Science.gov

Sample records for age-matched normal healthy

  1. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  2. Analysis of abstract and concrete word processing in persons with aphasia and age-matched neurologically healthy adults using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Kiran, Swathi

    2014-08-01

    The concreteness effect occurs in both normal and language-disordered populations. Research suggests that abstract and concrete concepts elicit differing neural activation patterns in healthy young adults, but this is undocumented in persons with aphasia (PWA). Three PWA and three age-matched controls were scanned using fMRI while processing abstract and concrete words. Consistent with current theories of abstract and concrete word processing, abstract words elicited activation in verbal areas, whereas concrete words additionally activated multimodal association areas. PWA show greater differences in neural activation than age-matched controls between abstract and concrete words, possibly due to an exaggerated concreteness effect. PMID:23548150

  3. Neural Mechanisms of Verb Argument Structure Processing in Agrammatic Aphasic and Healthy Age-Matched Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Fix, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior peri-sylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions on the basis of argument structure complexity. The aim of…

  4. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  5. No consistent difference in gray matter volume between individuals with fibromyalgia and age-matched healthy subjects when controlling for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Michael C; Harris, Richard E; Sundgren, Pia C; Welsh, Robert C; Fernandes, Carlo R; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, David A

    2009-06-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for the presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p< or =.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={-28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=-.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  6. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  7. Secreted proteome profiling in human RPE cell cultures derived from donors with age related macular degeneration and age matched healthy donors.

    PubMed

    An, Eunkyung; Lu, Xiaoning; Flippin, Jessica; Devaney, Joseph M; Halligan, Brian; Hoffman, Eric P; Hoffman, Eric; Strunnikova, Nataly; Csaky, Karl; Hathout, Yetrib

    2006-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by progressive loss of central vision, which is attributed to abnormal accumulation of macular deposits called "drusen" at the interface between the basal surface of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane. In the most severe cases, drusen deposits are accompanied by the growth of new blood vessels that breach the RPE layer and invade photoreceptors. In this study, we hypothesized that RPE secreted proteins are responsible for drusen formation and choroidal neovascularization. We used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in combination with LC-MS/MS analysis and ZoomQuant quantification to assess differential protein secretion by RPE cell cultures prepared from human autopsy eyes of AMD donors (diagnosed by histological examinations of the macula and genotyped for the Y402H-complement factor H variant) and age-matched healthy control donors. In general, RPE cells were found to secrete a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, complement factors, and protease inhibitors that have been reported to be major constituents of drusen (hallmark deposits in AMD). Interestingly, RPE cells from AMD donors secreted 2 to 3-fold more galectin 3 binding protein, fibronectin, clusterin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and pigment epithelium derived factor than RPE cells from age-matched healthy donors. Conversely, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) was found to be down regulated by 2-fold in AMD RPE cells versus healthy RPE cells. Ingenuity pathway analysis grouped these differentially secreted proteins into two groups; those involved in tissue development and angiogenesis and those involved in complement regulation and protein aggregation such as clusterin. Overall, these data strongly suggest that RPE cells are involved in the biogenesis of drusen and the pathology of AMD. PMID:17022631

  8. QT Is Longer in Drug-Free Patients with Schizophrenia Compared with Age-Matched Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Kumiko; Ozeki, Yuji; Okayasu, Hiroaki; Takano, Yumiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Hori, Hiroaki; Orui, Masami; Horie, Minoru; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2014-01-01

    The potassium voltage-gated channel KCNH2 is a well-known gene in which mutations induce familial QT interval prolongation. KCNH2 is suggested to be a risk gene for schizophrenia. Additionally, the disturbance of autonomic control, which affects the QT interval, is known in schizophrenia. Therefore, we speculate that schizophrenic patients have characteristic features in terms of the QT interval in addition to the effect of antipsychotic medication. The QT interval of patients with schizophrenia not receiving antipsychotics (n = 85) was compared with that of patients with schizophrenia receiving relatively large doses of antipsychotics (n = 85) and healthy volunteers (n = 85). The QT interval was corrected using four methods (Bazett, Fridericia, Framingham or Hodges method). In ANCOVA with age and heart rate as covariates, patients not receiving antipsychotic treatment had longer QT intervals than did the healthy volunteers, but antipsychotics prolonged the QT interval regardless of the correction method used (P<0.01). Schizophrenic patients with and without medication had a significantly higher mean heart rate than did the healthy volunteers, with no obvious sex-related differences in the QT interval. The QT interval prolongation may be manifestation of a certain biological feature of schizophrenia. PMID:24887423

  9. Sensorimotor Control of Tracking Movements at Various Speeds for Stroke Patients as Well as Age-Matched and Young Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-yu

    2015-01-01

    There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides) and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals) were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s). The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE), normalized integrated jerk (NIJ) and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS), were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (P<0.01), and the values were ranked in the following order: young controls < age-matched controls

  10. Premature infants display increased noxious-evoked neuronal activity in the brain compared to healthy age-matched term-born infants.

    PubMed

    Slater, Rebeccah; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2010-08-15

    This study demonstrates that infants who are born prematurely and who have experienced at least 40days of intensive or special care have increased brain neuronal responses to noxious stimuli compared to healthy newborns at the same postmenstrual age. We have measured evoked potentials generated by noxious clinically-essential heel lances in infants born at term (8 infants; born 37-40weeks) and in infants born prematurely (7 infants; born 24-32weeks) who had reached the same postmenstrual age (mean age at time of heel lance 39.2+/-1.2weeks). These noxious-evoked potentials are clearly distinguishable from shorter latency potentials evoked by non-noxious tactile sensory stimulation. While the shorter latency touch potentials are not dependent on the age of the infant at birth, the noxious-evoked potentials are significantly larger in prematurely-born infants. This enhancement is not associated with specific brain lesions but reflects a functional change in pain processing in the brain that is likely to underlie previously reported changes in pain sensitivity in older ex-preterm children. Our ability to quantify and measure experience-dependent changes in infant cortical pain processing will allow us to develop a more rational approach to pain management in neonatal intensive care. PMID:20438855

  11. Hyperbilirubinemia in normal healthy donors

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Veena; Kulkarni, R. K.; Cherian, Susan; Pillai, Raji; Shivali, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the others. Causes of icteric plasma in these apparently healthy donors are discussed. Differential diagnosis includes Gilbert’s disease, hemolytic anemia, drug-induced anemia and other hepatic causes of hyperbilirubinemia, of which Gilbert’s disease is most probable cause with a prevalence of 0.91% in our population. As there are no studies to document the safety of the recipients receiving such abnormal colored plasma as well as to document the hazards in its transfusion, the question arises whether to transfuse such units or not. This study highlights this dilemma. A reassessment of existing policies and regulations is merited. PMID:20808649

  12. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals. PMID:25790831

  13. Event-related brain potentials, bilateral electrodermal activity and Mangina-Test performance in learning disabled/ADHD pre-adolescents with severe behavioral disorders as compared to age-matched normal controls.

    PubMed

    Mangina, C A; Beuzeron-Mangina, J H; Grizenko, N

    2000-07-01

    The most frequently encountered developmental problems of learning disabilities/ADHD often co-exist with severe behavioral disorders. As a direct consequence, this condition opens the way to delinquency, school drop-out, depression, suicide, substance abuse, work absenteeism, and other psycho-social complications. In this paper, we are presenting a selective overview of our previous research and its clinical applications in this field as it relates to our present research data pertaining to the effects of our original Memory Workload Paradigm on the event-related brain potentials in differentiating normal and pathological pre-adolescents (learning disabled/ADHD with concomitant severe behavioral disorders such as oppositional and conduct). In addition, it provides data on the bilateral electrodermal activity during cognitive workload and Mangina-Test performance of pathological and normal pre-adolescents conducted in separate sessions. The results of our present research indicate that a significant memory load effect for the P450 latency (F(3,27)=4.98, P<0.01) and the P450 amplitude (F(3,27)=3.57, P<0.05) was present for normal pre-adolescents which was absent in pathological pre-adolescents. Moreover, enhanced N450 ERP amplitudes to our Memory Workload Paradigm in pre-frontal and frontal regions clearly differentiated normal from pathological pre-adolescents (F(1, 18)=12.21, P<0.004). Furthermore, significant differences between normal and pathological groups were found in bilateral electrodermal activity (F(1,18)=23.86, P<0.001) and on the Mangina-Test performance (F(1,18)=75.35, P<0.001). Our present research findings provide an original and valuable demonstration of an integrative and effective clinical psychophysiological application of central (ERPs), autonomic (bilateral electrodermal activity) and neuro-psychometric aspects (Mangina-Test) which characterize normal and pathological pre-adolescents and underpin the neurophysiological basis of learning

  14. Ankle brachial pressure index of normal, healthy, younger adults.

    PubMed

    Niblo, Jane; Coull, Alison

    Doppler ultrasound and ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) calculations are used in the assessment of lower limb vascularity, specifically to determine arterial deficiency. ABPI is important as it is used as an indicator when deciding management options for the treatment of leg ulceration. This study aimed to investigate the range of ABPI measurement, using Doppler ultrasound and sphygmomanometry in 36 young healthy adults aged 18-55 years. The findings show a mean ABPI in the left leg of 1.19 and a mean ABPI of 1.17 in the right leg which, while within the normal range, are consistently in the upper range and significantly higher than the acknowledged 'normal' midpoint of 1.0. It would appear that younger people will have ABPIs within the upper aspect of the normal range and well above the established norm of 1.0. PMID:24151719

  15. SPM-based count normalization provides excellent discrimination of mild Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment from healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, Igor; Hammers, Alexander; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Scheurich, Armin; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Peters, Jürgen; Bartenstein, Peter; Lieb, Klaus; Schreckenberger, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Statistical comparisons of [(18)F]FDG PET scans between healthy subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) usually require normalization of regional tracer uptake via ROIs defined using additional software. Here, we validate a simple SPM-based method for count normalization. FDG PET scans of 21 mild, 15 very mild AD, 11 aMCI patients and 15 age-matched controls were analyzed. First, we obtained relative increases in the whole patient sample compared to controls (i.e. areas relatively preserved in patients) with proportional scaling to the cerebral global mean (CGM). Next, average absolute counts within the cluster with the highest t-value were extracted. Statistical comparisons of controls versus three patients groups were then performed using count normalization to CGM, sensorimotor cortex (SMC) as standard, and to the cluster-derived counts. Compared to controls, relative metabolism in aMCI patients was reduced by 15%, 20%, and 23% after normalization to CGM, SMC, and cluster-derived counts, respectively, and 11%, 21%, and 25% in mild AD patients. Logistic regression analyses based on normalized values extracted from AD-typical regions showed that the metabolic values obtained using CGM, SMC, and cluster normalization correctly classified 81%, 89% and 92% of aMCI and controls; classification accuracies for AD groups (very mild and mild) were 91%, 97%, and 100%. The proposed algorithm of fully SPM-based count normalization allows for a substantial increase of statistical power in detecting very early AD-associated hypometabolism, and very high accuracy in discriminating mild AD and aMCI from healthy aging. PMID:18691659

  16. Defining Normal Liver Stiffness Range in a Normal Healthy Chinese Population without Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fung, James; Lee, Cheuk-kwong; Chan, Monica; Seto, Wai-kay; Wong, Danny Ka-ho; Lai, Ching-lung; Yuen, Man-fung

    2013-01-01

    Background For patients with chronic liver disease, different optimal liver stiffness cut-off values correspond to different stages of fibrosis, which are specific for the underlying liver disease and population. Aims To establish the normal ranges of liver stiffness in the healthy Chinese population without underlying liver disease. Methods This is a prospective cross sectional study of 2,528 healthy volunteers recruited from the general population and the Red Cross Transfusion Center in Hong Kong. All participants underwent a comprehensive questionnaire survey, measurement of weight, height, and blood pressure. Fasting liver function tests, glucose and cholesterol was performed. Abdominal ultrasound and transient elastography were performed on all participants. Results Of the 2,528 subjects, 1,998 were excluded with either abnormal liver parenchyma on ultrasound, chronic medical condition, abnormal blood tests including liver enzymes, fasting glucose, fasting cholesterol, high body mass index, high blood pressure, or invalid liver stiffness scan. The reference range for the 530 subjects without known liver disease was 2.3 to 5.9 kPa (mean 4.1, SD 0.89). The median liver stiffness was higher in males compared with females (4.3 vs 4.0 kPa respectively, p<0.001). There was also a decline in median Lliver stiffness in the older age group, from 4.2 kPa in those <25 years to 3.4 kPa for those >55 years (p=0.001). Conclusions The healthy reference range for liver stiffness in the Chinese population is 2.3 to 5.9 kPa. Female gender and older age group was associated with a lower median liver stiffness. PMID:24386446

  17. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  18. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either <75th percentile (normal weight) or >95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  19. Repeat participation among normal healthy research volunteers: professional guinea pigs in clinical trials?

    PubMed

    Tishler, Carl L; Bartholomae, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    The recent death of a normal healthy volunteer, as well as the increased use of normal volunteers as research subjects, has heightened the attention given to the participation of normal volunteers in clinical research. An overlooked sub-population of normal healthy volunteers are repeat, veteran volunteers. This essay discusses ethical and methodological issues associated with the use of repeat volunteers in research, along with existing guidelines regarding the use of repeat healthy volunteers, and concludes with recommendations for safeguarding repeat volunteers and ideas supporting centralized recruiting. PMID:14593220

  20. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either 95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  1. Normal Patterns of Deja Experience in a Healthy, Blind Male: Challenging Optical Pathway Delay Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old healthy, blind male, MT, who experiences normal patterns of deja vu. The optical pathway delay theory of deja vu formation assumes that neuronal input from the optical pathways is necessary for the formation of the experience. Surprisingly, although the sensation of deja vu is known to be experienced by blind…

  2. Changes in CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+, and Immunoglobulin M-Positive Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome-Affected Pigs and Age-Matched Uninfected Wasted and Healthy Pigs Correlate with Lesions and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Load in Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Darwich, Laila; Segalés, Joaquim; Domingo, Mariano; Mateu, Enric

    2002-01-01

    Forty-one 8- to 12-week-old wasted pigs were selected from several conventional farms with histories of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and classified into two groups according to their porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection status, as determined by in situ hybridization (ISH). Twenty-four pigs tested positive for PCV2 (PCV2-positive group), while 17 pigs tested negative for PCV2 (PCV2-negative group). In addition, eight uninfected healthy pigs from an experimental farm were used as controls. Heparinized blood samples were taken to obtain peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+ (double-positive [DP]), and immunoglobulin M-positive (IgM+) cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry with appropriate monoclonal antibodies. Histopathological studies were done to evaluate the apparent degrees of lymphocyte depletion in different lymphoid organs (superficial inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, tonsils, and spleen) and to determine the viral load of the PCV2 genome by using an ISH technique. Animals of the PCV2-positive group showed a significant downshift of the CD8+ and DP cell subsets compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, in PCV2-positive pigs, the amount of PCV2 genome in lymphoid tissues was related to the degree of cell depletion in those tissues (P < 0.05) as well as to the relative decrease in IgM+ and CD8+ cells in peripheral blood. These data support the notion that PCV2-positive pigs might have an impaired immune response. PMID:11874858

  3. Main characteristics of metabolically obese normal weight and metabolically healthy obese phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Tatiana F S; Alves, Raquel D M; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G

    2015-03-01

    In this review, the influence of fat depots on insulin resistance and the main characteristics of metabolically obese normal-weight and metabolically healthy obese phenotypes are discussed. Medline/PubMed and Science Direct were searched for articles related to the terms metabolically healthy obesity, metabolically obese normal weight, adipose tissue, and insulin resistance. Normal weight and obesity might be heterogeneous in regard to their effects. Fat distribution and lower insulin sensitivity are the main factors defining phenotypes within the same body mass index. Although these terms are interesting, controversies about them remain. Future studies exploring these phenotypes will help elucidate the roles of adiposity and/or insulin resistance in the development of metabolic alterations. PMID:26024540

  4. Normalizing electrocardiograms of both healthy persons and cardiovascular disease patients for biometric authentication.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meixue; Liu, Bin; Zhao, Miaomiao; Li, Fan; Wang, Guoqing; Zhou, Fengfeng

    2013-01-01

    Although electrocardiogram (ECG) fluctuates over time and physical activity, some of its intrinsic measurements serve well as biometric features. Considering its constant availability and difficulty in being faked, the ECG signal is becoming a promising factor for biometric authentication. The majority of the currently available algorithms only work well on healthy participants. A novel normalization and interpolation algorithm is proposed to convert an ECG signal into multiple template cycles, which are comparable between any two ECGs, no matter the sampling rates or health status. The overall accuracies reach 100% and 90.11% for healthy participants and cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients, respectively. PMID:23977063

  5. Normalizing Electrocardiograms of Both Healthy Persons and Cardiovascular Disease Patients for Biometric Authentication

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Miaomiao; Li, Fan; Wang, Guoqing; Zhou, Fengfeng

    2013-01-01

    Although electrocardiogram (ECG) fluctuates over time and physical activity, some of its intrinsic measurements serve well as biometric features. Considering its constant availability and difficulty in being faked, the ECG signal is becoming a promising factor for biometric authentication. The majority of the currently available algorithms only work well on healthy participants. A novel normalization and interpolation algorithm is proposed to convert an ECG signal into multiple template cycles, which are comparable between any two ECGs, no matter the sampling rates or health status. The overall accuracies reach 100% and 90.11% for healthy participants and cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients, respectively. PMID:23977063

  6. Are Prescription Stimulants "Smart Pills"? The Epidemiology and Cognitive Neuroscience of Prescription Stimulant Use by Normal Healthy Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience…

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure Gradients in Healthy Volunteers and Patients with Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    HAYASHI, Naokazu; MATSUMAE, Mitsunori; YATSUSHIRO, Satoshi; HIRAYAMA, Akihiro; ABDULLAH, Afnizanfaizal; KURODA, Kagayaki

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can depict not only anatomical information, but also physiological factors such as velocity and pressure gradient. Measurement of these physiological factors is necessary to understand the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) environment. In this study we quantified CSF motion in various parts of the CSF space, determined changes in the CSF environment with aging, and compared CSF pressure gradient between patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and healthy elderly volunteers. Fifty-seven healthy volunteers and six iNPH patients underwent four-dimensional (4D) phase-contrast (PC) MRI. CSF motion was observed and the pressure gradient of CSF was quantified in the CSF space. In healthy volunteers, inhomogeneous CSF motion was observed whereby the pressure gradient markedly increased in the center of the skull and gradually decreased in the periphery of the skull. For example, the pressure gradient at the ventral surface of the brainstem was 6.6 times greater than that at the convexity of the cerebrum. The pressure gradient was statistically unchanged with aging. The pressure gradient of patients with iNPH was 3.2 times greater than that of healthy volunteers. The quantitative analysis of 4D-PC MRI data revealed that the pressure gradient of CSF can be used to understand the CSF environment, which is not sufficiently given by subjective impression of the anatomical image. PMID:26226976

  8. Normal range of spinal mobility for healthy young adult Turkish men.

    PubMed

    Cidem, Muharrem; Karacan, Ilhan; Uludag, Murat

    2012-08-01

    Anthropometric characteristics may vary among human populations, especially with differences in race. The aim of the present study is to find normal values of some measures (chest expansion, Schober's test and modified Schober's test) frequently used in the assessment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, in young adult Turkish men. Initial recruitment identified 2,925 healthy male participants aged 20-30 years, and the final study sample included 1,982 of them. Participants joined the research from all cities except one in Turkey. The measurements of chest expansion, Schober's test, and modified Schober's test were performed by the same researcher using a plastic measuring tape. The mean (±standard error) values of the chest expansion, Schober's test, and modified Schober's test were 6.11 (±0.02), 5.62 (±0.02), and 7.78 (±0.02) cm, respectively. The estimated normal lower bounds for chest expansion, Schober's test, and modified Schober's test may be between 3.71-3.86 cm, 3.86-3.97 cm, and 5.46-5.60 cm, respectively, for young adult Turkish men. No correlation was found between height and spinal mobility. The normal values for spinal mobility in this sample of healthy young adult Turkish men differed from those reported for other young adult male populations (chest expansion ≥5 cm, Schober's test >5 cm, modified Schober's test >7 cm). It is thus useful to consider nationality in interpreting results of spinal mobility tests. PMID:21544633

  9. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos

    2011-01-01

    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P < 0.001) from a linear combination of 5 independent variables: QRS elevation in the frontal plane (p<0.001), a new repolarization parameter QTcorr (p<0.001), mean high frequency QRS amplitude (p=0.009), the variability parameter % VLF of RRV (p=0.021) and the P-wave width (p=0.10). Here, QTcorr represents the correlation between the calculated QT and the measured QT signal. Conclusions: In apparently healthy subjects with normal conventional ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  10. Defining the Limits of Normal Conjunctival Fornix Anatomy in a Healthy South Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran J.; Ghauri, Abdul-Jabbar; Hodson, James; Edmunds, Matthew R.; Cottrell, Paul; Evans, Simon; Williams, Geraint P.; Rauz, Saaeha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Quantifying the extent of conjunctival fibrosis for documentation of progression in conjunctival scarring disease is a clinical challenge. Measurement of forniceal foreshortening facilitates monitoring of these disorders. This study aims (1) to define the limits of the normal human conjunctival fornices and how these alter with age and (2) to provide normative data for upper and lower fornix depths (FDs) and fornix intercanthal distance (FICD) within a healthy South Asian, racially distinct population. Design Epidemiologic, cross-sectional study. Participants A total of 240 subjects with national origins from South Asia, with no known ocular history and normal adnexal and conjunctival examination, aged 20 to 80 years. Methods An FICD modification of a custom-designed fornix depth measurer (FDM) was validated and used for measurement of both lower and upper FDs together with FICDs in 480 healthy eyes with no ocular comorbidities. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and presented as means with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Main Outcome Measures Mean lower and upper FDs and FICD for the entire cohort, stratified according to age decade and sex. Results For this South Asian population, the overall upper and lower FDs were 15.3 mm (95% CI, 14.9–15.6) and 10.9 mm (95% CI, 10.7–11.1), respectively, with FICD defined as 32.9 mm (95% CI, 32.5–33.4) (upper) and 31.7 mm (95% CI, 31.3–32.1) (lower). With increasing age, a progressive reduction of all measured parameters (P < 0.001) was noted, with female subjects having significantly shallower fornices (upper FD, P < 0.001; lower FD, P < 0.001; upper FICD, P = 0.081; and lower FICD, P = 0.015). Conclusions This is the first study to define the limits of normal upper FD and FICDs in any population group. Our study demonstrates sex variations and progressive conjunctival shrinkage with age. Although it provides important, objective data for normal forniceal anatomy

  11. Assessment of cardiovascular response to treadmill exercise in normal healthy Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pande, Sushma S; Pande, Santosh R; Dhore, Rajendra B; Daphale, Ajay V; Parate, Vrushali R; Patel, Shishir S; Agrekar, Sushil H

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to assess the cardiovascular response to treadmill exercise test in healthy Indian adolescents. A group of 50 healthy adolescents took part in the study. Cardiovascular response was assessed by using treadmill exercise test as per Bruce protocol. Pulse rate, blood pressure and ECG were recorded before, during and after undertaking the treadmill test. Mean age and body mass index (BMI) were 18.7 +/- 0.51 yrs. and 21.4 +/- 3.44 kg/m2 respectively. Karl Pearson Correlation analysis showed highly significant negative correlation between BMI and exercise time (r = -0.598, P<0.001) and between resting DBP and Exercise Time (r = -0.424, P<0.002). While BMI and DBP showed highly significant positive correlation (r = 0.463, P<0.001). During exercise pulse and SBP rose and DBP fell. SBP rose from mean 122 to 175 (rise by 53 mm of Hg) and DBP fell from mean 78 to 65 (fall by 13 mm of Hg). One min recovery pulse was 156 indicating 22% fall from target heart rate. All the parameters returned to near resting value at 6 min recovery. In 30% students DBP showed exaggerated response i.e. rise during exercise. These students had more BMI and higher resting DBP as compared to other students, which could be the reason for exaggerated response in these participants. In ECG there were no significant ST/T changes during exercise or recovery period. This study provides normal data for small sample of healthy Indian adolescents when subjected to treadmill exercise test. PMID:23029962

  12. Oxygen saturation response to exercise in healthy pregnant women: a simple protocol and normal range

    PubMed Central

    Langford, Edward; Khwanda, Ahmad; Langford, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of oxygen saturation on excercise, using a pulse oximeter, has been advocated in the assessment of women with shortness of breath in pregnancy. However, there is currently no standard protocol for this. The aims of this study were to determine the normal range for oxygen saturation at rest and on moderate exercise in healthy women from 24 weeks gestation and to evaluate a simple, widely applicable exercise protocol in which women walked at their own pace for 100 metres then up two flights of stairs. The protocol achieved 60–85% maximum predicted heart rate in 99% of women at a median gestation of 31+3 weeks, with a wide range of Hb and BMI. There was a mean 0.3% fall in oxygen saturation on exertion but oxygen saturation did not fall below 95% in any of the women.

  13. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    PubMed

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. PMID:26850856

  14. Normal variation in cortical osteocyte lacunar parameters in healthy young males

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Yasmin; Suchorab, Jessica L; Thomas, C David L; Clement, John G; Cooper, David M L

    2014-01-01

    The most abundant cell in bone, osteocytes form an interconnected system upon which the regulation of healthy bone relies. Although the complete nature of the role of osteocytes has yet to be defined, they are generally accepted to play a part in the sensing of load and the initiation of damage repair. A previous study conducted by our group identified variation of up to 30% in osteocyte lacunar density and morphological parameters between regions of a single cross-section of human femoral shaft; that study, however, was limited to a single individual. The aim of the current study was to determine whether this pattern consistently occurs in healthy young male femora. Anterior, posterior, medial and lateral blocks were prepared from the proximal femoral shaft of seven males and synchrotron radiation micro-CT imaged. Average lacunar densities (± SD) from the anterior, posterior, medial and lateral regions were 23 394 ± 1705, 30 180 ± 4860, 35 946 ± 5990 and 29 678 ± 6081 lacunae per mm3 of bone tissue, respectively. These values were significantly different between the anterior and both the medial and posterior regions (P < 0.05). The density of the combined anterior and posterior regions was also significantly lower (P = 0.006) than the density of the combined medial and lateral regions. Although no difference was found in predominant orientation, shape differences were found; with the combined anterior-posterior regions having lacunae that were significantly more elongated and less flat than the combined medial-lateral values (P < 0.001). As expected, in this larger study, there was a dramatic difference in lacunar density between the medial and anterior region (up to ∼ 54%). The study clearly demonstrates that the high variation seen in osteocyte lacunar density as well as other lacunar parameters, noted in a number of biomechanical, age and pathology studies, are well within the range of normal variation; however, the reasons for and

  15. What is normal nasal airflow? A computational study of 22 healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nasal airflow is essential for functioning of the human nose. Given individual variation in nasal anatomy, there is yet no consensus what constitutes normal nasal airflow patterns. We attempt to obtain such information that is essential to differentiate disease-related variations. Methods Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulated nasal airflow in 22 healthy subjects during resting breathing. Streamline patterns, airflow distributions, velocity profiles, pressure, wall stress, turbulence, and vortical flow characteristics under quasi-steady state were analyzed. Patency ratings, acoustically measured minimum cross-sectional area (MCA), and rhinomanometric nasal resistance (NR) were examined for potential correlations with morphological and airflow-related variables. Results Common features across subjects included: >50% total pressure-drop reached near the inferior turbinate head; wall shear stress, NR, turbulence energy, and vorticity were lower in the turbinate than in the nasal valve region. However, location of the major flow path and coronal velocity distributions varied greatly across individuals. Surprisingly, on average, more flow passed through the middle than the inferior meatus and correlated with better patency ratings (r=-0.65, p<0.01). This middle flow percentage combined with peak post-vestibule nasal heat loss and MCA accounted for >70% of the variance in subjective patency ratings and predicted patency categories with 86% success. Nasal index correlated with forming of the anterior dorsal vortex. Expected for resting breathing, the functional impact for local and total turbulence, vorticity, and helicity was limited. As validation, rhinomanometric NR significantly correlated with CFD simulations (r=0.53, p<0.01). Conclusion Significant variations of nasal airflow found among healthy subjects; Key features may have clinically relevant applications. PMID:24664528

  16. In vitro photodynamic effect of aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines on melanoma skin cancer and healthy normal skin cells.

    PubMed

    Maduray, K; Odhav, B; Nyokong, T

    2012-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a medical treatment that uses an inactive dye/drug and lasers as a light source to activate the dye/drug to produce a toxic form of oxygen that destroys the cancer cells. This study aimed at investigating the cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines in its inactive and active state (laser induced) on melanoma skin cancer cells, healthy normal skin fibroblast and keratinocyte cells. Experimentally, 3 × 10⁴ cells/ml were seeded in 24-well plates before treatment with different concentrations of aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines. After 2h, cells were irradiated with a light dose of 4.5 J/cm². Post-irradiated cells were incubated for 24h before cell viability was measured using the CellTiter-Blue Viability Assay. Results showed that aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines at high concentrations were cytotoxic to melanoma cells in the absence of laser activation. In the presence of laser activation of aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines at a concentration of 40 μg/ml decreased cell viability of melanoma cells to 45%, fibroblasts to 78% and keratinocytes to 73%. At this photosensitizing concentration of aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines the efficacy of the treatment light dose 4.5 J/cm² and the cell death mechanism induced by photoactivated aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines was evaluated. A light dose of 4.5 J/cm² was more efficient in killing a higher number of melanoma cells and a lower number of fibroblast and keratinocyte cells than the other light doses of 2.5 J/cm², 7.5 J/cm² and 10.5 J/cm². Apoptosis features such as blebbing, nucleus condensation, nucleus fragmentation and the formation of apoptotic bodies were seen in the photodynamic therapy treated melanoma skin cancer cells. This in vitro photodynamic therapy study concludes that using aluminum tetrasulfophthalocyanines at a photosensitizing concentration of 40 μg/ml in combination with a laser dose of 4.5 J/cm² was potentially lethal

  17. Effects of GUASHA on Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Volunteers under Normal Condition and Weightlifters after Weightlifting Training Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingze; Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Nakmareong, Saowanee; Silsirivanit, Atit; Wang, Yingying; Xie, Dongbei; Yang, Jinsheng; Eungpinichpong, Wichai

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This paper aims at exploring the effects of GUASHA on heart rate variability between healthy volunteers under normal condition and weightlifters after training sessions. Methods. Ten healthy male volunteers under normal condition and 15 male weightlifters after weightlifting training sessions were recruited into two groups. Electrocardiography was recorded before and immediately after 20-minute GUASHA. HRV was calculated in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Results. Stress index was reduced, while standard deviation of N-N intervals (SDNN), proportion derived by dividing the number of interval differences of successive N-N intervals greater than 50 ms, and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) were enhanced after GUASHA therapy in the two groups. The changes in SDNN and RMSSD were higher in the healthy men group than in the weightlifters group. In addition, low frequency was decreased whereas high frequency was significantly increased in healthy men after the GUASHA session. Conclusions. GUASHA therapy facilitates the parasympathetic nervous activity and modulates the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic activities in both healthy men under normal condition and weightlifters after training sessions as indicated. Although the changes of the HRV parameters were similar in both groups, the responsiveness was more pronounced in healthy men than in male weightlifters. PMID:26120346

  18. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  19. EEG Oscillatory States: Universality, Uniqueness and Specificity across Healthy-Normal, Altered and Pathological Brain Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Fingelkurts, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time the dynamic repertoires and oscillatory types of local EEG states in 13 diverse conditions (examined over 9 studies) that covered healthy-normal, altered and pathological brain states were quantified within the same methodological and conceptual framework. EEG oscillatory states were assessed by the probability-classification analysis of short-term EEG spectral patterns. The results demonstrated that brain activity consists of a limited repertoire of local EEG states in any of the examined conditions. The size of the state repertoires was associated with changes in cognition and vigilance or neuropsychopathologic conditions. Additionally universal, optional and unique EEG states across 13 diverse conditions were observed. It was demonstrated also that EEG oscillations which constituted EEG states were characteristic for different groups of conditions in accordance to oscillations’ functional significance. The results suggested that (a) there is a limit in the number of local states available to the cortex and many ways in which these local states can rearrange themselves and still produce the same global state and (b) EEG individuality is determined by varying proportions of universal, optional and unique oscillatory states. The results enriched our understanding about dynamic microstructure of EEG-signal. PMID:24505292

  20. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on verbal aggressiveness in normal healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Raghuram, Nagarathna

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of yoga on verbal aggressiveness in normal healthy adults. Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects of both sexes who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. These 226 subjects were between the ages of 17 and 62 years and 173/226 completed the eight weeks of intervention. The Yoga (Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE). Both groups had supervised practices (by trained experts) for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Verbal Aggressiveness was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Verbal Aggressive Scale. Results: The baseline score of the two groups did not differ significantly (P = 0.66). There was a significant decrease in verbal aggressiveness in the yoga group (P = 0.01 paired samples t-test) with a nonsignificant increase in the PE group. ANCOVA using pre- values as covariates showed a significant difference between the groups (P = 0.013). RMANOVA for interaction between the sexes or age groups in change scores were not significant. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that an eight week intervention of an integrated yoga module decreased verbal aggressiveness in the yoga group (in males and those below 25 years of age), with a nonsignificant increase in the PE group. PMID:21829289

  1. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Richard A; Pahnke, Aric Q; Johnson, Jeffrey M; Sachse, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06) but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06) and adult (0.91 ± 0.04) myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal that the

  2. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17 015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample. PMID:26538188

  3. Are prescription stimulants "smart pills"? The epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience of prescription stimulant use by normal healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Smith, M Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J

    2011-09-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience literatures in search of answers to these questions. Epidemiological issues addressed include the prevalence of nonmedical stimulant use, user demographics, methods by which users obtain prescription stimulants, and motivations for use. Cognitive neuroscience issues addressed include the effects of prescription stimulants on learning and executive function, as well as the task and individual variables associated with these effects. Little is known about the prevalence of prescription stimulant use for cognitive enhancement outside of student populations. Among college students, estimates of use vary widely but, taken together, suggest that the practice is commonplace. The cognitive effects of stimulants on normal healthy people cannot yet be characterized definitively, despite the volume of research that has been carried out on these issues. Published evidence suggests that declarative memory can be improved by stimulants, with some evidence consistent with enhanced consolidation of memories. Effects on the executive functions of working memory and cognitive control are less reliable but have been found for at least some individuals on some tasks. In closing, we enumerate the many outstanding questions that remain to be addressed by future research and also identify obstacles facing this research. PMID:21859174

  4. Mild Memory Impairment in Healthy Older Adults Is Distinct from Normal Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargin, J. Weaver; Maruff, P.; Collie, A.; Masters, C.

    2006-01-01

    Mild memory impairment was detected in 28% of a sample of healthy community-dwelling older adults using the delayed recall trial of a word list learning task. Statistical analysis revealed that individuals with memory impairment also demonstrated relative deficits on other measures of memory, and tests of executive function, processing speed and…

  5. Energy content of stools in normal healthy controls and patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, J L; Wootton, S A; Bond, S A; Jackson, A A

    1991-01-01

    Stool energy losses and the sources of energy within the stool were determined in 20 healthy controls and 20 patients with cystic fibrosis while on their habitual pancreatic enzyme replacement treatment. Stool energy losses were equivalent to 3.5% of gross energy intake in healthy children (range 1.3-5.8%). Despite a comparable gross energy intake, stool energy losses were three times greater in patients with cystic fibrosis than controls averaging 10.6% of gross energy intake (range 4.9-19.7%). Stool lipid could account for only 29% and 41% of the energy within the stool in controls and patients with cystic fibrosis respectively and was poorly related to stool energy. Approximately 30% of the energy within the stool could be attributable to colonic bacteria in both the healthy children and patients with cystic fibrosis. These results suggest that stool energy losses in healthy children are relatively modest but that even when patients with cystic fibrosis are symptomatically well controlled on pancreatic enzyme replacement, raised stool energy losses may continue to contribute towards an energy deficit sufficient to limit growth in cystic fibrosis. As the energy content per gram wet weight remains relatively constant (8 kJ/g), stool energy losses may be estimated from simple measurements of stool wet weight. PMID:2031608

  6. Heroin snorters versus injectors: comparison on drug use and treatment outcome in age-matched samples.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M J; Chutuape, M A; Stitzer, M L

    1998-12-01

    Drug use histories and treatment outcomes were compared for age, race and gender-matched samples of intravenous (IV; n = 28) versus intranasal (IN; n = 28) opiate abusers entering a 3-day inpatient detoxification unit. Data were derived from the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) interview. Both groups reported daily heroin use prior to detoxification, but IV users reported more days of alcohol and multiple drug use during the past 30 days. Despite age matching, IV users also started using alcohol at an earlier age and accumulated more lifetime months of regular alcohol, cocaine and multidrug use. IV users were more likely to enter treatment following the detox, but no significant outcome differences were noted at 1 and 3 months post-detoxification. The results show that intravenous, as compared to intranasal, opiate users have both a more severe pattern and a more extensive history of the use of non-opiate drugs. PMID:10933336

  7. Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Bee-Oh; O’Sullivan, David; Choi, Bum-Gwon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ± 2.8 years; weight, 48.1 ± 14.1 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ± 2.9 years; weight, 43.6 ± 10 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite® system while their plantar pressure was being recorded. [Results] The results showed a reduction in cadence, gait velocity, and step length, and an increase in step width in children with autism. Plantar pressure variables highlight the differences between the active pressure areas, especially in the hindfoot of children with autism. [Conclusion] The results suggest that children with autism have an abnormal gait compared with that of age-matched controls, and thus they need extra attention to correct these abnormal gait patterns. PMID:26957776

  8. When patients portray their conduct as normal and healthy: an interactional challenge for thorough substance use history taking.

    PubMed

    Denvir, Paul M

    2012-11-01

    Researchers and medical practitioners have argued that routine substance use histories are performed less frequently and less thoroughly than they should be. Previous research has identified a range of structural, attitudinal, and socio-cultural barriers that help to explain this pattern. Using conversation analytic (CA) methods, this paper complements previous work by exploring a potential interactional barrier to thorough substance use history taking in the USA. In response to routine substance use queries (e.g. "Do you drink alcohol?"), patients often do more than just providing information. They also convey normative stances toward their conduct, essentially making a case for how it should be understood by the physician. One stance that patients may take is that their conduct is normal and healthy. This paper describes three interactional practices that patients used to enact such a stance: 1) employing marked lexical, intonational, or interactional features when indicating no use of a substance; 2) volunteering normalizing details about the type, quantity, frequency, or circumstances of substance use; 3) providing minimizing characterizations of substance use. The paper explores some reasons why physicians treated these as appropriate and sufficient responses and did not seek additional details even when the information provided was quite superficial. Two social functions of patients' "normal/healthy" stances are discussed: 1) redirecting the physician's history taking to other topics and 2) presenting oneself as a health-conscious patient. "Normal/healthy" stances can represent an expression of patient agency, but can also present a dilemma for physicians, who must balance a concern for thoroughness with a concern for rapport. Recommendations for navigating this dilemma are discussed. PMID:22884752

  9. Reaffirming normal: the high risk of pathologizing healthy adults when interpreting the MMPI-2-RF.

    PubMed

    Odland, Anthony P; Lammy, Andrew B; Perle, Jonathan G; Martin, Phillip K; Grote, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to determine the proportion of the normal population expected to have scale elevations on the MMPI-2-RF when multiple scores are interpreted. Results showed that when all 40 MMPI-2-RF scales are simultaneously considered, approximately 70% of normal adults are likely to have at least one scale elevation at or above 65 T, and as many as 20% will have five or more elevated scales. When the Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales are under consideration, 34% of normal adults have at least one elevated score. Interpretation of the Specific Problem Scales and Personality Psychopathology Five Scales--Revised also yielded higher than expected rates of significant scores, with as many as one in four normal adults possibly being miscategorized as having features of a personality disorder by the latter scales. These findings are consistent with the growing literature on rates of apparently abnormal scores in the normal population due to multiple score interpretation. Findings are discussed in relation to clinical assessment, as well as in response to recent work suggesting that the MMPI-2-RF's multiscale composition does not contribute to high rates of elevated scores. PMID:25643047

  10. Sonographic Assessment of the Normal Dimensions of Liver, Spleen, and Kidney in Healthy Children at Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Thapa, N B; Shah, S; Pradhan, A; Rijal, K; Pradhan, A; Basnet, S

    2015-01-01

    Background Ultrasonography is one of the most common imaging modality to measure dimensions of visceral organs in children. However, the normal limit of size of visceral organs according to age and body habitus has not been specified in the standard textbooks. This might result in under detection of organomegaly in pediatrics population. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the normal range of dimensions for the liver, spleen, and kidney in healthy children. Method This is prospective cross-sectional, hospital-based study done at Tertiary-care teaching hospital. Participants included 272 pediatric subjects (152 male and 120 female) with normal physical or sonographic findings who were examined because of problems unrelated to the measured organs. The subjects were one month to 15 year (180 months) old. All measured organs were sonographically normal. Relationships of the dimensions of these organs with sex, age, body weight and height were investigated. Limits of normal dimensions of these organs were defined. Result Normal length of liver, kidneys and spleen were obtained sonographically for 272 children (152 male [55.9%] and 120 female [44.1%]) in the age group from 1 months to 15 (180 months) years. The mean age was 45.78 months (SD, 44.73). The measured dimensions of all these organs showed highest correlation with height and age so the descriptive analysis of the organ dimensions (mean, minimum, and maximum values, SD and 5th and 95th percentiles) were expressed in 10 age groups along with height range of the included children. The mean length of right kidney was shorter than the left kidney length, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Conclusion This study provides practical and comprehensive guide to the normal visceral organ dimension in pediatric population. The normal range limit of the liver, spleen, and kidney determined in this study could be used as a reference in daily practice in local radiology clinics

  11. P300 EVENT RELATED POTENTIAL IN NORMAL HEALTHY CONTROLS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, R.; Trivedi, J.K.; Singh, R.; Singh, Y.; Chakravorty, P.

    2000-01-01

    P300 event related potential was recorded in 115 healthy controls with a mean age of35.9±14.81 years and a male : female ratio of 72 : 43. There was significant difference in the P300 latency in < 40 years as compared to ≥ 40 years group (p< 0.001). There was no significant difference between males and females. There was a strong positive correlation between age and P300 latency (p< 0.001). The regression equation for P300 latency was Y=287.9+1.492x with an SEE of 20.2 (where Y is the P300 latency in ms, x is the age in years, SEE is the standard error of estimate). There was a negative correlation between age and P300 amplitude which was significant in ≥ 40 years age group while in > 40 years age group it was not significant. PMID:21407977

  12. Intensively managed young children with type 1 diabetes consume high-fat, low-fiber diets similar to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sanjeev N; Volkening, Lisa K; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M B

    2014-05-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n = 67) aged 2 to 12 years attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared with a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared with children participating in NHANES (42% vs 30%, P = .04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs 13%, P = .03), whole grains (12% vs 5%, P = .005), and dairy (55% vs 36%, P = .001) compared with NHANES children, whereas similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs 33%, P = .2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than did NHANES children (14% vs 12% total energy intake, P = .0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared with NHANES children, children with T1D had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores (59.6 vs 49.7, P = .0006) primarily because of lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable with youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  13. Lactate: Brain Fuel in Human Traumatic Brain Injury: A Comparison with Normal Healthy Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Neil A.; Horning, Michael A.; McArthur, David L.; Hovda, David A.; Vespa, Paul; Brooks, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the hypothesis that lactate shuttling helps support the nutritive needs of injured brains. To that end, we utilized dual isotope tracer [6,6-2H2]glucose, that is, D2-glucose, and [3-13C]lactate techniques involving arm vein tracer infusion along with simultaneous cerebral (arterial [art] and jugular bulb [JB]) blood sampling. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with nonpenetrating brain injuries (n=12) were entered into the study following consent of patients' legal representatives. Written and informed consent was obtained from control volunteers (n=6). Patients were studied 5.7±2.2 (mean±SD) days post-injury; during periods when arterial glucose concentration tended to be higher in TBI patients. As in previous investigations, the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgluc, i.e., net glucose uptake) was significantly suppressed following TBI (p<0.001). However, lactate fractional extraction, an index of cerebral lactate uptake related to systemic lactate supply, approximated 11% in both healthy control subjects and TBI patients. Further, neither the CMR for lactate (CMRlac, i.e., net lactate release), nor the tracer-measured cerebral lactate uptake differed between healthy controls and TBI patients. The percentages of lactate tracer taken up and released as 13CO2 into the JB accounted for 92% and 91% for control and TBI conditions, respectively, suggesting that most cerebral lactate uptake was oxidized following TBI. Comparisons of isotopic enrichments of lactate oxidation from infused [3-13C]lactate tracer and 13C-glucose produced during hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis (GNG) showed that 75–80% of 13CO2 released into the JB was from lactate and that the remainder was from the oxidation of glucose secondarily labeled from lactate. Hence, either directly as lactate uptake, or indirectly via GNG, peripheral lactate production accounted for ∼70% of carbohydrate (direct lactate uptake+uptake of glucose from lactate) consumed by the

  14. Proposed Use of Thickener According to Fluid Intake on Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Studies: Preliminary Study in Normal Healthy Persons

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Duck; Koo, Jung Hoi; Park, Hee Seon; Kim, Jae Sin; Jang, Ki Hyo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the characteristics and changes in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing according to fluid viscosity in normal healthy persons, to help determine fluid intake methods in more detail than the use of standardized fluid. Methods This was a prospective observational study involving 10 normal healthy adults. While the participants sequentially took in fluids with 10 different viscosities changes in the pharyngeal phase of the swallowing process were monitored using videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS). Twenty parameters of the pharyngeal phase, including epiglottis contact, laryngeal elevation, pharyngeal constriction, and upper esophageal sphincter opening, were determined and compared. Results No significant viscosity-based changes in epiglottis contact, laryngeal elevation, or upper esophageal sphincter-opening duration of the pharyngeal phase were observed. However, pharyngeal transit time and time from the start of the pharyngeal phase to peak pharyngeal constriction were significantly delayed upon intake of fluid with viscosities of 150.0 centipoise (cP) and 200.0 cP. Conclusion VFSS analysis of fluid intake may require the use of fluids of various concentrations to determine a suitable viscosity of thickener mixture for each subject. PMID:27152269

  15. C-type virus particles in placenta of normal healthy Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed Central

    Gross, L; Schidlovsky, G; Feldman, D; Dreyfuss, Y; Moore, L A

    1975-01-01

    C-type virus particles were found on electron-microscopic examination in placentas from two out of four young healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. One of these specimens contained virus particles budding from the plasma membranes of cells in the junctional zone of the placenta, i.e., the region where the fetal and maternal cell layers meet. In the other placenta, immature and mature C-type virus particles were found among cell debris also in the junctional region. This observation adds another species of animals to those recently reported, such as rhesus and baboon monkeys, as well as humans, in which C-type virus particles were found in the placenta. The presence of C-type viicant in view of the fact that a considerable number of these animals develop spontaneously a variety of malignant tumors, occasionally also leukemia and malignant lymphomas; however, none of these spontaneous tumors reveals the presence of virus particles on electron-microscopic examination. The nature of virus particles detected in rat placenta remains to be determined. As a working hypothesis, it is possible to assume that they may represent the passage of latent, presumably oncogenic, viruses transmitted "vertically" from parents to offspring. In the course of this passage some of them may be formed, emerging temporarily from their latency, before losing their identity and being again incorporated into the cell genetic components. Images PMID:171659

  16. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  17. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  18. Development and Decline of Memory Functions in Normal, Pathological and Healthy Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Sanfratello, L.; Adair, J. C.; Knoefel, J. E.; Caprihan, A.; Stephen, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Many neuroimaging studies of age-related memory decline interpret resultant differences in brain activation patterns in the elderly as reflecting a type of compensatory response or regression to a simpler state of brain organization. Here we review a series of our own studies which lead us to an alternative interpretation, and highlights a couple of potential confounds in the aging literature that may act to increase the variability of results within age groups and across laboratories. From our perspective, level of cognitive functioning achieved by a group of elderly is largely determined by the health of individuals within this group. Individuals with a history of hypertension, for example, are likely to have multiple white matter insults which compromise cognitive functioning, independent of aging processes. The health of the elderly group has not been well-documented in most previous studies and elderly participants are rarely excluded, or placed into a separate group, due to health-related problems. In addition, recent results show that white matter tracts within the frontal and temporal lobes, regions critical for higher cognitive functions, continue to mature well into the 4th decade of life. This suggests that a young age group may not be the best control group for understanding aging effects on the brain since development is ongoing within this age range. Therefore, we have added a middle-age group to our studies in order to better understand normal development across the lifespan as well as effects of pathology on cognitive functioning in the aging brain. PMID:21452018

  19. Arrhythmias Seen in Baseline 24-Hour Holter ECG Recordings in Healthy Normal Volunteers During Phase 1 Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Hingorani, Pooja; Karnad, Dilip R; Rohekar, Prashant; Kerkar, Vaibhav; Lokhandwala, Yash Y; Kothari, Snehal

    2016-07-01

    Regulatory agencies encourage sponsors to submit 24-hour ambulatory ECG data for assessing cardiac safety of new drugs, and some arrhythmias, hitherto considered rare, have been observed in some early-phase studies. Interpretation of these observations is difficult given the dearth of published data on the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias seen during 24-hour continuous ECG monitoring in healthy volunteers (HV) from clinical trials. We analyzed drug-free ambulatory ECG recordings from 1273 HV (1000 males, 273 females; age 18-65 years) from 22 phase 1 studies that were analyzed in a core ECG laboratory; all subjects had normal screening ECGs. Supraventricular arrhythmias such as supraventricular premature complexes were observed in 60.8% of healthy volunteers, supraventricular tachycardia in 2.2%, and atrial fibrillation in 0.1%. Ventricular arrhythmias included premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) in 43.4%, >200 PVCs per 24 hours in 3.3%, multifocal PVCs in 5.3%, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in 0.7%, and accelerated idioventricular rhythm in 0.3%. Bradyarrhythmias included sinus pause >3 seconds in 0.3%, and second-degree AV block in 2.4%. Complete heart block and torsades de pointes were not seen in any subject. Based on the observed incidence, we estimated the maximum number of healthy subjects in whom these arrhythmias may be seen as a matter of chance in studies with smaller sample sizes if the study drug has no arrhythmogenic effect. Our results and these estimates could help interpret whether cardiac arrhythmias observed in early-phase studies are due to chance or possibly are a drug effect. PMID:26626443

  20. Variability of normal vocal fold dynamics for different vocal loading in one healthy subject investigated by phonovibrograms.

    PubMed

    Doellinger, Michael; Lohscheller, Joerg; McWhorter, Andrew; Kunduk, Melda

    2009-03-01

    We investigate the potential of high-speed digital imaging technique (HSI) and the phonovibrogram (PVG) analysis in normal vocal fold dynamics by studying the effects of continuous voice use (vocal loading) during the workday. One healthy subject was recorded at sustained phonation 13 times within 2 consecutive days in the morning before and in the afternoon after vocal loading, respectively. Vocal fold dynamics were extracted and visualized by PVGs. The characteristic PVG patterns were extracted representing vocal fold vibration types. The parameter values were then analyzed by statistics regarding vocal load, left-right PVG asymmetries, anterior-posterior PVG asymmetries, and opening-closing differences. For the first time, the direct impact of vocal load could be determined by analyzing vocal fold dynamics. For same vocal loading conditions, equal dynamical behavior of the vocal folds were confirmed. Comparison of recordings performed in the morning with the recordings after work revealed significant changes in vibration behavior, indicating impact of occurring vocal load. Left-right asymmetries in vocal fold dynamics were found confirming earlier assumptions. Different dynamics between opening and closing procedure as well as for anterior and posterior parts were found. Constant voice usage stresses the vocal folds even in healthy subjects and can be detected by applying the PVG technique. Furthermore, left-right PVG asymmetries do occur in healthy voice to a certain extent. HSI in combination with PVG analysis seems to be a promising tool for investigation of vocal fold fatigue and pathologies resulting in small forms of dynamical changes. PMID:18313896

  1. The Superior Sleep of Healthy Elderly Nuns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Carolyn C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared nocturnal sleep structure of 10 healthy elderly nuns to that of 10 healthy age-matched female controls. The nuns fell asleep more quickly and had less early morning awakening, as well as greater rapid eye movement sleep time. These differences may reflect the more highly entrained life style of the nuns, including modest habitual sleep…

  2. A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults123

    PubMed Central

    Stote, Kim S; Baer, David J; Spears, Karen; Paul, David R; Harris, G Keith; Rumpler, William V; Strycula, Pilar; Najjar, Samer S; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ingram, Donald K; Longo, Dan L; Mattson, Mark P

    2009-01-01

    Background Although consumption of 3 meals/d is the most common pattern of eating in industrialized countries, a scientific rationale for this meal frequency with respect to optimal health is lacking. A diet with less meal frequency can improve the health and extend the lifespan of laboratory animals, but its effect on humans has never been tested. Objective A pilot study was conducted to establish the effects of a reduced-meal-frequency diet on health indicators in healthy, normal-weight adults. Design The study was a randomized crossover design with two 8-wk treatment periods. During the treatment periods, subjects consumed all of the calories needed for weight maintenance in either 3 meals/d or 1 meal/d. Results Subjects who completed the study maintained their body weight within 2 kg of their initial weight throughout the 6-mo period. There were no significant effects of meal frequency on heart rate, body temperature, or most of the blood variables measured. However, when consuming 1 meal/d, subjects had a significant increase in hunger; a significant modification of body composition, including reductions in fat mass; significant increases in blood pressure and in total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations; and a significant decrease in concentrations of cortisol. Conclusions Normal-weight subjects are able to comply with a 1 meal/d diet. When meal frequency is decreased without a reduction in overall calorie intake, modest changes occur in body composition, some cardiovascular disease risk factors, and hematologic variables. Diurnal variations may affect outcomes. PMID:17413096

  3. Blood homocysteine and vitamin B levels are not associated with cognitive skills in healthy normally ageing subjects.

    PubMed

    Ravaglia, G; Forti, P; Maioli, F; Zanardi, V; Dalmonte, E; Grossi, G; Cucinotta, D; Macini, P; Caldarera, M

    2000-01-01

    Increased plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels are a known risk factor for vascular disease and have been reported in association with cognitive impairment of old age. Alternatively, however, increased tHcy levels may simply be an indicator of B vitamin deficiency. We evaluated the relationship between plasma tHcy levels, serum vitamin B12 and folate levels, and the scores at a battery of neuropsychological tests in 54 healthy cognitively normal subjects aged 65 years and over. Hyperhomocysteinemia prevalence (plasma tHcy>15 micromol/L) was about 24%. In univariate analysis, vitamin B12 levels were associated with both verbal memory and visuo-spatial skills, whereas no association was found between psychometric test scores and folate levels or tHcy levels. However, none of the univariate associations of neuropsychological test scores and serum B12 vitamin levels was confirmed when adjusting for age, education and other confounding variables. In conclusion, although a relationship between homocysteine, B vitamins and poor cognitive skills in the elderly is plausible, this study does not suggests that such relationship is biologically important. PMID:11115804

  4. Impact of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction on glucose regulation in healthy, normal weight middle-aged men and women.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An unresolved issue in the field of diet and health is if and how changes in meal frequency affect energy metabolism in humans. We therefore evaluated the influence of reduced meal frequency without a reduction in energy intake on glucose metabolism in normal weight healthy male and female subjects...

  5. Risk of Developing Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Metabolically Unhealthy Normal-Weight and Metabolically Healthy Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Aung, KoKo; Hinojosa, Marco A.; Haffner, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) associated with obesity appears to be influenced by the coexistence of other metabolic abnormalities. Objective: We examined the risk of developing CVD and DM in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUH-NW) individuals. Design and Setting: We analyzed prospective data of the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites (median follow-up, 7.4 y). Participants: Incident DM and CVD were assessed in 2814 and 3700 participants aged 25 to 64 years, respectively. Main Measures: MHO was defined as obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) with no more than one metabolic abnormality, and MUH-NW was defined as body mass index <25 kg/m2 with two or more abnormalities. Results: In logistic regression models, BMI was associated with incident DM after controlling for demographics, family history of DM, and fasting glucose (odds ratio × 1 SD, 1.7 [95% CI, 1.5–2.0]). Both MUH-NW and MHO individuals had an increased DM risk (2.5 [1.1–5.6] and 3.9 [2.0–7.4], respectively). Similarly, BMI was related to incident CVD after adjusting for demographics and Framingham risk score (1.3 [1.1–1.6]). Incident CVD was also increased in MUH-NW and MHO individuals (2.9 [1.3–6.4] and 3.9 [1.9–7.8], respectively). Results were consistent across gender and ethnic categories. Conclusion: The risk of developing DM and CVD is increased in MUH-NW and MHO individuals. Screening for obesity and other metabolic abnormalities should be routinely performed in clinical practice to institute appropriate preventive measures. PMID:24257907

  6. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  7. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  8. The influence of high-normal testosterone levels on risk-taking in healthy males in a 1-week letrozole administration study.

    PubMed

    Goudriaan, Anna E; Lapauw, Bruno; Ruige, Johannes; Feyen, Els; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Brand, Matthias; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2010-10-01

    Human studies on the relation between testosterone levels and risk-taking behaviour are scarce. Related functions, like aggression, have been related to higher testosterone levels more consistently, especially in the animal literature. Estradiol affects several neurotransmitter systems that play a role in behaviour regulation. Existing human studies on neurocognitive functions and testosterone levels have largely ignored the interrelatedness of testosterone levels and estradiol levels. Therefore, in this study, the effects of a 1-week combined testosterone and estradiol intervention on risk-taking behaviours were investigated. Twenty-one healthy men, with a normal body mass index, were treated for 7 days with an aromatase inhibitor (letrozole 2.5 mg), resulting in high-normal levels of testosterone and low-normal levels of estradiol, or with a combination of an aromatase inhibitor and estradiol (75 μg/24 h), resulting in low-normal levels of testosterone and high-normal levels of estradiol. A randomized experimenter and participant-blind controlled design was applied. Neurocognitive measures of risk-taking and reward and punishment sensitivity were assessed before starting with the medication and after 7 days of drug administration: Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), Game of Dice Task (GDT), and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). A group by time effect was present for the BART, indicating that the high-normal testosterone group showed an increase in risk-taking on the BART, from the first drug-naive BART performance, to the second BART performance (aromatase inhibitor), whereas such an increase was not present in the low-normal testosterone/high estradiol group. No group by time interactions were present in GDT or IGT performance. These results implicate that testosterone levels in healthy men are associated with increased risk-taking under conditions of unknown probabilities, but not in conditions of known probabilities (GDT) or of strategic decision making (IGT). PMID

  9. Comparative bioequivalence study of a new levothyroxine solution versus a reference L-thyroxine solution in normal healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chassard, D; Kerihuel, J C; Caplain, H; Tran Quang, N; Thebault, J J

    1991-01-01

    A bioequivalence study between a new Levothyroxine solution and a reference solution was performed in 12 healthy volunteers after one single 3000 g oral administration. Administrations were done according to a cross-over schedule with a three week wash-out period. Plasma profile of Levothyroxine was determined for 72 hours, clinical tolerance being appreciated for 10 days after each administration. No statistical difference was reported for pharmacokinetic parameters and clinical tolerance was good. PMID:1820903

  10. High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, affects serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ingrid V; Helland, Anita; Bratlie, Marianne; Brokstad, Karl A; Rosenlund, Grethe; Sveier, Harald; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether high intake of lean or fatty fish (cod and farmed salmon, respectively) by healthy, normal-weight adults would affect risk factors of type 2 diabetes and CVD when compared with lean meat (chicken). More knowledge is needed concerning the potential health effects of high fish intake (>300 g/week) in normal-weight adults. In this randomised clinical trial, thirty-eight young, healthy, normal-weight participants consumed 750 g/week of lean or fatty fish or lean meat (as control) for 4 weeks at dinner according to provided recipes to ensure similar ways of preparations and choices of side dishes between the groups. Energy and macronutrient intakes at baseline and end point were similar in all groups, and there were no changes in energy and macronutrient intakes within any of the groups during the course of the study. High intake of fatty fish, but not lean fish, significantly reduced TAG and increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations in fasting serum when compared with lean meat intake. When compared with lean fish intake, fatty fish intake increased serum HDL-cholesterol. No differences were observed between lean fish, fatty fish and lean meat groups regarding fasting and postprandial glucose regulation. These findings suggest that high intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, could beneficially affect serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol, which are CVD risk factors, in healthy, normal-weight adults, when compared with high intake of lean meat. PMID:27363518

  11. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  12. Acute exercise increases feeding latency in healthy normal weight young males but does not alter energy intake.

    PubMed

    King, James A; Wasse, Lucy K; Stensel, David J

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the acute influence of exercise on eating behaviour in an ecologically valid setting whereby healthy active males were permitted complete ad libitum access to food. Ten healthy males completed two, 8h trials (exercise and control) in a randomised-crossover design. In the exercise trials participants consumed a breakfast snack and then rested for 1h before undertaking a 60 min run (72% of VO(2)max) on a treadmill. Participants then rested in the laboratory for 6h during which time they were permitted complete ad libitum access to a buffet meal. The timing of meals, energy/macronutrient intake and eating frequency were assessed. Identical procedures were completed in the control trial except no exercise was performed. Exercise increased the length of time (35 min) before participants voluntarily requested to eat afterwards. Despite this, energy intake at the first meal consumed, or at subsequent eating episodes, was not influenced by exercise (total trial energy intake: control 7426 kJ, exercise 7418 kJ). Neither was there any difference in macronutrient intake or meal frequency between trials. These results confirm that food intake remains unaffected by exercise in the immediate hours after but suggest that exercise may invoke a delay before food is desired. PMID:23137828

  13. Normal values and reproducibility of the real-time index of vagal tone in healthy humans: a multi-center study

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Adam D.; Coen, Steven J.; Kano, Michiko; Weltens, Nathalie; Ly, Huynh Giao; Botha, Claude; Paine, Peter A.; Oudenhove, Lukas Van; Aziz, Qasim

    2014-01-01

    Background The parasympathetic nervous system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of gastrointestinal disorders including irritable bowel syndrome. Within the field, cardiometric parameters of parasympathetic/vagal tone are most commonly derived from time, or frequency, domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), yet it has limited temporal resolution. Cardiac vagal tone (CVT) is a non-invasive beat-to-beat measure of brainstem efferent vagal activity that overcomes many of the temporal limitations of HRV parameters. However, its normal values and reproducibility in healthy subjects are not fully described. The aim of this study was to address these knowledge gaps. Methods 200 healthy subjects (106 males, median age 28 years, range 18-59 years) were evaluated across three study centers. After attachment of CVT recording equipment, 20 min of data (resting/no stimulation) was acquired. 30 subjects, selected at random, were restudied after 1 year. Results The mean CVT was 9.5±4.16 linear vagal scale (LVS). Thus, the normal range (mean±2 standard deviations) for CVT based on this data was 1.9-17.8 LVS. CVT correlated negatively with heart rate (r=-0.6, P=0.001). CVT reproducibility over 1 year, as indexed by an intra-class correlational coefficient of 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.64-0.91), was good. Conclusions In healthy subjects, the normal range for CVT should be considered to be 1.9-17.8 LVS and is reproducible over 1 year. Future research utilizing CVT should refer to these values although further study is warranted in patient groups. PMID:25330916

  14. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  15. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  16. The relationship between physical activity level and cardiovascular disease biomarkers in healthy, normal-weight 3- to 6-year-old children and their parents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Carol; Cantell, Marja; Crawford, Susan; Dewey, Deborah; Pacaud, Danièle

    2016-08-01

    To determine if physical activity is linked to cardiovascular biomarkers in preschool children at risk, we need information on these biomarkers in healthy normal-weight children. In this population, multi-level modelling analyses found no correlation between accelerometer recorded physical activity and fasting lipids, adiponectin, or insulin sensitivity. Exploratory analyses found positive correlations between adiponectin and time spent in light physical activity, and between triglyceride and time spent in sedentary behaviour; these findings need to be confirmed in longitudinal prospective studies. PMID:27458687

  17. Normal Laboratory Reference Intervals among Healthy Adults Screened for a HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Clinical Trial in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Segolodi, Tebogo M.; Henderson, Faith L.; Rose, Charles E.; Turner, Kyle T.; Zeh, Clement; Fonjungo, Peter N.; Niska, Richard; Hart, Clyde; Paxton, Lynn A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Accurate clinical laboratory reference values derived from a local or regional population base are required to correctly interpret laboratory results. In Botswana, most reference intervals used to date are not standardized across clinical laboratories and are based on values derived from populations in the United States or Western Europe. Methods We measured 14 hematologic and biochemical parameters of healthy young adults screened for participation in the Botswana HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Study using tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) (TDF2 Study). Reference intervals were calculated using standard methods, stratified by gender, and compared with the site-derived reference values used for the TDF2 study (BOTUSA ranges), the Division of AIDS (DAIDS) Grading Table for Adverse Events, the Botswana public health laboratories, and other regional references. Results Out of 2533 screened participants, 1786 met eligibility criteria for participation in study and were included in the analysis. Our reference values were comparable to those of the Botswana public health system except for amylase, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), phosphate, total and direct bilirubin. Compared to our reference values, BOTUSA reference ranges would have classified participants as out of range for some analytes, with amylase (50.8%) and creatinine (32.0%) producing the highest out of range values. Applying the DAIDS toxicity grading system to the values would have resulted in 45 and 18 participants as having severe or life threatening values for amylase and hemoglobin, respectively. Conclusion Our reference values illustrate the differences in hematological and biochemical analyte ranges between African and Western populations. Thus, the use of western-derived reference laboratory values to screen a group of Batswana adults resulted in many healthy people being classified as having out-of-range blood analytes. The need to establish accurate local or regional

  18. Large D-Dimer Fluctuation in Normal Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of 4,117 Samples from 714 Healthy Danish Women

    PubMed Central

    Hedengran, Katrine K.; Andersen, Malene R.; Stender, Steen; Szecsi, Pal B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. D-dimer levels increase throughout pregnancy, hampering the usefulness of the conventional threshold for dismissing thromboembolism. This study investigates the biological fluctuation of D-dimer in normal pregnancy. Methods. A total of 801 healthy women with expected normal pregnancies were recruited. D-dimer was repeatedly measured during pregnancy, at active labor, and on the first and second postpartum days. Percentiles for each gestational week were calculated. Each individual D-dimer was normalized by transformation into percentiles for the relevant gestational age or delivery group. The range in percentage points during the pregnancy and the delivery was calculated, and reference intervals were calculated for each pregnancy trimester, during vaginal delivery and scheduled and emergency cesarean section, and for the first and second day postpartum. Results. D-dimer increased during pregnancy; the maximal fluctuation was approximately 20 percentile points in approximately half of the women. In one out of ten women, the D-dimer values fluctuated by more than 50 percentile points. Conclusions. Due to the biological variation in D-dimer within each individual woman during normal pregnancy, repeated D-dimer measurements are of no clinical use in the evaluation of thromboembolic events during pregnancy. PMID:27190521

  19. Intrinsic Brain Activity of Cognitively Normal Older Persons Resembles More That of Patients Both with and at Risk for Alzheimer's Disease Than That of Healthy Younger Persons

    PubMed Central

    Pasquini, Lorenzo; Tonch, Annika; Plant, Claudia; Zherdin, Andrew; Ortner, Marion; Kurz, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Grimmer, Timo; Wohlschäger, Afra; Riedl, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Alzheimer's disease (AD), recent findings suggest that amyloid-β (Aβ)-pathology might start 20–30 years before first cognitive symptoms arise. To account for age as most relevant risk factor for sporadic AD, it has been hypothesized that lifespan intrinsic (i.e., ongoing) activity of hetero-modal brain areas with highest levels of functional connectivity triggers Aβ-pathology. This model induces the simple question whether in older persons without any cognitive symptoms intrinsic activity of hetero-modal areas is more similar to that of symptomatic patients with AD or to that of younger healthy persons. We hypothesize that due to advanced age and therefore potential impact of pre-clinical AD, intrinsic activity of older persons resembles more that of patients than that of younger controls. We tested this hypothesis in younger (ca. 25 years) and older healthy persons (ca. 70 years) and patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD-dementia (ca. 70 years) by the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, distinct measures of intrinsic brain activity, and different hierarchical clustering approaches. Independently of applied methods and involved areas, healthy older persons' intrinsic brain activity was consistently more alike that of patients than that of younger controls. Our result provides evidence for larger similarity in intrinsic brain activity between healthy older persons and patients with or at-risk for AD than between older and younger ones, suggesting a significant proportion of pre-clinical AD cases in the group of cognitively normal older people. The observed link of aging and AD with intrinsic brain activity supports the view that lifespan intrinsic activity may contribute critically to the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:24689864

  20. Effects of Indoor Horseback Riding and Virtual Reality Exercises on the Dynamic Balance Ability of Normal Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises on the dynamic balance ability of normal adults. [Subjects] This study enrolled 24 normal adults and divided them into two groups: an indoor horseback riding exercise group (IHREG, n = 12) and a virtual reality exercise group (VREG, n = 12). [Methods] IHREG exercised on indoor horseback riding equipment and VREG exercised using the Nintendo Wii Fit three times a week for six weeks. The Biodex Balance System was used to analyze dynamic balance as measured by the overall stability index (OSI), anteroposterior stability index (APSI), and mediolateral stability index (MLSI). [Results] In the within-group comparison, IHREG and VERG both showed significant decreases in the dynamic balance indexes of OSI, APSI, and MLSI after the intervention, but no significant difference was found between the groups. [Conclusion] Both indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises were effective at improving the subjects’ dynamic balance ability as measured by OSI, APSI, and MLSI, and can be used as additional exercises for patients with conditions affecting postural control. PMID:25540494

  1. Effects of indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises on the dynamic balance ability of normal healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises on the dynamic balance ability of normal adults. [Subjects] This study enrolled 24 normal adults and divided them into two groups: an indoor horseback riding exercise group (IHREG, n = 12) and a virtual reality exercise group (VREG, n = 12). [Methods] IHREG exercised on indoor horseback riding equipment and VREG exercised using the Nintendo Wii Fit three times a week for six weeks. The Biodex Balance System was used to analyze dynamic balance as measured by the overall stability index (OSI), anteroposterior stability index (APSI), and mediolateral stability index (MLSI). [Results] In the within-group comparison, IHREG and VERG both showed significant decreases in the dynamic balance indexes of OSI, APSI, and MLSI after the intervention, but no significant difference was found between the groups. [Conclusion] Both indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises were effective at improving the subjects' dynamic balance ability as measured by OSI, APSI, and MLSI, and can be used as additional exercises for patients with conditions affecting postural control. PMID:25540494

  2. Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy vs standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A non-randomized, age-matched single center trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Yoen TK; Bosscha, Koop; Prins, Hubert A; Lips, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the safety of single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomies with standard four-port cholecystectomies. METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2012 datas were gathered from 100 consecutive patients who received a single-port cholecystectomy. Patient baseline characteristics of all 100 single-port cholecystectomies were collected (body mass index, age, etc.) in a database. This group was compared with 100 age-matched patients who underwent a conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the same period. Retrospectively, per- and postoperative data were added. The two groups were compared to each other using independent t-tests and χ2-tests, P values below 0.05 were considered significantly different. RESULTS: No differences were found between both groups regarding baseline characteristics. Operating time was significantly shorter in the total single-port group (42 min vs 62 min, P < 0.05); in procedures performed by surgeons the same trend was seen (45 min vs 59 min, P < 0.05). Peroperative complications between both groups were equal (3 in the single-port group vs 5 in the multiport group; P = 0.42). Although not significant less postoperative complications were seen in the single-port group compared with the multiport group (3 vs 9; P = 0.07). No statistically significant differences were found between both groups with regard to length of hospital stay, readmissions and mortality. CONCLUSION: Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy has the potential to be a safe technique with a low complication rate, short in-hospital stay and comparable operating time. Single-port cholecystectomy provides the patient an almost non-visible scar while preserving optimal quality of surgery. Further prospective studies are needed to prove the safety of the single-port technique. PMID:26328034

  3. Pulsatile intravenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone administration averts fasting-induced hypogonadotropism and hypoandrogenemia in healthy, normal weight men.

    PubMed

    Aloi, J A; Bergendahl, M; Iranmanesh, A; Veldhuis, J D

    1997-05-01

    Fasting or severe caloric restriction in the human or experimental animal suppresses serum LH and sex steroid concentrations. In healthy men undergoing prolonged (5-day) nutrient deprivation, the daily LH secretion rate, the mass of LH secreted per burst, and the serum testosterone concentration fall markedly, with no decrease in responsiveness to a single bolus of GnRH. Here we test the hypothesis that the hypogonadotropic hypoandrogenemia accompanying fasting reflects decreased endogenous GnRH release. To this end, six healthy young men were studied on a fed day and during two 83-h fasting sessions with concurrent saline or pulsatile GnRH administration (100 ng/kg, i.v., every 90 min for 24 h) followed by a single bolus of 10 microg GnRH, i.v., to evaluate pituitary responsiveness. We employed a highly sensitive LH immunoradiometric assay, which correlates well with an in vitro Leydig cell bioassay, and deconvolution analysis to calculate in vivo LH secretory burst frequency, amplitude, duration, mass, and LH half-life. Fasting resulted in 30-50% declines in serum total and free testosterone and LH concentrations, and a 3-fold decrease in the calculated 24-h LH secretion rate (fed, 42 +/- 12; fasting, 14 +/- 1.9 U/L distribution volume x day; mean +/- SEM; P < 0.05, by ANOVA). Reduced LH secretion was accounted for by dual mechanisms, viz. a fall in both the apparent number of computer-resolved LH secretory bursts per 24 h (fed, 16 +/- 1.1; fasting, 10 +/- 1.2; P < 0.01) and the mass of LH secreted per burst (fed, 2.5 +/- 0.5; fasting, 1.5 +/- 0.1 U/L; P < 0.05). Fasting also decreased the mean value of the 24-h (nyctohemeral) rhythm in serum LH concentrations and reduced the approximate entropy (disorderliness) of LH release. Exogenous pulsatile GnRH injections prevented both the reduction in the calculated daily LH secretion rate (fed, 42 +/- 12; fasting plus GnRH, 64 +/- 16 IU/L; P = NS) and the decline in serum testosterone concentrations (fed, 556 +/- 71 ng

  4. Supplemental growth hormone increases the tumor cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells in healthy adults with normal growth hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Crist, D M; Kraner, J C

    1990-12-01

    Using double-blind, placebo-controlled procedures, the effects of methionyl-human growth hormone (met-hGH) on the tumor cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells were studied in seven healthy adults using a repeated measures experiment. Subjects were assigned at random to either a placebo (bacteriostatic water) treatment condition or a met-hGH (16.0 mg/wk of Protropin) treatment condition, then crossed-over to the alternative treatment. Treatments were delivered on alternate days (3 d/wk) for 6 weeks. Without bias from the met-hGH treatment, there was no evidence for GH hyposecretion as measured by the peak circulating GH response to exercise stimulation (14.1 +/- 3.1 ng/mL) or insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) levels (0.82 +/- 0.09 U/mL). When compared with placebo, met-hGH induced a significant overall increase in the percent specific lysis (%SL) of K562 tumor target cells (placebo 22.2 +/- 1.7 v met-hGH 28.5 +/- 2.1 %SL; P = .008). NK activity was increased within the first week of treatment and this level was maintained throughout the remaining period of supplementation. There was a trend (P = .057) for the met-hGH-induced percent change in NK activity (NK%) to be inversely related to placebo IGF-I levels (r = -.761), while there were significant positive correlations between NK% and the met-hGH-induced percent changes in IGF-I (r = .727; P = .035), the fat-free mass (FFM)/fat mass (FM) ratio derived by hydrodensitometry (r = .792; P = .012), and the endogenous GH response to exercise (r = .469; P = .034).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2246974

  5. Urinary insulin-like growth factor-II excretion in healthy infants and children with normal and abnormal growth.

    PubMed

    Quattrin, T; Albini, C H; Sportsman, C; Shine, B J; MacGillivray, M H

    1993-10-01

    The output of urinary IGF-II was measured by RIA in 12-h overnight urine samples obtained from 22 preterm and 15 full-term infants, 40 normal children, 18 children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency, and 25 patients with idiopathic short stature. GH deficiency was defined as a peak to GH provocative tests < or = 9.9 micrograms/L during two provocative tests. The authenticity of urinary IGF-II was confirmed by size exclusion chromatography. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance using the Student Neuman-Keuls test to detect intergroup differences at the level of p < 0.05. The preterm and full-term infants excreted significantly higher amounts of urinary IGF-II (18.4 +/- 1.7 and 5.7 +/- 1.0 pmol/kg, respectively) compared with normal children (2.4 +/- 0.25 pmol/kg; p < 0.001). The output of urinary IGF-II in preterm infants was greater than that observed in full-term infants (F = 84.7, p < 0.001). The control children excreted significantly more IGF-II (2.4 +/- 0.2 pmol/kg) than children with GH deficiency (0.9 +/- 0.1 pmol/kg) or idiopathic short stature (1.0 +/- 0.1 pmol/kg; F = 13.5; p < 0.001). Analysis of urinary IGF-II excretion based on creatinine output yielded similar results. Data on urinary IGF-I and GH previously published were correlated and compared with the excretion pattern of urinary IGF-II.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8255673

  6. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression in the epithelium and stroma of normal colon in healthy individuals in an aspirin intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sushma S; Makar, Karen W; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yingye; Yang, Peiying; Levy, Lisa; Rudolph, Rebecca Y; Lampe, Paul D; Yan, Min; Markowitz, Sanford D; Bigler, Jeannette; Lampe, Johanna W; Potter, John D

    2015-12-01

    Regular aspirin use reduces colon adenoma and carcinoma incidence. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are involved in aspirin metabolism and clearance, and variant alleles in UGT1A6 have been shown to alter salicylic acid metabolism and risk of colon neoplasia. In a randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial of 44 healthy men and women, homozygous for UGT1A6*1 or UGT1A6*2, we explored differences between global epithelial and stromal expression, using Affymetrix U133 + 2.0 microarrays and tested effects of 60-day aspirin supplementation (325 mg/d) on epithelial and stromal gene expression and colon prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. We conducted a comprehensive study of differential gene expression between normal human colonic epithelium and stroma from healthy individuals. Although no statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed in response to aspirin or UGT1A6 genotype, we have identified the genes uniquely and reproducibly expressed in each tissue type and have analyzed the biologic processes they represent. Here we describe in detail how the data, deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) - accession number GSE71571 - was generated including the basic analysis as contained in the manuscript published in BMC Medical Genetics with the PMID 25927723 (Thomas et al., 2015 [9]). PMID:26697360

  7. Age- and Gender Dependent Liver Fat Content in a Healthy Normal BMI Population as Quantified by Fat-Water Separating DIXON MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ulbrich, Erika J.; Fischer, Michael A.; Manoliu, Andrei; Marcon, Magda; Luechinger, Roger; Nanz, Daniel; Reiner, Caecilia S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To establish age- and sex-dependent values of magnetic resonance (MR) liver fat-signal fraction (FSF) in healthy volunteers with normal body-mass index (BMI). Methods 2-point mDIXON sequences (repetition time/echo time, 4.2msec/1.2msec, 3.1msec) at 3.0 Tesla MR were acquired in 80 healthy volunteers with normal BMI (18.2 to 25.7 kg/m2) between 20 and 62 years (10 men/10 women per decade). FSF was measured in 5 liver segments (segment II, III, VI, VII, VIII) based on mean signal intensities in regions of interest placed on mDIXON-based water and fat images. Multivariate general linear models were used to test for significant differences between BMI-corrected FSF among age subgroups. Pearson and Spearman correlations between FSF and several body measures were calculated. Results Mean FSF (%) ± standard deviations significantly differed between women (3.91 ± 1.10) and men (4.69 ± 1.38) and varied with age for women/men (p-value: 0.002/0.027): 3.05 ± 0.49/3.74 ± 0.60 (age group 20–29), 3.75 ± 0.66/4.99 ± 1.30 (30–39), 4.76 ± 1.16/5.25 ± 1.97 (40–49) and 4.09 ± 1.26/4.79 ± 0.93 (50–62). FSF differences among age subgroups were significant for women only (p = 0.003). Conclusions MR-based liver fat content is higher in men and peaks in the fifth decade for both genders. PMID:26554709

  8. Relationship of Physical Activity and Healthy Eating with Mortality and Incident Heart Failure among Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Normal Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmawgoud, Ahmed; Brown, Cynthia J.; Sui, Xuemei; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Kokkinos, Peter F.; Bittner, Vera; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Fletcher, Ross D.; Blair, Steven N.; Ahmed, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Aims Normal body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower mortality and may be achieved by physical activity (PA), healthy eating (HE), or both. We examined the association of PA and HE with mortality and incident heart failure (HF) among 2040 community-dwelling older adults aged ≥ 65 years with baseline BMI 18.5 to 24.99 kg/m2 during 13 years of follow-up in Cardiovascular Health Study. Methods and results Baseline PA was defined as ≥500 weekly metabolic equivalent task-minutes (MET-minutes) and HE as ≥5 daily servings of vegetable and fruit intake. Participants were categorized into 4 groups: (1) PA−/HE− (n=384); (2) PA+/HE− (n=992); (3) PA−/HE+ (n=162); and (4) PA+/HE+ (n=502). Participants had a mean age of 74 (±6) years, mean BMI of 22.6 (±1.5) kg/m2, 61% were women, and 4% African American. Compared with PA−/HE−, age-sex-race-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause mortality for PA−/HE+, PA+/HE−, and PA+/HE+ groups were 0.96 (0.76–1.21), 0.61 (0.52–0.71) and 0.62 (0.52–0.75), respectively. These associations remained unchanged after multivariable adjustment and were similar for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortalities. Respective demographic-adjusted HRs (95% Cis) for incident HF among 1954 participants without baseline HF were 1.21 (0.81–1.81), 0.71 (0.54–0.94) and 0.71 (0.51–0.98). These later associations lost significance after multivariable-adjustment. Conclusion Among community-dwelling older adults with normal BMI, physical activity, regardless of healthy eating, was associated with lower risk of mortality and incident HF, but healthy eating had no similar protective association in this cohort.

  9. Spleen Size Is Significantly Influenced by Body Height and Sex: Establishment of Normal Values for Spleen Size at US with a Cohort of 1200 Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kai Uwe; Luxembourg, Beate; Seifried, Erhard; Bonig, Halvard

    2016-04-01

    Purpose To define height- and sex-corrected normal values for spleen length and volume determined with ultrasonography (US). Materials and Methods The authors performed a retrospective data review of stem cell donors who had provided written informed consent for stem cell donation and use of anonymized data and biologic materials for scientific and quality control purposes. Spleen length, spleen volume, and anthrophometric data were correlated in 1230 healthy volunteers to identify variables that affect spleen size. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to weight effects of various variables on spleen size. Linear regression through the 95th percentile for men and women of different height cohorts generated the formula for the upper limit of normal for spleen length and volume. For validation, the upper limit of normal was calculated for each volunteer and compared with the observed value. Formulae to calculate the additional percentiles were similarly generated and validated. A cohort of 75 volunteers was analyzed twice to assess the stability of spleen length and volume over time. Results Spleen length and volume were significantly and independently associated with sex (length: P < .001; volume: P = .012), body height (P < .001 for both), and weight (P < .001 for both), with men and taller and heavier individuals having longer and larger spleens. The spleen length of 20 of 324 women (6%) and 234 of 906 men (26%) exceeded the previously reported upper limit of normal of 12 cm. Repeat measurements indicated that spleen length (median difference, 0.10 cm; range, -1.8 to 1.7 cm) and volume (median difference, 3 cm(3); range, -106 to 142 cm(3)) were quite stable. A mobile application that performs these calculations is available for download. Conclusion The authors define height- and sex-corrected normal values for spleen length and volume for women with a body height of 155-179 cm and men with a body height of 165-199 cm and propose validated algorithms

  10. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18-83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D₂O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  11. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18–83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D2O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  12. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  13. A screening of skin changes, with special emphasis on neurochemical marker antibody evaluation, in patients claiming to suffer from "screen dermatitis" as compared to normal healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Johansson, O; Hilliges, M; Han, S W

    1996-10-01

    In the present study, facial skin from so-called "screen dermatitis" patients were compared with corresponding material from normal healthy volunteers. The aim of the study was to evaluate possible markers to be used for future double-blind or blind provocation investigations. Differences were found for the biological markers calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), somatostatin (SOM), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), peptide histidine isoleucine amide (PHI), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY), protein S-100 (S-100), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). The overall impression in the blind-coded material was such that it turned out easy to blindly separate the two groups from each other. However, no single marker was 100% able to pin-point the difference, although some were quite powerful in doing so (CGRP, SOM, S-100). However, it has to be pointed out that we cannot, based upon the present results, draw any definitive conclusions about the cause of the changes observed. Whether this is due to electric or magnetic fields, a surrounding airborne chemical, humidity, heating, stress factors, or something else, still remains an open question. Blind or double-blind provocations in a controlled environment are necessary to elucidate possible underlying causes for the changes reported in this investigation. PMID:8981027

  14. Normal values of 24-hour ambulatory esophageal impedance-pH monitoring in a rural South African cohort of healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Ndebia, E J; Sammon, A M; Umapathy, E; Iputo, J E

    2016-05-01

    There are no data on 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring in African populations. The purpose of this study was to provide the normal values of esophageal impedance and pH monitoring in a rural African populations. South African healthy rural participants were recruited and underwent 24 hours of esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. The median and the 95th percentiles of the total reflux episodes were 49 and 97, respectively, of which the corresponding number of acidic, weakly acidic, and weakly alkaline reflux were 15 and 55, 17 and 51, and 8 and 36, respectively. The compositions of the total reflux were 5 and 21 for liquid, 27 and 72 for mixed, and 10 and 39 for gas reflux, respectively. The median bolus clearance was 18 seconds and the median bolus exposure was 14 minutes/24 hours. The proximal extent was 6%. The 95th percent time of esophageal exposure to acid was 8.6 in 24 hours. Female and overweight participants were associated with an increased number of reflux events. There were more reflux episodes, and of which, more were weakly alkaline compared with previous similar studies. The findings provide reference values of gastroesophageal reflux for a South African rural population. PMID:25721534

  15. Connectivity pattern differences bilaterally in the cerebellum posterior lobe in healthy subjects after normal sleep and sleep deprivation: a resting-state functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuming; Yan, Zhihan; Wang, Tingyu; Yang, Xiaokai; Feng, Feng; Fan, Luping; Jiang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) differences of the bilaterial cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL) after normal sleep (NS) and after sleep deprivation (SD). Methods A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight males, eight females) underwent an fMRI scan twice at random: once following NS and the other following 24 hours’ SD, with an interval of 1 month between the two scans. The fMRI scanning included resting state and acupuncture stimulation. The special activated regions located during the acupuncture stimulation were selected as regions of interest for rsFC analysis. Results Bilateral CPLs were positively activated by acupuncture stimulation. In the NS group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral CPL, bilateral frontal lobe (BFL), left precuneus and right inferior parietal lobule, while the right CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral temporal lobe, right cerebellum anterior lobe, right CPL, left frontal lobe, left anterior cingulate, right posterior cingulate, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule. In the SD group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the left posterior cingulate gyrus bilateral CPL, left precuneus, left precentral gyrus, BFL, and the left parietal lobe, while the right CPL showed rsFC with bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, bilateral CPL, left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. Compared with the NS group, the left CPL had increased rsFC in the SD group with the right inferior frontal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, right thalamus, and bilateral precuneus, and decreased rsFC with the BFL, while the right CPL had increased rsFC with the left superior frontal gyrus and decreased rsFC with the left precentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and the BFL. Conclusion Bilateral CPL are possibly involved in acupuncture stimulation in different manners, and the right CPL showed more rsFC impairment. PMID:26064046

  16. Impact of Reduced Meal Frequency Without Caloric Restriction on Glucose Regulation in Healthy, Normal Weight Middle-Aged Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Olga; Martin, Bronwen; Stote, Kim S.; Golden, Erin; Maudsley, Stuart; Najjar, Samer S.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ingram, Donald K.; Longo, Dan L.; Rumpler, William V.; Baer, David J.; Egan, Josephine; Mattson, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    An unresolved issue in the field of diet and health is if and how changes in meal frequency affect energy metabolism in humans. We therefore evaluated the influence of reduced meal frequency without a reduction in energy intake on glucose metabolism in normal weight healthy male and female subjects. The study was a randomized cross-over design, with 2 eight-week treatment periods (with an intervening 11 week off-diet period) in which subjects consumed all of their calories for weight maintenance distributed in either 3 meals or 1 meal per day (consumed between 17:00 and 21:00). Energy metabolism was evaluated at designated time points throughout the study by performing morning oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and measuring levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Subjects consuming 1 meal/d exhibited higher morning fasting plasma glucose levels, greater and more sustained elevations of plasma glucose concentrations and a delayed insulin response in the OGTT compared to subjects consuming 3 meal/d. Levels of ghrelin were elevated in response to the 1 meal/d regimen. Fasting levels of insulin, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin and BDNF were not significantly affected by meal frequency. Subjects consuming a single large daily meal exhibit elevated fasting glucose levels, and impaired morning glucose tolerance associated with a delayed insulin response, during a 2 month diet period compared to those consuming 3 meals/day. The impaired glucose tolerance was reversible and was not associated with alterations in the levels of adipokines or BDNF. PMID:17998028

  17. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  18. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  19. Muscle fibre size and type distribution in thoracic and lumbar regions of erector spinae in healthy subjects without low back pain: normal values and sex differences

    PubMed Central

    MANNION, A. F.; DUMAS, G. A.; COOPER, R. G.; ESPINOSA, F. J.; FARIS, M. W.; STEVENSON, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the normal muscle fibre size and type distribution of the human erector spinae, both in thoracic and lumbar regions, in a group of 31 young healthy male (n=17) and female (n=14) volunteers. Two percutaneous muscle biopsy samples were obtained under local anaesthesia, from the belly of the left erector spinae, at the levels of the 10th thoracic and 3rd lumbar vertebrae. Samples were prepared for routine histochemistry for the identification of fibre types. Fibre size (cross-sectional area (CSA) and narrow diameter (ND)) was quantified using computerised image analysis. The mean CSA/ND for each fibre type was greater in the thoracic than the lumbar region, but there was no difference between the 2 regions either for percentage type I (i.e. percentage distribution by number), percentage type I area (i.e. relative area of the muscle occupied by type I fibres) or the ratio describing the size of the type I fibre relative to that of the type II. Men had larger fibres than women, for each fibre type and at both sampling sites. In the men, each fibre type was of a similar mean size, whereas in the women the type I fibres were considerably larger than both the type II A and type II B fibres, with no difference between the latter two. In both regions of the erector spinae there was no difference between men and women for the proportion (%) of a given fibre type, but the percentage type I fibre area was significantly higher in the women. The erector spinae display muscle fibre characteristics which are clearly very different from those of other skeletal muscles, and which, with their predominance of relatively large type I (slow twitch) fibres, befit their function as postural muscles. Differences between thoracic and lumbar fascicles of the muscle, and between the muscles of men and women, may reflect adaptive responses to differences in function. In assessing the degree of any pathological change in the muscle of patients with low back pain

  20. Duodeno-Gastric-Esophageal Reflux—What is Pathologic? Comparison of Patients with Barrett’s Esophagus and Age-Matched Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgarten, Eva; Pütz, Benito; Hölscher, Arnulf H.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to analyse pH- and bile-monitoring data in patients with Barrett’s esophagus and in age- and gender-matched controls. Subjects and Methods Twenty-four consecutive Barrett’s patients (8 females, 16 males, mean age 57 years), 21 patients with esophagitis (10 females, 11 males, mean age 58 years), and 19 healthy controls (8 females, 11 males, mean age 51 years), were included. Only patients underwent endoscopy with biopsy. All groups were investigated with manometry, gastric and esophageal 24-h pH, and simultaneous bile monitoring according to a standardized protocol. A bilirubin absorption >0.25 was determined as noxious bile reflux. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) method was applied to determine the optimal cutoff value of pathologic bilirubin levels. Results Of Barrett’s patients, 79% had pathologic acidic gastric reflux (pH<4 >5% of total measuring time). However, 32% of healthy controls also had acid reflux (p < 0.05) without any symptoms. The median of esophageal bile reflux was 7.8% (lower quartile (LQ)–upper quartile (UQ) = 1.6–17.8%) in Barrett’s patients, in patients with esophagitis, 3.5% (LQ–UQ = 0.1–13.5), and in contrast to 0% (LQ–UQ = 0–1.0%) in controls, p = 0.001. ROC analysis showed the optimal dividing value for patients at more than 1% bile reflux over 24 h (75% sensitivity, 84% specificity). Conclusion An optimal threshold to differentiate between normal and pathological bile reflux into the esophagus is 1% (24-h bile monitoring with an absorbance >0.25). PMID:17436133

  1. Serum uric acid levels in normal pregnancy with observations on the renal excretion of urate in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, James A.; Campbell, Stuart; Duncan, Anne M.; Greig, William R.; Buchanan, W. Watson

    1966-01-01

    Serum uric acid estimations were performed in 106 healthy pregnant women during early, middle, and late pregnancy, using an automated colorimetric method. The mean serum uric acid level was significantly lower during early and middle pregnancy than that of 64 age-matched female controls. The serum uric acid level was not significantly different in late pregnancy from the control group. Studies of the daily urinary urate excretion in 31 pregnant women showed normal urinary urate excretion in early pregnancy and enhanced renal loss of urate in middle and late pregnancy. It appears that the renal clearance of urate in pregnancy is high, especially in the middle period when the serum level is low in spite of the increased production of uric acid by the foetus. PMID:5919366

  2. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  3. [Normal values of the major parameters of lower limb veins in Russian cosmonauts prior to flight and in healthy untrained subjects].

    PubMed

    Kotovskaya, A R; Fomina, G A; Salnikov, A V

    2015-01-01

    The article presents normal values of the major parameters of lower limb veins in cosmonauts during preparations for space flight and volunteers leading a common life. The authors report the results and discuss the causes for differences in normal leg venous parameters in these groups of subjects. Incomparability of measurements made in cosmonauts and common people is demonstrated. Changes in lower limb veins of a cosmonaut in microgravity can be evaluated only relative to his/her normal values of the major venous parameters (capacitance, compliance and filling) before flight. PMID:25958461

  4. Do Healthy Preterm Children Need Neuropsychological Follow-Up? Preschool Outcomes Compared with Term Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dall'Oglio, Anna M.; Rossiello, Barbara; Coletti, Maria F.; Bultrini, Massimiliano; De Marchis, Chiara; Rava, Lucilla; Caselli, Cristina; Paris, Silvana; Cuttini, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. Method : A total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33…

  5. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  6. Thigh Muscle Strength in Senior Athletes and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Jean L; Salacinski, Amanda J; Hunt, Sarah E; Greenspan, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is commonly recommended to counteract aging-related muscle weakness. While numerous exercise intervention studies on the elderly have been performed, few have included elite senior athletes, such as those who participate in the National Senior Games. The extent to which participation in highly competitive exercise affects muscle strength is unknown, as well as the extent to which such participation mitigates any aging-related strength losses. The purpose of this study was to examine isometric thigh muscle strength in selected athletes of the National Senior Games and healthy noncompetitive controls of similar age, as well as to investigate strength changes with aging in both groups. In all, 95 athletes of the Games and 72 healthy controls participated. Of the senior athletes, 43 were runners, 12 cyclists, and 40 swimmers. Three trials of isometric knee flexion and extension strength were collected using a load cell affixed to a custom-designed chair. Strength data were normalized to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-obtained lean mass of the leg. A 3-factor multivariate analysis of variance (group × gender × age group) was performed, which included both the extension and flexion variables ([alpha] = 0.05). Athletes exhibited 38% more extension strength and 66% more flexion strength than the controls (p < 0.001). Strength did not decrease with advancing age in either the athletes or the controls (p = 0.345). In conclusion, senior athletes who participate in highly competitive exercise have greater strength than healthy aged-matched individuals who do not. Neither group displayed the expected strength losses with aging. Our subject cohorts, however, were not typical of those over age 65 years because individuals with existing health conditions were excluded from the study. PMID:19972628

  7. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  8. Orientation Dependent MR Signal Decay Differentiates between People with MS, Their Asymptomatic Siblings and Unrelated Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Hametner, Simon; Baumeister, Tobias R.; Sadovnick, A. Dessa; Zhao, Yinshan; Machan, Lindsay; Li, David K. B.; Traboulsee, Anthony; Rauscher, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    R2* relaxometry of the brain is a quantitative magnetic resonance technique which is influenced by iron and myelin content across different brain regions. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common inflammatory, demyelinating disease affecting both white and grey matter regions of the CNS. Using R2*, increased iron deposition has been described in deep gray matter of MS patients. Iron accumulation might promote oxidative stress in the brain, which can lead to cell death and neurodegeneration. However, recent histological work indicates that iron may be reduced within the normal appearing white matter (WM) in MS. In the present study we analyzed the R2* signal across the white matter in 39 patients with MS, 31 asymptomatic age matched siblings of patients and 30 age-matched controls. The measurement of R2* in white matter is affected by the signal's dependency on white matter fibre orientation with respect to the main magnetic field which can be accounted using diffusion tensor imaging. We observed a clear separation of the three study groups in R2*. The values in the MS group were significantly lower compared to the siblings and controls, while the siblings group presented with significantly higher R2* values than both unrelated healthy controls and patients. Furthermore, we found significantly decreased normal-appearing white matter R2* values in patients with more severe disease course. Angle resolved analysis of R2* improves the sensitivity for detecting subtle differences in WM R2* compared to standard histogram based analyses. Our findings suggest that the decreased R2* values in MS are due to diffuse tissue damage and decreased myelin in the normal appearing and diffusely abnormal WM. The increased R2* in unaffected siblings may identify a predisposition to increased iron and the potential for oxidative stress as a risk factor for developing MS. PMID:26489078

  9. Normal ranges of biorbital and interorbital distances in healthy Turkish pregnancies at 19–23 weeks of gestation and correlation with craniofacial structures

    PubMed Central

    Pala, Halil Gürsoy; Artunç-Ülkümen, Burcu; Koyuncu, Faik Mümtaz; Uyar, Yıldız; Bülbül-Baytur, Yeşim

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine the normal ranges for biorbital (BOD) and interorbital distances (IOD) during the second trimester in Turkish women with normal pregnancies and to assess the correlation between BOD, IOD, and other fetal craniofacial structures and biometric parameters. Material and Methods Our retrospective study comprised 1328 women with singleton normal pregnancies who had undergone ultrasonography (USG) examinations at 19–23 weeks of gestation in the second trimester screening. The measurements of BOD and IOD were obtained with the coronal section of the fetal face at the plane of orbits. Results Mean BOD was 3.4±0.33 cm, whereas mean IOD was 1.28±0.24 cm. Correlation analysis revealed that BOD was significantly correlated with IOD, transcerebellar diameter (TCD), cisterna manga (CM), nuchal fold (NF), nasal bone (NB), biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL), and gestational week. There was a significant relation between IOD and the lateral ventricle posterior horn, TCD, CM, NF, NB, BPD, HC, AC, and FL. Conclusion The reference ranges obtained in our study enabled accurate evaluation of BOD and IOD in the second trimester of normal pregnancies. USG detection of fetal orbital biometric anomalies may alert the clinician for different anomalies associated with abnormal development of eye. PMID:26401111

  10. Assessment of Blood Glucose Regulation and Safety of Resistant Starch Formula-Based Diet in Healthy Normal and Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chang, Daw-Ming; Wu, Da-Jen; Peng, Hui-Yu; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of the new resistant starch (RS) formula, PPB-R-203, on glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes.A cohort consisting of 40 healthy participants received test and control diets and was checked for up to 3 hours post-meal. A randomized, 2-regimen, cross-over, comparative study was conducted in 44 subjects with type 2 diabetes and glycemic control was assessed with a continuous glucose monitoring system.In healthy participants, serum glucose values and incremental areas under the glucose curves (AUC) were significantly lower in the PPB-R-203 than the control group (P < 0.05). In patients with type 2 diabetes, mean blood glucose concentrations for subjects on the control regimen were higher than those for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen (7.9 ± 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.4-8.4 vs 7.4 ± 1.6, 95% CI 6.9-7.9 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.023). AUCs for total blood glucose and hyperglycemia (glucose >10 mmol/L) were also reduced for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen as compared with those on control regimen (total blood glucose: 16.2 ± 4.0, 95% CI 14.9-17.4 vs 18.7 ± 4.0, 95% CI 17.6-20.1, P < 0.001; hyperglycemia: 4.9 ± 5.7, 95% CI 3.1-6.6 vs 6.3 ± 6.4, 95% CI 4.3-8.3 mmol/L × day, P = 0.021). However, AUC measurements for hypoglycemia (glucose <3.9 mmol/l) were not statistically significant.A PPB-R-203-based diet reduced postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia or glucose excursion. PMID:26287417

  11. Assessment of Blood Glucose Regulation and Safety of Resistant Starch Formula-Based Diet in Healthy Normal and Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chang, Daw-Ming; Wu, Da-Jen; Peng, Hui-Yu; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the effects of the new resistant starch (RS) formula, PPB-R-203, on glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes. A cohort consisting of 40 healthy participants received test and control diets and was checked for up to 3 hours post-meal. A randomized, 2-regimen, cross-over, comparative study was conducted in 44 subjects with type 2 diabetes and glycemic control was assessed with a continuous glucose monitoring system. In healthy participants, serum glucose values and incremental areas under the glucose curves (AUC) were significantly lower in the PPB-R-203 than the control group (P < 0.05). In patients with type 2 diabetes, mean blood glucose concentrations for subjects on the control regimen were higher than those for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen (7.9 ± 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.4–8.4 vs 7.4 ± 1.6, 95% CI 6.9–7.9 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.023). AUCs for total blood glucose and hyperglycemia (glucose >10 mmol/L) were also reduced for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen as compared with those on control regimen (total blood glucose: 16.2 ± 4.0, 95% CI 14.9–17.4 vs 18.7 ± 4.0, 95% CI 17.6–20.1, P < 0.001; hyperglycemia: 4.9 ± 5.7, 95% CI 3.1–6.6 vs 6.3 ± 6.4, 95% CI 4.3–8.3 mmol/L × day, P = 0.021). However, AUC measurements for hypoglycemia (glucose <3.9 mmol/l) were not statistically significant. A PPB-R-203-based diet reduced postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia or glucose excursion. PMID:26287417

  12. High diversity of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius lineages and toxigenic traits in healthy pet-owning household members. Underestimating normal household contact?

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Torres, Carmen; Lozano, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    Forty-three unrelated pet-owning households were screened in Spain to study the Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius nasal carriage, their genetic lineages and virulence traits. Sixty-seven healthy owners and 66 healthy pets were investigated. Isolates characterization was performed and potential interspecies transmission was assessed. S. aureus was present in 51.2% of households studied while S. pseudintermedius in 30.2%. Twenty-eight owners (41.8%) carried S. aureus: one methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) [t5173-ST8-SCCmecIVa] and 27 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Three owners (4.5%) were colonized by methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP). Fifteen pets (22.7%) carried S. pseudintermedius: two methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) [ST71-SCCmecII/III; ST92-SCCmecV] and 13 MSSP; in addition, 8 pets (12.1%) presented MSSA. High diversity of spa and sequence types (STs) was detected. Typical livestock-associated S. aureus lineages (CC398, CC9) were observed in humans and/or companion animals and hospital and/or community-acquired S. aureus lineages (CC45, CC121, CC5, CC8) were detected among pets. Almost 40% of S. pseudintermedius were multidrug-resistant. S. aureus isolates harboured a remarkable high number of virulence genes. The expA gene was detected in 3 S. pseudintermedius isolates. Identical strains from both owners and their pets were identified in 5 households (11.6%): (a) four MSSA (t073-ST45/CC45, t159-ST121/CC121, t209-ST109/CC9, t021-ST1654([new])/singleton) and (b) one multidrug-resistant MSSP (ST142([new])). Highly clonally diverse and toxigenic S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius are common colonizers of healthy humans and pets. The presence of these bacterial species, virulence genes, and interspecies transmission detected, points out to consider pet ownership as a risk factor to acquire, maintain and spread, potential pathogenic bacteria. PMID:23153600

  13. Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 > Staying Healthy Font: What is Alpha-1? Emphysema Alpha-1 Symptoms Diagnosing Alpha-1 Current Treatments ... Healthy What can people with Alpha-1-related emphysema do to stay as healthy as possible? First ...

  14. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  15. RELN-expressing Neuron Density in Layer I of the Superior Temporal Lobe is Similar in Human Brains with Autism and in Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C.; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. PMID:25067827

  16. Healthy doctors, healthy communities.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Donna; Katch, Ellen; Anderson, Patricia; Furlong, Mary A

    2004-01-01

    Promoting health and eliminating disease are goals of Healthy People 2010, a national initiative for all communities. Physician-directed interventions that advance these principles are most effective when directed by clinicians who regularly participate in such healthy behaviors themselves. This pilot study describes an 8-week intervention, "Well-being for You and Your Patients," for first-year medical students to experience health behavior change. In the 2-hour sessions, students set goals for changing health behavior in 6 dimensions of wellness; report their progress; and enjoy a 30-minute change-of-pace wellness activity. The authors recommend adapting the course for medical student alumni to facilitate health behavior change with small groups of adults, school-age children, teens, and elders in churches, schools, community health centers, and other community-based organizations. Through continuing medical education and Grand Rounds, residents and physicians in practice could also be trained to implement specific behavioral change strategies. PMID:15495745

  17. Healthy pets, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Wong, S K; Feinstein, L H; Heidmann, P

    1999-08-01

    Zoonoses, diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans, can pose serious health risks to immunocompromised people. Although pets can carry zoonoses, owning and caring for animals can benefit human health. Information exists about preventing transmission of zoonoses, but not all physicians and veterinarians provide adequate and accurate information to immunocompromised pet owners. This disease prevention/health promotion project provides physicians and veterinarians with information, created specifically to share with patients and clients, about the health risks and benefits of pet ownership. Further, "Healthy Pets, Healthy People" encourages communication between veterinarians, physicians, clients, and patients and can serve as a model program for a nation-wide effort to aid health professionals in making recommendations about pet ownership for immunocompromised people. PMID:10434969

  18. N-acetylaspartate normalization in bipolar depression after lamotrigine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Croarkin, Paul E; Thomas, M Albert; Port, John D; Baruth, Joshua M; Choi, Doo-Sup; Abulseoud, Osama A; Frye, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a general marker of neuronal viability, and total NAA (tNAA), the combined signal of NAA and N-acetylaspartylglutamate, in bipolar depression before and after lamotrigine treatment. Given that NAA is synthesized through direct acetylation of aspartate by acetyl-coenzyme A-L-aspartate-N-acetyltransferase, we hypothesized that treatment with lamotrigine would be associated with an increase in NAA level. Methods Patients with bipolar depression underwent two-dimensional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the anterior cingulate at baseline (n = 15) and after 12 weeks of lamotrigine treatment (n = 10). A group of age-matched healthy controls (n = 9) underwent scanning at baseline for comparison. Results At baseline, patients with bipolar depression had significantly lower NAA [mean standard deviation (SD) = 1.13 (0.21); p = 0.02] than controls [mean (SD) = 1.37 (0.27)]. Significant increases in NAA [mean (SD) = 1.39 (0.21); p = 0.01] and tNAA [mean (SD) = 1.61 (0.25); p = 0.02] levels were found after 12 weeks of lamotrigine treatment. Conclusions These data suggest an NAA deficit in bipolar depression that is normalized after lamotrigine treatment. Future research is warranted to evaluate whether baseline NAA level is a potential biomarker for identifying lamotrigine response patterns and whether this functional brain change has an associated clinical response. PMID:25495884

  19. Effects of red blood cell lysing solutions on the detection of peripheral basophils of healthy normals and SLE patients by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qingjun; Ye, Ling; Deng, Zhenzhen; Li, Lu; Liu, Huafeng

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of four widely used red blood cell lysing solutions on counting and measurement of activation marker of peripheral basophils in normals and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients by flow cytometry. Our results showed that the light scatter properties including FS and SS value of leukocytes in whole blood were preserved when whole blood samples were lysed in RBC Lysis Buffer and FACS Lysing Solution, while were affected when lysed in distilled water or ACK. By counting basophils, RBC Lysis Buffer and FACS Lysing Solution were almost the same level, while were significantly lower when lysed in distilled water or ACK. The expressions of CD203c on peripheral basophils of SLE patients were significantly higher than those of normals. Comparing the data of CD203c expression obtained demonstrated that there were no significant differences among them, while FACS Lysing Solution treatment leads to a slightly lower staining intensity of CD203c. We provide a solid description that the widely used red blood cell lysing reagents may influence the light scatter properties of leukocytes, the accuracy of quantity of absolute number of the existence of basophil subsets and the quantity of staining intensity of cell-activated marker CD203c fluorescence when measured by flow cytometry. PMID:24593031

  20. The Risk of Heart Failure and Cardiometabolic Complications in Obesity May Be Masked by an Apparent Healthy Status of Normal Blood Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Shuchita; Mishra, Manish; Jadhav, Ashok; Gerger, Courtney; Lee, Paul; Weber, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Although many obese individuals are normoglycemic and asymptomatic of cardiometabolic complications, this apparent healthy state may be a misnomer. Since heart failure is a major cause of mortality in obesity, we investigated the effects of heme-oxygenase (HO) on heart failure and cardiometabolic complications in obese normoglycemic Zucker-fatty rats (ZFs). Treatment with the HO-inducer, hemin, reduced markers of heart failure, such as osteopontin and osteoprotegerin, abated left-ventricular (LV) hypertrophy/fibrosis, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins including collagen IV, fibronectin, TGF-β1, and reduced cardiac lesions. Furthermore, hemin suppressed inflammation by abating macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 alpha, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β but enhanced adiponectin, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP), HO activity, insulin sensitivity, and glucose metabolism. Correspondingly, hemin improved several hemodynamic/echocardiographic parameters including LV-diastolic wall thickness, LV-systolic wall thickness, mean-arterial pressure, arterial-systolic pressure, arterial-diastolic pressure, LV-developed pressure, +dP/dt, and cardiac output. Contrarily, the HO-inhibitor, stannous mesoporphyrin nullified the hemin effect, exacerbating inflammatory/oxidative insults and aggravated insulin resistance (HOMA-index). We conclude that perturbations in insulin signaling and cardiac function may be forerunners to overt hyperglycemia and heart failure in obesity. Importantly, hemin improves cardiac function by suppressing markers of heart failure, LV hypertrophy, cardiac lesions, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins, and inflammatory/oxidative mediators, while concomitantly enhancing the HO-adiponectin-ANP axis. PMID:24454978

  1. Evaluation of cytochrome P450 2C9 activity in normal, healthy, adult Western Indian population by both phenotyping and genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Swar, Balkrishna D.; Bendkhale, Shital R.; Rupawala, Abbas; Sridharan, Kannan; Gogtay, Nithya J.; Thatte, Urmila M.; Kshirsagar, Nilima A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) is a member of cytochrome P450 (CYP) family that accounts for nearly 18% of the total CYP protein content in the human liver microsomes and catalyzes almost 15–20% of the drugs. Considering the paucity of data on the polymorphisms of CYP2C9 in Western Indian population, the present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of CYP2C9 polymorphisms (*1, *2 and *3) and correlate it with the activity using flurbiprofen (FLB) as a probe drug. Materials and Methods: A 100 mg FLB capsule was administered to 298 healthy adult participants. Venous blood samples were analyzed at 2 h postdose for the estimation of FLB and 4-hydroxy FLB. Metabolic ratio (MR) was calculated to determine the extent of poor metabolizer (PM) and rapid metabolizer status using probit plot. Genotyping of CYP2C9 polymorphism was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Results: Of the total 298 participants, phenotype was assessable in 288 and genotype was performed in 289 participants. The median (range) MR of the study population was 6.6 (1.65–66.05). Five participants were found to be PMs by phenotype. Of the total 289 participants, 209 (72.3%) (66.7, 77.2) had CYP2C9*1/*1, 25 (8.7%) (5.8, 12.7) with CYP2C9*1/*2, 55 (19%) (14.8, 24.1) had CYP2C9*1/*3, 3 (1%) (0.3, 3.3) had CYP2C9*2/*3 genotype. A significant association between phenotype and genotype was observed. Conclusion: To conclude, the present study found significant association of CYP2C9 activity by both phenotype and genotype and these findings have to be corroborated in different kinds of patients. PMID:27298492

  2. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  3. Cytolytic T-cell response against Epstein-Barr virus in lung cancer patients and healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine whether EBV seropositive patients with lung cancer have an altered virus-specific CTL response, as compared to age-matched healthy controls and whether any variation in this response could be attributed to senescence. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from lung cancer patients, age-matched and younger healthy individuals were used to measure EBV-specific CTLs after in vitro amplification with the GLCTLVAML and RYSIFFDYM peptides followed by HLA-multimer staining. Results Lung cancer patients and aged-matched controls had significantly lesser EBV-specific CTL than younger healthy individuals. Multimer positive populations from either group did not differ with respect to the percentage of multimer positive CTLs and the intensity of multimer binding. Conclusions This study provides evidence that patients with lung cancer exhibit an EBV-specific CTL response equivalent to that of age-matched healthy counterparts. These data warrant the examination of whether young individuals have a more robust anti-tumor response, as is the case with the anti-EBV response. PMID:20525347

  4. Morphometric Evaluation of Interrenal Gland and Kidney Macrophages Aggregates in Normal Healthy Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and after Bacterial Challenge with Yersinia ruckeri

    PubMed Central

    Gregori, Michela; Miragliotta, Vincenzo; Leotta, Roberto; Cecchini, Stefano; Prearo, Marino; Abramo, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage aggregates (MA) occur in various organs of fish as discrete aggregations of pigmented macrophages. The study presented herein investigates the quantitative modifications from normal anatomical condition, of interrenal gland (IG) and kidney MA in six treatment groups of adult rainbow trout submitted to either specific or aspecific immune stimulation and subsequently challenged with Yersinia ruckeri. Routinely stained tissue sections from both IG and kidney were analysed. The percentage of tissues occupied by MA and the MA density (number/mm2) were calculated on at least 10 randomly selected nonoverlapping fields taken from each tissue section. MA morphometric findings from challenged fish were compared to those from a control group. Results showed that fish from control group displayed a statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher percentage of tissue occupied by MA and MA density. Among different treatment groups, anti-Yersinia ruckeri immunized fish, which did not show clinical signs of disease after bacterial challenge, displayed higher values of morphometric parameters compared with symptomatic fish from other groups. Our study demonstrates that the quantification of the area occupied by MA might be an efficient parameter to evaluate the general condition of a salmonid population since it positively correlates with the health status and negatively with stress factor such as the acute bacterial infection. PMID:24719776

  5. Longitudinal Assessment of Optical Quality and Intraocular Scattering Using the Double-Pass Instrument in Normal Eyes and Eyes with Short Tear Breakup Time

    PubMed Central

    Kobashi, Hidenaga; Kamiya, Kazutaka; Yanome, Kyohei; Igarashi, Akihito; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the longitudinal changes in optical quality including intraocular scattering in normal eyes and eyes with short tear breakup time (TBUT). Methods We prospectively examined twenty eyes of 20 healthy subjects, and age-matched twenty eyes of 20 short TBUT subjects. The modulation transfer function (MTF) cutoff frequency, the Strehl ratio, and the objective scattering index (OSI) were quantitatively assessed using an Optical Quality Analysis System. We investigated the changes in these variables measured consecutively at the initial examination, 5, and 10 seconds without blinking. We also compared these variables in eyes with short TBUT with those in normal eyes. Results No significant differences in the MTF cutoff frequency, Strehl ratio, or OSI were detected over a 10-second period in normal eyes. These variables also became significantly degraded even over a 5-second period in eyes with short TBUT (p<0.01). We found significant differences in these variables at 5 and 10 seconds (p<0.05), but none immediately after the blink between normal and short TBUT eyes. Conclusions Optical quality including intraocular scattering deteriorated significantly with time in eyes with short TBUT, whereas we found significant differences over a 10-second period in normal eyes. Eyes with short TBUT showed greater deterioration in optical quality after the blink than normal eyes. The longitudinal assessment of optical quality may be effective in distinguishing eyes with short TBUT from normal eyes. PMID:24324787

  6. Thin healthy women have a similar low bone mass to women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, D; Rodríguez, M; García Alemán, J; García-Almeida, J M; Picón, M J; Fernández-Aranda, F; Tinahones, F J

    2009-09-01

    An association between anorexia nerviosa (AN) and low bone mass has been demonstrated. Bone loss associated with AN involves hormonal and nutritional impairments, though their exact contribution is not clearly established. We compared bone mass in AN patients with women of similar weight with no criteria for AN, and a third group of healthy, normal-weight, age-matched women. The study included forty-eight patients with AN, twenty-two healthy eumenorrhoeic women with low weight (LW group; BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) and twenty healthy women with BMI >18.5 kg/m2 (control group), all of similar age. We measured lean body mass, percentage fat mass, total bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density in lumbar spine (BMD LS) and in total (tBMD). We measured anthropometric parameters, leptin and growth hormone. The control group had greater tBMD and BMD LS than the other groups, with no differences between the AN and LW groups. No differences were found in tBMD, BMD LS and total BMC between the restrictive (n 25) and binge-purge type (n 23) in AN patients. In AN, minimum weight (P = 0.002) and percentage fat mass (P = 0.02) explained BMD LS variation (r2 0.48) and minimum weight (r2 0.42; P = 0.002) for tBMD in stepwise regression analyses. In the LW group, BMI explained BMD LS (r2 0.72; P = 0.01) and tBMD (r2 0.57; P = 0.04). We concluded that patients with AN had similar BMD to healthy thin women. Anthropometric parameters could contribute more significantly than oestrogen deficiency in the achievement of peak bone mass in AN patients. PMID:19302720

  7. Effect of whole body vibration frequency on neuromuscular activity in ACL-deficient and healthy males.

    PubMed

    Giombini, A; Menotti, F; Laudani, L; Piccinini, A; Fagnani, F; Di Cagno, A; Macaluso, A; Pigozzi, F

    2015-09-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to enhance muscle activity via reflex pathways, thus having the potential to contrast muscle weakness in individuals with rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of neuromuscular activation during WBV over a frequency spectrum from 20 to 45 Hz between ACL-deficient and healthy individuals. Fifteen males aged 28±4 with ACL rupture and 15 age-matched healthy males were recruited. Root mean square (RMS) of the surface electromyogram from the vastus lateralis in both limbs was computed during WBV in a static half-squat position at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, and normalized to the RMS while maintaining the half-squat position without vibration. The RMS of the vastus lateralis in the ACL-deficient limb was significantly greater than in the contralateral limb at 25, 30, 35 and 40 Hz (P<0.05) and in both limbs of the healthy participants (dominant limb at 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05; non dominant limb at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05). The greater neuromuscular activity in the injured limb compared to the uninjured limb of the ACL-deficient patients and to both limbs of the healthy participants during WBV might be due to either augmented excitatory or reduced inhibitory neural inflow to motoneurons of the vastus lateralis through the reflex pathways activated by vibratory stimuli. The study provides optimal WBV frequencies which might be used as reference values for ACL-deficient patients. PMID:26424928

  8. Effect of whole body vibration frequency on neuromuscular activity in ACL-deficient and healthy males

    PubMed Central

    Giombini, A; Menotti, F; Piccinini, A; Fagnani, F; Di Cagno, A; Macaluso, A; Pigozzi, F

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to enhance muscle activity via reflex pathways, thus having the potential to contrast muscle weakness in individuals with rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of neuromuscular activation during WBV over a frequency spectrum from 20 to 45 Hz between ACL-deficient and healthy individuals. Fifteen males aged 28±4 with ACL rupture and 15 age-matched healthy males were recruited. Root mean square (RMS) of the surface electromyogram from the vastus lateralis in both limbs was computed during WBV in a static half-squat position at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, and normalized to the RMS while maintaining the half-squat position without vibration. The RMS of the vastus lateralis in the ACL-deficient limb was significantly greater than in the contralateral limb at 25, 30, 35 and 40 Hz (P<0.05) and in both limbs of the healthy participants (dominant limb at 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05; non dominant limb at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05). The greater neuromuscular activity in the injured limb compared to the uninjured limb of the ACL-deficient patients and to both limbs of the healthy participants during WBV might be due to either augmented excitatory or reduced inhibitory neural inflow to motoneurons of the vastus lateralis through the reflex pathways activated by vibratory stimuli. The study provides optimal WBV frequencies which might be used as reference values for ACL-deficient patients. PMID:26424928

  9. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as “the ball is above the cup”, where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6–11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as “the cup is above the drum” or “the bird is below the hat”. Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children’s scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of

  10. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Training and Jobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  11. Intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid temperature analysis using MR diffusion-weighted imaging thermometry in Parkinson's disease patients, multiple system atrophy patients, and healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, Kaoru; Sato, Noriko; Ota, Miho; Sakai, Koji; Nippashi, Yasumasa; Sone, Daichi; Yokoyama, Kota; Ito, Kimiteru; Maikusa, Norihide; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kei; Murata, Miho; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the temperature of the intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid (Tv) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and those with multiple system atrophy (MSA) in comparison with healthy subjects, and we examined normal changes in this temperature with aging. Methods Tv was estimated by magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) thermometry in 36 PD patients (19 males, 17 females), 34 MSA patients (17 males, 17 females), 64 age-matched controls (27 men, 37 women), and 114 all-age adult controls (47 men, 67 women; 28–89 years old). The volume of lateral ventricles was also estimated using FreeSurfer in all subjects. Tv and ventricular volume data were compared among the PD and MSA patients and age-matched controls. We also evaluated the relationship between Tv and age in the 114 all-age controls, controlling for ventricular volume. Men and women were analyzed separately. Results The male PD and MSA patients had significantly higher Tv values compared to the male controls, with no significant difference in ventricular volume among them. There was no significant difference in Tv between the female patients and controls. In the all-age male controls, there was a significant negative correlation between Tv and age controlling for ventricular volume, and this was not observed in the women. Conclusion DWI thermometry is a useful and easy method for demonstrating an altered intracranial environment in male patients and healthy controls, but not in females. DWI thermometry can thus be used to help to explore the pathophysiology of Parkinsonian syndromes and to differentiate individuals affected by neurodegenerative disease with autonomic dysfunction from those without it. PMID:26085965

  12. Gender and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2, CETP, and SCARB1 Are Significant Predictors of Plasma Homocysteine Normalized by RBC Folate in Healthy Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Andrew J.; Chen, Kehui; McWade, Laura; Rincon, Gonzalo; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Holstege, Dirk M.; Owens, Janel E.; Liu, Bitao; Müller, Hans-Georg; Medrano, Juan F.; Fadel, James G.; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Baer, David J.; Novotny, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Using linear regression models, we studied the main and 2-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine (Hcy)/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma Hcy normalized by RBC folate measurements (nHcy) in 373 healthy Caucasian adults (50% women). Variable selection was conducted by stepwise Akaike information criterion or least angle regression and both methods led to the same final model. Significant predictors (where P values were adjusted for false discovery rate) included type of blood sample [whole blood (WB) vs. plasma-depleted WB; P < 0.001] used for folate analysis, gender (P < 0.001), and SNP in genes SPTLC1 (rs11790991; P = 0.040), CRBP2 (rs2118981; P < 0.001), BHMT (rs3733890; P = 0.019), and CETP (rs5882; P = 0.017). Significant 2-way interaction effects included gender × MTHFR (rs1801131; P = 0.012), gender × CRBP2 (rs2118981; P = 0.011), and gender × SCARB1 (rs83882; P = 0.003). The relation of nHcy concentrations with the significant SNP (SPTLC1, BHMT, CETP, CRBP2, MTHFR, and SCARB1) is of interest, especially because we surveyed the main and interaction effects in healthy adults, but it is an important area for future study. As discussed, understanding Hcy and genetic regulation is important, because Hcy may be related to inflammation, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus. We conclude that gender and SNP significantly affect nHcy. PMID:22833659

  13. Comprehending Psychological Defenses: Developmental Differences between Normal and Disturbed Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Andrew; Rybash, John

    Investigated were similarities and differences in the ability of 26 normally developing and 26 conduct-disordered children and adolescents to comprehend psychologically defensive behavior and the cognitive processes underlying differences due to age. Matched by cognitive level, subjects viewed vignettes depicting another child behaving…

  14. Reading Strategies of Bilingual Normally Progressing and Dyslexic Readers in Hindi and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Ashum; Jamal, Gulgoona

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the reading accuracy of dyslexic readers in comparison to chronological age-matched normally progressing readers in Hindi and English using word reading tasks, matched for spoken frequency of usage, age of acquisition, imageability, and word length. Both groups showed significantly greater reading accuracy in Hindi than in…

  15. The healthy human microbiome.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Price, Jason; Abu-Ali, Galeb; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Humans are virtually identical in their genetic makeup, yet the small differences in our DNA give rise to tremendous phenotypic diversity across the human population. By contrast, the metagenome of the human microbiome-the total DNA content of microbes inhabiting our bodies-is quite a bit more variable, with only a third of its constituent genes found in a majority of healthy individuals. Understanding this variability in the "healthy microbiome" has thus been a major challenge in microbiome research, dating back at least to the 1960s, continuing through the Human Microbiome Project and beyond. Cataloguing the necessary and sufficient sets of microbiome features that support health, and the normal ranges of these features in healthy populations, is an essential first step to identifying and correcting microbial configurations that are implicated in disease. Toward this goal, several population-scale studies have documented the ranges and diversity of both taxonomic compositions and functional potentials normally observed in the microbiomes of healthy populations, along with possible driving factors such as geography, diet, and lifestyle. Here, we review several definitions of a 'healthy microbiome' that have emerged, the current understanding of the ranges of healthy microbial diversity, and gaps such as the characterization of molecular function and the development of ecological therapies to be addressed in the future. PMID:27122046

  16. Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Insertion in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients and Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Kim, Tae-Woo; Weinreb, Robert N.; Lee, Eun Ji; Girard, Michaël J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) whether there are differences in the location of the anterior lamina cribrosa insertion (ALI) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and healthy subjects. Methods Fifty three eyes from 53 patients with POAG, and 53 eyes from 53 age-matched healthy subjects were included prospectively in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Twelve radial line B-scans centered on the optic disc in every half-clock-hour meridian were acquired using SS-OCT. The ALI position was assessed by measuring two parameters: (1) ALI distance (ALID)—the distance from the anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO) to the ALI; and (2) marginal anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (mALCSD)—the perpendicular distance from the ASCO plane to the anterior lamina cribrosa surface. These parameters were compared between the two groups for each meridian. Results Both ALID (256±54 vs. 209±37 µm, mean ± SD, p<0.001) and mALCSD (232±63 vs. 187±40 µm, p<0.001) were significantly greater in the POAG group than in the normal group. The largest difference was observed at the 6.5 o′clock and 11.5 o′clock meridians for both ALID and mALCSD. Multiple regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and both ALID and mALCSD in the control group, and a negative correlation between mean deviation of the visual field test and both ALID and mALCSD in the POAG group. Conclusions The ALI was displaced posteriorly in eyes with POAG compared to those of healthy controls. This finding suggests that the posteriorly located lamina cribrosa insertion is an important component of glaucomatous optic nerve excavation. PMID:25531761

  17. Neural Circuits for Cognitive Appetite Control in Healthy and Obese Individuals: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tuulari, Jetro J.; Karlsson, Henry K.; Hirvonen, Jussi; Salminen, Paulina; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    The mere sight of foods may activate the brain’s reward circuitry, and humans often experience difficulties in inhibiting urges to eat upon encountering visual food signals. Imbalance between the reward circuit and those supporting inhibitory control may underlie obesity, yet brain circuits supporting volitional control of appetite and their possible dysfunction that can lead to obesity remain poorly specified. Here we delineated the brain basis of volitional appetite control in healthy and obese individuals with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-seven morbidly obese women (mean BMI = 41.4) and fourteen age-matched normal-weight women (mean BMI = 22.6) were scanned with 1.5 Tesla fMRI while viewing food pictures. They were instructed to inhibit their urge to eat the foods, view the stimuli passively or imagine eating the foods. Across all subjects, a frontal cortical control circuit was activated during appetite inhibition versus passive viewing of the foods. Inhibition minus imagined eating (appetite control) activated bilateral precunei and parietal cortices and frontal regions spanning anterior cingulate and superior medial frontal cortices. During appetite control, obese subjects had lower responses in the medial frontal, middle cingulate and dorsal caudate nuclei. Functional connectivity of the control circuit was increased in morbidly obese versus control subjects during appetite control, which might reflect impaired integrative and executive function in obesity. PMID:25658479

  18. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  19. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be ...

  20. Healthy Sexuality

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... t be afraid to talk with a health care professional. Everyone can achieve the healthy and satisfying ... site at www.asrm.org Find a Health Care Provider Back to Top Home | About Us | Reproductive ...

  1. Normal faults, normal friction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collettini, Cristiano; Sibson, Richard H.

    2001-10-01

    Debate continues as to whether normal faults may be seismically active at very low dips (δ < 30°) in the upper continental crust. An updated compilation of dip estimates (n = 25) has been prepared from focal mechanisms of shallow, intracontinental, normal-slip earthquakes (M > 5.5; slip vector raking 90° ± 30° in the fault plane) where the rupture plane is unambiguously discriminated. The dip distribution for these moderate-to-large normal fault ruptures extends from 65° > δ > 30°, corresponding to a range, 25° < θr < 60°, for the reactivation angle between the fault and inferred vertical σ1. In a comparable data set previously obtained for reverse fault ruptures (n = 33), the active dip distribution is 10° < δ = θr < 60°. For vertical and horizontal σ1 trajectories within extensional and compressional tectonic regimes, respectively, dip-slip reactivation is thus restricted to faults oriented at θr ≤ 60° to inferred σ1. Apparent lockup at θr ≈ 60° in each dip distribution and a dominant 30° ± 5° peak in the reverse fault dip distribution, are both consistent with a friction coefficient μs ≈ 0.6, toward the bottom of Byerlee's experimental range, though localized fluid overpressuring may be needed for reactivation of less favorably oriented faults.

  2. Risk Factors and Markers for Acute Myocardial Infarction With Angiographically Normal Coronary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Maria; Ekenbäck, Christina; Agewall, Stefan; Brolin, Elin B; Caidahl, Kenneth; Cederlund, Kerstin; Collste, Olov; Eurenius, Lars; Frick, Mats; Younis-Hassan, Shams; Henareh, Loghman; Jernberg, Tomas; Malmqvist, Karin; Spaak, Jonas; Sörensson, Peder; Hofman-Bang, Claes; Tornvall, Per

    2015-09-15

    Myocardial Infarction with normal coronary arteries (MINCA) is common with a prevalence of 1% to 12% of all myocardial infarctions. The pathogenic mechanisms of MINCA are still unknown, but endothelial dysfunction has been suggested as a possible cause. To investigate risk factors and markers for MINCA, we conducted a case-control study. Considering the reported low prevalence of classical risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) in some but not all studies, our hypothesis was that endothelial function and intima-media thickness (IMT) were better, respectively lower, than CHD controls. One hundred patients with MINCA fulfilling diagnostic criteria according to the European Society of Cardiology/American Collage of Cardiology/American Heart Association universal definition of myocardial infarction with myocarditis excluded by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging were investigated. Risk factors, endothelial function (EndoPAT), and IMT were compared to gender- and age-matched patients with myocardial infarction and CHD, respectively healthy controls. Smoking, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus, inflammatory disease, and psychiatric disorders were more common in patients with MINCA than in healthy controls. In contrast to patients with CHD, the lipid profile was antiatherogenic with low low-density lipoprotein and high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. There were no major differences between the groups regarding endothelial function and IMT that were in the normal range. In conclusion, the present study showed that MINCA was associated with many established cardiovascular risk factors without major differences in atherosclerosis markers. MINCA patients recalled a high prevalence of emotional stress before admission that together with previous psychiatric vulnerability and female gender speaks strongly in favor of Takotsubo syndrome being an important cause of MINCA. PMID:26251000

  3. Clonidine Normalizes Levels of P50 Gating in Patients With Schizophrenia on Stable Medication

    PubMed Central

    Oranje, Bob; Glenthøj, Birte Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sensory gating deficits are among the core features of schizophrenia. Recently, we reported significantly increased sensorimotor gating following additional administration of single dosages of clonidine to the treatment of stably medicated patients with schizophrenia who, in spite of their medication, showed gating deficits. In the current study, we investigated whether this result is generalizable to filtering of sensory information as a whole, by examining clonidine’s effect on P50 suppression in the same group of patients. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized yet balanced cross-over design, 20 male schizophrenia patients on stable medication were assessed in a psychophysiological test battery, including a sensory gating paradigm on 5 occasions: once after oral administration of placebo and after single doses of 25, 50, 75, and 150 µg of clonidine. Their results were compared with 20 age-matched healthy male volunteers, who received no treatment. Results: Patients showed significantly reduced levels of P50 suppression in the placebo session compared with controls. All dosages of clonidine significantly diminished these deficits to such levels that they no longer differed significantly from the healthy controls (except the highest dose). Conclusions: This is the first study to show that even a single low dose of clonidine administered to stably medicated patients with schizophrenia not only significantly increases their levels of P50 suppression but also normalizes them. The results indicate that α2-noradrenergic agonists are capable of normalizing levels of P50 gating, which has a potentially high clinical relevance for the medical treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:24106334

  4. Recognition of familiar and unfamiliar melodies in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Barlett, J C; Halpern, A R; Dowling, W J

    1995-09-01

    We tested normal young and elderly adults and elderly Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients on recognition memory for tunes. In Experiment 1, AD patients and age-matched controls received a study list and an old/new recognition test of highly familiar, traditional tunes, followed by a study list and test of novel tunes. The controls performed better than did the AD patients. The controls showed the "mirror effect" of increased hits and reduced false alarms for traditional versus novel tunes, whereas the patients false-alarmed as often to traditional tunes as to novel tunes. Experiment 2 compared young adults and healthy elderly persons using a similar design. Performance was lower in the elderly group, but both younger and older subjects showed the mirror effect. Experiment 3 produced confusion between preexperimental familiarity and intraexperimental familiarity by mixing traditional and novel tunes in the study lists and tests. Here, the subjects in both age groups resembled the patients of Experiment 1 in failing to show the mirror effect. Older subjects again performed more poorly, and they differed qualitatively from younger subjects in setting stricter criteria for more nameable tunes. Distinguishing different sources of global familiarity is a factor in tune recognition, and the data suggest that this type of source monitoring is impaired in AD and involves different strategies in younger and older adults. PMID:7476239

  5. Normal Weight Estonian Prepubertal Boys Show a More Cardiovascular-Risk-Associated Adipose Tissue Distribution than Austrian Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J.; Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Saar, Meeli; Tafeit, Erwin; Kaimbacher, Petra; Kruschitz, Renate; Weghuber, Daniel; Schnedl, Wolfgang J.; Mangge, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Risk phenotypes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ markedly between countries, like the reported high difference in CVD mortality in Austria and Estonia. Hitherto, the goal of this study was to find out risk profiles in body fat distribution yet present in childhood, paving the way for later clinical end points. Methods. he subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) distribution patterns in 553 Austrian (A) and Estonian (E) clinically healthy normal weight boys aged 11.1 (±0.8) years were analysed. We applied the patented optical device Lipometer which determines the individual subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Results. Total body fat did not differ significantly between E and A boys. A discriminant analysis using all Lipometer data, BMI, and the total body fat (TBF) yielded 84.6% of the boys correctly classified in Estonians and Austrians by 9 body sites. A factor analysis identified the SAT distribution of E as critically similar to male adult patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Conclusions. We show in normal weight Estonian boys a highly significant decreased fat accumulation on the lower body site compared to age matched Austrian males. This SAT-Top phenotype may play an important role for the increased cardiovascular risk seen in the Estonian population. PMID:24555148

  6. Semantic Features in Fast-Mapping: Performance of Preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment Versus Preschoolers with Normal Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary; Plante, Elena; Creusere, Marlena

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the receptive language skills of young children (4-6 years old) with specific language impairment (SLI). Specifically, the authors looked at their ability to fast-map semantic features of objects and actions and compared it to the performance of age-matched peers with normally developing language (NL). Children completed a…

  7. Comparison of the tolerability of recombinant human hyaluronidase + normal saline and recombinant human hyaluronidase + lactated ringer's solution administered subcutaneously: A phase IV, double-blind, randomized pilot study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Dychter, Samuel S.; Ebel, David; Mead, Tonya R.; Yocum, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recombinant human hyaluronidase (rHuPH20) (150 U) is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to facilitate subcutaneous fluid administration in adults and children. Objective: This Phase IV, double-blind, randomized pilot study was designed to compare the tolerability, flow rate, and safety profile of subcutaneous infusions of normal saline (NS) and lactated Ringer's (LR) solutions following subcutaneous administration of rHuPH20. Methods: Healthy volunteers received 1 mL rHuPH20 (150 U) in each thigh, followed by simultaneous gravity-driven subcutaneous infusions of 500 mL of LR solution into 1 thigh and NS solution into the contralateral thigh. Subjects rated infusion-site discomfort in each thigh using a 100-mm (0 = no pain to 100 = most severe pain) visual analog scale (VAS) at baseline (ie, after catheter placement/ rHuPH20 injection and just prior to the start of the infusions) and at the following times: after infusion of 250 mL, after infusion of 500 mL (end of infusion), and when thigh circumference returned to within 5% of baseline. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the study. The primary tolerability end point was the maximal increase from baseline in infusion-site discomfort on the VAS. Secondary end points included infusion flow rate, change in thigh circumference, subject preference for leftversus right-thigh infusion, and safety profile measures. Results: Fifteen subjects (14 women, 1 man; mean age, 41 years [range, 20–60 years]) were included in the study. Mean (SD) maximal increase from baseline VAS pain score was significantly greater with NS solution than with LR solution (20.0 [19.4] vs 9.4 [18.3] mm, respectively; P = 0.005). Mean infusion flow rate was not significantly different between the NS and LR solutions (384.1 [118.1] vs 395.8 [132.8] mL/h). No significant differences between solutions were observed in mean maximal change in thigh circumference (5.2% [1.6%] vs 5.3% [1.5%]). All subjects expressed

  8. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preparing Food When the person with Alzheimer’s disease lives with you: • Buy healthy foods such as vegetables, fruits, and whole-grain products. ... When a person with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease lives alone, you can buy foods that the person doesn’t need to cook. ...

  9. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get ...

  10. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  11. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... easy for kids to choose healthy snacks by keeping fruits and vegetables on hand and ready to eat. ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping ... Award-Winning Cafeteria Recipes Garden-Fresh Lunches Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Kid's Guide ...

  12. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... of healthy foods, and limit calories and saturated fat Be physically active Control your blood pressure and cholesterol Don't smoke Protect yourself from too much sun Drink alcohol in moderation, or don't drink at all Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

  13. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  14. Carbohydrate ingestion induces sex-specific cardiac vagal inhibition, but not vascular sympathetic modulation, in healthy older women.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Graham, Stuart L; Pilowsky, Paul M

    2016-07-01

    The role of vagal function in cardiovascular risk in older women remains unclear. Autonomic modulation following carbohydrate ingestion (CI) and postural stress (PS) were investigated in 14 healthy men and 21 age-matched postmenopausal women (age: 65.0 ± 2.1 vs. 64.1 ± 1.6 years), with normal and comparable insulin sensitivity. Continuous noninvasive finger arterial pressure and ECG were recorded in the lying and the standing positions before and after ingestion of a carbohydrate-rich meal (600 kcal, carbohydrate 78%, protein 13%, and fat 8%). Low-frequency (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF, 0.15-0.4 Hz) components (ms(2)) of heart rate variability (HRV), low-frequency power (mmHg(2)) of systolic blood pressure variability (SBP LF power), and the sequence method for spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, ms/mmHg) were used to quantify autonomic modulation. In response to CI and PS, mean arterial pressure maintained stable, and heart rate increased in women and men in the lying and standing positions. Following CI (60, 90, and 120 min postprandially) in the standing position, SBP LF power increased by 40% in men (P = 0.02), with unchanged HRV parameters; in contrast, in women, HRV HF power halved (P = 0.02), with unaltered SBP LF power. During PS before and after CI, similar magnitude of SBP LF power, HRV, and BRS changes was observed in men and women. In conclusion, CI induces sex-specific vascular sympathetic activation in healthy older men, and cardiac vagal inhibition in healthy older women; this CI-mediated efferent vagal inhibition may suggest differential cardiovascular risk factors in women, irrespective of insulin resistance, and impairment of autonomic control. PMID:27147618

  15. Sex-related differences in the normal cardiac response to upright exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, M.B.; Morris, K.G.; Coleman, R.E.; Cobb, F.R.

    1984-09-01

    In previous studies from this laboratory, it was found that approximately 30% of women with chest pain and normal coronary arteries demonstrated either a decrease in or a failure to increase radionuclide ejection fraction during exercise. To examine the hypothesis that this apparent abnormality in left ventricular function represents a physiologic difference between men and women, a prospective study was made of central and peripheral cardiovascular responses to exercise in 31 age-matched healthy volunteers (16 women and 15 men). A combination of quantitative radionuclide (technetium) angiography and expired-gas analysis was used to measure ejection fraction and relative changes in end-diastolic counts, stroke counts, count output, and arteriovenous oxygen difference during symptom-limited upright bicycle exercise. Normal male and female volunteers demonstrated comparable baseline left ventricular function and similar aerobic capacity, as determined by weight-adjusted peak oxygen consumption. However, their cardiac responses to exercise were significantly different. The ejection fraction increased by 5 points or more in 14 of 15 men, but in only seven of the 16 women. End-diastolic counts increased by 30% in women, but was unchanged in men. Because decreases in ejection fraction were matched by increases in end-diastolic counts, relative increases in stroke counts and count output were the same for men and women. These data demonstrate a basic difference between men and women with respect to the mechanism by which they achieve a normal response of stroke volume to exercise; these differences must be taken into account when measurements of cardiac function during exercise stress are used for diagnostic purposes.

  16. Serum uric acid level in normal pregnant and preeclamptic ladies: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, T; Khatiwada, B; Pradhan, P

    2014-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a serious pregnancy complication characterized by hypertension, proteinuria with or without pathological edema. According to some studies, serum uric acid lacks sensitivity and specificity as a diagnostic tool whereas another group of the researchers indicated uricemia as a predictor of preeclampsia in pregnant ladies. The present study was designed to assess whether serum uric acid can be used as a biochemical indicator or not in preeclamptic patients. Pre-eclamptic patients admitted in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from June 2012 to June 2013 were included in this study. Age matched normal healthy pregnant ladies served as control. The record of their blood pressure and serum uric acid level was evaluated. Results showed significantly high blood pressure [SBP 149.42±12.35 vs 109.00±7.93 mm Hg; DBP 96.85±8.32 vs 72.5±7.10 mm Hg], and serum uric acid level [6.27±1.37 vs 4.27±0.61 mg/dl] in pre-eclamptic patients compared to their healthy counterparts. Uric acid is a terminal metabolite of the degradation of nucleotides, which increases their blood levels in patients with preeclampsia increasing its synthesis by damage and death of trophoblastic cells and proliferation. Uricemia in preeclampsia likely results from reduced uric acid clearance from diminished glomerular filtration, increased tubular reabsorption and decreased secretion. Results of the present study indicated association of elevated serum uric acid level with preeclampsia which could be used as a biochemical indicator of preeclampsia in pregnant women. PMID:25799807

  17. Statin action favors normalization of the plasma lipidome in the atherogenic mixed dyslipidemia of MetS: potential relevance to statin-associated dysglycemia.

    PubMed

    Meikle, Peter J; Wong, Gerard; Tan, Ricardo; Giral, Philippe; Robillard, Paul; Orsoni, Alexina; Hounslow, Neil; Magliano, Dianna J; Shaw, Jonathan E; Curran, Joanne E; Blangero, John; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Chapman, M John

    2015-12-01

    The impact of statin treatment on the abnormal plasma lipidome of mixed dyslipidemic patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), a group at increased risk of developing diabetes, was evaluated. Insulin-resistant hypertriglyceridemic hypertensive obese males (n = 12) displaying MetS were treated with pitavastatin (4 mg/day) for 180 days; healthy normolipidemic age-matched nonobese males (n = 12) acted as controls. Statin treatment substantially normalized triglyceride (-41%), remnant cholesterol (-55%), and LDL-cholesterol (-39%), with minor effect on HDL-cholesterol (+4%). Lipidomic analysis, normalized to nonHDL-cholesterol in order to probe statin-induced differences in molecular composition independently of reduction in plasma cholesterol, revealed increment in 132 of 138 lipid species that were subnormal at baseline and significantly shifted toward the control group on statin treatment. Increment in alkyl- and alkenylphospholipids (plasmalogens) was prominent, and consistent with significant statin-induced increase in plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid levels. Comparison of the statin-mediated lipidomic changes in MetS with the abnormal plasma lipidomic profile characteristic of prediabetes and T2D in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study and San Antonio Family Heart Study cohorts by hypergeometric analysis revealed a significant shift toward the lipid profile of controls, indicative of a marked trend toward a normolipidemic phenotype. Pitavastatin attenuated the abnormal plasma lipidome of MetS patients typical of prediabetes and T2D. PMID:26486974

  18. The Effect of Labels Only and Labels with Instruction on the Concept Attainment of Educable Mentally Retarded and Normally Developing Boys of School Age. Technical Report No. 301.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargiulo, Richard Michael

    Examined were the effects of verbal labels alone and in combination with two types of instruction on the concept attainment of 80 educable mentally retarded and 80 normal boys of school age matched for mental age. For learning the concept "equilateral triangle" Ss were randomly assigned to one of four experimental treatment conditions: verbal…

  19. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-01

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer. PMID:26959472

  20. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  1. Xenon contrast CT-CBF scanning of the brain differentiates normal age-related changes from multi-infarct dementia and senile dementia of Alzheimer type

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, H.; Meyer, J.S.; Okayasu, H.; Shaw, T.G.; Kandula, P.; Rogers, R.L.

    1984-07-01

    Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and partition coefficients (L lambda) were measured during inhalation of stable xenon gas with serial CT scanning among normal volunteers (N . 15), individuals with multi-infarct dementia (MID, N . 10), and persons with senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT, N . 8). Mean gray matter flow values were reduced in both MID and SDAT. Age-related declines in LCBF values in normals were marked in frontal cortex and basal ganglia. LCBF values were decreased beyond normals in frontal and temporal cortices and thalamus in MID and SDAT, in basal ganglia only in MID. Unlike SDAT and age-matched normals, L lambda values were reduced in fronto-temporal cortex and thalamus in MID. Multifocal nature of lesions in MID was apparent. Coefficients of variation for LCBFs were greater in MID compared with SDAT and/or age-matched normals.

  2. Gender and single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2R, and SCARB1 are significant predictors of plasma homocysteine normalized by RBC folate in healthy adults.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using linear regression models, we studied the main and two-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma homocysteine normalized by red blood cell...

  3. Effects of Regular Recreational Exercise Training on Serum ANGPTL3-Like Protein and Lipid Profile in Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smol, Ewa; Kłapcińska, Barbara; Kempa, Katarzyna; Fredyk, Artur; Małecki, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of the role of ANGPTL3, a liver-secreted glycoprotein, in serum lipid turnover, led us to hypothesize that this protein may be involved in modification of the lipid profile induced by exercise-training. Given the lack of data regarding this issue, the main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of regular participation in a recreational physical activity program on serum ANGPTL3 and selected lipid profile measures in young, apparently healthy female and male adults. We compared serum ANGPTL3, lipid profile measures, common lipid ratios, the Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) and glucose in fasting blood samples derived from 22 active physical education students including active females (AF, N=6) and males (AM, N=16) with samples from 28 relatively sedentary age-matched peers, including female (SF, N=9) and male (SM, N=19) individuals not involved in any regular physical conditioning program. Despite high inter-individual variability of serum ANGPTL3, there was a general tendency toward higher serum ANGPTL3 and HDL-C in women compared to men, but without significant differences related to their physical activity status. Based on both routine lipid profile measures and lipid ratios, all participants had normal lipid profiles, normal glycemia, as well as favorable anthropometric indices not suggesting increased cardiometabolic risk. However, lower levels of the TG/HDL-C ratio and AIP in physically active compared to relatively sedentary participants, reflecting the predominance of large, buoyant LDL particles, strongly support the view of beneficial health-promoting effects of regular participation in recreational sport activities. PMID:26839611

  4. Healthy Family 2009: Practicing Healthy Adult Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Practicing Healthy Adult Living Past Issues / Winter ... diabetes, or if heart disease runs in your family, begin checking cholesterol at age 20. Colorectal Cancer : ...

  5. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... please turn Javascript on. 7 Smart Steps to Aging Well 1. Control Blood Pressure You can have ...

  6. Partnership for Healthy Mouths Healthy Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Dentist Campaign Overview Press Releases About the Partnership Our Supporters Contact Us Partner Profile Page Learn ... others in the general population. OUR SOLUTION The Partnership for Healthy Mouths, Healthy Lives (PHMHL) is helping ...

  7. Changes in cortical slow wave activity in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Leirer, Vera Maria; Wienbruch, Christian; Kolassa, Stephan; Schlee, Winfried; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2011-09-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated enhanced slow wave activity associated with pathological brain function e.g. in stroke patients, schizophrenia, depression, Morbus Alzheimer, and post-traumatic stress disorder. However, the association between slow wave activity and healthy aging has remained largely unexplored. This study examined whether the frequency at which focal generators of delta waves appear in the healthy cerebral cortex changes with age and whether this measure relates to cognitive performance. We investigated 53 healthy individuals aged 18 to 89 years and assessed MEG during a resting condition. Generators of focal magnetic slow waves were localized. Results showed a significant influence of age: dipole density decreases with increasing age. The relationship between cognitive performance and delta dipole density was not significant. The results suggest that in healthy aging slow waves decrease with aging and emphasize the importance of age-matched control groups for further studies. Increased appearance of slow waves as a marker for pathological stages can only be detected in relation to a control group of the same age. PMID:21698438

  8. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  9. Normal Growth of Healthy Infants Born from HIV+ Mothers Fed a Reduced Protein Infant Formula Containing the Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Fructo-Oligosaccharides: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    da Costa Ribeiro, Hugo; Ribeiro, Tereza Cristina Medrado; de Mattos, Angela Peixoto; Pontes, Mariana; Sarni, Roseli Oselka Saccardo; Cruz, Maria Letícia Santos; Nogueira-de-Almeida, Carlos Alberto; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M; de Carvalho Norton, Rocksane; Steenhout, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety of a new reduced protein (2.1 g/100 kcal) infant formula containing 4 g/L of 90% galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and 10% fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). METHODS Healthy term infants from Brazil were enrolled. Those born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive mothers were randomized to a test (n = 65) or control (n = 63) formula group. Infants born to HIV-negative mothers were either exclusively breast-fed (n = 79) or received a mixed diet (breast milk and test formula, n = 65). Between 2 weeks and 4 months of age, infants were exclusively fed according to their assigned group. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months. Digestive tolerance was evaluated during the first 4 months. The primary outcome was mean daily weight gain between 2 weeks and 4 months in the test formula and breast-fed groups. RESULTS Data from all infants (N = 272) were used in the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis and data from 230 infants were used in the per-protocol (PP) analysis. The difference in mean daily weight gain between 2 weeks and 4 months in the test formula and breast-fed groups was 1.257 g/day (one-sided 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.705 to inf, P < 0.001) in the PP analysis, showing that the lower bound of the 95% CI was above the −3.0 g/day non-inferiority margin. Results were similar in the ITT analysis. Symptoms of digestive tolerance and frequency of adverse events were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS The formula containing 2.1 g/100 kcal protein and GOS and FOS was safe and tolerated well. PMID:25788839

  10. Multivariate normality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Falls, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    Sets of experimentally determined or routinely observed data provide information about the past, present and, hopefully, future sets of similarly produced data. An infinite set of statistical models exists which may be used to describe the data sets. The normal distribution is one model. If it serves at all, it serves well. If a data set, or a transformation of the set, representative of a larger population can be described by the normal distribution, then valid statistical inferences can be drawn. There are several tests which may be applied to a data set to determine whether the univariate normal model adequately describes the set. The chi-square test based on Pearson's work in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is often used. Like all tests, it has some weaknesses which are discussed in elementary texts. Extension of the chi-square test to the multivariate normal model is provided. Tables and graphs permit easier application of the test in the higher dimensions. Several examples, using recorded data, illustrate the procedures. Tests of maximum absolute differences, mean sum of squares of residuals, runs and changes of sign are included in these tests. Dimensions one through five with selected sample sizes 11 to 101 are used to illustrate the statistical tests developed.

  11. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of a novel tetramethylpyrazine reservoir-type transdermal patch versus tetramethylpyrazine phosphate oral tablets in healthy normal volunteers, and in vitro/in vivo correlation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Teng; Xu, Huinan; Weng, Weiyu; Zhang, Jianfang

    2013-01-01

    A novel reservoir-type transdermal system of 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) was developed containing eucalyptus oil as a penetration enhancer. The single and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic profiles of TMP administrated by TMP transdermal patch were characterized in healthy volunteers using an in vivo, randomized, open-label, two-way crossover design. 2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine phosphate (TMPP) oral tablets were chosen as reference. Following single/multiple oral administration of 200/100 mg TMPP tablets, a TMP C(max) of 1284/613.5 ng/mL was observed within 0.75 h. Single/multiple applications of the TMP patch yielded mean C(max) of 309/325 ng/mL at a median T(max) of 5/4 h, with steady state achieved at second application. The mean C(min) of the patch was 131±30.38 ng/mL, contrasting to nearly zero for the tablet. Multiple applications of patch produced an accumulative effect over single application. At steady state 250 mg/20 cm(2) TMP patch given daily provided comparable exposure to 100 mg TMPP tablets three times daily (3753.91 versus 3563.67 ng·h/mL). TMP tablets and patch yielded similar steady-state plasma concentrations: C(av) (148.48±51.27, 156.41±40.31 ng/mL). The results demonstrated that TMP patch can achieve a therapeutic effect that is comparable to oral administration, exhibited prolonged and sustained plasma levels, fewer drug fluctuations, lower adverse effects, more convenience, and improved patient compliance. In-vitro permeation through human skin demonstrated zero-order kinetics with the flux of 364 µg/cm(2)/h. The predicted C(av) (163.9 ng/mL) was in agreement with the observed C(av) (156.4 ng/mL). PMID:23514701

  12. Cerebral blood flow in normal and abnormal sleep and dreaming

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hata, T.; Karacan, I.

    1987-07-01

    Measurements of regional or local cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the xenon-133 inhalation method and stable xenon computerized tomography CBF (CTCBF) method were made during relaxed wakefulness and different stages of REM and non-REM sleep in normal age-matched volunteers, narcoleptics, and sleep apneics. In the awake state, CBF values were reduced in both narcoleptics and sleep apneics in the brainstem and cerebellar regions. During sleep onset, whether REM or stage I-II, CBF values were paradoxically increased in narcoleptics but decreased severely in sleep apneics, while in normal volunteers they became diffusely but more moderately decreased. In REM sleep and dreaming CBF values greatly increased, particularly in right temporo-parietal regions in subjects experiencing both visual and auditory dreaming.

  13. The APOE Genotype in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Mehlig, Kirsten; Rosengren, Annika; Torén, Kjell; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wikkelsö, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Amyloid plaque has been reported in brain biopsies from patients with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and proposed as a significant feature of the pathophysiology. Presence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) allele is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aims To compare the distribution of APOE genotype in iNPH patients with an age-matched population-based control group and with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Methods APOE genotype frequencies were determined in 77 iNPH patients (50 men and 27 women, mean age 71.7 years) diagnosed with iNPH, a sample of 691 AD patients and 638 age-matched population controls (299 men and 339 women) from the INTERGENE cohort. Results The APOE distribution did not differ significantly between the iNPH patients and the control population. The per e4-allele odds-ratio (OR) of iNPH was given by OR = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (0.50, 1.60) that was considerably smaller than the per-allele OR of AD, OR = 5.34 (4.10, 7.00). Conclusion The results suggest that the APOE-related risk of AD in patients with iNPH is not higher than in the general population. PMID:27441602

  14. Normalizing Rejection.

    PubMed

    Conn, Vicki S; Zerwic, Julie; Jefferson, Urmeka; Anderson, Cindy M; Killion, Cheryl M; Smith, Carol E; Cohen, Marlene Z; Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Herrick, Linda; Topp, Robert; Benefield, Lazelle E; Loya, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Getting turned down for grant funding or having a manuscript rejected is an uncomfortable but not unusual occurrence during the course of a nurse researcher's professional life. Rejection can evoke an emotional response akin to the grieving process that can slow or even undermine productivity. Only by "normalizing" rejection, that is, by accepting it as an integral part of the scientific process, can researchers more quickly overcome negative emotions and instead use rejection to refine and advance their scientific programs. This article provides practical advice for coming to emotional terms with rejection and delineates methods for working constructively to address reviewer comments. PMID:26041785

  15. Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... our online catalog . Alternate Language URL Keep Your Kidneys Healthy Page Content The steps you take to ... and heart disease. Tips to help keep your kidneys healthy: Keep your blood pressure at the target ...

  16. Normal development.

    PubMed

    Girard, Nadine; Koob, Meriam; Brunel, Herv

    2016-01-01

    Numerous events are involved in brain development, some of which are detected by neuroimaging. Major changes in brain morphology are depicted by brain imaging during the fetal period while changes in brain composition can be demonstrated in both pre- and postnatal periods. Although ultrasonography and computed tomography can show changes in brain morphology, these techniques are insensitive to myelination that is one of the most important events occurring during brain maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is therefore the method of choice to evaluate brain maturation. MRI also gives insight into the microstructure of brain tissue through diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Metabolic changes are also part of brain maturation and are assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Understanding and knowledge of the different steps in brain development are required to be able to detect morphologic and structural changes on neuroimaging. Consequently alterations in normal development can be depicted. PMID:27430460

  17. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.; Bourne, Peter G.; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security. PMID:23385371

  18. Characterization of a normal control group: are they healthy?

    PubMed

    Aine, C J; Sanfratello, L; Adair, J C; Knoefel, J E; Qualls, C; Lundy, S L; Caprihan, A; Stone, D; Stephen, J M

    2014-01-01

    We examined the health of a control group (18-81years) in our aging study, which is similar to control groups used in other neuroimaging studies. The current study was motivated by our previous results showing that one third of the elder control group had moderate to severe white matter hyperintensities and/or cortical volume loss which correlated with poor performance on memory tasks. Therefore, we predicted that cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, high cholesterol) within the control group would account for significant variance on working memory task performance. Fifty-five participants completed 4 verbal and spatial working memory tasks, neuropsychological exams, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and blood tests to assess vascular risk. In addition to using a repeated measures ANOVA design, a cluster analysis was applied to the vascular risk measures as a data reduction step to characterize relationships between conjoint risk factors. The cluster groupings were used to predict working memory performance. The results show that higher levels of systolic blood pressure were associated with: 1) poor spatial working memory accuracy; and 2) lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple brain regions. In contrast, higher levels of total cholesterol corresponded with increased accuracy in verbal working memory. An association between lower FA values and higher cholesterol levels were identified in different brain regions from those associated with systolic blood pressure. The conjoint risk analysis revealed that Risk Cluster Group 3 (the group with the greatest number of risk factors) displayed: 1) the poorest performance on the spatial working memory tasks; 2) the longest reaction times across both spatial and verbal memory tasks; and 3) the lowest FA values across widespread brain regions. Our results confirm that a considerable range of vascular risk factors are present in a typical control group, even in younger individuals, which have robust effects on brain anatomy and function. These results present a new challenge to neuroimaging studies both for defining a cohort from which to characterize 'normative' brain circuitry and for establishing a control group to compare with other clinical populations. PMID:24060318

  19. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. PMID:24210176

  20. Witnessing a Natural, Safe, and Healthy Birth

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses her experience witnessing a natural, safe, and healthy home birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth. PMID:19750213

  1. Developmental Topographical Disorientation in a Healthy Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchini, F.; Incoccia, C.; Palermo, L.; Piccardi, L.; Zompanti, L.; Sabatini, U.; Peran, P.; Guariglia, C.

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of F.G., a healthy, normally developed 22-year-old male subject affected by a pervasive disorder in environmental orientation and navigation who presents no history of neurological or psychiatric disease. A neuro-radiological examination showed no evidence of anatomical or structural alterations to the brain. We submitted the…

  2. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  3. Staying Healthy After Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... http://womenshealth.gov/menopause/menopause-basics/index.html Staying healthy after menopause may mean making some changes in the way you live. Don't smoke. If you do use any type of tobacco, stop—it's never too late to benefit from quitting smoking. Eat a healthy ...

  4. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  5. Healthy Homes Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina; Lyon, Melinda; Russ, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Extension is focusing on healthy homes programming. Extension educators are not qualified to diagnose consumers' medical problems as they relate to housing. We cannot give medical advice. Instead, we can help educate consumers about home conditions that may affect their well-being. Extension educators need appropriate healthy homes tools to…

  6. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  7. Choosing Healthy Restaurant Meals

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Your Plate? Smart Food Choices for Healthy Aging. Download the Tip Sheet Choosing Healthy Restaurant Meals (PDF, 513.39 KB) You Might Also Like Drinking Enough Fluids Foot Care Monthly Progress Test STAY INFORMED Follow us on Twitter Visit us ...

  8. Planning For a Healthy School Year: Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Planning For A Healthy School Year Healthy Eating Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of Contents How ... federal government releases a set of guidelines on healthy eating. The guidelines suggest balancing calories with physical activity. ...

  9. Difference between healthy children and ADHD based on wavelet spectral analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Gómez, Dulce I.; Moreno Barbosa, E.; Martínez Hernández, Mario Iván; Ramos Méndez, José; Hidalgo Tobón, Silvia; Dies Suarez, Pilar; Barragán Pérez, Eduardo; De Celis Alonso, Benito

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of this project was to create a computer algorithm based on wavelet analysis of region of homogeneity images obtained during resting state studies. Ideally it would automatically diagnose ADHD. Because the cerebellum is an area known to be affected by ADHD, this study specifically analysed this region. Male right handed volunteers (infants with ages between 7 and 11 years old) were studied and compared with age matched controls. Statistical differences between the values of the absolute integrated wavelet spectrum were found and showed significant differences (p<0.0015) between groups. This difference might help in the future to distinguish healthy from ADHD patients and therefore diagnose ADHD. Even if results were statistically significant, the small size of the sample limits the applicability of this methods as it is presented here, and further work with larger samples and using freely available datasets must be done.

  10. Difference between healthy children and ADHD based on wavelet spectral analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance images

    SciTech Connect

    González Gómez Dulce, I. E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Moreno Barbosa, E. E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Hernández, Mario Iván Martínez E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Méndez, José Ramos E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Silvia, Hidalgo Tobón; Pilar, Dies Suarez E-mail: neurodoc@prodigy.net.mx; Eduardo, Barragán Pérez E-mail: neurodoc@prodigy.net.mx; Benito, De Celis Alonso

    2014-11-07

    The main goal of this project was to create a computer algorithm based on wavelet analysis of region of homogeneity images obtained during resting state studies. Ideally it would automatically diagnose ADHD. Because the cerebellum is an area known to be affected by ADHD, this study specifically analysed this region. Male right handed volunteers (infants with ages between 7 and 11 years old) were studied and compared with age matched controls. Statistical differences between the values of the absolute integrated wavelet spectrum were found and showed significant differences (p<0.0015) between groups. This difference might help in the future to distinguish healthy from ADHD patients and therefore diagnose ADHD. Even if results were statistically significant, the small size of the sample limits the applicability of this methods as it is presented here, and further work with larger samples and using freely available datasets must be done.

  11. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    MedlinePlus

    Flaxseeds contain fiber, vitamins, minerals, protein, healthy plant-based fats, and antioxidants that help prevent cell damage. Flaxseeds are a good source of soluble and insoluble fiber which help ...

  12. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, with ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters Tobacco Education and Training Ask ...

  13. Healthy Sleep Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  14. Healthy Muscles Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my muscles more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles ... If you have been inactive, “start low and go slow” by gradually increasing how often and how ...

  15. Healthy Bones Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my bones more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Reprinted from The Surgeon General’s Report on ... women who don’t smoke, and they often go through menopause earlier. Smokers also may absorb less ...

  16. Healthy Dining Hall Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... with healthy foods will help fuel both your body and your mind. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  17. 4 Top Healthy Snacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity 4 Top Healthy Snacks Past Issues / Spring - Summer ... looking at whether or not the risks for childhood obesity could actually start before birth. The subject needs ...

  18. Healthy grocery shopping

    MedlinePlus

    ... for meats that are 97% lean ground meats. Fish, such as salmon, whitefish, sardines, herring, tilapia, and ... healthy foods are: Choose tuna and other canned fish that is packed in water, not oil. Check ...

  19. Training and transfer-of-learning effects in disabled and normal readers: evidence of specific deficits.

    PubMed

    Benson, N J; Lovett, M W; Kroeber, C L

    1997-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the specificity of training and transfer deficits in disabled readers, aged 7 to 9 years. Forty-eight children (reading disabled, age-matched normal controls, and reading-level-matched normal controls) participated in both a reading and a nonreading (music) acquisition paradigm. Children received instruction in grapheme-phoneme and symbol-note correspondence patterns, respectively. Posttraining tests (one day and one week) following rule training compared performance on trained exemplar items with performance on untrained transfer items. Results revealed that normal readers were able to transfer their rule knowledge in both the reading and nonreading (music) acquisition paradigms, while disabled readers were proficient only in the music task, and thus demonstrated transfer deficits specific to learning printed language. Transfer was optimally facilitated for all readers when training procedures included not only presentation of exemplars, but also cues for rule derivation and explicit statement of pattern invariances. PMID:9073377

  20. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index of Water-Related Topics Featured Partners Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global WASH Other Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related ...

  1. Tools for Healthy Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Fleischhacker, Sheila; Byrd, Randi R.; Ramachandran, Gowri; Vu, Maihan; Ries, Amy; Bell, Ronny A.; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing recognition that policymakers can promote access to healthy, affordable foods within neighborhoods, schools, childcare centers, and workplaces. Despite the disproportionate risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes among American Indian children and adults, comparatively little attention has been focused on the opportunities tribal policymakers have to implement policies or resolutions to promote access to healthy, affordable foods. This paper presents an approach for integrating formative research into an action-oriented strategy of developing and disseminating tribally led environmental and policy strategies to promote access to and consumption of healthy, affordable foods. This paper explains how the American Indian Healthy Eating Project evolved through five phases and discusses each phase’s essential steps involved, outcomes derived, and lessons learned. Using community-based participatory research and informed by the Social Cognitve Theory and ecologic frameworks, the American Indian Healthy Eating Project was started in fall 2008 and has evolved through five phases: (1) starting the conversation; (2) conducting multidisciplinary formative research; (3) strengthening partnerships and tailoring policy options; (4) disseminating community-generated ideas; and (5) accelerating action while fostering sustainability. Collectively, these phases helped develop and disseminate Tools for Healthy Tribes—a toolkit used to raise awareness among participating tribal policymakers of their opportunities to improve access to healthy, affordable foods. Formal and informal strategies can engage tribal leaders in the development of culturally appropriate and tribe-specific sustainable strategies to improve such access, as well as empower tribal leaders to leverage their authority toward raising a healthier generation of American Indian children. PMID:22898161

  2. Healthy human gut phageome.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health. PMID:27573828

  3. Healthy obesity and objective physical activity123

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Joshua A; Hamer, Mark; van Hees, Vincent T; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika; Sabia, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disease risk is lower in metabolically healthy obese adults than in their unhealthy obese counterparts. Studies considering physical activity as a modifiable determinant of healthy obesity have relied on self-reported measures, which are prone to inaccuracies and do not capture all movements that contribute to health. Objective: We aimed to examine differences in total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity between healthy and unhealthy obese groups by using both self-report and wrist-worn accelerometer assessments. Design: Cross-sectional analyses were based on 3457 adults aged 60–82 y (77% male) participating in the British Whitehall II cohort study in 2012–2013. Normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults were considered “healthy” if they had <2 of the following risk factors: low HDL cholesterol, hypertension, high blood glucose, high triacylglycerol, and insulin resistance. Differences across groups in total physical activity, based on questionnaire and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer assessments (GENEActiv), were examined by using linear regression. The likelihood of meeting 2010 World Health Organization recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥2.5 h/wk) was compared by using prevalence ratios. Results: Of 3457 adults, 616 were obese [body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥30]; 161 (26%) of those were healthy obese. Obese adults were less physically active than were normal-weight adults, regardless of metabolic health status or method of physical activity assessment. Healthy obese adults had higher total physical activity than did unhealthy obese adults only when assessed by accelerometer (P = 0.002). Healthy obese adults were less likely to meet recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than were healthy normal-weight adults based on accelerometer assessment (prevalence ratio: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.79) but were not more likely to meet these recommendations than were unhealthy obese adults (prevalence ratio: 1

  4. The vortex formation time to diastolic function relation: assessment of pseudonormalized versus normal filling.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Erina; Kovács, Sándor J

    2013-11-01

    In early diastole, the suction pump feature of the left ventricle opens the mitral valve and aspirates atrial blood. The ventricle fills via a blunt profiled cylindrical jet of blood that forms an asymmetric toroidal vortex ring inside the ventricle whose growth has been quantified by the standard (dimensionless) expression for vortex formation time, VFTstandard = {transmitral velocity time integral}/{mitral orifice diameter}. It can differentiate between hearts having distinguishable early transmitral (Doppler E-wave) filling patterns. An alternative validated expression, VFTkinematic reexpresses VFTstandard by incorporating left heart, near "constant-volume pump" physiology thereby revealing VFTkinematic's explicit dependence on maximum rate of longitudinal chamber expansion (E'). In this work, we show that VFTkinematic can differentiate between hearts having indistinguishable E-wave patterns, such as pseudonormal (PN; 0.75 < E/A < 1.5 and E/E' > 8) versus normal. Thirteen age-matched normal and 12 PN data sets (738 total cardiac cycles), all having normal LVEF, were selected from our Cardiovascular Biophysics Laboratory database. Doppler E-, lateral annular E'-waves, and M-mode data (mitral leaflet separation, chamber dimension) was used to compute VFTstandard and VFTkinematic. VFTstandard did not differentiate between groups (normal [3.58 ± 1.06] vs. PN [4.18 ± 0.79], P = 0.13). In comparison, VFTkinematic for normal (3.15 ± 1.28) versus PN (4.75 ± 1.35) yielded P = 0.006. Hence, the applicability of VFTkinematic for diastolic function quantitation has been broadened to include analysis of PN filling patterns in age-matched groups. PMID:24400169

  5. 99Tcm-MAG3 renogram deconvolution in normal subjects and in normal functioning kidney grafts.

    PubMed

    González, A; Puchal, R; Bajén, M T; Mairal, L; Prat, L; Martin-Comin, J

    1994-09-01

    This study provides values of transit times obtained by 99Tcm- mercaptoacetyl triglycine (99Tcm-MAG3) renogram deconvolution for both normal subjects and kidney graft recipients. The analysis included 50 healthy kidney units from 25 volunteers and 28 normal functioning kidney grafts. The parameters calculated for the whole kidney (WK) and for the renal parenchyma (P) were: mean transit time (MTT) and times at 20% (T20) and 80% (T80) of renal retention function initial height. For healthy kidneys the WK MTT was 174 +/- 27 s and P MTT 148 +/- 22 s. The WK T20 values were 230 +/- 33 s and P T20 231 +/- 34 s. The WK T80 was 108 +/- 19 s and P T80 106 +/- 12 s. Whole kidney and parenchymal values of transit times for normal functioning kidney grafts do not present significant differences with respect to healthy kidneys. PMID:7816379

  6. Healthy Schools Network, 2011 Yearbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the 2011 Yearbook of the Healthy Schools Network. This yearbook contains: (1) Tough Time To Be a Child: Parents and Taxpayers Should Be Enraged; (2) National Coalition For Healthier Schools: Healthy Schools 2015--Sustaining Momentum In Tough Times; (3) Healthy Schools Heroes Award Program; (4) National Healthy Schools Day…

  7. The anabolic activity of bone tissue, suppressed by disuse, is normalized by brief exposure to extremely low-magnitude mechanical stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, C.; Xu, G.; Judex, S.

    2001-01-01

    It is generally believed that mechanical signals must be large in order to be anabolic to bone tissue. Recent evidence indicates, however, that extremely low-magnitude (<10 microstrain) mechanical signals readily stimulate bone formation if induced at a high frequency. We examined the ability of extremely low-magnitude, high-frequency mechanical signals to restore anabolic bone cell activity inhibited by disuse. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to six groups: baseline control, age-matched control, mechanically stimulated for 10 min/day, disuse (hind limb suspension), disuse interrupted by 10 min/day of weight bearing, and disuse interrupted by 10 min/day of mechanical stimulation. After a 28 day protocol, bone formation rates (BFR) in the proximal tibia of mechanically stimulated rats increased compared with age-matched control (+97%). Disuse alone reduced BFR (-92%), a suppression only slightly curbed when disuse was interrupted by 10 min of weight bearing (-61%). In contrast, disuse interrupted by 10 min per day of low-level mechanical intervention normalized BFR to values seen in age-matched controls. This work indicates that this noninvasive, extremely low-level stimulus may provide an effective biomechanical intervention for the bone loss that plagues long-term space flight, bed rest, or immobilization caused by paralysis.

  8. Alternative normalization methods demonstrate widespread cortical hypometabolism in untreated de novo Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    BERTI, V.; POLITO, C.; BORGHAMMER, P.; RAMAT, S.; MOSCONI, L.; VANZI, E.; DE CRISTOFARO, M. T.; DE LEON, M.; SORBI, S.; PUPI, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Previous positron emission tomography (PET) [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) studies in Parkinson’s disease (PD) demonstrated that moderate to late stage patients display widespread cortical hypometabolism, whereas early stage PD patients exhibit little or no cortical changes. However, recent studies suggested that conventional data normalization procedures may not always be valid, and demonstrated that alternative normalization strategies better allow detection of low magnitude changes. We hypothesized that these alternative normalization procedures would disclose more widespread metabolic alterations in de novo PD. Methods [18F]FDG PET scans of 26 untreated de novo PD patients (Hoehn & Yahr stage I-II) and 21 age-matched controls were compared using voxel-based analysis. Normalization was performed using gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) reference regions and Yakushev normalization. Results Compared to GM normalization, WM and Yakushev normalization procedures disclosed much larger cortical regions of relative hypometabolism in the PD group with extensive involvement of frontal and parieto-temporal-occipital cortices, and several subcortical structures. Furthermore, in the WM and Yakushev normalized analyses, stage II patients displayed more prominent cortical hypometabolism than did stage I patients. Conclusion The use of alternative normalization procedures, other than GM, suggests that much more extensive cortical hypometabolism is present in untreated de novo PD patients than hitherto reported. The finding may have implications for our understanding of the basic pathophysiology of early-stage PD. PMID:22695340

  9. Mechanical behaviour and rupture of normal and pathological human ascending aortic wall.

    PubMed

    García-Herrera, C M; Atienza, J M; Rojo, F J; Claes, E; Guinea, G V; Celentano, D J; García-Montero, C; Burgos, R L

    2012-06-01

    The mechanical properties of aortic wall, both healthy and pathological, are needed in order to develop and improve diagnostic and interventional criteria, and for the development of mechanical models to assess arterial integrity. This study focuses on the mechanical behaviour and rupture conditions of the human ascending aorta and its relationship with age and pathologies. Fresh ascending aortic specimens harvested from 23 healthy donors, 12 patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and 14 with aneurysm were tensile-tested in vitro under physiological conditions. Tensile strength, stretch at failure and elbow stress were measured. The obtained results showed that age causes a major reduction in the mechanical parameters of healthy ascending aortic tissue, and that no significant differences are found between the mechanical strength of aneurysmal or BAV aortic specimens and the corresponding age-matched control group. The physiological level of the stress in the circumferential direction was also computed to assess the physiological operation range of healthy and diseased ascending aortas. The mean physiological wall stress acting on pathologic aortas was found to be far from rupture, with factors of safety (defined as the ratio of tensile strength to the mean wall stress) larger than six. In contrast, the physiological operation of pathologic vessels lays in the stiff part of the response curve, losing part of its function of damping the pressure waves from the heart. PMID:22391945

  10. Healthy food trends -- microgreens

    MedlinePlus

    ... that can turn into vitamin A ) Garnet amaranth -- Vitamin K Eating lots of fruits and vegetables in any form is good for ... not well-proven, a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables may reduce the ... you may need to limit vitamin K foods. Vitamin K can affect how these ...

  11. Healthy People 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, Catherine M.

    2001-01-01

    Major Healthy People (HP) 2000 goals closely tied to prevention were not met nationally: physical activity did not improve; evidence that it actually decreased; obesity did not decrease but instead increased in all groups, actually doubling in children; and incidence of type 2 diabetes did not decrease, but instead evidence showed that it increased in all age groups.

  12. Metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness performance in children with cerebral palsy: A comparison with healthy youth.

    PubMed

    García, Claudia Cardona; Alcocer-Gamboa, Alberto; Ruiz, Margarita Pérez; Caballero, Ignacio Martínez; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Saiz, Beatriz Moral; Lorenzo, Teresa Martín; Lara, Sergio Lerma

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and to compare these findings with typically developing children. 40 children with CP (21 males, 19 females; mean age, 11.0±3.3 yr; range, 6.5-17.1 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels 1 or 2) and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched children completed a test battery that consisted of 8 tests and 28 measures that assessed cardio-respiratory fitness, energy expenditure, anaerobic endurance, muscle strength, agility, stability and flexibility. Children with CP had significantly lower performance (P<0.05) on most cardiorespiratory and metabolic tests than those of healthy children, Differences in neuromuscular measures of muscular strength, speed, agility, anaerobic endurance, and flexibility between groups were most apparent. Grouped differences in cardiorespiratory variables revealed a 25% difference in performance, whereas grouped differences in metabolic and neuromuscular measures were 43% and 60%, respectively. The physical fitness of contemporary children with CP is significantly less than healthy, age-matched children. Significant differences in neuromuscular measures between groups can aid in the identification of specific fitness abilities in need of improvement in this population. PMID:27162775

  13. Comparison of Trunk Proprioception Between Patients With Low Back Pain and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Angela S.; Cholewicki, Jacek; Reeves, N. Peter; Zazulak, Bohdanna T.; Mysliwiec, Lawrence W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if proprioceptive impairments exist in patients with low back pain (LBP). We hypothesized that patients with LBP would exhibit larger trunk proprioception errors than healthy controls. Design Case-control study. Setting University laboratory. Participants 24 patients with non-specific LBP and 24 age-matched healthy controls. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures We measured trunk proprioception in all 3 anatomical planes using motion perception threshold, active repositioning, and passive repositioning tests. Results LBP patients had significantly greater motion perception threshold than controls (P<0.001)(1.3±0.9 vs. 0.8±0.6 degrees). Furthermore, all subjects had the largest motion perception threshold in the transverse plane (P<0.001) (1.2±0.7 vs. 1.0±0.8 degrees for all other planes averaged). There was no significant difference between LBP and healthy control groups in the repositioning tasks. Errors in active repositioning test were significantly smaller than in passive repositioning test (P=0.032) (1.9±1.2 vs. 2.3±1.4 degrees). Conclusions These findings suggest that impairments in proprioception may be detected in patients with LBP when assessed with a motion perception threshold measure. PMID:20801248

  14. Metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness performance in children with cerebral palsy: A comparison with healthy youth

    PubMed Central

    García, Claudia Cardona; Alcocer-Gamboa, Alberto; Ruiz, Margarita Pérez; Caballero, Ignacio Martínez; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Saiz, Beatriz Moral; Lorenzo, Teresa Martín; Lara, Sergio Lerma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and to compare these findings with typically developing children. 40 children with CP (21 males, 19 females; mean age, 11.0±3.3 yr; range, 6.5–17.1 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels 1 or 2) and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched children completed a test battery that consisted of 8 tests and 28 measures that assessed cardio-respiratory fitness, energy expenditure, anaerobic endurance, muscle strength, agility, stability and flexibility. Children with CP had significantly lower performance (P<0.05) on most cardiorespiratory and metabolic tests than those of healthy children, Differences in neuromuscular measures of muscular strength, speed, agility, anaerobic endurance, and flexibility between groups were most apparent. Grouped differences in cardiorespiratory variables revealed a 25% difference in performance, whereas grouped differences in metabolic and neuromuscular measures were 43% and 60%, respectively. The physical fitness of contemporary children with CP is significantly less than healthy, age-matched children. Significant differences in neuromuscular measures between groups can aid in the identification of specific fitness abilities in need of improvement in this population. PMID:27162775

  15. Tactile stimulation during development alters the neuroanatomical organization of the optic nerve in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Horiquini-Barbosa, Everton; Lachat, João-José

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the progressive effect of tactile stimulation in the cytoarchitecture of the optic nerve of normal rats during early postnatal development. We used 36 male pups which were randomly assigned to either the tactile-stimulated group (TS-stimulation for 3 min, once a day, from postnatal day (P) 1 to 32) or the non-tactile-stimulated (NTS) group. Morphological analysis were performed to evaluate the alterations caused by tactile stimulation, and morphometric analysis were carried out to determine whether the observed changes in optic nerve cytoarchitecture were significantly different between groups and at three different ages (P18, P22, and P32), thereby covering the entire progression of development of the optic nerve from its start to its completion. The rats of both groups presented similar increase in body weight. The morphometric analysis revealed no difference in the astrocyte density between age-matched groups; however, the oligodendrocyte density of TS group was higher compared to the NTS at P22, and P32, but not at P18. The optic nerve of TS group showed an increase of blood vessels and a reduction of damage fiber density when compared to the age-matched pups of NTS. Taken together, these findings support the view that tactile stimulation, an enriching experience, can positively affects the neuroanatomy of the brain, modifying its cellular components by progressive morphological and morphometric changes. PMID:26879768

  16. Empowering a healthy practice environment.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Jodi; Ruffin, Tasha

    2015-03-01

    This article provides frontline nurses a tool kit so they can advocate a healthy practice environment. The healthy nurse, healthy work hours, job satisfaction, adequate sleep, power naps at work, and balancing family/work are discussed. The overweight nurse, nurse fatigue, compassion fatigue, shift work sleep disorder, and role strain are discussed as barriers to a healthy practice environment. Case reports with analysis and recommendations are discussed to overcome these barriers. Resources are presented for frontline nurses to develop a tool kit for transforming their environment to a healthy practice environment and to empower them to become healthy nurses. PMID:25680495

  17. Healthy Weight, Healthy Child | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity Healthy Weight, Healthy Child Past Issues / Spring - Summer ... to help achieve healthier weights for our children. Obesity in Children Obesity means having too much body ...

  18. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Information Page Synonym(s): Hydrocephalus - Normal Pressure Table ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus? Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is an abnormal ...

  19. Healthy Aging in China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution—,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence. PMID:25621202

  20. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... than ever after menopause. But for other women, physical changes, illness, disabilities, and some medicines make sex painful, ... in Later Life - This brochure describes the normal physical changes in men and women that come with age. ...

  1. Smart Substitutions for Healthy Cooking

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  2. Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  3. Healthy Post-Play Snacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  4. Comparisons of attitudes and practices between obese and normal weight women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shene-Pin; Chiang, Tzu-Yin; Yeh, Sung-Ling; Chien, Yi-Wen

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to obtain baseline data regarding self-reported body image, attitudes toward overweight people, and dietary behaviors of normal-weight and obese women in Taiwan. Fifty obese women (BMI >= 27) and age-matched normal-weight women participated in this study. Written questionnaires were used for data collection. Simple frequency and t-test were used to analyze data. In general, the majority of normal-weight women perceived themselves as being heavier than their actual body weight. The normal-weight group had more high inaccurate images of their bodies than that of the obese group (72% vs. 24%). Obese and normal-weight women had similar attitudes to overweight people, but some of their attitudes showed significant differences. Obese women would prefer to consume more fried foods and drink sugar-containing foods than would normal-weight women (p < 0.05). Education about accurate perceptions of what is normal weight for women and adopting energy-diluted foods for obese women is needed in the future. PMID:17704039

  5. The Healthy Weight Collaborative: quality improvement methods promoting healthy weight.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Marianne E; Vanderkruik, Rachel; Reims, Kathy; Coulouris, Natasha; Anand, Shikha; Linde-Feucht, Sarah; Homer, Charles J

    2012-08-01

    Promoting healthy weight requires innovative approaches and a concerted response across all sectors of society. This commentary features the framework guiding the Healthy Weight Collaborative, a two-phased quality improvement (QI) learning collaborative and key activity of the Collaborate for Healthy Weight initiative. Multi-sector teams from primary care, public health, and community-based organizations use QI to identify, test, and implement program and policy changes in their communities related to promoting healthy weight. We describe the Collaborative's overall design based on the Action Model to Achieve Healthy People 2020 Goals and our approach of applying QI methods to advance implementation of sustainable ways to promote healthy weight and healthy equity. We provide specifics on measurement and change strategies as well as examples of Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles from teams participating in Phase 1 of the Collaborative. These teams will serve as leaders for sustainable, positive change in their communities. PMID:22864485

  6. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  7. NORMAL PSYCHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN ADOLESCENCE

    PubMed Central

    Teicher, Joseph D.

    1956-01-01

    It behooves physicians to be aware that adolescents are different people, that they have a vast capacity for change, that they often exhibit the sickest kind of behavior, which may be very frightening to us and to them. Physicians have to be able to wait and not become panicked by the turbulences, confusions, and contradictions that mark the adolescent's behavior; to keep in mind at all times that much of what is going on is relatively normal behavior in the drive toward maturation and adulthood; that the adolescent has to cope with his sexual drive which is continually frustrated, that he has to cope with the problems of emancipation from parental authority, that he has to cope with an aggressive drive to achieve and to dominate. Parents, too, have to be understanding and ready to render unselfish support, for they continue to be the source of strength and security, and even the source of healthy restrictions. Adults must be aware that the adolescent struggles with his conscience and its dictates, and we should look upon cliques, groups and clubs as a healthy assistance in the preservation of standards, ethics, and mores. PMID:13356179

  8. Heterogeneity in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lowsky, David J.; Olshansky, S. Jay; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For a surprisingly large segment of the older population, chronological age is not a relevant marker for understanding, measuring, or experiencing healthy aging. Using the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2004 Health and Retirement Study to examine the proportion of Americans exhibiting five markers of health and the variation in health-related quality of life across each of eight age groups, we find that a significant proportion of older Americans is healthy within every age group beginning at age 51, including among those aged 85+. For example, 48% of those aged 51–54 and 28% of those aged 85+ have excellent or very good self-reported health status; similarly, 89% of those aged 51–54 and 56% of those aged 85+ report no health-based limitations in work or housework. Also, health-related quality of life ranges widely within every age group, yet there is only a comparatively small variation in median quality of life across age groups, suggesting that older Americans today may be experiencing substantially different age-health trajectories than their predecessors. Patterns are similar for medical expenditures. Several policy implications are explored. PMID:24249734

  9. Is My Penis Normal?

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Is My Penis Normal? KidsHealth > For Teens > Is My Penis Normal? Print A A A Text Size en ... any guy who's ever worried about whether his penis is a normal size. There's a fairly wide ...

  10. Impact of Short- and Long-term Tai Chi Mind-Body Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Healthy Adults: Results From a Hybrid Observational Study and Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jacquelyn N.; Manor, Brad; Hausdorff, Jeffrey; Novak, Vera; Lipsitz, Lewis; Gow, Brian; Macklin, Eric A.; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cognitive decline amongst older adults is a significant public health concern. There is growing interest in behavioral interventions, including exercise, for improving cognition. Studies to date suggest tai chi (TC) may be a safe and potentially effective exercise for preserving cognitive function with aging; however, its short-term and potential long-term impact on physically active, healthy adults is unclear. Objective: To compare differences in cognitive function among long-term TC expert practitioners and age-matched and gender-matched TC-naïve adults and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on measures of cognitive function in healthy, nonsedentary adults. Design: A hybrid design including an observational comparison and a 2-arm randomized clinical trial (RCT) Participants: Healthy, nonsedentary, TC-naive adults (50 y-79 y) and age-matched and gender-matched long-term TC experts Methods: A cross-sectional comparison of cognitive function in healthy TC-naïve (n=60) and TC expert (24.5 y ÷ 12 y experience; n=27) adults: TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, 2-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Six measures of cognitive function were assessed for both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. Results: TC experts exhibited trends towards better scores on all cognitive measures, significantly so for category fluency (P=.01), as well as a composite z score summarizing all 6 cognitive assessments (P=.03). In contrast, random assignment to 6 months of TC training in TC-naïve adults did not significantly improve any measures of cognitive function. Conclusions: In healthy nonsedentary adults, long-term TC training may help preserve cognitive function; however, the effect of short-term TC training in healthy adults remains unclear. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01340365 PMID:26331103

  11. Steps of Healthy Swimming: Protection against Recreational Water Illnesses (RWIs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work: Healthy Swimming Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... has moved to Steps of Healthy Swimming. Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ...

  12. Do normal hips dislocate?

    PubMed

    Alshameeri, Zeiad; Rehm, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    There have been a small number of case reports describing late normal-hip dislocations in children who were later diagnosed with developmental dysplasia of the hip. Here, we contest the assumption that normal hips can dislocate. We argue that (as in our case) the ultrasound scans in all published case reports on late dislocated normal hips did not show results that were entirely normal and therefore, so far, there has been no convincing evidence of a dislocation of a normal hip. We also want to highlight the importance of meticulous ultrasound and clinical assessments of high-risk children by an experienced orthopaedic surgeon. PMID:25144883

  13. Differential Expression of Complement Markers in Normal and AMD Transmitochondrial Cybrids

    PubMed Central

    Nashine, Sonali; Chwa, Marilyn; Kazemian, Mina; Thaker, Kunal; Lu, Stephanie; Nesburn, Anthony; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Kenney, M. Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Variations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and abnormalities in the complement pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study was designed to determine the effects of mtDNA from AMD subjects on the complement pathway. Methods Transmitochondrial cybrids were prepared by fusing platelets from AMD and age-matched Normal subjects with Rho0 (lacking mtDNA) human ARPE-19 cells. Quantitative PCR and Western blotting were performed to examine gene and protein expression profiles, respectively, of complement markers in these cybrids. Bioenergetic profiles of Normal and AMD cybrids were examined using the Seahorse XF24 flux analyzer. Results Significant decreases in the gene and protein expression of complement inhibitors, along with significantly higher levels of complement activators, were found in AMD cybrids compared to Older-Normal cybrids. Seahorse flux data demonstrated that the bioenergetic profiles for Older-Normal and Older-AMD cybrid samples were similar to each other but were lower compared to Young-Normal cybrid samples. Conclusion In summary, since all cybrids had identical nuclei and differed only in mtDNA content, the observed changes in components of complement pathways can be attributed to mtDNA variations in the AMD subjects, suggesting that mitochondrial genome and retrograde signaling play critical roles in this disease. Furthermore, the similar bioenergetic profiles of AMD and Older-Normal cybrids indicate that the signaling between mitochondria and nuclei are probably not via a respiratory pathway. PMID:27486856

  14. Bicervical Normal Uterus with Normal Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, CE; Anele, TI; Onyejelam, CC

    2014-01-01

    This is a report of the form of uterine anomaly involving a dual cervical canal in a side-by-side disposition with normal uterine cavity and normal vagina. It portrays a form of congenital uterine anomaly not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies. However, there has been a proposed reclassification of mullerian anomalies, which includes this type of anomaly under Type IIIc. The patient was a 31-year-old woman being managed for “secondary infertility.” To report a case of uterine anomaly that is not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies. To the best of our knowledge, only few cases of bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina exist in the literature; one of the cases had an anterior-posterior disposition. This form of uterine abnormality is not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies and suggests that a complex interplay of events beyond the classical postulate gives rise to the female genital tract. PMID:25364608

  15. A profile of identity in early-stage dementia and a comparison with healthy older people.

    PubMed

    Caddell, Lisa S; Clare, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether people in the early stages of dementia experience their sense of identity differently to healthy older people and to examine whether different aspects of identity are related to each other in each group. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study; 50 people with early-stage dementia and 50 age-matched people without dementia completed measures pertaining to different aspects of identity. Measures of mood and self-esteem were also included so that any differences could be taken into account in the analysis. There were very few differences in identity between the groups. After differences in levels of anxiety were accounted for, there were no differences in scores on most measures of identity. However, people in the early stages of dementia scored significantly lower on one subtotal for one measure of identity, whereas healthy older adults reported significantly more identity-related distress than people in the early stages of dementia. For both groups, there were no associations between different aspects of identity. People in the early stages of dementia do not differ much from healthy older adults in terms of their identity. Since healthy older people experience more distress relating to identity, they may be more likely to benefit from some sort of intervention than people in the early stages of dementia. It might be useful to consider identity as consisting of multiple components in future studies, rather than assuming that one aspect of identity represents the overall experience of identity. PMID:23171274

  16. Cubic-normal distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Gan Chew; Hin, Pooi Ah; Ho, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The power-normal distribution given in Yeo and Johnson in year 2000 is a unimodal distribution with wide ranges of skewness and kurtosis. A shortcoming of the power-normal distribution is that the negative and positve parts of the underlying random variable have to be specified by two different expressions of the standard normal random variable. In this paper, we construct a new distribution, called the cubic-normal distribution, via a single polynomial expression in cubic root function. Apart from having the properties which are similar to those of the power-normal distribution, this cubic-normal distribution can be developed into a multivariate version which is more attractive from the theoretical and computational points of view.

  17. Perspectives on Normalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, S. Kenneth; Fiorelli, Joseph S.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the principle of normalization for developmentally disabled persons from five viewpoints: empirical approaches, social integration, specialization and congregation, cultural norms, and prevention. (Author/CL)

  18. Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 200-page activity guide for educators of students in grades six through university level raises the awareness and understanding of water quality issues and their relationship to personal, public and environmental health. "Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" will help educators address science standards through 25…

  19. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…

  20. Healthy Children, Healthy Minds: Creating a Brighter Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebrun, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Children struggle with life today. Being children in the 21st century is both taxing and exciting, and yet trying to cope with all of the technology and media that surrounds them. How do we as adults provide good models? Mindfulness, exercise, focus and attention, and healthy living strategies need to play a role in shaping healthy children.…

  1. Comparison of upper extremity function, pain, and tactile sense between the uneffected side of hemiparetic patients and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Balcı, Nilay Comuk; Dogru, Esra; Aytar, Aydan; Gokmen, Ozge; Depreli, Ozde

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the unaffected upper extremity of patients with hemiparesis with that of healthy subjects in terms of function, pain, and tactile sense. [Subjects and Methods] Upper extremity evaluation parameters of 20 patients with hemiparesis were compared with an age-matched control group of 20 healthy subjects. A shorter version of the Disability of Arm and Shoulder Questionnaire, Upper Extremity Functional Index, and Simple Shoulder Test were used to evaluate the upper extremity functionality. The Visual Analog Scale was used to measure pain severity at rest, at night, and during activity. Tactile sensation levels were assessed by Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments at four palmar areas. [Results] A statistically significant difference was found in the upper extremity functionality between the groups. Pain severity at rest was significantly higher in the hemiparetic group. There was no significant difference in night and activity pain severities or tactile sensation levels between the groups. [Conclusion] According to our results, the unaffected side of patients with hemiparesis differs in functionality and pain at rest compared with that of healthy persons. Studies with larger sample size and various evaluation tests are needed to further investigate the unaffected side of patients with hemiparesis. PMID:27512250

  2. Comparison of upper extremity function, pain, and tactile sense between the uneffected side of hemiparetic patients and healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Balcı, Nilay Comuk; Dogru, Esra; Aytar, Aydan; Gokmen, Ozge; Depreli, Ozde

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the unaffected upper extremity of patients with hemiparesis with that of healthy subjects in terms of function, pain, and tactile sense. [Subjects and Methods] Upper extremity evaluation parameters of 20 patients with hemiparesis were compared with an age-matched control group of 20 healthy subjects. A shorter version of the Disability of Arm and Shoulder Questionnaire, Upper Extremity Functional Index, and Simple Shoulder Test were used to evaluate the upper extremity functionality. The Visual Analog Scale was used to measure pain severity at rest, at night, and during activity. Tactile sensation levels were assessed by Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments at four palmar areas. [Results] A statistically significant difference was found in the upper extremity functionality between the groups. Pain severity at rest was significantly higher in the hemiparetic group. There was no significant difference in night and activity pain severities or tactile sensation levels between the groups. [Conclusion] According to our results, the unaffected side of patients with hemiparesis differs in functionality and pain at rest compared with that of healthy persons. Studies with larger sample size and various evaluation tests are needed to further investigate the unaffected side of patients with hemiparesis. PMID:27512250

  3. Ethnic Notions & Healthy Paranoias

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Colette Marie

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To report the firsthand perspectives of older Black women within healthcare encounters that impact the trajectories of health seeking behavior; to examine their perceptions, expectations, and beliefs about the role of cultural difference within predominantly White (US) health care settings; and to explore how sharing personal experiences (theirs and others’) as a fund of knowledge influences ethnic notions. This research is aimed at the development of community resource partnerships and effective healthcare service delivery with intervention and promotion efforts targeting older Black women. Design Ethnographic data collected over a twenty-four month period (2003 – 2005) from fifty older Black women in Tucson, Arizona is discussed on three levels: (1) expectations and beliefs, (2) the use of ethnic notions in the form of healthy paranoias as part of individual and communal health advocacy, and (3) perceptions of interethnic communication within healthcare settings, including feeling uncared for by healthcare providers and support staff. Results Disparities in older Black women's health and well-being are often constructed and filtered through "non-clinical" influences, such as cultural differences, individual experiences, and beliefs about "race" or "being" a Black female. Conclusions Unfamiliarity with ethnic notions may cause misinterpretations and misunderstandings and may influence interactions between older Black women and healthcare providers. PMID:20694867

  4. Role of the normal gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Reddy, D Nageshwar

    2015-01-01

    Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual’s life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool. PMID:26269668

  5. Role of the normal gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2015-08-01

    Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual's life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool. PMID:26269668

  6. Teachers Offering Healthy Escape Options for Teenagers in Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaywell, Joan F.

    2005-01-01

    "[T]wenty-five percent of today's teenagers have inordinate emotional baggage beyond the normal angst of adolescence." This burden can lead to unhealthy escapes, including substance abuse, sexual activity, violence, eating disorders, and suicide. One healthy escape, however, lies in books, where students can read about teenagers living in painful…

  7. Healthy School Communities in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; Yessis, Jennifer; Manske, Steve; Gleddie, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Background and context: Healthy school communities aim to optimise student health and educational achievement. Various models, terms and resources have been used to describe healthy school communities. Policy makers and practitioners have reported confusion around many of the key concepts involved because of the varying models and terms.…

  8. Healthy Mouth for Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... cities. Ask a dentist or doctor if your water has fluoride in it. If it doesn’t, ask about other kinds of fluoride (such as fluoride varnish or drops) that can help keep your baby’s teeth healthy. 2. Check and clean your baby’s teeth. CHECK your baby’s teeth. Healthy ...

  9. Healthy Mouth for Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... cities. Ask a dentist or doctor if your water has fluoride in it. If it doesn’t, ask about other kinds of fluoride (such as fluoride varnish or drops) that can help keep your baby’s teeth healthy. Back to Top Check and clean your baby’s teeth. CHECK your baby’s teeth. Healthy ...

  10. Characteristics of a Healthy Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Phylis Lan

    The reason for studying the characteristics of a healthy family is to encourage and strengthen the family and to move toward an enriched family life by using the characteristics as bench marks. Six characteristics are discussed as the essence of a healthy family: (1) commitment; (2) togetherness; (3) appreciation; (4) good communication; (5)…

  11. What Does "Healthy Eating" Mean?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Get Free Stuff Be a Partner What Does “Healthy Eating” Mean? According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans , ... help, too! Download the Tip Sheet What Does “Healthy Eating” Mean? (PDF, 513.2 KB) You Might Also ...

  12. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  13. Alkaline phosphatase activity in normal and inflamed dental pulps.

    PubMed

    Spoto, G; Fioroni, M; Rubini, C; Tripodi, D; Di Stilio, M; Piattelli, A

    2001-03-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) seems to be important in the formation of mineralized tissues. High levels of ALP have been demonstrated in dental pulp cells. In the present study ALP activity was analyzed in normal healthy human dental pulps, in reversible pulpitis, and in irreversible pulpitis. Enzymatic ALP control values for the normal healthy pulps were 110.96+/-20.93. In the reversible pulpitis specimens the ALP activity increased almost eight times to 853.6+/-148.27. In the irreversible pulpitis specimens the values decreased sharply to 137.15+/-21.28 and were roughly equivalent to those seen in normal healthy pulps. The differences between the groups (control vs. reversible pulpitis and reversible pulpitis vs. irreversible pulpitis) were statistically significant. These results could point to a role of ALP in the initial pulp response after injury. PMID:11487147

  14. Eat healthily, stay healthy.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    HIV and poor nutrition destroys the immune system. A well-nourished HIV infected person is less likely to develop an opportunistic infection than those with poor nutrition. Emotional stress and opportunistic infections can decrease one's appetite. Eating can become difficult and painful in persons with oropharyngeal infections. HIV-related wasting reduces protein and fat reserves. Vitamin A maintains a healthy immune system. Adding nuts, oil, mashed fish, dark green or orange fruits and vegetables, or fruit juice and replacing some water with fresh milk or coconut milk makes porridge more energy-rich. Fermenting or malting porridge makes it thinner, easier to swallow, and more nutritious. Fermentation allows for increased absorption of some nutrients (e.g., iron and zinc). The diet for persons with HIV-related infections should increase their appetite, and they should ingest enough nutrients to help the gastrointestinal tract manage and recover from diarrhea and to regain weight and strength lost during illness. All HIV-infected persons should eat as much as possible, particularly easy-to-eat and easily-absorbed foods. Those with mouth sores should avoid spicy and peppery foods. Those with a poor appetite should eat small amounts more often than usual. Those with diarrhea should eat easily digestible foods (e.g., soups) and, in some cases, avoid fatty or oily foods and milk. They should drink extra fluids to prevent dehydration. HIV-infected pregnant women should eat foods rich in vitamin A (dark green leaves or orange fruits and vegetables, liver, or egg yolk) and iron. Maternal vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of vertical HIV transmission 3-4 fold. Breast milk is the best food for all infants, particularly during diarrhea. In some communities, nongovernmental organizations provide those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS with food, food production maintenance, and nutrition counseling through their home care services. PMID:12290562

  15. Variations in cytokine mRNA expression during normal human pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, N; Greif, M; Moriabadi, N F; Marx, L; Toyka, K V; Rieckmann, P

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological data provide evidence that disease activity of T cell-mediated, organ-specific autoimmune diseases is reduced during pregnancy. Although there are several experimental animal studies on the effect of pregnancy on the immune system, the situation in humans is less clear. We therefore performed a prospective analysis of cytokine mRNA expression in whole blood by a new on-line reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique and of serum hormone levels during pregnancy in healthy women. The control group included age-matched non-pregnant healthy women. Quantitativecytokine mRNA expression revealed significantly reduced IL-18, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and IL-2 mRNA levels in the first and second trimester in pregnancy compared with non-pregnant women. No difference between groups was detected for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) mRNA. IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA were detected at low levels in only 20% of pregnant women and were reduced to a statistically significant extent in the second and third trimester compared with the control group. Changes in IL-18 mRNA expression correlated inversely with serum values for human choriogonadotropin (HCG) and IL-10 serum levels correlated with increases in serum 17β-oestradiol levels. These data indicate immunomodulatory effects of pregnancy at the cytokine level which may be related to the variations in the clinical course of organ-specific, T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases during pregnancy. PMID:10632669

  16. Smell perception in normal tension glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarieh, Maneli; Hauenstein, Daniela; Schoetzau, Andreas; Konieczka, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to quantify the ability to identify odors in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) patients and healthy subjects with and without a primary vascular dysregulation (PVD). Methods Both self-assessment of smell perception and evaluation of odor identification by means of the 12-item odor identification test (“Sniffin’ Sticks”) were performed in the following groups of subjects: 1) 18 NTG patients with PVD (G+), 2) 18 NTG patients without PVD (G-), 3) 18 healthy subjects with PVD (H+) and 4) 18 healthy subjects without PVD (H-). The subjects self-assessment of smell perception was evaluated before the Sniffin’ Sticks test by asking them to judge their ability to identify odors as either “average,” “better than average,” or “worse than average.” Results Subjects with a PVD (G+ and H+) can identify odors significantly better than those without a PVD (G- and H-; in a score scale of 1–12 the score point difference=2.64, 95% CI=1.88–3.40, p<0.001). No significant differences in odor identification was found between NTG (groups G+ and G-) and healthy subjects (groups H+ and H-; score point difference=-0.14, 95% CI=-0.9–0.62, p=0.72). Conclusions Subjects with a PVD can identify odors significantly better than those without a PVD. PMID:20352025

  17. Inflammageing assessed by MMP9 in normal Japanese individuals and the patients with Werner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goto, Makoto; Chiba, Junji; Matsuura, Masaaki; Iwaki-Egawa, Sachiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Age-associated minor inflammation: inflammageing may explain human ageing mechanism(s). Our previous study reported a significant increase in the serum level of highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with normal ageing and the patients with Werner syndrome (WS). To further study the minor inflammatory condition associated with ageing, another possible ageing biomarker: matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) was examined in the sera from 217 normal Japanese individuals aged between 1 and 100 years and 41 mutation-proven Japanese WS aged between 32 and 70 years. MMP9 was assayed by ELISA. The serum level of MMP9 was elevated significantly (p < 0.001) with normal ageing from both sexes as hsCRP. In contrast to normal ageing, the serum MMP9 level in WS decreased significantly with calendar age (p < 0.05). The MMP9 level (ng/mL) in WS (147.2 ± 28.5) was not significantly different in comparison with those from age-matched normal adult population aged between 25 and 70 years (109.1 ± 9.4), nor normal elderly population aged between 71 and 100 years (179.9 ± 16.1). Although both normal ageing and WS were associated with minor inflammation, the inflammatory parameters such as serum MMP9 and hsCRP changed differently between normal ageing and WS. The WS-specific chronic inflammation including skin ulcer and diabetes mellitus may contribute the different behavior of both ageing biomarkers from normal ageing. PMID:27195193

  18. Inflammageing assessed by MMP9 in normal Japanese individuals and the patients with Werner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Makoto; Chiba, Junji; Matsuura, Masaaki; Iwaki-Egawa, Sachiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Age-associated minor inflammation: inflammageing may explain human ageing mechanism(s). Our previous study reported a significant increase in the serum level of highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with normal ageing and the patients with Werner syndrome (WS). To further study the minor inflammatory condition associated with ageing, another possible ageing biomarker: matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) was examined in the sera from 217 normal Japanese individuals aged between 1 and 100 years and 41 mutation-proven Japanese WS aged between 32 and 70 years. MMP9 was assayed by ELISA. The serum level of MMP9 was elevated significantly (p < 0.001) with normal ageing from both sexes as hsCRP. In contrast to normal ageing, the serum MMP9 level in WS decreased significantly with calendar age (p < 0.05). The MMP9 level (ng/mL) in WS (147.2 ± 28.5) was not significantly different in comparison with those from age-matched normal adult population aged between 25 and 70 years (109.1 ± 9.4), nor normal elderly population aged between 71 and 100 years (179.9 ± 16.1). Although both normal ageing and WS were associated with minor inflammation, the inflammatory parameters such as serum MMP9 and hsCRP changed differently between normal ageing and WS. The WS-specific chronic inflammation including skin ulcer and diabetes mellitus may contribute the different behavior of both ageing biomarkers from normal ageing. PMID:27195193

  19. Chronic stress exposure decreases the cortisol awakening response in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongxia; Yuan, Yiran; Zhang, Liang; Qin, Shaozheng; Zhang, Kan; Buchanan, Tony W; Wu, Jianhui

    2013-11-01

    Academic examination is a major stressor for students in China. Investigation of stress-sensitive endocrine responses to major examination stress serves as a good model of naturalistic chronic psychological stress in an otherwise healthy population. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is an endocrine marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to stress. However, it remains unknown how chronic examination stress impacts the CAR in a young healthy population To exclude the influence of sex effects on hormone level, the CAR and psychological stress responses were assessed on two consecutive workdays in 42 male participants during their preparations for the Chinese National Postgraduate Entrance Exam (NPEE) and 21 non-exam, age-matched male comparisons. On each day, four saliva samples were collected immediately after awakening, 15 minutes, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after awakening. The waking level (S1), the increase within 30 minutes after awakening (R30), the area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg), and the area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) were used to quantify the CAR. Psychological stress and anxiety were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Male participants in the exam group had greater perceived stress and anxiety scores relatibe to the non-exam group. Both R30 and AUCi in the exam group were significantly lower than the comparison group and this effect was most pronounced for participants with high levels of perceived stress in the exam group. Perceived stress and anxiety levels were negatively correlated with both R30 and AUCi. Chronic examination stress can lead to the decrease of CAR in healthy young men, possibly due to reduced HPA axis activity under long-term sustained stress. PMID:23992539

  20. Transient increase in HDL-cholesterol during weight gain by hyperalimentation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Torbjörn; Kechagias, Stergios; Carlsson, Martin; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2011-04-01

    Determination of lipid levels is fundamental in cardiovascular risk assessment. We studied the short-term effects of fast food-based hyperalimentation on lipid levels in healthy subjects. Twelve healthy men and six healthy women with a mean age of 26 ± 6.6 years and an aged-matched control group were recruited for this prospective interventional study. Subjects in the intervention group aimed for a body weight increase of 5-15% by doubling the baseline caloric intake by eating at least two fast food-based meals a day in combination with adoption of a sedentary lifestyle for 4 weeks. This protocol induced a weight gain from 67.6 ± 9.1 kg to 74.0 ± 11 kg (P < 0.001). A numerical increase in the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol occurred in all subjects during the study and this was apparent already at the first week in 16/18 subjects (mean increase at week 1: +22.0 ± 16%, range from -7 to +50%), whereas the highest level of HDL during the study as compared with baseline values varied from +6% to +58% (mean +31.6 ± 15%). The intake of saturated fat in the early phase of the trial related positively with the HDL-cholesterol-increase in the second week (r = 0.53, P = 0.028). Although the levels of insulin doubled at week 2, the increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol was only +12 ± 17%, and there was no statistically significant changes in fasting serum triglycerides. We conclude that hyperalimentation can induce a fast but transient increase in HDL-cholesterol that is of clinical interest when estimating cardiovascular risk based on serum lipid levels. PMID:20814413

  1. Intertemporal choice behavior is constrained by brain structure in healthy participants and pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Bahram; Hammer, Anke; Miedl, Stephan F; Wiswede, Daniel; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Herrmann, Manfred; Münte, Thomas F

    2016-07-01

    The steepness of the delay discounting function shows considerable interindividual differences. Moreover, faster devaluation of future rewards has been consistently observed in pathological gamblers (PGs). Here, we asked whether variability in delay discounting is at least partially driven by differences in the anatomy of gray and white matter. For 40 healthy young subjects (study 1) as well as 15 PG and 15 age-matched healthy controls (HCs, study 2), the individual discounting parameter k was obtained. Based on 3D T1-weighted high-resolution magnetic resonance scans and diffusion tensor imaging, we performed voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics, respectively, to examine the relation of gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter properties (as indicated by fractional anisotropy, FA) to k. Healthy groups from both studies showed a negative correlation between k and FA for the superior longitudinal fascicle and inferior longitudinal fascicle, whereas a positive correlation was found in the PG group for the inferior longitudinal fascicle and left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle. The latter also was significantly different between HC and PG in the group statistics (albeit on the right side), thus suggesting that this is a significant structure for the development of pathological gambling. GMV of the right frontal orbital cortex, left insular cortex and right lateral occipital cortex showed a positive correlation to k HC (studies 1 and 2) and PG, whereas a negative correlation was found for the left frontal pole in all three groups. Group comparison of GMV (study 2) revealed a decrease in PG for several cortical and subcortical areas. PMID:26239549

  2. The healthy aged

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Marshall; Pike, Andrea; McCrate, Farah; Parsons, Karen; Parsons, Wanda; Pitcher, Heather; Buehler, Sharon; Gadag, Veeresh; Miller, Robert; Sclater, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe a population of cognitively functioning seniors aged 80 years and older who are living independently in the community. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study based on the enrolment cohort of a randomized controlled trial. Setting St John’s, Nfld. Participants A total of 236 cognitively functioning seniors aged 80 years and older living independently in the community. Main outcome measures Demographic characteristics including age, sex, marital status, and education; health status and quality of life measured by the Short Form–36 and the CASP-19 (control, autonomy, self-realization, and pleasure); use of formal and informal community services; satisfaction with family physician care as measured by the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire–18; and use of health care resources (family physician visits, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and laboratory and diagnostic imaging tests). Results Overall, 66.5% of those in the group were women and the average age was 85.5 years. A quarter had postsecondary diplomas or degrees; 54.7% were widowed (69.4% of women and 25.3% of men). The cohort scored well in terms of health status and quality of life, with a range of scores on the Short Form–36 from 57.5 to 93.5 out of 100, and a score of 44 out of 57 on the CASP-19; they were satisfied with the care received from family physicians, with scores between 3.8 and 4.3 out of 5 on the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire–18; and use of health services was low—70% had no emergency department visits in the previous year and 80% had not used any laboratory or diagnostic services. Conclusion Seniors aged 80 years and older living independently are involved in the social fabric of society. They are generally well educated, slightly more than half are widowed, and two-thirds are female. They score well on scales that measure well-being and quality of life, and they use few health services. They are the healthy aged. Trial registration

  3. Normal Functioning Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  4. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    MedlinePlus

    ... gait) is not normal. You may also have memory problems. Tests that may be done include: Lumbar puncture (spinal tap) with careful testing of walking before and after the spinal tap Head CT scan or MRI of the head

  5. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  6. Normal Variants in Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Daniel R; Bryg, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Echocardiography is a powerful and convenient tool used routinely in the cardiac evaluation of many patients. Improved resolution and visualization of cardiac anatomy has led to the discovery of many normal variant structures that have no known pathologic consequence. Importantly, these findings may masquerade as pathology prompting unnecessary further evaluation at the expense of anxiety, cost, or potential harm. This review provides an updated and comprehensive collection of normal anatomic variants on both transthoracic and transesophageal imaging. PMID:27612473

  7. Spun Almost Normal Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paullin, Katherine L.

    Many of a 3-manifold's properties are determined by the surfaces they contain, and this knowledge leads to the foundation of decision algorithms for 3- manifolds. Popular work influencing the work of 3-manifold algorithms has it's roots in normal surface theory. In a triangulated 3-manifold, Haken and Kneser showed that we could put any incompressible surface into normal form. Expanding on those techniques, Rubinstein and Stocking later showed we could put any strongly irreducible surface into almost normal form. Walsh has more recently shown that in an ideal triangulation of a hyperbolic manifold many surfaces can be spun normalized. One unsolved problem in 3-manifold algorithms is studying the complexity of Lens Space Recognition. Spun almost normalization appears to be a part of solving this larger problem. In this dissertation, I will first discuss a nontraditional technique using graphs of equivalence classes of compressing disks that allows us to take a combinatorial approach to generalize the result of Walsh's to nonhyperbolic manifolds. Using that method, I'll also explore the conditions needed to show that a surface can be spun almost normalized.

  8. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creati...

  9. Microcirculation and micromorphology of healthy and inflamed gingivae.

    PubMed

    Kerdvongbundit, Varunee; Vongsavan, Noppakun; Soo-Ampon, Surin; Hasegawa, Akira

    2003-09-01

    Inflammation changes the microcirculatory and micromorphological dynamics of human gingiva. Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and a replica technique for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to examine the facial soft tissues of six maxillary anterior teeth, before and after treatment, in 12 patients exhibiting clinically healthy tissues and in 12 others with moderate gingivitis. All patients received oral hygiene instructions and scaling. The gingiva in the gingivitis group became healthy within 3 months after treatment. LDF results were recorded at the free gingivae, interdental gingivae, attached gingivae, and alveolar mucosae of the six maxillary anterior teeth. The gingival blood flows in the gingivitis group before treatment were significantly different from those in the healthy gingiva group. Flows were restored to the same level as the healthy gingiva, with no significant difference, at P > 0.01, 3 months after treatment. However, there were significant differences among sites during the same period. In addition, blood flow was reduced to a normal level after the inflammation subsided. Initially, the gingival morphology of the inflamed sites exhibited irregular free gingival margins, in contrast to that of healthy gingivae, which were characterized by rounded margins closely adapted to the tooth. One month post-treatment, the gingivae exhibited a wrinkled appearance, but they had reverted to normal micromorphology by 3 months post-treatment. The replica impression technique can be used to record gingival micromorphology both before and after reduction of inflammation. PMID:14505185

  10. Guide to Healthy Web Surfing

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/healthywebsurfing.html MedlinePlus Guide to Healthy Web Surfing To use the sharing features on this ... the site, use caution. Focus on quality--All Web sites are not created equal Does the site ...

  11. Healthy habits for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... less by the time it is over. Practice Healthy Eating Life gets busy and a lot of people ... Emotional eating, or eating for comfort rather than nutrition, can make a big difference in what and ...

  12. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxygen into energy), and behavior or habits. Energy Balance Energy balance is important for maintaining a healthy weight. The ... OUT over time = weight stays the same (energy balance) More energy IN than OUT over time = weight ...

  13. National Center for Healthy Housing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Housing Videos Lead Links Listervs Share NCHH's Flood Cleanup Guide with a Friend Today Several locations ... rains on Saturday, July 30, resulting in flash flood conditions and damage. The town of Ellicott City ...

  14. MedlinePlus: Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... in America (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: The benefits of social prescribing. Article: Healthy ...

  15. Quantifying surface normal estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Robert B.; Oxley, Mark E.; Eismann, Michael T.; Goda, Matthew E.

    2006-05-01

    An inverse algorithm for surface normal estimation from thermal polarimetric imagery was developed and used to quantify the requirements on a priori information. Building on existing knowledge that calculates the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) and the angle of polarization (AOP) for a given surface normal in a forward model (from an object's characteristics to calculation of the DOLP and AOP), this research quantifies the impact of a priori information with the development of an inverse algorithm to estimate surface normals from thermal polarimetric emissions in long-wave infrared (LWIR). The inverse algorithm assumes a polarized infrared focal plane array capturing LWIR intensity images which are then converted to Stokes vectors. Next, the DOLP and AOP are calculated from the Stokes vectors. Last, the viewing angles, θ v, to the surface normals are estimated assuming perfect material information about the imaged scene. A sensitivity analysis is presented to quantitatively describe the a priori information's impact on the amount of error in the estimation of surface normals, and a bound is determined given perfect information about an object. Simulations explored the impact of surface roughness (σ) and the real component (n) of a dielectric's complex index of refraction across a range of viewing angles (θ v) for a given wavelength of observation.

  16. Polysomnographic Sleep Characteristics of Generally-Anxious and Healthy Children Assessed in the Home Environment

    PubMed Central

    Patriquin, Michelle A.; Mellman, Thomas A.; Glaze, Daniel G.; Alfano, Candice A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Using laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) we recently provided evidence of significantly prolonged sleep onset latency (SOL) and reduced latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep among non-depressed children with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) compared to healthy age-matched controls. In the current study we conducted unattended ambulatory PSG in a new sample of children with GAD and controls in order to examine sleeping characteristics in the home environment. Method Thirty-two children (ages of 7–11 years) including 16 children with primary GAD and 16 controls receiving no psychotropic medications were studied. The anxious group had a primary diagnosis of GAD without secondary mood disorders and controls were free of any medical or psychiatric diagnoses. All participants underwent structured diagnostic assessments and completed one night of home-based polysomnography (PSG). Results Children with GAD exhibited significantly higher sleep efficiency (SE) and fewer rapid eye movement (REM) sleep periods compared to controls. Self-reported somatic arousal during the pre-sleep period was negatively correlated with the percentage of total REM sleep among controls, but positively correlated with REM sleep percentage in the GAD group. Limitations A small sample size and one night of PSG only. Conclusions Home-based PSG recording do not provide evidence of disrupted sleep patterns in children with GAD. Contextual factors that better elucidate differences between laboratory and home-based sleep findings are suggested as important directions for future research. PMID:24751311

  17. The Salivary Scavenger and Agglutinin (SALSA) in Healthy and Complicated Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Reichhardt, Martin Parnov; Jarva, Hanna; Lokki, Anna Inkeri; Laivuori, Hannele; Vuorela, Piia; Loimaranta, Vuokko; Glasner, Andreas; Siwetz, Monika; Huppertz, Berthold; Meri, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. The etiology is not clear, but an immune attack towards components of placenta or fetus has been indicated. This involves activation of the complement system in the placenta. We have previously described the presence of the complement-regulating protein salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA) in amniotic fluid. In this study we investigated the potential role of SALSA in pregnancy by analyzing its presence in amniotic fluid and placental tissue during healthy and complicated pregnancies. SALSA levels in amniotic fluid increased during pregnancy. Before 20 weeks of gestation the levels were slightly higher in patients who later developed pre-eclampsia than in gestation age-matched controls. In the placenta of pre-eclamptic patients syncytial damage is often followed by the formation of fibrinoid structures. SALSA was found clustered into these fibrinoid structures in partial co-localization with complement C1q and fibronectin. In vitro analysis showed direct protein binding of SALSA to fibronectin. SALSA binds also to fibrin/fibrinogen but did not interfere with the blood clotting process in vitro. Thus, in addition to antimicrobial defense and epithelial differentiation, the data presented here suggest that SALSA, together with fibronectin and C1q, may be involved in the containment of injured placental structures into fibrinoids. PMID:26828433

  18. Salivary cortisol monitoring: determination of reference values in healthy children and application in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Toshikazu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Arita, Masahiko; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Shigeta, Makoto; Wada, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Hiraba, Kazumi; Fukuda, Norimasa

    2012-01-01

    Venipuncture testing of adrenocortical function in asthmatic infants and young children receiving inhaled corticosteroids can raise cortisol levels and mask physiological responses. This study aimed to establish reference ranges for salivary cortisol levels and evaluate the safety and effects of jet-nebulized budesonide inhalation suspension (BIS) on salivary cortisol levels and patient outcomes in infants and young children with mild or persistent asthma. Reference salivary cortisol levels were determined in healthy children aged 6 months to 4 years old. A 12-week multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, open-label study was performed involving 53 age-matched asthmatic children who received either 0.5 mg/day of BIS or 40-60 mg/day of cromolyn sodium inhalation suspension (CIS) via compressor nebulizer. The effective measuring range of salivary cortisol concentration in asthmatic children was 0.12-3.00 micrograms/dL. The upper and lower limits of the reference range were 0.827 and 0.076 micrograms/dL, respectively. No significant difference was seen from baseline through week 12 in the CIS and BIS groups. BIS was safe in these patients, with no inhibitory effects on adrenocortical function. Salivary cortisol measurement offers a useful and accurate tool for testing adrenocortical function in infants and young children. Longer-term studies that incorporate testing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:22856637

  19. Normals to a Parabola

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Given a parabola in the standard form y[superscript 2] = 4ax, corresponding to three points on the parabola, such that the normals at these three points P, Q, R concur at a point M = (h, k), the equation of the circumscribing circle through the three points P, Q, and R provides a tremendous opportunity to illustrate "The Art of Algebraic…

  20. Document Length Normalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singhal, Amit; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated document retrieval relevance based on document length in an experimental text collection. Topics include term weighting and document ranking, retrieval strategies such as the vector-space cosine match, and a modified technique called the pivoted cosine normalization. (LRW)

  1. Normal Birth: Two Stories

    PubMed Central

    Scaer, Roberta M.

    2002-01-01

    The author shares two stories: one of a normal birth that took place in a hospital with a nurse-midwife in attendance and another of a home birth unexpectedly shared by many colleagues. Both are told with the goal to inform, inspire, and educate. PMID:17273292

  2. Normal Psychosexual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    1971-01-01

    Normal sexual development is reviewed with respect to physical maturation, sexual interests, sex drive", psychosexual competence and maturity, gender role, object choice, children's concepts of sexual differences, sex role preference and standards, and psychosexual stages. Biologic, psychoanalytic and psychosocial theories are briefly considered.…

  3. Understanding the Healthy Thyroid State in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Führer, Dagmar; Brix, Klaudia; Biebermann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are of crucial importance for the physiological function of almost all organs. In cases of abnormal TH signaling, pathophysiological consequences may arise. The routine assessment of a healthy or diseased thyroid function state is currently based on the determination of serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and the TH T3 and T4. However, the definition of a ‘normal’ TSH range and similarly ‘normal’ T3 and T4 concentrations remains the subject of debate in different countries worldwide and has important implications on patient treatment in clinics. Not surprisingly, a significant number of patients whose thyroid function tests are biochemically determined to be within the normal range complain of impaired well-being. The reasons for this are so far not fully understood, but it has been recognized that thyroid function status needs to be ‘individualized’ and extended beyond simple TSH measurement. Thus, more precise and reliable parameters are required in order to optimally define the healthy thyroid status of an individual, and as a perspective to employ these in clinical routine. With the recent identification of new key players in TH action, a more accurate assessment of a patient's thyroid status may in the future become possible. Recently described distinct TH derivatives and metabolites, TH transporters, nongenomic TH effects (either through membrane-bound or cytosolic signaling), and classical nuclear TH action allow for insights into molecular and cellular preconditions of a healthy thyroid state. This will be a prerequisite to improve management of thyroid dysfunction, and additionally to prevent and target TH-related nonthyroid disease. PMID:26601068

  4. A healthy bladder: a consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Lukacz, E S; Sampselle, C; Gray, M; MacDiarmid, S; Rosenberg, M; Ellsworth, P; Palmer, M H

    2011-01-01

    A panel of experts in urology, urogynecology, nursing, and behavioral therapy convened in 2010 to discuss the importance of a healthy bladder on overall health. They determined that a consensus statement was necessary to raise awareness among the general public, healthcare providers, payors, and policymakers, with the goals of minimizing the impact of poor bladder health and stimulating primary prevention of bladder conditions. In this statement, ‘healthy’ bladder function is described, as well as internal and external factors that influence bladder health. It is suggested that primary prevention strategies should be aimed at providing education regarding normal lower urinary tract structures and functioning to the public, including patients and healthcare providers. This education may promote the achievement of optimal bladder health by increasing healthy bladder habits and behaviors, awareness of risk factors, healthcare seeking, and clinician engagement and reducing stigma and other barriers to treatment. Promoting optimal bladder health may reduce the personal, societal and economic impact of bladder conditions, including anxiety and depression and costs associated with conditions or diseases and their treatment. While adopting healthy bladder habits and behaviors and behaviors may improve or maintain bladder health, it is important to recognize that certain symptoms may indicate the presence of conditions that require medical attention; many bladder conditions are treatable with a range of options for most bladder conditions. Lastly, the authors propose clinical directives based on persuasive and convergent research to improve and maintain bladder health. The authors hope that this statement will lead to promotion and achievement of optimal bladder health, which may improve overall health and help minimize the effects of bladder conditions on the public, healthcare professionals, educators, employers, and payors. The advisors are in consensus regarding the

  5. Centenarians’ offspring as a model of healthy aging: a reappraisal of the data on Italian subjects and a comprehensive overview

    PubMed Central

    Cevenini, Elisa; Pini, Elisa; Scurti, Maria; Vitale, Giovanni; Mari, Daniela; Caruso, Calogero; Sansoni, Paolo; Fanelli, Flaminia; Pasquali, Renato; Gueresi, Paola; Franceschi, Claudio; Monti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Within the scenario of an increasing life expectancy worldwide it is mandatory to identify determinants of healthy aging. Centenarian offspring (CO) is one of the most informative model to identify trajectories of healthy aging and their determinants (genetic and environmental), being representative of elderly in their 70th whose lifestyle can be still modified to attain a better health. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the health status of 267 CO (mean age: 70.2 years) and adopts the innovative approach of comparing CO with 107 age-matched offspring of non-long-lived parents (hereafter indicated as NCO controls), recruited according to strict inclusion demographic criteria of Italian population. We adopted a multidimensional approach which integrates functional and cognitive assessment together with epidemiological and clinical data, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, lipid profile, and insulin resistance. CO have a lower prevalence of stroke, cerebral thrombosis-hemorrhage, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and other minor diseases, lower BMI and waist circumference, a better functional and cognitive status and lower plasma level of FT4 compared to NCO controls. We conclude that a multidimensional approach is a reliable strategy to identify the health status of elderly at an age when interventions to modify their health trajectory are feasible. PMID:26979133

  6. Temporal Resolution of the Normal Ear in Listeners with Unilateral Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Dey, Ratul; Davessar, Jai Lal

    2015-12-01

    Unilateral hearing loss (UHL) leads to an imbalanced input to the brain and results in cortical reorganization. In listeners with unilateral impairments, while the perceptual deficits associated with the impaired ear are well documented, less is known regarding the auditory processing in the unimpaired, clinically normal ear. It is commonly accepted that perceptual consequences are unlikely to occur in the normal ear for listeners with UHL. This study investigated whether the temporal resolution in the normal-hearing (NH) ear of listeners with long-standing UHL is similar to those in listeners with NH. Temporal resolution was assayed via measuring gap detection thresholds (GDTs) in within- and between-channel paradigms. GDTs were assessed in the normal ear of adults with long-standing, severe-to-profound UHL (N = 13) and age-matched, NH listeners (N = 22) at two presentation levels (30 and 55 dB sensation level). Analysis indicated that within-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were not significantly different than those for the NH subject group, but the between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were poorer (by greater than a factor of 2) than those for the listeners with NH. The hearing thresholds in the normal or impaired ears were not associated with the elevated between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL. Contrary to the common assumption that auditory processing capabilities are preserved for the normal ear in listeners with UHL, the current study demonstrated that a long-standing unilateral hearing impairment may adversely affect auditory perception--temporal resolution--in the clinically normal ear. From a translational perspective, these findings imply that the temporal processing deficits in the unimpaired ear of listeners with unilateral hearing impairments may contribute to their overall auditory perceptual difficulties. PMID:26197871

  7. Serum Adipsin Levels throughout Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Poveda, Natalia E.; Garcés, María F.; Ruiz-Linares, Carlos E.; Varón, Diana; Valderrama, Sergio; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Castiblanco-Cortes, Adriana; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Leal, Luis G.; Ángel-Müller, Edith; Ruíz-Parra, Ariel I.; González-Clavijo, Angélica M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Adipsin is a protease produced at high levels by adipose tissue. It is involved in complement activation and metabolic control. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in adipsin levels during different stages of normal pregnancy, and its association with obstetric outcomes, such as preeclampsia. This nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort included normal pregnant (n = 54) and preeclamptic (n = 18) women, both followed throughout pregnancy. Additionally, some of the normal pregnant women were followed up three months postpartum (n = 18). Healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during their menstrual cycle (n = 20). The results of this study show that in healthy non-pregnant women, adipsin levels did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. In normal pregnant women, adipsin levels were lower (p < 0.01) when compared with non-pregnant healthy women, but these serum levels increased again during postpartum (p < 0.001). Adipsin levels were significantly elevated in preeclamptic women in late pregnancy (P < 0.01). A significant correlation was not found between leptin and adipsin during the three periods of gestation studied in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women. Our results suggest that adipsin may be involved in pregnancy-associated metabolic changes. Moreover, the increase of adipsin levels towards late gestation in preeclamptic women could be related to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:26832661

  8. Evidence for normal vitamin D receptor messenger ribonucleic acid and genotype in absorptive hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Zerwekh, J E; Hughes, M R; Reed, B Y; Breslau, N A; Heller, H J; Lemke, M; Nasonkin, I; Pak, C Y

    1995-10-01

    Absorptive hypercalciuria (a stone-forming condition) is characterized by gut hyperabsorption of calcium, hypercalciuria, and reduced bone density. Inasmuch as these features implicate enhanced calcitriol action in gut and bone, we analyzed the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene to ascertain whether an abnormality of this gene marks patients with intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium. We have compared the frequency of a restriction fragment length polymorphism (Bsm I) associated with different alleles of the VDR gene in a group of 33 well characterized absorptive hypercalciuric patients and a group of 36 normal race- and age-matched control subjects. There was no difference between the distribution of the VDR alleles in the patient population when compared with the normal population. The coding region of VDR messenger RNA was also normal, as determined by both DNA sequence analysis and chemical mismatch cleavage analysis of copy DNA from 11 index absorptive hypercalciuric patients. On the basis of these results, we propose that the enhanced intestinal calcium absorption invariably seen in absorptive hypercalciuria and attendant symptoms of this disorder are not attributable to mutations of the VDR and are not linked to a common VDR genotype. PMID:7559881

  9. Metabolically healthy obesity--does it exist?

    PubMed

    Boonchaya-anant, Patchaya; Apovian, Caroline M

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity has been increasing worldwide over the past 30 years and is a major public health concern. Obesity is known to be associated with metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and inflammation; however, there is a subset of obese subjects who have normal metabolic profiles, and they have been identified as the metabolically healthy obese (MHO). Several studies have described MHO as obese individuals who have high levels of insulin sensitivity and the absence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, or hypertension. The prevalence of MHO varies from 20 to 30% among obese individuals. This review will discuss the MHO phenotype; the differences between MHO and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) individuals; and the possible underlying mechanisms including adipocyte differentiation, immune regulation, and cellular energy metabolism. PMID:25092577

  10. Is perceived dysphonia related to perceived healthiness?

    PubMed

    Maryn, Youri; Debo, Kim

    2015-10-01

    Literature has shown that voice-disordered persons are at higher risk for negative attitudes on several personality and physical appearance traits than vocally normal persons. This study investigated general perceptions of health in subjects with various degrees of dysphonia. Recordings from 100 normophonic and dysphonic subjects were auditorily rated on dysphonia severity by five experienced clinicians and on degree of healthiness/unhealthiness by seven unexperienced listeners. Results revealed strong correlation between auditory ratings of dysphonia severity and unhealthiness severity. Dysphonic subjects are rated significantly unhealthier than normophonic subjects, and the receiver-operating characteristics curve showed that even slight dysphonia induces negative attributions of unhealthiness. This study provides additional evidence for the negative attitudes with which dysphonic speakers are confronted, especially in terms of health. PMID:24850269

  11. Defecography in normal volunteers: results and implications.

    PubMed Central

    Shorvon, P J; McHugh, S; Diamant, N E; Somers, S; Stevenson, G W

    1989-01-01

    Forty seven healthy young volunteers underwent defecographic examination to determine the range of normal findings. Normality was shown to encompass radiological features often considered pathological. These features included broad ranges of anorectal angle and pelvic floor descent which overlap with reported pathological states. Furthermore, the formation of rectocoeles during defecation was a very common finding in women. Finally, a subgroup of the volunteers had marginal anorectal function. The marginal anorectal function and certain radiological findings such as rectocoeles or intussusceptions may predispose to later problems, or contribute to clinical problems when combined with other factors such as dietary fibre deficiency. The radiological findings raise a number of questions with respect to different aspects of the functioning of the continence and defecation mechanisms. Images Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:2612988

  12. Peripapillary choroidal thickness in healthy Turkish subjects

    PubMed Central

    Erbagci, Hulya; Oren, Burak; Okumus, Seydi; Kenan, Serhat; Celemler, Pelin; Erbagci, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Aim The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the normal peripapillary choroidal thickness (CT), measured by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), in healthy Turkish volunteers. Materials and methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, 57 eyes of 57 healthy Turkish subjects were enrolled. Each participant underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination and peripapillary CT measurement using EDI-OCT. Results The mean age of the 25 female and 32 male patients in the study was 30.9±10.6 years (range, 18–56 years). The mean peripapillary CT at the superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal sites was 225±57, 183±47, 220±57, and 233±59 μm, respectively. The inferior peripapillary CT value was significantly lower than the peripapillary CT values (P<0.001 for all), whereas no significant differences were found between the superior, nasal, and temporal peripapillary CT values. Conclusion The findings of the study revealed that Turkish people had significantly lower peripapillary CT values in the inferior quadrant than in the superior, nasal, and temporal quadrants. PMID:26257510

  13. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development. PMID:26069314

  14. Normal-reflection image

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Fehler, Michael C.

    2003-01-01

    Common-angle wave-equation migration using the double-square-root is generally less accurate than the common-shot migration because the wavefield continuation equation for thc former involves additional approximations compared to that for the latter. We present a common-angle wave-equation migration that has the same accuracy as common-shot wave-equation migration. An image obtained from common-angle migration is a four- to five-dimensional output volume for 3D cases. We propose a normal-reflection imaging condition for common-angle migration to produce a 3D output volume for 3D migration. The image is closely related to the normal-reflection coefficients at interfaces. This imaging condition will allow amplitude-preserving migration to generate an image with clear physical meaning.

  15. Normal and Malignant Megakaryopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qiang; Goldenson, Benjamin; Crispino, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Megakaryopoiesis is the process by which bone marrow progenitor cells develop into mature megakaryocytes (MKs), which in turn produce platelets required for normal hemostasis. Over the past decade, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to MK development and differentiation have begun to be elucidated. In this review, we provide an overview of megakaryopoiesis and summarize the latest developments in this field. Specially, we focus on polyploidization, a unique form of the cell cycle that allows MKs to increase their DNA content, and the genes that regulate this process. In addition, since megakaryocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL) and a subset of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), including essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), we discuss the biology and genetics of these disorders. We anticipate that an increased understanding of normal megakaryocyte differentiation will provide new insights into novel therapeutic approaches that will directly benefit patients. PMID:22018018

  16. Malformed mdx myofibers have normal cytoskeletal architecture yet altered EC coupling and stress-induced Ca2+ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Christopher W.

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle function is dependent on its highly regular structure. In studies of dystrophic (dy/dy) mice, the proportion of malformed myofibers decreases after prolonged whole muscle stimulation, suggesting that the malformed myofibers are more prone to injury. The aim of this study was to assess morphology and to measure excitation-contraction (EC) coupling (Ca2+ transients) and susceptibility to osmotic stress (Ca2+ sparks) of enzymatically isolated muscle fibers of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles from young (2–3 mo) and old (8–9 mo) mdx and age-matched control mice (C57BL10). In young mdx EDL, 6% of the myofibers had visible malformations (i.e., interfiber splitting, branched ends, midfiber appendages). In contrast, 65% of myofibers in old mdx EDL contained visible malformations. In the mdx FDB, malformation occurred in only 5% of young myofibers and 11% of old myofibers. Age-matched control mice did not display the altered morphology of mdx muscles. The membrane-associated and cytoplasmic cytoskeletal structures appeared normal in the malformed mdx myofibers. In mdx FDBs with significantly branched ends, an assessment of global, electrically evoked Ca2+ signals (indo-1PE-AM) revealed an EC coupling deficit in myofibers with significant branching. Interestingly, peak amplitude of electrically evoked Ca2+ release in the branch of the bifurcated mdx myofiber was significantly decreased compared with the trunk of the same myofiber. No alteration in the basal myoplasmic Ca2+ concentration (i.e., indo ratio) was seen in malformed vs. normal mdx myofibers. Finally, osmotic stress induced the occurrence of Ca2+ sparks to a greater extent in the malformed portions of myofibers, which is consistent with deficits in EC coupling control. In summary, our data show that aging mdx myofibers develop morphological malformations. These malformations are not associated with gross disruptions in cytoskeletal or t

  17. Evaluating Maori community initiatives to promote healthy eating, healthy action.

    PubMed

    Hamerton, Heather; Mercer, Christine; Riini, Denise; McPherson, Brighid; Morrison, Laurie

    2014-03-01

    Māori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand, experience poorer health than non-Māori across a range of health measures. Interventions focused at an individual level have proved largely ineffective; 'bottom-up' approaches where communities determine their own priorities may be more sustainable than 'top-down' approaches where goals are determined by health authorities. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate an innovative health promotion programme aimed at improving Māori health and to discuss the importance of ownership and control of health initiatives by Māori. Evaluators conducted a comprehensive evaluation of a Healthy Eating Healthy Action programme in six small Māori health agencies, gathering information from programme managers and co-ordinators, participants and wider community members about what changes were occurring at individual, family and community levels. Effective interventions built on cultural values and practices and were delivered by Māori with close connections to the community. Changes in nutrition and physical activity made by participants also benefitted their wider families and community. The changes demonstrated subtle but important shifts in thinking about healthy eating and healthy activity that in the longer term could lead to more measurable change towards improved quality of life for people within communities. PMID:22952336

  18. Healthy public policies: looking ahead.

    PubMed

    Krech, Rüdiger

    2011-12-01

    Health has moved up on the political agendas of most governments around the globe. The interdependence of economic, environmental and social conditions and health is increasingly understood. In turn, the experiences in health promotion with building healthy public policies become more important. Future "health in all policies" efforts, however, need to consider changing political contexts. There is some scope to review the focus on GDP when measuring economic development, and how health promotion considers both the opportunities and responsibilities of industry as part of healthy public policies. PMID:22080083

  19. Promoting healthy habits in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, William F; Phelan, Sharon T

    2008-09-01

    Most women have an appreciation of what are generally considered healthy habits including more exercise; eating a healthy diet; avoiding cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs; using seatbelts; and being current on preventive care, such as good dental status. Being pregnant can be a strong motivator to change or modify behavioral choices. This is an optimal time for a provider to build on this potential motivator to effect change. Frequent follow-up visits allow re-enforcement of attempted change. This constant encouragement and support helps to impress on the woman and her family the importance of change. PMID:18760226

  20. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals. PMID:26808852

  1. Regional Grey Matter Structure Differences between Transsexuals and Healthy Controls—A Voxel Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Lajos; Kozák, Lajos R.; Simon, Viktória; Czobor, Pál; Unoka, Zsolt; Szabó, Ádám; Csukly, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF) transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM) transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM) obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17) and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females). We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM) structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri). These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender. PMID:24391851

  2. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Simon, Lajos; Kozák, Lajos R; Simon, Viktória; Czobor, Pál; Unoka, Zsolt; Szabó, Ádám; Csukly, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF) transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM) transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM) obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17) and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females). We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM) structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri). These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender. PMID:24391851

  3. Normal Bone Turnover in Transient Hyperphosphatasemia

    PubMed Central

    Kutilek, Stepan; Cervickova, Barbora; Bebova, Pavla; Kmonickova, Marie; Nemec, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Transient hyperphosphatasemia of infancy and early childhood (THI) is characterized by a temporary isolated elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), predominantly its bone or liver isoform, in either sick or healthy children under 5 years of age. Return to normal ALP levels usually occurs within four months. Spontaneous rise of ALP might concern the physician, especially when treating seriously ill children. However, THI is considered a benign biochemical disorder with no clinical consequences. Some existing reports support the hypothesis that THI is a result of increased bone turnover. We present evidence of normal bone turnover in two children with THI. In a one-year-old girl and a boy of the same age, high ALP levels (31 and 109 μkat/L, respectively) were accidentally detected. The children had no signs of metabolic bone disease or of liver disease. The high ALP levels returned to normal in two months, thus fulfilling the diagnosis of THI. In both patients, serum parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers, serum CrossLaps, and serum osteocalcin were neither elevated, nor did these markers follow the ALP dynamics, thus reflecting normal bone turnover in THI. Children with THI should be spared from extensive investigations and unnecessary vitamin D treatment. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:22664360

  4. Mechanism of Sequential Swallowing during Straw Drinking in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Corey, David M.; Hadskey, Leslie D.; Legendre, Calli; Priestly, Daniel H.; Rosenbek, John C.; Foundas, Anne L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has revealed differences between isolated and sequential swallowing in healthy young adults; however, the influence of normal aging on sequential swallowing has not been studied. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of normal aging on deglutition during sequential straw drinking. Videofluoroscopic…

  5. Metabolomics Data Normalization with EigenMS

    PubMed Central

    Karpievitch, Yuliya V.; Nikolic, Sonja B.; Wilson, Richard; Sharman, James E.; Edwards, Lindsay M.

    2014-01-01

    Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry has become one of the analytical platforms of choice for metabolomics studies. However, LC-MS metabolomics data can suffer from the effects of various systematic biases. These include batch effects, day-to-day variations in instrument performance, signal intensity loss due to time-dependent effects of the LC column performance, accumulation of contaminants in the MS ion source and MS sensitivity among others. In this study we aimed to test a singular value decomposition-based method, called EigenMS, for normalization of metabolomics data. We analyzed a clinical human dataset where LC-MS serum metabolomics data and physiological measurements were collected from thirty nine healthy subjects and forty with type 2 diabetes and applied EigenMS to detect and correct for any systematic bias. EigenMS works in several stages. First, EigenMS preserves the treatment group differences in the metabolomics data by estimating treatment effects with an ANOVA model (multiple fixed effects can be estimated). Singular value decomposition of the residuals matrix is then used to determine bias trends in the data. The number of bias trends is then estimated via a permutation test and the effects of the bias trends are eliminated. EigenMS removed bias of unknown complexity from the LC-MS metabolomics data, allowing for increased sensitivity in differential analysis. Moreover, normalized samples better correlated with both other normalized samples and corresponding physiological data, such as blood glucose level, glycated haemoglobin, exercise central augmentation pressure normalized to heart rate of 75, and total cholesterol. We were able to report 2578 discriminatory metabolite peaks in the normalized data (p<0.05) as compared to only 1840 metabolite signals in the raw data. Our results support the use of singular value decomposition-based normalization for metabolomics data. PMID:25549083

  6. Metabolomics data normalization with EigenMS.

    PubMed

    Karpievitch, Yuliya V; Nikolic, Sonja B; Wilson, Richard; Sharman, James E; Edwards, Lindsay M

    2014-01-01

    Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry has become one of the analytical platforms of choice for metabolomics studies. However, LC-MS metabolomics data can suffer from the effects of various systematic biases. These include batch effects, day-to-day variations in instrument performance, signal intensity loss due to time-dependent effects of the LC column performance, accumulation of contaminants in the MS ion source and MS sensitivity among others. In this study we aimed to test a singular value decomposition-based method, called EigenMS, for normalization of metabolomics data. We analyzed a clinical human dataset where LC-MS serum metabolomics data and physiological measurements were collected from thirty nine healthy subjects and forty with type 2 diabetes and applied EigenMS to detect and correct for any systematic bias. EigenMS works in several stages. First, EigenMS preserves the treatment group differences in the metabolomics data by estimating treatment effects with an ANOVA model (multiple fixed effects can be estimated). Singular value decomposition of the residuals matrix is then used to determine bias trends in the data. The number of bias trends is then estimated via a permutation test and the effects of the bias trends are eliminated. EigenMS removed bias of unknown complexity from the LC-MS metabolomics data, allowing for increased sensitivity in differential analysis. Moreover, normalized samples better correlated with both other normalized samples and corresponding physiological data, such as blood glucose level, glycated haemoglobin, exercise central augmentation pressure normalized to heart rate of 75, and total cholesterol. We were able to report 2578 discriminatory metabolite peaks in the normalized data (p<0.05) as compared to only 1840 metabolite signals in the raw data. Our results support the use of singular value decomposition-based normalization for metabolomics data. PMID:25549083

  7. Essential Ideas for Healthy Childhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents essential ideas from various people on how to cultivate healthy childhood. Amelia Gambetti says that in terms of young children, the element of complexity offers to them the possibility to have an opportunity to learn how to think and to generate ideas. Diane Levin shares how a three-year-old kid taught her that children do…

  8. Methionine requirements in healthy adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate methionine requirements in healthy adolescents, we conducted an experiment in 28 children age 15.6+2.1 years, wt. 57.8+9.7 kg, using the intravenous indicator amino acid oxidation and balance (IV-IAAOB) technique. Children were randomly assigned to 7 different levels of methionine int...

  9. Program Review: Raising Healthy Eaters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Christine M.; Fetsch, Robert J.; Benavente, Janet C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight children and adults has been increasing steadily over the past three decades. Behaviors related to diet and nutrition are often established in early childhood. Toddlers most often develop healthy eating habits through parent modeling. Due to the steady increase in obesity in children, there is a clear need for…

  10. Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Institute on Aging at NIH Search form Search this site Menu Get Started Try These Exercises Go to My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating Sometimes it’s hard to make smart food choices . Here are some suggestions from Go4Life ...

  11. Review of Healthy, Happy Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Christine M.; Fetsch, Robert J.; Jefferson, Gisele

    2011-01-01

    The number of obese children has nearly tripled in the past 30 years. Research has identified a clear connection between parental income, education, ethnicity, and the risk for obesity. Recent research demonstrates that parenting style may also impact the ability to establish healthy eating environments. This article reviews a program, currently…

  12. Partnerships To Keep Students Healthy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Eva; Northrop, Daphne

    2000-01-01

    A 1987 model for a coordinated school health program included a healthy environment, comprehensive health education, physical education, health and nutrition services, counseling, staff health promotion, and family and community involvement. Effective programs in two low-resource areas--Providence, Rhode Island, and Animas, New Mexico--are…

  13. Healthy Behaviors or Age Denials?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Erdman B.

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable confusion in the media and the public about healthy behaviors in contrast to "antiaging" behaviors designed to make one look "younger." As an aid in clarifying the differences between these two types of behaviors, we have developed a questionnaire called the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI). We also wanted to estimate…

  14. DISJUNCTIVE NORMAL SHAPE MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Nisha; Mesadi, Fitsum; Cetin, Mujdat; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    A novel implicit parametric shape model is proposed for segmentation and analysis of medical images. Functions representing the shape of an object can be approximated as a union of N polytopes. Each polytope is obtained by the intersection of M half-spaces. The shape function can be approximated as a disjunction of conjunctions, using the disjunctive normal form. The shape model is initialized using seed points defined by the user. We define a cost function based on the Chan-Vese energy functional. The model is differentiable, hence, gradient based optimization algorithms are used to find the model parameters. PMID:27403233

  15. Breast Cancer Risk in Metabolically Healthy but Overweight Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Gunter, Marc J.; Xie, Xianhong; Xue, Xiaonan; Kabat, Geoffrey C.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y.F; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Greco, Theresa; Yu, Herbert; Beasley, Jeannette; Strickler, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Adiposity is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. Recent data suggest that high insulin levels in overweight women may play a major role in this relationship, due to insulin’s mitogenic/anti-apoptotic activity. However, whether overweight women who are metabolically healthy (i.e. normal insulin sensitivity) have elevated risk of breast cancer is unknown. We investigated whether overweight women with normal insulin sensitivity (i.e., homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] index, or fasting insulin level, within the lowest quartile [q1]) have increased breast cancer risk. Subjects were incident breast cancer cases (N=497) and a subcohort (N=2,830) of Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) participants with available fasting insulin and glucose levels. In multivariate Cox models, metabolically healthy overweight women, defined using HOMA-IR, were not at elevated risk of breast cancer compared to metabolically healthy normal weight women (hazard ratio [HR]HOMA-IR=0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI],0.64-1.42). In contrast, the risk among women with high (q3-4) HOMA-IRs was elevated whether they were overweight (HRHOMA-IR=1.76; 95% CI,1.19-2.60) or normal weight (HRHOMA-IR=1.80; 95% CI,0.88-3.70). Similarly, using fasting insulin to define metabolic health, metabolically unhealthy women (insulin q3-4) were at higher risk of breast cancer regardless of whether they were normal weight (HRinsulin=2.06; 95% CI,1.01-4.22) or overweight (HRinsulin=2.01; 95% CI,1.35-2.99), whereas metabolically healthy overweight women did not have significantly increased risk of breast cancer (HRinsulin=0.96; 95% CI,0.64-1.42) relative to metabolically healthy normal weight women. Metabolic health (e.g., HOMA-IR or fasting insulin) may be more biologically relevant and more useful for breast cancer risk stratification, than adiposity per se. PMID:25593034

  16. Fecal S100A12 in Healthy Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    Day, A. S.; Ehn, M.; Gearry, R. B.; Lemberg, D. A.; Leach, S. T.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims. Fecal S100A12 is shown to be a useful noninvasive marker of gut inflammation. However, the studies to date have not characterised the patterns of expression in healthy young children. This study aimed to determine S100A12 levels in infants and children without symptoms of underlying gut disease. Methods. Stool samples were collected from healthy infants (<12 months) and children without gastrointestinal symptoms. Faecal S100A12 was measured by immunoassay. Results. Fifty-six children were recruited. Serial samples were obtained from seven term infants over the first 6 months of life. Single samples were obtained from 49 healthy children ranging from 0.16 to 13.8 years of age. Median S100A12 levels were 0.5 mg/kg (ranging from 0.39 to 25) in the healthy children, with high values (>10 mg/kg) in five infants only. There was no variation between gender. Median S100A12 levels in healthy infants remained below the established normal cut-off from birth to six months of age. Conclusion. S100A12 levels in well infants and children are almost exclusively lower than the standard cut-off. Transiently higher levels may be seen in early infancy. An elevated level of S100A12 in children older than 12 months of age is likely to represent organic gut disease. PMID:24167377

  17. Dynamic characteristics of laser Doppler flowmetry signals obtained in response to a local and progressive pressure applied on diabetic and healthy subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humeau, Anne; Koitka, Audrey; Abraham, Pierre; Saumet, Jean-Louis; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre

    2004-09-01

    In the biomedical field, the laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) technique is a non-invasive method to monitor skin perfusion. On the skin of healthy humans, LDF signals present a significant transient increase in response to a local and progressive pressure application. This vasodilatory reflex response may have important implications for cutaneous pathologies involved in various neurological diseases and in the pathophysiology of decubitus ulcers. The present work analyses the dynamic characteristics of these signals on young type 1 diabetic patients, and on healthy age-matched subjects. To obtain accurate dynamic characteristic values, a de-noising wavelet-based algorithm is first applied to LDF signals. All the de-noised signals are then normalised to the same value. The blood flow peak and the time to reach this peak are then calculated on each computed signal. The results show that a large vasodilation is present on signals of healthy subjects. The mean peak occurs at a pressure of 3.2 kPa approximately. However, a vasodilation of limited amplitude appears on type 1 diabetic patients. The maximum value is visualised, on the average, when the pressure is 1.1 kPa. The inability for diabetic patients to increase largely their cutaneous blood flow may bring explanations to foot ulcers.

  18. Oxidative stress in normal-weight obese syndrome.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, Laura; Galvano, Fabio; Orlandi, Carmine; Bianchi, Alessia; Di Giacomo, Claudia; La Fauci, Luca; Acquaviva, Rosaria; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2010-11-01

    The normal-weight obese (NWO) syndrome was identified in women whose body weight (BW) and BMI are normal but whose fat mass (FM) is >30%. In these subjects, an early inflammatory status has been demonstrated. The aim was to verify whether oxidative stress occurs in NWO. Sixty age-matched white Italian women were studied and subdivided as follows: 20 normal-weight individuals (NW) (BMI <25 kg/m(2); FM% <30%); 20 NWO (BMI <25 kg/m(2); FM% >30%); 20 preobese-obese (OB) (BMI >25 kg/m(2); FM% >30%). Anthropometric, body composition (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) variables, plasma levels of some cytokines, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-)), antioxidant nonproteic capacity (ANPC) were measured and compared between groups. Glucose and lipid metabolism parameters were assessed. GSH and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) levels resulted lower in OB and NWO compared to NW (P < 0.01). LOOH levels resulted higher in OB and NWO (P < 0.01). ANPC in NWO was lower than NW but higher with respect to OB (P < 0.01). Correlation analysis revealed strong associations between GSH levels and BW, BMI, FM% (R = -0.45, at least P < 0.05); waist circumference (W) (R = -0.33, P < 0.05); FFM% (R = 0.45, P < 0.01); IL-1α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-15 (R = -0.39, -0.33, -0.36 -0.34, respectively, P < 0.05); triglycerides (R = -0.416, P < 0.05). LOOH levels were negatively related to FFM% (R = -0.413, P < 0.05) and positively to FM%, IL-15, TNF-α, insulin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides (R = 0.408, R = 0.502, R = 0.341, R = 0.412, R = 0.4036, R = 0.405, R = 0.405, respectively, P < 0.05). The study clearly indicates that NWO, besides being in early inflammatory status, are contextually exposed to an oxidative stress related to metabolic abnormalities occurring in obesity. PMID:20339360

  19. Normal motor adaptation in cervical dystonia: a fundamental cerebellar computation is intact.

    PubMed

    Sadnicka, Anna; Patani, Bansi; Saifee, Tabish A; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Pareés, Isabel; Korlipara, Prasad; Bhatia, Kailash P; Rothwell, John C; Galea, Joseph M; Edwards, Mark J

    2014-10-01

    The potential role of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of dystonia has become a focus of recent research. However, direct evidence for a cerebellar contribution in humans with dystonia is difficult to obtain. We examined motor adaptation, a test of cerebellar function, in 20 subjects with primary cervical dystonia and an equal number of aged matched controls. Adaptation to both visuomotor (distorting visual feedback by 30°) and forcefield (applying a velocity-dependent force) conditions were tested. Our hypothesis was that cerebellar abnormalities observed in dystonia research would translate into deficits of cerebellar adaptation. We also examined the relationship between adaptation and dystonic head tremor as many primary tremor models implicate the cerebellothalamocortical network which is specifically tested by this motor paradigm. Rates of adaptation (learning) in cervical dystonia were identical to healthy controls in both visuomotor and forcefield tasks. Furthermore, the ability to adapt was not clearly related to clinical features of dystonic head tremor. We have shown that a key motor control function of the cerebellum is intact in the most common form of primary dystonia. These results have important implications for current anatomical models of the pathophysiology of dystonia. It is important to attempt to progress from general statements that implicate the cerebellum to a more specific evidence-based model. The role of the cerebellum in this enigmatic disease perhaps remains to be proven. PMID:24872202

  20. Normal black kidney

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohamadi, Aliasghar; Rezayat, Ali Reza Akhavan; Memar, Bahram; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Cand, PhD

    2014-01-01

    A black kidney has 3 major differential diagnoses: hemosiderosis, lipofuscin pigment and melanotic renal cell carcinoma. Excluding lipofuscin, the other 2 are accompanied by an abnormal renal function. We report on a 25-year-old man who intended to donate a kidney to his cousin. On the operating room table when we incised the left flank region and exposed the kidney, we found a firm and black kidney so the operation was cancelled due to potential vascular injuries. Days after the incomplete procedure, we reviewed the donor’s biochemistry and imaging to reassess his renal function, but the results showed quite normal renal function again. The result of Ham test was also negative. Two weeks later, we began the operation, removed the same left kidney and found that it was in the same conditions as it was before. We took the opportunity to send needle biopsies of the kidney for histopathologic analysis. The analysis showed a melanotic kidney without pathological changes in glomeruli and interstitium and vessels. A black kidney may result in hemosiderin, lipofuscin or melanin deposits in the kidney, which can confirm the diagnosis; however, special tests for underlying disease and renal function should be considered. Some causes of black kidney lead to abnormal function, but our patients’s kidney returned to normal. PMID:24839502

  1. Healthy Pregnancies. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A woman's behaviors during pregnancy can have a significant influence on her baby's healthy development. Women who smoke or drink alcohol during pregnancy, go without prenatal care or suffer from poor nutrition are more likely to experience complications during pregnancy or childbirth, and their babies are at increased risk for developing a number…

  2. Plasma antibodies to Abeta40 and Abeta42 in patients with Alzheimer's disease and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wuhua; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Matsubara, Etsuro; Deguchi, Kentaro; Murakami, Tetsuro; Harigaya, Yasuo; Ikeda, Masaki; Amari, Masakuni; Kuwano, Ryozo; Abe, Koji; Shoji, Mikio

    2008-07-11

    Antibodies to amyloid beta protein (Abeta) are present naturally or after Abeta vaccine therapy in human plasma. To clarify their clinical role, we examined plasma samples from 113 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 205 normal controls using the tissue amyloid plaque immunoreactivity (TAPIR) assay. A high positive rate of TAPIR was revealed in AD (45.1%) and age-matched controls (41.2%), however, no significance was observed. No significant difference was observed in the MMS score or disease duration between TAPIR-positive and negative samples. TAPIR-positive plasma reacted with the Abeta40 monomer and dimer, and the Abeta42 monomer weakly, but not with the Abeta42 dimer. TAPIR was even detected in samples from young normal subjects and young Tg2576 transgenic mice. Although the Abeta40 level and Abeta40/42 ratio increased, and Abeta42 was significantly decreased in plasma from AD groups when compared to controls, no significant correlations were revealed between plasma Abeta levels and TAPIR grading. Thus an immune response to Abeta40 and immune tolerance to Abeta42 occurred naturally in humans without a close relationship to the Abeta burden in the brain. Clarification of the mechanism of the immune response to Abeta42 is necessary for realization of an immunotherapy for AD. PMID:18534566

  3. Pornography, normalization, and empowerment.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Martin S; Williams, Colin J; Kleiner, Sibyl; Irizarry, Yasmiyn

    2010-12-01

    Opponents and proponents of erotic representations (referred to hereafter as "pornography") have described the effects of pornography from their perspective. Little, however, has been done in the way of research to investigate these claims from the consumer's point of view. This especially has been so regarding the positive impact of such consumption on a person's sex life. Using a study group of 245 college students, we examined this question in a framework of scripting theory. We wanted to see whether viewing pornography appeared to expand sexual horizons through normalization and facilitate a willingness to explore new sexual behaviors and sexual relationships through empowerment. The data supported this viewpoint and further showed the effects to be mediated by gender and sexual preference identity. They suggested, however, that established scripts were extended rather than abandoned. We conclude with connections between our findings and the widespread viewing of pornography in contemporary society. PMID:20127507

  4. Normal Untreated Jurkat Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a) Temperature elevation; b) Serum starvation; and c) Centrifugal force. The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments.

  5. Myotonic Dystrophy: Increased expression of the normal allele in CDM infants muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Radvanyi, H.H.; Gourdon, G.; Junien, C. |

    1994-09-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is an autosomal dominant multisystemic disorder characterized by a highly variable clinical phenotype. The mutation has been identified as an unstable trinucleotide CTG repeat in the 3{prime} untranslated region of the myotonin-protein kinase (MT-PK) gene. Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM), which represents the most severe phenotype, is exclusively maternally inherited. Recent studies, analysis by Northern blots and RT-PCR provided apparently conflicting results on the mutated allele expression in samples from congenitally affected children. The level of expression of the mutant allele depends on the extent of the repeat in the adult form and is no longer expressed when over 800-1300 repeats, whether in adult forms or in CDM. Could this decrease account for the late onset forms? However, the differences between the two phenotypes cannot be explained by the same mechanism. Alternatively, these differences could be due to differences in expression of the normal allele. We analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR the expression of the MT-PK gene in muscle samples from four CDM infants and two aged-matched normal controls. In two of these, the mutant allele (3.3 and 8 kb) was undetectable on Northern blots. We observed an increased expression of the MT-PK gene (10- to 20-fold) in tissues of severely affected congenital patients which can be attributed to the normal allele. Since expression of the normal allele is either normal or slightly decreased in the adult form, the dramatic increase in the congenital form could reflect a disturbance in muscle differentiation. Expression studies of MT-PK at different stages of development and, especially after the 20th week, are therefore required.

  6. Healthy aging for older women.

    PubMed

    Young, Heather M; Cochrane, Barbara B

    2004-03-01

    Healthy aging is a multifaceted phenomenon, incorporating biological and psychosocial developmental factors. The population of older women is diverse in health, function, social context, and age. Health promotion strategies, therefore, should be customized accordingly to optimize the health of the varied subgroups of older women, according to their health trajectory and personal preferences. Research and evaluation of approaches to promote health among these subgroups is an important next step in understanding and influencing the health of older women. PMID:15062732

  7. Sustainable development is healthy development.

    PubMed

    Litsios, S

    1994-01-01

    Economic growth has brought with it substantial environmental damage. Nature has been abused and little consideration has been given to the consequences, among them the adverse effects on health. Healthy people are vital for local development that is both economically and ecologically sound. The health sector should be actively involved in the movement for sustainable development. What this would require in practice is considered below, with particular reference to the quality of life in regions of tropical forest. PMID:8018295

  8. Association between MAPT haplotype and memory function in patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy aging individuals

    PubMed Central

    Winder-Rhodes, Sophie E.; Hampshire, Adam; Rowe, James B.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Owen, Adrian M.; Barker, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation is associated with differences in the function of the brain as well as its susceptibility to disease. The common H1 haplotypic variant of the microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT) has been related to an increased risk for Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, among PD patients, H1 homozygotes have an accelerated progression to dementia. We investigated the neurocognitive correlates of MAPT haplotypes using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty-seven nondemented patients with PD (19 H1/H1, 18 H2 carriers) and 40 age-matched controls (21 H1/H1, 19 H2 carriers) were scanned during performance of a picture memory encoding task. Behaviorally, H1 homozygosity was associated with impaired picture recognition memory in PD patients and control subjects. These impairments in the H1 homozygotes were accompanied by an altered blood-oxygen level-dependent response in the medial temporal lobe during successful memory encoding. Additional age-related differences in blood-oxygen level-dependent response were observed in the medial temporal lobes of H1 homozygotes with PD. These results suggest that common variation in MAPT is not only associated with the dementia of PD but also differences in the neural circuitry underlying aspects of cognition in normal aging. PMID:25577413

  9. Research with Diagnostic Drawings for Normal and Alzheimer's Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Nancy M.

    1994-01-01

    Designed and tested battery of drawing techniques with scoring methodology appropriate for investigation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Variables as a whole and most hypothesized drawing features provided significant discrimination between age-matched controls and AD subjects. Capability to discriminate was also provided by objective measures of use…

  10. Evaluation of CT-based SUV normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devriese, Joke; Beels, Laurence; Maes, Alex; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Pottel, Hans

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine patients’ lean body mass (LBM) and lean tissue (LT) mass using a computed tomography (CT)-based method, and to compare standardized uptake value (SUV) normalized by these parameters to conventionally normalized SUVs. Head-to-toe positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examinations were retrospectively retrieved and semi-automatically segmented into tissue types based on thresholding of CT Hounsfield units (HU). The following HU ranges were used for determination of CT-estimated LBM and LT (LBMCT and LTCT):  ‑180 to  ‑7 for adipose tissue (AT), ‑6 to 142 for LT, and 143 to 3010 for bone tissue (BT). Formula-estimated LBMs were calculated using formulas of James (1976 Research on Obesity: a Report of the DHSS/MRC Group (London: HMSO)) and Janmahasatian et al (2005 Clin. Pharmacokinet. 44 1051–65), and body surface area (BSA) was calculated using the DuBois formula (Dubois and Dubois 1989 Nutrition 5 303–11). The CT segmentation method was validated by comparing total patient body weight (BW) to CT-estimated BW (BWCT). LBMCT was compared to formula-based estimates (LBMJames and LBMJanma). SUVs in two healthy reference tissues, liver and mediastinum, were normalized for the aforementioned parameters and compared to each other in terms of variability and dependence on normalization factors and BW. Comparison of actual BW to BWCT shows a non-significant difference of 0.8 kg. LBMJames estimates are significantly higher than LBMJanma with differences of 4.7 kg for female and 1.0 kg for male patients. Formula-based LBM estimates do not significantly differ from LBMCT, neither for men nor for women. The coefficient of variation (CV) of SUV normalized for LBMJames (SUVLBM-James) (12.3%) was significantly reduced in liver compared to SUVBW (15.4%). All SUV variances in mediastinum were significantly reduced (CVs were 11.1–12.2%) compared to SUVBW (15.5%), except SUVBSA (15.2%). Only SUVBW and SUVLBM

  11. Evaluation of CT-based SUV normalization.

    PubMed

    Devriese, Joke; Beels, Laurence; Maes, Alex; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Pottel, Hans

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine patients' lean body mass (LBM) and lean tissue (LT) mass using a computed tomography (CT)-based method, and to compare standardized uptake value (SUV) normalized by these parameters to conventionally normalized SUVs. Head-to-toe positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examinations were retrospectively retrieved and semi-automatically segmented into tissue types based on thresholding of CT Hounsfield units (HU). The following HU ranges were used for determination of CT-estimated LBM and LT (LBMCT and LTCT):  -180 to  -7 for adipose tissue (AT), -6 to 142 for LT, and 143 to 3010 for bone tissue (BT). Formula-estimated LBMs were calculated using formulas of James (1976 Research on Obesity: a Report of the DHSS/MRC Group (London: HMSO)) and Janmahasatian et al (2005 Clin. Pharmacokinet. 44 1051-65), and body surface area (BSA) was calculated using the DuBois formula (Dubois and Dubois 1989 Nutrition 5 303-11). The CT segmentation method was validated by comparing total patient body weight (BW) to CT-estimated BW (BWCT). LBMCT was compared to formula-based estimates (LBMJames and LBMJanma). SUVs in two healthy reference tissues, liver and mediastinum, were normalized for the aforementioned parameters and compared to each other in terms of variability and dependence on normalization factors and BW. Comparison of actual BW to BWCT shows a non-significant difference of 0.8 kg. LBMJames estimates are significantly higher than LBMJanma with differences of 4.7 kg for female and 1.0 kg for male patients. Formula-based LBM estimates do not significantly differ from LBMCT, neither for men nor for women. The coefficient of variation (CV) of SUV normalized for LBMJames (SUVLBM-James) (12.3%) was significantly reduced in liver compared to SUVBW (15.4%). All SUV variances in mediastinum were significantly reduced (CVs were 11.1-12.2%) compared to SUVBW (15.5%), except SUVBSA (15.2%). Only SUVBW and SUVLBM-James show independence

  12. Does Metabolically Healthy Obesity Exist?

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Cornejo-Pareja, Isabel; Tinahones, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and other metabolic diseases have been deeply studied. However, there are clinical inconsistencies, exceptions to the paradigm of “more fat means more metabolic disease”, and the subjects in this condition are referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO).They have long-standing obesity and morbid obesity but can be considered healthy despite their high degree of obesity. We describe the variable definitions of MHO, the underlying mechanisms that can explain the existence of this phenotype caused by greater adipose tissue inflammation or the different capacity for adipose tissue expansion and functionality apart from other unknown mechanisms. We analyze whether these subjects improve after an intervention (traditional lifestyle recommendations or bariatric surgery) or if they stay healthy as the years pass. MHO is common among the obese population and constitutes a unique subset of characteristics that reduce metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors despite the presence of excessive fat mass. The protective factors that grant a healthier profile to individuals with MHO are being elucidated. PMID:27258304

  13. Does Metabolically Healthy Obesity Exist?

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Cornejo-Pareja, Isabel; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and other metabolic diseases have been deeply studied. However, there are clinical inconsistencies, exceptions to the paradigm of "more fat means more metabolic disease", and the subjects in this condition are referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO).They have long-standing obesity and morbid obesity but can be considered healthy despite their high degree of obesity. We describe the variable definitions of MHO, the underlying mechanisms that can explain the existence of this phenotype caused by greater adipose tissue inflammation or the different capacity for adipose tissue expansion and functionality apart from other unknown mechanisms. We analyze whether these subjects improve after an intervention (traditional lifestyle recommendations or bariatric surgery) or if they stay healthy as the years pass. MHO is common among the obese population and constitutes a unique subset of characteristics that reduce metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors despite the presence of excessive fat mass. The protective factors that grant a healthier profile to individuals with MHO are being elucidated. PMID:27258304

  14. Normality, therapy, and enhancement.

    PubMed

    Giubilini, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    According to human enhancement advocates, it is morally permissible (and sometimes obligatory) to use biomedical means to modulate or select certain biological traits in order to increase people's welfare, even when there is no pathology to be treated or prevented. Some authors have recently proposed to extend the use of biomedical means to modulate lust, attraction, and attachment. I focus on some conceptual implications of this proposal, particularly with regard to bioconservatives' understanding of the notions of therapy and enhancement I first explain what makes the proposal of medicalizing love interesting and unique, compared to the other forms of bioenhancement usually advocated. I then discuss how the medicalization of love bears on the more general debate on human enhancement, particularly with regard to the key notion of "normality" that is commonly used to define the therapy-enhancement distinction. This analysis suggests that the medicalization of love, in virtue of its peculiarity, requires bioconservatives to reconsider their way of understanding and applying the notions of "therapy" and "enhancement." More in particular, I show that, because a non-arbitrary and value-free notion of "therapy" cannot be applied to the case of love, bioconservatives have the burden of either providing some new criterion that could be used for drawing a line between permissible and impermissible medicalization, or demonstrating that under no circumstances-including the cases in which love is already acknowledged to require medical intervention-can love fall within the domain of medicine. PMID:26059959

  15. [Normal aging and cognition].

    PubMed

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle. PMID:16527210

  16. Mnemonic strategy training improves memory for object location associations in both healthy elderly and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized, single-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Hampstead, Benjamin M.; Sathian, K.; Phillips, Pamela A.; Amaraneni, Akshay; Delaune, William R.; Stringer, Anthony Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of mnemonic strategy training versus a matched-exposure control condition and also to examine the relationship between training-related gains, neuropsychological abilities, and medial temporal lobe volumetrics in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and age-matched healthy controls. Methods Twenty-three of 45 screened healthy controls and 29 of 42 screened aMCI were randomized to mnemonic strategy or matched-exposure groups. Groups were run in parallel, with participants blind to the other intervention. All participants completed five sessions within two weeks. Memory testing for object-location associations was performed during sessions one and five and at a one-month follow-up. During sessions 2–4, participants received either mnemonic strategy training or a matched number of exposures with corrective feedback for a total of 45 object-location associations. Structural MRI was performed in most participants and medial temporal lobe volumetrics were acquired. Results Twenty-one healthy controls and 28 aMCI patients were included in data analysis. Mnemonic strategy training was significantly more beneficial than matched-exposure immediately after training, p =.006, pη2 = .16, and at one month, p<.001, pη2 = .35, regardless of diagnostic group (healthy controls or aMCI). Although aMCI patients demonstrated gains comparable to the healthy control groups, their overall performance generally remained reduced. Mnemonic strategy-related improvement was positively correlated with baseline memory and executive functioning and negatively with inferior lateral ventricle volume in aMCI patients; no significant relationships were evident in matched-exposure patients. Conclusions Mnemonic strategies effectively improve memory for specific content for at least one month in aMCI. PMID:22409311

  17. Institutionalizing Normal: Rethinking Composition's Precedence in Normal Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinnell, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Composition historians have recently worked to recover histories of composition in normal schools. This essay argues, however, that historians have inadvertently misconstrued the role of normal schools in American education by inaccurately comparing rhetorical education in normal schools to rhetorical education in colleges and universities.…

  18. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 9 Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats Why should I choose healthy fats? Diabetes raises your chances of having a heart ... protect your heart and blood vessels by choosing fats wisely. Some kinds of fat, such as butter ...

  19. Understanding Lung Problems: Make Each Breath Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Each Breath Healthy Heath and Aging Understanding Lung Problems—Make Each Breath Healthy Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( ... time your likelihood of having a serious lung problem increases, especially if you smoke. Lung problems that ...

  20. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language URL Español Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your kidneys healthy Page Content On this page: What are ... I keep my kidneys healthy? What are my kidneys and what do they do? Your kidneys are ...

  1. Summer Travel: Plan Ahead To Stay Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... This Issue Features Summer Travel Strange Migrations and Killer Cramps Health Capsules How Secondhand Smoke Affects the ... healthy.” search Features Summer Travel Strange Migrations and Killer Cramps Wise Choices Links Plan for Healthy Travel ...

  2. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español (Spanish) ...

  3. Healthy Weight: You Can Do It, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Healthy Weight Healthy Weight: You Can Do It, Too Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents ... with NIH MedlinePlus magazine about how he did it, and what he does to maintain his weight. ...

  4. Is My Child's Appetite Normal?

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal way, not overeat. That is a good habit for lifelong health. Provided by NIBBLES FOR HEALTH 17 Nutrition Newsletters for Parents of Young Children, USDA, Food and Nutrition Service Is My Child’s Appetite Normal? ...

  5. Healthy Watersheds Integrated Assessments Workshop Synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in partnership with others, is embarking on the new Healthy Watersheds Initiative to protect our remaining healthy watersheds, prevent them from becoming impaired, and accelerate our restoration successes. In November 2010, a Healthy Wate...

  6. 10 Healthy Breakfast and Lunch Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to School, the Healthy Way 10 Healthy Breakfast and Lunch Tips Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents School children eating a healthy lunch. Remember that nutrition is an important factor in academic performance. Studies have shown that children who eat ...

  7. Aneuploidy in the normal, Alzheimer's disease and ataxia-telangiectasia brain: differential expression and pathological meaning.

    PubMed

    Iourov, Ivan Y; Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Liehr, Thomas; Yurov, Yuri B

    2009-05-01

    Recently it has been suggested that the human brain contains aneuploid cells; however the nature and magnitude of neural aneuploidy in health and disease remain obscure. Here, we have monitored aneuploidy in the cerebral cortex of the normal, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) brain by molecular cytogenetic approaches scoring more than 480,000 neural cells. Using arbitrarily selected set of DNA probes for chromosomes 1, 7, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 21, X and Y we have determined the mean rate of stochastic aneuploidy per chromosome as 0.5% in the normal human brain (95%CI 0.2-0.7%; SD 0.2%). The overall proportion of aneuploid cells in the normal brain has been estimated at approximately 10%. In the AT brain, we observed a 2-to-5 fold increase of stochastic aneuploidy randomly affecting different chromosomes (mean 2.1%; 95%CI - 1.5-2.6%; SD 0.8%). The overall proportion of aneuploid cells in the brain of AT individuals was estimated at approximately 20-50%. Compared with sex- and age-matched controls, the level of stochastic aneuploidy in the AD brain was not significantly increased. However, a dramatic 10-fold increase of chromosome 21-specific aneuploidy (both hypoploidy and hyperploidy) was detected in the AD cerebral cortex (6-15% versus 0.8-1.8% in control). We conclude that somatic mosaic aneuploidy differentially contributes to intercellular genomic variation in the normal, AD and AT brain. Neural aneuploidy leading to altered cellular physiology may significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. These data indicate neural aneuploidy to be a newly identified feature of neurodegenerative diseases, similar to other devastative disorders hallmarked by aneuploidy such as chromosome syndromes and cancer. PMID:19344645

  8. Structure, Function and Diversity of the Healthy Human Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the human microbiome have revealed that even healthy individuals differ remarkably in the microbes that occupy habitats such as the gut, skin, and vagina. Much of this diversity remains unexplained, although diet, environment, host genetics, and early microbial exposure have all been implicated. Accordingly, to characterize the ecology of human-associated microbial communities, the Human Microbiome Project has analyzed the largest cohort and set of distinct, clinically relevant body habitats to date. We found the diversity and abundance of each habitat’s signature microbes to vary widely even among healthy subjects, with strong niche specialization both within and among individuals. The project encountered an estimated 81–99% of the genera, enzyme families, and community configurations occupied by the healthy Western microbiome. Metagenomic carriage of metabolic pathways was stable among individuals despite variation in community structure, and ethnic/racial background proved to be one of the strongest associations of both pathways and microbes with clinical metadata. These results thus delineate the range of structural and functional configurations normal in the microbial communities of a healthy population, enabling future characterization of the epidemiology, ecology, and translational applications of the human microbiome. PMID:22699609

  9. Reduced constitutive cytokine transcription in isolated monocytes of clinically healthy cats, infected with an FIV strain of low pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Kipar, A; Boretti, F S; Meli, M M; Failing, K; Reinacher, M; Lutz, H

    2004-04-01

    Twenty-five barrier-maintained cats had been experimentally infected for 9.5 months with an FIV strain of low pathogenicity, FIV Zurich 2. Animals were clinically healthy and did not exhibit any haematological changes. FIV proviral DNA was demonstrated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of all cats and in monocytes of most animals, identifying FIV Zurich 2 as a both lympho- and monocytotropic strain. Monocytes were isolated from FIV-infected cats as well as from age-matched uninfected control cats, short-term cultured and examined for cytokine (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40 and TNF-alpha) transcription by real-time PCR. Constitutive transcription of cytokines in monocytes from FIV-infected cats was restricted to IL-1beta and, in the majority of samples, TNF-alpha. For all cytokines, transcription levels were significantly lower in FIV-infected cats than in control cats. Transcription was often least intense in those samples where FIV infection of the monocyte fraction was not demonstrated. Results show that infection of cats with an FIV strain of low pathogenicity was associated with depression of constitutive cytokine transcription in monocytes even if clinical and haematological changes were not observed. PMID:15010230

  10. Consumers' practical understanding of healthy food choices: a fake food experiment.

    PubMed

    Mötteli, Sonja; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael; Barbey, Jana; Bucher, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about laypeople's practical understanding of a healthy diet, although this is important to successfully promote healthy eating. The present study is the first to experimentally examine how consumers define healthy and balanced food choices for an entire day compared with normal choices and compared with dietary guidelines. We used an extensive fake food buffet (FFB) with 179 foods commonly consumed in the Swiss diet. The FFB is a validated method to investigate food choice behaviour in a well-controlled laboratory setting. People from the general population in Switzerland (n 187; 51·9 % females), aged between 18 and 65 years, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the control group, the participants were instructed to serve themselves foods they would eat on a normal day, whereas in the 'healthy' group they were instructed to choose foods representing a healthy diet. Participants chose significantly more healthy foods, with 4·5 g more dietary fibre, 2 % more protein and 2 % less SFA in the 'healthy' group compared with the control group. However, in both experimental conditions, participants served themselves foods containing twice as much sugar and salt than recommended by dietary guidelines. The results suggest that laypeople lack knowledge about the recommended portion sizes and the amounts of critical nutrients in processed food, which has important implications for communicating dietary guidelines. Furthermore, the energy of the food served was substantially correlated with the energy needs of the participants, demonstrating the potential of the fake food buffet method. PMID:27256562

  11. Factors affecting leukocyte count in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Carel, R S; Eviatar, J

    1985-09-01

    The relationships between white blood cell (WBC) count, smoking, and other health variables were determined among 35,000 apparently healthy men and women. The effect of smoking on the WBC count was greater than that of all other variables. The leukocyte level and the variance in WBC count values increased with increased smoking intensity. The relationship between smoking intensity and leukocyte level is expressed quantitatively by the following regression equation: WBC (10(3)/mm3) = 7.1 + 0.05(SM), where SM has seven values according to the smoking level. Multiple regression analysis with additional variables other than smoking did not much improve the predictive value of the equation. The effect of smoking on WBC count could be only partially explained by an inflammatory process, e.g., chronic bronchitis. Relationships of statistical significance (but mostly with r values of less than 0.10) were found between WBC count and the following variables: hemoglobin, heart rate, weight (or Quetelet index), cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine, sex, ethnic origin, systolic blood pressure, height, blood sugar, and diastolic blood pressure. The normal WBC count range for smokers differs from that of nonsmokers and is shifted to the right according to the smoking level. This may have both a diagnostic and prognostic significance in different clinical settings. PMID:4070192

  12. Hypoglycemia in a healthy toddler.

    PubMed

    Glatstein, Miguel; Garcia-Bournissen, Facundo; Scolnik, Dennis; Koren, Gideon; Finkelstein, Yaron

    2009-04-01

    Sulphonylurea ingestion is life-threatening in toddlers due to its strong and prolonged hypoglycemic effect, and is on the toddlers' "one pill can kill" list. Its administration to children may not be accidental. We discuss a case of non-accidental sulphonylurea ingestion by an 18-month-old girl, and the clinical reasoning process leading to identification of the causative agent for the patient's symptoms. A previously healthy 18 month-old girl presented to the Emergency Department with altered mental status and severe hypoglycaemia, which required intravenous hypertonic dextrose solutions to maintain euglycemia. A family history of type II diabetes prompted a search for sulphonylureas in the child's serum, which was positive. Further investigation led to the conclusion that the child's poisoning was the result of the mother's Munchausen-by-proxy syndrome. Sulphonylurea intoxication should be considered in previously healthy children presenting with hypoglycaemia. More than 20% of sulphonylurea poisonings reported in the literature correspond to Munchausen-by-proxy syndrome or homicide attempts. Initial management consists of rapid glucose infusion, but boluses should be avoided whenever possible to prevent rebound hyperinsulinism and worsening hypoglycemia. We stress the need to consider potential child abuse or neglect in a hypoglycaemic patient with sulphonylurea-using caregivers. PMID:19142176

  13. WMAP normalization of inflationary cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Mukherjee, Pia; Leach, Samuel M.

    2006-10-15

    We use the three-year WMAP observations to determine the normalization of the matter power spectrum in inflationary cosmologies. In this context, the quantity of interest is not the normalization marginalized over all parameters, but rather the normalization as a function of the inflationary parameters n{sub S} and r with marginalization over the remaining cosmological parameters. We compute this normalization and provide an accurate fitting function. The statistical uncertainty in the normalization is 3%, roughly half that achieved by COBE. We use the k-l relation for the standard cosmological model to identify the pivot scale for the WMAP normalization. We also quote the inflationary energy scale corresponding to the WMAP normalization.

  14. Elevated plasma oxytocin levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome compared with healthy unrelated siblings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lisa; Manzardo, Ann M; Miller, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Daniel J; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder associated with distinct abnormal behaviors including hyperphagia, profound social deficits, and obsessive-compulsive tendencies. PWS males showed reduced oxytocin receptor (OTR) gene expression and density in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus that may play a role in PWS psychopathology. Oxytocin is an anorexigenic neuropeptide similar to vasopressin that is associated with social cognition and obsessive-compulsive behavior. To evaluate oxytocin biology in PWS, we examined overnight fasting plasma oxytocin levels in 23 children with PWS (mean ± SD age: 8.2 ± 2.0 year) having genetic confirmation and 18 age matched healthy unrelated siblings without PWS (mean ± SD age: 8.2 ± 2.3 year) and a similar gender ratio under the same clinical assessments, specimen processing and laboratory conditions. Multiplex immune assays were carried out using the Milliplex Human Neuropeptide Magnetic panel and the Luminex system. Natural log-transformed oxytocin levels were analyzed using general linear model adjusting for diagnosis, gender, age and body mass index (BMI). Oxytocin plasma levels were significantly elevated in children with PWS (168 ± 121 pg/ml) compared with unrelated and unaffected siblings without the diagnosis of PWS (64.8 ± 83.8 pg/ml, F = 8.8, P < 0.01) and the diagnosis of PWS predicted oxytocin level (F = 9.5, P < 0.003) in controlled regression analysis with an overall model fit R(2) = 0.33 (P < 0.01). The symptoms of hyperphagia, anxiety and repetitive behaviors classically seen in PWS may be related to the disruption of oxytocin responsivity or feedback in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus possibly influencing vasopressin signaling. Further study is needed to characterize oxytocin function in PWS. PMID:26615966

  15. Attention and Working Memory-Related EEG Markers of Subtle Cognitive Deterioration in Healthy Elderly Individuals.

    PubMed

    Deiber, Marie-Pierre; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Hasler, Roland; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Toma, Simona; Ackermann, Marine; Herrmann, François; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2015-01-01

    Future treatments of Alzheimer's disease need the identification of cases at high risk at the preclinical stage of the disease before the development of irreversible structural damage. We investigated here whether subtle cognitive deterioration in a population of healthy elderly individuals could be predicted by EEG signals at baseline under cognitive activation. Continuous EEG was recorded in 97 elderly control subjects and 45 age-matched mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases during a simple attentional and a 2-back working memory task. Upon 18-month neuropsychological follow-up, the final sample included 55 stable (sCON) and 42 deteriorated (dCON) controls. We examined the P1, N1, P3, and PNwm event-related components as well as the oscillatory activities in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (14-25 Hz) frequency ranges (ERD/ERS: event-related desynchronization/synchronization, and ITC: inter-trial coherence). Behavioral performance, P1, and N1 components were comparable in all groups. The P3, PNwm, and all oscillatory activity indices were altered in MCI cases compared to controls. Only three EEG indices distinguished the two control groups: alpha and beta ERD (dCON >  sCON) and beta ITC (dCON <  sCON). These findings show that subtle cognitive deterioration has no impact on EEG indices associated with perception, discrimination, and working memory processes but mostly affects attention, resulting in an enhanced recruitment of attentional resources. In addition, cognitive decline alters neural firing synchronization at high frequencies (14-25 Hz) at early stages, and possibly affects lower frequencies (4-13 Hz) only at more severe stages. PMID:26401557

  16. Aspartate aminotransferase activity in human healthy and inflamed dental pulps.

    PubMed

    Spoto, G; Fioroni, M; Rubini, C; Tripodi, D; Perinetti, G; Piattelli, A

    2001-06-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) seems to be an important mediator of inflammatory processes. Its role in the progression and detection of inflammatory periodontal disease has been increasingly recognized in recent years. In the present study AST activity was analyzed in normal healthy human dental pulps, in reversible pulpitis, and in irreversible pulpitis. Enzymatic AST activity showed that the control values for the healthy pulps were 4.8 +/- 0.7 units/mg of pulp tissue. In reversible pulpitis specimens the AST activity increased to 7.98 +/- 2.1 units/mg of pulp tissue. In irreversible pulpitis specimens the values decreased to 2.28 +/- 1.7 units/mg of pulp tissue. Differences between the groups (control versus reversible pulpitis and reversible pulpitis versus irreversible pulpitis) were statistically significant (p = 0.0015). These results could point to a role of AST in the early events that lead to development of pulpal inflammation. PMID:11487132

  17. Site-dependant redox ratio in healthy oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugam, Sivabalan; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2011-03-01

    The metabolic coenzymes NADH and FAD are autofluorescent and can be monitored non-destructively and without exogenous labels, using optical techniques. These endogenous fluorophores which are present in the cells and tissues gives rise to different fluorescence emission/excitation spectra between the normal and different diseased conditions. In the resent years, finding the optical redox ratio i.e., the ratio of the fluorescence intensity of FAD and NADH, gives the relative change in the oxidation-reduction state of the cells. Unlike other organs oral cavity has lined with variety of mucosal types. We investigated in vivo Optical redox ratio for four different anatomical locations viz., cheek mucosa, vermilion border of the lip, Hard palate, dorsal side of the tongue of healthy oral cavity. We measured this ratio for 20 healthy subjects and the redox ratio was significantly different between the different anatomical locations. The statistical significance was also investigated.

  18. VEGF Pathways in the Lymphatics of Healthy and Diseased Heart.

    PubMed

    Dashkevich, Alexey; Hagl, Christian; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Nykänen, Antti I; Lemström, Karl B

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac lymphatic system is a rare focus of the modern cardiovascular research. Nevertheless, the growing body of evidence is depicting lymphatic endothelium as an important functional unit in healthy and diseased myocardium. Since the discovery of angiogenic VEGF-A in 1983 and lymphangiogenic VEGF-C in 1997, an increasing amount of knowledge has accumulated on the essential roles of VEGF ligands and receptors in physiological and pathological angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Tissue adaptation to several stimuli such as hypoxia, pathogen invasion, degenerative process and inflammation often involves coordinated changes in both blood and lymphatic vessels. As lymphatic vessels are involved in the initiation and resolution of inflammation and regulation of tissue edema, VEGF family members may have important roles in myocardial lymphatics in healthy and in cardiac disease. We will review the properties of VEGF ligands and receptors concentrating on their lymphatic vessel effects first in normal myocardium and then in cardiac disease. PMID:26190445

  19. Abnormalities in the fatty acid composition of the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients: gender differences and partial normalization with antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Richtand, Neil M; Stanford, Kevin E

    2007-03-01

    Previous studies have observed significant abnormalities in the fatty acid composition of peripheral tissues from drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenic (SZ) patients relative to normal controls, including deficits in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are partially normalized following chronic antipsychotic treatment. We hypothesized that postmortem cortical tissue from patients with SZ would also exhibit deficits in cortical docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) relative to normal controls, and that these deficits would be greater in drug-free SZ patients. We determined the total fatty acid composition of postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) (Brodmann area 10) from drug-free and antipsychotic-treated SZ patients (n=21) and age-matched normal controls (n=26) by gas chromatography. After correction for multiple comparisons, significantly lower DHA (-20%) concentrations, and significantly greater vaccenic acid (VA) (+12.5) concentrations, were found in the OFC of SZ patients relative to normal controls. Relative to age-matched same-gender controls, OFC DHA deficits, and elevated AA:DHA, oleic acid:DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6):DHA ratios, were found in male but not female SZ patients. SZ patients that died of cardiovascular-related disease exhibited lower DHA (-31%) and AA (-19%) concentrations, and greater OA (+20%) and VA (+17%) concentrations, relative to normal controls that also died of cardiovascular-related disease. OFC DHA and AA deficits, and elevations in oleic acid and vaccenic acid, were numerically greater in drug-free SZ patients and were partially normalized in SZ patients treated with antipsychotic medications (atypical>typical). Fatty acid abnormalities could not be wholly attributed to lifestyle or postmortem tissue variables. These findings add to a growing body of evidence implicating omega-3 fatty acid deficiency as well as the OFC in the pathoaetiology of SZ, and suggest that

  20. Quantification of Speech-in-Noise and Sound Localisation Abilities in Children with Unilateral Hearing Loss and Comparison to Normal Hearing Peers

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Ruth M.; Cadieux, Jamie; Firszt, Jill B.

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to quantify abilities of children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) on measures that address known deficits for this population; that is, speech understanding in quiet and noise, and sound localisation. Noise conditions varied by noise type and source location. Parent reports of real-world abilities were also obtained. Performance was compared to gender- and age-matched normal hearing (NH) peers. UHL performance was poorer and more varied compared to NH peers. Among the findings, age correlated with localisation ability for UHL but not NH participants. Low frequency hearing in the better ear of UHL children was associated with performance in noise; however, there was no relation for NH children. Considerable variability was evident in the outcomes of children with UHL and needs to be understood as future treatment options are considered. PMID:25999162

  1. A retroactive spatial cue improved VSTM capacity in mild cognitive impairment and medial temporal lobe amnesia but not in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Rachel N; Duarte, Audrey; Pun, Carson; Smith, Victoria M; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D

    2015-10-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a vital cognitive ability, connecting visual input with conscious awareness. VSTM performance declines with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and medial temporal lobe (MTL) amnesia. Many studies have shown that providing a spatial retrospective cue ("retrocue") improves VSTM capacity estimates for healthy young adults. However, one study has demonstrated that older adults are unable to use a retrocue to inhibit irrelevant items from memory. It is unknown whether patients with MCI and MTL amnesia will be able to use a retrocue to benefit their memory. We administered a retrocue and a baseline (simultaneous cue, "simucue") task to young adults, older adults, MCI patients, and MTL cases. Consistent with previous findings, young adults showed a retrocue benefit, whereas healthy older adults did not. In contrast, both MCI patients and MTL cases showed a retrocue benefit--the use of a retrocue brought patient performance up to the level of age-matched controls. We speculate that the patients were able to use the spatial information from the retrocue to reduce interference and facilitate binding items to their locations. PMID:26300388

  2. The normal menisci: in vivo MRI measurements.

    PubMed

    Erbagci, H; Gumusburun, E; Bayram, M; Karakurum, G; Sirikci, A

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine dimensions of the normal menisci in 174 healthy subjects by using MRI. The menisci were divided into three zones (anterior horn, mid-body, posterior horn). The height and width of the both menisci were measured. For the medial meniscus; the height and width of the anterior horn were 5.32 mm and 7.78 mm, the height and width of the mid-body were 5.03 mm and 7.37 mm, and the height and width of the posterior horn were 5.53 mm and 11.71 mm, respectively. For the lateral meniscus, the height and width of the anterior horn were 4.33 mm and 8.88 mm, the height and width of the mid-body were 4.94 mm and 8.37 mm, and the height and width of the posterior horn were 5.36 mm and 9.70 mm, respectively. Three cases (1.7%) of discoid lateral meniscus were encountered. The results of this study should help to establish standard measurements, and to differentiate between normal and pathologic conditions of the menisci of the knee joint. PMID:14574467

  3. Determination of patterns of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging and dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Alavi, A.; Chawluk, J.; Hurtig, H.; Dann, R.; Rosen, M.; Kushner, M.; Silver, F.; Reivich, M.

    1985-05-01

    Regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRGlc) were measured using 18F-FDG and positron emission tomography (PET) in 14 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (age=64), 9 elderly controls (age=61), and 9 young controls (age=28). PET studies were performed without sensory stimulation or deprivation. Metabolic rates in individual brain regions were determined using an atlas overlay. Relative metabolic rates (rCMRGl c/global CMRGlc) were determined for all subjects. Comparison of young and elderly controls demonstrated significant decreases in frontal metabolism (rho<0.005) and right inferior parietal (IP) metabolism (rho<0.02) with normal aging. Patients with mild-moderate AD (NMAD) (n=8) when compared to age-matched controls, showed further reduction in right IP metabolism (rho<0.02). SAD patients also demonstrated metabolic decrements in left hemisphere language areas (rho<0.01). This latter finding is consistent with language disturbance observed late in the course of the disease. Out data reveal progressive changes in patterns of cerebral glucose utilization with aging and demential with reflect salient clinical features of these processes.

  4. Healthy Places: Exploring the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Frumkin, Howard

    2003-01-01

    “Sense of place” is a widely discussed concept in fields as diverse as geography, environmental psychology, and art, but it has little traction in the field of public health. The health impact of place includes physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and aesthetic outcomes. In this article, the author introduces sense of place as a public health construct. While many recommendations for “good places” are available, few are based on empirical evidence, and thus they are incompatible with current public health practice. Evidence-based recommendations for healthy place making could have important public health implications. Four aspects of the built environment, at different spatial scales—nature contact, buildings, public spaces, and urban form—are identified as offering promising opportunities for public health research, and potential research agendas for each are discussed. PMID:12948962

  5. Pesticides and healthy public policy.

    PubMed

    Labonte, R N

    1989-01-01

    Despite concern over long-term human and environmental health risks, Canadian and international pesticide use continues to increase. Enormous gaps in pesticide toxicity data persist and, though equivocal, there is mounting evidence that certain pesticide families are carcinogenic. Farmworkers are at greatest risk of pesticide poisoning and long-term health effects, and unions representing farmworkers have initiated a boycott of California grapes to draw attention to the need to reduce pesticide use and improve health and safety conditions. The boycott is a model of "healthy public policy" in action, and can be one element in a public health strategy to reduce significantly pesticide use and promote less toxic alternatives and less chemically dependent forms of agriculture and silviculture. PMID:2790629

  6. The Effects of Long-Term Regular Exercise on Endothelial Functions, Inflammatory and Thrombotic Activity in Middle-Aged, Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Ergün, Metin; Tengiz, Istemihan; Türk, Ugur; Senisik, Seckin; Alioglu, Emin; Yüksel, Oguz; Ercan, Ertugrul; Islegen, Cetin

    2006-01-01

    As studying with population carrying no classical cardiovascular risk factors seems to be an advantage in isolating effects of regular exercise on endothelial functions, inflammatory and thrombotic activity; the present study was designed to evaluate the clear effects of long-term regular exercise in middle-aged, healthy men. A total of 32 regularly exercising (three times per week, 12.8 ± 6.8 years) men (Group I, mean age = 53.2 ± 6. 1 yrs) and 32 sex- and age-matched sedentary subjects (Group II, mean age = 51.0 ± 7.7 yrs) were involved in the study. All participants were non-smokers and with no history of hypertension and diabetes. During one day preceding tests, the subjects refrained from training and maintained their normal diet. In all subjects, body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (% BF) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) were calculated. Serum uric acid, glucose, HbA1c, lipids, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen levels, white blood cell (WBC) and platelet count were measured. Resting heart rates and blood pressures were recorded and standard exercise stress test was applied using the modified Bruce protocol. Flow-mediated and nitrate-induced dilatation (FMD and NID) of the brachial artery and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) were evaluated as markers of endothelial functions and early atherosclerosis. Mean BMI, % BF, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, WBC and platelet count, HbA1c, total and LDL cholesterol, hs-CRP and fibrinogen levels were similar between the groups. Group I had significantly lower serum glucose, uric acid and triglyceride (p < 0.05, p < 0.005 and p < 0.05, respectively) and higher HDL cholesterol levels (p < 0.0001) than in Group II. FMD values were significantly higher in Group I than in Group II (p < 0.005) while there were no significant differences in NID and cIMT measures between the groups. VO2max and cIMT showed a negative correlation in Group I (r = -0.463, p < 0.0001). Negative

  7. The effect of normal aging and age-related macular degeneration on perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Astle, Andrew T; Blighe, Alan J; Webb, Ben S; McGraw, Paul V

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether perceptual learning could be used to improve peripheral word identification speed. The relationship between the magnitude of learning and age was established in normal participants to determine whether perceptual learning effects are age invariant. We then investigated whether training could lead to improvements in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Twenty-eight participants with normal vision and five participants with AMD trained on a word identification task. They were required to identify three-letter words, presented 10° from fixation. To standardize crowding across each of the letters that made up the word, words were flanked laterally by randomly chosen letters. Word identification performance was measured psychophysically using a staircase procedure. Significant improvements in peripheral word identification speed were demonstrated following training (71% ± 18%). Initial task performance was correlated with age, with older participants having poorer performance. However, older adults learned more rapidly such that, following training, they reached the same level of performance as their younger counterparts. As a function of number of trials completed, patients with AMD learned at an equivalent rate as age-matched participants with normal vision. Improvements in word identification speed were maintained at least 6 months after training. We have demonstrated that temporal aspects of word recognition can be improved in peripheral vision with training across a range of ages and these learned improvements are relatively enduring. However, training targeted at other bottlenecks to peripheral reading ability, such as visual crowding, may need to be incorporated to optimize this approach. PMID:26605694

  8. The effect of normal aging and age-related macular degeneration on perceptual learning

    PubMed Central

    Astle, Andrew T.; Blighe, Alan J.; Webb, Ben S.; McGraw, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether perceptual learning could be used to improve peripheral word identification speed. The relationship between the magnitude of learning and age was established in normal participants to determine whether perceptual learning effects are age invariant. We then investigated whether training could lead to improvements in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Twenty-eight participants with normal vision and five participants with AMD trained on a word identification task. They were required to identify three-letter words, presented 10° from fixation. To standardize crowding across each of the letters that made up the word, words were flanked laterally by randomly chosen letters. Word identification performance was measured psychophysically using a staircase procedure. Significant improvements in peripheral word identification speed were demonstrated following training (71% ± 18%). Initial task performance was correlated with age, with older participants having poorer performance. However, older adults learned more rapidly such that, following training, they reached the same level of performance as their younger counterparts. As a function of number of trials completed, patients with AMD learned at an equivalent rate as age-matched participants with normal vision. Improvements in word identification speed were maintained at least 6 months after training. We have demonstrated that temporal aspects of word recognition can be improved in peripheral vision with training across a range of ages and these learned improvements are relatively enduring. However, training targeted at other bottlenecks to peripheral reading ability, such as visual crowding, may need to be incorporated to optimize this approach. PMID:26605694

  9. Group normalization for genomic data.

    PubMed

    Ghandi, Mahmoud; Beer, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN), to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets. PMID:22912661

  10. Support for healthy breastfeeding mothers with healthy term babies

    PubMed Central

    Renfrew, Mary J; McCormick, Felicia M; Wade, Angela; Quinn, Beverley; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence of important health risks for infants and mothers related to not breastfeeding. In 2003, the World Health Organization recommended infants be exclusively breastfed until six months of age, with breastfeeding continuing as an important part of the infant’s diet till at least two years of age. However, breastfeeding rates in many countries currently do not reflect this recommendation. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of support for breastfeeding mothers. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (3 October 2011). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing extra support for healthy breastfeeding mothers of healthy term babies with usual maternity care. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results Of the 67 studies that we assessed as eligible for inclusion, 52 contributed outcome data to the review (56,451 mother-infant pairs) from 21 countries. All forms of extra support analysed together showed an increase in duration of ‘any breastfeeding’ (includes partial and exclusive breastfeeding) (risk ratio (RR) for stopping any breastfeeding before six months 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 0.96). All forms of extra support together also had a positive effect on duration of exclusive breastfeeding (RR at six months 0.86, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.91; RR at four to six weeks 0.74, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.89). Extra support by both lay and professionals had a positive impact on breastfeeding outcomes. Maternal satisfaction was poorly reported. Authors’ conclusions All women should be offered support to breastfeed their babies to increase the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding. Support is likely to be more effective in settings with high initiation rates, so efforts to increase the uptake of breastfeeding should be in place. Support may be offered either by

  11. Semiquantitative immunohistochemical marker staining and localization in canine thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Pessina, P; Castillo, V; Sartore, I; Borrego, J; Meikle, A

    2016-09-01

    Immunoreactive proteins in follicular cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells were assessed in canine thyroid carcinomas and healthy thyroid glands. No differences were detected in thyrotropin receptor and thyroglobulin staining between cancer and normal tissues, but expression was higher in follicular cells than in fibroblasts. Fibroblast growth factor-2 staining was more intense in healthy follicular cells than in those of carcinomas. Follicular cells in carcinomas presented two- to three-fold greater staining intensity of thyroid transcription factor-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, respectively, than healthy cells, and a similar trend was found for the latter antigen in fibroblasts. Vascular endothelial growth factor staining was more intense in the endothelial cells of tumours than in those of normal tissues. In conclusion, greater expression of factors related to proliferation and angiogenesis was demonstrated in several cell types within thyroid carcinomas compared to healthy tissues, which may represent mechanisms of tumour progression in this disease. PMID:25082554

  12. Non-organic dysphonia. II. A comparison of subglottal pressures in normal and pathological voices.

    PubMed

    Gramming, P

    1989-01-01

    In previous investigations, typical phonetogram differences have been revealed between healthy and pathological voices: the average maximum and minimum sound pressure levels that a patient suffering from non-organic dysphonia can produce at different fundamental frequencies deviate significantly from the corresponding values for a healthy voice. The subglottal pressure, being the primary tool for regulating the sound pressure level of voice, was estimated from the oral pressure during the voiceless stop/p/in 10 female and 10 male subjects with normal voices and in 10 female and 10 male non-organic dysphonic patients. In loud phonation, the female patients had significantly lower values than the female healthy subjects, while no corresponding significant difference was seen between the male subjects. In soft phonation, the male patients had significantly higher values than the normal healthy subjects, while the females showed no significant difference. PMID:2929314

  13. Aetiology of Diarrhoea and Virulence Properties of Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli among Patients and Healthy Subjects in Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases are one of the most important causes of illness and death all over the world. In Nigeria, the aetiology of diarrhoeagenic bacteria and the virulence of various Escherichia coli pathotypes have not been well-studied because most currently-published data were from the southwestern axis of the country. In total, 520 stool samples were collected from infants, young children, and other age-groups with acute diarrhoeal diseases in Enugu and Onitsha, southeastern Nigeria. Stool samples were collected from 250 apparently-healthy individuals, with similar age distribution and locality, who were considered control subjects. The stool samples were screened for diarrhea-causing bacterial agents. E. coli strains were isolated from both the groups and were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for 16 virulence genes. Of the 520 stool samples in the diarrhoea group, 119 (44.74%) were E. coli. Fifty (49.02%) were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), 22 (21.57%) were enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) while 7.84% was enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). Sex had no effect on the distribution of diarrhoeagenic bacteria, except for EIEC. The E. coli strains isolated from the diarrhoea and healthy asymptomatic age-matched control groups examined by PCR for 16 virulence genes indicate that the detection of EAEC, ETEC, EPEC, and EIEC was significantly associated with diarrhoea (p=0.0002). The study confirmed that several bacterial pathogens, such as E. coli, play an important role in the aetiology of acute diarrhoea in southeastern Nigeria. A routine surveillance, especially for diarrhoeagenic E. coli, would be useful in identifying outbreaks and help identify the potential reservoirs and transmission routes. PMID:20635635

  14. Trophoblastic Oxidative Stress in Relation to Temporal and Regional Differences in Maternal Placental Blood Flow in Normal and Abnormal Early Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Jauniaux, Eric; Hempstock, Joanne; Greenwold, Natalie; Burton, Graham J.

    2003-01-01

    Onset of the maternal-placental circulation was studied by Doppler ultrasonography in 65 pairs of age-matched normal and abnormal pregnancies. In normal pregnancies intervillous blood flow increased with gestational age, being detected in 9 of 25 cases at 8 to 9 weeks but in 18 of 20 at 12 to 13 weeks (P = 0.001). By contrast, in abnormal pregnancies flow was detected in nearly all cases (22 of 25) at 8 to 9 weeks (P < 0.001). In addition, regional differences were observed between the groups. Early flow was restricted to the peripheral regions of most normal placentas (P < 0.001), whereas in missed miscarriages it was most common in central regions or throughout the placenta (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). Immunoreactivity for heat shock protein 70 and nitrotyrosine residues was greater in samples from peripheral than from central regions of normal placentas (P = 0.028 and P = 0.019, respectively), and from missed miscarriages compared to controls (P = 0.005 and P = 0.001, respectively). Our results indicate that oxidative damage to the trophoblast, induced by premature and widespread onset of the maternal placental circulation secondary to shallow trophoblast invasion, is a key factor in early pregnancy loss. High oxygen concentrations in the periphery of normal early placentas may similarly induce local regression of the villi, leading to formation of the chorion laeve. PMID:12507895

  15. A Multiple Regression Approach to Normalization of Spatiotemporal Gait Features.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Ferdous; Begg, Rezaul; Lythgo, Noel; Hass, Chris J; Halgamuge, Saman; Ackland, David C

    2016-04-01

    Normalization of gait data is performed to reduce the effects of intersubject variations due to physical characteristics. This study reports a multiple regression normalization approach for spatiotemporal gait data that takes into account intersubject variations in self-selected walking speed and physical properties including age, height, body mass, and sex. Spatiotemporal gait data including stride length, cadence, stance time, double support time, and stride time were obtained from healthy subjects including 782 children, 71 adults, 29 elderly subjects, and 28 elderly Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Data were normalized using standard dimensionless equations, a detrending method, and a multiple regression approach. After normalization using dimensionless equations and the detrending method, weak to moderate correlations between walking speed, physical properties, and spatiotemporal gait features were observed (0.01 < |r| < 0.88), whereas normalization using the multiple regression method reduced these correlations to weak values (|r| <0.29). Data normalization using dimensionless equations and detrending resulted in significant differences in stride length and double support time of PD patients; however the multiple regression approach revealed significant differences in these features as well as in cadence, stance time, and stride time. The proposed multiple regression normalization may be useful in machine learning, gait classification, and clinical evaluation of pathological gait patterns. PMID:26426798

  16. The Healthy Homes Programme Greater Johannesburg Healthy Cities Project.

    PubMed

    Dada, Y

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the strategies that were used to upgrade and maintain hygiene and sanitation in an office building renovated for housing in Johannesburg, South Africa. The strategies were based on surveys of this building and a case study of a similar project in the Health Community Program in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The project staff negotiated with the landlord about legal liability, organized a tenants' committee, negotiated for a training program for transferring maintenance operations to the housing residents, developed effective skills in negotiating among residents, and developed working groups to deal with problems. Over the prior year, environmental health organizations provided health education to the residents of the building. The tenants' committee resolved to address the waste removal problem by hiring two unemployed men for waste removal. Tenants on each floor were assigned the responsibility of cleaning common public areas 1 day/week or face eviction. Tenants' proposed that vendors, who wandered through the building selling alcohol and other items, should operate out of a vacant ground floor space. A fair rental was determined in legal negotiations. A local engineering department was chosen to redesign the building at no cost. The Housing Department will train caretakers. The Department of Parks and Recreation will begin an urban gardening project. Residents volunteered to clean up a nearby park and 20 inner city blocks on a monthly basis beginning in 1995. The Healthy Homes Program expanded functions to include job creation, nutrition, and home ownership. PMID:12178505

  17. Advice on healthy eating for older people.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Karen

    As part of its Food and Health Action Plan, the Department of Health is working with the food industry, and with other stakeholders, to establish a coherent national plan to help people in England improve their diets. Maintaining a healthy diet is important for all age groups, but healthy older people have particular needs. Karen Fisher describes the specific nutritional issues affecting healthy older people and suggests advice that nurses can offer people during opportunistic consultations in primary care. PMID:16350521

  18. Safe and Healthy Travel for Senior Citizens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Preparedness & Response Environmental Health Healthy Living Injury, Violence & Safety Life Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features ...

  19. Normalizing Catastrophe: An Educational Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Processes of normalizing assumptions and values have been the subjects of theoretical framing and critique for several decades now. Critique has often been tied to issues of environmental sustainability and social justice. Now, in an era of global warming, there is a rising concern that the results of normalizing of present values could be…

  20. Managing incontinence: women's normalizing strategies.

    PubMed

    Skoner, M M; Haylor, M J

    1993-01-01

    Women's strategies for managing urinary incontinence were examined in a grounded-theory study. The women's basic social concern was dealing with incontinence in a manner that enabled them to feel normal. Feeling normal meant being able to do what they wanted to do and needed to do to have a normal life-style as they perceived it. This goal was accomplished by normalizing incontinence and its management. Normalization was achieved by directing its course through self-management, accounting for it in terms of personal history and life experiences, and delaying medical counsel. These strategies are described. The findings provide fresh insights about women's response to incontinence and their practice of self-managing its consequences. PMID:8138472

  1. Healthy Cities, Healthy Suburbs: Progress in Meeting Healthy People Goals for the Nation's 100 Largest Cities & Their Suburbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrulis, Dennis P.; Duchon, Lisa M.; Reid, Hailey Maier

    This review of seven Healthy People objectives for the nation's 100 largest cities and their surrounding areas documents considerable but inconsistent progress toward improving health in urban and suburban areas. It describes achievements in reaching Healthy People 2000/2010 goals, which were created by the Office of the Surgeon General of the…

  2. Cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase activity role in normal and inflamed human dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Spoto, G; Ferrante, M; D'Intino, M; Rega, L; Dolci, M; Trentini, P; Ciavarelli, L

    2004-01-01

    Cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase (cGMP PDE) plays an important role in pulp tissues. High levels of cGMP PDE are found in dental pulp cells. In the present study cGMP PDE activity was analyzed in normal healthy human dental pulps, in reversible pulpitis and in irreversible pulpitis. Enzymatic cGMP PDE control values for normal healthy pulps were 4.74+/-0.32 nmol/mg of proteins. In reversible pulpitis the cGMP PDE activity increased almost 3 times. In irreversible pulpitis specimens the values increased 4.5 times compared with the normal healthy pulps activity. The differences between the groups (control vs. reversible pulpitis and vs. irreversible pulpitis) were statistically significant. These results point to a role of cGMP PDE in the initial pulp response after injury. PMID:16857102

  3. Cyclic Amp phosphodiesterase activity in normal and inflamed human dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Spoto, G; Menna, V; Serra, E; Santoleri, F; Perfetti, G; Ciavarelli, L; Trentini, P

    2004-01-01

    Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (cAMP PDE) seems to be important in pulp tissues. High levels of cAMP PDE have been demonstrated to be in dental pulp cells. In the present study cAMP PDE activity was analyzed in normal healthy human dental pulps, in reversible pulpitis and in irreversible pulpitis. Enzymatic cAMP PDE control values for normal healthy pulps were 12.14 +/- 3.74 nmols/mg of proteins. In reversible pulpitis the cAMP PDE activity increased almost 2.5 times. In irreversible pulpitis specimens the values increased 4.5 times compared with normal healthy pulps activity. The differences between the groups (control vs. reversible pulpitis and vs. irreversible pulpitis) were statistically significant. These results could point to a role of cAMP PDE in the initial pulp response after injury. PMID:16857100

  4. Healthy barbs: activism confronts mortality.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Nanette; Lampert, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Barbara Brenner, JD, was the Executive Director of Breast Cancer Action (BCA) from 1995-2010. Before that, she was a longtime activist in the anti-war movement and an attorney who, for most of her career, practiced public policy law. After she was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1993 at the age of 41, she took the helm of BCA. Under her leadership, the organization moved into a position of national advocacy-demanding research on the causes and prevention of breast cancer, including the role of industrial pollutants. Barbara started the "Think Before You Pink" campaign, encouraging people to question whether companies that display pink ribbons actually produce products that harm women's health or generate any funds to fight breast cancer. Her blog, "Healthy Barbs," challenged readers to critique routine healthcare practices and policies. Barbara received numerous awards, including a Jefferson Award for Public Service in 2007, the Smith College Medal in 2012, and the ACLU-Northern California's Lola Hanzel Courageous Advocacy Award in 2012. Barbara had a recurrence of breast cancer in 1996. She died of complications associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS, on May 10, 2013. PMID:24400631

  5. Creating healthy and just bioregions.

    PubMed

    Pezzoli, Keith; Leiter, Robert Allen

    2016-03-01

    Dramatic changes taking place locally, regionally, globally, demand that we rethink strategies to improve public health, especially in disadvantaged communities where the cumulative impacts of toxicant exposure and other environmental and social stressors are most damaging. The emergent field of Sustainability Science, including a new bioregionalism for the 21st Century, is giving rise to promising place-based (territorially rooted) approaches. Embedded in this bioregional approach is an integrated planning framework (IPF) that enables people to map and develop plans and strategies that cut across various scales (e.g. from regional to citywide to neighborhood scale) and various topical areas (e.g. urban land use planning, water resource planning, food systems planning and "green infrastructure" planning) with the specific intent of reducing the impacts of toxicants to public health and the natural environment. This paper describes a case of bioregionally inspired integrated planning in San Diego, California (USA). The paper highlights food-water-energy linkages and the importance of "rooted" community-university partnerships and knowledge-action collaboratives in creating healthy and just bioregions. PMID:26812849

  6. Staphylococci isolated from healthy goats.

    PubMed

    Valle, J; Piriz, S; de la Fuente, R; Vadillo, S

    1991-03-01

    A study was made of the staphylococcal population on the skin and on the nasal mucosa and in the milk of 133 healthy goats. Of a total of 346 strains isolated and characterised as belonging to the genus Staphylococcus, 74 (21.4%) were coagulase-positive (68 S. aureus and 6 S. hyicus), and 272 (78.6%) coagulase-negative. The novobiocin-sensitive species S. haemolyticus (23.5%), S. warneri (16.5%), S. epidermidis (11.8%), S. chromogenes (8.5%), S. caprae (6.6%) and S. hyicus (2.6%), and the novobiocin-resistant species S. xylosus (8.5%), S. sciuri (7.4%), S. saprophyticus (4.8%), S. cohnii (2.2%), S. lentus (1.1%), S. equorum (1.1%) and S. kloosii (1.1%) were identified. Twelve (4.4%) of coagulase-negative strains remained unidentified. Strains isolated in the skin of the udder and teats of the 133 goats were mainly novobiocin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci, the most prevalent species being S. haemolyticus, S. warneri and S. epidermidis. Staphylococci indicative of subclinical infection were determined in the milk of 47 (35.3%) of the 133 goats sampled. PMID:1853672

  7. A comparative proteomic study of sera in paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients and in healthy controls using MALDI-TOF-TOF and LC MS–A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE) exhibits an aggressive clinical phenotype with severe complications and overall poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyse differential expression of low molecular weight (LMW) serum protein molecules of pSLE patients with active disease in comparison to sera of healthy age matched controls. Further, some of the differential expressed spots were characterised and identified by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC-MS). Methods 2D-PAGE was performed using pooled sera of active pSLE and age matched healthy controls. Gels were silver-stained and differentially expressed protein spots were detected by automated image master platinum 2D software. 79 ± 17 protein spots were detected for control gels and 78 ± 17 protein spots for patient gels. Of these eleven protein spots were selected randomly and characterized by MALDI-TOF MS (five protein spots) and LC MS (six protein spots) techniques. Results Out of the 11 protein spots, 5 protein spots were significantly upregulated viz., leiomodin 2 (LMOD2); epidermal cytokeratin 2; immunoglobulin kappa light chain variable region; keratin 1 and transthyretin (TTR). Three protein spots were significantly down regulated e.g., apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1); chain B human complement component C3c; campath antibody antigen complex. Two protein spots (complement component C3; retinol binding protein (RBP) were found to be expressed only in disease and one protein spot cyclohydrolase 2 was only expressed in controls. Conclusions We conclude that 2-D maps of patients with active pSLE and controls differ significantly. In this pilot study, using proteomic approach we have identified differential expressed proteins (of LMW) e.g., RBP, LMOD 2, TTR, Component C3c Chain B and APO A1. However, in future, further studies need to confirm the physiological and pathological role of these

  8. The 1H NMR Profile of Healthy Dog Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Musteata, Mihai; Nicolescu, Alina; Solcan, Gheorghe; Deleanu, Calin

    2013-01-01

    The availability of data for reference values in cerebrospinal fluid for healthy humans is limited due to obvious practical and ethical issues. The variability of reported values for metabolites in human cerebrospinal fluid is quite large. Dogs present great similarities with humans, including in cases of central nervous system pathologies. The paper presents the first study on healthy dog cerebrospinal fluid metabolomic profile using 1H NMR spectroscopy. A number of 13 metabolites have been identified and quantified from cerebrospinal fluid collected from a group of 10 mix breed healthy dogs. The biological variability as resulting from the relative standard deviation of the physiological concentrations of the identified metabolites had a mean of 18.20% (range between 9.3% and 44.8%). The reported concentrations for metabolites may be used as normal reference values. The homogeneity of the obtained results and the low biologic variability show that the 1H NMR analysis of the dog’s cerebrospinal fluid is reliable in designing and interpreting clinical and therapeutic trials in dogs with central nervous system pathologies. PMID:24376499

  9. Vitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy and Preeclamptic Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Barrera, David; Díaz, Lorenza; Noyola-Martínez, Nancy; Halhali, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Among several disorders, the imbalance of inflammatory cytokines and the alteration of vitamin D metabolism have been reported in preeclampsia. The effects of calcitriol upon inflammatory cytokines has been demonstrated. In healthy pregnant women there is a shift toward a Th2 cytokine profile, which is necessary for an adequate pregnancy outcome. As compared with normal pregnancy, high pro-inflammatory and low anti-inflammatory cytokine levels have been observed in preeclamptic women. Preeclampsia has been associated with low calcitriol levels and vitamin D deficiency is correlated with a higher risk of the development of this disease. It has been demonstrated that placenta is a source as well as the target of calcitriol and cytokines and placental dysfunction has been associated with preeclampsia. Therefore, the present manuscript includes a review about serum calcitriol levels in non-pregnant, pregnant, and preeclamptic women as well as a review on the fetoplacental vitamin D metabolism in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies. In addition, circulating and fetoplacental inflammatory cytokines in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies are reviewed. Finally, the effects of calcitriol upon placental pro-inflammatory cytokines are also explored. In conclusion, maternal and placental calcitriol levels are low in preeclampsia which may explain, at least in part, high pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in this disease. PMID:26247971

  10. Ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal glands in healthy and sick cats.

    PubMed

    Combes, Anaïs; Pey, Pascaline; Paepe, Dominique; Rosenberg, Dan; Daminet, Sylvie; Putcuyps, Ingrid; Bedu, Anne-Sophie; Duchateau, Luc; de Fornel-Thibaud, Pauline; Benchekroun, Ghita; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2013-06-01

    The first part of the study aimed to describe prospectively the ultrasonographic features of the adrenal glands in 94 healthy cats and 51 chronically sick cats. It confirmed the feasibility of ultrasonography of adrenal glands in healthy and chronically sick cats, which were not statistically different. The typical hypoechoic appearance of the gland surrounded by hyperechoic fat made it recognisable. A sagittal plane of the gland, not in line with the aorta, may be necessary to obtain the largest adrenal measurements. The reference intervals of adrenal measurements were inferred from the values obtained in the healthy and chronically sick cats (mean ± 0.96 SD): adrenal length was 8.9-12.5 mm; cranial height was 3.0-4.8 mm; caudal height was 3.0-4.5 mm. The second part of the study consisted of a retrospective analysis of the ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal glands in cats with adrenal diseases (six had hyperaldosteronism and four had pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism) and a descriptive comparison with the reference features obtained in the control groups from the prospective study. Cats with hyperaldosteronism presented with unilateral severely enlarged adrenal glands. However, a normal contralateral gland did not preclude a contralateral infiltration in benign or malignant adrenal neoplasms. The ultrasonographic appearance of the adrenal glands could not differentiate benign and malignant lesions. The ultrasonographic appearance of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was mainly a symmetrical adrenal enlargement; however, a substantial number of cases were within the reference intervals of adrenal size. PMID:23234721

  11. Cryptosporidium muris: Infectivity and Illness in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Cynthia L.; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; Langer-Curry, Rebecca C.; Lupo, Philip J.; Widmer, Giovanni; Tzipori, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Although Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis cause the majority of human cryptosporidiosis cases, other Cryptosporidium species are also capable of infecting humans, particularly when individuals are immunocompromised. Ten C. muris cases have been reported, primarily in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive patients with diarrhea. However, asymptomatic cases were reported in two HIV-negative children, and in another case, age and immune status were not described. This study examines the infectivity of C. muris in six healthy adults. Volunteers were challenged with 105 C. muris oocysts and monitored for 6 weeks for infection and/or illness. All six patients became infected. Two patients experienced a self-limited diarrheal illness. Total oocysts shed during the study ranged from 6.7 × 106 to 4.1 × 108, and the number was slightly higher in volunteers with diarrhea (2.8 × 108) than asymptomatic shedders (4.4 × 107). C. muris-infected subjects shed oocysts longer than occurred with other species studied in healthy volunteers. Three volunteers shed oocysts for 7 months. Physical examinations were normal, with no reported recurrence of diarrhea or other gastrointestinal complaints. Two persistent shedders were treated with nitazoxanide, and the infection was resolved. Thus, healthy adults are susceptible to C. muris, which can cause mild diarrhea and result in persistent, asymptomatic infection. PMID:25311695

  12. Vitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy and Preeclamptic Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, David; Díaz, Lorenza; Noyola-Martínez, Nancy; Halhali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Among several disorders, the imbalance of inflammatory cytokines and the alteration of vitamin D metabolism have been reported in preeclampsia. The effects of calcitriol upon inflammatory cytokines has been demonstrated. In healthy pregnant women there is a shift toward a Th2 cytokine profile, which is necessary for an adequate pregnancy outcome. As compared with normal pregnancy, high pro-inflammatory and low anti-inflammatory cytokine levels have been observed in preeclamptic women. Preeclampsia has been associated with low calcitriol levels and vitamin D deficiency is correlated with a higher risk of the development of this disease. It has been demonstrated that placenta is a source as well as the target of calcitriol and cytokines and placental dysfunction has been associated with preeclampsia. Therefore, the present manuscript includes a review about serum calcitriol levels in non-pregnant, pregnant, and preeclamptic women as well as a review on the fetoplacental vitamin D metabolism in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies. In addition, circulating and fetoplacental inflammatory cytokines in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies are reviewed. Finally, the effects of calcitriol upon placental pro-inflammatory cytokines are also explored. In conclusion, maternal and placental calcitriol levels are low in preeclampsia which may explain, at least in part, high pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in this disease. PMID:26247971

  13. Normal Values for Segmental Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Maria Laura; Ward, Leigh C.; Feldman, Brian M.; Montoya, Madeline I.; Stinson, Jennifer; Kiss, Alex; Brandão, Leonardo R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Localized limb edema is a clinically relevant sign in diseases such as post-thrombotic syndrome and lymphedema. Quantitative evaluation of localized edema in children is mainly done by measuring the absolute difference in limb circumference, which includes fat and fat-free mass. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) provides information on the fluid volume of a body segment. Our objective was to determine normal ranges for segmental (arm and leg) BIS measurements in healthy children. Additionally, we determined the normal ranges for the difference in arm and ankle circumference and explored the influence of handedness and the correlation between techniques. Methods Healthy children aged 1-18 years were recruited. The ratio of extracellular fluid content between contralateral limbs (estimated as the inter-arm and inter-leg extracellular impedance ratio), and the ratio of extracellular to intracellular fluid content for each limb (estimated as the intracellular to extracellular impedance ratio) were determined with a bioimpedance spectrometer. Arm and ankle circumference was determined with a Gulick II tape. Results We recruited 223 healthy children (48 infants, 54 preschoolers, 66 school-aged children, and 55 teenagers). Normal values for arm and leg BIS measurements, and for the difference in arm and ankle circumference were estimated for each age category. No influence of handedness was found. We found a statistically significant correlation between extracellular impedance ratio and circumference difference for arms among teenagers. Conclusion We determined normal BIS ranges for arms and legs and for the difference in circumference between arms and between ankles in children. There was no statistically significant correlation between extracellular impedance ratio and difference in circumference, except in the case of arms in adolescents. This may indicate that limb circumference measures quantities other than fluid, challenging the adequacy of this

  14. Computerized rhinomanometry: a study of total nasal resistance normal values.

    PubMed

    Janosević, L; Dotlić, J; Janosević, S; Dudvarski, Z; Milovanović, A; Pendjer, I

    2009-01-01

    Computerized rhinomanometry with the practical software programmes is used widely as a research tool to evaluate objectively nasal air flow and resistance parameters, while the increase of its clinical application may be facilitated by further standardization of the method. The aim of the study was to determine the total nasal resistance normal values in healthy adult population using a method of computerized rhinomanometry. A randomized sample of 108 white healthy adults (216 nasal cavities), both sexs with a mean age of 32 (20-45) years comprised the test group. Nasal patency was measured by active anterior rhinomanometry in non-decongested mucosa ("at rest") during 10 repetitive measurements at inspiratory and expiratory reference pressure of 150 Pa. Nasal resistance was measured and calculated according to the recommendations of the Committee on objective assessment of the nasal airway, International Rhinologic Society. The mean total nasal resistance in the sample was found to be 0.179 Pa/cm3/s with the confidant interval from 0,167 to 0,191 Pa/cm3/s at the probability level of 95%. Total nasal resistance was very significantly influenced by sex (t = -4.614), height (F=11.625) and weight (F=11.529) of the examinees. This paper provides additional information on total nasal resistance normal values in healthy adult population important for computirezed rhinomanometry normative parameters standardization. PMID:20218102

  15. The Academic and Psychological Benefits of Exercise in Healthy Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Martin; Laumann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the psychological benefits exercise is connected to in healthy children and adolescents. Studies on the effect of exercise on academic performance, self-esteem, emotions, and mood were examined. Academic performance is found to be maintained when normal academic classes are reduced and replaced by an increase in exercise,…

  16. 3 Tips to Help You Get to a Healthy Weight | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    There is no magic number for healthy weight. But, when people are overweight and especially when they get into the obese range, they are at risk for some pretty serious health problems. The good news is that you don’t have to get all the way down to “normal weight” to be healthier.

  17. STABLE VARIANTS OF SPERM ANEUPLOIDY AMONG HEALTHY MEN SHOW ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN GERMINAL AND SOMATIC ANEUPLOIDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract.

    Our objective was to identify men who consistently produced high frequencies of sperm with numerical chromosomal abnormalities (stable variants) and to determine whether healthy men with normal semen quality vary with respect to the incidence of sperm aneuploidy ...

  18. Quantitative electroencephalogram of posterior cortical areas of fluent and stuttering participants during reading with normal and altered auditory feedback.

    PubMed

    Rastatter, M P; Stuart, A; Kalinowski, J

    1998-10-01

    In the left and right hemisphere, posterior quantitative electroencephalogram Beta band activity (13.5-25.5 Hz) of seven adult participants who stutter and seven age-matched normal controls was obtained while subjects read text under three experimental conditions of normal auditory feedback, delayed auditory feedback, and frequency-altered feedback. Data were obtained from surface electrodes affixed to the scalp using a commercial electrode cap. Electroencephalogram activity was amplified, band-pass analog-filtered, and then digitized. During nonaltered auditory feedback, stuttering participants displayed Beta band hyperreactivity, with the right temporal-parietal lobe region showing the greatest activity. Under conditions of delayed auditory feedback and frequency-altered auditory feedback, the stuttering participants displayed a decrease in stuttering behavior accompanied by a strong reduction in Beta activity for the posterior-temporal-parietal electrode sites, and the left hemisphere posterior sites evidenced a larger area of reactivity. Such findings suggest than an alteration in the electrical fields of the cortex occurred in the stuttering participants under both conditions, possibly reflecting changes in neurogenerator status or current dipole activity. Further, one could propose that stuttering reflects an anomaly of the sensory-linguistic motor integration wherein each hemisphere generates competing linguistic messages at hyperreactive amplitudes. PMID:9842614

  19. Educating Managers to Create Healthy Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbreath, Brad

    2012-01-01

    This article provides management educators with a comprehensive, research-based set of concepts they can use to enrich students' understanding of how to create healthy workplaces. To assist with that endeavor, learning objectives related to creating healthy workplaces are provided. Work environment stressors are discussed along with human and…

  20. Healthy or unhealthy slogans: that's the question...

    PubMed

    Adams, Leen; Geuens, Maggie

    2007-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect on adolescents of different health appeals (healthy versus unhealthy) in ads for healthy and unhealthy perceived foods. The results did not reveal a main effect of product or slogan, but indicated a significant interaction effect between slogan and product. The healthy slogan only led to significantly more positive attitudes and purchase intentions when it promoted a healthy food product. An unhealthy food product received better results in combination with an unhealthy slogan than with a healthy one. This indicates that adolescents react better to ads in which the health appeal is congruent with the health perception of the product. Moreover, we took into account gender and health concern as potential moderators in the relationship between slogan and ad responses. Gender did not lead to different responses to healthy or unhealthy food ads, whereas health concern did interact significantly with the slogan type. Highly concerned adolescents responded more favorably to a healthy slogan in terms of attitudes. A necessary first step seems to be making adolescents more health conscious. A following step is to reinforce their positive attitudes toward healthy foods and turn these into real behavior. PMID:17365358

  1. Promoting Healthy Body Image in Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akos, Patrick; Levitt, Dana Heller

    2002-01-01

    Provides advice for school counselors on promoting healthy body image among middle school students. Interventions for the promotion of healthy body image at individual, group, and systemic levels can offer students a protective factor for common disruptions associated with puberty and the transition into middle school. Outlines issues for…

  2. Healthy Aging with Go4Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Contents Go4Life from the National Institute on Aging at NIH is a national exercise and physical activity campaign aimed at people over ... gives you more freedom of movement for other exercises as well as for your everyday activities. ... More "Healthy Aging" Articles Healthy Aging with Go4Life ® / Making Smart Food ...

  3. Street-Crossing Decision-Making: A Comparison between Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Normal Vision

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Shirin E.; Snyder, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. We determined whether the street-crossing decisions of subjects with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were as accurate and precise as those made by young and older subjects with normal vision. Methods. Street-crossing decisions in 13 AMD subjects, and 20 young and 20 older control subjects with normal vision were measured along an un-signalized street for nine different gap times. After calculating the discriminability (d') of the street-crossing decision variable for all gap pairs and entering these d' values into a one-dimensional scaling model, the means of each distribution of the decision variable relative to a “center of gravity” were estimated and plotted against gap time. The resultant plot was a nonlinear function. Street-crossing decision accuracy was computed for each subject as the difference between the x-intercept of the nonlinear function (tCOG) and subjects' measured street-crossing time. Street-crossing decision-making precision was computed as the value of the slope of the nonlinear function at tCOG. Results. We found that all subjects were precise in their street-crossing decisions (P = 0.55). Significant differences in street-crossing accuracy were found as a function of age (P = 0.003). Compared to either the older normally-sighted (P = 0.018) or AMD (P = 0.019) subjects, the young normally-sighted subjects made the least accurate street-crossing decisions. No significant difference in accuracy was found between the AMD and age-matched normally-sighted subjects (P = 0.90). Conclusions. Our data suggested that age and mild central vision loss did not affect significantly a subject's precision in their street-crossing decisions. Age, but not mild central vision loss, significantly affected a subject's accuracy in their street-crossing decisions. PMID:22899756

  4. Designing the Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls Church-Based Diabetes Prevention Program through a Participatory Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Amber; Confair, Amy R.; Flamm, Laura; Goheer, Attia; Graham, Karlene; Muindi, Mwende; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls (HBHS) program aims to reduce diabetes risk among urban African Americans by creating healthy food and physical activity environments within churches. Participant engagement supports the development of applicable intervention strategies by identifying priority concerns, resources, and opportunities.…

  5. Factors for Healthy Food or Less-Healthy Food Intake among Taiwanese Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2010-01-01

    Little information is available on the prevalence and risk factors for less-healthy food intake among people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study aimed to provide the information of healthy or less-healthy food intake among Taiwanese adolescents with ID and to examine the risk factors to their food intake. A cross-sectional data on 1419…

  6. Insta-Grams: The Effect of Consumer Weight on Reactions to Healthy Food Posts.

    PubMed

    Kinard, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    Each day, social networking sites become increasingly inundated with food imagery. Since many of these images are of fresh, vibrant, and healthy eats, photo sharing of food through social media should have a long-term positive effect on consumption habits. Yet, obesity rates in the United States continue to rise, suggesting that people are spending more time posting images of healthy foods and paying less attention to the actual foods they consume. This confounding relationship could be explained by consumer weight, in that overweight consumers desire to engage with social media maybe for the purpose of expressing, presenting, and identifying with a healthy lifestyle. In the context of food posts, individuals higher in body mass index may be more likely to engage in social media activity (e.g., likes, shares, comments) that validates healthy food choices to others in their online community. A between-subjects experimental design tested this proposed effect using a manipulated Instagram post of a healthy food item (i.e., black bean veggie burger). Results indicate that obese individuals are more likely to engage with healthy food posts compared with their normal weight and overweight counterparts. The effect is even more pronounced when posts are absent of prior social media activity. Based upon these results, obese individuals are encouraged to establish and maintain social network connections with others who routinely post images of healthy food in their social media feeds. Limitations and directions for future research are provided. PMID:27494330

  7. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis by evaluation of normalized variances of fluorescence time correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziekan, Thomas; Weissbach, Carmen; Voigt, Jan; Ebert, Bernd; MacDonald, Rainer; Bahner, Malte L.; Mahler, Marianne; Schirner, Michael; Berliner, Michael; Berliner, Birgitt; Osel, Jens; Osel, Ilka

    2011-07-01

    Fluorescence imaging using the dye indocyanine green as a contrast agent was investigated in a prospective clinical study for the detection of rheumatoid arthritis. Normalized variances of correlated time series of fluorescence intensities describing the bolus kinetics of the contrast agent in certain regions of interest were analyzed to differentiate healthy from inflamed finger joints. These values are determined using a robust, parameter-free algorithm. We found that the normalized variance of correlation functions improves the differentiation between healthy joints of volunteers and joints with rheumatoid arthritis of patients by about 10% compared to, e.g., ratios of areas under the curves of raw data.

  8. Healthy Eating Design Guidelines for School Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Terry T-K; Sorensen, Dina; Davis, Steven; Frerichs, Leah; Brittin, Jeri; Celentano, Joseph; Callahan, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    We developed a new tool, Healthy Eating Design Guidelines for School Architecture, to provide practitioners in architecture and public health with a practical set of spatially organized and theory-based strategies for making school environments more conducive to learning about and practicing healthy eating by optimizing physical resources and learning spaces. The design guidelines, developed through multidisciplinary collaboration, cover 10 domains of the school food environment (eg, cafeteria, kitchen, garden) and 5 core healthy eating design principles. A school redesign project in Dillwyn, Virginia, used the tool to improve the schools’ ability to adopt a healthy nutrition curriculum and promote healthy eating. The new tool, now in a pilot version, is expected to evolve as its components are tested and evaluated through public health and design research. PMID:23449281

  9. Atrial electromechanical sequence in normal subjects and patients with DDD pacemakers.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K.; Xiao, H. B.; Fujimoto, S.; Gibson, D. G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the effect of right atrial appendage pacing on atrial electromechanical interrelations in patients with DDD pacemakers. DESIGN--Prospective study by M mode echocardiogram, Doppler echocardiogram, and apexcardiogram, along with electrocardiogram and phonocardiogram. SETTING--Tertiary cardiac referral centre. PATIENTS--20 patients with DDD pacemakers and 20 age matched normal controls. RESULTS--Age, RR interval, atrial size, left ventricular size, and fractional shortening were similar in the two groups. Atrial electromechanical delay (the time from the onset of P wave or atrial pacing spike on ECG to the onset of atrial contraction on M mode echogram) was 68 (SD 7) ms at the lateral site of right atrium, 82 (9) ms at the central fibrous body, 93 (11) ms at the lateral site of left atrium in normals. In patients with DDD pacing, however, this delay increased to 85 (22) ms, 117 (23) ms, and 138 (25) ms respectively (all P < 0.01). Interatrial mechanical delay (the time from the onset of right atrial motion to the onset of the left) increased from 25 (6) ms in normal controls to 53 (18) ms in patients (P < 0.01). Intra-atrial mechanical dispersion (the time from the earliest to the latest onset of regional atrial motion around the atrioventricular ring) in the right atrium increased from 6 (2) ms in normals to 19 (2) ms in patients (P < 0.01), but it remained unchanged in the left atrium (6 (2) ms in normal controls v 7 (2) ms in patients, P > 0.05). Peak atrial shortening rate was not different between the two groups. Differences of atrial electromechanical activity between the two groups were also reflected on Doppler echocardiogram and apexcardiogram. CONCLUSIONS--Right atrial appendage pacing disturbs the normal coordinate sequence of right atrial mechanical activity and leads to a striking and variable increase in intra-atrial conduction time as well as in interatrial conduction time. Left atrial contraction remains synchronous although the

  10. Normal evaporation of binary alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    In the study of normal evaporation, it is assumed that the evaporating alloy is homogeneous, that the vapor is instantly removed, and that the alloy follows Raoult's law. The differential equation of normal evaporation relating the evaporating time to the final solute concentration is given and solved for several important special cases. Uses of the derived equations are exemplified with a Ni-Al alloy and some binary iron alloys. The accuracy of the predicted results are checked by analyses of actual experimental data on Fe-Ni and Ni-Cr alloys evaporated at 1600 C, and also on the vacuum purification of beryllium. These analyses suggest that the normal evaporation equations presented here give satisfactory results that are accurate to within an order of magnitude of the correct values, even for some highly concentrated solutions. Limited diffusion and the resultant surface solute depletion or enrichment appear important in the extension of this normal evaporation approach.

  11. Normal, nearsightedness, and farsightedness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... it. A person with normal vision can see objects clearly near and faraway. Nearsightedness results in blurred ... or contact lenses. A nearsighted person sees near objects clearly, while objects in the distance are blurred. ...

  12. Sleep restriction increases free fatty acids in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Josiane L.; Chapotot, Florian; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Delebecque, Fanny; Whitmore, Harry R.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Sleep loss is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, yet underlying mechanisms are not understood. Elevation of circulating non-esterified (i.e. free) fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations can lead to insulin resistance and plays a central role in the development of metabolic diseases. Circulating NEFA in healthy individuals shows a marked diurnal variation with maximum levels occurring at night, yet the impact of sleep loss on NEFA levels across the 24 h cycle remains unknown. We hypothesised that sleep restriction would alter hormones that are known to stimulate lipolysis and lead to an increase in NEFA levels. Methods We studied 19 healthy young men under controlled laboratory conditions with four consecutive nights of 8.5 h in bed (normal sleep) and 4.5 h in bed (sleep restriction) in randomised order. The 24 h blood profiles of NEFA, growth hormone (GH), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), cortisol, glucose and insulin were simultaneously assessed. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Results Sleep restriction relative to normal sleep resulted in increased NEFA levels during the nocturnal and early-morning hours. The elevation in NEFA was related to prolonged nocturnal GH secretion and higher early-morning noradrenaline levels. Insulin sensitivity was decreased after sleep restriction and the reduction in insulin sensitivity was correlated with the increase in nocturnal NEFA levels. Conclusions/interpretation Sleep restriction in healthy men results in increased nocturnal and early-morning NEFA levels, which may partly contribute to insulin resistance and the elevated diabetes risk associated with sleep loss. PMID:25702040

  13. Occult White Matter Damage Contributes to Intellectual Disability in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chunshui; Lin, Fuchun; Zhao, Li; Ye, Jing; Qin, Wen

    2009-01-01

    Whether patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) have brain normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) damage and whether such damage contributes to their intellectual disability were examined in 15 TSC patients and 15 gender- and age-matched healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Histogram and region of interest (ROI) analyses of…

  14. Effects of age of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in cocaine abusers and normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J.

    1995-05-01

    We measured the effect of age on serotonin 5-HT2 receptor availability and compared it with the effects on dopamine D2 receptors on 19 chronic cocaine abusers (35.2{plus_minus}9.8 years, range 18-54 years old) and 19 age matched normal controls using positron emission tomography (PET) and F-18 N-methylspiperone (NMS). 5-HT2 Receptor availability was measure din frontal (FR), occipital (OC), cingulate (CI) and orbitofrontal (OF) cortices using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest to that in the cerebelium (CB) which is a function of Bmax/Kd. D2 receptor availability in the basal ganglia was measured using the {open_quotes}ratio index{close_quotes} (slope of striatum/CB versus time over 180 min of the scan) which is a function of Bmax. 5-HT2 Receptor availability differed among regions and were as follows: CI>OF>OC>FC.5-HT2 Receptor availability decreased significantly with age. This effect was more accentuated for 5-HT2 receptor availability in FR than in OC(df=1, p<0.025). Striatal dopamine D2 receptors were also found to decrease significantly with age (r=0.63, p<0.007). In a given subject, D2 receptor availability was significantly correlated with 5-HT2 receptor availability in FR (r=0.51, p<0.035) but not in OC. The values for 5-HT2 receptor availability were not different in normal subjects and cocaine abusers. These results document a decline in 5-HT2 and D2 receptors with age and document an association between frontal 5-HT2 and striatal D2 receptor availability. These results did not show any changes in 5-HT2 receptor availability in cocaine abusers as compared to control subjects.

  15. Ultrastructural morphometry of capillary basement membrane thickness in normal and transgenic diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Edward C; Audette, Janice L; Veitenheimer, Nicole J; Risan, Jessica A; Laturnus, Donna I; Epstein, Paul N

    2003-04-01

    Capillary basement membrane (CBM) thickening is an ultrastructural hallmark in diabetic patients and in animal models of diabetes. However, the wide variety of tissues sampled and diverse methods employed have made the interpretation of thickness data difficult. We showed previously that acellular glomerular BMs in OVE26 transgenic diabetic mice were thickened beyond normal age-related thickening, and in the current study we hypothesized that other microvascular BMs likewise would show increased widths relative to age-matched controls. Accordingly, a series of tissues, including skeletal and cardiac muscle, ocular retina and choriod, peripheral nerve, lung, pancreas, and renal glomerulus was collected from 300-350-day-old normal and transgenic mice. Transmission electron micrographs of cross sections through capillary walls were prepared, and CBM thickness (CBMT) was determined by the "orthogonal intercept" method. Morphometric analyses showed highly variable transgene-related BMT increases in the sampled tissues, with glomerular BM showing by far the greatest increase (+87%). Significant thickness increases were also seen in the retina, pulmonary alveolus, and thoracoabdominal diaphragm. BMT increases were not universal; however, most were modestly widened, and those that were thickest in controls generally showed the greatest increase. Although the pathogenesis of diabetes-related increases in CBM is poorly understood, data in the current study showed that in OVE26 transgenic mice increased BMT was a frequent concomitant of hyperglycemia. Accordingly, it seems likely that hyperglycemia-induced microvascular damage may be a contributing factor in diabetic BM disease, and that microvessel cellular and extracellular heterogeneity may limit the extent of CBM thickening in diverse tissues. PMID:12629676

  16. Comparison of the nerve fiber layer of type 2 diabetic patients without glaucoma with normal subjects of the same age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Takis, Alexandros; Alonistiotis, Dimitrios; Panagiotidis, Dimitrios; Ioannou, Nikolaos; Papaconstantinou, Dimitris; Theodossiadis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Background The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 was compared to normal subjects of similar age and sex, having first excluded any risk factors for glaucoma. The correlation between the RNFL thickness and the severity of diabetic retinopathy was investigated at its primary stages and with other ocular and diabetic parameters. Methods A prospective, case series study was carried out. Twenty-seven diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy, 24 diabetic patients with mild retinopathy, and 25 normal, age-matched subjects underwent a complete ophthalmological examination and imaging with scanning laser polarimetry for the evaluation of the RNFL. Multivariate analysis was applied in order to investigate the correlation between RNFL and diabetic parameters, such as age, duration of diabetes, insulin therapy, levels of glycosylated hemoglobin; and ocular parameters, such as cup to disc ratio, levels of normal intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness. Results The mean inferior average of RNFL and the temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal standard deviation were statistically significantly lower in both diabetic groups, and the nerve fiber index was higher (P=0.04) compared to the normal group. There was no statistically significant difference between the diabetic groups. The factor analysis showed no significant correlation between the RNFL and the previously mentioned diabetic and ocular parameters. Conclusion The existence of diabetes should be seriously considered in evaluating the results of scanning laser polarimetry. Multivariate analysis for RNFL was used for the first time. PMID:24596452

  17. Executive function in chronic pain patients and healthy controls: Different cortical activation during response inhibition in fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Glass, J.; Williams, DA; Fernandez-Sanchez, M.; Kairys, A; Barjola, P.; Heitzeg, M.; Clauw, DJ; Schmidt-Wilcke, T.

    2013-01-01

    The primary symptom of fibromyalgia (FM) is chronic, widespread pain; however, patients report additional symptoms including decreased concentration and memory. Performance based deficits are seen mainly in tests of working memory and executive function. Neural correlates of executive function were investigated in 18 FM patients and 14 age-matched HCs during a simple go/no-go task (response inhibition) while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Performance was not different between FM and HC, in either reaction time or accuracy. However, fMRI revealed that FM patients had lower activation in the right pre-motor cortex, supplementary motor area (SMA), mid cingulate cortex (MCC), putamen and, after controlling for anxiety, in the right insular cortex (IC) and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). A hyper-activation in FM patients was seen in the right inferior temporal gyrus/fusiform gyrus. Despite the same RTs and accuracy, FM patients show less brain activation in cortical structures in the inhibition network (specifically in areas involved in response selection/motor preparation) and the attention network along with increased activation in brain areas not normally part of the inhibition network. We hypothesize that response -inhibition and pain perception may rely on partially overlapping networks, and that in chronic pain patients resources taken up by pain processing may not be available for executive functioning tasks such as response inhibition. Compensatory cortical plasticity may be required to achieve performance on par with control groups. PMID:21945593

  18. Plasma levels of alpha1-antichymotrypsin and secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor in healthy and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) subjects with and without severe α1-antitrypsin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Camilla; Westin, Ulla; Wallmark, Anders; Piitulainen, Eeva; Sveger, Tomas; Janciauskiene, Sabina M

    2007-01-01

    Background Individuals with severe Z α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency have a considerably increased risk of developing chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). It has been hypothesized that compensatory increases in levels of other protease inhibitors mitigate the effects of this AAT deficiency. We analysed plasma levels of AAT, α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in healthy (asymptomatic) and COPD subjects with and without AAT deficiency. Methods Studied groups included: 71 asymptomatic AAT-deficient subjects (ZZ, n = 48 and SZ, n = 23, age 31 ± 0.5) identified during Swedish neonatal screening for AAT deficiency between 1972 and 1974; age-matched controls (MM, n = 57, age 30.7 ± 0.6); older asymptomatic ZZ (n = 10); healthy MM (n = 20, age 53 ± 9.6); and COPD patients (ZZ, n = 10, age 47.4 ± 11 and MM, n = 10, age 59.4 ± 6.7). Plasma levels of SLPI, AAT and ACT were analysed using ELISA and immunoelectrophoresis. Results No significant difference was found in plasma ACT and SLPI levels between the healthy MM and the ZZ or SZ subjects in the studied groups. Independent of the genetic variant, subjects with COPD (n = 19) had elevated plasma levels of SLPI and ACT relative to controls (n = 153) (49.5 ± 7.2 vs 40.7 ± 9.1 ng/ml, p < 0.001 and 0.52 ± 0.19 vs 0.40 ± 0.1 mg/ml, p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion Our findings show that plasma levels of ACT and SLPI are not elevated in subjects with genetic AAT deficiency compared MM controls and do not appear to compensate for the deficiency of plasma AAT. PMID:17261175

  19. Reference ranges and cutoff levels of pneumococcal antibody global serum assays (IgG and IgG2) and specific antibodies in healthy children and adults.

    PubMed

    Rose, M A; Buess, J; Ventur, Y; Zielen, S; Herrmann, E; Schulze, J; Schubert, R

    2013-08-01

    Pneumococcal antibodies represent the acquisition of natural immunity. Determination of pneumococcal antibodies is an important screening tool for immunodeficiencies. Our study generated reference ranges and cutoff levels for pneumococcal antibody global serum assays correlated to a specific pneumococcal antibody ELISA. Specific pneumococcal antibody levels were measured from 457 children undergoing elective surgery and 46 healthy adult volunteers (88 with previous pneumococcal immunization from both groups), 22 severe immunodeficient subjects with ataxia telangiectasia (A-T, negative controls), and age-matched 36 healthy allergic asthmatics. We determined a representative panel of serotype-specific pneumococcal antibodies (serotype 4, 5, 6B, 7F, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F) by ELISA and global pneumococcal IgG and IgG2 antibodies by EIA. In vaccine-naïve healthy subjects, initial pneumococcal IgG geometric mean concentrations of 13.1 μg/ml were low in the first year of life and increased over the time, reaching adult levels (70.5 μg/ml) at age 8-12 years. In parallel, IgG2 antibodies increased from 20.7 % (0.5-1 year old) to adult proportions (>30 %) in preschoolers. Correlation between the pneumococcal IgG screening assay and specific pneumococcal antibody levels was acceptable (Pearson's coefficient r = 0.4455; p = 0.001). Cutoff levels showed high sensitivity, whereas specificity was high to moderate calculated from correlations with the specific ELISA. We provide reference ranges and cutoff levels for the interpretation of specific antibody determinations in the clinical setting. The global pneumococcal IgG/IgG2 assay is a suitable screening tool and correlates with the ELISA serotype-specific pneumococcal antibodies. However, results below our cutoff values should be re-evaluated by serotype-specific ELISA testing. PMID:23529214

  20. Melatonin production in healthy infants: evidence for seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Y; Laudon, M; Tauman, R; Zisapel, N

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the normal range of nocturnal urinary excretion of the major melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6SMT) in a large sample of healthy full-term infants (8 and 16 wk old) and assess whether the endogenous production of melatonin changes with season. 6SMT was assessed in urine samples extracted from disposable diapers removed from full-term, 8- (n = 317) and 16-wk-old (n = 93) infants over the nocturnal period (19:00-08:00 h). In addition, 6SMT was assessed in 8-wk-old (n = 35) healthy infants over the entire 24-h period. 6SMT was determined by an ELISA assay. 6SMT excretion at 8 wk of age exhibited diurnal variations with (mean +/- SD) 61 +/- 18% of the daily production excreted during the nocturnal period regardless of season. The nocturnal 6SMT values in the entire cohort (at 8 as well as 16 wk of age) were found to significantly depart from normal distribution (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). A normal distribution was obtained using a natural base logarithmic (ln) transformation of the data. The normal range (2.5-97.5 percentile of the ln 6SMT excretion per night) was thus defined as 4.66-8.64 (106-5646 ng/night) for 8-wk-old and 5.19-9.67 (180-15,820 ng/night) for 16-wk-old infants. A significant effect of the month of birth on 6SMT production at the age of 8 wk was found (ANOVA, p < 0.002) with maximal levels produced by infants born in June (summer solstice) and minimal excretion in infants born in December (winter solstice). Short-photoperiod-born infants excreted on average about threefold less 6SMT compared with long-photoperiod-born infants (t test, p = 0. 01). The seasonal variations were no longer present at 16 wk of age. No effect of breast-feeding at the time of sampling on seasonality of 6SMT was found. Normal ranges for the nocturnal urinary excretion of 6SMT in full-term infants at 8 and 16 wk of age are defined. This enables the evaluation of nocturnal 6SMT excretion as a prognostic and diagnostic factor

  1. Cell proliferation in normal epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, G.D.; McCullough, J.L.; Ross, P.

    1984-06-01

    A detailed examination of cell proliferation kinetics in normal human epidermis is presented. Using tritiated thymidine with autoradiographic techniques, proliferative and differentiated cell kinetics are defined and interrelated. The proliferative compartment of normal epidermis has a cell cycle duration (Tc) of 311 h derived from 3 components: the germinative labeling index (LI), the duration of DNA synthesis (ts), and the growth fraction (GF). The germinative LI is 2.7% +/- 1.2 and ts is 14 h, the latter obtained from a composite fraction of labeled mitoses curve obtained from 11 normal subjects. The GF obtained from the literature and from human skin xenografts to nude mice is estimated to be 60%. Normal-appearing epidermis from patients with psoriasis appears to have a higher proliferation rate. The mean LI is 4.2% +/- 0.9, approximately 50% greater than in normal epidermis. Absolute cell kinetic values for this tissue, however, cannot yet be calculated for lack of other information on ts and GF. A kinetic model for epidermal cell renewal in normal epidermis is described that interrelates the rate of birth/entry, transit, and/or loss of keratinocytes in the 3 epidermal compartments: proliferative, viable differentiated (stratum malpighii), and stratum corneum. Expected kinetic homeostasis in the epidermis is confirmed by the very similar ''turnover'' rates in each of the compartments that are, respectively, 1246, 1417, and 1490 cells/day/mm2 surface area. The mean epidermal turnover time of the entire tissue is 39 days. The Tc of 311 h in normal cells in 8-fold longer than the psoriatic Tc of 36 h and is necessary for understanding the hyperproliferative pathophysiologic process in psoriasis.

  2. Healthy food procurement policies and their impact.

    PubMed

    Niebylski, Mark L; Lu, Tammy; Campbell, Norm R C; Arcand, Joanne; Schermel, Alyssa; Hua, Diane; Yeates, Karen E; Tobe, Sheldon W; Twohig, Patrick A; L'Abbé, Mary R; Liu, Peter P

    2014-03-01

    Unhealthy eating is the leading risk for death and disability globally. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for population health interventions. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods are available by implementing healthy food procurement policies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base assessing the impact of such policies. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed and Medline for policies that had been implemented and evaluated the impact of food purchases, food consumption, and behaviors towards healthy foods. Thirty-four studies were identified and found to be effective at increasing the availability and purchases of healthy food and decreasing purchases of unhealthy food. Most policies also had other components such as education, price reductions, and health interventions. The multiple gaps in research identified by this review suggest that additional research and ongoing evaluation of food procurement programs is required. Implementation of healthy food procurement policies in schools, worksites, hospitals, care homes, correctional facilities, government institutions, and remote communities increase markers of healthy eating. Prior or simultaneous implementation of ancillary education about healthy eating, and rationale for the policy may be critical success factors and additional research is needed. PMID:24595213

  3. Healthy Food Procurement Policies and Their Impact

    PubMed Central

    Niebylski, Mark L.; Lu, Tammy; Campbell, Norm R. C.; Arcand, Joanne; Schermel, Alyssa; Hua, Diane; Yeates, Karen E.; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Twohig, Patrick A.; L’Abbé, Mary R.; Liu, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy eating is the leading risk for death and disability globally. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for population health interventions. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods are available by implementing healthy food procurement policies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base assessing the impact of such policies. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed and Medline for policies that had been implemented and evaluated the impact of food purchases, food consumption, and behaviors towards healthy foods. Thirty-four studies were identified and found to be effective at increasing the availability and purchases of healthy food and decreasing purchases of unhealthy food. Most policies also had other components such as education, price reductions, and health interventions. The multiple gaps in research identified by this review suggest that additional research and ongoing evaluation of food procurement programs is required. Implementation of healthy food procurement policies in schools, worksites, hospitals, care homes, correctional facilities, government institutions, and remote communities increase markers of healthy eating. Prior or simultaneous implementation of ancillary education about healthy eating, and rationale for the policy may be critical success factors and additional research is needed. PMID:24595213

  4. [Dreams in normal and pathological aging].

    PubMed

    Guénolé, Fabian; Marcaggi, Geoffrey; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Garma, Lucile

    2010-06-01

    Although most of scientific knowledge in dream research is based on young adult studies, this article provides a review of the effects of normal and pathological aging on dream psychology. It starts with preliminary comments about epistemological and methodological principles of dream research, its singularities in aged persons, and the modifications of sleep physiology with age. The whole literature agrees that dream recall progressively decreases from the beginning of adulthood - not in old age - and that dream reports become less intense, perceptually and emotionally. This evolution occurs faster in men than women, with gender differences in the content of dreams. The chronological modifications could be explained partly by changes in lifestyle and attitude towards dreams in early adulthood, but mainly by modifications of sleep physiology, particularly the decrease and qualitative changes of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dreams have usually little subjective importance in the mental life of aged persons. However, working with dreams can be a valuable tool for psychotherapy in the aged. According to the few existing data, patients suffering degenerative dementia dream much less than healthy aged persons. In Alzheimer's disease, this could be linked to the decrease of REM sleep, and atrophy of associative sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Most studied aspects of dreaming in degenerative cognitive disorders are REM sleep behavior disorders, and nightmares induced by cholinesterase inhibitors. More studies are needed to better characterize the evolution of dreams with age, particularly studies performed in sleep laboratory. PMID:20525540

  5. Normal Genetic Variation, Cognition, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, P. M.; Parasuraman, Raja

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the modulation of cognitive function by normal genetic variation. Although the heritability of “g” is well established, the genes that modulate specific cognitive functions are largely unidentified. Application of the allelic association approach to individual differences in cognition has begun to reveal the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms on specific and general cognitive functions. This article proposes a framework for relating genotype to cognitive phenotype by considering the effect of genetic variation on the protein product of specific genes within the context of the neural basis of particular cognitive domains. Specificity of effects is considered, from genes controlling part of one receptor type to genes controlling agents of neuronal repair, and evidence is reviewed of cognitive modulation by polymorphisms in dopaminergic and cholinergic receptor genes, dopaminergic enzyme genes, and neurotrophic genes. Although allelic variation in certain genes can be reliably linked to cognition—specifically to components of attention, working memory, and executive function in healthy adults—the specificity, generality, and replicability of the effects are not fully known. PMID:15006290

  6. Healthy Eating in Jamaica: The Cost Factor

    PubMed Central

    Henry, FJ; Caines, D; Eyre, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study was conducted to determine the importance of food cost in securing a healthy diet to combat non-communicable diseases. Several studies have evaluated whether healthier foods or diets cost more but a full range of health criteria has rarely been explored. Rather than merely comparing high and low energy dense foods, this study also included type of fat, vitamin, mineral and fibre content of foods in classifying them as healthy and less healthy. Method: Both ‘commonly consumed’ and ‘all available’ foods were ranked according to their nutritional value and potential positive or negative contribution to the development of major health problems in Jamaica such as obesity and chronic diseases. The costs of 158 food items were averaged from supermarkets, municipal markets and wholesale outlets in six parishes across Jamaica. Cost differentials were then assessed in comparing healthy and less healthy foods. Results: The study found that among the commonly consumed foods in Jamaica, healthy options cost J$88 (US$0.78) more than less healthy ones. However, when all the available food items were considered, the less healthy options cost more. The cheapest daily cost of a nutritionally balanced diet in Jamaica varied considerably by parish but was on average J$269 (US$2.40) per person. For a family of three, this translates approximately to the total minimum wage per week. Conclusion: Eating healthy in Jamaica can be achieved at low cost if appropriate information on nutrient content/value for money is provided to consumers. Effective promotions by public and private sector agencies are essential for consumer choice to be optimal. PMID:26426166

  7. Model for a Healthy Work Environment.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    The Healthy Work Environment (HWE) Model, considered a model of standards of professional behaviors, was created to help foster an environment that is happy, healthy, realistic, and feasible. The model focuses on areas of PEOPLE and PRACTICE, where each letter of these words identifies core, professional qualities and behaviors to foster an environment amenable and conducive to accountability for one's behavior and action. Each of these characteristics is supported from a Christian, biblical perspective. The HWE Model provides a mental and physical checklist of what is important in creating and sustaining a healthy work environment in education and practice. PMID:27610916

  8. Healthy behavior change in practical settings.

    PubMed

    Young, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The core principle of implementing healthy behavior change is making the healthy choice the easy choice. Putting this motto into practice requires us to remove the barriers that individuals face when trying to live a healthy lifestyle. It is important to look at the bigger picture when helping our patients reach optimal health, looking closely at exercise levels and home life. Environmental factors can cause strain and present challenges for people trying to develop and maintain good health. At the Care Management Institute and at Kaiser Permanente, we are making strides to change default behaviors so optimal lifestyles become the norm, rather than the exception. PMID:25216360

  9. Normal Values of Spleen Length and Volume: An Ultrasonographic Study in Children.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Masoud; Hajalioghli, Parisa; Jahed, Shahram; Behzadmehr, Razieh; Rafeey, Mandana; Fouladi, Daniel F

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to determine normal ultrasonographic limits of spleen length and volume in healthy Caucasian neonates and children. A total of 458 healthy cases (age, 1 d to 15 y; sex, 241 males and 217 females) with normal body measurements were included. Spleen length and volume were obtained ultrasonographically. The two genders were comparable for the mean spleen length and volume. Lower and upper normal limits were tabulated according to age and sex groups. Significant correlations (Pearson r > 0.80; p < 0.001) were present between spleen length/volume and age, height and weight. Two equations were created to estimate spleen length and volume by age. Normal spleen lengths and volumes and their lower and upper limits were obtained ultrasonographically in a large sample of Caucasian pediatric patients. PMID:27108037

  10. SULF2, a heparan sulfate endosulfatase, is present in the blood of healthy individuals and increases in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Mark S.; Phillips, Joanna J.; Lemjabbar-Alaoui, Hassan; Wang, Yang Qing; Wu, Jing; Goldman, Radoslav; Rosen, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Background SULF2 is an extracellular sulfatase that acts on heparan sulfate proteoglycans and modulates multiple signaling pathways. It is normally bound to the cell surface but can be released into the medium of cultured cells. SULF2 is known to be increased in cirrhotic liver compared to healthy liver. We asked whether SULF2 protein was present in the blood of healthy controls and increased in patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods We devised a sandwich ELISA for SULF2 using 2 novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and measured its levels in sera of normal individuals and cirrhosis patients. Results SULF2 was higher in cirrhosis patients (1460 ± 1160 pg/ml, N =34) than healthy individuals (728 ± 400 pg/ml, N =37). SULF2 levels increased with age in both healthy and patient groups. Conclusions SULF2 may be a useful serologic biomarker for liver cirrhosis. PMID:25444749

  11. Conductivity Modulation in a gated Normal-CDW-Normal configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Saumya; Lake, Roger

    There is considerable interest in switching by exploiting a voltage controlled phase transition, and one such phase is the charge density wave phase that occurs in a number of quasi one dimensional and two dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Voltage controlled switching of the charge density wave transition in 1T-TaS2 has recently been demonstrated. We consider a transistor geometry with normal metal contacts and a channel of CDW material. The interaction is modeled with a negative U Hubbard term. Normal-CDW-temperature-U phase diagrams show the regime of the CDW in the ideal lattice. The wavelength of the CDW in the transistor channel is determined by both the conditions of Fermi surface nesting and also the condition of commensurability with the channel length between the two normal leads. Moving the Fermi level of the channel first results in phase boundaries within the CDW as the conditions of commensurability and Fermi surface nesting become incompatible. Moving the Fermi level from half filling by few tens of meV causes a collapsing of the CDW gap and an effective CDW-normal transition, leaving vestiges of the CDW in the channel. The transition is accompanied by one to two orders of magnitude increase in the conductivity. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No. 1124733 and the Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) Nanoelectronic Research Initiative as a part of the Nanoelectronics for 2020 and Beyond (NEB-2020) program.

  12. 3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

  13. Normal parathyroid function with decreased bone mineral density in treated celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, B; Boivin, M; Brossard, J H; Lepage, R; Picard, D; Rousseau, L; D'Amour, P

    2001-05-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in patients with celiac disease in association with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The present study investigated whether basal parathyroid hormone (PTH) remained elevated and whether abnormalities of parathyroid function were still present in celiac disease patients treated with a gluten-free diet. Basal seric measurements of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and BMD were obtained in 17 biopsy-proven patients under treatment for a mean period of 5.7+/-3.7 years (range 1.1 to 15.9). In addition, parathyroid function was studied with calcium chloride and sodium citrate infusions in seven patients. Basal measurements of patients were compared with those of 26 normal individuals, while parathyroid function results were compared with those of seven sex- and age-matched controls. Basal results were similar in patients and controls except for intact PTH (I-PTH) (3.77+/-0.88 pmol/L versus 2.28+/-0.63 pmol/L, P<0.001), which was higher in the former group but still within normal limits. Mean 25-hydroxy vitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D values were normal in patients. Parathyroid function results were also found to be similar in both groups. Compared with a reference population of the same age (Z score), patients had significantly lower BMDs of the hip (-0.60+/-0.96 SDs, P<0.05) and lumbar spine (-0.76+/-1.15 SDs, P<0.05). T scores were also decreased for the hip (-1.3+/-0.9 SDs, P<0.0001) and lumbar spine (-1.4+/-1.35 SDs, P<0.0001), with two to three patients being osteoporotic (T score less than -2.5 SDs) and seven to eight osteopenic (T score less than -1 SDs but greater than or equal to -2.5 SDs) in at least one site. Height and weight were the only important determinants of BMD values by multivariate or logistical regression analysis in these patients. The results show higher basal I-PTH values with normal parathyroid function in treated celiac disease. Height and weight values are, but I-PTH values are not

  14. "It was an education in portion size". Experience of eating a healthy diet and barriers to long term dietary change.

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, J I; Loe, J; Kyle, J; McNeill, G

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the expectations and experience of actually eating a healthy diet and using this experience to identify barriers to healthy eating and sustainable dietary change. Fifty participants (19-63 yrs) were provided with a healthy diet (i.e. complied with dietary recommendations) for three consecutive days. Afterwards a semi-structured interview was carried out to explore expectations, experience and barriers to healthy eating. Using a thematic analysis approach eight dominant themes emerged from the interviews. Four related to expectations and experience of healthy eating; realisation of what are appropriate portion sizes, an expectation to feel hungry, surprise that healthy diets comprised normal food, the desire for sweet snacks (e.g. chocolate). This demonstrated there are some misconception about healthy eating and distorted views of portion size. Four more themes emerged relating to barriers to healthy eating; competing priorities, social, peer and time pressure, importance of value for money, a lack of desire to cook. Poor knowledge of healthy eating or a lack of cooking skills were the least common barrier, suggesting that future interventions and policy to improve dietary intakes need to focus on social, cultural and economic issues rather than on lack of knowledge or skills. PMID:24076020

  15. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1997-06-10

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3{prime} noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  16. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  17. Female adolescent sexuality. Promoting healthy sexual development.

    PubMed

    Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L

    2000-03-01

    Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual

  18. Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart-healthy eating and cooking. Choose the Right Fats – In Moderation! This means limiting foods high in ... and recipes each month. Boost Flavor Without Unhealthy Fats and Salt Look for recipes that use herbs ...

  19. Percentage of Adults with a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... small sample sizes for NHANES data, 95% confidence intervals are provided, which are important for interpreting the ... Percentage of Adults with a Healthy Weight by Education Level euvy-mq8a Download these data » Click on ...

  20. Empowering communities: action research through healthy cities.

    PubMed

    Flynn, B C; Ray, D W; Rider, M S

    1994-01-01

    The Healthy Cities process uses action research to empower communities to take action for health. Five concepts that link community empowerment and action research are: focus on community, citizen participation, information and problem solving, sharing of power, and quality of life. Two city examples from Healthy Cities Indiana, a pilot program of CITYNET Healthy Cities, provide illustrations of these concepts. The dynamics of community participation in action research and the successes and barriers to community participation are presented. Outcomes that empowered the community are suggested: the extent to which Healthy City projects are initiated, their progress monitored, continued action in health supported, resources obtained, and policies promoted that contribute equity in health. PMID:8002362

  1. Managing your weight with healthy eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Activity level Know how many servings of dairy, fruits and vegetables, proteins, and grains and other starches ... piece of string cheese, or yogurt with fresh fruit. Choose different healthy foods from each food group. ...

  2. Healthy Weight: You Can Do It, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... your new profile is hard. Self-awareness and discipline are critical. But the reward is terrific. Everyone ... healthy ways to reduce your weight, increase your exercise, and improve your eating habits. They all start ...

  3. Healthy Family 2009: Bringing in Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Bringing in Baby Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... Down syndrome and other common genetic disorders, inherited family conditions, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, or disorders ...

  4. Healthy Cities: a guide to the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Kenzer, M

    2000-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on attempts by city governments, international agencies, and nongovernmental and community organizations to improve city life around the world through Healthy Cities projects. PMID:10968770

  5. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fund National Kidney Foundation American Diabetes Association JDRF Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Español Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your kidneys healthy Page Content On ...

  6. Your Guide to a Healthy Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Should I see a registered dietitian or qualified nutritionist to learn more about healthy eating? 10. How ... 2 pounds a week. See your doctor or nutritionist if you need help. Source: Clinical Guidelines on ...

  7. Delicious Heart-Healthy Latino Recipes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the chicken mixture is cooling, place the corn flour in a large mixing bowl and gradually stir ... cup egg substitute • 2 egg whites • 1 tablespoon flour 62 Delicious and Heart Healthy Latino Recipes Substitutos ...

  8. At-a-Glance: Healthy Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor if you suspect you have a sleep disorder, such as insomnia, sleep apnea, rest- less legs ... Learn More More information on healthy sleep and sleep disorders is available from the National Heart, Lung, and ...

  9. Healthy People 2020: Leading Health Indicators

    MedlinePlus

    ... County Data Resources Federal Prevention Initiatives Healthy People eLearning Program Planning Content Syndication Tools for Professionals Public Health 3.0 Webinars & Events Webinars & Events Archive About ...

  10. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Mouth Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dental and Craniofacial Research American Diabetes Association JDRF Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Español Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your mouth healthy Page Content On ...

  11. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Feet Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases American Diabetes Association JDRF Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Español Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your feet healthy Page Content On ...

  12. The Healthy Eating Index–2005 Resources

    Cancer.gov

    The Healthy Eating Index (HEI)–2005 is a measure of diet quality that can be used to assess compliance with the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans and monitor changes in dietary patterns nationwide.

  13. Am I in a Healthy Relationship?

    MedlinePlus

    ... same treatment. Qualities like kindness and respect are absolute requirements for a healthy relationship. Someone who doesn' ... the process of forming. You two might seem perfect for each other at first, but that can ...

  14. Local food systems for a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Creamer, Nancy G; Dunning, Rebecca D

    2012-01-01

    Working together across disciplines and organizational boundaries, North Carolina is leading national efforts to foster environments that increase access to healthy foods and raise awareness about the complexity and benefits of local food systems. PMID:23033726

  15. Scrub Typhus Seroprevalence in Healthy Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Mallika; Anandan, Shalini; Daniel, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, a zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an important cause of acute febrile illness in India. This preliminary study determines the seroprevalence of scrub typhus in healthy Indian adults by measuring IgM and IgG antibodies to scrub typhus by ELISA in 100 healthy blood donors. Our study demonstrates a 15% seroprevalence of scrub typhus in adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings especially in children. PMID:26557523

  16. Safety assessment of inhaled xylitol in mice and healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Durairaj, Lakshmi; Launspach, Janice; Watt, Janet L; Businga, Thomas R; Kline, Joel N; Thorne, Peter S; Zabner, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Background Xylitol is a 5-carbon sugar that can lower the airway surface salt concentration, thus enhancing innate immunity. We tested the safety and tolerability of aerosolized iso-osmotic xylitol in mice and human volunteers. Methods This was a prospective cohort study of C57Bl/6 mice in an animal laboratory and healthy human volunteers at the clinical research center of a university hospital. Mice underwent a baseline methacholine challenge, exposure to either aerosolized saline or xylitol (5% solution) for 150 minutes and then a follow-up methacholine challenge. The saline and xylitol exposures were repeated after eosinophilic airway inflammation was induced by sensitization and inhalational challenge to ovalbumin. Normal human volunteers underwent exposures to aerosolized saline (10 ml) and xylitol, with spirometry performed at baseline and after inhalation of 1, 5, and 10 ml. Serum osmolarity and electrolytes were measured at baseline and after the last exposure. A respiratory symptom questionnaire was administered at baseline, after the last exposure, and five days after exposure. In another group of normal volunteers, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was done 20 minutes and 3 hours after aerosolized xylitol exposure for levels of inflammatory markers. Results In naïve mice, methacholine responsiveness was unchanged after exposures to xylitol compared to inhaled saline (p = 0.49). There was no significant increase in Penh in antigen-challenged mice after xylitol exposure (p = 0.38). There was no change in airway cellular response after xylitol exposure in naïve and antigen-challenged mice. In normal volunteers, there was no change in FEV1 after xylitol exposures compared with baseline as well as normal saline exposure (p = 0.19). Safety laboratory values were also unchanged. The only adverse effect reported was stuffy nose by half of the subjects during the 10 ml xylitol exposure, which promptly resolved after exposure completion. BAL cytokine levels were

  17. Terra is in NORMAL Mode

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-23

    ... 22, 2016.  TERRA has recovered from Safe Hold and is now in Normal mode. CERES will hold their CAM Wednesday morning and will ... . You can learn more about this mission at the Terra web site. The Flight Operations Team is working on resolving the issue as ...

  18. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background) perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to 'complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all 'cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of 'complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting 'trick' we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  19. Normalizing Catastrophe: Sustainability and Scientism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Making an adequate response to our deteriorating environmental situation is a matter of ever increasing urgency. It is argued that a central obstacle to achieving this is the way that scientism has become normalized in our thinking about environmental issues. This is taken to reflect on an underlying "metaphysics of mastery" that vitiates proper…

  20. Normalized Elution Time Prediction Utility

    2011-02-17

    This program is used to compute the predicted normalized elution time (NET) for a list of peptide sequences. It includes the Kangas/Petritis neural network trained model, the Krokhin hydrophobicity model, and the Mant hydrophobicity model. In addition, it can compute the predicted strong cation exchange (SCX) fraction (on a 0 to 1 scale) in which a given peptide will appear.

  1. Fluid involvement in normal faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, Richard H.

    2000-04-01

    Evidence of fluid interaction with normal faults comes from their varied role as flow barriers or conduits in hydrocarbon basins and as hosting structures for hydrothermal mineralisation, and from fault-rock assemblages in exhumed footwalls of steep active normal faults and metamorphic core complexes. These last suggest involvement of predominantly aqueous fluids over a broad depth range, with implications for fault shear resistance and the mechanics of normal fault reactivation. A general downwards progression in fault rock assemblages (high-level breccia-gouge (often clay-rich) → cataclasites → phyllonites → mylonite → mylonitic gneiss with the onset of greenschist phyllonites occurring near the base of the seismogenic crust) is inferred for normal fault zones developed in quartzo-feldspathic continental crust. Fluid inclusion studies in hydrothermal veining from some footwall assemblages suggest a transition from hydrostatic to suprahydrostatic fluid pressures over the depth range 3-5 km, with some evidence for near-lithostatic to hydrostatic pressure cycling towards the base of the seismogenic zone in the phyllonitic assemblages. Development of fault-fracture meshes through mixed-mode brittle failure in rock-masses with strong competence layering is promoted by low effective stress in the absence of thoroughgoing cohesionless faults that are favourably oriented for reactivation. Meshes may develop around normal faults in the near-surface under hydrostatic fluid pressures to depths determined by rock tensile strength, and at greater depths in overpressured portions of normal fault zones and at stress heterogeneities, especially dilational jogs. Overpressures localised within developing normal fault zones also determine the extent to which they may reutilise existing discontinuities (for example, low-angle thrust faults). Brittle failure mode plots demonstrate that reactivation of existing low-angle faults under vertical σ1 trajectories is only likely if

  2. [THE COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF KAOLIN-ACTIVATED THROMBOELASTOGRAPHY IN HEALTHY NEWBORNS AND NEWBORNS WITH HEART AILMENTS].

    PubMed

    Leonov, N P; Karas'kov, A M; Litasova, E E; Strunin, O V; Karmadonova, N A; Akopov, G D; Vishegorodtseva, L I

    2016-02-01

    The study was carried out to diferentiate reference values for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in newborns with congenital heart disease. The study included two groups ofpatients. The first one consisted of 62 newborns with congenital heart disease and the second one consisted of 35 healthy newborns. The results of kaolin-activated thromboelastography implemented in groups are evaluated as condition of normal coagulation. The valuable diferences of homeostasis system in healthy newborns and newborns with congenital heart disease (without severe concomitant pathology) are not established. They have similar indicators of kaolin-activated thromboelastography. The derived results can be applied as standards in full-term newborns with congenital heart disease. PMID:27455561

  3. Healthy Eating for Vegetarians: 10 Tips for Vegetarians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Healthy Eating for Vegetarians You are here Home Healthy Eating ... Vegetarians Print Share 10 TIPS NUTRITION EDUCATION SERIES Healthy Eating for Vegetarians 10 tips for vegetarians A vegetarian ...

  4. Disease-Related Differences in Resting State Networks: A Comparison between Localized Provoked Vulvodynia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and Healthy Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arpana; Rapkin, Andrea J.; Gill, Zafar; Kilpatrick, Lisa; Fling, Connor; Stains, Jean; Masghati, Salome; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A.; Labus, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Localized provoked vulvodynia (LPVD) affects approximately 16% of the female population, but biological mechanisms underlying symptoms remain unknown. Like in other, often comorbid chronic pain disorders, altered sensory processing and modulation of pain, including central sensitization, dysregulation of endogenous pain modulatory systems, and attentional enhancement of pain perception have been implicated. The aim of this study was to test whether regions of interest showing differences in LPVD compared to healthy controls (HCs) in structural and evoked-pain neuroimaging studies, also show alterations in during rest compared to HCs and a chronic pain control group (irritable bowel syndrome, IBS). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during resting state in 87 age-matched premenopausal females (29 LPVD, 29 HCs, 29 IBS). Group independent component analysis and general linear models were applied to investigate group differences in the intrinsic connectivity of regions comprising sensorimotor, salience, and default mode resting state networks. LPVD subjects showed substantial alterations in the intrinsic connectivity of these networks compared to HCs and IBS. The intrinsic connectivity of many of the regions showing group differences during rest were moderately associated with clinical symptom reports in LPVD. Findings were robust to controlling for affect and medication usage. The current findings indicate LPVD subjects have alterations in the intrinsic connectivity of regions comprising the sensorimotor, salience, and default mode networks. Although shared brain mechanisms between different chronic pain disorders have been postulated, the current findings suggest some alterations in functional connectivity may show disease specificity. PMID:25735001

  5. Quantitative features in the computed tomography of healthy lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Fromson, B H; Denison, D M

    1988-01-01

    This study set out to determine whether quantitative features of lung computed tomography scans could be identified that would lead to a tightly defined normal range for use in assessing patients. Fourteen normal subjects with apparently healthy lungs were studied. A technique was developed for rapid and automatic extraction of lung field data from the computed tomography scans. The Hounsfield unit histograms were constructed and, when normalised for predicted lung volumes, shown to be consistent in shape for all the subjects. A three dimensional presentation of the data in the form of a "net plot" was devised, and from this a logarithmic relationship between the area of each lung slice and its mean density was derived (r = 0.9, n = 545, p less than 0.0001). The residual density, calculated as the difference between measured density and density predicted from the relationship with area, was shown to be normally distributed with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 25 Hounsfield units (chi 2 test: p less than 0.05). A presentation combining this residual density with the net plot is described. PMID:3353883

  6. Healthy-eater identity and self-efficacy predict healthy eating behavior: a prospective view.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Shaelyn M; Brawley, Lawrence R

    2009-07-01

    Identity and Self-efficacy Theories were used to examine the relationship between healthy-eater identity, self-efficacy for healthy eating and healthy eating. Measures of healthy-eater identity, perception of healthy eating, nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy for both intake of fruits and vegetables and foods of low nutritional value were completed by 101 university students and staff. Two weeks later, participants recalled recent consumption of (a) fruits and vegetables and (b) foods of low nutritional value. For both eating outcomes, healthy-eater identity was a significant predictor after controlling for nutrition knowledge. The addition of self-efficacy improved prediction in the case of both eating outcomes. PMID:19515684

  7. 3j symbols : to normalize or not to normalize.

    SciTech Connect

    van Veenendaal, M.

    2011-07-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to tesseral harmonics. The methodology developed here leads to a significantly clearer presentation, which is of interest, not only for textbooks but also for researchers using spherical tensors.

  8. NORMAL GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE F344 RAT NASAL TRANSITIONAL/RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The nasal epithelium is an important target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity in rodents. Gene expression profiles were determined in order to provide normal baseline data for nasal transitional/respiratory epithelium from healthy rats. Ce...

  9. Increases in Language Lateralization in Normal Children as Observed Using Magnetoencephalography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ressel, Volker; Wilke, Marko; Lidzba, Karen; Lutzenberger, Werner; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg

    2008-01-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating hemispheric dominance for language have shown that hemispheric specialization increases with age. We employed magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate these effects as a function of normal development. In sum, 22 healthy children aged 7-16 years were investigated using…

  10. Cadmium intake and systemic exposure in postmenopausal women and age-matched men who smoke cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ebert-McNeill, Andrea; Clark, Sara P; Miller, James J; Birdsall, Paige; Chandar, Manisha; Wu, Lucia; Cerny, Elizabeth A; Hall, Patricia H; Johnson, Maribeth H; Isales, Carlos; Chutkan, Norman; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2012-11-01

    Mean blood cadmium (B-Cd) concentrations are two- to threefold higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. The basis for this phenomenon is not well understood. We conducted a detailed, multifaceted study of cadmium exposure in smokers. Groups were older smokers (62±4 years, n = 25, 20% male) and nonsmokers (62±3 years, n = 16, 31% male). Each subject's cigarettes were machine smoked, generating individually paired measures of inhaled cadmium (I-Cd) versus B-Cd; I-Cd and B-Cd were each evaluated three times, at monthly intervals. Urine cadmium (U-Cd) was analyzed for comparison. In four smokers, a duplicate-diet study was conducted, along with a kinetic study of plasma cadmium versus B-Cd. Female smokers had a mean B-Cd of 1.21ng Cd/ml, with a nearly 10-fold range (0.29-2.74ng Cd/ml); nonsmokers had a lower mean B-Cd, 0.35ng Cd/ml (p < 0.05), and narrower range (0.20-0.61ng Cd/ml). Means and ranges for males were similar. Estimates of cadmium amounts inhaled daily for our subjects smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes/day were far less than the 15 µg Cd reported to be ingested daily via diet. This I-Cd amount was too low to alone explain the 3.5-fold elevation of B-Cd in our smokers, even assuming greater cadmium absorption via lungs than gastrointestinal tract; cadmium accumulated in smokers' lungs may provide the added cadmium. Finally, B-Cd appeared to be linearly related to I-Cd values in 75% of smokers, whereas 25% had far higher B-Cd, implying a possible heterogeneity among smokers regarding circulating cadmium concentrations and potentially cadmium toxicity. PMID:22831969

  11. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage, Antibiotic Resistance and Molecular Pathogenicity among Healthy Individuals Exposed and Not Exposed to Hospital Environment

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Veena; Renushri, Bhadravati Virupaksha; Nagaraj, Elkal Rajappa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthcare workers as well as healthy community-dwelling individuals may be colonised by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Healthcare workers who carry MRSA may transmit it to patients, causing various nosocomial infections. Literature shows that the differences between MRSA isolated from healthcare settings and from community settings, with regard to multi-drug resistance (traditionally exhibited by the former) and possession of pvl genes (traditionally exhibited by the latter), is diminishing due to a large community reservoir and increasing influx of community harboured strains into the hospital. However, there is no literature on the current scenario in India. Aims and Objectives: This study examines the influence of exposure to hospital environment on MRSA carriage, antimicrobial resistance patterns of MRSA, and the presence of genes encoding five extracellular pathogenicity determinants (pvl, sea, seb, tsst-1 and hly a). Materials and Methods: Nasal, throat and palmar swabs were collected from 119 nursing students of the age group 18-23 years (exposed group) and 100 age matched pharmacy students (non-exposed group). S. aureus was identified and antibiogram obtained as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. MRSA was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion test and by growth on oxacillin screen agar as per CLSI guidelines. Conventional PCR was performed for mecA, pvl, sea, seb, tsst-1 and hly a. Results: The differences in carrier rates, antibiotic resistance patterns and expression of extracellular pathogenicity determinants between MRSA isolates from the two study groups were not significant, and pvl was found in all the MRSA isolates. Conclusion: The nursing students carried MRSA strains similar to those carried by the non-exposed group. Our results suggest that healthcare workers could act as a link and transmit MRSA acquired from the community to patients. PMID:25177563

  12. The hypotensive effect of acute and chronic AMP-activated protein kinase activation in normal and hyperlipidemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Fiona H.; Ewart, Marie-Ann; McNaughton, Eilidh; Cooney, Josephine; Spickett, Corinne M.; Kennedy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is present in the arterial wall and is activated in response to cellular stressors that raise AMP relative to ADP/ATP. Activation of AMPK in vivo lowers blood pressure but the influence of hyperlipidemia on this response has not been studied. ApoE−/− mice on high fat diet for 6 weeks and age-matched controls were treated with the AMPK activator, AICAR daily for two weeks. Under anesthesia, the carotid artery was cannulated for blood pressure measurements. Aortic tissue was removed for in vitro functional experiments and AMPK activity was measured in artery homogenates by Western blotting. ApoE−/− mice had significantly raised mean arterial pressure; chronic AICAR treatment normalized this but had no effect in normolipidemic mice, whereas acute administration of AICAR lowered mean arterial pressure in both groups. Chronic AICAR treatment increased phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase in normolipidemic but not ApoE−/− mice. In aortic rings, AMPK activation induced vasodilation and an anticontractile effect, which was attenuated in ApoE−/− mice. This study demonstrates that hyperlipidemia dysregulates the AMPK pathway in the arterial wall but this effect can be reversed by AMPK activation, possibly through improving vessel compliance. PMID:26196300

  13. HEALTHY Intervention: Fitness, Physical Activity, and Metabolic Syndrome Results

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; McMurray, Robert G.; Drews, Kimberly L.; Moe, Esther L.; Murray, Tinker; Pham, Trang H.; Venditti, Elizabeth M.; Volpe, Stella L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the effect of the HEALTHY intervention on the metabolic syndrome (Met-S), fitness, and physical activity levels of US middle-school students. Methods Cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 (21 intervention) US middle schools. Participants were recruited at the start of sixth grade (2006) when baseline assessments were made, with post-assessments made 2.5 yr later at the end of eighth grade (2009). The HEALTHY intervention had four components: 1) improved school food environment, 2) physical activity and eating educational sessions, 3) social marketing, and 4) revised physical education curriculum. Met-S risk factors, 20-m shuttle run (fitness), and self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed at each time point. Ethnicity and gender were self-reported. Obesity status (normal weight, overweight, or obese) was also assessed. Results At baseline, 5% of the participants were classified with Met-S, with two-thirds of the males and one-third of the females recording below average baseline fitness levels. Control group participants reported 96 min of MVPA at baseline with 103 min reported by the intervention group. There were no statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences in Met-S, fitness, or MVPA levels at the end of the study after adjustment for baseline values and confounders. There were no differences in any ethnic, obesity, or ethnic × obesity subgroups for either gender. Conclusions The HEALTHY intervention had no effect on the Met-S, fitness, or physical activity levels. Approaches that focus on how to change physical activity, fitness, and Met-S using nonschool or perhaps in addition to school based components need to be developed. PMID:21233778

  14. Normal labor: mechanism and duration.

    PubMed

    Liao, John B; Buhimschi, Catalin S; Norwitz, Errol R

    2005-06-01

    Labor is refers to the chain of physiologic events that allows a fetus to undertake its journey from the uterus to the outside world. The mean duration of a singleton preganancy is 40.0 weeks (280 days), which is dated from the first day of the last normal menstrual period. The period from 37.0 weeks (259 days) to 42.0 weeks (294 days) of gestation is regarded as "term". This article focuses on the onset progress, and mechanics of normal labor term. Topics such as preterm labor (labor before 37 weeks), postterm labor (labor after 42 weeks), and abnormal labor and delivery have not been addressed and are discussed in detail elsewhere in this issue. PMID:15899352

  15. Broadcast normalization in systolic design

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, F.C. ); Wu, I.C. )

    1988-11-01

    When a sequential algorithm is directly mapped into an array of processing elements, quite likely data broadcasts are required and their source places vary during the computation. The authors introduce a normalization method to fix the positions of the broadcast sources so that the derived design can be further transformed by retimings into a systolic array. The authors' method is fully illustrated in designing systolic arrays for enumeration sort, solving simultaneous linear equations, and computing transitive closure.

  16. Succeeding in the New Normal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    Being a college CIO these days must feel a bit like juggling chain saws with one hand while holding a donation cup in the other. It's unlikely to end well, yet it represents the new normal in IT. While campus clients--from administrators to faculty and students--expect the usual raft of tech services, the IT budget simply can't deliver. In this…

  17. Focal lesions in normal liver.

    PubMed

    Semelka, Richard C; Martin, Diego R; Balci, N Cem

    2005-10-01

    A variety of lesions occur in the normal liver. This review will describe the most common benign, malignant, and infectious lesions. Illustration will be made of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the most common of these. Due to the high accuracy for liver lesion detection and characterization, and the intrinsic safety of the modality, MR should be considered the primary imaging tool to investigate liver diseases. PMID:16174062

  18. Research summaries for normal birth.

    PubMed

    Romano, Amy M; Goer, Henci

    2007-01-01

    In this column, the authors summarize four research studies that further support the benefits of normal birth. The topics of the studies include the association of cesarean birth with an increased risk of neonatal death; the use of acupuncture and self-hypnosis as effective pain-management strategies; factors associated with amniotic-fluid embolism; and the positive influence of continuous support by lay doulas on obstetric outcomes for low-income women. PMID:18408810

  19. Normalization of Gravitational Acceleration Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckman, Randy A.; Brown, Aaron J.; Adamo, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the con- sequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the nonsphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of a nonspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities which must be removed in order to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Three unique algorithms have been developed to eliminate these singularities by Samuel Pines [1], Bill Lear [2], and Robert Gottlieb [3]. This paper documents the methodical normalization of two1 of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear [2] and Gottlieb [3] algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre Polynomials and ALFs for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.

  20. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, C.; Carminati, E.; Petricca, P.; Riguzzi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors. PMID:26169163

  1. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, C; Carminati, E; Petricca, P; Riguzzi, F

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors. PMID:26169163

  2. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhan; Longo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction. PMID:26918181

  3. Strategies of Healthy Adults Walking on a Laterally Oscillating Treadmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2008-01-01

    We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate locomotor responses produced by healthy adults introduced to a dynamic walking surface. The experiment examined self-selected strategies employed by participants when exposed to continuous, sinusoidal lateral motion of the support surface while walking. Torso translation and step width were used to classify responses used to stabilize gait in a novel, dynamic environment. Two response categories emerged. Participants tended to either fix themselves in space (FIS), allowing the treadbelt to move laterally beneath them, or they fixed themselves to the base (FTB), moving laterally as the motion base oscillated. The degree of fixation in both extremes varied across participants. This finding suggests that normal adults have innate and varied preferences for reacquiring gait stability, some depending more heavily on vision (FIS group) and others on proprioception (FTB group). Keywords: Human locomotion, Unstable surface, Treadmill, Adaptation, Stability

  4. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Implications of a Metabolically Healthy Obesity Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Mi Hae

    2014-01-01

    Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) is a new concept in which an individual may exhibit an obese phenotype in the absence of any metabolic abnormalities. There are a number of definitions of MHO that utilize a variety of components. The findings of clinical and basic studies indicate that subjects with MHO do not exhibit an increased mortality, an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, or an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as compared to normal-weight controls. Although these findings imply that metabolic health is a more important factor than obesity, several studies have shown that subjects with MHO have a similar risk of metabolic or cardiovascular diseases as those with metabolically unhealthy obesity. Thus, there is still debate regarding not only the implications of the MHO phenotype but its very existence. Accordingly, future studies should focus on developing a unified definition of MHO and distinguishing subjects who will be at a high risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25559571

  5. Loss of telomeric DNA during aging of normal and trisomy 21 human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Vaziri, H.; Uchida, I.; Lan Wei; Harley, C.B. ); Schaechter, F.; Cohen, D. ); Xiaoming Zhu; Effros, R. )

    1993-04-01

    The telomere hypothesis of cellular aging proposes that loss of telomeric DNA (TTAGGG) from human chromosomes may ultimately cause cell-cycle exit during replicative senescence. Since lymphocytes have a limited replicative capacity and since blood cells were previously shown to lose telomeric DNA during aging in vivo, the authors wished to determine (a) whether accelerated telomere loss is associated with the premature immunosenescence of lymphocytes in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and (b) whether telomeric DNA is also lost during aging of lymphocytes in vitro. To investigate the effects of aging and trisomy 21 on telomere loss in vivo, genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes of 140 individuals (age 0--107 years), including 21 DS patients (age 0--45 years). Digestion with restriction enzymes HinfI and RsaI generated terminal restriction fragments (TRFs), which were detected by Southern analysis using a telomere-specific probe ([sup 32]P-(C[sub 3]TA[sub 2])[sub 3]). The rate of telomere loss was calculated from the decrease in mean TRF length, as a function of donor age. DS patients showed a significantly higher rate of telomere loss with donor age (133 [+-] 15 bp/year) compared with age-matched controls (41 [+-] 7.7 bp/year) (P < .0005), suggesting that accelerated telomere loss is a biomarker of premature immunosenescence of DS patients and that it may play a role in this process. Telomere loss during aging in vitro was calculated for lymphocytes from four normal individuals, grown in culture for 10--30 population doublings. The rate of telomere loss was [approximately]120 bp/cell doubling, comparable to that seen in other somatic cells. Moreover, telomere lengths of lymphocytes from centenarians and from older DS patients were similar to those of senescent lymphocytes in culture, which suggests that replicative senescence could partially account for aging of the immune system in DS patients and in elderly individuals. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Malignant otitis externa in a healthy non-diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Long; Peng, Hong; Mo, Ting-Ting; Liang, Yong

    2016-08-01

    A healthy 60-year-old male was initially treated for external otitis, and subsequently received multiple surgeries including abscess drainage, temporal bone debridement, canaloplasty of the external auditory meatus, and fistula excision and was treated with numerous antibiotics at another hospital over a 1-year period. He was seen at our hospital on February 14, 2014 with a complaint of a non-healing wound behind the left ear and drainage of purulent fluid. He had no history of diabetes mellitus or compromised immune function. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies at our hospital showed osteomyelitis involving the left temporal, occipital, and sphenoid bones, the mandible, and an epidural abscess. Routine blood testing and tests of immune function were normal, and no evidence of other infectious processes was found. He was diagnosed with malignant otitis externa (MOE). Bone debridement and incision and drainage of the epidural abscess were performed, and vancomycin was administered because culture results revealed Corynebacterium jeikeium, Corynebacterium xerosis, and Enterococcus faecalis. MOE should be considered in healthy patients with external otitis who fail initial treatment. PMID:26233245

  7. Oral, subcutaneous, and intravenous pharmacokinetics of ondansetron in healthy cats

    PubMed Central

    Quimby, J. M.; Lake, R. C.; Hansen, R. J.; Lunghofer, P. J.; Gustafson, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    Ondansetron is a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that is an effective anti-emetic in cats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ondansetron in healthy cats. Six cats with normal complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis received 2 mg oral (mean 0.43 mg/kg), subcutaneous (mean 0.4 mg/kg), and intravenous (mean 0.4 mg/kg) ondansetron in a cross-over manner with a 5-day wash out. Serum was collected prior to, and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h after administration of ondansetron. Ondansetron concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic modeling and dose interval modeling were performed. Repeated measures anova was used to compare parameters between administration routes. Bioavailability of ondansetron was 32% (oral) and 75% (subcutaneous). Calculated elimination half-life of ondansetron was 1.84 ± 0.58 h (intravenous), 1.18 ± 0.27 h (oral) and 3.17 ± 0.53 h (subcutaneous). The calculated elimination half-life of subcutaneous ondansetron was significantly longer (P < 0.05) than oral or intravenous administration. Subcutaneous administration of ondansetron to healthy cats is more bioavailable and results in a more prolonged exposure than oral administration. This information will aid management of emesis in feline patients. PMID:24330064

  8. Microbiota in Healthy Skin and in Atopic Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Capra, Lucetta; Longo, Giorgio; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2014-01-01

    The Italian interest group (IG) on atopic eczema and urticaria is member of the Italian Society of Allergology and Immunology. The aim of our IG is to provide a platform for scientists, clinicians, and experts. In this review we discuss the role of skin microbiota not only in healthy skin but also in skin suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD). A Medline and Embase search was conducted for studies evaluating the role of skin microbiota. We examine microbiota composition and its development within days after birth; we describe the role of specific groups of microorganisms that colonize distinct anatomical niches and the biology and clinical relevance of antimicrobial peptides expressed in the skin. Specific AD disease states are characterized by concurrent and anticorrelated shifts in microbial diversity and proportion of Staphylococcus. These organisms may protect the host, defining them not as simple symbiotic microbes but rather as mutualistic microbes. These findings reveal links between microbial communities and inflammatory diseases such as AD and provide novel insights into global shifts of bacteria relevant to disease progression and treatment. This review also highlights recent observations on the importance of innate immune systems and the relationship with normal skin microflora for the maintenance of healthy skin. PMID:25126558

  9. Oral, subcutaneous, and intravenous pharmacokinetics of ondansetron in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Quimby, J M; Lake, R C; Hansen, R J; Lunghofer, P J; Gustafson, D L

    2014-08-01

    Ondansetron is a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that is an effective anti-emetic in cats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ondansetron in healthy cats. Six cats with normal complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis received 2 mg oral (mean 0.43 mg/kg), subcutaneous (mean 0.4 mg/kg), and intravenous (mean 0.4 mg/kg) ondansetron in a cross-over manner with a 5-day wash out. Serum was collected prior to, and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h after administration of ondansetron. Ondansetron concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic modeling and dose interval modeling were performed. Repeated measures anova was used to compare parameters between administration routes. Bioavailability of ondansetron was 32% (oral) and 75% (subcutaneous). Calculated elimination half-life of ondansetron was 1.84 ± 0.58 h (intravenous), 1.18 ± 0.27 h (oral) and 3.17 ± 0.53 h (subcutaneous). The calculated elimination half-life of subcutaneous ondansetron was significantly longer (P < 0.05) than oral or intravenous administration. Subcutaneous administration of ondansetron to healthy cats is more bioavailable and results in a more prolonged exposure than oral administration. This information will aid management of emesis in feline patients. PMID:24330064

  10. Normal saline wound dressing--is it really normal?

    PubMed

    Lim, J K; Saliba, L; Smith, M J; McTavish, J; Raine, C; Curtin, P

    2000-01-01

    Gauze swabs soaked in normal saline are frequently used as dressing on open wounds. Their exact mechanism of action is not known. This study was designed to assess the hypothesis that normal saline dressings act in part as an osmotic dressing. Ten patients had skin ulcers (n = 10) dressed with normal saline soaked sponges. Acting as controls (n = 10) identical sponges were placed upon intact skin. The sponge fluid osmolarity and electrolyte concentrations were serially assayed to test our hypothesis. In the control group, the osmolarity, sodium and chloride concentrations increased with time as a result of evaporation, altering it from an isotonic to a hypertonic dressing. However, in the ulcer group, the osmolarity, sodium and chloride concentrations in the sponge fluid remained relatively isotonic with time. This result is statistically significant (P< 0.05). We postulate that, as a result of evaporation, the sponge dressing increases its tonicity. This draws fluid from the wound into the dressing so that a dynamic equilibrium occurs and the sponge dressing regains isotonicity. The dressing remains functional provided that the wound fluid is absorbed freely from the wound. This process is terminated when either the dressing completely absorbs the wound fluid or the dressing dries out. The latter often occurs prematurely in a contaminated wound or in a wound where exudate forms a non-permeable barrier which prevents osmosis and allows the remaining water in the dressing to evaporate completely. This correlates with the observation in clinical practice that for maximum efficacy the dressing should be changed regularly. PMID:10657448

  11. Perspectives on Healthy Eating Among Appalachian Residents

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Howell, Britteny M.; Swanson, Mark; Grosh, Christopher; Bardach, Shoshana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Extensive attention has been focused on improving the dietary intake of Americans. Such focus is warranted due to increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and other dietary-related disease. To address suboptimal dietary intake requires an improved, contextualized understanding of the multiple and intersecting influences on healthy eating, particularly among those populations at greatest risk of and from poor diet, including rural residents. Methods During 8 focus groups (N=99) and 6 group key informant interviews (N=20), diverse Appalachian rural residents were queried about their perceptions of healthy eating, determinants of healthy food intake, and recommendations for improving the dietary intake of people in their communities. Participants included church members and other laypeople, public health officials, social service providers, health care professionals, and others. Findings Participants offered insights on healthy eating consistent with the categories of individual, interpersonal, community, physical, environmental and society-level influences described in the socioecological model. Although many participants identified gaps in dietary knowledge as a persistent problem, informants also identified extra-individual factors, including the influence of family, fellow church members, and schools, policy, advertising and media, and general societal trends, as challenges to healthy dietary intake. We highlight Appalachian residents’ recommendations for promoting healthier diets, including support groups, educational workshops, cooking classes, and community gardening. Conclusions We discuss the implications of these findings for programmatic development in the Appalachian context. PMID:23944277

  12. Fluctuations of healthy and unhealthy heartbeat intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Boon Leong; Toda, Mikito

    2013-04-01

    We show that the RR-interval fluctuations, defined as the difference between successive natural-logarithm of the RR interval, for healthy, congestive-heart-failure (CHF) and atrial-fibrillation (AF) subjects are well modeled by non-Gaussian stable distributions. Our results suggest that healthy or unhealthy RR-interval fluctuation can generally be modeled as a sum of a large number of independent physiological effects which are identically distributed with infinite variance. Furthermore, we show for the first time that one indicator —the scale parameter of the stable distribution— is sufficient to robustly distinguish the three groups of subjects. The scale parameters for healthy subjects are smaller than those for AF subjects but larger than those for CHF subjects —this ordering suggests that the scale parameter could be used to objectively quantify the severity of CHF and AF over time and also serve as an early warning signal for a healthy person when it approaches either boundary of the healthy range.

  13. Predictability of normal heart rhythms and deterministic chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, J. H.; Goodings, D. A.; Kamath, M. V.; Fallen, E. L.

    1993-04-01

    The evidence for deterministic chaos in normal heart rhythms is examined. Electrocardiograms were recorded of 29 subjects falling into four groups—a young healthy group, an older healthy group, and two groups of patients who had recently suffered an acute myocardial infarction. From the measured R-R intervals, a time series of 1000 first differences was constructed for each subject. The correlation integral of Grassberger and Procaccia was calculated for several subjects using these relatively short time series. No evidence was found for the existence of an attractor having a dimension less than about 4. However, a prediction method recently proposed by Sugihara and May and an autoregressive linear predictor both show that there is a measure of short-term predictability in the differenced R-R intervals. Further analysis revealed that the short-term predictability calculated by the Sugihara-May method is not consistent with the null hypothesis of a Gaussian random process. The evidence for a small amount of nonlinear dynamical behavior together with the short-term predictability suggest that there is an element of deterministic chaos in normal heart rhythms, although it is not strong or persistent. Finally, two useful parameters of the predictability curves are identified, namely, the `first step predictability' and the `predictability decay rate,' neither of which appears to be significantly correlated with the standard deviation of the R-R intervals.

  14. The normal ischiofemoral distance and its variations.

    PubMed

    Hujazi, I; Jones, T; Johal, S; Bearcroft, P; Muniz-Terra, G; Khanduja, V

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the ischiofemoral distance (IFD) in the normal hip with healthy surrounding soft tissues and describe its variations caused by gender, age and proximal femoral anatomy so that this could serve as a reference for future studies on this subject. This is a retrospective study in which we reviewed the CT scans of 149 patients (298 hips) who had a CT of their pelvis for non-orthopaedic (abdomino-pelvic) pathology. The images were reviewed by two independent observers and the IFD (the smallest distance between the lateral cortex of the ischial tuberosity and the posteromedial cortex of the lesser trochanter), offset (the perpendicular distance from the centre of the femoral head to a line running down the middle of the shaft of the femur) and the neck-shaft angle (the angle between the lines in the middle of the neck to the line forming the axis of the femoral shaft) were measured. The CT scans belonged to 71 males and 78 females (M: 48%, F: 52%), with an average age of 51  ± 19 years (range 18-92). The mean IFD was 18.6  ±  8 mm in the females and 23  ± 7 mm in the males and this difference was statistically significant (P <  0.001). The IFD increased by 1.06 mm for each 1 mm of offset and dropped by 0.09 mm with each year of age. However, the neck-shaft angle did not show any significant correlation with the IFD. PMID:27583158

  15. Biomechanical modelling of normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Dutta-Roy, Tonmoy; Wittek, Adam; Miller, Karol

    2008-07-19

    This study investigates the mechanics of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) growth using a computational approach. We created a generic 3-D brain mesh of a healthy human brain and modelled the brain parenchyma as single phase and biphasic continuum. In our model, hyperelastic constitutive law and finite deformation theory described deformations within the brain parenchyma. We used a value of 155.77Pa for the shear modulus (mu) of the brain parenchyma. Additionally, in our model, contact boundary definitions constrained the brain outer surface inside the skull. We used transmantle pressure difference to load the model. Fully nonlinear, implicit finite element procedures in the time domain were used to obtain the deformations of the ventricles and the brain. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first 3-D, fully nonlinear model investigating NPH growth mechanics. Clinicians generally accept that at most 1mm of Hg transmantle pressure difference (133.416Pa) is associated with the condition of NPH. Our computations showed that transmantle pressure difference of 1mm of Hg (133.416Pa) did not produce NPH for either single phase or biphasic model of the brain parenchyma. A minimum transmantle pressure difference of 1.764mm of Hg (235.44Pa) was required to produce the clinical condition of NPH. This suggested that the hypothesis of a purely mechanical basis for NPH growth needs to be revised. We also showed that under equal transmantle pressure difference load, there were no significant differences between the computed ventricular volumes for biphasic and incompressible/nearly incompressible single phase model of the brain parenchyma. As a result, there was no major advantage gained by using a biphasic model for the brain parenchyma. We propose that for modelling NPH, nearly incompressible single phase model of the brain parenchyma was adequate. Single phase treatment of the brain parenchyma simplified the mathematical description of the NPH model and resulted in

  16. Equine thoracoscopy: normal anatomy and surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Peroni, J F; Horner, N T; Robinson, N E; Stick, J A

    2001-05-01

    Six normal, healthy horses age 3-10 years underwent left and right thoracoscopic examination using a rigid telescope. A minimum of 30 days was allowed between procedures. Horses were restrained in stocks and sedated with a continuous detomidine infusion. After surgical preparation of the hemithorax elected for surgery, and administration of local or regional anaesthesia of the surgery sites, thoracoscopy was completed during two 15 min pneumothorax periods. During the procedures, the thoracic structures were viewed using a 57 cm, 10 mm diameter, 30 degrees rigid telescope connected to a digital camcorder to allow computer capture of digital images. The telescope was inserted into the thoracic cavity via 3 different intercostal spaces. The 8th, 10th and 12th intercostal spaces were randomly selected and used among horses. The exploration of each hemithorax started from the dorsal-caudal quadrant continued toward the cranial thorax and was completed by observing the diaphragmatic and caudal pulmonary region. Collapsed lung, aorta, oesophagus and diaphragm were viewed readily in either hemithorax. On exploration of the right hemithorax, the azygos vein, thoracic duct and pulmonary veins were also identified. Horses tolerated thoracoscopy well. Signs of discomfort, such as increased respiratory rate, coughing and decreased level of sedation, were associated with lung collapse in one horse, with pneumothorax on 2 occasions, and when the thorax was approached through the 8th intercostal space. Surgery performed via the 8th intercostal space was hindered by the rigidity of the 8th and 9th ribs, and by the presence of a greater musculature, which did not allow easy cranial and caudal movements of the telescope. PMID:11352343

  17. The normal ischiofemoral distance and its variations

    PubMed Central

    Hujazi, I.; Jones, T.; Johal, S.; Bearcroft, P.; Muniz-Terra, G.; Khanduja, V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the ischiofemoral distance (IFD) in the normal hip with healthy surrounding soft tissues and describe its variations caused by gender, age and proximal femoral anatomy so that this could serve as a reference for future studies on this subject. This is a retrospective study in which we reviewed the CT scans of 149 patients (298 hips) who had a CT of their pelvis for non-orthopaedic (abdomino-pelvic) pathology. The images were reviewed by two independent observers and the IFD (the smallest distance between the lateral cortex of the ischial tuberosity and the posteromedial cortex of the lesser trochanter), offset (the perpendicular distance from the centre of the femoral head to a line running down the middle of the shaft of the femur) and the neck-shaft angle (the angle between the lines in the middle of the neck to the line forming the axis of the femoral shaft) were measured. The CT scans belonged to 71 males and 78 females (M: 48%, F: 52%), with an average age of 51  ± 19 years (range 18–92). The mean IFD was 18.6  ±  8 mm in the females and 23  ± 7 mm in the males and this difference was statistically significant (P <  0.001). The IFD increased by 1.06 mm for each 1 mm of offset and dropped by 0.09 mm with each year of age. However, the neck-shaft angle did not show any significant correlation with the IFD. PMID:27583158

  18. Correlations of leuko-araiosis with cerebral atrophy and perfusion in elderly normal subjects and demented patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, J; Meyer, J S; Ichijo, M; Kobari, M; Terayama, Y; Weathers, S

    1993-01-01

    CT images of leuko-araiosis in brain slices were quantified according to volumes of reduced Hounsfield units in frontal periventricular white matter in groups of elderly patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID, n = 23) and dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT, n = 16). Volumes of leuko-araiosis, estimates of atrophic cerebral tissue, and local cerebral perfusion utilising inhalation of xenon gas as the indicator were correlated on the same CT slices. Ratios of frontal leuko-araiosis to total brain tissue volume were similar for patients with MID and DAT (mean 5.7 (SD 2.1)% v 6.5 (3.2%)), and both were significantly greater than ratios in elderly normal volunteers (3.1(1.3)%, 0 < 0.001). Cerebral atrophy (measured as the ratio of volumes of cerebrospinal fluid to total brain area) for DAT patients was 17.0 (6.7)%, which was greater than for MID patients (12.5 (5.4)%; p < 0.05) and both types of patients showed more cerebral atrophy than did age matched, elderly normal subjects. Cerebral perfusion was decreased in all regions measured in patients with MID and DAT compared with elderly normal subjects. Multi variate regression analyses correlated frontal leuko-araiosis with reductions of local cerebral blood flow in subcortical grey matter (p < 0.025) in patients with vascular dementia but not in those with DAT. These quantitative measures implicate decreased perfusion due to atherosclerosis in territories supplied by the deep penetrating cerebral arteries in the pathogenesis of leuko-araiosis in patients with vascular dementia, but suggest a different pathogenesis for leuko-araiosis in Alzheimer's disease. Images PMID:8437007

  19. Quantiles for Finite Mixtures of Normal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Mezbahur; Rahman, Rumanur; Pearson, Larry M.

    2006-01-01

    Quantiles for finite mixtures of normal distributions are computed. The difference between a linear combination of independent normal random variables and a linear combination of independent normal densities is emphasized. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  20. Age-specific CT and MRI templates for spatial normalization

    PubMed Central

    Rorden, Christopher; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fridriksson, Julius; Bender, Benjamin; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2012-01-01

    Spatial normalization reshapes an individual’s brain to match the shape and size of a template image. This is a crucial step required for group-level statistical analyses. The most popular standard templates are derived from MRI scans of young adults. We introduce specialized templates that allow normalization algorithms to be applied to stroke-aged populations. First, we developed a CT template: while this is the dominant modality for many clinical situations, there are no modern CT templates and popular algorithms fail to successfully normalize CT scans. Importantly, our template was based on healthy individuals with ages similar to what is commonly seen in stroke (mean 65 years old). This template allows studies where only CT scans are available. Second, we derived a MRI template that approximately matches the shape of our CT template as well as processing steps that aid the normalization of scans from older individuals (including lesion masking and the ability to generate high quality cortical renderings despite brain injury). The benefit of this strategy is that the resulting templates can be used in studies where mixed modalities are present. We have integrated these templates and processing algorithms into a simple SPM toolbox (http://www.mccauslandcenter.sc.edu/CRNL/tools/spm8-scripts). PMID:22440645