors certainly play significant ancillary roles in preventing reflux. In the absence of a hiatal hernia, the crural fibers of the diaphragm serve as an "extrinsic" sphincter. Furthermore, the unique anatomy of the proximal stomach (e.g., the angle of His, mucosal flap valve, posterolateral location of the fundus) serves to keep gastric contents away from the gastroesophageal junction, making it less likely for reflux to occur when the LES relaxes. When a hiatal hernia is present, these factors are lost, and the hernia sac provides a reservoir for gastric juices with ready access to the LES. Finally, some degree of reflux occurs in all individuals, but esophageal clearance and acid neutralization provide an important last line of defense.

  2. A normality bias in legal decision making.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Robert A; Koehler, Jonathan J

    2003-03-01

    It is important to understand how legal fact finders determine causation and assign blame. However, this process is poorly understood. Among the psychological factors that affect decision makers are an omission bias (a tendency to blame actions more than inactions [omissions] for bad results), and a normality bias (a tendency to react more strongly to bad outcomes that spring from abnormal rather than normal circumstances). The omission and normality biases often reinforce one another when inaction preserves the normal state and when action creates an abnormal state. But what happens when these biases push in opposite directions as they would when inaction promotes an abnormal state or when action promotes a normal state? Which bias exerts the stronger influence on the judgments and behaviors of legal decision makers? The authors address this issue in two controlled experiments. One experiment involves medical malpractice and the other involves stockbroker negligence. They find that jurors pay much more attention to the normality of conditions than to whether those conditions arose through acts or omissions. Defendants who followed a nontraditional medical treatment regime or who chose a nontraditional stock portfolio received more blame and more punishment for bad outcomes than did defendants who obtained equally poor results after recommending a traditional medical regime or a traditional stock portfolio. Whether these recommendations entailed an action or an omission was essentially irrelevant. The Article concludes with a discussion of the implications of a robust normality bias for American jurisprudence.

  3. Institutionalizing Normal: Rethinking Composition's Precedence in Normal Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinnell, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Composition historians have recently worked to recover histories of composition in normal schools. This essay argues, however, that historians have inadvertently misconstrued the role of normal schools in American education by inaccurately comparing rhetorical education in normal schools to rhetorical education in colleges and universities.…

  4. Alternative splicing of the beta A4 amyloid gene of Alzheimer's disease in cortex of control and Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    König, G; Salbaum, J M; Wiestler, O; Lang, W; Schmitt, H P; Masters, C L; Beyreuther, K

    1991-02-01

    An S1 nuclease protection assay was designed to study the splicing pattern of the alternatively spliced beta A4 amyloid gene (APP gene) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We determined the splicing pattern of the APP gene in fetal, adult, aged adult and AD human cortex. The results suggest that alternative splicing of the APP gene in AD is not significantly different from age-matched controls, but distinct from the developing fetal brain.

  5. The levels of soluble versus insoluble brain Abeta distinguish Alzheimer's disease from normal and pathologic aging.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Dickson, D W; Trojanowski, J Q; Lee, V M

    1999-08-01

    The abundance and solubility of Abeta peptides are critical determinants of amyloidosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, we compared levels of total soluble, insoluble, and total Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 in AD brains with those in age-matched normal and pathologic aging brains using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Since the measurement of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 depends critically on the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies used in the sandwich ELISA, we first demonstrated that each assay is specific for Abeta1-40 or Abeta1-42 and the levels of these peptides are not affected by the amyloid precursor protein in the brain extracts. Thus, this sandwich ELISA enabled us to show that the average levels of total cortical soluble and insoluble Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were highest in AD, lowest in normal aging, and intermediate in pathologic aging. Remarkably, the average levels of insoluble Abeta1-40 were increased 20-fold while the average levels of insoluble Abeta1-42 were increased only 2-fold in the AD brains compared to pathologic aging brains. Further, the soluble pools of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were the largest fractions of total Abeta in the normal brain (i.e., 50 and 23%, respectively), but they were the smallest in the AD brain (i.e., 2.7 and 0.7%, respectively) and intermediate (i.e., 8 and 0.8%, respectively) in pathologic aging brains. Thus, our data suggest that pathologic aging is a transition state between normal aging and AD. More importantly, our findings imply that a progressive shift of brain Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 from soluble to insoluble pools and a profound increase in the levels of insoluble Abeta1-40 plays mechanistic roles in the onset and/or progression of AD.

  6. Assessment and quantification of patient set-up errors in nasopharyngeal cancer patients and their biological and dosimetric impact in terms of generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD), tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP)

    PubMed Central

    Marcie, S; Fellah, M; Chami, S; Mekki, F

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess and quantify patients' set-up errors using an electronic portal imaging device and to evaluate their dosimetric and biological impact in terms of generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) on predictive models, such as the tumour control probability (TCP) and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Methods: 20 patients treated for nasopharyngeal cancer were enrolled in the radiotherapy–oncology department of HCA. Systematic and random errors were quantified. The dosimetric and biological impact of these set-up errors on the target volume and the organ at risk (OARs) coverage were assessed using calculation of dose–volume histogram, gEUD, TCP and NTCP. For this purpose, an in-house software was developed and used. Results: The standard deviations (1SDs) of the systematic set-up and random set-up errors were calculated for the lateral and subclavicular fields and gave the following results: ∑ = 0.63 ± (0.42) mm and σ = 3.75 ± (0.79) mm, respectively. Thus a planning organ at risk volume (PRV) margin of 3 mm was defined around the OARs, and a 5-mm margin used around the clinical target volume. The gEUD, TCP and NTCP calculations obtained with and without set-up errors have shown increased values for tumour, where ΔgEUD (tumour) = 1.94% Gy (p = 0.00721) and ΔTCP = 2.03%. The toxicity of OARs was quantified using gEUD and NTCP. The values of ΔgEUD (OARs) vary from 0.78% to 5.95% in the case of the brainstem and the optic chiasm, respectively. The corresponding ΔNTCP varies from 0.15% to 0.53%, respectively. Conclusion: The quantification of set-up errors has a dosimetric and biological impact on the tumour and on the OARs. The developed in-house software using the concept of gEUD, TCP and NTCP biological models has been successfully used in this study. It can be used also to optimize the treatment plan established for our patients. Advances in knowledge: The g

  7. Mexico City normal weight children exposed to high concentrations of ambient PM2.5 show high blood leptin and endothelin-1, vitamin D deficiency, and food reward hormone dysregulation versus low pollution controls. Relevance for obesity and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Rodríguez-Díaz, Joel; Blaurock-Busch, Eleonore; Busch, Yvette; Chao, Chih-kai; Thompson, Charles; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Perry, George

    2015-07-01

    Millions of Mexico, US and across the world children are overweight and obese. Exposure to fossil-fuel combustion sources increases the risk for obesity and diabetes, while long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above US EPA standards is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mexico City Metropolitan Area children are chronically exposed to PM2.5 and O3 concentrations above the standards and exhibit systemic, brain and intrathecal inflammation, cognitive deficits, and Alzheimer disease neuropathology. We investigated adipokines, food reward hormones, endothelial dysfunction, vitamin D and apolipoprotein E (APOE) relationships in 80 healthy, normal weight 11.1±3.2 year olds matched by age, gender, BMI and SES, low (n: 26) versus high (n:54) PM2.5 exposures. Mexico City children had higher leptin and endothelin-1 (p<0.01 and p<0.000), and decreases in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP 1), ghrelin, and glucagon (<0.02) versus controls. BMI and leptin relationships were significantly different in low versus high PM2.5 exposed children. Mexico City APOE 4 versus 3 children had higher glucose (p=0.009). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<30 ng/mL was documented in 87% of Mexico City children. Leptin is strongly positively associated to PM 2.5 cumulative exposures. Residing in a high PM2.5 and O3 environment is associated with 12h fasting hyperleptinemia, altered appetite-regulating peptides, vitamin D deficiency, and increases in ET-1 in clinically healthy children. These changes could signal the future trajectory of urban children towards the development of insulin resistance, obesity, type II diabetes, premature cardiovascular disease, addiction-like behavior, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Increased efforts should be made to decrease pediatric PM2.5 exposures, to deliver health interventions prior to the development of obesity and to identify and mitigate environmental factors influencing obesity and Alzheimer

  8. Mexico City normal weight children exposed to high concentrations of ambient PM2.5 show high blood leptin and endothelin-1, vitamin D deficiency, and food reward hormone dysregulation versus low pollution controls. Relevance for obesity and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Rodríguez-Díaz, Joel; Blaurock-Busch, Eleonore; Busch, Yvette; Chao, Chih-kai; Thompson, Charles; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Perry, George

    2015-07-01

    Millions of Mexico, US and across the world children are overweight and obese. Exposure to fossil-fuel combustion sources increases the risk for obesity and diabetes, while long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above US EPA standards is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mexico City Metropolitan Area children are chronically exposed to PM2.5 and O3 concentrations above the standards and exhibit systemic, brain and intrathecal inflammation, cognitive deficits, and Alzheimer disease neuropathology. We investigated adipokines, food reward hormones, endothelial dysfunction, vitamin D and apolipoprotein E (APOE) relationships in 80 healthy, normal weight 11.1±3.2 year olds matched by age, gender, BMI and SES, low (n: 26) versus high (n:54) PM2.5 exposures. Mexico City children had higher leptin and endothelin-1 (p<0.01 and p<0.000), and decreases in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP 1), ghrelin, and glucagon (<0.02) versus controls. BMI and leptin relationships were significantly different in low versus high PM2.5 exposed children. Mexico City APOE 4 versus 3 children had higher glucose (p=0.009). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<30 ng/mL was documented in 87% of Mexico City children. Leptin is strongly positively associated to PM 2.5 cumulative exposures. Residing in a high PM2.5 and O3 environment is associated with 12h fasting hyperleptinemia, altered appetite-regulating peptides, vitamin D deficiency, and increases in ET-1 in clinically healthy children. These changes could signal the future trajectory of urban children towards the development of insulin resistance, obesity, type II diabetes, premature cardiovascular disease, addiction-like behavior, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Increased efforts should be made to decrease pediatric PM2.5 exposures, to deliver health interventions prior to the development of obesity and to identify and mitigate environmental factors influencing obesity and Alzheimer

  9. Effect of Treatment with Interferon Beta-1a on Changes in Voxel-Wise Magnetization Transfer Ratio in Normal Appearing Brain Tissue and Lesions of Patients with Relapsing–Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A 24-Week, Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Zivadinov, Robert; Dwyer, Michael G.; Markovic-Plese, Silva; Kennedy, Cheryl; Bergsland, Niels; Ramasamy, Deepa P.; Durfee, Jacqueline; Hojnacki, David; Hayward, Brooke; Dangond, Fernando; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Background This pilot study investigated changes in remyelinating and demyelinating activity in normal appearing brain tissue (NABT) and lesions, by using voxel-wise magnetization transfer ratio (VW-MTR), in patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) receiving interferon beta-1a 44 mcg subcutaneously (IFN β-1a SC) three times weekly versus healthy controls (HCs) (NCT01085318). Methods Increasing (suggestive of remyelination) and decreasing (suggestive of demyelination) VW-MTR changes in NABT and in T2, T1 and gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing lesion volume were measured over 24 weeks in 23 patients treated with IFN β-1a SC and in 15 HCs (where applicable). VW-MTR changes were tested using the Wilcoxon signed–rank or Wilcoxon rank–sum test. Results A trend for greater volume of NABT with increasing VW-MTR at 24 weeks was observed for patients versus HCs (median [range] 1206 [0–15278]; 342 [0–951] mm3; p = 0.061). NABT volume with increasing VW-MTR at 12 weeks was significantly greater in patients than in HCs (852 [6–11577]; 360 [0–1755] mm3; p = 0.028). Similar findings were detected for lesion volumes. Two patients with notably high numbers of Gd-enhancing lesions at baseline had a markedly greater volume of tissue with increasing VW-MTR compared with other patients. Volume of NABT tissue with decreasing VW-MTR was significantly greater in patients versus HCs at 24 weeks (942 [0–6141]; 297 [0–852] mm3; p<0.001). Conclusions The significant change in NABT volume with increasing VW-MTR at 12 weeks suggests that active remyelination in patients with RRMS may occur during treatment with IFN β-1a SC. Findings from two patients with the highest number of Gd-enhancing lesions at baseline suggest that extensive remyelination in NABT may occur in patients with high disease activity. Tissue volume with decreasing VW-MTR was greater in patients than in HCs, despite treatment, validating the sensitivity of this technique for detecting MS

  10. Adaptability of the Immature Ocular Motor Control System: Unilateral IGF-1 Medial Rectus Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Christy L.; Fleuriet, Jérome; Walton, Mark M.; Mustari, Michael J.; McLoon, Linda K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Unilateral treatment with sustained release IGF-1 to one medial rectus muscle in infant monkeys was performed to test the hypothesis that strabismus would develop as a result of changes in extraocular muscles during the critical period of development of binocularity. Methods. Sustained release IGF-1 pellets were implanted unilaterally on one medial rectus muscle in normal infant monkeys during the first 2 weeks of life. Eye position was monitored using standard photographic methods. After 3 months of treatment, myofiber and neuromuscular size, myosin composition, and innervation density were quantified in all rectus muscles and compared to those in age-matched controls. Results. Sustained unilateral IGF-1 treatments resulted in strabismus for all treated subjects; 3 of the 4 subjects had a clinically significant strabismus of more than 10°. Both the treated medial rectus and the untreated ipsilateral antagonist lateral rectus muscles had significantly larger myofibers. No adaptation in myofiber size occurred in the contralateral functionally yoked lateral rectus or in myosin composition, neuromuscular junction size, or nerve density. Conclusions. Sustained unilateral IGF-1 treatment to extraocular muscles during the sensitive period of development of orthotropic eye alignment and binocularity was sufficient to disturb ocular motor development, resulting in strabismus in infant monkeys. This could be due to altering fusion of gaze during the early sensitive period. Serial measurements of eye alignment suggested the IGF-1-treated infants received insufficient coordinated binocular experience, preventing the establishment of normal eye alignment. Our results uniquely suggest that abnormal signaling by the extraocular muscles may be a cause of strabismus. PMID:26030103

  11. WMAP normalization of inflationary cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Mukherjee, Pia; Leach, Samuel M.

    2006-10-15

    We use the three-year WMAP observations to determine the normalization of the matter power spectrum in inflationary cosmologies. In this context, the quantity of interest is not the normalization marginalized over all parameters, but rather the normalization as a function of the inflationary parameters n{sub S} and r with marginalization over the remaining cosmological parameters. We compute this normalization and provide an accurate fitting function. The statistical uncertainty in the normalization is 3%, roughly half that achieved by COBE. We use the k-l relation for the standard cosmological model to identify the pivot scale for the WMAP normalization. We also quote the inflationary energy scale corresponding to the WMAP normalization.

  12. The Wilms' tumor gene Wt1 is required for normal development of the retina.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Kay-Dietrich; Wagner, Nicole; Vidal, Valerie P I; Schley, Gunnar; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Schedl, Andreas; Englert, Christoph; Scholz, Holger

    2002-03-15

    The Wilms' tumor gene Wt1 is known for its important functions during genitourinary and mesothelial formation. Here we show that Wt1 is necessary for neuronal development in the vertebrate retina. Mouse embryos with targeted disruption of Wt1 exhibit remarkably thinner retinas than age-matched wild-type animals. A large fraction of retinal ganglion cells is lost by apoptosis, and the growth of optic nerve fibers is severely disturbed. Strikingly, expression of the class IV POU-domain transcription factor Pou4f2 (formerly Brn-3b), which is critical for the survival of most retinal ganglion cells, is lost in Wt1(-/-) retinas. Forced expression of Wt1 in cultured cells causes an up-regulation of Pou4f2 mRNA. Moreover, the Wt1(-KTS) splice variant can activate a reporter construct carrying 5'-regulatory sequences of the human POU4F2. The lack of Pou4f2 and the ocular defects in Wt1(-/-) embryos are rescued by transgenic expression of a 280 kb yeast artificial chromosome carrying the human WT1 gene. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a continuous requirement for Wt1 in normal retina formation with a critical role in Pou4f2-dependent ganglion cell differentiation.

  13. Risk factors for childhood pneumonia among the urban poor in Fortaleza, Brazil: a case--control study.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, W; Kirkwood, B R; Victora, C G; Fuchs, S R; Flores, J A; Misago, C

    1996-01-01

    Reported are the results of a case-control study carried out between July 1989 and June 1990 in Fortaleza city, Ceará State, Brazil, to determine the factors that place young children living in urban slum conditions at increased risk of contracting pneumonia. Cases were 650 under-2-year-olds with a radiological diagnosis of pneumonia who were recruited at the main paediatric hospital in the city over a full calendar year. Age-matched controls were recruited from the neighbourhood where the cases lived. Cases and controls were compared with respect to a variety of sociodemographic, environmental, reproductive, nutritional, and morbidity factors, and a risk factor questionnaire was administered to the mother of each child or to the child's normal guardian. Cases and controls were also weighed and measured. Malnutrition was the most important risk factor for childhood pneumonia in the study population, with weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height also being important risk factors. In view of the high prevalence of stunting in the study population, there is an urgent need to reduce the level of malnutrition as a priority. Attendance at a day care centre was also associated with a high odds ratio. In view of the growing numbers of children attending day care centres in both developing and developed countries, it is essential that ways be identified to improve the design and management of such centres in order to minimize the risk of pneumonia. Increased risks of childhood pneumonia were also associated with low birth weight, non-breast-feeding, crowding, high parity, and incomplete vaccination status, but not with socioeconomic status or environmental variables. Finally, children who had suffered from previous episodes of wheezing or been hospitalized for pneumonia had a greater than threefold increased risk of contracting the disease.

  14. The effect of normal aging and age-related macular degeneration on perceptual learning

    PubMed Central

    Astle, Andrew T.; Blighe, Alan J.; Webb, Ben S.; McGraw, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether perceptual learning could be used to improve peripheral word identification speed. The relationship between the magnitude of learning and age was established in normal participants to determine whether perceptual learning effects are age invariant. We then investigated whether training could lead to improvements in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Twenty-eight participants with normal vision and five participants with AMD trained on a word identification task. They were required to identify three-letter words, presented 10° from fixation. To standardize crowding across each of the letters that made up the word, words were flanked laterally by randomly chosen letters. Word identification performance was measured psychophysically using a staircase procedure. Significant improvements in peripheral word identification speed were demonstrated following training (71% ± 18%). Initial task performance was correlated with age, with older participants having poorer performance. However, older adults learned more rapidly such that, following training, they reached the same level of performance as their younger counterparts. As a function of number of trials completed, patients with AMD learned at an equivalent rate as age-matched participants with normal vision. Improvements in word identification speed were maintained at least 6 months after training. We have demonstrated that temporal aspects of word recognition can be improved in peripheral vision with training across a range of ages and these learned improvements are relatively enduring. However, training targeted at other bottlenecks to peripheral reading ability, such as visual crowding, may need to be incorporated to optimize this approach. PMID:26605694

  15. Sex-related differences in the normal cardiac response to upright exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, M.B.; Morris, K.G.; Coleman, R.E.; Cobb, F.R.

    1984-09-01

    In previous studies from this laboratory, it was found that approximately 30% of women with chest pain and normal coronary arteries demonstrated either a decrease in or a failure to increase radionuclide ejection fraction during exercise. To examine the hypothesis that this apparent abnormality in left ventricular function represents a physiologic difference between men and women, a prospective study was made of central and peripheral cardiovascular responses to exercise in 31 age-matched healthy volunteers (16 women and 15 men). A combination of quantitative radionuclide (technetium) angiography and expired-gas analysis was used to measure ejection fraction and relative changes in end-diastolic counts, stroke counts, count output, and arteriovenous oxygen difference during symptom-limited upright bicycle exercise. Normal male and female volunteers demonstrated comparable baseline left ventricular function and similar aerobic capacity, as determined by weight-adjusted peak oxygen consumption. However, their cardiac responses to exercise were significantly different. The ejection fraction increased by 5 points or more in 14 of 15 men, but in only seven of the 16 women. End-diastolic counts increased by 30% in women, but was unchanged in men. Because decreases in ejection fraction were matched by increases in end-diastolic counts, relative increases in stroke counts and count output were the same for men and women. These data demonstrate a basic difference between men and women with respect to the mechanism by which they achieve a normal response of stroke volume to exercise; these differences must be taken into account when measurements of cardiac function during exercise stress are used for diagnostic purposes.

  16. PKCδ inhibition normalizes the wound-healing capacity of diabetic human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Khamaisi, Mogher; Katagiri, Sayaka; Keenan, Hillary; Park, Kyoungmin; Maeda, Yasutaka; Li, Qian; Qi, Weier; Thomou, Thomas; Eschuk, Danielle; Tellechea, Ana; Veves, Aris; Huang, Chenyu; Orgill, Dennis Paul; Wagers, Amy; King, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal fibroblast function underlies poor wound healing in patients with diabetes; however, the mechanisms that impair wound healing are poorly defined. Here, we evaluated fibroblasts from individuals who had type 1 diabetes (T1D) for 50 years or more (Medalists, n = 26) and from age-matched controls (n = 7). Compared with those from controls, Medalist fibroblasts demonstrated a reduced migration response to insulin, lower VEGF expression, and less phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), but not p-ERK, activation. Medalist fibroblasts were also functionally less effective at wound closure in nude mice. Activation of the δ isoform of protein kinase C (PKCδ) was increased in postmortem fibroblasts from Medalists, fibroblasts from living T1D subjects, biopsies of active wounds of living T1D subjects, and granulation tissues from mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetes-induced PKCD mRNA expression was related to a 2-fold increase in the mRNA half-life. Pharmacologic inhibition and siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKCδ or expression of a dominant-negative isoform restored insulin signaling of p-AKT and VEGF expression in vitro and improved wound healing in vivo. Additionally, increasing PKCδ expression in control fibroblasts produced the same abnormalities as those seen in Medalist fibroblasts. Our results indicate that persistent PKCδ elevation in fibroblasts from diabetic patients inhibits insulin signaling and function to impair wound healing and suggest PKCδ inhibition as a potential therapy to improve wound healing in diabetic patients. PMID:26808499

  17. PKCδ inhibition normalizes the wound-healing capacity of diabetic human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Khamaisi, Mogher; Katagiri, Sayaka; Keenan, Hillary; Park, Kyoungmin; Maeda, Yasutaka; Li, Qian; Qi, Weier; Thomou, Thomas; Eschuk, Danielle; Tellechea, Ana; Veves, Aris; Huang, Chenyu; Orgill, Dennis Paul; Wagers, Amy; King, George L

    2016-03-01

    Abnormal fibroblast function underlies poor wound healing in patients with diabetes; however, the mechanisms that impair wound healing are poorly defined. Here, we evaluated fibroblasts from individuals who had type 1 diabetes (T1D) for 50 years or more (Medalists, n = 26) and from age-matched controls (n = 7). Compared with those from controls, Medalist fibroblasts demonstrated a reduced migration response to insulin, lower VEGF expression, and less phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), but not p-ERK, activation. Medalist fibroblasts were also functionally less effective at wound closure in nude mice. Activation of the δ isoform of protein kinase C (PKCδ) was increased in postmortem fibroblasts from Medalists, fibroblasts from living T1D subjects, biopsies of active wounds of living T1D subjects, and granulation tissues from mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetes-induced PKCD mRNA expression was related to a 2-fold increase in the mRNA half-life. Pharmacologic inhibition and siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKCδ or expression of a dominant-negative isoform restored insulin signaling of p-AKT and VEGF expression in vitro and improved wound healing in vivo. Additionally, increasing PKCδ expression in control fibroblasts produced the same abnormalities as those seen in Medalist fibroblasts. Our results indicate that persistent PKCδ elevation in fibroblasts from diabetic patients inhibits insulin signaling and function to impair wound healing and suggest PKCδ inhibition as a potential therapy to improve wound healing in diabetic patients.

  18. Does normal thyroid gland by ultrasonography match with normal serum thyroid hormones and negative thyroid antibodies?

    PubMed

    Trimboli, P; Rossi, F; Condorelli, E; Laurenti, O; Ventura, C; Nigri, G; Romanelli, F; Guarino, M; Valabrega, S

    2010-10-01

    Few papers have shown that a hypoechoic appearance of the thyroid gland at ultrasonography (US) is related to a hypofunction and serum positivity of thyroid antibodies (T-Ab). However, it is not ascertained if normal thyroid appearance at US correspond to normal thyroid laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to assess the value of normal thyroid at US in predicting normal thyroid hormones and negative T-Ab in a cohort of 48 adult patients. All patients (37 females and 11 males) were referred to our hospital to undergo their first thyroid US examination, followed by a thyroid function evaluation. All subjects had normal thyroid gland at US. As a control group 65 patients with hypoechoic and inhomogeneous thyroid gland were enrolled. All 48 patients had normal free-T (3) and free-T (4) levels. While 41 patients (85.4%) showed normal TSH, in 7 subjects (14.6%) TSH was elevated and a significant (p < 0.001) difference was recorded between the two groups in mean TSH value. Positive T-Ab value was found in 5 patients (10.4%) and the remaining 43 patients (89.6%) had negative T-Ab. TSH was not significantly correlated with age, thyroid volume or BMI. The multivariate model showed that only BMI was significantly correlated to thyroid volume (p < 0.01, r(2)=0.31). These results showed that normal thyroid recorded by US matches with normal thyroid laboratory assessment to a large degree. These preliminary data need to be confirmed in a prospective study and in a larger series and should suggest the evaluation of thyrotropin and thyroid antibodies in subjects with normal thyroid gland as assessed by US.

  19. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions].

    PubMed

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging. PMID:27005339

  20. Normalizing Catastrophe: An Educational Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Processes of normalizing assumptions and values have been the subjects of theoretical framing and critique for several decades now. Critique has often been tied to issues of environmental sustainability and social justice. Now, in an era of global warming, there is a rising concern that the results of normalizing of present values could be…

  1. Rational Normalization of Concentration Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonckaert, P.; Egghe, L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses normalization features of good concentration measures and extends the range of values of concentration measures that are population-size-independent. Rational normalization is described, and mathematical formulas for the coefficient of variation, Pratt's measure, the Gini index, Theil's measure, and Atkinson's indices are explained. (14…

  2. [Pattern of wight gain during normal pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Velazco Orellana, R; Alvarez Aguilar, C; Mejía Rodríguez, O

    1998-03-01

    The maternal weight gain during pregnancy has been established as a common acceptance criterion about 11 Kg., and its evaluation is of interest in Gynecology and Obstetrics; the objective of this study was to evaluate the Gestational Weight Gain Pattern (GWGP) during the normal pregnancy and its association with the maternal height, pregestional weight, Body Mass Index (BMI) schooling, the intergensic interval and the newborn weight. It was found through a longitudinal and prospective study in women of the urban area, under prenatal control in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), in Morelia, Mich. México, that the average overall GWGP was of 9.3 Kg, and a normality band within 6.6 to 12 Kg which is smaller than the established by obstetrics criteria. It was not found a correlation between the GWGP and the newborn weight, now that the 94.3% of them had normal weight. The mother's age, weight, body mass index and schooling didn't show any correlation with the maternal weight gain during the pregnancy. It was shown that the mother's height and parity influence notably the GWGP. It's convenient the adoption during the prenatal control to determine that the GWGP normality is in agreement with the bio-psycho-social characteristics of the Mexican woman.

  3. COMS normal operation for Earth Observation mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2012-09-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service since April 2011. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. For this Earth observation mission the COMS requires daily mission commands from the satellite control ground station and daily mission is affected by the satellite control activities. For this reason daily mission planning is required. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS is described in aspects of mission operation characteristics and mission planning for the normal operation services of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring. And the first year normal operation results after the In-Orbit-Test (IOT) are investigated through statistical approach to provide the achieved COMS normal operation status for the Earth observation mission.

  4. Monoaminergic control of spinal locomotor networks in SOD1G93A newborn mice

    PubMed Central

    Milan, Léa; Barrière, Grégory; De Deurwaerdère, Philippe; Cazalets, Jean-René; Bertrand, Sandrine S.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the gene that encodes Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are the cause of approximately 20% of familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. While ALS symptoms appear in adulthood, spinal motoneurons exhibit functional alterations as early as the embryonic and postnatal stages in the murine model of ALS, the SOD1 mice. Monoaminergic – i.e., dopaminergic (DA), serotoninergic (5-HT), and noradrenergic (NA) – pathways powerfully control spinal networks and contribute significantly to their embryonic and postnatal maturation. Alterations in monoaminergic neuromodulation during development could therefore lead to impairments in the motoneuronal physiology. In this study, we sought to determine whether the monoaminergic spinal systems are modified in the early stages of development in SOD1 mice. Using a post-mortem analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), monoaminergic neuromodulators and their metabolites were quantified in the lumbar spinal cord of SOD1 and wild-type (WT) mice aged one postnatal day (P1) and P10. This analysis underscores an increased content of DA in the SOD1 lumbar spinal cord compared to that of WT mice but failed to reveal any modification of the other monoaminergic contents. In a next step, we compared the efficiency of the monoaminergic compounds in triggering and modulating fictive locomotion in WT and SOD1 mice. This study was performed in P1–P3 SOD1 mice and age-matched control littermates using extracellular recordings from the lumbar ventral roots in the in vitro isolated spinal cord preparation. This analysis revealed that the spinal networks of SOD1G93A mice could generate normal locomotor activity in the presence of NMA-5-HT. Interestingly, we also observed that SOD1 spinal networks have an increased sensitivity to NA compared to WT spinal circuits but exhibited similar DA responses. PMID:25071458

  5. Managing incontinence: women's normalizing strategies.

    PubMed

    Skoner, M M; Haylor, M J

    1993-01-01

    Women's strategies for managing urinary incontinence were examined in a grounded-theory study. The women's basic social concern was dealing with incontinence in a manner that enabled them to feel normal. Feeling normal meant being able to do what they wanted to do and needed to do to have a normal life-style as they perceived it. This goal was accomplished by normalizing incontinence and its management. Normalization was achieved by directing its course through self-management, accounting for it in terms of personal history and life experiences, and delaying medical counsel. These strategies are described. The findings provide fresh insights about women's response to incontinence and their practice of self-managing its consequences. PMID:8138472

  6. Immediate processing of erotic stimuli in paedophilia and controls: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most neuroimaging studies investigating sexual arousal in paedophilia used erotic pictures together with a blocked fMRI design and long stimulus presentation time. While this approach allows the detection of sexual arousal, it does not enable the assessment of the immediate processing of erotically salient stimuli. Our study aimed to identify neuronal networks related to the immediate processing of erotic stimuli in heterosexual male paedophiles and healthy age-matched controls. Methods We presented erotic pictures of prepubescent children and adults in an event related fMRI-design to eight paedophilic subjects and age-matched controls. Results Erotic pictures of females elicited more activation in the right temporal lobe, the right parietal lobe and both occipital lobes and erotic pictures of children activated the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in both groups. An interaction of sex, age and group was present in the right anteriolateral oribitofrontal cortex. Conclusions Our event related study design confirmed that erotic pictures activate some of the brain regions already known to be involved in the processing of erotic pictures when these are presented in blocks. In addition, it revealed that erotic pictures of prepubescent children activate brain regions critical for choosing response strategies in both groups, and that erotically salient stimuli selectively activate a brain region in paedophilic subjects that had previously been attributed to reward and punishment, and that had been shown to be implicated in the suppression of erotic response and deception. PMID:23510246

  7. Twenty four hour blood pressure monitoring in normal tension glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, J H; Brandi-Dohrn, J; Funk, J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The few investigations that used continuous 24 hour blood pressure monitoring to investigate whether blood pressure in patients with normal tension glaucoma is lower than in normal subjects yielded conflicting results. Therefore, a prospective controlled trial was carried out. METHODS: Systemic blood pressure was recorded continuously over a 24 hour period in 20 patients with normal tension glaucoma (IOP < or = 21 mm Hg). Eight of them showed a localised loss of the neuroretinal rim area and, in addition, optic disc haemorrhages-that is, focal ischaemic signs. Twenty healthy patients without glaucoma, who were hospitalised for cataract or retinal surgery, served as controls. Blood pressure was automatically measured every 20 minutes during the day and every 40 minutes at night. RESULTS: Both groups showed a significant (physiological) blood pressure drop at night, which was significantly (p < 0.001, ANOVA) more pronounced in the group with normal tension glaucoma than in the control group. There was a weak trend towards lower blood pressure values in the normal tension glaucoma group. Minima, maxima, and mean values of the systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures did not differ significantly between the group with normal tension glaucoma and the control group. The greatest differences occurred with nocturnal systolic and diurnal diastolic values. There were no significant differences between the subgroup with focal lesions and the other patients with normal tension glaucoma. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with normal tension glaucoma tend to have lower blood pressure values (p > 0.05, ANOVA) than normals; this difference is probably much smaller than formerly assumed. Patients with normal tension glaucoma, however, have significantly greater nocturnal blood pressure drops (p < 0.001, ANOVA) than normal controls. Nocturnal blood pressure drops (relative day-night differences) may play a more important role in the pathogenesis of normal tension glaucoma

  8. Subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in children after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe aplastic anemia: a case control study using speckle tracking echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beom Joon; Moon, Kyung Pil; Yoon, Ji-Hong; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Seong Koo; Lee, Jae Wook; Chung, Nack Gyun; Cho, Bin; Kim, Hack Ki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Severe aplastic anemia (SAA), a fatal disease, requires multiple transfusion, immunosuppressive therapy, and finally, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) as the definitive treatment. We hypothesized that iron overloading associated with multiple transfusions and HSCTrelated complications may adversely affect cardiac function. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed in children after HSCT for SAA. Methods Forty-six consecutive patients with a median age of 9.8 years (range, 1.5-18 years), who received HSCT for SAA and who underwent comprehensive echocardiography before and after HSCT, were included in this study. The data of LV functional parameters obtained using conventional echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) were collected from pre- and post-HSCT echocardiography. These data were compared to those of 40 age-matched normal controls. Results In patients, the LV ejection fraction, shortening fraction, end-diastolic dimension, mitral early diastolic E velocity, TDI mitral septal E' velocity, and STE LV longitudinal systolic strain rate (SSR) decreased significantly after HSCT. Compared to normal controls, patients had significantly lower post-HSCT early diastolic E velocity and E/A ratio. On STE, patients had significantly decreased LV deformational parameters including LV longitudinal systolic strain (SS), SSR, and diastolic SR (DSR), and circumferential SS and DSR. Serum ferritin levels showed weak but significant correlations (P<0.05) with LV longitudinal SS and SSR and circumferential SS and DSR. Conclusion Subclinical LV dysfunction is evident in patients after HSCT for SAA, and was associated with increased iron load. Serial monitoring of cardiac function is mandatory in this population. PMID:27186230

  9. Discordant assessment of tumor biomarkers by histopathological and molecular assays in the EORTC randomized controlled 10041/BIG 03-04 MINDACT trial breast cancer : Intratumoral heterogeneity and DCIS or normal tissue components are unlikely to be the cause of discordance.

    PubMed

    Viale, Giuseppe; Slaets, Leen; de Snoo, Femke A; Bogaerts, Jan; Russo, Leila; van't Veer, Laura; Rutgers, Emiel J T; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J; Stork-Sloots, Lisette; Dell'Orto, Patrizia; Glas, Annuska M; Cardoso, Fatima

    2016-02-01

    Accurate identification of breast cancer patients most likely to benefit from adjuvant systemic therapies is crucial. Better understanding of differences between methods can lead to an improved ER, PgR, and HER-2 assessment. The purpose of this preplanned translational research is to investigate the correlation of central IHC/FISH assessments with microarray mRNA readouts of ER, PgR, and HER-2 status in the MINDACT trial and to determine if any discordance could be attributed to intratumoral heterogeneity or the DCIS and normal tissue components in the specimens. MINDACT is an international, prospective, randomized, phase III trial investigating the clinical utility of MammaPrint in selecting patients with early breast cancer for adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 6694 patients). Gene-expression data were obtained by TargetPrint; IHC and/or FISH were assessed centrally (n = 5788; 86 %). Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of centrally submitted FFPE blocks identified 1427 cases for which the very same sample was submitted for gene-expression analysis. TargetPrint ER had a positive agreement of 98 %, and a negative agreement of 95 % with central pathology. Corresponding figures for PgR were 85 and 94 % and for HER-2 72 and 99 %. Agreement of mRNA versus central protein was not different when the same or a different portion of the tumor tissue was analyzed or when DCIS and/or normal tissue was included in the sample subjected to mRNA assays. This is the first large analysis to assess the discordance rate between protein and mRNA analysis of breast cancer markers, and to look into intratumoral heterogeneity, DCIS, or normal tissue components as a potential cause of discordance. The observed difference between mRNA and protein assessment for PgR and HER-2 needs further research; the present analysis does not support intratumoral heterogeneity or the DCIS and normal tissue components being likely causes of the discordance.

  10. Word superiority, pseudoword superiority, and learning to read: a comparison of dyslexic and normal readers.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Jonathan; Bouttevin, Sébastien; Truc, Cathy; Bastien, Mireille; Ziegler, Johannes

    2003-12-01

    Identification of letters embedded in briefly presented words (e.g., TABLE), pseudowords (e.g., TOBLE), and illegal nonwords (e.g., TPBFE) was measured using the Reicher-Wheeler paradigm. Children diagnosed as dyslexic and showing a clear disadvantage in recognizing and reading aloud words and pseudowords (compared to chronological age-matched controls) showed a pattern of results that was qualitatively identical to both reading age and chronological age control children. In all three groups a small nonsignificant advantage was obtained for letter identification in words compared to pseudowords, and a massive advantage for letter identification in pseudowords compared to illegal nonwords. A group of adult participants tested with the same materials showed the classic word superiority effect as well as a pseudoword advantage over illegal nonwords. These results suggest that the pseudoword superiority effect is subtended by regularities operating at the level of sublexical orthographic representations (orthotactic constraints). This phenomenon could provide a useful tool for future investigations of the development of orthotactic constraints during reading acquisition. PMID:14642545

  11. Normal, nearsightedness, and farsightedness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... it. A person with normal vision can see objects clearly near and faraway. Nearsightedness results in blurred ... or contact lenses. A nearsighted person sees near objects clearly, while objects in the distance are blurred. ...

  12. Normal weight estonian prepubertal boys show a more cardiovascular-risk-associated adipose tissue distribution than austrian counterparts.

    PubMed

    Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Saar, Meeli; Tafeit, Erwin; Kaimbacher, Petra; Kruschitz, Renate; Weghuber, Daniel; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Mangge, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Risk phenotypes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ markedly between countries, like the reported high difference in CVD mortality in Austria and Estonia. Hitherto, the goal of this study was to find out risk profiles in body fat distribution yet present in childhood, paving the way for later clinical end points. Methods. he subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) distribution patterns in 553 Austrian (A) and Estonian (E) clinically healthy normal weight boys aged 11.1 (±0.8) years were analysed. We applied the patented optical device Lipometer which determines the individual subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Results. Total body fat did not differ significantly between E and A boys. A discriminant analysis using all Lipometer data, BMI, and the total body fat (TBF) yielded 84.6% of the boys correctly classified in Estonians and Austrians by 9 body sites. A factor analysis identified the SAT distribution of E as critically similar to male adult patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Conclusions. We show in normal weight Estonian boys a highly significant decreased fat accumulation on the lower body site compared to age matched Austrian males. This SAT-Top phenotype may play an important role for the increased cardiovascular risk seen in the Estonian population.

  13. Normal Weight Estonian Prepubertal Boys Show a More Cardiovascular-Risk-Associated Adipose Tissue Distribution than Austrian Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J.; Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Saar, Meeli; Tafeit, Erwin; Kaimbacher, Petra; Kruschitz, Renate; Weghuber, Daniel; Schnedl, Wolfgang J.; Mangge, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Risk phenotypes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ markedly between countries, like the reported high difference in CVD mortality in Austria and Estonia. Hitherto, the goal of this study was to find out risk profiles in body fat distribution yet present in childhood, paving the way for later clinical end points. Methods. he subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) distribution patterns in 553 Austrian (A) and Estonian (E) clinically healthy normal weight boys aged 11.1 (±0.8) years were analysed. We applied the patented optical device Lipometer which determines the individual subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Results. Total body fat did not differ significantly between E and A boys. A discriminant analysis using all Lipometer data, BMI, and the total body fat (TBF) yielded 84.6% of the boys correctly classified in Estonians and Austrians by 9 body sites. A factor analysis identified the SAT distribution of E as critically similar to male adult patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Conclusions. We show in normal weight Estonian boys a highly significant decreased fat accumulation on the lower body site compared to age matched Austrian males. This SAT-Top phenotype may play an important role for the increased cardiovascular risk seen in the Estonian population. PMID:24555148

  14. A Case-Control Study of Maternal Periconceptual and Pregnancy Recreational Drug Use and Fetal Malformation Using Hair Analysis

    PubMed Central

    David, Anna L.; Holloway, Andrew; Thomasson, Louise; Syngelaki, Argyro; Nicolaides, Kypros; Patel, Roshni R.; Sommerlad, Brian; Wilson, Amie; Martin, William; Chitty, Lyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Maternal recreational drug use may be associated with the development of fetal malformations such as gastroschisis, brain and limb defects, the aetiology due to vascular disruption during organogenesis. Using forensic hair analysis we reported evidence of recreational drug use in 18% of women with a fetal gastroschisis. Here we investigate this association in a variety of fetal malformations using the same method. Methods In a multi-centre study, women with normal pregnancies (controls) and those with fetal abnormalities (cases) gave informed consent for hair analysis for recreational drug metabolites using mass spectrometry. Hair samples cut at the root were tested in sections corresponding to 3 month time periods (pre and periconceptual period). Results Women whose fetus had gastroschisis, compared to women with a normal control fetus, were younger (mean age 23.78±SD4.79 years, 18–37 vs 29.79±SD6 years, 18–42, p = 0.00001), were more likely to have evidence of recreational drug use (15, 25.4% vs 21, 13%, OR2.27, 95thCI 1.08–4.78, p = 0.028), and were less likely to report periconceptual folic acid use (31, 53.4% vs 124, 77.5%, OR0.33, 95thCI 0.18–0.63, p = 0.001). Age-matched normal control women were no less likely to test positive for recreational drugs than women whose fetus had gastroschisis. After accounting for all significant factors, only young maternal age remained significantly associated with gastroschisis. Women with a fetus affected by a non-neural tube central nervous system (CNS) anomaly were more likely to test positive for recreational drugs when compared to women whose fetus was normal (7, 35% vs 21, 13%, OR3.59, 95th CI1.20–10.02, p = 0.01). Conclusions We demonstrate a significant association between non neural tube CNS anomalies and recreational drug use in the periconceptual period, first or second trimesters, but we cannot confirm this association with gastroschisis. We confirm the association of

  15. Developing Visualization Support System for Teaching/Learning Database Normalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folorunso, Olusegun; Akinwale, AdioTaofeek

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In tertiary institution, some students find it hard to learn database design theory, in particular, database normalization. The purpose of this paper is to develop a visualization tool to give students an interactive hands-on experience in database normalization process. Design/methodology/approach: The model-view-controller architecture…

  16. Cell proliferation in normal epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, G.D.; McCullough, J.L.; Ross, P.

    1984-06-01

    A detailed examination of cell proliferation kinetics in normal human epidermis is presented. Using tritiated thymidine with autoradiographic techniques, proliferative and differentiated cell kinetics are defined and interrelated. The proliferative compartment of normal epidermis has a cell cycle duration (Tc) of 311 h derived from 3 components: the germinative labeling index (LI), the duration of DNA synthesis (ts), and the growth fraction (GF). The germinative LI is 2.7% +/- 1.2 and ts is 14 h, the latter obtained from a composite fraction of labeled mitoses curve obtained from 11 normal subjects. The GF obtained from the literature and from human skin xenografts to nude mice is estimated to be 60%. Normal-appearing epidermis from patients with psoriasis appears to have a higher proliferation rate. The mean LI is 4.2% +/- 0.9, approximately 50% greater than in normal epidermis. Absolute cell kinetic values for this tissue, however, cannot yet be calculated for lack of other information on ts and GF. A kinetic model for epidermal cell renewal in normal epidermis is described that interrelates the rate of birth/entry, transit, and/or loss of keratinocytes in the 3 epidermal compartments: proliferative, viable differentiated (stratum malpighii), and stratum corneum. Expected kinetic homeostasis in the epidermis is confirmed by the very similar ''turnover'' rates in each of the compartments that are, respectively, 1246, 1417, and 1490 cells/day/mm2 surface area. The mean epidermal turnover time of the entire tissue is 39 days. The Tc of 311 h in normal cells in 8-fold longer than the psoriatic Tc of 36 h and is necessary for understanding the hyperproliferative pathophysiologic process in psoriasis.

  17. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    PubMed

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods.

  18. Selected autoantibodies and normal-tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Skonieczna, Katarzyna; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona; Terelak-Borys, Barbara; Jamrozy-Witkowska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Background Although intraocular pressure is an important risk factor in glaucoma, there is growing body evidence indicating an immunological component in the pathogenesis of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). The aim of this study was to determine if NTG coexists with elevated levels of autoantibodies detected in rheumatic diseases. Material/Methods We enrolled 105 patients into the study: 35 with NTG, 34 with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and 36 controls. All patients underwent ophthalmic examination and blood tests. Blood was examined for the level of: antibodies against antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENA), immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM), rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), and antiphospholipid antibodies (anticardiolipin antibodies, beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies, antiprothrombin antibodies). Results The level of ANA was increased among 6 patients in the NTG group (17.1%), 8 in the POAG group (23.5%), and 6 in the control group (16.5%). The difference was not statistically significant (p=0.97). None of the patients in the NTG, POAG, or control group had positive antibodies to ENA. The level of immunoglobulins IgG, IgM, and IgA in the 3 groups was similar and within normal values. The median level of rheumatoid factor and ACPA was the highest in the NTG group, but it was within normal laboratory values. There was a statistically significant difference between antiprothrombin antibodies IgG between the NTG and POAG group (p=0.01), but not between the NTG and control group (p=0.24). Conclusions The results of our study do not confirm the hypothesis that NTG coexists with elevated blood levels of antibodies, which are a characteristic feature of rheumatic diseases. PMID:25016491

  19. 3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

  20. Fusion and normalization to enhance anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, R.; Atkinson, G.; Antoniades, J.; Baumback, M.; Chester, D.; Edwards, J.; Goldstein, A.; Haas, D.; Henderson, S.; Liu, L.

    2009-05-01

    This study examines normalizing the imagery and the optimization metrics to enhance anomaly and change detection, respectively. The RX algorithm, the standard anomaly detector for hyperspectral imagery, more successfully extracts bright rather than dark man-made objects when applied to visible hyperspectral imagery. However, normalizing the imagery prior to applying the anomaly detector can help detect some of the problematic dark objects, but can also miss some bright objects. This study jointly fuses images of RX applied to normalized and unnormalized imagery and has a single decision surface. The technique was tested using imagery of commercial vehicles in urban environment gathered by a hyperspectral visible/near IR sensor mounted in an airborne platform. Combining detections first requires converting the detector output to a target probability. The observed anomaly detections were fitted with a linear combination of chi square distributions and these weights were used to help compute the target probability. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) quantitatively assessed the target detection performance. The target detection performance is highly variable depending on the relative number of candidate bright and dark targets and false alarms and controlled in this study by using vegetation and street line masks. The joint Boolean OR and AND operations also generate variable performance depending on the scene. The joint SUM operation provides a reasonable compromise between OR and AND operations and has good target detection performance. In addition, new transforms based on normalizing correlation coefficient and least squares generate new transforms related to canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and a normalized image regression (NIR). Transforms based on CCA and NIR performed better than the standard approaches. Only RX detection of the unnormalized of the difference imagery in change detection provides adequate change detection performance.

  1. Changes in CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+, and Immunoglobulin M-Positive Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome-Affected Pigs and Age-Matched Uninfected Wasted and Healthy Pigs Correlate with Lesions and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Load in Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Darwich, Laila; Segalés, Joaquim; Domingo, Mariano; Mateu, Enric

    2002-01-01

    Forty-one 8- to 12-week-old wasted pigs were selected from several conventional farms with histories of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and classified into two groups according to their porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection status, as determined by in situ hybridization (ISH). Twenty-four pigs tested positive for PCV2 (PCV2-positive group), while 17 pigs tested negative for PCV2 (PCV2-negative group). In addition, eight uninfected healthy pigs from an experimental farm were used as controls. Heparinized blood samples were taken to obtain peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+ (double-positive [DP]), and immunoglobulin M-positive (IgM+) cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry with appropriate monoclonal antibodies. Histopathological studies were done to evaluate the apparent degrees of lymphocyte depletion in different lymphoid organs (superficial inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, tonsils, and spleen) and to determine the viral load of the PCV2 genome by using an ISH technique. Animals of the PCV2-positive group showed a significant downshift of the CD8+ and DP cell subsets compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, in PCV2-positive pigs, the amount of PCV2 genome in lymphoid tissues was related to the degree of cell depletion in those tissues (P < 0.05) as well as to the relative decrease in IgM+ and CD8+ cells in peripheral blood. These data support the notion that PCV2-positive pigs might have an impaired immune response. PMID:11874858

  2. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1997-06-10

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3{prime} noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  3. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  4. Golfing skill level postural control differences: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, James S; Marclay, Samuel; Najafi, Bijan

    2012-01-01

    Golfers have better balance than their age-matched counterparts; however, it is uncertain if this persists during the swing as a function of skill level. The purpose of the study was to investigate dynamic postural control (center of mass (COM) motion) measured during different phases of the swing in golfers of varying proficiency. Eighteen healthy golfers were grouped by handicap: novice (no handicap, n = 7), intermediate (handicap 15-19, n = 7), and advanced (handicap 9-14, n = 4). Indoor testing was performed hitting 3 tee shots using a common driver. A five-camera (60 Hz) motion analysis system (9 markers) was used to extract kinematics data. There were no significant group differences in gender, age, or BMI. Advanced players had lower COM displacement with respect to address at the time of maximum arm speed (p = 0. 001) compared to intermediate (57%, p = 0.014) and novice (73%, p = 0.023). These changes persisted after COM distance and time normalization. Advanced golfers had improved COM linearity during the downswing (p < 0.001) compared to intermediate (30%, p = 0.029) and novice (51%, p < 0.001). Advanced players had decreased COM displacement at the time of maximum arm speed and a more linear COM path during the early downswing. Further study should focus on these changes during ball launch conditions. Key pointsStudies suggest that static and dynamic balance is important in golf. However, none have investigated dynamic postural control during the golf swing in golfers of varying proficiency.Our findings suggest advanced players demonstrated improved postural control at the point of maximum arm speed when compared to less skilled players. Furthermore, center of mass acceleration in advanced players is closer to impact than less-skilled players.We observed an increased center of mass linearity of trajectory during the early downswing for advanced players over novice players. We theorized this strategy may help advanced golfers to improve the economy of COM

  5. Testicular function and glycemic control in diabetic men. A controlled study.

    PubMed

    Handelsman, D J; Conway, A J; Boylan, L M; Yue, D K; Turtle, J R

    1985-01-01

    We have investigated testicular function in 28 insulin-dependent diabetic men under the age of 50 years and 119 age-matched controls. Diabetics had reduced testicular volume, semen volume, total and total motile sperm output while plasma LH and FSH levels were elevated. Reduction in semen volume and impotence were more common in long-standing complicated diabetes. Glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) levels were positively correlated with plasma LH levels (r = 0.46, p less than 0.02) but there was no direct correlation of glycemic control and spermatogenesis. The differences in testicular function were due to decreased spermatogenesis and could not be explained by other forms of testicular pathology or the presence of diabetic neurovascular complications. We conclude that the function of the hypothalamic pituitary testicular axis is impaired in diabetic men, that this impairment is at least partly related to the degree of preceding glycemic control and that multiple levels of the axis may be dysfunctional.

  6. Mechanical behaviour and rupture of normal and pathological human ascending aortic wall.

    PubMed

    García-Herrera, C M; Atienza, J M; Rojo, F J; Claes, E; Guinea, G V; Celentano, D J; García-Montero, C; Burgos, R L

    2012-06-01

    The mechanical properties of aortic wall, both healthy and pathological, are needed in order to develop and improve diagnostic and interventional criteria, and for the development of mechanical models to assess arterial integrity. This study focuses on the mechanical behaviour and rupture conditions of the human ascending aorta and its relationship with age and pathologies. Fresh ascending aortic specimens harvested from 23 healthy donors, 12 patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and 14 with aneurysm were tensile-tested in vitro under physiological conditions. Tensile strength, stretch at failure and elbow stress were measured. The obtained results showed that age causes a major reduction in the mechanical parameters of healthy ascending aortic tissue, and that no significant differences are found between the mechanical strength of aneurysmal or BAV aortic specimens and the corresponding age-matched control group. The physiological level of the stress in the circumferential direction was also computed to assess the physiological operation range of healthy and diseased ascending aortas. The mean physiological wall stress acting on pathologic aortas was found to be far from rupture, with factors of safety (defined as the ratio of tensile strength to the mean wall stress) larger than six. In contrast, the physiological operation of pathologic vessels lays in the stiff part of the response curve, losing part of its function of damping the pressure waves from the heart. PMID:22391945

  7. Mechanical behaviour and rupture of normal and pathological human ascending aortic wall.

    PubMed

    García-Herrera, C M; Atienza, J M; Rojo, F J; Claes, E; Guinea, G V; Celentano, D J; García-Montero, C; Burgos, R L

    2012-06-01

    The mechanical properties of aortic wall, both healthy and pathological, are needed in order to develop and improve diagnostic and interventional criteria, and for the development of mechanical models to assess arterial integrity. This study focuses on the mechanical behaviour and rupture conditions of the human ascending aorta and its relationship with age and pathologies. Fresh ascending aortic specimens harvested from 23 healthy donors, 12 patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and 14 with aneurysm were tensile-tested in vitro under physiological conditions. Tensile strength, stretch at failure and elbow stress were measured. The obtained results showed that age causes a major reduction in the mechanical parameters of healthy ascending aortic tissue, and that no significant differences are found between the mechanical strength of aneurysmal or BAV aortic specimens and the corresponding age-matched control group. The physiological level of the stress in the circumferential direction was also computed to assess the physiological operation range of healthy and diseased ascending aortas. The mean physiological wall stress acting on pathologic aortas was found to be far from rupture, with factors of safety (defined as the ratio of tensile strength to the mean wall stress) larger than six. In contrast, the physiological operation of pathologic vessels lays in the stiff part of the response curve, losing part of its function of damping the pressure waves from the heart.

  8. Normalizing Catastrophe: Sustainability and Scientism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Making an adequate response to our deteriorating environmental situation is a matter of ever increasing urgency. It is argued that a central obstacle to achieving this is the way that scientism has become normalized in our thinking about environmental issues. This is taken to reflect on an underlying "metaphysics of mastery" that vitiates proper…

  9. Normalized Elution Time Prediction Utility

    2011-02-17

    This program is used to compute the predicted normalized elution time (NET) for a list of peptide sequences. It includes the Kangas/Petritis neural network trained model, the Krokhin hydrophobicity model, and the Mant hydrophobicity model. In addition, it can compute the predicted strong cation exchange (SCX) fraction (on a 0 to 1 scale) in which a given peptide will appear.

  10. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background) perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to 'complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all 'cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of 'complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting 'trick' we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  11. Normal Incidence Spectrophotometer Film Thickness Measurement Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, S. A.

    1983-05-01

    The Normal Incidence Spectrophotometer (NIS) Measurement Tool is used to automatically measure the thickness of transparent films on silicon wafers. Under the control of an IBM. System 7 computer, both, wafer handling and the thickness measurement are performed. automatically. Wafers are transported through the tool on a covered airtrack, and after posi-tioning in a vacuum, chuck, are moved under the measurement head to pre-programmed measurement sites. Reflectivity data from the wafer surface, as a function of wavelength, is used by a software algorithm to calculate film, thickness. This tool is used on advanced manufacturing lines at IBM in both. East Fishkill, N.Y. and Burlington, Vt.

  12. World ocean tides synthesized from normal modes.

    PubMed

    Platzman, G W

    1983-05-01

    Sixty oceanic normal modes are used to synthesize the M(2) and K(1) (principal lunar semidiurnal and declinational diurnal) tides. The ten most energetic modes in the M(2) synthesis account for 87 percent of the energy; the corresponding figure for K(1) is 93 percent, two-thirds of which is contributed by a single mode whose natural period is about 29 hours. Model calculations indicate that the quality (Q) of the ocean response to tidal forcing resembles that of a frictionally controlled oscillator. In particular, for M(2) the global Q is about 10. PMID:17749537

  13. Cephalometric comparison of cesarean and normal births

    PubMed Central

    Goymen, Merve; Topcuoglu, Tolga; Aktan, Ali Murat; Isman, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare cephalometric variables of subjects with normal and cesarean births. Materials and Methods: Ninety age- and gender-matched patients, who were treated in Gaziantep University, Faculty of Dentistry Orthodontics Department were equally divided into normal and cesarean groups according to the birth methods reported by their mothers. To eliminate the negative effects of being different in terms of age and gender among parameters, control, and patient groups were matched in the present study. Pretreatment cephalometrics radiographs were used. Six measurements representing sagittal and vertical relationships were evaluated from pretreatment cephalograms using Dolphin Imaging Orthodontics Software was used in this issue by an orthodontist. Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, Student's t-test, and Mann–Whitney U-test were used for statistical comparisons. Results: A point-nasion-B point angle (ANB) and Wits values were higher in the normal group, while sella-nasion-A point angle, sella-nasion-B point angle, Frankfort horizontal-mandibular plane angle, and gonion-gnathion-SN plane angle values were higher in the cesarean group. However, the groups showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). ANB angle and Wits values showed high correlation. Conclusions: Within the study limitations, the results suggest that the birth method may not have a considerable effect on the development of the craniofacial skeletal system. PMID:27095896

  14. Amyloid precursor protein mutation disrupts reproductive experience-enhanced normal cognitive development in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jie; Jothishankar, Balaji; He, Ping; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Shen, Yong; Li, Rena

    2013-01-01

    Women experience dramatic changes in hormones, mood and cognition through different periods of their reproductive lives, particularly during pregnancy and giving birth. While limited human studies of early pregnancy and motherhood showed alteration of cognitive functions in later life, researches on rodents showed a persistent improvement of learning and memory performance in females with history of giving birth compared to virgin controls. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common dementia in elderly, is more prevalent in women than in men. One of the risk factors is related to the sharp reduction of estrogen in aged women. It is unknown whether the history of fertility activity plays any roles in altering risk of AD in females, such as altering cognitive function. Would reproductive experience alter the risk of AD in females? If so, what might be the mechanisms of the change? In this study, we examined the effects of reproductive experience on cognitive function in an AD transgenic mouse model (APP23) and age-matched wild-type non-transgenic control mice (WT). Our data showed an age-dependent effect of reproductive experience on learning and memory activity between breeders (had 1 or more litters) and non-breeders (virgins). More importantly, our data, for the first time, demonstrated a genotype-dependent effect of parity on cognitive function between APP23 and WT mice. At the age of 12 months, WT breeders outperform non-breeders in spatial working and reference memory while APP23 breeders performed worse in spatial learning and memory than age-matched APP23 non-breeders. These genotype- and age-dependent effects of reproductive activity on cognitions are significantly associated with changes of neuropathology of AD in the APP23 mice, expression of proteins related to synaptic plasticity and cognitive functions in the brain. PMID:23853041

  15. Pressure test in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, M; Kodama, A; Ozawa, H; Izukura, H

    1994-01-01

    The application of pressure to the middle ear changes the normal inner ear pressure in animal experiments. In this study we tested the effect of exposure to under- or overpressure on hearing in a total of 78 normal ears (40 subjects) in a soundproof pressure chamber. [After exposure to underpressure, a 10 dB or more gain in 3 ears and loss in 2 ears for at least one of the test frequencies was observed in 38 ears. After exposure to overpressure, a 10 dB or more gain in 5 ears and loss in 1 ear for at least one of the test frequencies was observed in 40 ears.] The characteristics of transferred inner ear pressure during a series of exposures to underpressure seemed to be similar to those during exposures to overpressure.

  16. Heparinised saline or normal saline?

    PubMed

    Kannan, Anand

    2008-10-01

    Using heparinised saline as a flush to maintain the patency of arterial and central venous lines is a well-known practice. A literature search was undertaken but found no evidence to support the use of heparinised saline over normal saline. In addition, the use of heparinised saline may be associated with adverse effects. The literature search strategy utilised Ovid CINAHL and Medline databases, as well as hand-searching bibliographies of clinical and research articles from the University of Cambridge Medical Library. Keywords and phrases included 'heparin', 'normal saline', 'arterial', 'haemodynamic lines' and 'catheters'. All types of evidence from each of these resources were examined to identify major themes, areas of agreement and disagreement across clinical practice, changesin the concept over time and emerging trends. PMID:18983067

  17. Broadcast normalization in systolic design

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, F.C. ); Wu, I.C. )

    1988-11-01

    When a sequential algorithm is directly mapped into an array of processing elements, quite likely data broadcasts are required and their source places vary during the computation. The authors introduce a normalization method to fix the positions of the broadcast sources so that the derived design can be further transformed by retimings into a systolic array. The authors' method is fully illustrated in designing systolic arrays for enumeration sort, solving simultaneous linear equations, and computing transitive closure.

  18. Research summaries for normal birth.

    PubMed

    Romano, Amy M; Goer, Henci

    2007-01-01

    In this column, the authors summarize four research studies that further support the benefits of normal birth. The topics of the studies include the association of cesarean birth with an increased risk of neonatal death; the use of acupuncture and self-hypnosis as effective pain-management strategies; factors associated with amniotic-fluid embolism; and the positive influence of continuous support by lay doulas on obstetric outcomes for low-income women. PMID:18408810

  19. Succeeding in the New Normal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    Being a college CIO these days must feel a bit like juggling chain saws with one hand while holding a donation cup in the other. It's unlikely to end well, yet it represents the new normal in IT. While campus clients--from administrators to faculty and students--expect the usual raft of tech services, the IT budget simply can't deliver. In this…

  20. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, C; Carminati, E; Petricca, P; Riguzzi, F

    2015-07-14

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors.

  1. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, C; Carminati, E; Petricca, P; Riguzzi, F

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors. PMID:26169163

  2. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, C.; Carminati, E.; Petricca, P.; Riguzzi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors. PMID:26169163

  3. Normal jugular bulb oxygen saturation

    PubMed Central

    Chieregato, A; Calzolari, F; Trasforini, G; Targa, L; Latronico, N

    2003-01-01

    Background: Normal values of the jugular bulb oxygen saturation were obtained in 1942 and in 1963. Correct catheter positioning was not confirmed radiologically. Objectives: To replicate the measurements during angiographic catheterisation of the jugular bulb. Methods: Oxygen saturation in the jugular bulb (SjO2), inferior petrosal sinus (SipsO2), and internal jugular vein was bilaterally measured in 12 patients with Cushing's syndrome undergoing selective bilateral catheterisation of the inferior petrosal sinus. In addition, data from the two old series were reanalysed for comparison. Results: SjO2 values (44.7%) were significantly lower than in the two old series, particularly concerning the normal lower limit (54.6% and 55.0% respectively). Comparative analysis suggests that contamination with the extracerebral blood of the facial veins and inferior petrosal sinuses was responsible for falsely high SjO2 values in the two old series. Conclusions: The normal lower SjO2 limit is lower than previously recognised. This may have practical implications for treating severe head trauma patients. PMID:12754351

  4. Normalization of Gravitational Acceleration Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckman, Randy A.; Brown, Aaron J.; Adamo, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the con- sequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the nonsphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of a nonspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities which must be removed in order to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Three unique algorithms have been developed to eliminate these singularities by Samuel Pines [1], Bill Lear [2], and Robert Gottlieb [3]. This paper documents the methodical normalization of two1 of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear [2] and Gottlieb [3] algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre Polynomials and ALFs for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.

  5. Photodynamic therapy on normal rabbit mandible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kathleen F.; Hopper, Colin; Speight, Paul M.; Davies, Claire; Bown, Stephen G.

    1995-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been proposed as an intra-operative adjunct to surgical resection of tumors invading bone. To assess this, we studied the effects of PDT in normal bone. Forty- four rabbits were sensitized with Photofrin 3 mg/kg, 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) 400 mg/kg, or meso-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC) 0.3 mg/kg. A mandibular incisor was removed and the socket irradiated with a cylindrical diffusion fiber (630 nm Photofrin and ALA, 650 nm mTHPC, 100 J per treatment). Irradiation was given 1 or 48 hours after Photofrin, 72 hours after mTHPC, whilst 2 doses were given 2.5 and 4 hours after the first fractionated dose of ALA. The socket of the ipsilateral maxillary incisor was used as a nonirradiated control to assess healing without PDT. Other controls assessed healing after irradiation of unsensitized animals. Rabbits were killed 3, 10, and 21 days after treatment. Tooth socket healing appeared to be the same in all groups of animals with evidence of woven bone formation by 10 days. We conclude that PDT is unlikely to have any effect on healing in normal bone, which makes it suitable for treating tumors invading bone.

  6. Quantiles for Finite Mixtures of Normal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Mezbahur; Rahman, Rumanur; Pearson, Larry M.

    2006-01-01

    Quantiles for finite mixtures of normal distributions are computed. The difference between a linear combination of independent normal random variables and a linear combination of independent normal densities is emphasized. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  7. A Study to Inform the Design of a National Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trial to Evaluate If Reducing Serum Phosphate to Normal Levels Improves Clinical Outcomes including Mortality, Cardiovascular Events, Bone Pain, or Fracture in Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Ramya; Kalra, Philip A.; Brenchley, Paul; Hurst, Helen; Hutchison, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    Background. Retrospective, observational studies link high phosphate with mortality in dialysis patients. This generates research hypotheses but does not establish “cause-and-effect.” A large randomised controlled trial (RCT) of about 3000 patients randomised 50 : 50 to lower or higher phosphate ranges is required to answer the key question: does reducing phosphate levels improve clinical outcomes? Whether such a trial is technically possible is unknown; therefore, a study is necessary to inform the design and conduct of a future, definitive trial. Methodology. Dual centre prospective parallel group study: 100 dialysis patients randomized to lower (phosphate target 0.8 to 1.4 mmol/L) or higher range group (1.8 to 2.4 mmol/L). Non-calcium-containing phosphate binders and questionnaires will be used to achieve target phosphate. Primary endpoint: percentage successfully titrated to required range and percentage maintained in these groups over the maintenance period. Secondary endpoints: consent rate, drop-out rates, and cardiovascular events. Discussion. This study will inform design of a large definitive trial of the effect of phosphate on mortality and cardiovascular events in dialysis patients. If phosphate lowering improves outcomes, we would be reassured of the validity of this clinical practice. If, on the other hand, there is no improvement, a reassessment of resource allocation to therapies proven to improve outcomes will result. Trial Registration Number. This trial is registered with ISRCTN registration number ISRCTN24741445. PMID:26366297

  8. Clinical and Biochemical Data of Adult Thalassemia Major patients (TM) with Multiple Endocrine Complications (MEC) versus TM Patients with Normal Endocrine Functions: A long-term Retrospective Study (40 years) in a Tertiary Care Center in Italy

    PubMed Central

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elsedfy, Heba; Soliman, Ashraf T.; Elhakim, Ihab Zaki; Kattamis, Christos; Soliman, Nada A.; Elalaily, Rania

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It is well known that the older generation of adult TM patients has a higher incidence of morbidities and co-morbidities. At present, little information is available on adult TM patients with multiple endocrine complications (MEC). The main objectives of this longitudinal retrospective survey were: 1) to establish the incidence and progression of MEC (3 or more) in TM patients; 2) to compare the clinical, laboratory and imaging data to a sex and age-matched group of TM patients without MEC; 3) to assess the influence of iron overload represented by serum ferritin (peak and mean annual value at the last endocrine observation). Patients and methods The study was started in January 1974 and was completed by the same physician at the end of December 2015. The registry database of the regularly followed TM patients from diagnosis included 145 adults (> 18 years). All TM patients were of Italian ethnic origin. Eleven out of 145 patients (7.5 %) developed MEC. Twenty-four other patients (12 females and 12 males) had a normal endocrine function (16.5 %) and served as controls. Results In our survey, four important, relevant aspects emerged in the MEC group. These included the late age at the start of chelation therapy with desferrioxamine mesylate (DFO); the higher serum ferritin peak (8521.8 ± 5958.9 vs 3575.2 ± 1801.4 ng/ml); the upper proportion of splenectomized (81.8 % vs. 28.5%) patients and poor compliance registered mainly during the peripubertal and pubertal age (72.7 % vs.16.6 %) in TM patients developing MEC versus those without endocrine complications. Furthermore, a negative correlation was observed in all TM patients between LIC and final height (r: −0.424; p = 0.031). Conclusions Our study supports the view that simultaneous involvement of more than one endocrine gland is not uncommon (7.5 %). It mainly occurred in TM patients who started chelation therapy with DFO late in life and who had irregular/poor compliance to treatment. Therefore

  9. Dorsal and ventral stream sensitivity in normal development and hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Alison; Cory, Elizabeth; Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver; Wattam-Bell, John; Guzzetta, Andrea; Cioni, Giovanni

    2002-05-01

    Form and motion coherence thresholds can provide comparable measures of global visual processing in the ventral and dorsal streams respectively. Normal development of thresholds was tested in 360 normally developing children aged 4-11 and in normal adults. The two tasks showed similar developmental trends, with some greater variability and a slight delay in motion coherence compared to form coherence performance, in reaching adult levels. To examine the proposal of dorsal stream vulnerability related to specific developmental disorders, we compared 24 children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy with the normally developing group. Hemiplegic children performed significantly worse than controls on the motion coherence task for their age, but not on the form coherence task; however, within this group no specific brain area was significantly associated with poor motion compared to form coherence performance. These results suggest that extrastriate mechanisms mediating these thresholds normally develop in parallel, but that the dorsal stream has a greater, general vulnerability to early neurological impairment. PMID:11997698

  10. Subthalamic Stimulation Reduces Vowel Space at the Initiation of Sustained Production: Implications for Articulatory Motor Control in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sidtis, John J.; Alken, Amy G.; Tagliati, Michele; Alterman, Ron; Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stimulation of the subthalamic nuclei (STN) is an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease, but complaints of speech difficulties after surgery have been difficult to quantify. Speech measures do not convincingly account for such reports. Objective: This study examined STN stimulation effects on vowel production, in order to probe whether DBS affects articulatory posturing. The objective was to compare positioning during the initiation phase with the steady prolongation phase by measuring vowel spaces for three “corner” vowels at these two time frames. Methods: Vowel space was measured over the initial 0.25 sec of sustained productions of high front (/i/), high back (/u/) and low vowels (/a/), and again during a 2 sec segment at the midpoint. Eight right-handed male subjects with bilateral STN stimulation and seven age-matched male controls were studied based on their participation in a larger study that included functional imaging. Mean values: age = 57±4.6 yrs; PD duration = 12.3±2.7 yrs; duration of DBS = 25.6±21.2 mos, and UPDRS III speech score = 1.6±0.7. STN subjects were studied off medication at their therapeutic DBS settings and again with their stimulators off, counter-balanced order. Results: Vowel space was larger in the initiation phase compared to the midpoint for both the control and the STN subjects off stimulation. With stimulation on, however, the initial vowel space was significantly reduced to the area measured at the mid-point. For the three vowels, the acoustics were differentially affected, in accordance with expected effects of front versus back position in the vocal tract. Conclusions: STN stimulation appears to constrain initial articulatory gestures for vowel production, raising the possibility that articulatory positions normally used in speech are similarly constrained. PMID:27003219

  11. Associations of neonatal high birth weight with maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain: a case–control study in women from Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Rong; Han, Lingli; Zhou, Xiaoli; Xiong, Zhengai; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Junnan; Yao, Ruoxue; Li, Tingyu; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with neonatal high birth weight (HBW) in a sample of Chinese women living in southwest China. Methods A hospital-based case–control study was conducted in Chongqing, China. A total of 221 mothers who delivered HBW babies (>4.0 kg) were recruited as cases and 221 age-matched (2-year interval) mothers with normal birth weight babies (2.5–4.0 kg) were identified as controls. ORs were estimated using conditional logistic regression analysis. For the analysis, pre-pregnancy BMI was categorised as underweight/normal weight/overweight and obesity and GWG was categorised as inadequate/appropriate/excessive. Results Among the cases, mean pre-pregnancy BMI was 21.8±2.8 kg/m2, mean GWG was 19.7±5.1 kg and mean neonatal birth weight was 4.2±0.2 kg. In the controls, the corresponding values were 21.1±3.1 kg/m2, 16.4±5.0 kg and 3.3±0.4 kg, respectively. More cases than controls gained excessive weight during pregnancy (80.1% vs 48.4%, p<0.001). No significant association was found between pre-pregnancy BMI and HBW babies (OR=1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.11; p>0.05). GWG was positively related to HBW after adjustment for gravidity, gestational age, newborns' gender and family income (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.25; p<0.001). The adjusted OR of delivering HBW babies was 5.39 (95% CI 2.94 to 9.89; p<0.001) for excessive GWG versus appropriate GWG. This OR was strengthened among pre-pregnancy normal weight women (OR=10.27, 95% CI 3.20 to 32.95; p<0.001). Conclusions Overall, the findings suggest a significantly positive association between GWG and HBW. However, pre-pregnancy BMI shows no independent relationship with HBW. PMID:27531723

  12. Effects of sugar on aggressive and inattentive behavior in children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity and normal children.

    PubMed

    Wender, E H; Solanto, M V

    1991-11-01

    Foods high in refined sugar are claimed to exacerbate hyperactivity and increase aggressive behavior. Controlled studies have failed to confirm any effect on hyperactivity and effects on inattention have been equivocal. Possible effect on aggressive behavior has received little study. This study assessed cognitive attention and aggressive behavior immediately following an acute ingestion of sugar compared with saccharin and aspartame-sweetened placebos in 17 subjects with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity compared with 9 age-matched control subjects. The sugar and placebo challenges were given with a breakfast high in carbohydrate. Although the children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity were significantly more aggressive than the control subjects, there were no significant effects of sugar or either placebo on the aggressive behavior of either group. However, inattention, as measured by a continuous performance task, increased only in the attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity group following sugar, but not saccharin or aspartame. This result is of questionable clinical significance inasmuch as aggressive behavior was unchanged. The finding may be due to the combination of the sugar challenge with a high-carbohydrate breakfast. These findings should be replicated and any possible clinical significance should be documented before any dietary recommendations can be made.

  13. Tenascin-C Is Associated with Cored Amyloid-β Plaques in Alzheimer Disease and Pathology Burdened Cognitively Normal Elderly.

    PubMed

    Mi, Zhiping; Halfter, Willi; Abrahamson, Eric E; Klunk, William E; Mathis, Chester A; Mufson, Elliott J; Ikonomovic, Milos D

    2016-09-01

    Tenascin-C (TN-C) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein linked to inflammatory processes in pathological conditions including Alzheimer disease (AD). We examined the distribution of TN-C immunoreactivity (ir) in relation to amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and vascular Aβ deposits in autopsy brain tissues from 14 patients with clinical and neuropathological AD and 10 aged-matched controls with no cognitive impairment; 5 of the controls had Aβ plaques and 5 did not. TN-C ir was abundant in cortical white matter and subpial cerebral gray matter in all cases, whereas TN-C ir was weak in blood vessels. In all cases with Aβ plaques but not in plaque-free controls, TN-C ir was detected as large (>100 µm in diameter) diffuse extracellular deposits in cortical grey matter. TN-C plaques completely overlapped and surrounded cored Aβ plaques labeled with X-34, a fluorescent derivative of Congo red, and they were associated with reactive astrocytes astrocytes, microglia and phosphorylated tau-containing dystrophic neurites. Diffuse Aβ plaques lacking amyloid cores, reactive glia or dystrophic neurites showed no TN-C ir. In cases with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, TN-C ir in vessel walls did not spread into the surrounding neuropil. These results suggest a role for TN-C in Aβ plaque pathogenesis and its potential as a biomarker and therapy target. PMID:27444354

  14. Appearance Normalization of Histology Slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niethammer, Marc; Borland, David; Marron, J. S.; Woosley, John; Thomas, Nancy E.

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearances across slides, that is very effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols, and to slide fading. The approach is validated using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets.

  15. Cascaded target normal sheath acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Xu, J. C.; Zhao, X. Y.; Yu, Y. H.; Yi, L. Q.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, L. G.; Xu, T. J.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2013-11-15

    A cascaded target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) scheme is proposed to simultaneously increase energy and improve energy spread of a laser-produced mono-energetic proton beam. An optimum condition that uses the maximum sheath field to accelerate the center of the proton beam is theoretically found and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. An initial 10 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 21 MeV with energy spread decreased from 5% to 2% under the optimum condition during the process of the cascaded TNSA. The scheme opens a way to scale proton energy lineally with laser energy.

  16. Normalizing a large number of quantitative traits using empirical normal quantile transformation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Bo; Yu, Robert K; DeHoff, Kevin L; Amos, Christopher I

    2007-01-01

    Variance-components and regression-based methods are frequently used to map quantitative trait loci. The normality of the trait values is usually assumed and violation of this assumption can have a detrimental effect on the power and type I error of such analyses. Various transformations can be used, but appropriate transformations usually require careful analysis of individual traits, which is not feasible for data sets with a large number of traits like those in Problem 1 of Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 (GAW15). A semiparametric variance-components method can estimate the transformation along with the model parameters, but existing methods are computationally intensive. In this paper, we propose the use of empirical normal quantile transformation to normalize the scaled rank of trait values using an inverse normal transformation. Despite its simplicity and potential loss of information, this transformation is shown, by extensive simulations, to have good control of power and type I error, even when compared with the semiparametric method. To investigate the impact of such a transformation on real data sets, we apply variance-components and variance-regression methods to the expression data of GAW15 and compare the results before and after transformation. PMID:18466501

  17. Exercise training modifies gut microbiota in normal and diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Jennifer E; Myslicki, Jason P; Bomhof, Marc R; Belke, Darrell D; Shearer, Jane; Reimer, Raylene A

    2015-07-01

    Cecal microbiota from type 2 diabetic (db/db) and control (db/(+)) mice was obtained following 6 weeks of sedentary or exercise activity. qPCR analysis revealed a main effect of exercise, with greater abundance of select Firmicutes species and lower Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. in both normal and diabetic exercised mice compared with sedentary counterparts. Conversely, Bifidobacterium spp. was greater in exercised normal but not diabetic mice (exercise × diabetes interaction). How exercise influences gut microbiota requires further investigation.

  18. [Ultrasonography of normal vermiform appendix].

    PubMed

    Ferri, E; Bonvicini, U; Pisani, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was the detection and visualisation of the normal vermiform appendix and its characteristics by ultrasonography in adults with no clinical suggestion of acute or chronic abdominal disease. A prospective study was performed in 200 subjects. The graded-compression ultrasonography technique was used to explore the lower right quadrant of the abdomen and the pelvis. The examination was performed using a 4 MHz sector array and 7.5 MHz linear array transducer. In a few cases, a 10 MHz linear array transducer was used. The appendix was visualized in 54% of patients. In all cases where the appendix was visualized it was found to be either on the ileo-psoas muscle or directly beneath the abdominal wall. The ileo-caecal valve was visualized in 78% of cases. The transverse diameter was found to be no greater than 6.5 mm except in three cases that had a diameters ranging from 7 to 9 mm. Diameter variability along the length of the same appendix was demonstrated in 5% of subjects. Wall thickness was no greater than 2.5 mm. Our experience suggests that graded-compression ultrasonography is a valuable procedure for detecting the vermiform appendix more frequently than has been previously reported. The patients physical constitution and the anatomical location of the vermiform appendix were found to be important factors affecting the ability to visualize the vermiform appendix. The ability to visualise the normal vermiform appendix ultrasonographically supports the clinical diagnosis and excludes acute appendicitis.

  19. Update on Normal Tension Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Jyotiranjan; Devi, Lily; Malik, Pradeep K; Mallick, Jogamaya

    2016-01-01

    Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is labelled when typical glaucomatous disc changes, visual field defects and open anterior chamber angles are associated with intraocular pressure (IOP) constantly below 21 mmHg. Chronic low vascular perfusion, Raynaud's phenomenon, migraine, nocturnal systemic hypotension and over-treated systemic hypertension are the main causes of normal tension glaucoma. Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography and visual field analysis are the main tools of investigation for the diagnosis of NTG. Management follows the same principles of treatment for other chronic glaucomas: To reduce IOP by a substantial amount, sufficient to prevent disabling visual loss. Treatment is generally aimed to lower IOP by 30% from pre-existing levels to 12-14 mmHg. Betaxolol, brimonidine, prostaglandin analogues, trabeculectomy (in refractory cases), systemic calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine) and 24-hour monitoring of blood pressure are considered in the management of NTG. The present review summarises risk factors, causes, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of NTG. PMID:27413503

  20. The KRAKEN normal mode program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, M. B.

    1992-05-01

    In the late 1970's, several normal-mode models existed which were widely used for predicting acoustic transmission-loss in the ocean; however, each had its own problems. Typical difficulties included numerical instabilities for certain types of sound-speed profiles and failures to compute a complete set of ocean modes. In short, there was a need for a model that was robust, accurate, and efficient. In order to resolve these problems, a new algorithm was developed forming the basis for the KRAKEN normal mode model. Over subsequent years, KRAKEN was greatly extended, with options for modeling ocean environments that are range-independent, range-dependent, or fully 3-dimensional. The current version offers the specialist a vast number of options for treating ocean-acoustics problems (or more generally acousto-elastic waveguides). On the other hand, it is easy for a less sophisticated user to learn the small subset of tools needed for the common problem of transmission-loss modeling in range-independent ocean environments. This report addresses the need for a more complete user's guide to supplement the on-line help files. The first chapters give a fairly technical description of the mathematical and numerical basis of the model. Additional chapters give a simpler description of its use and installation in a manner that is accessible to less scientifically-oriented readers.

  1. How do normal faults grow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Christopher; Bell, Rebecca; Rotevatn, Atle; Tvedt, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Normal faulting accommodates stretching of the Earth's crust, and it is arguably the most fundamental tectonic process leading to continent rupture and oceanic crust emplacement. Furthermore, the incremental and finite geometries associated with normal faulting dictate landscape evolution, sediment dispersal and hydrocarbon systems development in rifts. Displacement-length scaling relationships compiled from global datasets suggest normal faults grow via a sympathetic increase in these two parameters (the 'isolated fault model'). This model has dominated the structural geology literature for >20 years and underpins the structural and tectono-stratigraphic models developed for active rifts. However, relatively recent analysis of high-quality 3D seismic reflection data suggests faults may grow by rapid establishment of their near-final length prior to significant displacement accumulation (the 'coherent fault model'). The isolated and coherent fault models make very different predictions regarding the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of rift basin, thus assessing their applicability is important. To-date, however, very few studies have explicitly set out to critically test the coherent fault model thus, it may be argued, it has yet to be widely accepted in the structural geology community. Displacement backstripping is a simple graphical technique typically used to determine how faults lengthen and accumulate displacement; this technique should therefore allow us to test the competing fault models. However, in this talk we use several subsurface case studies to show that the most commonly used backstripping methods (the 'original' and 'modified' methods) are, however, of limited value, because application of one over the other requires an a priori assumption of the model most applicable to any given fault; we argue this is illogical given that the style of growth is exactly what the analysis is attempting to determine. We then revisit our case studies and demonstrate

  2. Tunneling of quasiparticles in the normal-insulator-superconductor-insulator-normal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Mutsuo; Ishizaka, Satoshi; Sone, Jun'ichi

    1993-12-01

    The probability of quasiparticle transmission going through a normal-insulator- superconductor-insulator-normal (NISIN) geometry is theoretically calculated using Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations to investigate the feasibility of electron devices utilizing this geometry. This new calculation is able to include a current carried by Cooper pairs by employing hole injections from the outlet which destroy Cooper pairs at the outlet super- conductor-insulator boundary. Resonant tunneling phenomena occur even if the electron kinetic energy is less than the superconducting energy gap and electron tunneling probabilities are greatly modified by the resonance. When the unevenness of the superconductor (S) width thickness is large compared with the electron wavelength in the S layer, the resonance is smeared out in averaged tunneling probabilities. Then the tunneling probabilities can be controlled by the electron kinetic energy. Applications of the NISIN geometry for superconducting transistors are also discussed.

  3. Normalization: only cautious steps now

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, A.

    1985-01-01

    Despite efforts to come to grips with the American experience in Vietnam, our relationship with Indochina continues to have a low priority. It is important to reconcile with our former enemy, but we also have a national security interest in competing with the Soviets for influence over the area. The normalization, however, must be viewed as a long-term objective while we maintain good relations with the governments of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and uphold our goal of Vietnamese troop withdrawal from Cambodia. An active policy could encourage the ASEAN nations to negotiate a coherent approach and help to oppose a return of Pol Pot. The US could also remove restrictions on voluntary organizations seeking to assist the people in Vietnam and Cambodia.

  4. [Hepatitis C and normal transaminases].

    PubMed

    Malé Velázquez, René; Ayuzo del Valle, Cipatli

    2002-10-01

    Since the discovery of hepatitis C virus and its serologic markers, an identification of a subgroup of patients with persistent normal ALT (PNALT) was done. It has been estimated that this group accounts to 25% of patients with chronic hepatitis C. It is not recommended to biopsy or initiate treatment because of the natural history of the disease is benign with slow progression. However, recent studies have shown mild to moderate histologic abnormalities in nearly 80% of the patients. Interferon treatment as monotherapy has not shown significant results and there are not enough data to support combined therapy. It is recommended clinical follow up every 3 to 6 months combined with liver function tests. Biopsy and antiviral treatment should only be considered for patients included in clinical trials.

  5. Appearance normalization of histology slides.

    PubMed

    Vicory, Jared; Couture, Heather D; Thomas, Nancy E; Borland, David; Marron, J S; Woosley, John; Niethammer, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the plane estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearance across slides and is effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols and counteracting slide fading. The approach is validated against non-prior plane-fitting using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets. Results of application of the method to adjustment of faded slides are given, and the effectiveness of the method in aiding statistical classification is shown.

  6. Familial idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Huovinen, Joel; Kastinen, Sami; Komulainen, Simo; Oinas, Minna; Avellan, Cecilia; Frantzen, Janek; Rinne, Jaakko; Ronkainen, Antti; Kauppinen, Mikko; Lönnrot, Kimmo; Perola, Markus; Pyykkö, Okko T; Koivisto, Anne M; Remes, Anne M; Soininen, Hilkka; Hiltunen, Mikko; Helisalmi, Seppo; Kurki, Mitja; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Leinonen, Ville

    2016-09-15

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a late-onset surgically alleviated, progressive disease. We characterize a potential familial subgroup of iNPH in a nation-wide Finnish cohort of 375 shunt-operated iNPH-patients. The patients were questionnaired and phone-interviewed, whether they have relatives with either diagnosed iNPH or disease-related symptomatology. Then pedigrees of all families with more than one iNPH-case were drawn. Eighteen patients (4.8%) from 12 separate pedigrees had at least one shunt-operated relative whereas 42 patients (11%) had relatives with two or more triad symptoms. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, familial iNPH-patients had up to 3-fold risk of clinical dementia compared to sporadic iNPH patients. This risk was independent from diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and APOE ε4 genotype. This study describes a familial entity of iNPH offering a novel approach to discover the potential genetic characteristics of iNPH. Discovered pedigrees offer an intriguing opportunity to conduct longitudinal studies targeting potential preclinical signs of iNPH. PMID:27538594

  7. Mechanics of the normal heart.

    PubMed

    Tendulkar, Amod P; Harken, Alden H

    2006-01-01

    Even though studies on isolated papillary muscles and cardiomyocytes can be applied to the mechanics of a beating heart, it is not always easy for physicians to relate these findings to clinical medicine. Thus, it is important to extend the studies to intact heart either in simulations or in animal models and even better to validate the results with human subjects. Advances in engineering and computer technology have allowed us to bridge the gap between physiology and mechanics. Cardiomyocyte stress/strain relates to muscle energy expenditure, which dictates oxygen and substrate utilization. Appreciation of this sequential relationship by clinicians will facilitate the logical development and assessment of therapies. Theory of finite element analysis (FEA) can predict cardiac mechanics under normal and pathologic conditions. Imaging studies provide an avenue to relate these predictions indirectly to experimental studies. In this fashion, we can understand the mechanical basis for the micro- and macroanatomical twisting motion of the beating heart. The purposes of this manuscript are: (1) to examine the terms that are traditionally used to describe mechanical stresses and strain within the ventricle, (2) to explore the three-dimensional organization of cardiomyocytes that influences global ventricular function, (3) to apply mechanical measures to both single cardiomyofibrils and the intact ventricle (4) to evaluate mathematical and computer models used to characterize cardiac mechanics, and (5) to outline the clinical methods available to measure ventricular function and relate findings from FEA to pathologic conditions.

  8. Dyslexic, Delayed, Precocious or Just Normal? Word Reading Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asberg, Jakob; Dahlgren Sandberg, Annika

    2012-01-01

    Word reading skills and reading-related language and cognitive correlates were examined in Swedish 10-15-year-olds with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The full group with ASD did not differ statistically from an age-matched comparison group in word reading, but a poor-readers subgroup was identified who displayed severe difficulties. Normal…

  9. High-throughput DNA analysis shows the importance of methylation in the control of immune inflammatory gene transcription in chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic periodontitis represents a complex disease that is hard to control and is not completely understood. Evidence from past studies suggests that there is a key role for DNA methylation in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. However, all reports have applied technologies that investigate genes in a low throughput. In order to advance in the knowledge of the disease, we analyzed DNA methylation variations associated with gene transcription using a high-throughput assay. Infinium® HumanMethylation450 (Illumina) was performed on gingival samples from 12 periodontitis cases and 11 age-matched healthy individuals. Methylation data of 1,284 immune-related genes and 1,038 cell cycle-related genes from Gene Ontology (GO) and 575 genes from a dataset of stably expressed genes (genes with consistent expression in different physiological states and tissues) were extracted from a microarray dataset and analyzed using bioinformatics tools. DNA methylation variations ranging from −2,000 to +2,000 bp from the transcription start site (TSS) were analyzed, and the results were tested against a differential expression microarray dataset between healthy and periodontitis gingival tissues. Differences were evaluated using tests from the R Statistical Project. Results The comparison of probes between periodontitis and normal gingival tissues showed that the mean methylation scores and the frequency of methylated probes were significantly lower in genes related to the immune process. In the immune group, these parameters were negatively correlated with gene expression (Mann-Whitney test, p < 2.2e − 16). Conclusions Our results show that variations in DNA methylation between healthy and periodontitis cases are higher in genes related to the immune-inflammatory process. Thus, DNA methylation must be modulating chromatin regions and, consequently, modulating the mRNA transcription of immune-inflammatory genes related with periodontitis, impacting the prognosis of

  10. Food shopping and weight concern. Balancing consumer and body normality.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Holm, Lotte

    2014-11-01

    The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were observed. The study shows that the aim of achieving a normal body does not eclipse the importance of enacting values linked to ideas of the 'normal consumer'. Using empirical examples, the study illuminates how consumer freedom is attained in ways that are both complementary to, and in conflict with, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management and food consumption.

  11. Tuberculosis awareness in Gezira, Sudan: knowledge, attitude and practice case-control survey.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, M M A; Sahal, N; Sodemann, M; Elsony, A; Aro, A R

    2014-03-13

    This case-control study aimed to assess tuberculosis (TB) awareness and its associated sociodemographic characteristics in Gezira, Sudan. New smear-positive TB patients registered in Gezira in 2010 (n = 425) and age-matched controls who attended the same health facilities for other reasons (n = 850) formed the study sample. Awareness was measured using a modified standard World Health Organization TB knowledge, attitude and practice instrument. There was no significant difference between TB cases and the controls in overall levels of TB awareness. About two-thirds of TB cases and controls had good TB awareness. Respondents' sex was associated with awareness among the controls. Age, level of education, type of residence and type of occupation were significantly associated with TB awareness, whereas marital status had no effect. The good level of TB awareness found among TB cases and controls is a baseline for further TB awareness-raising among the Gezira population.

  12. Inhibition control and working memory capacity in children with SLI

    PubMed Central

    Marton, Klara; Kelmenson, Lyudmyla; Pinkhasova, Milana

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the “inefficient inhibition hypothesis” (IIH; Bjorklund & Harnishfeger, 1990; Wilson & Kipp, 1998) in three groups: children with specific language impairment (SLI), age-matched and language-matched controls. The IIH suggests that individuals with efficient inhibition skills perform better on working memory tasks because they are able to keep out irrelevant information from working memory. Children with SLI show processing capacity limitations. This study examined whether the working memory limitations are impacted by inhibition problems in this population. Working memory capacity was measured with a listening span task and children’s inhibition errors were categorized. These errors reflected either immediate or delayed inhibition problems and they indicated either contextual distractions or perseverations. Children with SLI produced more inhibition errors than their peers in most categories. The results show an association between inhibition control and working memory capacity, but the direction of causality is not clear. PMID:18545677

  13. SUNY's Centralization: Normal Schools as Precedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, H. Warren; Corby, Betsey C.

    This report presents the historical background of New York State's normal school system, the system that predated the centralized organization of the State University of New York (SUNY) system. New York's first state normal school was established in Albany in 1844. Nineteen years later the state began to provide support for the normal school at…

  14. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax normalization. 154... Changes § 154.305 Tax normalization. (a) Applicability. An interstate pipeline must compute the income tax component of its cost-of-service by using tax normalization for all transactions. (b) Definitions. (1)...

  15. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax normalization. 154... Changes § 154.305 Tax normalization. (a) Applicability. An interstate pipeline must compute the income tax component of its cost-of-service by using tax normalization for all transactions. (b) Definitions. (1)...

  16. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax normalization. 154... Changes § 154.305 Tax normalization. (a) Applicability. An interstate pipeline must compute the income tax component of its cost-of-service by using tax normalization for all transactions. (b) Definitions. (1)...

  17. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax normalization. 154... Changes § 154.305 Tax normalization. (a) Applicability. An interstate pipeline must compute the income tax component of its cost-of-service by using tax normalization for all transactions. (b) Definitions. (1)...

  18. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax normalization. 154... Changes § 154.305 Tax normalization. (a) Applicability. An interstate pipeline must compute the income tax component of its cost-of-service by using tax normalization for all transactions. (b) Definitions. (1)...

  19. Diagnosis and Treatment of Normal Eating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet; Herman, C. Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores similarities between normal dieters and individuals with eating disorders. Compares regulation of intake among normal dieter and patient populations, using the boundary model of consumption. Concludes that in neither group is eating technically disordered, though it departs from appropriate physiological norms, and that many normal eaters…

  20. Diabetic Children Need Care but Can Lead Normal Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Children with diabetes can take part in normal school activities as long as they maintain control over their blood sugar level through a technique called self blood-glucose monitoring. Parents can work with teachers to see that dietary and medicinal needs are accommodated. (PP)

  1. 76 FR 32242 - Federal Employees' Retirement System; Normal Cost Percentages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Intelligence Agency Retirement Act of 1964 for Certain Employees--27.6%; Air traffic controllers--27.3%; Military reserve technicians--15.7%; Employees under section 303 of the Central Intelligence Agency... MANAGEMENT Federal Employees' Retirement System; Normal Cost Percentages AGENCY: Office of...

  2. Not Your Normal Power Box

    SciTech Connect

    Okman, Oya; Baginska, Marta; Jones, Elizabeth MC; Pety, Stephen J; Lim, Tae Wook; Kaitz, Joshua A; Dong, Hefei; Vissers, Daniel R; Sottos, Nancy R; White, Scott R; Moore, Jeffrey S; Thackery, Michael M; Fenter, Paul A; Trahey, Lynn; Sandler, Sana; Hersam, Mark C; Kapper, Aaron J

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Center for Electrical Energy Storage (CEES), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge and was awarded "Best Science Lesson." As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE: energy. The mission of the CEES is to acquire a fundamental understanding of interfacial phenomena controlling electrochemical processes that will enable dramatic improvements in the properties and performance of energy storage devices, notably Li ion batteries.

  3. A Controlled Study on the Correlation between Tear Film Volume and Tear Film Stability in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Iman M; Khalil, Noha M; El-Gendy, Heba A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the tear film quantity and correlate it with the quality and stability of the tear film in diabetics and compare them to age matched controls. Introduction. Diabetes affects tear film parameters in multiple ways. Poor metabolic control and neuropathy are postulated factors. To further understand how diabetes affects tear film parameters this study was conducted. Subjects and Methods. Tear meniscus height was measured by anterior segment OCT, along with tear thinning time, a subtype of noninvasive tear break-up time, and blinking rate per minute which were all recorded for 22 diabetic patients. Correlations between these tear film parameters were studied and then compared to 16 age matched controls. Results. A statistically significant difference was found in blinking rate between the diabetic and the control group (P = 0.002), with higher blinking rate among diabetics. All tear film parameters were negatively correlated with duration of diabetes. A positive correlation was found between tear film volume and stability. Conclusion. Diabetes affects the tear film in various ways. Diabetics should be examined for dry eye signs even in absence of symptoms which may be masked by associated neuropathy. Duration of diabetes has an impact on tear film status.

  4. Normal Force and Drag Force in Magnetorheological Finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, C.; Shafrir, S.N.; Lambropoulos, J.C.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2010-01-13

    The material removal in magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is known to be controlled by shear stress, tau, which equals drag force, Fd, divided by spot area, As. However, it is unclear how the normal force, Fn, affects the material removal in MRF and how the measured ratio of drag force to normal force Fd/Fn, equivalent to coefficient of friction, is related to material removal. This work studies, for the first time for MRF, the normal force and the measured ratio Fd/Fn as a function of material mechanical properties. Experimental data were obtained by taking spots on a variety of materials including optical glasses and hard ceramics with a spot-taking machine (STM). Drag force and normal force were measured with a dual load cell. Drag force decreases linearly with increasing material hardness. In contrast, normal force increases with hardness for glasses, saturating at high hardness values for ceramics. Volumetric removal rate decreases with normal force across all materials. The measured ratio Fd/Fn shows a strong negative linear correlation with material hardness. Hard materials exhibit a low “coefficient of friction”. The volumetric removal rate increases with the measured ratio Fd/Fn which is also correlated with shear stress, indicating that the measured ratio Fd/Fn is a useful measure of material removal in MRF.

  5. Normal cognitive decline or dementia?

    PubMed

    Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive speed, inhibitory function, and memory decline with age while crystallised, particularly verbal, abilities remain largely intact. Poor health, fewer years of education, lower activity, the presence of the APOE E4 allele, and high BP appear to predict faster cognitive decline. Dementia is diagnosed in the presence of objective cognitive impairment, both long- and short-term memory, plus at least one additional (cortical) cognitive deficit, such as dysphasia, dyspraxia, agnosia, or disturbance in executive functioning. In addition, patients have to show significant impairment in social or occupational functioning and a significant decline from previous levels. Both smoking and diabetes increase the risk of all types of dementia, not smoking or even stopping smoking reduces this risk, but better control of type 2 diabetes does not appear to have a measurable effect. Drinking small to moderate amounts of alcohol appears to confer some benefit in ameliorating cognitive decline. There is some evidence that HRT, DHEA, BP lowering in patients without prior cerebrovascular disease, statins, vitamin B6 and procaine are NOT helpful. There is insufficient evidence to establish or refute a beneficial effect for exercise, treatment of type 2 diabetes, omega-3 fatty acids, folic acid with/without vitamin B12, antioxidant vitamins, or ginkgo biloba. Depressive symptoms are more prevalent than dementia. Clinical (major) depression can present with cognitive deterioration, often associated with subjective complaints. Patients with subjective or objective memory impairment, but without functional deterioration, can be referred to the local memory clinic, while demented patients eligible for acetylcholinesterase inhibitor treatment, patients whose diagnosis is unclear and who may need some specific investigations, as well as patients who may benefit from a combined approach with psychotropic drugs and behavioural support should be referred to the local mental health team.

  6. Motility in normal and filamentous forms of Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    PubMed

    Lee, A G; Fitzsimons, J T

    1976-04-01

    By suitable choice of medium, Rhodospirillum rubrum has been grown both in normal (length 2 mum) and filamentous (length up to 60 mum) forms. Both forms were highly motile, and negatively-stained preparations showed bipolar flagellated cells, with an average of seven flagella at each pole. Motion consisted of a series of runs and tumbles, the ditribution of run time-lengths being Poissonian. Both forms tumbled in response to dark shock and showed negative chemotaxis to oxygen. The observation that the motility pattern was very similar in normal and filamentous forms makes chemical control of tumbling unlikely and favours a system involving membrane potentials. PMID:819618

  7. Ultrasonic measurement of the calcaneus in Polish normal and osteoporotic women and men.

    PubMed

    Pluskiewicz, W; Drozdzowska, B

    1999-06-01

    In this cross-sectional study, 964 subjects (740 postmenopausal women and 224 men) who underwent ultrasound measurement of the calcaneus at the outpatient osteoporotic clinic in the years 1993-1996 were evaluated. The aim of the study was to compare the influence of age, years since menopause (YSM), and body size on ultrasound variables in normal and osteoporotic male and female populations as well as to assess the ability of quantitative ultrasound (qUS) to discriminate between healthy and osteoporotic individuals. The subjects were divided into four age-matched groups: normal women (n = 601, mean age 56.3 +/- 4.8 years); osteoporotic women (n = 139, mean age 56.5 +/- 4.8 years); normal men (n = 148, mean age 56.2 +/- 10.2 years); and osteoporotic men (n = 76, mean age 56.5 +/- 10.7 years). Persons with a history of a disease and/or medications known to affect bone metabolism were excluded. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA, in decibels per megahertz) and speed of sound (SOS, in meters per second) were measured using Achilles device (Lunar, Madison, WI). Short- and long-term in vitro coefficients of variation (CVs) were: 1.23% and 0.54% for BUA and 0.12% and 0.14% for SOS, respectively. Short-term in vivo CVs were: in women, BUA 1.8% and SOS 0.22%; and, in men, 2.48% and 0.33%, respectively. SOS and BUA values were significantly higher in healthy men (1517.5 +/- 35.3 m/sec, 114.0 +/- 13.3 dB/MHz) than in healthy women (1511.1 +/- 25.6 m/sec, 108.7 +/- 9.5 dB/MHz) (p < 0.000001). The two ultrasound variables had higher values in osteoporotic men (SOS = 1492.6 +/- 24.6 m/sec, BUA = 106.1 +/- 11.6 dB/MHz) in comparison to osteoporotic women (SOS = 1490.4 +/- 19.5 m/sec, BUA = 103.2 +/- 8.6 dB/MHz), but the differences did not achieve significance. In both genders, ultrasound parameters were significantly lower in osteoporotic groups (p < 0.000001). The following age-adjusted odds ratios were obtained: in women, 1.7 (95% CI 1.42-2.03) for BUA, and 2.3 (95% CI 1

  8. Radionuclide cerebral perfusion imaging: Normal pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.J.; Stritzke, P.; Losonczy, M.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Holan, V.; DaCosta, M.; Muzinic, M.

    1991-12-31

    Regional cerebral perfusion imaging using a new class of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I labeled compounds which traverse the blood brain barrier and SPECT imaging technology provides an opportunity to assess this physiologic phenomenon during normal cerebral function and as a manifestation of disease in the central nervous system disease. These applications pose a challenge to the nuclear medicine physician for several reasons: (a) the complex and somewhat unfamiliar functional anatomy, (b) the marked regional differences in regional cerebral perfusion at rest, (c) the lack of understanding of the effect of variations in ambient conditions on regional cerebral perfusion. The difficulties in interpretation are augmented by the display itself. There is frequently no difficulty in differentiating between gray and white matter. However, the frequently used {open_quotes}hot body{close_quotes} color maps, introduce a good deal of contrast, producing displays with apparent interruption in regional cortical perfusion whereas black and white displays provide minimal contrast in the regional cortical activity. The authors sought to define how much variation in regional cerebral perfusion is {open_quotes}allowed{close_quotes} under controlled conditions, to establish a basis to interpret if changes in the environment, psychological interventions, or disease states are accompanied by a measurable change. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Confirmed viral meningitis with normal CSF findings.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Naghum; Desjobert, Edouard; Lumley, Janine; Webster, Daniel; Jacobs, Michael

    2014-07-17

    An 18-year-old woman presented with a progressively worsening headache, photophobia feverishness and vomiting. Three weeks previously she had returned to the UK from a trip to Peru. At presentation, she had clinical signs of meningism. On admission, blood tests showed a mild lymphopenia, with a normal C reactive protein and white cell count. Chest X-ray and CT of the head were normal. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy was normal. CSF protein and glucose were in the normal range. MRI of the head and cerebral angiography were also normal. Subsequent molecular testing of CSF detected enterovirus RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. The patient's clinical syndrome correlated with her virological diagnosis and no other cause of her symptoms was found. Her symptoms were self-limiting and improved with supportive management. This case illustrates an important example of viral central nervous system infection presenting clinically as meningitis but with normal CSF microscopy.

  10. Brain activation during neurocognitive testing using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in patients following concussion compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Kontos, A P; Huppert, T J; Beluk, N H; Elbin, R J; Henry, L C; French, J; Dakan, S M; Collins, M W

    2014-12-01

    There is no accepted clinical imaging modality for concussion, and current imaging modalities including fMRI, DTI, and PET are expensive and inaccessible to most clinics/patients. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive, portable, and low-cost imaging modality that can measure brain activity. The purpose of this study was to compare brain activity as measured by fNIRS in concussed and age-matched controls during the performance of cognitive tasks from a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Participants included nine currently symptomatic patients aged 18-45 years with a recent (15-45 days) sport-related concussion and five age-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a computerized neurocognitive test battery while wearing the fNIRS unit. Our results demonstrated reduced brain activation in the concussed subject group during word memory, (spatial) design memory, digit-symbol substitution (symbol match), and working memory (X's and O's) tasks. Behavioral performance (percent-correct and reaction time respectively) was lower for concussed participants on the word memory, design memory, and symbol match tasks than controls. The results of this preliminary study suggest that fNIRS could be a useful, portable assessment tool to assess reduced brain activation and augment current approaches to assessment and management of patients following concussion.

  11. Brain activation during neurocognitive testing using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in patients following concussion compared to healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Huppert, T. J.; Beluk, N. H.; Elbin, R. J.; Henry, L. C.; French, J.; Dakan, S. M.; Collins, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    There is no accepted clinical imaging modality for concussion, and current imaging modalities including fMRI, DTI, and PET are expensive and inaccessible to most clinics/ patients. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive, portable, and low-cost imaging modality that can measure brain activity. The purpose of this study was to compare brain activity as measured by fNIRS in concussed and age-matched controls during the performance of cognitive tasks from a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Participants included nine currently symptomatic patients aged 18–45 years with a recent (15–45 days) sport-related concussion and five age-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a computerized neurocognitive test battery while wearing the fNIRS unit. Our results demonstrated reduced brain activation in the concussed subject group during word memory, (spatial) design memory, digit-symbol substitution (symbol match), and working memory (X’s and O’s) tasks. Behavioral performance (percent-correct and reaction time respectively) was lower for concussed participants on the word memory, design memory, and symbol match tasks than controls. The results of this preliminary study suggest that fNIRS could be a useful, portable assessment tool to assess reduced brain activation and augment current approaches to assessment and management of patients following concussion. PMID:24477579

  12. Normal gallbladder scintigraphy in acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohrt, H.J.; Posalaky, I.P.; Shafer, R.B.

    1983-03-01

    Normal gallbladder scintigraphy occurs in 2 to 5% of reported patients with acute cholecystitis. Gallbladder visualization is found in patients with acalculous cholecystitis and in those with recent relief of cystic duct obstruction but persistence of inflammation. A patient is reported who had clinical and pathologic findings of acute cholecystitis but normal gallbladder visualization. This reemphasizes that the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis cannot be excluded by normal gallbladder scintigraphy.

  13. Menopause and menarche in patients with primary blepharospasm: an exploratory case-control study.

    PubMed

    Martino, Davide; Livrea, Paolo; Giorelli, Maurizio; Masi, Gianluca; Aniello, Maria Stella; Defazio, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    We studied the relationships between blepharospasm (BSP) and menopause/menarche in female patients with primary BSP (n = 83) and age-matched healthy (n = 83) and disease controls (n = 83). BSP patients and matched controls had comparable age at menopause, and there was no correlation between age at menopause and age at BSP onset. Thus, menopause probably exerts no significant influence on the age-dependent development of BSP. BSP cases tended to have a later menarche than either group of controls. The association was independent of age, disease duration and education level. Because the higher the age at menarche, the higher the age at BSP onset, later menarche was unlikely to be a risk factor for BSP. Rather, the two conditions may share pathophysiologic mechanisms, for example minor abnormality of neurotransmitter systems controlling both the motor system and the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis responsible for the onset of puberty.

  14. Quaternion normalization in spacecraft attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack; Galal, Ken

    1992-01-01

    Methods are presented to normalize the attitude quaternion in two extended Kalman filters (EKF), namely, the multiplicative EKF (MEKF) and the additive EKF (AEKF). It is concluded that all the normalization methods work well and yield comparable results. In the AEKF, normalization is not essential, since the data chosen for the test do not have a rapidly varying attitude. In the MEKF, normalization is necessary to avoid divergence of the attitude estimate. All of the methods of the methods behave similarly when the spacecraft experiences low angular rates.

  15. Dietary perturbation of calcium metabolism in normal man: compartmental analysis

    PubMed Central

    Phang, James M.; Berman, Mones; Finerman, Gerald A.; Neer, Robert M.; Rosenberg, Leon E.; Hahn, Theodore J.

    1969-01-01

    The effect of dietary calcium intake on calcium metabolism was studied in eight normal volunteers by multicompartmental analysis of radiocalcium and balance data. In paired studies of six normal subjects on normal and high or low calcium intakes, necessary and sufficient criteria were used to determine changes in calcium metabolic parameters produced by alterations in dietary calcium. These changes involved gastrointestinal calcium absorption rate, renal and endogenous fecal rate constants, and bone resorption rate. Bone accretion rate and compartment sizes need not change between the paired studies. The changes of parameters involving kidney, gut, and bone were in a direction to support calcium homeostasis and were compatible with the pattern of changes produced by parathyroid hormone. However, the source of the stimulus for hormone secretion was not apparent since plasma calcium concentrations showed no significant difference between paired studies. The implications of these findings relative to control of hormone secretion, calcium regulatory mechanisms, and metabolic bone disease are discussed. PMID:5765028

  16. Symmetric extensions of normal discrete velocity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, A. V.; Vinerean, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we discuss a general problem related to spurious conservation laws for discrete velocity models (DVMs) of the classical (elastic) Boltzmann equation. Models with spurious conservation laws appeared already at the early stage of the development of discrete kinetic theory. The well-known theorem of uniqueness of collision invariants for the continuous velocity space very often does not hold for a set of discrete velocities. In our previous works we considered the general problem of the construction of normal DVMs, we found a general algorithm for the construction of all such models and presented a complete classification of normal DVMs with small number n of velocities (n<11). Even if we have a general method to classify all normal discrete kinetic models (and in particular DVMs), the existing method is relatively slow and the amount of possible cases to check increases rapidly with n. We remarked that many of our normal DVMs appear to be axially symmetric. In this paper we consider a connection between symmetric transformations and normal DVMs. We first develop a new inductive method that, starting with a given normal DVM, leads by symmetric extensions to a new normal DVM. This method can produce very fast many new normal DVMs with larger number of velocities, showing that the class of normal DVMs contains a large subclass of symmetric models. We finally apply the method to several normal DVMs and construct new models that are not only normal, but also symmetric relatively to more and more axes. We hope that such symmetric velocity sets can be used for DSMC methods of solving Boltzmann equation.

  17. Abnormal peripheral circulation in type 2 diabetic patients with normal ankle-brachial index associates with coronary atherosclerosis, large artery stiffness, and peripheral vascular resistance.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Masanobu; Suzuki, Eiji; Egawa, Katsuya; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Morikawa, Shigehiro; Inubushi, Toshiro; Kashiwagi, Atsunori

    2005-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that impaired peripheral circulation in diabetes arises from different aspects of vascular abnormalities even when accompanied by a normal ankle-brachial index (ABI>0.9). One hundred fourteen type 2 diabetic patients with normal ABI and 33 age-matched non-diabetic subjects consecutively admitted to our hospital were enrolled. The Agatston coronary artery calcium score (CACS), as a marker of coronary atherosclerosis, was obtained using electron-beam computed tomography. An automatic device was used to measure brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) as an index of arterial distensibility. Total flow volume and resistive index (RI), as a marker of peripheral vascular resistance, at the popliteal artery were evaluated using gated two-dimensional cine-mode phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Diabetic patients had baPWV (P<0.001) and RI (P<0.001) higher than those in the non-diabetic subjects, indicating that those parameters are characteristically altered in diabetic patients. When diabetic patients were grouped into three subgroups according to their levels of total flow volume, those with the lowest range showed the highest log-transformed CACS (P<0.001), baPWV (P<0.001), and RI (P<0.001) among the groups. Total flow volume was negatively correlated with log-transformed CACS (P<0.001), baPWV (P<0.001), and RI (P<0.001). Waveform at the popliteal artery could be clearly separated into systolic and early and late diastolic blood flows, which were negatively correlated with log-transformed CACS (P<0.001), RI (P<0.001), and baPWV (P<0.001), respectively. These results suggest that impaired peripheral circulation in diabetes is attributable to coronary atherosclerosis, large artery stiffness, and peripheral vascular resistance even when ABI is normal.

  18. Behavior of the terminal T wave during exercise in normal subjects, patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease and apparently healthy subjects with abnormal ST segment depression.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, J; Lovelace, D E; Knoebel, S B; McHenry, P L

    1985-01-01

    The Q-T interval and apex of T wave to end of T wave (aT-eT) interval were measured by computer in four age-matched study groups at rest and during exercise to determine whether: the behavior of the aT-eT interval differs in patients with myocardial ischemia when compared with normal subjects, and the behavior of the aT-eT interval differs in subjects with true positive and false positive ST segment responses. Group I consisted of 57 normal subjects. Group II consisted of 41 symptomatic patients with documented coronary artery disease. A group of apparently healthy subjects with asymptomatic ST segment depression during exercise was divided into two additional groups: Group III, those without coronary artery disease; and Group IV, those with coronary artery disease. Subjects were excluded from the study if they had left ventricular hypertrophy or an intraventricular conduction defect or were taking digitalis or type I antiarrhythmic agents. There were no significant differences in the aT-eT interval and aT-eT/Q-T ratio among the four study groups when compared at rest; however, during exercise at similar heart rates, the aT-eT interval was significantly shorter and the aT-eT/Q-T ratio significantly smaller in Groups II and IV, the subjects with coronary artery disease, than in Group I, the normal subjects. The aT-eT interval and aT-eT/Q-T ratio measurements in Group III did not differ from those in Group I at rest or during exercise. In conclusion, the aT-eT interval and aT-eT/Q-T ratio may reflect changes in myocardial repolarization in exercise-induced ischemia and may have potential for future clinical application.

  19. The contribution of proprioceptive information to postural control in elderly and patients with Parkinson's disease with a history of falls.

    PubMed

    Bekkers, Esther M J; Dockx, Kim; Heremans, Elke; Vercruysse, Sarah; Verschueren, Sabine M P; Mirelman, Anat; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Proprioceptive deficits negatively affect postural control but their precise contribution to postural instability in Parkinson's disease (PD) is unclear. We investigated if proprioceptive manipulations differentially affect balance, measured by force plates, during quiet standing in 13 PD patients and 13 age-matched controls with a history of falls. Perceived limits of stability (LoS) were derived from the differences between maximal center of pressure (CoP) displacement in anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) direction during a maximal leaning task. Task conditions comprised standing with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC): (1) on a stable surface; (2) an unstable surface; and (3) with Achilles tendon vibration. CoP displacements were calculated as a percentage of their respective LoS. Perceived LoS did not differ between groups. PD patients showed greater ML CoP displacement than elderly fallers (EF) across all conditions (p = 0.043) and tended to have higher postural sway in relation to the LoS (p = 0.050). Both groups performed worse on an unstable surface and during tendon vibration compared to standing on a stable surface with EO and even more so with EC. Both PD and EF had more AP sway in all conditions with EC compared to EO (p < 0.001) and showed increased CoP displacements when relying on proprioception only compared to standing with normal sensory input. This implies a similar role of the proprioceptive system in postural control in fallers with and without PD. PD fallers showed higher ML sway after sensory manipulations, as a result of which these values approached their perceived LoS more closely than in EF. We conclude that despite a similar fall history, PD patients showed more ML instability than EF, irrespective of sensory manipulation, but had a similar reliance on ankle proprioception. Hence, we recommend that rehabilitation and fall prevention for PD should focus on motor rather than on sensory aspects.

  20. Better performance through amblyopic than through normal eyes.

    PubMed

    Fahle, M; Bachmann, G

    1996-07-01

    Spatio-temporal interpolation reconstructs the (complete) motion path of objects presented discontinuously, e.g. under stroboscopic illumination or in television. Interpolative vernier stimuli were created by presenting two line segments with a temporal delay instead of a spatial offset. Ten amblyopic patients had to indicate whether the lower segment of the moving target was offset to the left or right relative to the upper segment. For five patients we also measured thresholds for a conventional moving vernier. Five normal subjects were measured with sharply focused and blurred interpolative verniers. At low velocities of interpolative vernier targets, results of amblyopic eyes are inferior to those of normal eyes. However, 9 out of 10 patients perform better using their amblyopic than using their normal eye at high velocities. In control subjects, blurred stimuli yield results similar to those of amblyopic eyes, indicating a similarity between (optical) blur and the mechanisms underlying amblyopia. Thresholds for conventional vernier targets of amblyopic observers, on the other hand, are constant over the whole velocity range for both normal and amblyopic eyes, with a better performance of the normal eye at all velocities. The consequences for models of amblyopia are discussed. PMID:8759433

  1. Effects of photoradiation therapy on normal rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, M.K.; McKean, J.; Boisvert, D.; Tulip, J.; Mielke, B.W.

    1984-12-01

    Laser photoradiation of the brain via an optical fiber positioned 5 mm above a burr hole was performed after the injection of hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) in 33 normal rats and 6 rats with an intracerebral glioma. Normal rats received HpD, 5 or 10 mg/kg of body weight, followed by laser exposure at various doses or were exposed to a fixed laser dose after the administration of HpD, 2.5 to 20 mg/kg. One control group received neither HpD nor laser energy, and another was exposed to laser energy only. The 6 rats bearing an intracranial 9L glioma were treated with HpD, 5 mg/kg, followed by laser exposure at various high doses. The temperature in the cortex or tumor was measured with a probe during laser exposure. The rats were killed 72 hours after photoradiation, and the extent of necrosis of cerebral tissue was measured microscopically. In the normal rats, the extent of brain damage correlated with increases in the dose of both the laser and the HpD. In all 6 glioma-bearing rats, the high laser doses produced some focal necrosis in the tumors but also damaged adjacent normal brain tissue. The authors conclude that damage to normal brain tissue may be a significant complication of high dose photoradiation therapy for intracranial tumors.

  2. An Integrated Approach for RNA-seq Data Normalization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shengping; Mercante, Donald E.; Zhang, Kun; Fang, Zhide

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND DNA copy number alteration is common in many cancers. Studies have shown that insertion or deletion of DNA sequences can directly alter gene expression, and significant correlation exists between DNA copy number and gene expression. Data normalization is a critical step in the analysis of gene expression generated by RNA-seq technology. Successful normalization reduces/removes unwanted nonbiological variations in the data, while keeping meaningful information intact. However, as far as we know, no attempt has been made to adjust for the variation due to DNA copy number changes in RNA-seq data normalization. RESULTS In this article, we propose an integrated approach for RNA-seq data normalization. Comparisons show that the proposed normalization can improve power for downstream differentially expressed gene detection and generate more biologically meaningful results in gene profiling. In addition, our findings show that due to the effects of copy number changes, some housekeeping genes are not always suitable internal controls for studying gene expression. CONCLUSIONS Using information from DNA copy number, integrated approach is successful in reducing noises due to both biological and nonbiological causes in RNA-seq data, thus increasing the accuracy of gene profiling. PMID:27385909

  3. Cultured normal mammalian tissue and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue. The cells are grown in vitro under microgravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cell aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  4. Normalized Legal Drafting and the Query Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Layman E.; Engholm, C. Rudy

    1978-01-01

    Normalized legal drafting, a mode of expressing ideas in legal documents so that the syntax that relates the constituent propositions is simplified and standardized, and the query method, a question-asking activity that teaches normalized drafting and provides practice, are examined. Some examples are presented. (JMD)

  5. Correcting the Normalized Gain for Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay

    2010-01-01

    The normalized gain, "g", has been an important tool for the characterization of conceptual improvement in physics courses since its use in Hake's extensive study on conceptual learning in introductory physics. The normalized gain is calculated from the score on a pre-test administered before instruction and a post-test administered after…

  6. Normalization in sustainability assessment: Methods and implications

    DOE PAGES

    Pollesch, N. L.; Dale, Virginia H.

    2016-08-08

    One approach to assessing progress towards sustainability makes use of diverse indicators spanning the environmental, social, and economic dimensions of the system being studied. Given the use of multiple indicators and the inherent complexity entailed in interpreting several metrics, aggregation of sustainability indicators is a common step after indicator measures are quantified. Diverse indicators have different units of measurement, and normalization is the procedure employed to transform differing indicator measures onto similar scales or to unit-free measures. It is often difficult for stakeholders to make clear connections between specific indicator measurements and resulting aggregate scores of sustainability. Normalization can alsomore » create implicit weightings of indicator measures that are independent of actual stakeholder preference or explicit weighting. This paper explores normalization methods utilized in sustainability assessment including ratio normalization, target normalization, Z-score normalization, and unit equivalence normalization. A mathematical analysis of the impact of changes in raw indicator data measurements on an aggregate sustainability score is developed. Theoretical results are clarified through a case study of data used in assessment of progress towards bioenergy sustainability. Advantages and drawbacks associated with different normalization schemes are discussed within the context of sustainability assessment.« less

  7. Vortices in normal part of proximity system

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V. G.

    2015-05-26

    It is shown that the order parameter Δ induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal-superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas Δ turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.

  8. Serum Adipsin Levels throughout Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Poveda, Natalia E; Garcés, María F; Ruiz-Linares, Carlos E; Varón, Diana; Valderrama, Sergio; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Castiblanco-Cortes, Adriana; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Leal, Luis G; Ángel-Müller, Edith; Ruíz-Parra, Ariel I; González-Clavijo, Angélica M; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E

    2016-02-01

    Adipsin is a protease produced at high levels by adipose tissue. It is involved in complement activation and metabolic control. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in adipsin levels during different stages of normal pregnancy, and its association with obstetric outcomes, such as preeclampsia. This nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort included normal pregnant (n = 54) and preeclamptic (n = 18) women, both followed throughout pregnancy. Additionally, some of the normal pregnant women were followed up three months postpartum (n = 18). Healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during their menstrual cycle (n = 20). The results of this study show that in healthy non-pregnant women, adipsin levels did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. In normal pregnant women, adipsin levels were lower (p < 0.01) when compared with non-pregnant healthy women, but these serum levels increased again during postpartum (p < 0.001). Adipsin levels were significantly elevated in preeclamptic women in late pregnancy (P < 0.01). A significant correlation was not found between leptin and adipsin during the three periods of gestation studied in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women. Our results suggest that adipsin may be involved in pregnancy-associated metabolic changes. Moreover, the increase of adipsin levels towards late gestation in preeclamptic women could be related to the pathophysiology of this disease.

  9. Serum Adipsin Levels throughout Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Poveda, Natalia E.; Garcés, María F.; Ruiz-Linares, Carlos E.; Varón, Diana; Valderrama, Sergio; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Castiblanco-Cortes, Adriana; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Leal, Luis G.; Ángel-Müller, Edith; Ruíz-Parra, Ariel I.; González-Clavijo, Angélica M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Adipsin is a protease produced at high levels by adipose tissue. It is involved in complement activation and metabolic control. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in adipsin levels during different stages of normal pregnancy, and its association with obstetric outcomes, such as preeclampsia. This nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort included normal pregnant (n = 54) and preeclamptic (n = 18) women, both followed throughout pregnancy. Additionally, some of the normal pregnant women were followed up three months postpartum (n = 18). Healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during their menstrual cycle (n = 20). The results of this study show that in healthy non-pregnant women, adipsin levels did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. In normal pregnant women, adipsin levels were lower (p < 0.01) when compared with non-pregnant healthy women, but these serum levels increased again during postpartum (p < 0.001). Adipsin levels were significantly elevated in preeclamptic women in late pregnancy (P < 0.01). A significant correlation was not found between leptin and adipsin during the three periods of gestation studied in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women. Our results suggest that adipsin may be involved in pregnancy-associated metabolic changes. Moreover, the increase of adipsin levels towards late gestation in preeclamptic women could be related to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:26832661

  10. Normal peer models and autistic children's learning.

    PubMed Central

    Egel, A L; Richman, G S; Koegel, R L

    1981-01-01

    Present research and legislation regarding mainstreaming autistic children into normal classrooms have raised the importance of studying whether autistic children can benefit from observing normal peer models. The present investigation systematically assessed whether autistic children's learning of discrimination tasks could be improved if they observed normal children perform the tasks correctly. In the context of a multiple baseline design, four autistic children worked on five discrimination tasks that their teachers reported were posing difficulty. Throughout the baseline condition the children evidenced very low levels of correct responding on all five tasks. In the subsequent treatment condition, when normal peers modeled correct responses, the autistic children's correct responding increased dramatically. In each case, the peer modeling procedure produced rapid achievement of the acquisition which was maintained after the peer models were removed. These results are discussed in relation to issues concerning observational learning and in relation to the implications for mainstreaming autistic children into normal classrooms. PMID:7216930

  11. Event related potentials study of aberrations in voice control mechanisms in adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Korzyukov, Oleg; Tapaskar, Natalie; Pflieger, Mark E.; Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Lodhavia, Anjli; Patel, Sona; Robin, Donald A.; Larson, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study was designed to test for neural signs of impulsivity related to voice motor control in young adults with ADHD and healthy control young adults using EEG recordings in a voice pitch perturbation paradigm. Methods Two age-matched groups of young adults were presented with brief pitch shifts of auditory feedback during vocalization. Compensatory behavioral and corresponding bioelectrical brain responses were elicited by the pitch-shifted voice feedback. Results The analysis of bioelectrical responses showed that the ADHD group had shorter peak and onset latency of motor-related bioelectrical brain responses as compared to the controls. Conclusions These results were interpreted to suggest differences in executive functions between ADHD and control participants. Significance We hypothesize that more rapid motor-related bioelectrical responses found in the present study may be a manifestation of impulsiveness in adults with ADHD at the involuntary level of voice control. PMID:25308310

  12. Keratoconus and Normal-Tension Glaucoma: A Study of the Possible Association with Abnormal Biomechanical Properties as Measured by Corneal Hysteresis (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Elisabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that keratoconus and pellucid patients who have glaucoma or are suspected of having glaucoma have lower corneal hysteresis (CH) and/or corneal resistance factor (CRF) measurements compared to controls. Methods: A prospective study at a tertiary eye center of keratoconus and pellucid patients with glaucoma or suspected of having glaucoma, and age-matched keratoconus and pellucid controls, was performed. After informed consent was obtained, corneal topography, ocular response analyzer measurements, pachymetry, intraocular pressure, A-scan measurements, Humphrey visual fields (VFs), and disc photos were done. Analyses compared cases to controls on primary (CH and CRF) and secondary variables. Disc photos and VFs were rated in a masked fashion. Results: The mean CH (8.2, SD=1.6, vs 8.3, SD=1.5) and CRF (7.3, SD=2.0, vs 6.9, SD=2.1) were low and did not differ significantly between 20 study patients (29 eyes) and 40 control patients (61 eyes), respectively. CH had a negative, significant correlation with maximum corneal curvature by topography (P < .002) and positive, significant correlation with central corneal thickness (P < .003). The mean cup-disc ratio was larger among cases than controls (0.54, SD=0.20, vs 0.38, SD=0.20; P = .003). VFs were suggestive of glaucoma more often among the study eyes than controls (11 of 29, 37.9%, vs 8 of 60, 13.3%; P =.019). Conclusions: CH was low in study and control patients and was correlated with severity of keratoconus/pellucid, but not with glaucoma/suspected glaucoma or control status. Evidence of glaucoma was more common in study eyes than controls, but was present in both. PMID:20126503

  13. A zoo of computable binary normal sequences

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, Steve; Singer, Burton H.

    2012-01-01

    Historically there has been a virtual absence of constructive methods to produce broad classes of “certifiably random” infinite sequences, despite considerable interest in this endeavor. Previously, we proved a theorem that yielded explicit algorithms to produce diverse sets of normal numbers, reasonable candidates for random sequences, given their limiting equidistribution of subblocks of all lengths. Herein, we develop this algorithmic approach much further, systematizing the normal number generation process in several ways. We construct delineated, distinct sets of normal numbers (classified by the extent to which initial segments deviate from maximal irregularity), with virtually any allowable specified rate of convergence to 0 of this deviation, encompassing arbitrarily fast and slow rates, and accommodating asymmetric behavior above or below a centered median. As a corollary, we provide an explicit construction of a normal number that satisfies the Law of the Iterated Logarithm. We also produce distinct families of “biased” normal numbers, with virtually any specified rate of convergence of the bias (to 0). This latter theory is in part motivated by the remarkable observation that the binary version of Champernowne’s number, which is also normal, is biased—any initial segment has more 1s than 0s. Finally, we construct an interesting normal sequence with arbitrarily fast convergence to equidistribution of singleton blocks, yet arbitrarily slow convergence of pairs, which has profound implications both for probability theory, and for metrics to evaluate the “near-randomness” of sequences. PMID:23125196

  14. Photometric normalization of LROC WAC images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Boyd, A. K.; Denevi, B. W.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B. W.; McEwen, A. S.; Humm, D. C.; LROC Science Operations Team

    2011-12-01

    Monthly global Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) observations of the Moon, acquired with varying emission and incidence angles, enable the precise derivation of spatially resolved Hapke photometric parameters [1]. The WAC global mosaics are stacked in a time series to enable phase curve fitting using a tile-by-tile method, with a wide range of phase angle in each tile. Tile-by-tile calculations provide photometric parameters for each tile (currently 1° by 1° from 80° to -80° latitude), resulting in resolved near-global photometric parameter maps (w, xi, Bco, and hc)[2]. Incidence, emission, and phase angles are computed using a new WAC stereometric digital terrain model (100 m/pixel)[3]. In the tile-by-tile method, we obtain low phase observations only near the equator resulting in an inability to accurately estimate Bco at higher latitudes (Hapke parameter controls the y-intercept of phase curve). We interpolated Bco poleward of +/- 5° latitudes, using a negative correlation between w and Bco observed in the equator +/- 5° latitudes. This interpolation method can decrease one free parameter, resulting in short calculation time and much less failed tiles. The normalized image using this parameter map shows almost no tile boundary, which shows that the tile-by-tile method works well. After the tile-by-tile method was applied with twenty months of data over a full range of beta angle, we observed an I/F offset with time. This offset results in reflectance differences at month-to-month boundaries in a global mosaic constructed from sequences acquired over different months (constructed to minimize incidence angle differences as a function of latitude). After significant tests of any possible parameters controlling the residual I/F value, incidence angle was revealed to be a dominant factor, indicating that the photometry model may not completely accounting for incidence angle. The main function dealing with incidence angle is the Lommel

  15. The effective degeneracy of protein normal modes.

    PubMed

    Na, Hyuntae; Song, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Normal modes are frequently computed and used to portray protein dynamics and interpret protein conformational changes. In this work, we investigate the nature of normal modes and find that the normal modes of proteins, especially those at the low frequency range (0-600 cm(-1)), are highly susceptible to degeneracy. Two or more modes are degenerate if they have the same frequency and consequently any orthogonal transformation of them also is a valid representation of the mode subspace. Thus, degenerate modes can no longer characterize unique directions of motions as regular modes do. Though the normal modes of proteins are usually of different frequencies, the difference in frequency between neighboring modes is so small that, under even slight structural uncertainty that unavoidably exists in structure determination, it can easily vanish and as a result, a mode becomes effectively degenerate with its neighboring modes. This can be easily observed in that some modes seem to disappear and their matching modes cannot be found when the structure used to compute the modes is modified only slightly. We term this degeneracy the effective degeneracy of normal modes. This work is built upon our recent discovery that the vibrational spectrum of globular proteins is universal. The high density of modes observed in the vibrational frequency spectra of proteins renders their normal modes highly susceptible to degeneracy, under even the smallest structural uncertainty. Indeed, we find the degree of degeneracy of modes is proportional to the density of modes in the vibrational spectrum. This means that for modes at the same frequency, degeneracy is more severe for larger proteins. Degeneracy exists also in the modes of coarse-grained models, but to a much lesser extent than those of all-atom models. In closing, we discuss the implications of the effective degeneracy of normal modes: how it may significantly affect the ways in which normal modes are used in various normal modes

  16. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sridhar, Bettadapur N.

    1983-11-01

    Nuclear reactor core safety rod release apparatus comprises a control rod having a detent notch in the form of an annular peripheral recess at its upper end, a control rod support tube for raising and lowering the control rod under normal conditions, latches pivotally mounted on the control support tube with free ends thereof normally disposed in the recess in the control rod, and cam means for pivoting the latches out of the recess in the control rod when a scram condition occurs. One embodiment of the invention comprises an additional magnetically-operated latch for releasing the control rod under two different conditions, one involving seismic shock.

  17. The concept of normal weight obesity.

    PubMed

    Oliveros, Estefania; Somers, Virend K; Sochor, Ondrej; Goel, Kashish; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with normal body weight by body mass index (BMI) and high body fat percentage show a high degree of metabolic dysregulation. This phenomenon, defined as normal weight obesity, is associated with a significantly higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome, cardiometabolic dysfunction and with higher mortality. Recently, we have also shown that coronary artery disease patients with normal BMI and central obesity have the highest mortality risk as compared to other adiposity patterns. Therefore, it is important to recognize these high-risk groups for better adiposity-based risk stratification. There is a need for an updated definition of obesity based on adiposity, not on body weight.

  18. Normal lid margin after eyelid reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cies, W A; Baylis, H I

    1977-04-01

    To prevent corneal damage, the central lid margin must have a normal skin-conjunctiva interface following the lid reconstruction. A two-step procedure may be employed: In the lower lid an initial Hughes reconstruction should be tried. If this is unacceptable, a subsequent block excision of the segment is performed. The important step in both phases is a thorough lateral cantholysis. In the upper lid, the central defect is immediately reconstructed by sliding the lateral lid remnant to the medial remnant. The resulting lateral defect is reconstructed with a Hughes procedure. In both cases, a physiologic lid margin is insured, because normal lid is sutured to normal lid.

  19. Ultrasound, normal placenta - Braxton Hicks (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... performed at 17 weeks gestation. It shows the placenta during a normal (Braxton Hicks) contraction. Throughout the ... contracts to facilitate better blood flow through the placenta and the fetus. In this ultrasound, the placenta ...

  20. The method of minimal normal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, S.R.; Weng, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    Normal form methods for solving nonlinear differential equations are reviewed and the comparative merits of three methods are evaluated. The concept of the minimal normal form is explained and is shown to be superior to other choices. The method is then extended to apply to the evaluation of discrete maps of an accelerator or storage ring. Such an extension, as suggested in this paper, is more suited for accelerator-based applications than a formulation utilizing continuous differential equations. A computer code has been generated to systematically implement various normal form formulations for maps in two-dimensional phase space. Specific examples of quadratic and cubic nonlinear fields were used and solved by the method developed. The minimal normal form method shown here gives good results using relatively low order expansions.

  1. The method of minimal normal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, S.R.; Weng, W.T.

    1992-12-31

    Normal form methods for solving nonlinear differential equations are reviewed and the comparative merits of three methods are evaluated. The concept of the minimal normal form is explained and is shown to be superior to other choices. The method is then extended to apply to the evaluation of discrete maps of an accelerator or storage ring. Such an extension, as suggested in this paper, is more suited for accelerator-based applications than a formulation utilizing continuous differential equations. A computer code has been generated to systematically implement various normal form formulations for maps in two-dimensional phase space. Specific examples of quadratic and cubic nonlinear fields were used and solved by the method developed. The minimal normal form method shown here gives good results using relatively low order expansions.

  2. After the Fire! Returning to Normal

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Normal The first days of recovery The value of your home and personal belongings Talk with your insurance company about how to learn the value of your home and property. Replacing valuable documents ...

  3. How the Normal Distribution Got Its Hump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogborn, Jon

    1974-01-01

    The characteristic shape of the normal distribution, one hump and two tails, is discussed. The reasoning is based on variation, combinations, probability, and logarithms. The purpose is to be able to answer some of the "whys" students might ask. (LS)

  4. Valve, normally open, titanium: Pyronetics Model 1425

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avalos, E.

    1972-01-01

    An operating test series was applied to two explosive actuated, normally open, titanium valves. There were no failures. Tests included: proof pressure and external leakage test, gross leak test, post actuation leakage test, and burst pressure test.

  5. Retarded Children at Camp with Normal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Norman; Peters, Edward N.

    1969-01-01

    Statistical analysis of data from written forms and scales (designed to measure children's behavior in groups), observations, and interviews indicated that many educalble mentally retarded children can participate successfully in camp activities with normal children. (DR)

  6. The pupillary light reflex in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, C J

    1981-01-01

    In 19 normal subjects the pupillary reflex to light was studied over a range of stimulus intensities by infrared electronic pupillography and analysed by a computer technique. Increasing stimulus intensity was associated with an increase in direct light reflex amplitude and maximum rate of constriction and redilatation. Latency from stimulus to onset of response-decreased with increasing stimulus intensity. The normal range for each of these parameters is given and the significance of these results in clinical pupillary assessment discussed. PMID:7326222

  7. Normal conus medullaris: CT criteria for recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, J.P.; Daniels, D.L.; Williams, I.L.; Rauschning, W.; Haughton, V.M.

    1984-06-01

    The normal CT configuration and dimension of the conus medullaris and adjacent spinal cord were determined in 30 patients who had no clinical evidence of conus compression. CT studies were also correlated with anatomic sections in cadavers. The normal conus on CT has a distinctive oval configuration, an arterior sulcus, and a posterior promontory. The anteroposterior diameter ranged from 5 to 8 mm; the transverse diameter from 8 to 11 mm. Intramedullary processes altered both the dimensions and configuration of the conus.

  8. Progeria, rapamycin and normal aging: recent breakthrough.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2011-07-01

    A recent discovery that rapamycin suppresses a pro-senescent phenotype in progeric cells not only suggests a non-toxic therapy for progeria but also implies its similarity with normal aging. For one, rapamycin is also known to suppress aging of regular human cells. Here I discuss four potential scenarios, comparing progeria with both normal and accelerated aging. This reveals further indications of rapamycin both for accelerated aging in obese and for progeria.

  9. Josephson effect in low-capacitance superconductor--normal-metal--superconductor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bauernschmitt, R.; Siewert, J.; Nazarov, Y.V.; Odintsov, A.A. )

    1994-02-01

    The transport properties of a small superconductor--normal-metal--superconducting tunnel junction can be controlled by a gate electrode coupled capacitively to the central island. We evaluate the critical Josephson current [ital I][sub [ital c

  10. Working memory training using EEG neurofeedback in normal young adults.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shi; Cheng, Chen; Wu, Xia; Guo, Xiaojuan; Yao, Li; Zhang, Jiacai

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that working memory (WM) performance can be improved by intensive and adaptive computerized training. Here, we explored the WM training effect using Electroencephalography (EEG) neurofeedback (NF) in normal young adults. In the first study, we identified the EEG features related to WM in normal young adults. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that the power ratio of the theta-to-alpha rhythms in the anterior-parietal region, accurately classified a high percentage of the EEG trials recorded during WM and fixation control (FC) tasks. Based on these results, a second study aimed to assess the training effects of the theta-to-alpha ratio and tested the hypothesis that up-regulating the power ratio can improve working memory behavior. Our results demonstrated that these normal young adults succeeded in improving their WM performance with EEG NF, and the pre- and post-test evaluations also indicated that WM performance increase in experimental group was significantly greater than control groups. In summary, our findings provided preliminarily evidence that WM performance can be improved through learned regulation of the EEG power ratio using EEG NF.

  11. Body composition analyses in normal weight obese women.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, despite a normal BMI, the NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women.

  12. Normalization of brain morphology after surgery in sagittal craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Eric D; Yang, Jenny; Beckett, Joel S; Lacadie, Cheryl; Scheinost, Dustin; Persing, Sarah; Zellner, Elizabeth G; Oosting, Devon; Keifer, Cara; Friedman, Hannah E; Wyk, Brent Vander; Jou, Roger J; Sun, Haosi; Gary, Cyril; Duncan, Charles C; Constable, R Todd; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Persing, John A

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (NSC) is associated with significant learning disability later in life. Surgical reconstruction is typically performed before 1 year of age to correct the cranial vault morphology and to allow for normalized brain growth with the goal of improving cognitive function. Yet, no studies have assessed to what extent normalized brain growth is actually achieved. Recent advances in MRI have allowed for automated methods of objectively assessing subtle and pronounced brain morphological differences. The authors used one such technique, deformation-based morphometry (DBM) Jacobian mapping, to determine how previously treated adolescents with sagittal NSC (sNSC) significantly differ in brain anatomy compared with healthy matched controls up to 11.5 years after surgery. METHODS Eight adolescent patients with sNSC, previously treated via whole-vault cranioplasty at a mean age of 7 months, and 8 age- and IQ-matched control subjects without craniosynostosis (mean age for both groups = 12.3 years), underwent functional 3-T MRI. Statistically significant group tissue-volume differences were assessed using DBM, a whole-brain technique that estimates morphological differences between 2 groups at each voxel (p < 0.01). Group-wise Jacobian volume maps were generated using a spacing of 1.5 mm and a resolution of 1.05 × 1.05 × 1.05 mm(3). RESULTS There were no significant areas of volume reduction or expansion in any brain areas in adolescents with sNSC compared with controls at a significance level of p < 0.01. At the more liberal threshold of p < 0.05, two areas of brain expansion extending anteroposteriorly in the right temporooccipital and left frontoparietal regions appeared in patients with sNSC compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS Compared with previous reports on untreated infants with sNSC, adolescents with sNSC in this cohort had few areas of brain dysmorphology many years after surgery. This result suggests that comprehensive cranioplasty

  13. The Contribution of Proprioceptive Information to Postural Control in Elderly and Patients with Parkinson’s Disease with a History of Falls

    PubMed Central

    Bekkers, Esther M. J.; Dockx, Kim; Heremans, Elke; Vercruysse, Sarah; Verschueren, Sabine M. P.; Mirelman, Anat; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Proprioceptive deficits negatively affect postural control but their precise contribution to postural instability in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is unclear. We investigated if proprioceptive manipulations differentially affect balance, measured by force plates, during quiet standing in 13 PD patients and 13 age-matched controls with a history of falls. Perceived limits of stability (LoS) were derived from the differences between maximal center of pressure (CoP) displacement in anterior–posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) direction during a maximal leaning task. Task conditions comprised standing with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC): (1) on a stable surface; (2) an unstable surface; and (3) with Achilles tendon vibration. CoP displacements were calculated as a percentage of their respective LoS. Perceived LoS did not differ between groups. PD patients showed greater ML CoP displacement than elderly fallers (EF) across all conditions (p = 0.043) and tended to have higher postural sway in relation to the LoS (p = 0.050). Both groups performed worse on an unstable surface and during tendon vibration compared to standing on a stable surface