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Sample records for age-matched typically developing

  1. Mother-Child Play: Children with Down Syndrome and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venuti, P.; de Falco, S.; Esposito, G.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2009-01-01

    Child solitary and collaborative mother-child play with 21 children with Down syndrome and 33 mental-age-matched typically developing children were compared. In solitary play, children with Down syndrome showed less exploratory but similar symbolic play compared to typically developing children. From solitary to collaborative play, children with…

  2. Behavioral and Physiological Responses to Child-Directed Speech of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Linda R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Baranek, Grace T.; Mandulak, Kerry C.; Dalton, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Young boys with autism were compared to typically developing boys on responses to nonsocial and child-directed speech (CDS) stimuli. Behavioral (looking) and physiological (heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia) measures were collected. Boys with autism looked equally as much as chronological age-matched peers at nonsocial stimuli, but less…

  3. Behavioral and physiological responses to child-directed speech of children with autism spectrum disorders or typical development.

    PubMed

    Watson, Linda R; Roberts, Jane E; Baranek, Grace T; Mandulak, Kerry C; Dalton, Jennifer C

    2012-08-01

    Young boys with autism were compared to typically developing boys on responses to nonsocial and child-directed speech (CDS) stimuli. Behavioral (looking) and physiological (heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia) measures were collected. Boys with autism looked equally as much as chronological age-matched peers at nonsocial stimuli, but less at CDS stimuli. Boys with autism and language age-matched peers differed in patterns of looking at live versus videotaped CDS stimuli. Boys with autism demonstrated faster heart rates than chronological age-matched peers, but did not differ significantly on respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Reduced attention during CDS may restrict language-learning opportunities for children with autism. The heart rate findings suggest that young children with autism have a nonspecific elevated arousal level. PMID:22071788

  4. Differences in the Performance of Children with Specific Language Impairment and Their Typically Developing Peers on Nonverbal Cognitive Tests: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallinat, Erica; Spaulding, Tammie J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study used meta-analysis to investigate the difference in nonverbal cognitive test performance of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. Method: The meta-analysis included studies (a) that were published between 1995 and 2012 of children with SLI who were age matched (and not…

  5. Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder are more successful at visual search than typically developing toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Kraper, Catherine; Carter, Alice S.; Blaser, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Plaisted, O’Riordan and colleagues (Plaisted, O’Riordan & Baron-Cohen, 1998; O’Riordan, 2004) showed that school-age children and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are faster at finding targets in certain types of visual search tasks than typical controls. Currently though, there is very little known about the visual search skills of very young children (1–3-year-olds) – both typically developing or with ASD. We used an eye-tracker to measure looking behavior, providing fine-grained measures of visual search in 2.5-year-old toddlers with and without ASD (this representing the age by which many children may first receive a diagnosis of ASD). Importantly, our paradigm required no verbal instructions or feedback, making the task appropriate for toddlers who are pre- or nonverbal. We found that toddlers with ASD were more successful at finding the target than typically developing, age-matched controls. Further, our paradigm allowed us to estimate the number of items scrutinized per trial, revealing that for large set size conjunctive search, toddlers with ASD scrutinized as many as twice the number of items as typically developing toddlers, in the same amount of time. PMID:21884314

  6. Prevalence of neurological soft signs and their neuropsychological correlates in typically developing Chinese children and Chinese children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Chan, Raymond C K; McAlonan, Grainne M; Yang, Binrang; Lin, Li; Shum, David; Manschreck, Theo C

    2010-01-01

    This study examined prevalence of soft signs in 214 typically developing Chinese children and investigated whether soft signs are associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in this population. Chinese children with ADHD (N = 54) scored significantly higher than age-matched controls on all three soft signs subscales and motor coordination correlated significantly with Stroop interference. Logistic regression supported the utility of the soft sign scales in discriminating children with ADHD and controls. Children with ADHD had a significant excess of soft signs, which may be a useful marker of developmental disruption in this clinical condition. PMID:21038161

  7. Typical and Delayed Lexical Development in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Frigerio, Alessandra; Sali, Maria Enrica; Spataro, Pietro; Longobardi, Emiddia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) was used to compare Italian and English lexical development. The authors addressed the issue of universal versus language-specific aspects of lexical development by testing language, age, and gender effects on vocabulary scores and by comparing vocabulary composition across languages.…

  8. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  9. Contagious Yawning in Autistic and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Molly S.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Snyder, Peter J.; Fein, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested susceptibility to contagious yawning in 120 children, 1-6 years, to identify the time course of its emergence during development. Results indicated a substantial increase in the frequency of contagious yawning at 4 years. In a second study, the authors examined contagious yawning in 28 children with autism spectrum disorders…

  10. Visual Scan Paths and Recognition of Facial Identity in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C. Ellie; Palermo, Romina; Brock, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have impaired facial identity recognition, and also exhibit abnormal visual scanning of faces. Here, two hypotheses accounting for an association between these observations were tested: i) better facial identity recognition is associated with increased gaze time on the Eye region; ii) better facial identity recognition is associated with increased eye-movements around the face. Methodology and Principal Findings Eye-movements of 11 children with ASD and 11 age-matched typically developing (TD) controls were recorded whilst they viewed a series of faces, and then completed a two alternative forced-choice recognition memory test for the faces. Scores on the memory task were standardized according to age. In both groups, there was no evidence of an association between the proportion of time spent looking at the Eye region of faces and age-standardized recognition performance, thus the first hypothesis was rejected. However, the ‘Dynamic Scanning Index’ – which was incremented each time the participant saccaded into and out of one of the core-feature interest areas – was strongly associated with age-standardized face recognition scores in both groups, even after controlling for various other potential predictors of performance. Conclusions and Significance In support of the second hypothesis, results suggested that increased saccading between core-features was associated with more accurate face recognition ability, both in typical development and ASD. Causal directions of this relationship remain undetermined. PMID:22666378

  11. Ambulatory Physical Activity Performance in Youth With Cerebral Palsy and Youth Who Are Developing Typically

    PubMed Central

    Bjornson, Kristie F; Belza, Basia; Kartin, Deborah; Logsdon, Rebecca; McLaughlin, John F

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose Assessment of walking activity in youth with cerebral palsy (CP) has traditionally been “capacity-based.” The purpose of this study was to describe the day-to-day ambulatory activity “performance” of youth with CP compared with youth who were developing typically. Subjects Eighty-one youth with CP, aged 10 to 13 years, who were categorized as being in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to III and 30 age-matched youth who were developing typically were recruited. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, participants wore the StepWatch monitor for 7 days while documenting average daily total step counts, percentage of all time active, ratio of medium to low activity levels, and percentage of time at high activity levels. Results The youth with CP demonstrated significantly lower levels of all outcomes than the comparison group. Discussion and Conclusion Daily walking activity and variability decreased as functional walking level (GMFCS level) decreased. Ambulatory activity performance within the context of the daily life for youth with CP appears valid and feasible as an outcome for mobility interventions in CP. PMID:17244693

  12. Action Planning in Typically and Atypically Developing Children (Unilateral Cerebral Palsy)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craje, Celine; Aarts, Pauline; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria; Steenbergen, Bert

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the development of action planning in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP, aged 3-6 years, n = 24) and an age matched control group. To investigate action planning, participants performed a sequential movement task. They had to grasp an object (a wooden play sword) and place the sword in a hole in a…

  13. Lack of Generalization of Auditory Learning in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, Lorna F.; Taylor, Jenny L.; Millward, Kerri E.; Moore, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To understand the components of auditory learning in typically developing children by assessing generalization across stimuli, across modalities (i.e., hearing, vision), and to higher level language tasks. Method: Eighty-six 8- to 10-year-old typically developing children were quasi-randomly assigned to 4 groups. Three of the groups…

  14. Action planning in typically and atypically developing children (unilateral cerebral palsy).

    PubMed

    Crajé, Céline; Aarts, Pauline; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria; Steenbergen, Bert

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the development of action planning in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP, aged 3-6 years, n=24) and an age matched control group. To investigate action planning, participants performed a sequential movement task. They had to grasp an object (a wooden play sword) and place the sword in a hole in a wooden block. Our main dependent variable was the grip type that participants used, i.e., did they adapt their initial grip choice such that they would reach a comfortable posture at the end of the action? This end-state comfort effect has been abundantly shown in research on action planning, and is taken as evidence for anticipatory planning. The first aim of the study was to investigate the development of action planning in the unilateral CP group and the control group. Our hypothesis was that action planning improves with age in the control group, but not in the unilateral CP group. The results showed that planning was impaired in the unilateral CP group compared with the control group. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found an age effect in the control group, but not in the unilateral CP group. In the control group 5 and 6 years olds showed more anticipatory planning compared with the 3 and 4 years olds. The second aim of this study was to examine whether an intervention for children with unilateral CP (i.e., constrained induced movement therapy combined with bimanual training) affected action planning. The children with unilateral CP were therefore measured on the experimental task before and after an 8-week intervention period. The results showed that planning improved after the intervention. This finding suggests that action planning ability in young children with unilateral CP may be sensitive to improvement. These findings are discussed within the context of typical and atypical development of action planning and further guidelines for intervention in children with unilateral CP are given. PMID:20451346

  15. Face-to-face interference in typical and atypical development

    PubMed Central

    Riby, Deborah M; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze it interferes with task completion. In this novel study we quantify face interference for the first time in Williams syndrome (WS) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). These disorders of development impact on cognition and social attention, but how do faces interfere with cognitive processing? Individuals developing typically as well as those with ASD (n = 19) and WS (n = 16) were recorded during a question and answer session that involved mathematics questions. In phase 1 gaze behaviour was not manipulated, but in phase 2 participants were required to maintain eye contact with the experimenter at all times. Looking at faces decreased task accuracy for individuals who were developing typically. Critically, the same pattern was seen in WS and ASD, whereby task performance decreased when participants were required to hold face gaze. The results show that looking at faces interferes with task performance in all groups. This finding requires the caveat that individuals with WS and ASD found it harder than individuals who were developing typically to maintain eye contact throughout the interaction. Individuals with ASD struggled to hold eye contact at all points of the interaction while those with WS found it especially difficult when thinking. PMID:22356183

  16. Analogical Reasoning Ability in Autistic and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies (e.g. Dawson et al., 2007) have reported that autistic people perform in the normal range on the Raven Progressive Matrices test, a formal reasoning test that requires integration of relations as well as the ability to infer rules and form high-level abstractions. Here we compared autistic and typically developing children, matched…

  17. Stereotypy in Young Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Rebecca; Green, Gina; Mansfield, Renee; Geckeler, Amy; Gardenier, Nicole; Anderson, Jennifer; Holcomb, William; Sanchez, June

    2007-01-01

    Although stereotypy is one of the key diagnostic features of autism, few studies have compared stereotypic behavior in children with autism and typically developing children. The present study employed direct observational measurement methods to assess levels of stereotypic behavior in 2-, 3- and 4-year-old children with autism or pervasive…

  18. Typical School Personnel Developing and Implementing Basic Behavior Support Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Horner, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of typical school personnel with basic behavioral training to develop and implement function-based supports for students with mild to moderate problem behaviors. Descriptive results indicated that following four 1-hr training sessions, 13 participants were able to (a) identify interventions that were and were not…

  19. Imitation and the Social Mind: Autism and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sally J., Ed.; Williams, Justin H. G., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    From earliest infancy, a typically developing child imitates or mirrors the facial expressions, postures and gestures, and emotional behavior of others. Where does this capacity come from, and what function does it serve? What happens when imitation is impaired? Synthesizing cutting-edge research emerging from a range of disciplines, this…

  20. Temperament Dimensions in Stuttering and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F.; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether children who stutter (CWS) and typically developing children (TDC) differ from each other on composite temperament factors or on individual temperament scales. Methods: Participants consisted of 116 age and gender-matched CWS and TDC (3.04-8.11). Temperament was assessed with a Dutch…

  1. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  2. Stimulus Overselectivity in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, William V.; Farber, Rachel S.; Mueller, Marlana R.; Grant, Eileen; Lorin, Lucy; Deutsch, Curtis K.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulus overselectivity refers to maladaptive narrow attending that is a common learning problem among children with intellectual disabilities and frequently associated with autism. The present study contrasted overselectivity among groups of children with autism, Down syndrome, and typical development. The groups with autism and Down syndrome…

  3. Conversational Profiles of Children with ADHD, SLI and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2004-01-01

    Conversational indices of language impairment were used to investigate similarities and differences among children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and children with typical development (TD). Utterance formulation measures (per cent words mazed and average number of words per…

  4. Stimulus Overselectivity in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development.

    PubMed

    Dube, William V; Farber, Rachel S; Mueller, Marlana R; Grant, Eileen; Lorin, Lucy; Deutsch, Curtis K

    2016-05-01

    Stimulus overselectivity refers to maladaptive narrow attending that is a common learning problem among children with intellectual disabilities and frequently associated with autism. The present study contrasted overselectivity among groups of children with autism, Down syndrome, and typical development. The groups with autism and Down syndrome were matched for intellectual level, and all three groups were matched for developmental levels on tests of nonverbal reasoning and receptive vocabulary. Delayed matching-to-sample tests presented color/form compounds, printed words, photographs of faces, Mayer-Johnson Picture Communication Symbols, and unfamiliar black forms. No significant differences among groups emerged for test accuracy scores. Overselectivity was not statistically overrepresented among individuals with autism in contrast to those with Down syndrome or typically developing children. PMID:27119213

  5. Sex-Typical Play: Masculinization/Defeminization in Girls with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca C.; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon B.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that prenatal masculinization of the brain by androgens increases risk of developing an autism spectrum condition (ASC). Sex-typical play was measured in n = 66 children diagnosed with an ASC and n = 55 typically developing age-matched controls. Consistent with the hypothesis, girls with autism did not show the…

  6. Word Retrieval Ability on Phonemic Fluency in Typically Developing Children.

    PubMed

    John, Sunila; Rajashekhar, Bellur; Guddattu, Vasudeva

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency tasks are simple behavioral measures useful in assessing word retrieval abilities. Among the verbal fluency tasks, the utility of the Phonemic Fluency Task in children has received less attention. As the task is dependent on phonemic characteristics of each language, there is a great need for understanding its developmental trend. The present study, therefore, aims to delineate the performance on phonemic fluency in typically developing Malayalam-speaking children. Verbal fluency performance on 2 tasks of phonemic fluency was tested using a cross-sectional study design among 1,015 school-going Malayalam-speaking typically developing children aged 5 to 15 years old. Performance with respect to word productivity and clustering-switching measures was analyzed. The effect of age, gender, and tasks on the outcome measures were investigated in the present study. Study findings revealed a positive influence of age with no statistically significant gender effects. Children employed both task-discrepant and task-consistent organizational strategies during tasks of phonemic fluency, dependent purely on the Malayalam language. Future research focusing on developmental trends across different languages is vital for enhancing the task's clinical sensitivity and specificity among childhood disorders. PMID:26980155

  7. Development of Sentence Interpretation Strategies by Typically Developing and Late-Talking Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thal, Donna J.; Flores, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    Examined use of word order and animacy for interpretation of sentences by typically-developing and language delayed children. Results indicate that typically-developing 2-year-olds use neither cue consistently to interpret sentences; typically-developing 2.5-year-olds used a coalition of word order and animacy cues; and language-delayed…

  8. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  9. Conditioned place preference successfully established in typically developing children

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Leah Ticker; Takata, Sandy; Thompson, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Affective processing, known to influence attention, motivation, and emotional regulation is poorly understood in young children, especially for those with neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by language impairments. Here we faithfully adapt a well-established animal paradigm used for affective processing, conditioned place preference (CPP) for use in typically developing children between the ages of 30–55 months. Children displayed a CPP, with an average 2.4 fold increase in time spent in the preferred room. Importantly, associative learning as assessed with CPP was not correlated with scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), indicating that CPP can be used with children with a wide range of cognitive skills. PMID:26257617

  10. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Richard A; Pahnke, Aric Q; Johnson, Jeffrey M; Sachse, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06) but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06) and adult (0.91 ± 0.04) myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal that the

  11. Collaborative Problem Solving in Young Typical Development and HFASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimhi, Yael; Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative problem solving (CPS) requires sharing goals/attention and coordinating actions--all deficient in HFASD. Group differences were examined in CPS (HFASD/typical), with a friend versus with a non-friend. Participants included 28 HFASD and 30 typical children aged 3-6 years and their 58 friends and 58 non-friends. Groups were matched on…

  12. Maximal tongue strength in typically developing children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Potter, Nancy L; Short, Robert

    2009-12-01

    Evaluating tongue function is clinically important as the generation of adequate pressure by the anterior tongue against the hard palate is crucial for efficient oropharyngeal swallowing. Research in the evaluation of tongue function in pediatric populations is limited due to questions about the reliability of children's performance on objective measures of tongue strength and the lack of comparative data from typically developing children. The present study examined tongue strength in 150 children and adolescents, 3-16 years of age, with no history of speech or swallowing disorders using the Iowa Oral Pressure Instrument (IOPI). Children as young as 3 years of age were able to tolerate the IOPI standard tongue bulb and were reliable performers on measures of tongue strength with an unconstrained mandible. Tongue strength measurements were elicited in blocks of three trials with a 30-s rest between the trials and a 20-min rest between blocks. Tongue strength increased with age with no consistent best trial across ages and participants. Males showed a slight increase in tongue strength over females at ages 14 and 16. This study suggests maximum pediatric tongue strength may be reliably evaluated using commercially available equipment and provides a limited sample comparative database. PMID:19390891

  13. Processing relative clauses by Hungarian typically developing children

    PubMed Central

    Kas, Bence; Lukács, Ágnes

    2011-01-01

    Hungarian is a language with morphological case marking and relatively free word order. These typological characteristics make it a good ground for testing the crosslinguistic validity of theories on processing sentences with relative clauses. Our study focussed on effects of structural factors and processing capacity. We tested 43 typically developing children in two age groups (ages of 4;11–7;2 and 8;2–11;4) in an act-out task. Differences in comprehension difficulty between different word order patterns and different head function relations were observed independently of each other. The structural properties causing difficulties in comprehension were interruption of main clauses, greater distance between the verb and its arguments, accusative case of relative pronouns, and SO head function relations. Importantly, analyses of associations between working memory and sentence comprehension revealed that structural factors made processing difficult by burdening components of working memory. These results support processing accounts of sentence comprehension in a language typologically different from English. PMID:22888179

  14. Word Detection in Sung and Spoken Sentences in Children With Typical Language Development or With Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Planchou, Clément; Clément, Sylvain; Béland, Renée; Cason, Nia; Motte, Jacques; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported that children score better in language tasks using sung rather than spoken stimuli. We examined word detection ease in sung and spoken sentences that were equated for phoneme duration and pitch variations in children aged 7 to 12 years with typical language development (TLD) as well as in children with specific language impairment (SLI ), and hypothesized that the facilitation effect would vary with language abilities. Method: In Experiment 1, 69 children with TLD (7–10 years old) detected words in sentences that were spoken, sung on pitches extracted from speech, and sung on original scores. In Experiment 2, we added a natural speech rate condition and tested 68 children with TLD (7–12 years old). In Experiment 3, 16 children with SLI and 16 age-matched children with TLD were tested in all four conditions. Results: In both TLD groups, older children scored better than the younger ones. The matched TLD group scored higher than the SLI group who scored at the level of the younger children with TLD . None of the experiments showed a facilitation effect of sung over spoken stimuli. Conclusions: Word detection abilities improved with age in both TLD and SLI groups. Our findings are compatible with the hypothesis of delayed language abilities in children with SLI , and are discussed in light of the role of durational prosodic cues in words detection. PMID:26767070

  15. Study of post-develop defect on typical EUV resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harumoto, Masahiko; Suyama, Sadayasu; Miyagi, Tadashi; Morita, Akihiko; Asai, Masaya; Kaneyama, Koji; Itani, Toshiro

    2011-04-01

    This study reports on post-develop defect for EUV resist process. Presently, research and development of EUV resists are continuously being carried out in terms of resolution, sensitivity, LWR. However, in the preparation of EUV lithography for mass-production, research on the reduction of pattern defects, especially post-develop defect is also necessary. As observed during the early stages of resist development for the various lithographic technologies, a large number of pattern defects are commonly coming from the resist dissolution process. As previously reported, utilizing an EUV exposure tool, we have classified several EUV specific defects on exposed and un-exposed area. And also we have reported approaches of defect reduction. In this work, using some types developer solution (TBAH, TBAH+, etc) comparing with current developer solution (TMAH), EUV specific defects were evaluated. Furthermore, we investigated the defect appearing-mechanism and approached defect reduction by track process. Finally, based on these results, the direction of defect reduction approaches applicable for EUV resist processing was discussed.

  16. Sentence Interpretation by Typically Developing Vietnamese-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    We examined developing bilinguals' use of animacy and word order cues during sentence interpretation tasks administered in each of their languages. Participants were 6- to 8-year-old children who learned Vietnamese as a first language and English as a second language (n = 23). Participants listened to simple sentences and identified the agent or…

  17. Development of Novel Metaphor and Metonymy Comprehension in Typically Developing Children and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Herwegen, Jo; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Rundblad, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension in both typically developing (TD) children and individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Thirty-one TD children between the ages of 3;09 and 17;01 and thirty-four individuals with WS between the ages of 7;01 and 44 years old were administered a newly developed task…

  18. The Development of Metaphorical Language Comprehension in Typical Development and in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Van Duuren, Mike; Purser, Harry R. M.; Mareschal, Denis; Ansari, Daniel; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The domain of figurative language comprehension was used to probe the developmental relation between language and cognition in typically developing individuals and individuals with Williams syndrome. Extending the work of Vosniadou and Ortony, the emergence of nonliteral similarity and category knowledge was investigated in 117 typically…

  19. Pragmatic Language Development in Language Impaired and Typically Developing Children: Incorrect Answers in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Nuala; Leinonen, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on young children's incorrect answers to pragmatically demanding questions. Children with specific language impairment (SLI), including a subgroup with pragmatic language difficulties (PLD) and typically developing children answered questions targeting implicatures, based on a storybook and short verbal scenarios.…

  20. The Comparison of Play Skills of Autistic Mentally Retarded and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazlioglu, Yesim

    2013-01-01

    While the typical developing children show signs of symbolic play in the first two years of life, children with autism may never develop this skill. This deficit in play has implication for other areas of development. What is more? Play is correlated with language ability in both typically developing children and children with ASD. Play in…

  1. Early Deictic but "Not" Other Gestures Predict Later Vocabulary in Both Typical Development and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özçaliskan, Seyda; Adamson, Lauren B.; Dimitrova, Nevena

    2016-01-01

    Research with typically developing children suggests a strong positive relation between early gesture use and subsequent vocabulary development. In this study, we ask whether gesture production plays a similar role for children with autism spectrum disorder. We observed 23 18-month-old typically developing children and 23 30-month-old children…

  2. Fundamental frequency development in typically developing infants and infants with severe-to-profound hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2010-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on the development of suprasegmental characteristics of vocalizations in typically developing infants (TDI) and the role of audition in the development of these characteristics. The purpose of the present study was to examine the longitudinal development of fundamental frequency (F0) in eight TDI and eight infants with severe-to-profound hearing loss matched for level of vocal development. Results revealed no significant changes in F0 with advances in pre-language vocal development for TDI. Infants with hearing loss, however, showed a statistically reliable higher variability of F0 than TDI, when age was accounted for as a covariate. The results suggest development of F0 may be strongly influenced by audition. PMID:19031191

  3. Using Typical Infant Development to Inform Music Therapy with Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Barbara L.; Stultz, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates some ways in which observations of typically-developing infants can inform music therapy and other work with children with disabilities. The research project that is described examines typical infant development with special attention to musical relatedness and communication. Videotapes of sessions centering on musical…

  4. Gestures in Prelinguistic Turkish Children with Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toret, Gokhan; Acarlar, Funda

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gesture use in Turkish children with autism, Down syndrome, and typically developing children. Participants included 30 children in three groups: Ten children with Down syndrome, ten children with autism between 24-60 months of age, and ten typically developing children between 12-18 months of age.…

  5. Teaching Typically Developing Children to Promote Social Play with Their Siblings with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.; Leaf, Justin B.; Dozier, Claudia; Sheldon, Jan B.; Sherman, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Siblings are important "peers" for children. Unfortunately, children with autism often do not play or interact often with their typically developing siblings. The purpose of this study was to teach three typically developing children (ages 4-6) skills that were likely to increase the amount and quality of social play interactions with their…

  6. Typical and Atypical Development of Basic Numerical Skills in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landerl, Karin; Kolle, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in basic numerical processing have been identified as a central and potentially causal problem in developmental dyscalculia; however, so far not much is known about the typical and atypical development of such skills. This study assessed basic number skills cross-sectionally in 262 typically developing and 51 dyscalculic children in…

  7. Establishing Contextual Control over Symmetry and Asymmetry Performances in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Jennifer; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    Experiments 1, 2, and 3 investigated generalized contextually controlled symmetry and asymmetry in typically developing children and children with autism. In Experiment 1, eight typically developing children demonstrated the target performances without intervention. In Experiment 2, multiple-exemplar training and the use of familiar stimuli…

  8. Feeding and Eating Behaviors in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Yolanda; Young, Robyn L.; Robson, Danielle C.

    2008-01-01

    Mothers of children aged 2-12 years completed an exhaustive questionnaire assessing feeding and eating behaviors for both themselves and their children with autism, and typically developing siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (where available), or typically developing children with no sibling with a disability. Results indicate that…

  9. Visuospatial interpolation in typically developing children and in people with Williams Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palomares, Melanie; Landau, Barbara; Egeth, Howard

    2008-10-01

    Visuospatial interpolation is the estimation of object position or contour shape computed from known "anchor" positions. We characterized the developmental profile of interpolation by measuring positional thresholds as a function of inter-element separation without (Experiment 1) and with (Experiment 2) the context of illusory contours in typically developing children, typical adults and individuals with Williams Syndrome (WS), a genetic disorder that causes impaired global visuospatial abilities. We found that typically developing children and WS individuals had more difficulty integrating information across distant elements than typical adults. However, illusory contours improved thresholds in all participant groups in a similar way. Our results suggest that in WS individuals, and in typically developing children, the grouping mechanisms that enable long-range spatial integration are immature. We hypothesize that WS individuals and young children can use stimulus-driven grouping cues for bottom-up integration, but have immature mechanisms for top-down integration of spatial information. PMID:18782587

  10. Social and Non-Social Cueing of Visuospatial Attention in Autism and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, John R.; LaMacchia, Angela; Hoertel, Sarah; Squire, Emma; McVey, Kelly; Todd, Richard D.; Constantino, John N.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments explored attention to eye gaze, which is incompletely understood in typical development and is hypothesized to be disrupted in autism. Experiment 1 (n = 26 typical adults) involved covert orienting to box, arrow, and gaze cues at two probabilities and cue-target times to test whether reorienting for gaze is endogenous, exogenous,…

  11. A Preliminary Description of the Occurrence of Proto-Injurious Behavior in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roane, Henry S.; Ringdahl, Joel E.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Whitmarsh, Ernest L.; Marcus, Bethany A.

    2007-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a disorder typically associated with developmental disabilities. However, throughout early childhood, some typically developing children also display behavior that is topographically similar to SIB but does not cause injury, commonly referred to as "proto-injurious behavior" (PIB). To date, little research has…

  12. Early phonetic development in typically developing children: A longitudinal investigation from Cypriot-Greek child data.

    PubMed

    Petinou, Kakia; Theodorou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the acquisition of consonantal singleton segments in Cypriot-Greek. The study's aims were: (a) to determine the acquisition of segments for manner and place of articulation as a function of age and word position, (b) to provide preliminary normative data, and (c) to further support the cross-linguistic data pool regarding developmental phonology patterns. Participants were 14 Cypriot-Greek speaking typically developing toddlers, examined at ages 24, 28, 32 and 36 months. Spontaneously produced and elicited glossable utterances were used in constructing each child's inventory. Findings revealed an increase of segmental acquisition across all age levels. Group trend analysis for manner and place of articulation indicated bilabial and alveolar stops and nasals to be among the earlier segments to develop. A word medial position advantage was also evident. The findings are discussed in terms of phonological universals and language-specific factors. Implications for early evidence-based phonetic assessment are discussed. PMID:26597650

  13. Development of Proprioceptive Acuity in Typically Developing Children: Normative Data on Forearm Position Sense.

    PubMed

    Holst-Wolf, Jessica M; Yeh, I-Ling; Konczak, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    This study mapped the development of proprioception in healthy, typically developing children by objectively measuring forearm position sense acuity. We assessed position sense acuity in a cross-sectional sample of 308 children (5-17 years old; M/F = 127/181) and a reference group of 26 healthy adults (18-25 years old; M/F = 12/14) using a body-scalable bimanual manipulandum that allowed forearm flexion/extension in the horizontal plane. The non-dominant forearm was passively displaced to one of three target positions. Then participants actively matched the target limb position with their dominant forearm. Each of three positions was matched five times. Position error (PE), calculated as the mean difference between the angular positions of the matching and reference arms, measured position sense bias or systematic error. The respective standard deviation of the differences between the match and reference arm angular positions (SDPdiff) indicated position sense precision or random error. The main results are as follows: First, systematic error, measured by PE, did not change significantly from early childhood to late adolescence (Median PE at 90° target: -2.85° in early childhood; -2.28° in adolescence; and 1.30° in adults). Second, response variability as measured by SDPdiff significantly decreased with age (Median SDPdiff at 90° target: 9.66° in early childhood; 5.30° in late adolescence; and 3.97° in adults). The data of this large cross-sectional sample of children document that proprioceptive development in typically developing children is characterized as an age-related improvement in precision, not as a development or change in bias. In other words, it is the reliability of the perceptual response that improves between early childhood and adulthood. This study provides normative data against which position sense acuity in pediatric patient populations can be compared. The underlying neurophysiological processes that could explain the observed

  14. Development of Proprioceptive Acuity in Typically Developing Children: Normative Data on Forearm Position Sense

    PubMed Central

    Holst-Wolf, Jessica M.; Yeh, I-Ling; Konczak, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    This study mapped the development of proprioception in healthy, typically developing children by objectively measuring forearm position sense acuity. We assessed position sense acuity in a cross-sectional sample of 308 children (5–17 years old; M/F = 127/181) and a reference group of 26 healthy adults (18–25 years old; M/F = 12/14) using a body-scalable bimanual manipulandum that allowed forearm flexion/extension in the horizontal plane. The non-dominant forearm was passively displaced to one of three target positions. Then participants actively matched the target limb position with their dominant forearm. Each of three positions was matched five times. Position error (PE), calculated as the mean difference between the angular positions of the matching and reference arms, measured position sense bias or systematic error. The respective standard deviation of the differences between the match and reference arm angular positions (SDPdiff) indicated position sense precision or random error. The main results are as follows: First, systematic error, measured by PE, did not change significantly from early childhood to late adolescence (Median PE at 90° target: −2.85° in early childhood; −2.28° in adolescence; and 1.30° in adults). Second, response variability as measured by SDPdiff significantly decreased with age (Median SDPdiff at 90° target: 9.66° in early childhood; 5.30° in late adolescence; and 3.97° in adults). The data of this large cross-sectional sample of children document that proprioceptive development in typically developing children is characterized as an age-related improvement in precision, not as a development or change in bias. In other words, it is the reliability of the perceptual response that improves between early childhood and adulthood. This study provides normative data against which position sense acuity in pediatric patient populations can be compared. The underlying neurophysiological processes that could explain the observed

  15. Diverging Narratives: Evaluating the Uses of the Ideal-Typical Sequence of Transport Network Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Joe

    2004-01-01

    The development of new transport systems has been an important and highly visible component of economic development and spatial reorganization in the past two centuries. The Ideal-Typical Sequence of network development has been a widely used model of transport development. This paper shows that this model has been used in several different ways,…

  16. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  17. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in typically developing infants from 4 to 18 months.

    PubMed

    van Balen, Lieke C; Dijkstra, Linze Jaap; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2012-07-01

    Knowledge on the development of postural adjustments during infancy, in particular on the development of postural muscle coordination, is limited. This study aimed at the evaluation of the development of postural control during reaching in a supported sitting condition. Eleven typically developing infants participated in the study and were assessed at the ages of 4, 6, 10 and 18 months. We elicited reaching movements by presenting small toys at an arm's length distance, whilst activity of multiple arm, neck and trunk muscles was recorded using surface EMG. A model-based computer algorithm was used to detect the onset of phasic muscle activity. The results indicated that postural muscle activity during reaching whilst sitting supported is highly variable. Direction-specific postural activity was inconsistently present from early age onwards and increased between 10 and 18 months without reaching a 100 % consistency. The dominant pattern of activation at all ages was the 'complete pattern', in which all direction-specific muscles were recruited. At 4 months, a slight preference for top-down recruitment existed, which was gradually replaced by a preference for bottom-up recruitment. We conclude that postural control during the ecological task of reaching during supported sitting between 4 and 18 months of age is primarily characterized by variation. Already from 4 months onwards, infants are-within the variation-sometimes able to select muscle recruitment strategies that are optimal to the task at hand. PMID:22623096

  18. Development of novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension in typically developing children and Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Van Herwegen, Jo; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Rundblad, Gabriella

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the development of novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension in both typically developing (TD) children and individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Thirty-one TD children between the ages of 3;09 and 17;01 and thirty-four individuals with WS between the ages of 7;01 and 44 years old were administered a newly developed task examining novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension, as well as a range of standardised tests that assess semantic knowledge. This age range and the background measures allowed construction of developmental trajectories to investigate whether chronological age or mental age, represented by word knowledge, relate to novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension. The results showed that comprehension of figurative language did not increase with chronological age in WS, in contrast to TD. Although there was no difference for the different types of metaphors, certain metonymy expressions were found to be easier than others in the TD group. In addition, semantic knowledge was a reliable predictor for novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension in the TD but only for metonymy in the WS group. In sum, development of novel metonymy in the WS group is only delayed while comprehension of novel metaphor is both delayed and atypical. However, future research should further investigate differences between sub-types, as well as what cognitive factors relate to novel metaphor comprehension in individuals with Williams syndrome. PMID:23417135

  19. Hand leading and hand taking gestures in autism and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Juan-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism use hand taking and hand leading gestures to interact with others. This is traditionally considered to be an example of atypical behaviour illustrating the lack of intersubjective understanding in autism. However the assumption that these gestures are atypical is based upon scarce empirical evidence. In this paper I present detailed observations in children with autism and typically developing children, suggesting that hand-leading gestures may be an adaptive form of interaction in typically developing children neglected by mainstream developmental psychology. I conclude that, although there may be features differentiating how these gestures are used in autism and typical children, systematic research on them is needed to clarify their nature and significance for both typical and atypical development. PMID:25388062

  20. Longitudinal Relationships between Lexical and Grammatical Development in Typical and Late-Talking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyle, Maura Jones; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Evans, Julia L.; Lindstrom, Mary J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the longitudinal relationships between lexical and grammatical development in typically developing (TD) and late-talking children for the purposes of testing the single-mechanism account of language acquisition and comparing the developmental trajectories of lexical and grammatical development in late-talking and TD…

  1. SOCIAL AND NON-SOCIAL CUEING OF VISUOSPATIAL ATTENTION IN AUTISM AND TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Pruett, John R.; LaMacchia, Angela; Hoertel, Sarah; Squire, Emma; McVey, Kelly; Todd, Richard D.; Constantino, John N.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments explored attention to eye gaze, which is incompletely understood in typical development and is hypothesized to be disrupted in autism. Experiment 1 (n=26 typical adults) involved covert orienting to box, arrow, and gaze cues at two probabilities and cue-target times to test whether reorienting for gaze is endogenous, exogenous, or unique; experiment 2 (total n=80: male and female children and adults) studied age and sex effects on gaze cueing. Gaze cueing appears endogenous and may strengthen in typical development. Experiment 3 tested exogenous, endogenous, and/or gaze-based orienting in 25 typical and 27 Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) children. ASD children made more saccades, slowing their reaction times; however, exogenous and endogenous orienting, including gaze cueing, appear intact in ASD. PMID:20809377

  2. Social and non-social cueing of visuospatial attention in autism and typical development.

    PubMed

    Pruett, John R; LaMacchia, Angela; Hoertel, Sarah; Squire, Emma; McVey, Kelly; Todd, Richard D; Constantino, John N; Petersen, Steven E

    2011-06-01

    Three experiments explored attention to eye gaze, which is incompletely understood in typical development and is hypothesized to be disrupted in autism. Experiment 1 (n = 26 typical adults) involved covert orienting to box, arrow, and gaze cues at two probabilities and cue-target times to test whether reorienting for gaze is endogenous, exogenous, or unique; experiment 2 (total n = 80: male and female children and adults) studied age and sex effects on gaze cueing. Gaze cueing appears endogenous and may strengthen in typical development. Experiment 3 tested exogenous, endogenous, and gaze-based orienting in 25 typical and 27 Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) children. ASD children made more saccades, slowing their reaction times; however, exogenous and endogenous orienting, including gaze cueing, appear intact in ASD. PMID:20809377

  3. [Research on developping the spectral dataset for Dunhuang typical colors based on color constancy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Wan, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zhen; Li, Chan; Liang, Jin-Xing

    2013-11-01

    The present paper aims at developping a method to reasonably set up the typical spectral color dataset for different kinds of Chinese cultural heritage in color rendering process. The world famous wall paintings dating from more than 1700 years ago in Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes was taken as typical case in this research. In order to maintain the color constancy during the color rendering workflow of Dunhuang culture relics, a chromatic adaptation based method for developping the spectral dataset of typical colors for those wall paintings was proposed from the view point of human vision perception ability. Under the help and guidance of researchers in the art-research institution and protection-research institution of Dunhuang Academy and according to the existing research achievement of Dunhuang Research in the past years, 48 typical known Dunhuang pigments were chosen and 240 representative color samples were made with reflective spectral ranging from 360 to 750 nm was acquired by a spectrometer. In order to find the typical colors of the above mentioned color samples, the original dataset was devided into several subgroups by clustering analysis. The grouping number, together with the most typical samples for each subgroup which made up the firstly built typical color dataset, was determined by wilcoxon signed rank test according to the color inconstancy index comprehensively calculated under 6 typical illuminating conditions. Considering the completeness of gamut of Dunhuang wall paintings, 8 complementary colors was determined and finally the typical spectral color dataset was built up which contains 100 representative spectral colors. The analytical calculating results show that the median color inconstancy index of the built dataset in 99% confidence level by wilcoxon signed rank test was 3.28 and the 100 colors are distributing in the whole gamut uniformly, which ensures that this dataset can provide reasonable reference for choosing the color with highest

  4. Clinical Correlates of Parenting Stress in Children with Tourette Syndrome and in Typically Developing Children

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Stephanie B.; Greene, Deanna J.; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Church, Jessica A.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of tic severity in children with Tourette syndrome on parenting stress and the impact of comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptomatology on parenting stress in both children with Tourett syndrome and typically developing children. Study design Children with diagnosed Tourett syndrome (n=74) and 48 tic-free typically developing controls were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Results Parenting stress was higher in the group with Tourette syndrome than the typically developing group. Higher levels of parenting stress were related to greater ADHD symptomatology in both children with Tourette syndrome and typically developing children. OCD symptomatology was correlated with parenting stress in Tourett syndrome. Parenting stress was independent of tic severity in patients with Tourette syndrome. Conclusions For parents of children with Tourett syndrome, parenting stress appears to be related to the child’s ADHD and OCD comorbidity and not to the child’s tic severity. Subthreshold ADHD symptomatology also appears to be related to parenting stress in parents of typically developing children. These findings demonstrate that ADHD symptomatology impacts parental stress both in children with and without a chronic tic disorder. PMID:25769235

  5. Does facial expressivity count? How typically developing children respond initially to children with autism.

    PubMed

    Stagg, Steven D; Slavny, Rachel; Hand, Charlotte; Cardoso, Alice; Smith, Pamela

    2014-08-01

    Research investigating expressivity in children with autism spectrum disorder has reported flat affect or bizarre facial expressivity within this population; however, the impact expressivity may have on first impression formation has received little research input. We examined how videos of children with autism spectrum disorder were rated for expressivity by adults blind to the condition. We further investigated the friendship ratings given by 44 typically developing children to the same videos. These ratings were compared to friendship ratings given to video clips of typically developing children. Results demonstrated that adult raters, blind to the diagnosis of the children in the videos, rated children with autism spectrum disorder as being less expressive than typically developing children. These autism spectrum disorder children were also rated lower than typically developing children on all aspects of our friendship measures by the 44 child raters. Results suggest that impression formation is less positive towards children with autism spectrum disorder than towards typically developing children even when exposure time is brief. PMID:24121180

  6. Distinct neuropsychological subgroups in typically developing youth inform heterogeneity in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fair, Damien A; Bathula, Deepti; Nikolas, Molly A; Nigg, Joel T

    2012-04-24

    Research and clinical investigations in psychiatry largely rely on the de facto assumption that the diagnostic categories identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) represent homogeneous syndromes. However, the mechanistic heterogeneity that potentially underlies the existing classification scheme might limit discovery of etiology for most developmental psychiatric disorders. Another, perhaps less palpable, reality may also be interfering with progress-heterogeneity in typically developing populations. In this report we attempt to clarify neuropsychological heterogeneity in a large dataset of typically developing youth and youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), using graph theory and community detection. We sought to determine whether data-driven neuropsychological subtypes could be discerned in children with and without the disorder. Because individual classification is the sine qua non for eventual clinical translation, we also apply support vector machine-based multivariate pattern analysis to identify how well ADHD status in individual children can be identified as defined by the community detection delineated subtypes. The analysis yielded several unique, but similar subtypes across both populations. Just as importantly, comparing typically developing children with ADHD children within each of these distinct subgroups increased diagnostic accuracy. Two important principles were identified that have the potential to advance our understanding of typical development and developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. The first tenet suggests that typically developing children can be classified into distinct neuropsychological subgroups with high precision. The second tenet proposes that some of the heterogeneity in individuals with ADHD might be "nested" in this normal variation. PMID:22474392

  7. The Production of Figurative Language in Typically Developing Children and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Lauren; Van Herwegen, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated the development of figurative language production, including different types of figurative expressions, during a fictional narrative in 20 typically developing (TD) children and 20 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 7-18 years old. In contrast to previous studies, developmental trajectories showed that (1) the…

  8. Peer Social Skills and Theory of Mind in Children with Autism, Deafness, or Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia; Moore, Chris; Wellman, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    Consequences of theory of mind (ToM) development for daily social lives of children are uncertain. Five to 13-year-olds (N = 195) with typical development, autism, or deafness (both native and late signers) took ToM tests and their teachers reported on their social skills for peer interaction (e.g., leadership, group entry). Groups differed in…

  9. Teaching Perspective-Taking Skills to Typically Developing Children through Derived Relational Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heagle, Amie I.; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2006-01-01

    Perspective-taking is an ability that requires a child to emit a selection response of informational states in himself or herself and in others. This study used an extended version of the Barnes-Holmes protocol developed in a series of studies by McHugh, Barnes-Holmes, and Barnes-Holmes (2004) to teach typically developing children between the…

  10. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

  11. Analysis of Mother-Infant Interaction in Infants with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonims, Vicky; McConachie, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Delays in development of early social behaviors in babies with Down syndrome are likely to affect patterns of interaction with their caregivers. We videotaped 23 babies in face-to-face interaction with their mothers at 8 and 20 weeks of age and compared them to 23 typically developing infants and their mothers. Social behaviors, mothers'…

  12. Structural and Lexical Case in Child German: Evidence from Language-Impaired and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenbeiss, Sonja; Bartke, Susanne; Clahsen, Harald

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examined the system of case marking in two groups of German speaking children, 5 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 5 typically developing (TD) children matched to the children with SLI on a general measure of language development. The data from both groups demonstrate high accuracy scores for structural case…

  13. Typical and Atypical (Cerebral Palsy) Development of Unimanual and Bimanual Grasp Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Loes; Steenbergen, Bert

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we tested 13 children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 24 typically developing children (7-12 years old) in a unimanual and bimanual motor planning task. We focused on two research questions: (1) How does motor planning develop in children with and without CP? and (2) Is motor planning facilitated when the task is performed with…

  14. Voluntary Orienting among Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome and MA-Matched Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Karen J.; Flanagan, Tara; Shulman, Cory; Enns, James T.; Burack, Jacob A.

    2005-01-01

    A forced-choice reaction-time (RT) task was used to examine voluntary visual orienting among children and adolescents with trisomy 21 Down syndrome and typically developing children matched at an MA of approximately 5.6 years, an age when the development of orienting abilities reaches optimal adult-like efficiency. Both groups displayed faster…

  15. Predictors of Reading Comprehension in Children with Cerebral Palsy and Typically Developing Children

    PubMed Central

    Asbell, Shana; Donders, Jacobus; Van Tubbergen, Marie; Warschausky, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Predictors of reading comprehension were evaluated in 41 children with cerebral palsy and 74 typically developing children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the relative contributions of measures of phonemic awareness, receptive vocabulary, and general reasoning to variance in reading comprehension. All three independent variables were statistically significant predictors of reading comprehension in both groups of participants. The impact of phonemic awareness on reading comprehension was moderated by age, but only in the typically developing group. Within the group with cerebral palsy, there was an indirect effect of functional expressive ability on reading comprehension, mediated by phonemic awareness. It is concluded that largely the same variables predict reading comprehension in children with cerebral palsy as in typically developing children, but that children with cerebral palsy continue to rely on phonological processing for a more protracted period of time. PMID:20455127

  16. Attention and word learning in autistic, language delayed and typically developing children

    PubMed Central

    Tenenbaum, Elena J.; Amso, Dima; Abar, Beau; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that patterns of social attention hold predictive value for language development in typically developing infants. The goal of this research was to explore how patterns of attention in autistic, language delayed, and typically developing children relate to early word learning and language abilities. We tracked patterns of eye movements to faces and objects while children watched videos of a woman teaching them a series of new words. Subsequent test trials measured participants‘ recognition of these novel word-object pairings. Results indicated that greater attention to the speaker‘s mouth was related to higher scores on standardized measures of language development for autistic and typically developing children (but not for language delayed children). This effect was mediated by age for typically developing, but not autistic children. When effects of age were controlled for, attention to the mouth among language delayed participants was negatively correlated with standardized measures of language learning. Attention to the speaker‘s mouth and eyes while she was teaching the new words was also predictive of faster recognition of those words among autistic children. These results suggest that language delays among children with autism may be driven in part by aberrant social attention, and that the mechanisms underlying these delays may differ from those in language delayed participants without autism. PMID:24904503

  17. Macrostructure in the Narratives of Estonian Children with Typical Development and Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soodla, Piret; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the macrostructure in Estonian children's narratives according to the story grammar (SG) model. The study's aims were to determine whether differences exist in narrative macrostructure between Estonian- and English-speaking children, among typically developed (TD) children, and between children with and without…

  18. Dietary Patterns and Body Mass Index in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, E. Whitney; Must, Aviva; Anderson, Sarah E.; Curtin, Carol; Scampini, Renee; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether dietary patterns (juice and sweetened non-dairy beverages, fruits, vegetables, fruits and vegetables, snack foods, and kid's meals) and associations between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) differed between 53 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 58 typically developing children, ages 3-11, multivariate…

  19. Sleep Problems of Parents of Typically Developing Children and Parents of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Wagner, Muriel C.; Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.; Hodge, Danelle; Gilliam, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Few researchers have investigated the relation of children's sleep problems to their parents' sleep problems. Children with autism have been reported to evidence greater sleep problems than do typically developing children (C. D. Hoffman, D. P. Sweeney, J. E. Gilliam, & M. C. Lopez-Wagner, 2006; P. G. William, L. L. Sears, & A. Allard, 2004). In…

  20. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism and in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.; Gilliam, James E.; Lopez-Wagner, Muriel C.

    2006-01-01

    Although sleep problems are often seen as a clinical feature associated with autism, and children with autism are reported to have more sleep disturbances than typically developing children, there is a paucity of studies in the area and findings are restricted by problematic methodological approaches. The present study addressed these limitations,…

  1. A Survey of Sleep Problems in Autism, Asperger's Disorder and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polimeni, M. A.; Richdale, A. L.; Francis, A. J. P.

    2005-01-01

    Sleep problems are common in typically developing (TD) children and in children with autism, however, less is known about the sleep of children with Asperger's disorder (AD). The aim of this study was to compare sleep patterns of children with autism and AD to a TD group of children. Sixty-six parents of TD children, 53 parents of children with…

  2. Comparison of Physical Activity between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandini, Linda G.; Gleason, James; Curtin, Carol; Lividini, Keith; Anderson, Sarah E.; Cermak, Sharon A.; Maslin, Melissa; Must, Aviva

    2013-01-01

    Regular physical activity is important for promoting health and well-being; however, physical activity behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have received little attention. We compared physical activity levels among 53 children with ASD and 58 typically developing children aged 3-11 years who participated in the Children's…

  3. Anxiety and Depression in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, or Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…

  4. Linguistic Pattern Analysis of Misspellings of Typically Developing Writers in Grades 1-9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Ruth Huntley; Silliman, Elaine R.; Berninger, Virginia W.; Dow, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A mixed-methods approach, evaluating triple word-form theory, was used to describe linguistic patterns of misspellings. Method: Spelling errors were taken from narrative and expository writing samples provided by 888 typically developing students in Grades 1-9. Errors were coded by category (phonological, orthographic, and morphological)…

  5. Emulation and Mimicry in School Students with Typical Development and with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez, Luis; Lorda, María José; Méndez, Cástor

    2014-01-01

    Two samples of participants with typical development (TD) and high functioning autism performed an imitation task where the goal was of high or low salience, and where the modeled action complied with or was contrary to the end-state comfort (ESC) effect. Imitation was affected by the ESC effect in both groups, and participants with autism…

  6. The Representational Status of Pretence: Evidence from Typical Development and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrold, Christopher; Mansergh, Ruth; Whiting, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The question of whether understanding pretend play requires meta-representational skill was examined among typically developing children and individuals with autism. Participants were presented with closely equated true and false pretence trials in which they had to judge a protagonist's pretend reading of a situation, which either matched or…

  7. Intraverbal Behavior and Verbal Conditional Discriminations in Typically Developing Children and Children With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Mark L; Sundberg, Cindy A

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with autism often experience difficulty acquiring a functional intraverbal repertoire, despite demonstrating strong mand, tact, and listener skills. This learning problem may be related to the fact that the primary antecedent variable for most intraverbal behavior involves a type of multiple control identified as a verbal conditional discrimination (VCD). The current study is a descriptive analysis that sought to determine if there is a general sequence of intraverbal acquisition by typically developing children and for children with autism, and if this sequence could be used as a framework for intraverbal assessment and intervention. Thirty-nine typically developing children and 71 children with autism were administered an 80-item intraverbal subtest that contained increasingly difficult intraverbal questions and VCDs. For the typically developing children the results showed that there was a correlation between age and correct intraverbal responses. However, there was variability in the scores of children who were the same age. An error analysis revealed that compound VCDs were the primary cause of errors. Children with autism made the same types of errors as typically developing children who scored at their level on the subtest. These data suggest a potential framework and sequence for intraverbal assessment and intervention. PMID:22532753

  8. Stimulus Overselectivity in Typical Development: Implications for Teaching Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Sarah R.; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Suhrheinrich, Jessica; Schreibman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Stimulus overselectivity is widely accepted as a stimulus control abnormality in autism spectrum disorders and subsets of other populations. Previous research has demonstrated a link between both chronological and mental age and overselectivity in typical development. However, the age at which children are developmentally ready to respond to…

  9. Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

  10. The Development of Product Parity Sensitivity in Children with Mathematics Learning Disability and in Typical Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    Parity helps us determine whether an arithmetic equation is true or false. The current research examines the development of sensitivity to parity cues in multiplication in typically achieving (TA) children (grades 2, 3, 4 and 6) and in children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD, grades 6 and 8), via a verification task. In TA children…

  11. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  12. Comparative Analysis of Crying in Children with Autism, Developmental Delays, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Gianluca; Venuti, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Crying behavior and mother-infant interactions during episodes of crying were coded using the Cry Observation Codes and then compared for 48 mother-infant dyads of children with autism, children with developmental delays, and typically developing children. At 1 year of age, children who would later be diagnosed with autism showed a different…

  13. Case Assignment in Typically Developing English-Speaking Children: A Paired Priming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisman Weil, Lisa Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized a paired priming paradigm to examine the influence of input features on case assignment in typically developing English-speaking children. The Input Ambiguity Hypothesis (Pelham, 2011) was experimentally tested to help explain why children produce subject pronoun case errors. Analyses of third singular "-s" marking on…

  14. Investigating the Relationship between Nonword Repetition Performance and Syllabic Structure in Typical and Atypical Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamburelli, Marco; Jones, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the role of syllabic structure in nonword repetition performance in typically developing (TD) children and children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eighteen children with SLI (5;7--6;7 [years;months]) and 18 TD children matched for chronological age were tested on their ability to…

  15. Psycholinguistic Profiling Differentiates Specific Language Impairment from Typical Development and from Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.; Thompson, Heather L.; Goldstein, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Practitioners must have confidence in the capacity of their language measures to discriminate developmental language disorders from typical development and from other common disorders. In this study, psycholinguistic profiles were collected from 3 groups: children with specific language impairment (SLI), children with…

  16. Mathematical Word Problem Solving Ability of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Typically Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Young Seh; Chiang, Hsu-Min; Hickson, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the difference between children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and children with typical development (TD) in mathematical word problem solving ability and the factors associated with these children's word problem-solving ability. A total of 20 children with ASD and 20 children with TD participated in this study.…

  17. Parenting Stress and Closeness: Mothers of Typically Developing Children and Mothers of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.; Hodge, Danelle; Lopez-Wagner, Muriel C.; Looney, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Mothers of children diagnosed with autism (N = 104) reported higher levels of stress than mothers of typically developing children (N = 342) on 13 of 14 subscales of the "Parenting Stress Index." The only scores that did not differ were from the Attachment subscale, which indicates lack of emotional closeness and rather cold patterns of…

  18. Neonatal Factors in Infants with Autistic Disorder and Typically Developing Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugie, Yoko; Sugie, Hideo; Fukuda, Tokiko; Ito, Masataka

    2005-01-01

    The prenatal and neonatal factors of 225 children diagnosed with Autistic Disorder were compared with those of 1580 typically developing children. Each of the neonatal factors was compared between the Autistic Disorder and control groups, and between males and females. The results showed that males in the "Autistic Disorder" group had a…

  19. Response to Dynamic Language Tasks among Typically Developing Latino Preschool Children with Bilingual Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Janet L.; Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Dale, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether typically developing preschool children with bilingual experience show evidence of learning within brief dynamic assessment language tasks administered in a graduated prompting framework. Dynamic assessment has shown promise for accurate identification of language impairment in bilingual…

  20. Repetition of Words and Non-Words in Typically Developing Children: The Role of Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundström, Simon; Samuelsson, Christina; Lyxell, Björn

    2014-01-01

    In this study, segmental and prosodic aspects of word repetition and non-word repetition in typically developing children aged four to six years were investigated. Focus was on developmental differences, and on how tonal word accent and word length affect segment production accuracy. Prosodically controlled words and non-words were repeated by 44…

  1. Language Learning of Children with Typical Development Using a Deductive Metalinguistic Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In the current study, the author aimed to determine whether 4- to 6-year-old typically developing children possess requisite problem-solving and language abilities to produce, generalize, and retain a novel verb inflection when taught using an explicit, deductive teaching procedure. Method: Study participants included a cross-sectional…

  2. Television, Video Game and Social Media Use among Children with ASD and Typically Developing Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Wenstrup, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the nature of television, video game, and social media use in children (ages 8-18) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, n = 202) compared to typically developing siblings (TD, n = 179), and relative to other activities. Parents completed measures assessing children's screen-based and other extracurricular activities. Children…

  3. Participation of Children with Intellectual Disability Compared with Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Matthew; Shields, Nora; Imms, Christine; Black, Monique; Ardern, Clare

    2013-01-01

    We compared participation in out-of-school activities between children with intellectual disability and children with typical development using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment and Preferences for Activities of Children questionnaires. Thirty-eight pairs of children were matched for age (mean age 12.3 plus or minus 2.7…

  4. Social-Emotional Inhibition of Return in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder versus Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antezana, Ligia; Mosner, Maya G.; Troiani, Vanessa; Yerys, Benjamin E.

    2016-01-01

    In typical development there is a bias to orient visual attention to social information. Children with ASD do not reliably demonstrate this bias, and the role of attention orienting has not been well studied. We examined attention orienting via the inhibition of return (IOR) mechanism in a spatial cueing task using social-emotional cues; we…

  5. Engaging with the Self: Mirror Behaviour in Autism, Down Syndrome and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Vasudevi; Williams, Emma; Costantini, Cristina; Lan, Britta

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism achieve mirror self-recognition appropriate to developmental age, but are nonetheless reported to have problems in other aspects of a sense of self. We observed behaviour in the mirror in 12 pre-school children with autism, 13 pre-school children with Down syndrome (DS) and 13 typically developing (TD) toddlers. Reliable…

  6. Word Problem Solving of Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Students with Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Young Seh

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Word Problem Solving of Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Students with Typical Development Young Seh Bae This study investigated mathematical word problem solving and the factors associated with the solution paths adopted by two groups of participants (N=40), students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and typically…

  7. Assessing Children with Autism, Mental Retardation, and Typical Development Using the Playground Observation Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Daniel H.; Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Troxell, Lucinda B.; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Elementary school children with normal intelligence and autism (n = 20), mental retardation and no autism (n = 24), and typical development (n = 37) were observed for 15 minutes during recess at school. Ten behaviors were scored as present or absent using the Playground Observation Checklist. Children with autism were distinguished from children…

  8. Young Friendship in HFASD and Typical Development: Friend versus Non-Friend Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit; Agam-Ben-Artzi, Galit

    2014-01-01

    This study conducted comparative assessment of friendship in preschoolers with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD, n = 29) versus preschoolers with typical development (n = 30), focusing on interactions with friends versus acquaintances. Groups were matched on SES, verbal/nonverbal MA, IQ, and CA. Multidimensional assessments…

  9. Sleep Problems among Taiwanese Children with Autism, Their Siblings and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Miao-Chun; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Wu, Yu-Yu; Lee, Ju-Chin; Wong, Ching-Ching; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    The current study compared the sleep schedules, sleep problems among children with autism, their siblings and typically developing children, and to explore other associated factors with sleep problems. We conducted a case-control study consisting 110 children with autistic disorder, 125 unaffected siblings, and 110 age-, sex-, and parental…

  10. Assessment of Distress in Young Children: A Comparison of Autistic Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, G.; Venuti, P.; Bornstein, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Distress emotions in very young children are manifest in vocal, facial, and bodily cues. Moreover, children with different developmental conditions (i.e. autistic disorder, AD; developmental delay, DD; typically developing, TD) appear to manifest their distress emotions via different channels. To decompose channel of emotional distress display by…

  11. Understanding the mapping between numerical approximation and number words: Evidence from Williams syndrome and typical development

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin; Landau, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    All numerate humans have access to two systems of number representation: an exact system that is argued to be based on language and that supports formal mathematics, and an Approximate Number System (ANS) that is present at birth and appears independent of language. Here we examine the interaction between these two systems by comparing the profiles of people with Williams Syndrome (WS) with those of typically developing children between ages 4 and 9 years. WS is a rare genetic deficit marked by fluent and well-structured language together with severe spatial deficits, deficits in formal math, and abnormalities of the parietal cortex, which is thought to subserve the ANS. One of our tasks, requiring approximate number comparison but no number words, revealed that the ANS precision of adolescents with WS was in the range of typically developing 2- to 4-year-olds. Their precision improved with age but never reached the level of typically developing 6- or 9-year-olds. The second task, requiring verbal number estimation using number words, revealed that the estimates produced by adolescents with WS were comparable to those of typically developing 6- and 9-year-olds, i.e., were more advanced than their ANS precision. These results suggest that ANS precision is somewhat separable from the mapping between approximate numerosities and number words, as the former can be severely damaged in a genetic disorder without commensurate impairment in the latter. PMID:24581047

  12. Sleep Patterns in Preschool-Age Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates sleep disorders by assessing the quantity and quality of sleep in preschool children with autism and comparing them with developmental delay without autism, and typical development. The results prove that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across all three categories.

  13. Daytime Sleep Patterns in Preschool Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Anders, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined daytime sleep patterns in 3 groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism, children with developmental delay, and children who were developing typically. Sleep was assessed in 194 children via actigraphy and parent-report sleep diaries for 7 consecutive days on 3 separate occasions over 6 months. Children with…

  14. Effortful Control in Typically Developing Boys and in Boys with ADHD or Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samyn, Vicky; Roeyers, Herbert; Bijttebier, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased interest in the role of effortful control (EC) in developmental disorders, few studies have focused on EC in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and no study so far has directly compared children with ASD and children with ADHD. A first aim of this study was to investigate whether typically developing (TD) boys, boys with ADHD and…

  15. Understanding the mapping between numerical approximation and number words: evidence from Williams syndrome and typical development.

    PubMed

    Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin; Landau, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    All numerate humans have access to two systems of number representation: an exact system that is argued to be based on language and that supports formal mathematics, and an Approximate Number System (ANS) that is present at birth and appears independent of language. Here we examine the interaction between these two systems by comparing the profiles of people with Williams syndrome (WS) with those of typically developing children between ages 4 and 9 years. WS is a rare genetic deficit marked by fluent and well-structured language together with severe spatial deficits, deficits in formal math, and abnormalities of the parietal cortex, which is thought to subserve the ANS. One of our tasks, requiring approximate number comparison but no number words, revealed that the ANS precision of adolescents with WS was in the range of typically developing 2- to 4-year-olds. Their precision improved with age but never reached the level of typically developing 6- or 9-year-olds. The second task, requiring verbal number estimation using number words, revealed that the estimates produced by adolescents with WS were comparable to those of typically developing 6- and 9-year-olds, i.e. were more advanced than their ANS precision. These results suggest that ANS precision is somewhat separable from the mapping between approximate numerosities and number words, as the former can be severely damaged in a genetic disorder without commensurate impairment in the latter. PMID:24581047

  16. Comparison of Sedentary Behaviors between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah M.; Curtin, Carol; Anderson, Sarah E.; Maslin, Melissa; Lividini, Keith; Bandini, Linda G.

    2014-01-01

    Time spent in sedentary behavior is largely due to time spent engaged with electronic screen media. Little is known about the extent to which sedentary behaviors for children with autism spectrum disorder differ from typically developing children. We used parental report to assess and compare time spent in sedentary behaviors for 53 children with…

  17. Regional Dialect Variation in the Vowel Systems of Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen; Salmons, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate regional dialect variation in the vowel systems of typically developing 8- to 12-year-old children. Method: Thirteen vowels in isolated "h_d" words were produced by 94 children and 93 adults (males and females). All participants spoke American English and were born and raised in 1 of 3 distinct dialect regions in the United…

  18. Variable Use of Features Associated with African American English by Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janice E.; Pearson, Barbara Zurer

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The well-known decline in the use of African American English (AAE) features by groups of school-aged AAE-speaking children was reexamined for patterns of overt-, zero-, and mixed-marking for individual features and individual speakers. Methods: Seven hundred twenty-nine typically developing children between the ages of 4 and 12--511…

  19. The Association between Graphomotor Tests and Participation of Typically Developing Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Limor

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between graphomotor tests--VMI, ROCF, SWT--and the measures of a child's participation. Seventy-five typically developing children aged 4 to 9 years were individually evaluated using the graphomotor tests and their parents completed a participation questionnaire. After controlling for child's age, the…

  20. Gastrointestinal Problems in Children with Autism, Developmental Delays or Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaidez, Virginia; Hansen, Robin L.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2014-01-01

    To compare gastrointestinal (GI) problems among children with: (1) autism spectrum disorder (ASD), (2) developmental delay (DD) and (3) typical development (TD), GI symptom frequencies were obtained for 960 children from the CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment (CHARGE) study. We also examined scores on five Aberrant Behavior…

  1. Mealtime Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Typically Developing Siblings: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadon, Genevieve; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Dunn, Winnie; Gisel, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have mealtime problems. Diagnosis and the social environment may influence eating behaviours. We examined whether children with ASD have more mealtime problems than their typically developing siblings, and whether age and sex are associated with mealtime problems. Forty-eight families participated…

  2. Sustained Attention and Social Competence in Typically Developing Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Laura M. Bennett; Laurie-Rose, Cynthia; Brinkman, Tara M.; McNamara, Kelly A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examines the relationship between sustained attention and social competence in preschool children. While studies demonstrate that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit poor social competence, less is known about typically developing children. Since children with ADHD have associated behavior…

  3. Contribution of Discourse and Morphosyntax Skills to Reading Comprehension in Chinese Dyslexic and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chik, Pakey Pui-man; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Yeung, Pui-sze; Wong, Yau-kai; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Lo, Lap-yan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying important skills for reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic children and their typically developing counterparts matched on age (CA controls) or reading level (RL controls). The children were assessed on Chinese reading comprehension, cognitive, and reading-related skills. Results showed that the dyslexic…

  4. Modulation of Attentional Blink with Emotional Faces in Typical Development and in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Ruiz, Ericka; Strang, John; Sokoloff, Jennifer; Kenworthy, Lauren; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The attentional blink (AB) phenomenon was used to assess the effect of emotional information on early visual attention in typically developing (TD) children and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The AB effect is the momentary perceptual unawareness that follows target identification in a rapid serial visual processing…

  5. 35. ARAIII Instrument development building ARA621 interior. Typical room along ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. ARA-III Instrument development building ARA-621 interior. Typical room along corridor. Markings on wall denote presence or absence of spot contamination. Ineel photo no. 3-23. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Representing Intentions in Self and Other: Studies of Autism and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David; Happe, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to explore the extent to which individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), as well as young typically developing (TD) children, are explicitly aware of their own and others' intentions. In Experiment 1, participants with ASD were significantly less likely than age- and ability-matched comparison participants to…

  7. Proficiency with Tense and Aspect Concordance: Children with SLI and their Typically Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    Children with SLI have difficulty with tense and agreement morphology. This study examined the proficiency of these children and their typically developing peers with the coordination of tense and aspect markers in two-clause sentences. Scenarios designed to elicit past tense were presented to five- to eight-year-old children with SLI (n = 14) and…

  8. Does Nutritional Intake Differ between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Children with Typical Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, Alison C.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Johnson, Susan L.; Leiferman, Jenn; Reynolds, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Consumption of macro- and micronutrients and food group servings by children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; n = 46) and typical development (n = 31) were compared using 3-day diet records. Children with ASDs consumed significantly more vitamin B6 and E and non-dairy protein servings, less calcium, and fewer dairy servings (p less than…

  9. Comparison of physical activity between children with autism spectrum disorders and typically developing children

    PubMed Central

    Bandini, Linda G; Gleason, James; Curtin, Carol; Lividini, Keith; Anderson, Sarah E; Cermak, Sharon A; Maslin, Melissa; Must, Aviva

    2013-01-01

    Regular physical activity is important for promoting health and well-being; however, physical activity behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have received little attention. We compared physical activity levels among 53 children with ASD and 58 typically developing children ages 3–11 years who participated in the Children's Activity and Meal Patterns Study (CHAMPS). After adjustment for age and sex the amount of time spent daily in moderate and vigorous activity (MVPA) was similar in children with ASD (50.0 minutes/day, and typically developing children 57.1 minutes/day). However, parents reported that children with ASD participated in significantly fewer types of physical activities than did typically developing children (6.9vs.9.6, p < .001) and spent less time annually participating in these activities compared to typically developing children (158 vs. 225 hr/yr, p < 0.0001) after adjusting for age and sex. Although both groups of children engaged in similar levels of moderate and vigorous activity (MVPA) as measured by accelerometry, children with ASD engaged in fewer physical activities and for less time according to parental report, suggesting that some of the activity in children with ASD is not captured by standard questionnaire-based measures. PMID:22807562

  10. Swahili Speech Development: Preliminary Normative Data from Typically Developing Pre-School Children in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangji, Nazneen; Pascoe, Michelle; Smouse, Mantoa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Swahili is widely spoken in East Africa, but to date there are no culturally and linguistically appropriate materials available for speech-language therapists working in the region. The challenges are further exacerbated by the limited research available on the typical acquisition of Swahili phonology. Aim: To describe the speech…

  11. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17 015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample. PMID:26538188

  12. Early deictic but not other gestures predict later vocabulary in both typical development and autism.

    PubMed

    Özçalışkan, Şeyda; Adamson, Lauren B; Dimitrova, Nevena

    2016-08-01

    Research with typically developing children suggests a strong positive relation between early gesture use and subsequent vocabulary development. In this study, we ask whether gesture production plays a similar role for children with autism spectrum disorder. We observed 23 18-month-old typically developing children and 23 30-month-old children with autism spectrum disorder interact with their caregivers (Communication Play Protocol) and coded types of gestures children produced (deictic, give, conventional, and iconic) in two communicative contexts (commenting and requesting). One year later, we assessed children's expressive vocabulary, using Expressive Vocabulary Test. Children with autism spectrum disorder showed significant deficits in gesture production, particularly in deictic gestures (i.e. gestures that indicate objects by pointing at them or by holding them up). Importantly, deictic gestures-but not other gestures-predicted children's vocabulary 1 year later regardless of communicative context, a pattern also found in typical development. We conclude that the production of deictic gestures serves as a stepping-stone for vocabulary development. PMID:26503989

  13. Exploring the role of auditory analysis in atypical compared to typical language development.

    PubMed

    Grube, Manon; Cooper, Freya E; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Kelly, Tom; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between auditory processing and language skills has been debated for decades. Previous findings have been inconsistent, both in typically developing and impaired subjects, including those with dyslexia or specific language impairment. Whether correlations between auditory and language skills are consistent between different populations has hardly been addressed at all. The present work presents an exploratory approach of testing for patterns of correlations in a range of measures of auditory processing. In a recent study, we reported findings from a large cohort of eleven-year olds on a range of auditory measures and the data supported a specific role for the processing of short sequences in pitch and time in typical language development. Here we tested whether a group of individuals with dyslexic traits (DT group; n = 28) from the same year group would show the same pattern of correlations between auditory and language skills as the typically developing group (TD group; n = 173). Regarding the raw scores, the DT group showed a significantly poorer performance on the language but not the auditory measures, including measures of pitch, time and rhythm, and timbre (modulation). In terms of correlations, there was a tendency to decrease in correlations between short-sequence processing and language skills, contrasted by a significant increase in correlation for basic, single-sound processing, in particular in the domain of modulation. The data support the notion that the fundamental relationship between auditory and language skills might differ in atypical compared to typical language development, with the implication that merging data or drawing inference between populations might be problematic. Further examination of the relationship between both basic sound feature analysis and music-like sound analysis and language skills in impaired populations might allow the development of appropriate training strategies. These might include types of musical

  14. An examination of the leftward cradling bias among typically developing adults high on autistic traits.

    PubMed

    Fleva, Eleni; Khan, Azizuddin

    2015-01-01

    The leftward cradling bias is the tendency to cradle infants on the left side of the body and it has been linked with hemispheric asymmetry for emotional processing. This study examines this phenomenon using a real-size infant doll in typically developing adults who score high in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes, the Autistic Spectrum Quotient and the Empathy Quotient, measures that assess autistic traits among typically developing individuals. Results revealed that this group showed a reduced tendency to cradle on the left compared to participants who score within the normal range on the above measurements. This study provides further support for the justification of the leftward cradling bias upon brain lateralization on emotional processing. Study limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26120878

  15. Learning word meanings during reading by children with language learning disability and typically-developing peers.

    PubMed

    Steele, Sara C; Watkins, Ruth V

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated whether children with language learning disability (LLD) differed from typically-developing peers in their ability to learn meanings of novel words presented during reading. Fifteen 9-11-year-old children with LLD and 15 typically-developing peers read four passages containing 20 nonsense words. Word learning was assessed through oral definition and multiple-choice tasks. Variables were position of informative context, number of exposures, part of speech, and contextual clues. The LLD group scored lower than same-aged peers on oral definition (p < .001) and multiple-choice (p < .001) tasks. For both groups, there was no effect for position of informative context (p = .867) or number of exposures (p = .223). All children benefitted from contextual clues. The findings suggested difficulty inferring and recalling word meanings during reading and pointed to the need for vocabulary intervention in the upper elementary years for children with LLD. PMID:20524848

  16. Modulation of Attentional Blink with Emotional Faces in Typical Development and in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Ruiz, Ericka; Strang, John; Sokoloff, Jennifer; Kenworthy, Lauren; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The attentional blink (AB) phenomenon was used to assess the effect of emotional information on early visual attention in typically developing (TD) children and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The AB effect is the momentary perceptual unawareness that follows target identification in a rapid serial visual processing stream. It is abolished or reduced for emotional stimuli, indicating that emotional information has privileged access to early visual attention processes. Method We examined the AB effect for faces with neutral and angry facial expressions in 8–14-year-old children with and without an ASD diagnosis. Results Children with ASD exhibited the same magnitude AB effect as typically developing children for both neutral and angry faces. Conclusions Early visual attention to emotional facial expressions was preserved in children with ASD. PMID:23176580

  17. Maternal support for autonomy: relationships with persistence for children with Down syndrome and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Linda; Cuskelly, Monica; Jobling, Anne; Hayes, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Maternal behaviors and child mastery behaviors were examined in 25 children with Down syndrome and 43 typically developing children matched for mental age (24-36 months). During a shared problem-solving task, there were no group differences in maternal directiveness or support for autonomy, and mothers in the two groups used similar verbal strategies when helping their child. There were also no group differences in child mastery behaviors, measured as persistence with two optimally challenging tasks. However, the two groups differed in the relationships of maternal style with child persistence. Children with Down syndrome whose mothers were more supportive of their autonomy in the shared task displayed greater persistence when working independently on a challenging puzzle, while children of highly directive mothers displayed lower levels of persistence. For typically developing children, persistence was unrelated to maternal style, suggesting that mother behaviors may have different causes or consequences in the two groups. PMID:19304452

  18. Social-Emotional Inhibition of Return in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Versus Typical Development.

    PubMed

    Antezana, Ligia; Mosner, Maya G; Troiani, Vanessa; Yerys, Benjamin E

    2016-04-01

    In typical development there is a bias to orient visual attention to social information. Children with ASD do not reliably demonstrate this bias, and the role of attention orienting has not been well studied. We examined attention orienting via the inhibition of return (IOR) mechanism in a spatial cueing task using social-emotional cues; we studied 8- to 17-year-old children with ASD (n = 41) and typically developing controls (TDC) (n = 25). The ASD group exhibited a significantly stronger IOR effect than the TDC group, and the IOR effect correlated positively with social impairments but was unrelated to co-occurring ADHD or anxiety symptoms. The results provide evidence of an early altered attention mechanism that is associated with to core social deficits in ASD. PMID:26586556

  19. Self-locomotion and spatial language and spatial cognition: insights from typical and atypical development

    PubMed Central

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Rivière, James

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have shown that occurrence of locomotion in infancy is correlated with the development of spatial cognitive competencies. Recent evidence suggests that locomotor experience might also be important for the development of spatial language. Together these findings suggest that locomotor experience might play a crucial role in the development of linguistic-cognitive spatial skills. However, some studies indicate that, despite their total deprivation of locomotor experience, young children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have the capacity to acquire and use rich spatial representations including good spatial language. Nonetheless, we have to be cautious about what the striking performances displayed by SMA children can reveal on the link between motor and spatial development, as the dynamics of brain development in atypically developing children are different from typically developing children. PMID:24917836

  20. Heroin snorters versus injectors: comparison on drug use and treatment outcome in age-matched samples.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M J; Chutuape, M A; Stitzer, M L

    1998-12-01

    Drug use histories and treatment outcomes were compared for age, race and gender-matched samples of intravenous (IV; n = 28) versus intranasal (IN; n = 28) opiate abusers entering a 3-day inpatient detoxification unit. Data were derived from the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) interview. Both groups reported daily heroin use prior to detoxification, but IV users reported more days of alcohol and multiple drug use during the past 30 days. Despite age matching, IV users also started using alcohol at an earlier age and accumulated more lifetime months of regular alcohol, cocaine and multidrug use. IV users were more likely to enter treatment following the detox, but no significant outcome differences were noted at 1 and 3 months post-detoxification. The results show that intravenous, as compared to intranasal, opiate users have both a more severe pattern and a more extensive history of the use of non-opiate drugs. PMID:10933336

  1. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  2. Imitation from 12 to 24 months in autism and typical development: a longitudinal Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Young, Gregory S; Rogers, Sally J; Hutman, Ted; Rozga, Agata; Sigman, Marian; Ozonoff, Sally

    2011-11-01

    The development of imitation during the second year of life plays an important role in domains of sociocognitive development such as language and social learning. Deficits in imitation ability in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from toddlerhood into adulthood have also been repeatedly documented, raising the possibility that early disruptions in imitation contribute to the onset of ASD and the deficits in language and social interaction that define the disorder. This study prospectively examined the development of imitation between 12 and 24 months of age in 154 infants at familial risk for ASD and 78 typically developing infants who were all later assessed at 36 months for ASD or other developmental delays. The study established a developmental measure of imitation ability and examined group differences over time, using an analytic Rasch measurement model. Results revealed a unidimensional latent construct of imitation and verified a reliable sequence of imitation skills that was invariant over time for all outcome groups. Results also showed that all groups displayed similar significant linear increases in imitation ability between 12 and 24 months and that these increases were related to individual growth in both expressive language and ratings of social engagement but not in fine motor development. The group of children who developed ASD by age 3 years exhibited delayed imitation development compared with the low-risk typical outcome group across all time-points, but were indistinguishable from other high-risk infants who showed other cognitive delays not related to ASD. PMID:21910524

  3. Imitation from 12 to 24 months in autism and typical development: A longitudinal Rasch analysis

    PubMed Central

    Young, Gregory S.; Rogers, Sally J.; Hutman, Ted; Rozga, Agata; Sigman, Marian; Ozonoff, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The development of imitation during the second year of life plays an important role in domains of socio-cognitive development such as language and social learning. Deficits in imitation ability in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have also been repeatedly documented from toddlerhood into adulthood, raising the possibility that early disruptions in imitation contribute to the onset of ASD and the deficits in language and social interaction that define the disorder. This study prospectively examined the development of imitation between 12 and 24 months of age in 154 infants at familial risk for ASD and 78 typically developing infants who were all later assessed at 36 months for ASD or other developmental delays. The study established a developmental measure of imitation ability, and examined group differences over time, using an analytic Rasch measurement model. Results revealed a unidimensional latent construct of imitation and verified a reliable sequence of imitation skills that was invariant over time for all outcome groups. Results also showed that all groups displayed similar significant linear increases in imitation ability between 12 and 24 months and that these increases were related to individual growth in both expressive language and ratings of social engagement, but not fine motor development. The group of children who developed ASD by age 3 years exhibited delayed imitation development compared to the low-risk typical outcome group across all time-points, but were indistinguishable from other high-risk infants who showed other cognitive delays not related to ASD. PMID:21910524

  4. Language learning of children with typical development using a deductive metalinguistic procedure.

    PubMed

    Finestack, Lizbeth H

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE In the current study, the author aimed to determine whether 4- to 6-year-old typically developing children possess requisite problem-solving and language abilities to produce, generalize, and retain a novel verb inflection when taught using an explicit, deductive teaching procedure. METHOD Study participants included a cross-sectional sample of 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children with typical cognitive and language development. The 66 participants were randomly assigned to either a deductive or inductive teaching condition in which they were taught a novel gender morphological inflection across 4 sessions. Learning was assessed on the basis of performance on learning, generalization, and maintenance probes. RESULTS Across all age groups, children were more likely to successfully use the novel gender form when taught using the deductive procedure than if taught using the inductive procedure (Φ range: .33-.73). Analyses within each age group revealed a robust effect for the 5-year-old children, with less consistent effects across the other age groups. CONCLUSIONS Study results suggest that 4- to 6-year-old children with typical language and cognitive abilities are able to make use of a deductive language teaching procedure when learning a novel gender inflection. Evidence also suggests that this effect is driven by expressive and receptive language ability. PMID:24129009

  5. Language Learning of Children With Typical Development Using a Deductive Metalinguistic Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In the current study, the author aimed to determine whether 4- to 6-year-old typically developing children possess requisite problem-solving and language abilities to produce, generalize, and retain a novel verb inflection when taught using an explicit, deductive teaching procedure. Method Study participants included a cross-sectional sample of 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children with typical cognitive and language development. The 66 participants were randomly assigned to either a deductive or inductive teaching condition in which they were taught a novel gender morphological inflection across 4 sessions. Learning was assessed on the basis of performance on learning, generalization, and maintenance probes. Results Across all age groups, children were more likely to successfully use the novel gender form when taught using the deductive procedure than if taught using the inductive procedure (Φ range: .33–.73). Analyses within each age group revealed a robust effect for the 5-year-old children, with less consistent effects across the other age groups. Conclusions Study results suggest that 4- to 6-year-old children with typical language and cognitive abilities are able to make use of a deductive language teaching procedure when learning a novel gender inflection. Evidence also suggests that this effect is driven by expressive and receptive language ability. PMID:24129009

  6. The Relationship Between Intolerance of Uncertainty, Sensory Sensitivities, and Anxiety in Autistic and Typically Developing Children.

    PubMed

    Neil, Louise; Olsson, Nora Choque; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Guided by a recent theory that proposes fundamental differences in how autistic individuals deal with uncertainty, we investigated the extent to which the cognitive construct 'intolerance of uncertainty' and anxiety were related to parental reports of sensory sensitivities in 64 autistic and 85 typically developing children aged 6-14 years. Intolerance of uncertainty and anxiety explained approximately half the variance in autistic children's sensory sensitivities, but only around a fifth of the variance in typical children's sensory sensitivities. In children with autism only, intolerance of uncertainty remained a significant predictor of children's sensory sensitivities once the effects of anxiety were adjusted for. Our results suggest intolerance of uncertainty is a relevant construct to sensory sensitivities in children with and without autism. PMID:26864157

  7. Morphological constancy in spelling: a comparison of children with dyslexia and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Derrick C; Treiman, Rebecca

    2008-08-01

    The spellings of many English words follow a principle of morphological constancy. For example, musician includes the c of music, even though the pronunciation of this letter changes. With other words, such as explanation and explain, the spellings of morphemes are not retained when affixes are added. We asked whether children with dyslexia use root morphemes to aid their spelling of morphologically complex words. If so, they should sometimes produce misspellings such as 'explaination' for explanation. Our results suggest that children with dyslexia adhere to the principle of morphological constancy to the same extent as typically developing younger children of the same spelling level. In this and other ways, the spellings of older dyslexic children are remarkably similar to those of typical younger children. PMID:18720405

  8. The Development of Route Learning in Down Syndrome, Williams Syndrome and Typical Development: Investigations with Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Sockeel, Pascal; Mellier, Daniel; Blades, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The ability to navigate new environments has a significant impact on the daily life and independence of people with learning difficulties. The aims of this study were to investigate the development of route learning in Down syndrome (N = 50), Williams syndrome (N = 19), and typically developing children between 5 and 11 years old (N = 108); to…

  9. Prelinguistic Vocal Development in Young Cochlear Implant Recipients and Typically Developing Infants: Year 1 of Robust Hearing Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, David J.; Jung, Jongmin

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the time course and sequence of prelinguistic vocal development during the first year of cochlear implant (CI) experience. Thirteen children who were implanted between 8 and 35 months and 11 typically developing (TD) infants participated in this longitudinal study. Adult-child play interactions were video- and…

  10. The Role of Maternal Input in the Development of "wh"-Question Comprehension in Autism and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Anthony; Fein, Deborah; Naigles, Letitia

    2015-01-01

    Social deficits have been implicated in the language delays and deficits of children with autism (ASD); thus, the extent to which these children use language input in social contexts similarly to typically developing (TD) children is unknown. The current study investigated how caregiver input influenced the development of "wh"-question…

  11. Mathematical Word Problem Solving Ability of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and their Typically Developing Peers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young Seh; Chiang, Hsu-Min; Hickson, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the difference between children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and children with typical development (TD) in mathematical word problem solving ability and the factors associated with these children's word problem-solving ability. A total of 20 children with ASD and 20 children with TD participated in this study. Independent sample t tests and Spearman's rho correlations were used for data analysis. This study found: (a) Children with TD had higher word problem solving ability than did children with ASD; (b) Sentence comprehension, math vocabulary, computation, and everyday mathematical knowledge were associated with word problem solving ability of children with ASD and children with TD; and PMID:25682079

  12. Peer social skills and theory of mind in children with autism, deafness, or typical development.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia; Moore, Chris; Wellman, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    Consequences of theory of mind (ToM) development for daily social lives of children are uncertain. Five to 13-year-olds (N = 195) with typical development, autism, or deafness (both native and late signers) took ToM tests and their teachers reported on their social skills for peer interaction (e.g., leadership, group entry). Groups differed in both ToM understanding (with late-signing deaf children especially delayed even relative to autistic children) and peer social skills (with autistic children especially delayed even relative to deaf late signers). Crucially, for the typically developing hearing children and deaf children alike, ToM understanding independently predicted peer social skills over and above age, gender, language ability, and, for deaf children, status as native- or late-signer. These novel findings offer some of the best evidence to date of the relevance of ToM cognitions to real-world social behavior for both these groups. However, for those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) the pattern was different. The apparent link of ToM to peer competence was not a direct one but instead was significantly mediated by language ability. Several possible explanations for this intriguing autism-specific result were also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26524383

  13. Mapping Gray Matter Development: Implications for Typical Development and Vulnerability to Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogtay, Nitin; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have scanned large numbers of children and adolescents repeatedly over time, as their brains develop, tracking volumetric changes in gray and white matter in remarkable detail. Focusing on gray matter changes specifically, here we explain how earlier studies using lobar volumes of specific…

  14. Fishy Fishes: The Typicality of Object Stimuli Used to Assess Children's Language in the Reynell Development Language Scales--III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrnyk, Corinne; Meints, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies show clear evidence that children display typicality effects during early word learning. However, little is known of the typicality of stimuli used by standardized language tests to assess children's language development. Aims: To examine the typicality of stimuli used by the Reynell Developmental Language Scales--III…

  15. Ground reaction forces and lower-limb joint kinetics of turning gait in typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Philippe C; Stebbins, Julie; Theologis, Tim; Zavatsky, Amy B

    2014-11-28

    Turning is a common locomotor task essential to daily activity; however, very little is known about the forces and moments responsible for the kinematic adaptations occurring relative to straight-line gait in typically developing children. Thus, the aims of this study were to analyse ground reaction forces (GRFs), ground reaction free vertical torque (TZ), and the lower-limb joint kinetics of 90° outside (step) and inside (spin) limb turns. Step, spin, and straight walking trials from fifty-four typically developing children were analysed. All children were fit with the Plug-in Gait and Oxford Foot Model marker sets while walking over force plates embedded in the walkway. Net internal joint moments and power were computed via a standard inverse dynamics approach. All dependent variables were statistically analysed over the entire curves using the mean difference 95% bootstrap confidence band approach. GRFs were directed medially for step turns and laterally for spin turns during the turning phase. Directions were reversed and magnitudes decreased during the approach phase. Step turns showed reduced ankle power generation, while spin turns showed large TZ. Both strategies required large knee and hip coronal and transverse plane moments during swing. These kinetic differences highlight adaptations required to maintain stability and reorient the body towards the new walking direction during turning. From a clinical perspective, turning gait may better reveal weaknesses and motor control deficits than straight walking in pathological populations, such as children with cerebral palsy, and could potentially be implemented in standard gait analysis sessions. PMID:25311452

  16. Association between Blood Omega-3 Index and Cognition in Typically Developing Dutch Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    van der Wurff, Inge S. M.; von Schacky, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Groot, Renate H. M.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13–15 years is investigated. Baseline data from Food2Learn, a double-blind and randomized placebo controlled krill oil supplementation trial in typically developing adolescents, were used for the current study. The Omega-3 Index was determined with blood from a finger prick. At baseline, participants finished a neuropsychological test battery consisting of the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST), D2 test of attention, Digit Span Forward and Backward, Concept Shifting Test and Stroop test. Data were analyzed with multiple regression analyses with correction for covariates. The average Omega-3 Index was 3.83% (SD 0.60). Regression analyses between the Omega-3 Index and the outcome parameters revealed significant associations with scores on two of the nine parameters. The association between the Omega-3 Index and both scores on the LDST (β = 0.136 and p = 0.039), and the number of errors of omission on the D2 (β = −0.053 and p = 0.007). This is a possible indication for a higher information processing speed and less impulsivity in those with a higher Omega-3 Index. PMID:26729157

  17. Stroop/reverse-Stroop interference in typical development and its relation to symptoms of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Kokubun, Mitsuru

    2013-08-01

    This study examined prepotent response inhibition among 376 children and young adults divided into five age groups: 23 5-6-year-olds, 80 7-8-year-olds, 72 9-10-year-olds, 98 11-12-year-olds, and 70 young adults (19-24-year-olds). The Stroop/reverse-Stroop test was administered with a manual response. This test measured Stroop interference, which occurred when naming the ink color of the incongruent color word stimuli (for instance the word red printed in blue ink), and the reverse-Stroop interference, which occurred when reading the stimuli. This study also examined the relation between performance on the Stroop/reverse-Stroop test and scores on the ADHD Rating Scale-IV. Results indicated that the Stroop interference decreased with age, whereas the reverse-Stroop interference increased with age. Results also showed that all three scores in the ADHD Rating Scale-IV, two subscale scores of inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and a total score, correlated with the Stroop interference, but not with the reverse-Stroop interference in typically developing children. These results indicated the difference in mechanism between the Stroop interference and the reverse-Stoop interference, and suggested that the Stroop interference is strongly correlated with ADHD symptoms in typically developing children. PMID:23714715

  18. Association between Blood Omega-3 Index and Cognition in Typically Developing Dutch Adolescents.

    PubMed

    van der Wurff, Inge S M; von Schacky, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Zeegers, Maurice P; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-01-01

    The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13-15 years is investigated. Baseline data from Food2Learn, a double-blind and randomized placebo controlled krill oil supplementation trial in typically developing adolescents, were used for the current study. The Omega-3 Index was determined with blood from a finger prick. At baseline, participants finished a neuropsychological test battery consisting of the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST), D2 test of attention, Digit Span Forward and Backward, Concept Shifting Test and Stroop test. Data were analyzed with multiple regression analyses with correction for covariates. The average Omega-3 Index was 3.83% (SD 0.60). Regression analyses between the Omega-3 Index and the outcome parameters revealed significant associations with scores on two of the nine parameters. The association between the Omega-3 Index and both scores on the LDST (β = 0.136 and p = 0.039), and the number of errors of omission on the D2 (β = -0.053 and p = 0.007). This is a possible indication for a higher information processing speed and less impulsivity in those with a higher Omega-3 Index. PMID:26729157

  19. Comparing service use and costs among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders, special needs and typical development.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Barbara; Mosweu, Iris; Jones, Catherine Rg; Charman, Tony; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Happé, Francesca; Byford, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a complex condition that requires specialised care. Knowledge of the costs of autism spectrum disorder, especially in comparison with other conditions, may be useful to galvanise policymakers and leverage investment in education and intervention to mitigate aspects of autism spectrum disorder that negatively impact individuals with the disorder and their families. This article describes the services and associated costs for four groups of individuals: adolescents with autistic disorder, adolescents with other autism spectrum disorders, adolescents with other special educational needs and typically developing adolescents using data from a large, well-characterised cohort assessed as part of the UK Special Needs and Autism Project at the age of 12 years. Average total costs per participant over 6 months were highest in the autistic disorder group (£11,029), followed by the special educational needs group (£9268), the broader autism spectrum disorder group (£8968) and the typically developing group (£2954). Specialised day or residential schooling accounted for the vast majority of costs. In regression analysis, lower age and lower adaptive functioning were associated with higher costs in the groups with an autism spectrum disorder. Sex, ethnicity, number of International Classification of Diseases (10th revision) symptoms, autism spectrum disorder symptom scores and levels of mental health difficulties were not associated with cost. PMID:24913778

  20. Test-retest consistency of speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses in typically-developing children

    PubMed Central

    Hornickel, Jane; Knowles, Erica; Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The click-evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR) is widely used in clinical settings, partly due to its predictability and high test-retest consistency. More recently, the speech-evoked ABR has been used to evaluate subcortical processing of complex signals, allowing for the objective assessment of biological processes underlying auditory function and auditory processing deficits not revealed by responses to clicks. Test-retest reliability of some components of speech-evoked ABRs has been shown for adults and children over the course of months. However, a systematic study of the consistency of the speech-evoked brainstem response in school-age children has not been conducted. In the present study, speech-evoked ABRs were collected from 26 typically-developing children (ages 8-13) at two time points separated by one year. ABRs were collected for /da/ presented in quiet and in a 6-talker babble background noise. Test-retest consistency of response timing, spectral encoding, and signal-to-noise ratio was assessed. Response timing and spectral encoding were highly replicable over the course of one year. The consistency of response timing and spectral encoding found for the speech-evoked ABRs of typically-developing children suggests that the speech-evoked ABR may be a unique tool for research and clinical assessment of auditory function, particularly with respect to auditory-based communication skills. PMID:22197852

  1. Multimodal imaging of temporal processing in typical and atypical language development.

    PubMed

    Kovelman, Ioulia; Wagley, Neelima; Hay, Jessica S F; Ugolini, Margaret; Bowyer, Susan M; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Brennan, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    New approaches to understanding language and reading acquisition propose that the human brain's ability to synchronize its neural firing rate to syllable-length linguistic units may be important to children's ability to acquire human language. Yet, little evidence from brain imaging studies has been available to support this proposal. Here, we summarize three recent brain imaging (functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and magnetoencephalography (MEG)) studies from our laboratories with young English-speaking children (aged 6-12 years). In the first study (fNIRS), we used an auditory beat perception task to show that, in children, the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) responds preferentially to rhythmic beats at 1.5 Hz. In the second study (fMRI), we found correlations between children's amplitude rise-time sensitivity, phonological awareness, and brain activation in the left STG. In the third study (MEG), typically developing children outperformed children with autism spectrum disorder in extracting words from rhythmically rich foreign speech and displayed different brain activation during the learning phase. The overall findings suggest that the efficiency with which left temporal regions process slow temporal (rhythmic) information may be important for gains in language and reading proficiency. These findings carry implications for better understanding of the brain's mechanisms that support language and reading acquisition during both typical and atypical development. PMID:25773611

  2. Development of Writing Knowledge in Grades 2-8: A Comparison of Typically Developing Writers and Their Struggling Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shin-Ju Cindy; Monroe, Brandon W.; Troia, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined student perspectives about writing by interviewing both typically developing and struggling writers in Grades 2 through 8. The findings revealed a progressive developmental pattern of writing knowledge in which novice writers place more emphasis on the physical product and local meaning, while more experienced writers focus on…

  3. The Development of Word-Object Associations in Typically Developing Infants and Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Oh Ryeong

    2013-01-01

    The ability to form associations between words and objects rapidly with a short amount of exposure is a marker of more proficient word learners in typically developing (TD) infants. Investigating the underlying mechanisms for how words are associated with objects is necessary for understanding early word learning in the TD population as well as in…

  4. Multimodal interactions in typically and atypically developing children: natural versus artificial environments.

    PubMed

    Giannopulu, Irini

    2013-11-01

    This review addresses the central role played by multimodal interactions in neurocognitive development. We first analyzed our studies of multimodal verbal and nonverbal cognition and emotional interactions within neuronal, that is, natural environments in typically developing children. We then tried to relate them to the topic of creating artificial environments using mobile toy robots to neurorehabilitate severely autistic children. By doing so, both neural/natural and artificial environments are considered as the basis of neuronal organization and reorganization. The common thread underlying the thinking behind this approach revolves around the brain's intrinsic properties: neuroplasticity and the fact that the brain is neurodynamic. In our approach, neural organization and reorganization using natural or artificial environments aspires to bring computational perspectives into cognitive developmental neuroscience. PMID:23689878

  5. Development of an online database of typical food portion sizes in Irish population groups.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Jacqueline; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The Irish Food Portion Sizes Database (available at www.iuna.net) describes typical portion weights for an extensive range of foods and beverages for Irish children, adolescents and adults. The present paper describes the methodologies used to develop the database and some key characteristics of the portion weight data contained therein. The data are derived from three large, cross-sectional food consumption surveys carried out in Ireland over the last decade: the National Children's Food Survey (2003-2004), National Teens' Food Survey (2005-2006) and National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010). Median, 25th and 75th percentile portion weights are described for a total of 545 items across the three survey groups, split by age group or sex as appropriate. The typical (median) portion weights reported for adolescents and adults are similar for many foods, while those reported for children are notably smaller. Adolescent and adult males generally consume larger portions than their female counterparts, though similar portion weights may be consumed where foods are packaged in unit amounts (for example, pots of yoghurt). The inclusion of energy under-reporters makes little difference to the estimation of typical portion weights in adults. The data have wide-ranging applications in dietary assessment and food labelling, and will serve as a useful reference against which to compare future portion size data from the Irish population. The present paper provides a useful context for researchers and others wishing to use the Irish Food Portion Sizes Database, and may guide researchers in other countries in establishing similar databases of their own. PMID:25191574

  6. Development of method for assessing traffic noise in certain typical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weixiong

    2005-09-01

    Assessing traffic noise is difficult in certain typical conditions in New York City due to changed street geometries, challenges of collection of non-traffic noise components, and levels of existing noise affected by heavy traffic at adjacent streets, among other variables. In general, a proportional model, i.e., a logarithmic equation to compute total passenger car equivalents (PCEs), is employed to assess traffic noise impacts based upon the noise methodology and the noise criteria under the City Environmental Quality Review (CEQR) guidelines. However, in some typical conditions, such as significant changes in roadway or street geometry, roadways that currently carry no or very low traffic volumes, and existing noise levels that are the result of multiple sources, the FHWA Traffic Noise Model (TNM) can be used to better compute project-generated traffic components. This paper presents a development of noise analysis method dealing with these conditions. Once a proportional model identifies any potential noise impacts for screening purposes, TNM computations can be conducted for more thorough and detailed noise analyses. The results demonstrate that while a proportional model provides a practical and convenient noise analysis for most situations, TNM can provide more accurate noise assessments for the conditions listed above.

  7. Development of numerical processing in children with typical and dyscalculic arithmetic skills—a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Landerl, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Numerical processing has been demonstrated to be closely associated with arithmetic skills, however, our knowledge on the development of the relevant cognitive mechanisms is limited. The present longitudinal study investigated the developmental trajectories of numerical processing in 42 children with age-adequate arithmetic development and 41 children with dyscalculia over a 2-year period from beginning of Grade 2, when children were 7; 6 years old, to beginning of Grade 4. A battery of numerical processing tasks (dot enumeration, non-symbolic and symbolic comparison of one- and two-digit numbers, physical comparison, number line estimation) was given five times during the study (beginning and middle of each school year). Efficiency of numerical processing was a very good indicator of development in numerical processing while within-task effects remained largely constant and showed low long-term stability before middle of Grade 3. Children with dyscalculia showed less efficient numerical processing reflected in specifically prolonged response times. Importantly, they showed consistently larger slopes for dot enumeration in the subitizing range, an untypically large compatibility effect when processing two-digit numbers, and they were consistently less accurate in placing numbers on a number line. Thus, we were able to identify parameters that can be used in future research to characterize numerical processing in typical and dyscalculic development. These parameters can also be helpful for identification of children who struggle in their numerical development. PMID:23898310

  8. Mind and Body: Concepts of Human Cognition, Physiology and False Belief in Children with Autism or Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined theory of mind (ToM) and concepts of human biology (eyes, heart, brain, lungs and mind) in a sample of 67 children, including 25 high functioning children with autism (age 6-13), plus age-matched and preschool comparison groups. Contrary to Baron-Cohen [1989, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," 19(4), 579-600],…

  9. Collaborative learning: comparison of outcomes for typically developing children and children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Wishart, J G; Willis, D S; Cebula, K R; Pitcairn, T K

    2007-09-01

    Collaborative learning is widely used in mainstream education but rarely utilized with children who have intellectual disabilities, possibly on the assumption that the metacognitive skills on which it capitalizes are less likely to be available. Effects of collaborative learning experience on a core cognitive skill, sorting by category, were investigated in three child groups: typically developing (TD) children, children with nonspecific intellectual disabilities (NSID) and children with Down syndrome (DS). Following collaboration, sorting performance improved significantly in lower ability partners in TD-TD pairings, with this pattern reversed in NSID-NSID pairings. Neither partner improved significantly in DS-NSID pairings, suggesting that the sociability attributed to children with DS did not necessarily support either their or their partner's learning in this social context. PMID:17676960

  10. Predictors of token-to-token inconsistency in preschool children with typical speech-language development.

    PubMed

    Macrae, Toby; Sosa, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine potential concurrent predictors and replicate rates of token-to-token inconsistency (inconsistency in repeated productions of the same word) in 43 children with typical speech-language development, ages 2;6 to 4;2. A standard linear regression was used to determine which variables, if any, among age, expressive and receptive vocabulary, and speech sound production abilities predicted token-to-token inconsistency. Inconsistency rates in children from one research site, reported elsewhere, were compared to rates in children from a second research site. The results revealed that expressive vocabulary was the only significant predictor of token-to-token inconsistency in these children. Furthermore, inconsistency rates were similarly high across the two research sites. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for our theoretical understanding of token-to-token inconsistency and its role in the differential diagnosis of speech sound disorders in children. PMID:26308586

  11. Anthropomorphic bias found in typically developing children is not found in children with autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Chaminade, Thierry; Rosset, Delphine; Da Fonseca, David; Hodgins, Jessica K; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The anthropomorphic bias describes the finding that the perceived naturalness of a biological motion decreases as the human-likeness of a computer-animated agent increases. To investigate the anthropomorphic bias in autistic children, human or cartoon characters were presented with biological and artificial motions side by side on a touchscreen. Children were required to touch one that would grow while the other would disappear, implicitly rewarding their choice. Only typically developing controls depicted the expected preference for biological motion when rendered with human, but not cartoon, characters. Despite performing the task to report a preference, children with autism depicted neither normal nor reversed anthropomorphic bias, suggesting that they are not sensitive to the congruence of form and motion information when observing computer-animated agents' actions. PMID:24345879

  12. Children with autism spectrum disorder are more trusting than typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Yi, Li; Pan, Junhao; Fan, Yuebo; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Xianmai; Lee, Kang

    2013-11-01

    The current study examined whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) had an indiscriminate trust bias whereby they would believe any information provided by an unfamiliar adult with whom they had no interactive history. Young school-aged children with ASD and their age- and ability-matched typically developing (TD) peers participated in a simple hide-and-seek game. In the game, an experimenter with whom the children had no previous interactive history pointed to or left a marker on a box to indicate the whereabouts of a hidden reward. Results showed that although young school-aged ASD children did not blindly trust any information provided by the unfamiliar adult, they appeared to be more trusting in the adult informant than did their age- and ability-matched TD children. PMID:23810631

  13. Mealtime problems in children with autism spectrum disorder and their typically developing siblings: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Nadon, Geneviève; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Dunn, Winnie; Gisel, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have mealtime problems. Diagnosis and the social environment may influence eating behaviours. We examined whether children with ASD have more mealtime problems than their typically developing siblings, and whether age and sex are associated with mealtime problems. Forty-eight families participated in this cross sectional study by completing a questionnaire (Eating Profile) for their child with ASD, 3 to 12 years of age. A second Eating Profile was completed for the sibling nearest in age without ASD. Children with ASD had a mean of 13.3 eating problems, with lack of food variety predominating. Siblings had 5.0 problems. Children with ASD had more eating problems as infants. Older children tended to have fewer problems than younger children. This study points to the importance of screening for mealtime problems. Children with ASD had significantly more mealtime problems than their sibling living in the same social environment. PMID:20484003

  14. Bullying of youth with autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, or typical development: Victim and parent perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zeedyk, S.M.; Rodriguez, G.; Tipton, L.A.; Baker, B.L.; Blacher, J.

    2014-01-01

    In-depth interviews conducted separately with 13-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), or typical development (TD) and their mothers investigated the experiences of victimization in the form of bullying. Coded constructs from the interviews were utilized to compare groups on the frequency, type, and impact of victimization. Youth with ASD were victimized more frequently than their ID or TD peers, and the groups differed with regard to the type of bullying and the impact it had, with ASD youth faring the worst. Higher internalizing problems and conflict in friendships were found to be significant predictors of victimization, according to both youth- and mother-reports. These predictors were found to be more salient than ASD status alone. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:25285154

  15. Longitudinal mediators of achievement in mathematics and reading in typical and atypical development.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marcia A; Raghubar, Kimberly P; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n=30) and typically developing children (n=35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations, phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency, and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading. PMID:24269579

  16. Longitudinal Mediators of Achievement in Mathematics and Reading in Typical and Atypical Development

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Marcia A.; Raghubar, Kimberly P.; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and which are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n = 30) and typically developing children (n = 35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations; phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency; and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading. PMID:24269579

  17. Anticipatory control and spatial cognition in locomotion and navigation through typical development and in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Belmonti, Vittorio; Cioni, Giovanni; Berthoz, Alain

    2016-03-01

    Behavioural evidence, summarized in this narrative review, supports a developmental model of locomotor control based on increasing neural integration of spatial reference frames. Two consistent adult locomotor behaviours are head stabilization and head anticipation: the head is stabilized to gravity and leads walking direction. This cephalocaudal orienting organization aligns gaze and vestibula with a reference frame centred on the upcoming walking direction, allowing anticipatory control on body kinematics, but is not fully developed until adolescence. Walking trajectories and those of hand movements share many aspects, including power laws coupling velocity to curvature, and minimized spatial variability. In fact, the adult brain can code trajectory geometry in an allocentric reference frame, irrespective of the end effector, regulating body kinematics thereafter. Locomotor trajectory formation, like head anticipation, matures in early adolescence, indicating common neurocomputational substrates. These late-developing control mechanisms can be distinguished from biomechanical problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Children's performance on a novel navigation test, the Magic Carpet, indicates that typical navigation development consists of the increasing integration of egocentric and allocentric reference frames. In CP, right-brain impairment seems to reduce navigation performance due to a maladaptive left-brain sequential egocentric strategy. Spatial integration should be considered more in rehabilitation. PMID:27027604

  18. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  19. A Preliminary Report on the English Phonology of Typically Developing English-Mandarin Bilingual Preschool Singaporean Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    En, Lydea Gn Wei; Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are no published data on typical phonological development for Singaporean children. There is therefore the risk that children's speech in Singapore may be misdiagnosed or that clinicians may set goals erroneously. Aims: This paper reports a preliminary study on the English phonology of typically developing 4;0-4;5-year-old…

  20. Mealtime Behaviors of Preschool Children: Comparison of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provost, Beth; Crowe, Terry K.; Osbourn, Patricia L.; McClain, Catherine; Skipper, Betty J.

    2010-01-01

    This study identified mealtime behaviors of young children (3-6 years old) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compared these behaviors to children with typical development matched for age, gender, and ethnicity. The parents of children with ASD (n = 24) and children with typical development (n = 24) completed a mealtime survey to assess early…

  1. Expressive and Receptive Fast-Mapping in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development: The Influence of Orienting Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2013-01-01

    Typically developing toddlers accurately follow an adult's gaze learn object labels. However, children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) mis-map new words to their own focus of attention. Children with ASD and typical development participated in three word learning conditions. In the follow-in condition, the adult labeled an object which was…

  2. Student-Teacher Relationship Stability across Early School Years for Children with Intellectual Disability or Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.; Eisenhower, Abbey S.

    2009-01-01

    Student-teacher relationships of 37 children with moderate to borderline intellectual disability and 61 with typical cognitive development were assessed from child ages 6-8 years. Student-teacher relationship quality was moderately stable for the typical development group, but less so for the intellectual disability group. At each assessment these…

  3. Phonotactic Probability and Past Tense Use by Children with Specific Language Impairment and Their Typically Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Davis, Jennifer; Deevy, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    A group of preschool-aged children with specific language impairment (SLI), a group of typically developing children matched for age (TD-A), and a group of younger typically developing children matched for mean length of utterance (TD-MLU) were presented with novel verbs in contexts that required them to inflect with past tense "-ed." The novel…

  4. Typical pedestrian accident scenarios for the development of autonomous emergency braking test protocols.

    PubMed

    Lenard, James; Badea-Romero, Alexandro; Danton, Russell

    2014-12-01

    An increasing proportion of new vehicles are being fitted with autonomous emergency braking systems. It is difficult for consumers to judge the effectiveness of these safety systems for individual models unless their performance is evaluated through track testing under controlled conditions. This paper aimed to contribute to the development of relevant test conditions by describing typical circumstances of pedestrian accidents. Cluster analysis was applied to two large British databases and both highlighted an urban scenario in daylight and fine weather where a small pedestrian walks across the road, especially from the near kerb, in clear view of a driver who is travelling straight ahead. For each dataset a main test configuration was defined to represent the conditions of the most common accident scenario along with test variations to reflect the characteristics of less common accident scenarios. Some of the variations pertaining to less common accident circumstances or to a minority of casualties in these scenarios were proposed as optional or supplementary test elements for an outstanding performance rating. Many considerations are incorporated into the final design and implementation of an actual testing regime, such as cost and the state of development of technology; only the representation of accident data lay within the scope of this paper. It would be desirable to ascertain the wider representativeness of the results by analysing accident data from other countries in a similar manner. PMID:25180785

  5. Perspectives on the rhythm–grammar link and its implications for typical and atypical language development

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Reyna L.; Jacobs, Magdalene S.; Schuele, C. Melanie; McAuley, J. Devin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the mounting evidence for shared cognitive mechanisms and neural resources for rhythm and grammar. Evidence for a role of rhythm skills in language development and language comprehension is reviewed here in three lines of research: (a) behavioral and brain data from adults and children, showing that prosody and other aspects of timing of sentences influence online morpho-syntactic processing; (b) co-morbidity of impaired rhythm with grammatical deficits in children with language impairment; and (c) our recent work showing a strong positive association between rhythm perception skills and expressive grammatical skills in young school-age children with typical development. Our preliminary follow-up study presented here revealed that musical rhythm perception predicted variance in six-year-old children’s production of complex syntax, as well as online reorganization of grammatical information (transformation); these data provide an additional perspective on the hierarchical relations potentially shared by rhythm and grammar. A theoretical framework for shared cognitive resources for the role of rhythm in perceiving and learning grammatical structure is elaborated on in light of potential implications for using rhythm-emphasized musical training to improve language skills in children. PMID:25773612

  6. Differences on morphological and phonological processing between typically developing children and children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, Miguel; Garayzábal, Elena; Moraleda, Esther

    2013-07-01

    It is widely acknowledged that people with Down syndrome (Ds) have less highly developed morphosyntactic abilities than typically developing (TD) children. However, little is known about the morphological processing of this population. In this paper we carry out two experiments in which the morphological Base Frequency (BF) effect is explored in both groups. The aim of the experiments is to carry out an in-depth exploration of morphological processing in children with Ds and TD children. In the first experiment children performed a definition task; in the second children had to provide a plural form for singular words. The results show a significant BF effect in only the first experiment. In the second experiment this morphological variable does not reach significance, but the variable we called Ending phoneme (a phonological variable that refers to the last phoneme of the bases prior to the addition of plural morphemes) does. The results also show that children with Ds score significantly below the two control groups in both experiments, with no significant differences between control groups. We go on to discuss morphological processing in children with and without Ds, the role of the two tasks carried out (paying special attention to the role played by working memory), and the possible relationship between our results and morphosyntactic deficits described in the literature. PMID:23643760

  7. Motoneurons Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Develop Mature Phenotypes Typical of Endogenous Spinal Motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Toma, Jeremy S.; Shettar, Basavaraj C.; Chipman, Peter H.; Pinto, Devanand M.; Borowska, Joanna P.; Ichida, Justin K.; Fawcett, James P.; Zhang, Ying; Eggan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent cell-derived motoneurons (iPSCMNs) are sought for use in cell replacement therapies and treatment strategies for motoneuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, much remains unknown about the physiological properties of iPSCMNs and how they compare with endogenous spinal motoneurons or embryonic stem cell-derived motoneurons (ESCMNs). In the present study, we first used a proteomic approach and compared protein expression profiles between iPSCMNs and ESCMNs to show that <4% of the proteins identified were differentially regulated. Like ESCs, we found that mouse iPSCs treated with retinoic acid and a smoothened agonist differentiated into motoneurons expressing the LIM homeodomain protein Lhx3. When transplanted into the neural tube of developing chick embryos, iPSCMNs selectively targeted muscles normally innervated by Lhx3 motoneurons. In vitro studies showed that iPSCMNs form anatomically mature and functional neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) when cocultured with chick myofibers for several weeks. Electrophysiologically, iPSCMNs developed passive membrane and firing characteristic typical of postnatal motoneurons after several weeks in culture. Finally, iPSCMNs grafted into transected mouse tibial nerve projected axons to denervated gastrocnemius muscle fibers, where they formed functional NMJs, restored contractile force. and attenuated denervation atrophy. Together, iPSCMNs possess many of the same cellular and physiological characteristics as ESCMNs and endogenous spinal motoneurons. These results further justify using iPSCMNs as a source of motoneurons for cell replacement therapies and to study motoneuron diseases such as ALS. PMID:25609642

  8. Visual control of manual actions: brain mechanisms in typical development and developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Braddick, Oliver; Atkinson, Janette

    2013-11-01

    Some key stages in the development of manual actions have been discussed in this supplement based on the idea of the dorsal cortical stream as the pathway for translating visual information into action control. We argue that visual information, transmitted through specialized visuomotor dorsal-stream modules, is required in the control of manual actions for selecting and attending to the target object of the action, translating visual spatial information into motor programmes and planning a coordinated sequence of actions so as to reach an optimal end-state. In typical development, we illustrate dorsal-stream processing through results on the use of stereoscopic information to guide infants' reaches, and changes in target selection and detailed kinematics of reaches depending on age, object size, and reaching in darkness (when dorsal-stream information rapidly decays). We hypothesize 'dorsal-stream vulnerability' as a widespread feature of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, Williams syndrome, and children born very preterm. Such deficits, identified as abnormal visuomanual actions, are seen in bimanual coordination, visual guidance of action in the 'postbox' task, and failures in motor planning for end-state comfort. We discuss the possible application of these approaches to a wider range of disorders including developmental coordination disorder. PMID:24237273

  9. Perspectives on the rhythm-grammar link and its implications for typical and atypical language development.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Reyna L; Jacobs, Magdalene S; Schuele, C Melanie; McAuley, J Devin

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews the mounting evidence for shared cognitive mechanisms and neural resources for rhythm and grammar. Evidence for a role of rhythm skills in language development and language comprehension is reviewed here in three lines of research: (1) behavioral and brain data from adults and children, showing that prosody and other aspects of timing of sentences influence online morpho-syntactic processing; (2) comorbidity of impaired rhythm with grammatical deficits in children with language impairment; and (3) our recent work showing a strong positive association between rhythm perception skills and expressive grammatical skills in young school-age children with typical development. Our preliminary follow-up study presented here revealed that musical rhythm perception predicted variance in 6-year-old children's production of complex syntax, as well as online reorganization of grammatical information (transformation); these data provide an additional perspective on the hierarchical relations potentially shared by rhythm and grammar. A theoretical framework for shared cognitive resources for the role of rhythm in perceiving and learning grammatical structure is elaborated on in light of potential implications for using rhythm-emphasized musical training to improve language skills in children. PMID:25773612

  10. Acquisition of Motor and Cognitive Skills through Repetition in Typically Developing Children

    PubMed Central

    Magallón, Sara; Narbona, Juan; Crespo-Eguílaz, Nerea

    2016-01-01

    Background Procedural memory allows acquisition, consolidation and use of motor skills and cognitive routines. Automation of procedures is achieved through repeated practice. In children, improvement in procedural skills is a consequence of natural neurobiological development and experience. Methods The aim of the present research was to make a preliminary evaluation and description of repetition-based improvement of procedures in typically developing children (TDC). Ninety TDC children aged 6–12 years were asked to perform two procedural learning tasks. In an assembly learning task, which requires predominantly motor skills, we measured the number of assembled pieces in 60 seconds. In a mirror drawing learning task, which requires more cognitive functions, we measured time spent and efficiency. Participants were tested four times for each task: three trials were consecutive and the fourth trial was performed after a 10-minute nonverbal interference task. The influence of repeated practice on performance was evaluated by means of the analysis of variance with repeated measures and the paired-sample test. Correlation coefficients and simple linear regression test were used to examine the relationship between age and performance. Results TDC achieved higher scores in both tasks through repetition. Older children fitted more pieces than younger ones in assembling learning and they were faster and more efficient at the mirror drawing learning task. Conclusions These findings indicate that three consecutive trials at a procedural task increased speed and efficiency, and that age affected basal performance in motor-cognitive procedures. PMID:27384671

  11. Harmonic Domains and Synchronization in Typically and Atypically Developing Hebrew-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bat-El, Outi

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of typical and atypical consonant harmony (onset-onset place harmony), with emphasis on (i) the size of the harmonic domain, (ii) the position of the harmonic domain within the prosodic word, and (iii) the maximal size of the prosodic word that exhibits consonant harmony. The data, drawn from typically and…

  12. Discrimination and identification of long vowels in children with typical language development and specific language impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Hia; Shafer, Valerie; Kurtzberg, Diane

    2001-05-01

    Researchers have claimed that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have particular difficulties in discriminating and identifying phonetically similar and brief speech sounds (Stark and Heinz, 1966; Studdert-Kennedy and Bradley, 1997; Sussman, 1993). In a recent study (Shafer et al., 2004), children with SLI were reported to have difficulty in processing brief (50 ms), phonetically similar vowels (/I-E/). The current study investigated perception of long (250 ms), phonetically similar vowels (/I-E/) in 8- to 10-year-old children with SLI and typical language development (TLD). The purpose was to examine whether phonetic similarity in vowels leads to poorer speech-perception in the SLI group. Behavioral and electrophysiological methods were employed to examine discrimination and identification of a nine-step vowel continuum from /I/ to /E/. Similar performances in discrimination were found for both groups, indicating that lengthening vowel duration indeed improves discrimination of phonetically similar vowels. However, these children with SLI showed poor behavioral identification, demonstrating that phonetic similarity of speech sounds, irrespective of their duration, contribute to the speech perception difficulty observed in SLI population. These findings suggest that the deficit in these children with SLI is at the level of working memory or long term memory representation of speech.

  13. Validity and reliability of shoulder kinematics in typically developing children and children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lempereur, Mathieu; Brochard, Sylvain; Mao, Linda; Rémy-Néris, Olivier

    2012-07-26

    Shoulder motion has been mainly analysed in children based on thoraco-humeral (TH) joint kinematics, excluding the scapula-thoracic (ST) and gleno-humeral (GH) joints. In order to measure 3D scapulo-humeral motion using an optoelectronic system, we propose a protocol based on an acromion marker cluster (AMC), a functional method to determine the gleno-humeral rotation centre and different Euler sequences. This study investigated the validity of the AMC compared to the palpation of anatomical landmarks with a scapula locator, assessed the intra-session repeatability and the ability to discriminate differences of such a protocol in 10 typically developing children (TD) and 10 children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) during 6 different tasks (flexion, abduction, horizontal abduction, hand to head, hand to controlateral shoulder and hand to back pocket). For both populations, the AMC method showed an overall Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 5.5°. The AMC method under-estimated the protraction/retraction of the scapula during abduction. The within-session reliability was good to excellent for all tasks except the hand to back pocket task. The YXY recommended Euler sequence for TH and GH joints resulted in gimbal lock for most of the tasks whereas the XZY sequence could be used for most of the tasks and most of the children. PMID:22658078

  14. Intelligence measures and stage 2 sleep in typically-developing and autistic children.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Sophie; Lambert, Andréane; Chicoine, Marjolaine; Scherzer, Peter; Soulières, Isabelle; Godbout, Roger

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between intelligence measures and 2 EEG measures of non-rapid eye movement sleep, sleep spindles and Sigma activity, was examined in 13 typically-developing (TD) and 13 autistic children with normal IQ and no complaints of poor sleep. Sleep spindles and Sigma EEG activity were computed for frontal (Fp1, Fp2) and central (C3, C4) recording sites. Time in stage 2 sleep and IQ was similar in both groups. Autistic children presented less spindles at Fp2 compared to the TD children. TD children showed negative correlation between verbal IQ and sleep spindle density at Fp2. In the autistic group, verbal and full-scale IQ scores correlated negatively with C3 sleep spindle density. The duration of sleep spindles at Fp1 was shorter in the autistic group than in the TD children. The duration of sleep spindles at C4 was positively correlated with verbal IQ only in the TD group. Fast Sigma EEG activity (13.25-15.75 Hz) was lower at C3 and C4 in autistic children compared to the TD children, particularly in the latter part of the night. Only the TD group showed positive correlation between performance IQ and latter part of the night fast Sigma activity at C4. These results are consistent with a relationship between EEG activity during sleep and cognitive processing in children. The difference between TD and autistic children could derive from dissimilar cortical organization and information processing in these 2 groups. PMID:25958790

  15. Sequential egocentric navigation and reliance on landmarks in Williams syndrome and typical development.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Hannah J; Farran, Emily K; Tolmie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Visuospatial difficulties in Williams syndrome (WS) are well documented. Recently, research has shown that spatial difficulties in WS extend to large-scale space, particularly in coding space using an allocentric frame of reference. Typically developing (TD) children and adults predominantly rely on the use of a sequential egocentric strategy to navigate a large-scale route (retracing a sequence of left-right body turns). The aim of this study was to examine whether individuals with WS are able to employ a sequential egocentric strategy to guide learning and the retracing of a route. Forty-eight TD children, aged 5, 7, and 9 years and 18 participants with WS were examined on their ability to learn and retrace routes in two (6-turn) virtual environment mazes (with and without landmarks). The ability to successfully retrace a route following the removal of landmarks (use of sequential egocentric coding) was also examined. Although in line with TD 5-year-olds when learning a route with landmarks, individuals with WS showed significantly greater detriment when these landmarks were removed, relative to all TD groups. Moreover, the WS group made significantly more errors than all TD groups when learning a route that never contained landmarks. On a perceptual view-matching task, results revealed a high level of performance across groups, indicative of an ability to use this visual information to potentially aid navigation. These findings suggest that individuals with WS rely on landmarks to a greater extent than TD children, both for learning a route and for retracing a recently learned route. TD children, but not individuals with WS, were able to fall back on the use of a sequential egocentric strategy to navigate when landmarks were not present. Only TD children therefore coded sequential route information simultaneously with landmark information. The results are discussed in relation to known atypical cortical development and perceptual-matching abilities in WS. PMID

  16. The detrimental effect of interference in multiplication facts storing: typical development and individual differences.

    PubMed

    De Visscher, Alice; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2014-12-01

    The difficulty in memorizing arithmetic facts is a general and persistent hallmark of math learning disabilities. It has recently been suggested that hypersensitivity to interference could prevent a person from storing arithmetic facts. The similarity between arithmetic facts would provoke interference, and learners who are hypersensitive to interference would therefore encounter difficulties in storing arithmetic facts in long-term memory. In this study, we created a measure of the interference weight for each multiplication by measuring the overlap of digits between multiplications. First, we tested whether the interference parameter could predict performance across multiplications by analyzing the data from undergraduates published by Campbell (1997). The interference parameter substantially predicted performance across multiplications. Similarly, the performance across multiplications was substantially determined by the interference parameter in 3rd-grade children, 5th-grade children, and undergraduates we tested. Second, we tested whether people with poor arithmetic facts abilities were particularly sensitive to the interference parameter. We tested this hypothesis in typical development by analyzing the data from the 3rd-grade children, 5th-grade children, and undergraduates. We analyzed data with regard to atypical development from a published case study of dyscalculia as well as from 4th-grade children, with either poor or good multiplication skills, tested twice 1 year apart. Results showed that the individual sensitivity to the interference parameter determined part of the individual differences in multiplication performance in all data sets. These findings show that the learning of multiplications is particularly interference prone because of feature overlap and that people who are sensitive to this parameter therefore encounter difficulties in memorizing arithmetic facts. PMID:25347536

  17. Story Retelling by Bilingual Children with Language Impairments and Typically-Developing Controls

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Katie E.; Lugo-Neris, Mirza J.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Bohman, Thomas M.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, there is limited information documenting growth patterns in the narratives of bilingual children with and without primary language impairment (PLI). Aims This study was designed to determine whether bilingual children with and without PLI present similar gains from kindergarten to first grade in the macro- and microstructure of stories told in Spanish and English. Methods and Procedures In this longitudinal study, 21 bilingual children identified with PLI were each matched to a bilingual typically-developing (TD) peer on age, sex, nonverbal IQ and language exposure. During their kindergarten and first grade years, children retold stories from wordless picture books in Spanish (L1) and English (L2). Outcomes and Results Overall, TD children outperformed those with PLI on measures of macrostructure and microstructure at both time points. For the macrostructure measure, the TD group made significantly larger improvements in both languages from kindergarten to first grade than the PLI group. For microstructure, the TD children made more gains on their Spanish retells than their English retells. However, the PLI children’s microstructure scores did not differ from kindergarten to first grade in either language. We found that macrostructure scores in Spanish at kindergarten predicted macrostructure scores in English at first grade when English experience was held constant. However, this same relationship across languages was not evident in microstructure. Conclusions and Implications TD and PLI children differed in the development of narrative macrostructure and microstructure between kindergarten and first grade. The TD bilinguals transferred conceptually-dependent narrative skills easily, but then had to independently learn the nuances of each language to be successful using literate language. Because most children with PLI need more exposure to establish strong connections between their L1 and L2, they had more difficulty transferring their

  18. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as “the ball is above the cup”, where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6–11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as “the cup is above the drum” or “the bird is below the hat”. Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children’s scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of

  19. Investigating the shape bias in typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Potrzeba, Emily R.; Fein, Deborah; Naigles, Letitia

    2015-01-01

    Young typically developing (TD) children have been observed to utilize word learning strategies such as the noun bias and shape bias; these improve their efficiency in acquiring and categorizing novel terms. Children using the shape bias extend object labels to new objects of the same shape; thus, the shape bias prompts the categorization of object words based on the global characteristic of shape over local, discrete details. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) frequently attend to minor details of objects rather than their global structure. Therefore, children with ASD may not use shape bias to acquire new words. Previous research with children with ASD has provided evidence that they parallel TD children in showing a noun bias, but not a shape bias (Tek et al., 2008). However, this sample was small and individual and item differences were not investigated in depth. In an extension of Tek et al. (2008) with twice the sample size and a wider developmental timespan, we tested 32 children with ASD and 35 TD children in a longitudinal study across 20 months using the intermodal preferential looking paradigm. Children saw five triads of novel objects (target, shape-match, color-match) in both NoName and Name trials; those who looked longer at the shape-match during the Name trials than the NoName trials demonstrated a shape bias. The TD group showed a significant shape bias at all visits, beginning at 20 months of age while the language-matched ASD group did not show a significant shape bias at any visit. Within the ASD group, though, some children did show a shape bias; these children had larger vocabularies concurrently and longitudinally. Degree of shape bias elicitation varied by item, but did not seem related to perceptual complexity. We conclude that shape does not appear to be an organizing factor for word learning by children with ASD. PMID:25954219

  20. Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder Are More Successful at Visual Search than Typically Developing Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Kraper, Catherine; Carter, Alice S.; Blaser, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Plaisted, O'Riordan and colleagues (Plaisted, O'Riordan & Baron-Cohen, 1998; O'Riordan, 2004) showed that school-age children and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are faster at finding targets in certain types of visual search tasks than typical controls. Currently though, there is very little known about the visual search skills of very…

  1. Anxiety, Depression, and Irritability in Children with Autism Relative to Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Ahuja, Meesha; Smith, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal ratings of anxiety, depression, and irritability were analyzed in 1390 children (6-16 years of age), including 233 children with high functioning autism (HFA, IQ greater than or equal to 80), 117 children with low functioning autism (LFA, IQ less than 80), 187 typical children, and 853 children with other disorders. As a group, children…

  2. Brief Report: Perceptual Load and the Autism Spectrum in Typically Developed Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Andrew P.; Kritikos, Ada

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental task of the cognitive system is to prioritize behaviourally relevant sensory inputs for processing at the expense of irrelevant inputs. In a study of neurotypical participants (n = 179), we utilized a brief flanker interference task while varying the perceptual load of the visual display. Typically, increasing perceptual load (i.e.,…

  3. Hyperresponsive Sensory Patterns in Young Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranek, Grace T.; Boyd, Brian A.; Poe, Michele D.; David, Fabian J.; Watson, Linda R.

    2007-01-01

    The nature of hyperresponsiveness to sensory stimuli in children with autism, using a new observational measure, the SPA, was examined. Three groups of young participants were assessed (autism, developmental delay, typical). Across all groups, MA was a predictor of hyperresponsiveness, such that aversion to multisensory toys decreased as MA…

  4. Generalization of Auditory Sensory and Cognitive Learning in Typically Developing Children

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Cristina F. B.; Moore, David R.; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-established involvement of both sensory (“bottom-up”) and cognitive (“top-down”) processes in literacy, the extent to which auditory or cognitive (memory or attention) learning transfers to phonological and reading skills remains unclear. Most research has demonstrated learning of the trained task or even learning transfer to a closely related task. However, few studies have reported “far-transfer” to a different domain, such as the improvement of phonological and reading skills following auditory or cognitive training. This study assessed the effectiveness of auditory, memory or attention training on far-transfer measures involving phonological and reading skills in typically developing children. Mid-transfer was also assessed through untrained auditory, attention and memory tasks. Sixty 5- to 8-year-old children with normal hearing were quasi-randomly assigned to one of five training groups: attention group (AG), memory group (MG), auditory sensory group (SG), placebo group (PG; drawing, painting), and a control, untrained group (CG). Compliance, mid-transfer and far-transfer measures were evaluated before and after training. All trained groups received 12 x 45-min training sessions over 12 weeks. The CG did not receive any intervention. All trained groups, especially older children, exhibited significant learning of the trained task. On pre- to post-training measures (test-retest), most groups exhibited improvements on most tasks. There was significant mid-transfer for a visual digit span task, with highest span in the MG, relative to other groups. These results show that both sensory and cognitive (memory or attention) training can lead to learning in the trained task and to mid-transfer learning on a task (visual digit span) within the same domain as the trained tasks. However, learning did not transfer to measures of language (reading and phonological awareness), as the PG and CG improved as much as the other trained groups

  5. Generalization of Auditory Sensory and Cognitive Learning in Typically Developing Children.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Moore, David R; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-established involvement of both sensory ("bottom-up") and cognitive ("top-down") processes in literacy, the extent to which auditory or cognitive (memory or attention) learning transfers to phonological and reading skills remains unclear. Most research has demonstrated learning of the trained task or even learning transfer to a closely related task. However, few studies have reported "far-transfer" to a different domain, such as the improvement of phonological and reading skills following auditory or cognitive training. This study assessed the effectiveness of auditory, memory or attention training on far-transfer measures involving phonological and reading skills in typically developing children. Mid-transfer was also assessed through untrained auditory, attention and memory tasks. Sixty 5- to 8-year-old children with normal hearing were quasi-randomly assigned to one of five training groups: attention group (AG), memory group (MG), auditory sensory group (SG), placebo group (PG; drawing, painting), and a control, untrained group (CG). Compliance, mid-transfer and far-transfer measures were evaluated before and after training. All trained groups received 12 x 45-min training sessions over 12 weeks. The CG did not receive any intervention. All trained groups, especially older children, exhibited significant learning of the trained task. On pre- to post-training measures (test-retest), most groups exhibited improvements on most tasks. There was significant mid-transfer for a visual digit span task, with highest span in the MG, relative to other groups. These results show that both sensory and cognitive (memory or attention) training can lead to learning in the trained task and to mid-transfer learning on a task (visual digit span) within the same domain as the trained tasks. However, learning did not transfer to measures of language (reading and phonological awareness), as the PG and CG improved as much as the other trained groups. Further research

  6. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrop, Clare; McConachie, Helen; Emsley, Richard; Leadbitter, Kathy; Green, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, compared to social and communicative impairments, less is known about their development, trajectory and etiology. This study explored RRBs in young children with ASD matched to typically developing (TD) children on non-verbal development.…

  7. Approximating Implicit and Explicit Mentalizing with Two Naturalistic Video-Based Tasks in Typical Development and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblau, Gabriela; Kliemann, Dorit; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Dziobek, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been proposed to show greater impairments in implicit than explicit mentalizing. To test this proposition, we developed two comparable naturalistic tasks for a performance-based approximation of implicit and explicit mentalizing in 28 individuals with ASD and 23 matched typically developed (TD)…

  8. Prelinguistic Vocal Development in Infants with Typical Hearing and Infants with Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2008-01-01

    Delays in the onset of canonical babbling with hearing loss are extensively documented. Relatively little is known about other aspects of prelinguistic vocal development and hearing loss. Eight infants with typical hearing and eight with severe-to-profound hearing loss were matched with regard to a significant vocal development milestone, the…

  9. The Children's Empathy Quotient and Systemizing Quotient: Sex Differences in Typical Development and in Autism Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auyeung, Bonnie; Wheelwright, Sally; Allison, Carrie; Atkinson, Matthew; Samarawickrema, Nelum; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Children's versions of the Empathy Quotient (EQ-C) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ-C) were developed and administered to n = 1,256 parents of typically developing children, aged 4-11 years. Both measures showed good test-retest reliability and high internal consistency. As predicted, girls scored significantly higher on the EQ-C, and boys scored…

  10. Acoustic Correlates of Inflectional Morphology in the Speech of Children with Specific Language Impairment and Their Typically Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Amanda J.; Goffman, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The development of the use of the third-person singular -s in open syllable verbs in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing peers was examined. Verbs that included overt productions of the third-person singular -s morpheme (e.g. "Bobby plays ball everyday;" "Bear laughs when mommy buys popcorn") were…

  11. Parents' Strategies to Elicit Autobiographical Memories in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Developmental Language Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents' strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD,…

  12. The development of route learning in Down syndrome, Williams syndrome and typical development: investigations with virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Purser, Harry R M; Farran, Emily K; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Sockeel, Pascal; Mellier, Daniel; Blades, Mark

    2015-07-01

    The ability to navigate new environments has a significant impact on the daily life and independence of people with learning difficulties. The aims of this study were to investigate the development of route learning in Down syndrome (N = 50), Williams syndrome (N = 19), and typically developing children between 5 and 11 years old (N = 108); to investigate use of landmarks; and to relate cognitive functions to route-learning ability in these groups. Overall, measures of attention and long-term memory were strongly associated with route learning, even once non-verbal ability was controlled for. All of the groups, including 5- to 6-year-old TD children, demonstrated the ability to make use of all landmark types to aid route learning; those near junctions, those further from junctions, and also distant landmarks (e.g. church spire, radio mast). Individuals with WS performed better than a matched subset of TD children on more difficult routes; we suggest that this is supported by relatively strong visual feature recognition in the disorder. Participants with DS who had relatively high levels of non-verbal ability performed at a similar level to TD participants. PMID:25284087

  13. Prelinguistic Vocal Development in Infants with Typical Hearing and Infants with Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2010-01-01

    Delays in the onset of canonical babbling with hearing loss are extensively documented. Relatively little is known about other aspects of prelinguistic vocal development and hearing loss. Eight infants with typical hearing and eight with severe-to-profound hearing loss were matched with regard to a significant vocal development milestone, the onset of canonical babbling, and were examined at three points in time: before, at, and after the onset of canonical babbling. No differences in volubility were noted between the two infant groups. Growth in canonical babbling appeared to be slower for infants with hearing loss than infants with typical hearing. Glottal and glide production was similar in both groups. The results add to a body of information delineating aspects of prelinguistic vocal development that seem to differ or to be similar in infants with hearing loss compared to infants with typical hearing. PMID:21499444

  14. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  15. Sex-typical play: masculinization/defeminization in girls with an autism spectrum condition.

    PubMed

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon B

    2008-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that prenatal masculinization of the brain by androgens increases risk of developing an autism spectrum condition (ASC). Sex-typical play was measured in n = 66 children diagnosed with an ASC and n = 55 typically developing age-matched controls. Consistent with the hypothesis, girls with autism did not show the female-typical play preferences, though this was only seen on non-pretence items. Boys with autism showed a preference for male play on non-pretence items, in keeping with their sex. Girls with autism engaged in more pretend play than boys with autism, suggesting that pretence is relatively more protected in females with autism. We conclude that play preference studies in ASC provide partial support for the fetal androgen theory. PMID:17985222

  16. Secreted proteome profiling in human RPE cell cultures derived from donors with age related macular degeneration and age matched healthy donors.

    PubMed

    An, Eunkyung; Lu, Xiaoning; Flippin, Jessica; Devaney, Joseph M; Halligan, Brian; Hoffman, Eric P; Hoffman, Eric; Strunnikova, Nataly; Csaky, Karl; Hathout, Yetrib

    2006-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by progressive loss of central vision, which is attributed to abnormal accumulation of macular deposits called "drusen" at the interface between the basal surface of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane. In the most severe cases, drusen deposits are accompanied by the growth of new blood vessels that breach the RPE layer and invade photoreceptors. In this study, we hypothesized that RPE secreted proteins are responsible for drusen formation and choroidal neovascularization. We used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in combination with LC-MS/MS analysis and ZoomQuant quantification to assess differential protein secretion by RPE cell cultures prepared from human autopsy eyes of AMD donors (diagnosed by histological examinations of the macula and genotyped for the Y402H-complement factor H variant) and age-matched healthy control donors. In general, RPE cells were found to secrete a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, complement factors, and protease inhibitors that have been reported to be major constituents of drusen (hallmark deposits in AMD). Interestingly, RPE cells from AMD donors secreted 2 to 3-fold more galectin 3 binding protein, fibronectin, clusterin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and pigment epithelium derived factor than RPE cells from age-matched healthy donors. Conversely, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) was found to be down regulated by 2-fold in AMD RPE cells versus healthy RPE cells. Ingenuity pathway analysis grouped these differentially secreted proteins into two groups; those involved in tissue development and angiogenesis and those involved in complement regulation and protein aggregation such as clusterin. Overall, these data strongly suggest that RPE cells are involved in the biogenesis of drusen and the pathology of AMD. PMID:17022631

  17. A Latent Variables Examination of Processing Speed, Response Inhibition, and Working Memory during Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, Tara; White, Desiree A.

    2011-01-01

    This study addressed three related aims: (a) to replicate and extend previous work regarding the nonunitary nature of processing speed, response inhibition, and working memory during development; (b) to quantify the rate at which processing speed, response inhibition, and working memory develop and the extent to which the development of these…

  18. Visual Attention in the First Years: Typical Development and Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The development of attention is critical for the young child's competence in dealing with the demands of everyday life. Here we review evidence from infants and preschool children regarding the development of three neural subsystems of attention: selective attention, sustained attention, and attentional (executive) control. These systems overlap…

  19. Imitation from 12 to 24 Months in Autism and Typical Development: A Longitudinal Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Gregory S.; Rogers, Sally J.; Hutman, Ted; Rozga, Agata; Sigman, Marian; Ozonoff, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The development of imitation during the second year of life plays an important role in domains of sociocognitive development such as language and social learning. Deficits in imitation ability in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from toddlerhood into adulthood have also been repeatedly documented, raising the possibility that early…

  20. Prosodic Skills in Children with Down Syndrome and in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zampini, Laura; Fasolo, Mirco; Spinelli, Maria; Zanchi, Paola; Suttora, Chiara; Salerni, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many studies have analysed language development in children with Down syndrome to understand better the nature of their linguistic delays and the reason why these delays, particularly those in the morphosyntactic area, seem greater than their cognitive impairment. However, the prosodic characteristics of language development in…

  1. How Useful Are Landmarks when Learning a Route in a Virtual Environment? Evidence from Typical Development and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Van Herwegen, Jo; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The ability to learn a route through a virtual environment was assessed in 19 older children and adults with Williams syndrome (WS) and 40 typically developing (TD) children aged 6-9 years. In addition to comparing route-learning ability across groups, we were interested in whether participants show an adult-like differentiation between "useful"…

  2. Rapid Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Paula M.; Moody, Eric J.; McIntosh, Daniel N.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Reed, Catherine L.

    2008-01-01

    Typical adults mimic facial expressions within 1000ms, but adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not. These rapid facial reactions (RFRs) are associated with the development of social-emotional abilities. Such interpersonal matching may be caused by motor mirroring or emotional responses. Using facial electromyography (EMG), this study…

  3. Electrophysiological Indices of Discrimination of Long-Duration, Phonetically Similar Vowels in Children with Typical and Atypical Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Hia; Shafer, Valerie L.; Morr, Mara L.; Kurtzberg, Diane; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the neurophysiological bases of vowel perception in children with specific language impairment (SLI) compared with typical language development (TLD) controls using 250-ms phonetically similar vowels. In a previous study, children with SLI showed a poor neurophysiological response (the mismatch negativity [MMN])…

  4. Parents' Translations of Child Gesture Facilitate Word Learning in Children with Autism, Down Syndrome and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrova, Nevena; Özçaliskan, Seyda; Adamson, Lauren B.

    2016-01-01

    Typically-developing (TD) children frequently refer to objects uniquely in gesture. Parents translate these gestures into words, facilitating children's acquisition of these words (Goldin-Meadow et al. in "Dev Sci" 10(6):778-785, 2007). We ask whether this pattern holds for children with autism (AU) and with Down syndrome (DS) who show…

  5. Individual Differences in Lexical Processing at 18 Months Predict Vocabulary Growth in Typically Developing and Late-Talking Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Anne; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2012-01-01

    Using online measures of familiar word recognition in the looking-while-listening procedure, this prospective longitudinal study revealed robust links between processing efficiency and vocabulary growth from 18 to 30 months in children classified as typically developing (n = 46) and as "late talkers" (n = 36) at 18 months. Those late talkers who…

  6. Joint Attention in Parent-Child Dyads Involving Children with Selective Mutism: A Comparison between Anxious and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Tasker, Susan L.; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Edison, Shannon; St. Pierre, Jeff; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2011-01-01

    Although joint attention processes are known to play an important role in adaptive social behavior in typical development, we know little about these processes in clinical child populations. We compared early school age children with selective mutism (SM; n = 19) versus mixed anxiety (MA; n = 18) and community controls (CC; n = 26) on joint…

  7. Variability in Classroom Social Communication: Performance of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Olswang, Lesley B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined how variability in classroom social communication performance differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and pair-matched, typically developing peers. Method: Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms, 40 min per day (20 min per child) for 4 days over a…

  8. Sex Differences in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Compared with Their Unaffected Siblings and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Chung, Un-Sun; Park, Tae-Won; Son, Jung-Woo; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the nature of cognitive and behavioral sex differences in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and two comparison groups: a group of typically developing (TD) children and a group of unaffected siblings of ASD children. Sex differences in core autistic symptoms, co-occurring behavioral symptoms, and cognitive styles…

  9. Colour as an Environmental Cue when Learning a Route in a Virtual Environment: Typical and Atypical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Van Herwegen, Jo; Cruickshank, Alice G.; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) 6-year-olds and 9-year-olds, and older children and adults with Williams syndrome (WS) navigated through brick-wall mazes in a virtual environment. Participants were shown a route through three mazes, each with 6 turns. In each maze the floor of each path section was a different colour such that colour acted as an…

  10. Training Production of Lexical Stress in Typically Developing Children Using Orthographically Biased Stimuli and Principles of Motor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rees, Lauren J.; Ballard, Kirrie J.; McCabe, Patricia; Macdonald-D'Silva, Anita G.; Arciuli, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Impaired lexical stress production characterizes multiple pediatric speech disorders. Effective remediation strategies are not available, and little is known about the normal process of learning to assign and produce lexical stress. This study examined whether typically developing (TD) children can be trained to produce lexical stress on…

  11. Parenting in Families with a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder and a Typically Developing Child: Mothers' Experiences and Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meirsschaut, Mieke; Roeyers, Herbert; Warreyn, Petra

    2010-01-01

    The parenting experiences of mothers in a family with a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a typically developing (TD) child were studied using a qualitative analysis of mothers' perceptions of the impact of autism on family and personal life. An additional quantitative comparison was performed to evaluate the effect of ASD on mothers'…

  12. The Production of Finite and Nonfinite Complement Clauses by Children with Specific Language Impairment and Their Typically Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Amanda J.; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether 13 children with specific language impairment (SLI; ages 5;1-8;0 [years;months]) were as proficient as typically developing age- and vocabulary-matched children in the production of finite and nonfinite complement clauses. Preschool children with SLI have marked difficulties with verb-related…

  13. Evaluation of the Class Pass Intervention for Typically Developing Students with Hypothesized Escape-Motivated Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Clayton R.; Collins, Tai; Dart, Evan; Vance, Michael J.; McIntosh, Kent; Grady, Erin A.; DeCano, Policarpio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Class Pass Intervention (CPI) as a secondary intervention for typically developing students with escape-motivated disruptive classroom behavior. The CPI consists of providing students with passes that they can use to appropriately request a break from an academic task to engage in a preferred activity for…

  14. "What Brings Him Here Today?": Medical Problem Presentation Involving Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Olga; Heritage, John; Yin, Larry; Maynard, Douglas W.; Bauman, Margaret L.

    2016-01-01

    Conversation and discourse analyses were used to examine medical problem presentation in pediatric care. Healthcare visits involving children with ASD and typically developing children were analyzed. We examined how children's communicative and epistemic capabilities, and their opportunities to be socialized into a competent patient role are…

  15. Three-Dimensional Upper Limb Movement Characteristics in Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaspers, Ellen; Desloovere, Kaat; Bruyninckx, Herman; Klingels, Katrijn; Molenaers, Guy; Aertbelien, Erwin; Van Gestel, Leen; Feys, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure which three-dimensional spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters differentiate upper limb movement characteristics in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) from those in typically developing children (TDC), during various clinically relevant tasks. We used a standardized protocol containing three reach…

  16. Theory of Mind and Executive Function in Preschoolers with Typical Development versus Intellectually Able Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimhi, Yael; Shoam-Kugelmas, Dana; Agam Ben-Artzi, Galit; Ben-Moshe, Inbal; Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties in theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF), which may be linked because one domain (EF) affects the other (ToM). Group differences (ASD vs. typical development) were examined in both cognitive domains, as well as EF's associations and regressions with ToM. Participants…

  17. Six-Month Persistence of Sleep Problems in Young Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    The persistence of sleep problems in preschool children is examined against the matched comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism and typically developing children. Objective and subjective measures of sleep problems of preschool-aged children were found to have produced varying results.

  18. Anxiety Disorders in Typically Developing Youth: Autism Spectrum Symptoms as a Predictor of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puleo, Connor M.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were assessed (Social Responsiveness Scale-Parent (SRS-P); coded in-session behavior) in typically-developing, anxiety-disordered children (N = 50) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). "Study 1": children with moderate autistic symptomology (per SRS-P) were significantly more likely to improve…

  19. The Influence of Prosodic Stress Patterns and Semantic Depth on Novel Word Learning in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladfelter, Allison; Goffman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of prosodic stress patterns and semantic depth on word learning. Twelve preschool-aged children with typically developing speech and language skills participated in a word learning task. Novel words with either a trochaic or iambic prosodic pattern were embedded in one of two learning…

  20. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  1. Development of Product Relatedness and Distance Effects in Typical Achievers and in Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the development of two effects that have been found in single-digit multiplication errors: relatedness and distance. Typically achieving (TA) second, fourth, and sixth graders and adults, and sixth and eighth graders with a mathematics learning disability (MLD) performed a verification task. Relatedness was defined by a…

  2. Outcome and Process in Motor Performance: A Comparison of Jumping by Typically Developing Children and Those with Low Motor Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Morgan D.; Saunders, John E.; Maschette, Wayne E.; Wilson, Cameron J.

    2013-01-01

    The motivation for this study was to explore a conceptual framework to understand the outcomes and processes of motor performance in children. Vertical jumping, a fundamental movement skill, was used to compare children (ages 6-12 years) who were typically developing (TD) and those identified as having low motor proficiency (LMP). Jumps were…

  3. Accounting for the listener: comparing the production of contrastive intonation in typically-developing speakers and speakers with autism.

    PubMed

    Kaland, Constantijn; Swerts, Marc; Krahmer, Emiel

    2013-09-01

    The present research investigates what drives the prosodic marking of contrastive information. For example, a typically developing speaker of a Germanic language like Dutch generally refers to a pink car as a "PINK car" (accented words in capitals) when a previously mentioned car was red. The main question addressed in this paper is whether contrastive intonation is produced with respect to the speaker's or (also) the listener's perspective on the preceding discourse. Furthermore, this research investigates the production of contrastive intonation by typically developing speakers and speakers with autism. The latter group is investigated because people with autism are argued to have difficulties accounting for another person's mental state and exhibit difficulties in the production and perception of accentuation and pitch range. To this end, utterances with contrastive intonation are elicited from both groups and analyzed in terms of function and form of prosody using production and perception measures. Contrary to expectations, typically developing speakers and speakers with autism produce functionally similar contrastive intonation as both groups account for both their own and their listener's perspective. However, typically developing speakers use a larger pitch range and are perceived as speaking more dynamically than speakers with autism, suggesting differences in their use of prosodic form. PMID:23967948

  4. Variability of Self-Regulatory Strategies in Children with Intellectual Disability and Typically Developing Children in Pretend Play Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nader-Grosbois, N.; Vieillevoye, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study has examined whether or not self-regulatory strategies vary depending on pretend play situations in 40 children with intellectual disability and 40 typically developing children. Method: Their cognitive, linguistic and individual symbolic play levels were assessed in order to match the children of the two groups. During two…

  5. Differential Brain Responses to Cries of Infants with Autistic Disorder and Typical Development: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venuti, Paola; Caria, Andrea; Esposito, Gianluca; De Pisapia, Nicola; Bornstein, Marc H.; de Falco, Simona

    2012-01-01

    This study used fMRI to measure brain activity during adult processing of cries of infants with autistic disorder (AD) compared to cries of typically developing (TD) infants. Using whole brain analysis, we found that cries of infants with AD compared to those of TD infants elicited enhanced activity in brain regions associated with verbal and…

  6. False Belief Understanding in Language Impaired and Typically Developing Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers from Lower Income Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study describes developmental trends in false belief (in other and self) in 46 Mexican-dialect Spanish-speaking children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds with and without language impairment (LI). Results indicate that typically developing children's performance on false belief tasks improves with age, with very…

  7. Labels Increase Attention to Novel Objects in Children with Autism and Comprehension-Matched Children with Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcduffie, Andrea S.; Yoder, Paul J.; Stone, Wendy L.

    2006-01-01

    This study used an intact group comparison to examine attention following in 34 children aged 2 years diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) matched pairwise for vocabulary comprehension with a group of typically developing toddlers. For both groups of children, the presence of verbal labels during a referential task increased attention to…

  8. Rating Parent-Child Interactions: Joint Engagement, Communication Dynamics, and Shared Topics in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2012-01-01

    A battery of 17 rating items were applied to video records of typically-developing toddlers and young children with autism and Down syndrome interacting with their parents during the Communication Play Protocol. This battery provided a reliable and broad view of the joint engagement triad of child, partner, and shared topic. Ratings of the child's…

  9. Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in German: Evidence from Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adani, Flavia; Stegenwallner-Schütz, Maja; Haendler, Yair; Zukowski, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We elicited the production of various types of relative clauses in a group of German-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing controls in order to test the movement optionality account of grammatical difficulty in SLI. The results show that German-speaking children with SLI are impaired in relative clause…

  10. Speech Production Accuracy and Variability in Young Cochlear Implant Recipients: Comparisons with Typically Developing Age-Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, David J.; Goffman, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The speech production accuracy and variability scores of 6 young cochlear implant (CI) recipients with 2 years of device experience were compared with those of typically developing (TD) age-peers. Method: Words from the First Words Speech Test (FWST; Ertmer, 1999) were imitated 3 times to assess the accuracy and variability of initial…

  11. Perception of Pointing from Biological Motion Point-Light Displays in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swettenham, John; Remington, Anna; Laing, Katherine; Fletcher, Rosemary; Coleman, Mike; Gomez, Juan-Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether the movement involved in a pointing gesture, depicted using point-light displays, is sufficient to cue attention in typically developing children (TD) and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (aged 8-11 years). Using a Posner-type paradigm, a centrally located display indicated the location of a forthcoming target on 80…

  12. Establishing Naming in Typically Developing Two-Year-Old Children as a Function of Multiple Exemplar Speaker and Listener Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilic, Lina; Greer, R. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Naming is a verbal developmental capability and cusp that allows children to acquire listener and speaker functions without direct instruction (e.g., incidental learning of words for objects). We screened 19 typically developing 2- and 3-year-old children for the presence of Naming for 3-dimensional objects. All 9 3-year-olds had Naming, and 8 of…

  13. Neural Correlates of Face and Object Recognition in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine; Carver, Leslie; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Panagiotides, Herachles; McPartland, James; Webb, Sara J.

    2002-01-01

    Compared face recognition ability in young children with autism to that of children with typical development and developmental delay. Took electroencephalographic recordings of brain activity while children viewed pictures of their mothers and unfamiliar females, and familiar and unfamiliar toys. Found that autistic children showed no differences…

  14. Anatomical Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Typically Developing Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giedd, Jay N.; Lalonde, Francois M.; Celano, Mark J.; White, Samantha L.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Lee, Nancy R.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.

    2009-01-01

    Methodological issues relevant to magnetic resonance imaging studies of brain anatomy are discussed along with the findings on the neuroanatomic changes during childhood and adolescence. The development of the brain is also discussed.

  15. The Development of Facial Gender Categorization in Individuals with and without Autism: The Impact of Typicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Mark S.; Newell, Lisa C.; Best, Catherine A.; Hannigen, Sarah F.; Gastgeb, Holly Zajac; Giovannelli, Joyce L.

    2012-01-01

    While much research has examined the development of facial recognition abilities, less is known about the ability of individuals with and without autism to categorize facial gender. The current study tested gender categorization abilities in high-functioning children (5-7 and 8-12 years), adolescents (13-17 years), and adults (18-53 years) with…

  16. Caregivers' Suffix Frequencies and Suffix Acquisition by Language Impaired, Late Talking, and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warlaumont, Anne S.; Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Acquisition of regular inflectional suffixes is an integral part of grammatical development in English and delayed acquisition of certain inflectional suffixes is a hallmark of language impairment. We investigate the relationship between input frequency and grammatical suffix acquisition, analyzing 217 transcripts of mother-child (ages 1 ; 11-6 ;…

  17. Use of Event-Related Potentials in the Study of Typical and Atypical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles A., III; McCleery, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    Event-related potential is a kind of neuroimaging tool which can be used in the study of neurodevelopment. Two areas of atypical development, children diagnosed with autism and children experiencing early psychosocial neglect, have benefited from ERPs. The physiological basis of ERPs and the constraints on their applications are also discussed.

  18. Social Maturity and Theory of Mind in Typically Developing Children and Those on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Slaughter, Virginia P.; Paynter, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    Background: Results of several studies using the Vineland scale to explore links between social behavior and theory of mind (ToM) have produced mixed results, especially for children on the autism spectrum. The present pair of studies developed a psychometrically sound, age-referenced measure of social maturity to explore these issues further.…

  19. Word Structures of Granada Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers with Typical versus Protracted Phonological Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May Bernhardt, B.; Hanson, R.; Perez, D.; Ávila, C.; Lleó, C.; Stemberger, J. P.; Carballo, G.; Mendoza, E.; Fresneda, D.; Chávez-Peón, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research on children's word structure development is limited. Yet, phonological intervention aims to accelerate the acquisition of both speech-sounds and word structure, such as word length, stress or shapes in CV sequences. Until normative studies and meta-analyses provide in-depth information on this topic, smaller investigations can…

  20. Phonological Process and Accuracy Measures in Typically Developing Punjabi Speaking Children between 3-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Simran; John, Sunila; Veena, K. D.; Rajashekhar, B.

    2013-01-01

    Phonology is an area of linguistics that is concerned with the sounds of language. Since each language has its own unique system of sound patterns, there is a need to study phonological development in different languages. However, lack of published data necessitates the present study on phonological developmental pattern in Punjabi language…

  1. Typically Developing and Speech-Impaired Children's Adherence to the Sonority Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyllie-Smith, Lynelle; McLeod, Sharynne; Ball, Martin J.

    2006-01-01

    During phonological development, children frequently produce consonant clusters as consonant singletons, a process commonly referred to as cluster reduction. The principles of sonority may provide a theoretical basis for explaining patterns of cluster reduction evident in children's speech. Two studies were conducted to investigate whether…

  2. The Transition to Kindergarten for Typically Developing Children: A Survey of School Psychologists' Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Laura Lee; Eckert, Tanya L.; Arbolino, Lauren A.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.; Fiese, Barbara H.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that a large percentage of kindergarten children do not successfully transition to school (Rimm-Kaufman et al. 2000). As a result, a number of school transition initiatives have been developed by educators and policy makers to address the difficulties young children may experience upon kindergarten entry. Despite this attention,…

  3. Predictors of Morphosyntactic Growth in Typically Developing Toddlers: Contributions of Parent Input and Child Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Colleen; Bahnsen, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Theories of morphosyntactic development must account for between-child differences in morphosyntactic growth rates. This study extends Legate and Yang's (2007) theoretically motivated cross-linguistic approach to determine if variation in properties of parent input accounts for differences in the growth of tense productivity. Method:…

  4. Typical and Atypical Development of Functional Connectivity in the Face Network.

    PubMed

    Song, Yiying; Zhu, Qi; Li, Jingguang; Wang, Xu; Liu, Jia

    2015-10-28

    Extensive studies have demonstrated that face recognition performance does not reach adult levels until adolescence. However, there is no consensus on whether such prolonged improvement stems from development of general cognitive factors or face-specific mechanisms. Here, we used behavioral experiments and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate these two hypotheses. With a large cohort of children (n = 379), we found that the ability of face-specific recognition in humans increased with age throughout childhood and into late adolescence in both face memory and face perception. Neurally, to circumvent the potential problem of age differences in task performance, attention, or cognitive strategies in task-state fMRI studies, we measured the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between the occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) in human brain and found that the OFA-FFA RSFC increased until 11-13 years of age. Moreover, the OFA-FFA RSFC was selectively impaired in adults with developmental prosopagnosia (DP). In contrast, no age-related changes or differences between DP and normal adults were observed for RSFCs in the object system. Finally, the OFA-FFA RSFC matured earlier than face selectivity in either the OFA or FFA. These results suggest the critical role of the OFA-FFA RSFC in the development of face recognition. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that prolonged development of face recognition is face specific, not domain general. PMID:26511251

  5. Neural substrates of a schizotypal spectrum in typically-developing children: Further evidence of a normal-pathological continuum.

    PubMed

    Evans, David W; Michael, Andrew M; Ularević, Mirko; Lusk, Laina G; Buirkle, Julia M; Moore, Gregory J

    2016-12-15

    Schizophrenia represents the extreme end of a distribution of traits that extends well into the general population. Using a recently developed measure of psychotic-like traits in children, we examined the neural substrates of psychotic (and other psychiatric) symptoms using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-eight typically-developing children (14 males) between the ages of 6-17 years underwent a 3T MRI scan. Parents completed the Psychiatric and Schizotypal Inventory for Children. Results revealed that caudate, amygdala, hippocampal and middle temporal gyrus volumes were associated with quantitative dimensions of psychiatric traits. Furthermore, results suggest a differential a sexually-dimorphic pattern of brain-schizotypy associations. These findings highlight brain-behavior continuities between clinical conditions such as schizophrenia and normal trait variation in typical development. PMID:27555534

  6. The Gradience of Multilingualism in Typical and Impaired Language Development: Positioning Bilectalism within Comparative Bilingualism

    PubMed Central

    Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Kambanaros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of factors characterizes bi- and multilingual compared to monolingual language acquisition. Two of the most prominent viewpoints have recently been put in perspective and enriched by a third (Tsimpli, 2014): age of onset of children's exposure to their native languages, the role of the input they receive, and the timing in monolingual first language development of the phenomena examined in bi- and multilingual children's performance. This article picks up a fourth potential factor (Grohmann, 2014b): language proximity, that is, the closeness between the two or more grammars a multilingual child acquires. It is a first attempt to flesh out the proposed gradient scale of multilingualism within the approach dubbed “comparative bilingualism.” The empirical part of this project comes from three types of research: (i) the acquisition and subsequent development of pronominal object clitic placement in two closely related varieties of Greek by bilectal, binational, bilingual, and multilingual children; (ii) the performance on executive control tasks by monolingual, bilectal, and bi- or multilingual children; and (iii) the role of comparative bilingualism in children with a developmental language impairment for both the diagnosis and subsequent treatment as well as the possible avoidance or weakening of how language impairment presents. PMID:26903890

  7. Control of cell differentiation by mitochondria, typically evidenced in dictyostelium development.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yasuo; Chida, Junji

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, mitochondria are self-reproducing organelles with their own DNA and they play a central role in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis by respiration. Increasing evidence indicates that mitochondria also have critical and multiple functions in the initiation of cell differentiation, cell-type determination, cell movement, and pattern formation. This has been most strikingly realized in development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium. For example, the expression of the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S4 (mt-rps4) gene is required for the initial differentiation. The Dictyostelium homologue (Dd-TRAP1) of TRAP-1 (tumor necrosis receptor-associated protein 1), a mitochondrial molecular chaperone belonging to the Hsp90 family, allows the prompt transition of cells from growth to differentiation through a novel prestarvation factor (PSF-3) in growth medium. Moreover, a cell-type-specific organelle named a prespore-specific vacuole (PSV) is constructed by mitochondrial transformation with the help of the Golgi complex. Mitochondria are also closely involved in a variety of cellular activities including CN-resistant respiration and apoptosis. These mitochondrial functions are reviewed in this article, with special emphasis on the regulation of Dictyostelium development. PMID:24970198

  8. The Gradience of Multilingualism in Typical and Impaired Language Development: Positioning Bilectalism within Comparative Bilingualism.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Kleanthes K; Kambanaros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of factors characterizes bi- and multilingual compared to monolingual language acquisition. Two of the most prominent viewpoints have recently been put in perspective and enriched by a third (Tsimpli, 2014): age of onset of children's exposure to their native languages, the role of the input they receive, and the timing in monolingual first language development of the phenomena examined in bi- and multilingual children's performance. This article picks up a fourth potential factor (Grohmann, 2014b): language proximity, that is, the closeness between the two or more grammars a multilingual child acquires. It is a first attempt to flesh out the proposed gradient scale of multilingualism within the approach dubbed "comparative bilingualism." The empirical part of this project comes from three types of research: (i) the acquisition and subsequent development of pronominal object clitic placement in two closely related varieties of Greek by bilectal, binational, bilingual, and multilingual children; (ii) the performance on executive control tasks by monolingual, bilectal, and bi- or multilingual children; and (iii) the role of comparative bilingualism in children with a developmental language impairment for both the diagnosis and subsequent treatment as well as the possible avoidance or weakening of how language impairment presents. PMID:26903890

  9. Fine motor skill proficiency in typically developing children: On or off the maturation track?

    PubMed

    Gaul, David; Issartel, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Fine motor skill proficiency is an essential component of numerous daily living activities such as dressing, feeding or playing. Poor fine motor skills can lead to difficulties in academic achievement, increased anxiety and poor self-esteem. Recent findings have shown that children's gross motor skill proficiency tends to fall below established developmental norms. A question remains: do fine motor skill proficiency levels also fall below developmental norms? The aim of this study was to examine the current level of fine motor skill in Irish children. Children (N=253) from 2nd, 4th and 6th grades (mean age=7.12, 9.11 and 11.02 respectively) completed the Fine Motor Composite of the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2nd Edition (BOT-2). Analysis revealed that only 2nd grade children met the expected level of fine motor skill proficiency. It was also found that despite children's raw scores improving with age, children's fine motor skill proficiency was not progressing at the expected rate given by normative data. This leads us to question the role and impact of modern society on fine motor skills development over the past number of decades. PMID:26735589

  10. Anxiety is related to indices of cortical maturation in typically developing children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Newman, Erik; Thompson, Wesley K; Bartsch, Hauke; Hagler, Donald J; Chen, Chi-Hua; Brown, Timothy T; Kuperman, Joshua M; McCabe, Connor; Chung, Yoonho; Libiger, Ondrej; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Casey, B J; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M; Frazier, Jean A; Gruen, Jeffrey R; Kennedy, David N; Murray, Sarah S; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Schork, Nicholas; Kenet, Tal; Kaufmann, Walter E; Mostofsky, Stewart; Amaral, David G; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L

    2016-07-01

    Anxiety is a risk factor for many adverse neuropsychiatric and socioeconomic outcomes, and has been linked to functional and structural changes in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). However, the nature of these differences, as well as how they develop in children and adolescents, remains poorly understood. More effective interventions to minimize the negative consequences of anxiety require better understanding of its neurobiology in children. Recent research suggests that structural imaging studies may benefit from clearly delineating between cortical surface area and thickness when examining these associations, as these distinct cortical phenotypes are influenced by different cellular mechanisms and genetic factors. The present study examined relationships between cortical surface area and thickness of the VMPFC and a self-report measure of anxiety (SCARED-R) in 287 youths aged 7-20 years from the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics (PING) study. Age and gender interactions were examined for significant associations in order to test for developmental differences. Cortical surface area and thickness were also examined simultaneously to determine whether they contribute independently to the prediction of anxiety. Anxiety was negatively associated with relative cortical surface area of the VMPFC as well as with global cortical thickness, but these associations diminished with age. The two cortical phenotypes contributed additively to the prediction of anxiety. These findings suggest that higher anxiety in children may be characterized by both delayed expansion of the VMPFC and an altered trajectory of global cortical thinning. Further longitudinal studies will be needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26183468

  11. OUTLINING THE WINDOWS OF ACHIEVEMENT OF INTERSUBJECTIVE MILESTONES IN TYPICALLY DEVELOPING TODDLERS.

    PubMed

    Sadurní Brugué, Marta; Pérez Burriel, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Babies are born with an innate drive or intrinsic motive formation with which to communicate and share meanings with others and that some authors have called intersubjectivity (S. Bråten & C. Trevarthen, 2007; C. Trevarthen, 1974, 2001). Around the ninth month of life, this motivation changes and passes from a person-to-person dyadic (primary intersubjectivity) to a person-person-object relationship (secondary intersubjectivity). S. Bråten and C. Trevarthen (2007) also proposed a third form or layer of intersubjectivity known as tertiary intersubjectivity. One hundred fifteen free-play sessions of 27 mother-child dyads (13 girls and 14 boys ages 9-37 months) were filmed and categorized using the Level of Intersubjective Attunement Scale (LISA-T; M. Pérez Burriel & M. Sadurní Brugué, 2014; M. Sadurní Brugué & M. Pérez Burriel, 2012). Results from these nine hierarchical levels are presented, following a developmental sequence or population trajectory around an interindividual variability. In this article, we propose viewing these age-related levels as windows of achievement of intersubjective milestones. The statistical analysis suggested a redesign of the LISA-T levels of intersubjectivity; thus, results from this redesign and the debate on the implications of these transitions in infant mental health development are presented. PMID:27348723

  12. Maturation of interhemispheric signal propagation in autism spectrum disorder and typically developing controls: a TMS-EEG study.

    PubMed

    Jarczok, Tomasz A; Fritsch, Merve; Kröger, Anne; Schneider, Anna Lisa; Althen, Heike; Siniatchkin, Michael; Freitag, Christine M; Bender, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    Brain maturation from childhood to adulthood is associated with changes in structural and functional connectivity between remote brain regions. Altered connectivity plays an important role in the pathology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. ASD is associated with abnormal brain development and structurally altered interhemispheric connections. Cortico-cortical connectivity can be studied by a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with concurrent EEG (TMS-EEG). TMS-evoked Interhemispheric Signal Propagation (ISP) is a correlate of interhemispheric connectivity related to the microstructure of the corpus callosum (CC). We used TMS-EEG to measure ISP in 22 ASD subjects (10-21 years) and 22 typically developing control subjects (9-19 years). We expected (1) maturational changes of ISP from childhood to young adulthood and also (2) reduced interhemispheric signal transfer in ASD. ISP was positively correlated with age in both ASD and typically developing control subjects. No difference in ISP between ASD and typically developing controls was found. Our findings demonstrate maturation of effective interhemispheric connectivity during adolescence. As ISP is related to the microstructure of the CC, the developmental change of ISP likely reflects maturation of the CC during the second life decade. The results support ISP as a valid parameter reflecting functional interhemispheric connectivity. Our results do not support a global deficit of interhemispheric connectivity in ASD. PMID:27177879

  13. Sensory symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder, other developmental disorders and typical development: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Carolyn; Hepburn, Susan; Young, Gregory S; Rogers, Sally J

    2016-07-01

    Sensory symptoms are prevalent in autism spectrum disorder but little is known about the early developmental patterns of these symptoms. This study examined the development of sensory symptoms and the relationship between sensory symptoms and adaptive functioning during early childhood. Three groups of children were followed across three time points from 2 to 8 years of age: autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, and typical development. At each time point, parents filled out questionnaires regarding their child's sensory symptoms and adaptive functioning. At the initial time point, parents of children with autism spectrum disorder reported more sensory symptoms in their children than parents in the typical development group. Parents in the autism spectrum disorder group reported more sensory symptoms than parents in the developmental delay group within smell, taste, and auditory domains. While the typical development group decreased in reported sensory symptoms across the study period, the clinical groups demonstrated no significant change across assessment points. Sensory symptoms for all groups were not independently predictive of adaptive functioning when verbal mental age was also included in the model. The young age range at the initial assessment and pattern of results suggest that sensory symptoms are present early in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disorders and remain stable over time. PMID:26395236

  14. Increased Sleep Disturbances in Thai Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Compared With Typically Developing Children.

    PubMed

    Chiraphadhanakul, Kobrat; Jaimchariyatam, Nattapong; Pruksananonda, Chandhita; Chonchaiya, Weerasak

    2016-01-01

    This study compares sleep disturbances in Thai children aged 5-12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing children using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ)-Thai version. Fifty-five children with ADHD and 110 typically developing children were enrolled. Their parents completed the CSHQ, the ADHD rating scales, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Children with ADHD had significantly higher scores in all subscales of the CSHQ compared to controls. Among children with ADHD, children with higher SDQ scores (> 15) appeared to have more sleep disturbances than those with relatively lower SDQ scores. Moreover, fewer sleep-related behavioral problems were observed in the medication treated group, which is particularly new to the field and for some perhaps not unexpected clinically. PMID:26629892

  15. Language and ToM Development in Autism versus Asperger Syndrome: Contrasting Influences of Syntactic versus Lexical/Semantic Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paynter, Jessica; Peterson, Candida

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) development by a sample of 63 children aged 5-12 years (24 with Asperger syndrome, 19 with high-functioning autism, and 20 age-matched typical developers) was assessed with a five-task false-belief battery in relation to both lexical (vocabulary) and syntactic (grammar) language skills. Contrary to some previous research, no…

  16. White Matter Microstructure Correlates of Narrative Production in Typically Developing Children and Children with High Functioning Autism

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Brian; Lai, Janie; Brown, Timothy T.; Erhart, Matthew; Halgren, Eric; Reilly, Judy; Dale, Anders; Appelbaum, Mark; Moses, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between white matter microstructure and the development of morphosyntax in a spoken narrative in typically developing children (TD) and in children with high functioning autism (HFA). Autism is characterized by language and communication impairments, yet the relationship between morphosyntactic development in spontaneous discourse contexts and neural development is not well understood in either this population or typical development. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to assess multiple parameters of diffusivity as indicators of white matter tract integrity in language-related tracts in children between 6 and 13 years of age. Children were asked to spontaneously tell a story about at time when someone made them sad, mad, or angry. The story was evaluated for morphological accuracy and syntactic complexity. Analysis of the relationship between white matter microstructure and language performance in TD children showed that diffusivity correlated with morphosyntax production in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), a fiber tract traditionally associated with language. At the anatomical level, the HFA group showed abnormal diffusivity in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) relative to the TD group. Within the HFA group, children with greater white matter integrity in the right ILF displayed greater morphological accuracy during their spoken narrative. Overall, the current study shows an association between white matter structure in a traditional language pathway and narrative performance in TD children. In the autism group, associations were only found in the ILF, suggesting that during real world language use, children with HFA rely less on typical pathways and instead rely on alternative ventral pathways that possibly mediate visual elements of language. PMID:23810972

  17. Hyporesponsiveness to social and nonsocial sensory stimuli in children with autism, children with developmental delays, and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Baranek, Grace T; Watson, Linda R; Boyd, Brian A; Poe, Michele D; David, Fabian J; McGuire, Lorin

    2013-05-01

    This cross-sectional study seeks to (a) describe developmental correlates of sensory hyporesponsiveness to social and nonsocial stimuli, (b) determine whether hyporesponsiveness is generalized across contexts in children with autism relative to controls, and (c) test the associations between hyporesponsiveness and social communication outcomes. Three groups of children ages 11-105 months (N = 178; autism = 63, developmental delay = 47, typical development = 68) are given developmental and sensory measures including a behavioral orienting task (the Sensory Processing Assessment). Lab measures are significantly correlated with parental reports of sensory hyporesponsiveness. Censored regression models show that hyporesponsiveness decreased across groups with increasing mental age (MA). Group differences are significant but depend upon two-way interactions with MA and context (social and nonsocial). At a very young MA (e.g., 6 months), the autism group demonstrates more hyporesponsiveness to social and nonsocial stimuli (with larger effects for social) than developmental delay and typically developing groups, but at an older MA (e.g., 60 months) there are no significant differences. Hyporesponsiveness to social and nonsocial stimuli predicts lower levels of joint attention and language in children with autism. Generalized processes in attention disengagement and behavioral orienting may have relevance for identifying early risk factors of autism and for facilitating learning across contexts to support the development of joint attention and language. PMID:23627946

  18. Parents' Translations of Child Gesture Facilitate Word Learning in Children with Autism, Down Syndrome and Typical Development.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Nevena; Özçalışkan, Şeyda; Adamson, Lauren B

    2016-01-01

    Typically-developing (TD) children frequently refer to objects uniquely in gesture. Parents translate these gestures into words, facilitating children's acquisition of these words (Goldin-Meadow et al. in Dev Sci 10(6):778-785, 2007). We ask whether this pattern holds for children with autism (AU) and with Down syndrome (DS) who show delayed vocabulary development. We observed 23 children with AU, 23 with DS, and 23 TD children with their parents over a year. Children used gestures to indicate objects before labeling them and parents translated their gestures into words. Importantly, children benefited from this input, acquiring more words for the translated gestures than the not translated ones. Results highlight the role contingent parental input to child gesture plays in language development of children with developmental disorders. PMID:26362150

  19. Parents’ Strategies to Elicit Autobiographical Memories in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Developmental Language Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents’ strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD, n = 11). We focused on the prevalence of directives versus enrichment of events. Groups did not differ in number of events, length, and total turns. However, parents of children with ASD produced more direct questions, corrections, and unrelated turns than parents of TD children. Results highlight how parents adjusted their conversational style to their child's communication difficulties to maximize interactions and how these strategies may affect the development of personal conversations. PMID:25312278

  20. Vocabulary, Syntax, and Narrative Development in Typically Developing Children and Children with Early Unilateral Brain Injury: Early Parental Talk about the "There-and-Then" Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Rowe, Meredith L.; Heller, Gabriella; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the role of a particular kind of linguistic input--talk about the past and future, pretend, and explanations, that is, talk that is decontextualized--in the development of vocabulary, syntax, and narrative skill in typically developing (TD) children and children with pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI). Decontextualized talk…

  1. Influence of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gabriela L.; Bueno, Thaís B.; Tudella, Eloisa; Dionisio, Jadiane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infants with Down syndrome present with organic and neurological changes that may lead to a delay in the acquisition of motor skills such as kicking, a fundamental skill that is a precursor of gait and is influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therefore, this movement should be taken into account in early physical therapy interventions in infants. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and to compare the effect of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age. METHOD: Five infants with Down syndrome and five with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age were filmed. The experiment was divided into four experimental conditions lasting 1 minute each: training, baseline, weight (addition of ankle weight with 1/3 the weight of the lower limb), and post-weight. RESULTS: There were significant differences between groups for all variables (p<0.05), with lower frequencies observed for infants with Down syndrome in all variables. There were significant differences between the experimental conditions baseline and post-weight (p<0.001) for both groups in the frequency of contact and success, with a higher frequency in the post-weight condition. CONCLUSIONS: The weight acted as an important stimulus for both groups, directing the kicks toward the target and improving the infants' performance in the task through repetition, however, the infants with Down syndrome had lower frequencies of kicks. PMID:25003276

  2. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  3. Sensory overresponsivity and anxiety in typically developing children and children with autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: cause or coexistence?

    PubMed

    Lane, Shelly J; Reynolds, Stacey; Dumenci, Levent

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To explore the relationship between sensory overresponsivity (SOR) and anxiety in children with autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and typical development. METHOD. Path analysis was used to examine the primary SOR model (Green & Ben-Sasson, 2010) using both physiological and behavioral data. RESULTS. The magnitude of physiological responses to sensory challenge was a mediator variable between predictors (baseline arousal and attention) and outcomes (anxiety and physiological recovery). Behavioral SOR was correlated with anxiety but not with physiological variables. CONCLUSION. The intensity or magnitude of sensory responsivity mediates the relationship between baseline arousal and attention and outcome anxiety and physiologic recovery from sensory challenge. Behavioral tools used to measure SOR do not reflect physiological responsiveness; this mismatch warrants further investigation. SOR can prevent children from participating in the occupations of childhood; the greater the understanding of SOR, the more successful occupational therapy practitioners will be in developing effective interventions. PMID:22917126

  4. Mothers' talk to children with Down Syndrome, language impairment, or typical development about familiar and unfamiliar nouns and verbs.

    PubMed

    Kay-Raining Bird, Elizabeth; Cleave, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated how forty-six mothers modified their talk about familiar and unfamiliar nouns and verbs when interacting with their children with Down Syndrome (DS), language impairment (LI), or typical development (TD). Children (MLUs < 2·7) were group-matched on expressive vocabulary size. Mother-child dyads were recorded playing with toy animals (noun task) and action boxes (verb task). Mothers of children with DS used shorter utterances and more verb labels in salient positions than the other two groups. All mothers produced unfamiliar target nouns in short utterances, in utterance-final position, and with the referent perceptually available. Mothers also talked more about familiar nouns and verbs and labelled them more often and more consistently. These findings suggest that mothers of children in the early period of language development fine-tune their input in ways that reflect their children's vocabulary knowledge, but do so differently for nouns and verbs. PMID:26329157

  5. Broad Autism Phenotype in Typically Developing Children Predicts Performance on an Eye-Tracking Measure of Joint Attention

    PubMed Central

    Serlin, Gayle C.; Siller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We examined visual attention allocation during a set of social videos that are intended to elicit the coordination of attention with another person, compared to a control condition. Deficits in joint attention are a characteristic of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included a diverse sample of 50 typically developing school-aged children between 3 and 9 years of age (M = 6:3, SD = 1:8). Results demonstrated that gaze allocation differed significantly between the experimental and control condition. Further, individual differences in gaze allocation were significantly predicted by a parent-report measure evaluating features of the broad autism phenotype. This study contributes to a research program that aims to develop and validate an endophenotype measure of ASD. PMID:22847297

  6. Analysis of abstract and concrete word processing in persons with aphasia and age-matched neurologically healthy adults using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Kiran, Swathi

    2014-08-01

    The concreteness effect occurs in both normal and language-disordered populations. Research suggests that abstract and concrete concepts elicit differing neural activation patterns in healthy young adults, but this is undocumented in persons with aphasia (PWA). Three PWA and three age-matched controls were scanned using fMRI while processing abstract and concrete words. Consistent with current theories of abstract and concrete word processing, abstract words elicited activation in verbal areas, whereas concrete words additionally activated multimodal association areas. PWA show greater differences in neural activation than age-matched controls between abstract and concrete words, possibly due to an exaggerated concreteness effect. PMID:23548150

  7. Modeling the Maturation of Grip Selection Planning and Action Representation: Insights from Typical and Atypical Motor Development.

    PubMed

    Fuelscher, Ian; Williams, Jacqueline; Wilmut, Kate; Enticott, Peter G; Hyde, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the purported association between developmental changes in grip selection planning and improvements in an individual's capacity to represent action at an internal level [i.e., motor imagery (MI)]. Participants were groups of healthy children aged 6-7 years and 8-12 years respectively, while a group of adolescents (13-17 years) and adults (18-34 years) allowed for consideration of childhood development in the broader context of motor maturation. A group of children aged 8-12 years with probable DCD (pDCD) was included as a reference group for atypical motor development. Participants' proficiency to generate and/or engage internal action representations was inferred from performance on the hand rotation task, a well-validated measure of MI. A grip selection task designed to elicit the end-state comfort (ESC) effect provided a window into the integrity of grip selection planning. Consistent with earlier accounts, the efficiency of grip selection planning followed a non-linear developmental progression in neurotypical individuals. As expected, analysis confirmed that these developmental improvements were predicted by an increased capacity to generate and/or engage internal action representations. The profile of this association remained stable throughout the (typical) developmental spectrum. These findings are consistent with computational accounts of action planning that argue that internal action representations are associated with the expression and development of grip selection planning across typical development. However, no such association was found for our sample of children with pDCD, suggesting that individuals with atypical motor skill may adopt an alternative, sub-optimal strategy to plan their grip selection compared to their same-age control peers. PMID:26903915

  8. Modeling the Maturation of Grip Selection Planning and Action Representation: Insights from Typical and Atypical Motor Development

    PubMed Central

    Fuelscher, Ian; Williams, Jacqueline; Wilmut, Kate; Enticott, Peter G.; Hyde, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the purported association between developmental changes in grip selection planning and improvements in an individual’s capacity to represent action at an internal level [i.e., motor imagery (MI)]. Participants were groups of healthy children aged 6–7 years and 8–12 years respectively, while a group of adolescents (13–17 years) and adults (18–34 years) allowed for consideration of childhood development in the broader context of motor maturation. A group of children aged 8–12 years with probable DCD (pDCD) was included as a reference group for atypical motor development. Participants’ proficiency to generate and/or engage internal action representations was inferred from performance on the hand rotation task, a well-validated measure of MI. A grip selection task designed to elicit the end-state comfort (ESC) effect provided a window into the integrity of grip selection planning. Consistent with earlier accounts, the efficiency of grip selection planning followed a non-linear developmental progression in neurotypical individuals. As expected, analysis confirmed that these developmental improvements were predicted by an increased capacity to generate and/or engage internal action representations. The profile of this association remained stable throughout the (typical) developmental spectrum. These findings are consistent with computational accounts of action planning that argue that internal action representations are associated with the expression and development of grip selection planning across typical development. However, no such association was found for our sample of children with pDCD, suggesting that individuals with atypical motor skill may adopt an alternative, sub-optimal strategy to plan their grip selection compared to their same-age control peers. PMID:26903915

  9. Recognizing the same face in different contexts: Testing within-person face recognition in typical development and in autism.

    PubMed

    Neil, Louise; Cappagli, Giulia; Karaminis, Themelis; Jenkins, Rob; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Unfamiliar face recognition follows a particularly protracted developmental trajectory and is more likely to be atypical in children with autism than those without autism. There is a paucity of research, however, examining the ability to recognize the same face across multiple naturally varying images. Here, we investigated within-person face recognition in children with and without autism. In Experiment 1, typically developing 6- and 7-year-olds, 8- and 9-year-olds, 10- and 11-year-olds, 12- to 14-year-olds, and adults were given 40 grayscale photographs of two distinct male identities (20 of each face taken at different ages, from different angles, and in different lighting conditions) and were asked to sort them by identity. Children mistook images of the same person as images of different people, subdividing each individual into many perceived identities. Younger children divided images into more perceived identities than adults and also made more misidentification errors (placing two different identities together in the same group) than older children and adults. In Experiment 2, we used the same procedure with 32 cognitively able children with autism. Autistic children reported a similar number of identities and made similar numbers of misidentification errors to a group of typical children of similar age and ability. Fine-grained analysis using matrices revealed marginal group differences in overall performance. We suggest that the immature performance in typical and autistic children could arise from problems extracting the perceptual commonalities from different images of the same person and building stable representations of facial identity. PMID:26615971

  10. Recognizing the same face in different contexts: Testing within-person face recognition in typical development and in autism

    PubMed Central

    Neil, Louise; Cappagli, Giulia; Karaminis, Themelis; Jenkins, Rob; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Unfamiliar face recognition follows a particularly protracted developmental trajectory and is more likely to be atypical in children with autism than those without autism. There is a paucity of research, however, examining the ability to recognize the same face across multiple naturally varying images. Here, we investigated within-person face recognition in children with and without autism. In Experiment 1, typically developing 6- and 7-year-olds, 8- and 9-year-olds, 10- and 11-year-olds, 12- to 14-year-olds, and adults were given 40 grayscale photographs of two distinct male identities (20 of each face taken at different ages, from different angles, and in different lighting conditions) and were asked to sort them by identity. Children mistook images of the same person as images of different people, subdividing each individual into many perceived identities. Younger children divided images into more perceived identities than adults and also made more misidentification errors (placing two different identities together in the same group) than older children and adults. In Experiment 2, we used the same procedure with 32 cognitively able children with autism. Autistic children reported a similar number of identities and made similar numbers of misidentification errors to a group of typical children of similar age and ability. Fine-grained analysis using matrices revealed marginal group differences in overall performance. We suggest that the immature performance in typical and autistic children could arise from problems extracting the perceptual commonalities from different images of the same person and building stable representations of facial identity. PMID:26615971

  11. A comparison of food refusal related to characteristics of food in children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Kristie L; Anderson, Sarah E; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G

    2014-12-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report child food refusal based on characteristics of food. Our study sought to determine whether parent report of food refusal based on the characteristics of food was greater in children with ASD than in typically developing children, associated with a greater percentage of foods refused of those offered, and associated with fruit and vegetable intake. A modified food frequency questionnaire was used to determine overall food refusal as well as fruit and vegetable intake. Parent-reported food refusal related to characteristics of food (eg, texture/consistency, temperature, brand, color, shape, taste/smell, foods mixed together, or foods touching other foods) was compared between 53 children with ASD and 58 typically developing children aged 3 to 11 years in the Children's Activity and Meal Patterns Study (2007-2008). Children with ASD were significantly more likely to refuse foods based on texture/consistency (77.4% vs 36.2%), taste/smell (49.1% vs 5.2%), mixtures (45.3% vs 25.9%), brand (15.1% vs 1.7%), and shape (11.3% vs 1.7%). No differences between groups were found for food refusal based on temperature, foods touching other foods, or color. Irrespective of ASD status, the percentage of foods refused of those offered was associated with parent reports of food refusal based on all characteristics examined, except temperature. Food refusal based on color was inversely associated with vegetable consumption in both groups. Routine screening for food refusal among children with ASD is warranted to prevent dietary inadequacies that may be associated with selective eating habits. Future research is needed to develop effective and practical feeding approaches for children with ASD. PMID:24928779

  12. Science learning and literacy performance of typically developing, at-risk, and disabled, non-English language background students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrinaga McGee, Patria Maria

    Current education reform calls for excellence, access, and equity in all areas of instruction, including science and literacy. Historically, persons of diverse backgrounds or with disabilities have been underrepresented in science. Gaps are evident between the science and literacy achievement of diverse students and their mainstream peers. The purpose of this study was to document, describe, and examine patterns of development and change in the science learning and literacy performance of Hispanic students. The two major questions of this study were: (1) How is science content knowledge, as evident in oral and written formats, manifested in the performance of typically developing, at-risk, and disabled non-English language background (NELB) students? and (2) What are the patterns of literacy performance in science, and as evident in oral and written formats, among typically developing, at-risk, and disabled NELB students? This case study was part of a larger research project, the Promise Project, undertaken at the University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation. The study involved 24 fourth-grade students in seven classrooms located in Promise Project schools where teachers were provided with training and materials for instruction on two units of science content: Matter and Weather. Four students were selected from among the fourth-graders for a closer analysis of their performance. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods were used to document, describe, and examine specific events or phenomena in the processes of science learning and literacy development. Important findings were related to (a) gains in science learning and literacy development, (b) students' science learning and literacy development needs, and (c) general and idiosyncratic attitudes toward science and literacy. Five patterns of science "explanations" identified indicated a developmental cognitive/linguistic trajectory in science

  13. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2013-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases (baseline, 3 months later, 6 months later). There were modest increases in waking cortisol and sAA levels in AUT relative to TYP, but the increases were not statistically significant. Important differences were observed in cortisol and sAA variability between AUT and TYP. There was also a graded response among AUT by functional status—cortisol and sAA secretion levels were higher when IQ was lower. PMID:22477468

  14. Predicting Levels of Reading and Writing Achievement in Typically Developing, English-Speaking 2nd and 5th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jasmin Niedo; Abbott, Robert D.; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2014-01-01

    Human traits tend to fall along normal distributions. The aim of this research was to evaluate an evidence-based conceptual framework for predicting expected individual differences in reading and writing achievement outcomes for typically developing readers and writers in early and middle childhood from Verbal Reasoning with or without Working Memory Components (phonological, orthographic, and morphological word storage and processing units, phonological and orthographic loops, and rapid switching attention for cross-code integration). Verbal Reasoning (reconceptualized as Bidirectional Cognitive-Linguistic Translation) plus the Working Memory Components (reconceptualized as a language learning system) accounted for more variance than Verbal Reasoning alone, except for handwriting for which Working Memory Components alone were better predictors. Which predictors explained unique variance varied within and across reading (oral real word and pseudoword accuracy and rate, reading comprehension) and writing (handwriting, spelling, composing) skills and grade levels (second and fifth) in this longitudinal study. Educational applications are illustrated and theoretical and practical significance discussed. PMID:24948868

  15. Rating Parent-Child Interactions: Joint Engagement, Communication Dynamics, and Shared Topics in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2012-01-01

    A battery of 17 rating items were applied to video records of typically-developing toddlers and young children with autism and Down syndrome interacting with their parents during the Communication Play Protocol. This battery provided a reliable and broad view of the joint engagement triad of child, partner, and shared topic. Ratings of the child’s joint engagement correlated very strongly with state coding of joint engagement and replicated the findings that coordinated joint engagement was less likely in children with autism and symbol-infused joint engagement was less likely in children with Down syndrome. Ratings of other child actions, of parent contributions, and of shared topics and communicative dynamics also documented pervasive variations related to diagnosis, language facility, and communicative context. PMID:22466689

  16. Cognitive engagement and story comprehension in typically developing children and children with ADHD from preschool through elementary school.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Elizabeth P; Milich, Richard; Astrin, Clarese C; Berthiaume, Kristen S

    2006-11-01

    The present study examined children's cognitive engagement with television as a function of the continuity of central or incidental content and whether this varied with age and clinical status. In Experiment 1, 9- to 11-year-old children's response times on a secondary task were slower the later a probe occurred in a sequence of central events, and response times predicted recall. Experiment 2 extended these results to 6- to 8-year-old children. Experiment 3 revealed that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) failed to show the pattern consistently observed for comparison children. The results support the hypothesis that typically developing children build a representation during viewing that reflects the causal structure of the televised story but that this skill is deficient in 4- to 9-year-old children with ADHD. PMID:17087553

  17. The Emergence of Autoclitic Frames in Atypically and Typically Developing Children as a Function of Multiple Exemplar Instruction

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Nicole; Greer, R. Douglas; Singer-Dudek, Jessica; Keohane, Dolleen-Day

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we tested the effect of multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) for training sets on the emergence of autoclitic frames for spatial relations for novel tacts and mands. In Experiment 1, we used a replicated pre- and post-intervention probe design with four students with significant learning disabilities to test for acquisition of four autoclitic frames with novel tacts and mands before and after MEI. The untaught topographies emerged for all participants. In Experiment 2, we used a multiple probe design to test the effects of the MEI procedures on the same responses in four typically developing, bilingual students. The novel usage emerged for all participants. In the latter experiment, the children demonstrated untaught usage of mand or tact frames regardless of whether they were taught to respond in either listener or speaker functions alone or across listener and speaker functions. The findings are discussed in terms of the role of MEI in the formation of abstractions. PMID:22532760

  18. The status and development of treatment techniques of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment in China: a review.

    PubMed

    He, Yunxia; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-04-01

    A large quantity of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is being generated because technical innovation promotes the unceasing renewal of products. China's household appliances and electronic products have entered the peak of obsolescence. Due to lack of technology and equipment, recycling of WEEE is causing serious environment pollution. In order to achieve the harmless disposal and resource utilization of WEEE, researchers have performed large quantities of work, and some demonstration projects have been built recently. In this paper, the treatment techniques of typical WEEE components, including printed circuit boards, refrigerator cabinets, toner cartridges, cathode ray tubes, liquid crystal display panels, batteries (Ni-Cd and Li-ion), hard disk drives, and wires are reviewed. An integrated recycling system with environmentally friendly and highly efficient techniques for processing WEEE is proposed. The orientation of further development for WEEE recycling is also proposed. PMID:24633555

  19. Modeling individual differences in text reading fluency: a different pattern of predictors for typically developing and dyslexic readers

    PubMed Central

    Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; De Luca, Maria; Marinelli, Chiara V.; Spinelli, Donatella

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at predicting individual differences in text reading fluency. The basic proposal included two factors, i.e., the ability to decode letter strings (measured by discrete pseudo-word reading) and integration of the various sub-components involved in reading (measured by Rapid Automatized Naming, RAN). Subsequently, a third factor was added to the model, i.e., naming of discrete digits. In order to use homogeneous measures, all contributing variables considered the entire processing of the item, including pronunciation time. The model, which was based on commonality analysis, was applied to data from a group of 43 typically developing readers (11- to 13-year-olds) and a group of 25 chronologically matched dyslexic children. In typically developing readers, both orthographic decoding and integration of reading sub-components contributed significantly to the overall prediction of text reading fluency. The model prediction was higher (from ca. 37 to 52% of the explained variance) when we included the naming of discrete digits variable, which had a suppressive effect on pseudo-word reading. In the dyslexic readers, the variance explained by the two-factor model was high (69%) and did not change when the third factor was added. The lack of a suppression effect was likely due to the prominent individual differences in poor orthographic decoding of the dyslexic children. Analyses on data from both groups of children were replicated by using patches of colors as stimuli (both in the RAN task and in the discrete naming task) obtaining similar results. We conclude that it is possible to predict much of the variance in text-reading fluency using basic processes, such as orthographic decoding and integration of reading sub-components, even without taking into consideration higher-order linguistic factors such as lexical, semantic and contextual abilities. The approach validity of using proximal vs. distal causes to predict reading fluency is discussed. PMID

  20. Socio-emotional regulation in children with intellectual disability and typically developing children, and teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment.

    PubMed

    Baurain, Céline; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Dionne, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the extent to which socio-emotional regulation displayed in three dyadic interactive play contexts (neutral, competitive or cooperative) by 45 children with intellectual disability compared with 45 typically developing children (matched on developmental age, ranging from 3 to 6 years) is linked with the teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment. A Coding Grid of Socio-Emotional Regulation by Sequences (Baurain & Nader-Grosbois, 2011b, 2011c) focusing on Emotional Expression, Social Behavior and Behavior toward Social Rules in children was applied. The Social Adjustment for Children Scale (EASE, Hugues, Soares-Boucaud, Hochman, & Frith, 1997) and the Assessment, Evaluation and Intervention Program System (AEPS, Bricker, 2002) were completed by teachers. Regression analyses emphasized, in children with intellectual disability only, a positive significant link between their Behavior toward Social Rules in interactive contexts and the teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment. Children with intellectual disabilities who listen to and follow instructions, who are patient in waiting for their turn, and who moderate their externalized behavior are perceived by their teachers as socially adapted in their daily social relationships. The between-groups dissimilarity in the relational patterns between abilities in socio-emotional regulation and social adjustment supports the "structural difference hypothesis" with regard to the group with intellectual disability, compared with the typically developing group. Hierarchical cluster cases analyses identified distinct subgroups showing variable structural patterns between the three specific categories of abilities in socio-emotional regulation and their levels of social adjustment perceived by teachers. In both groups, several abilities in socio-emotional regulation and teachers' perceptions of social adjustment vary depending on children's developmental age. Chronological age in children with

  1. Typical Newel Post, First Floor Newel Post, Typical Baluster, Typical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Newel Post, First Floor Newel Post, Typical Baluster, Typical Nosing, First Floor Stringer Profile, Second Floor Stringer Profile - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Treasurer's Quarters, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  2. Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy vs standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A non-randomized, age-matched single center trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Yoen TK; Bosscha, Koop; Prins, Hubert A; Lips, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the safety of single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomies with standard four-port cholecystectomies. METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2012 datas were gathered from 100 consecutive patients who received a single-port cholecystectomy. Patient baseline characteristics of all 100 single-port cholecystectomies were collected (body mass index, age, etc.) in a database. This group was compared with 100 age-matched patients who underwent a conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the same period. Retrospectively, per- and postoperative data were added. The two groups were compared to each other using independent t-tests and χ2-tests, P values below 0.05 were considered significantly different. RESULTS: No differences were found between both groups regarding baseline characteristics. Operating time was significantly shorter in the total single-port group (42 min vs 62 min, P < 0.05); in procedures performed by surgeons the same trend was seen (45 min vs 59 min, P < 0.05). Peroperative complications between both groups were equal (3 in the single-port group vs 5 in the multiport group; P = 0.42). Although not significant less postoperative complications were seen in the single-port group compared with the multiport group (3 vs 9; P = 0.07). No statistically significant differences were found between both groups with regard to length of hospital stay, readmissions and mortality. CONCLUSION: Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy has the potential to be a safe technique with a low complication rate, short in-hospital stay and comparable operating time. Single-port cholecystectomy provides the patient an almost non-visible scar while preserving optimal quality of surgery. Further prospective studies are needed to prove the safety of the single-port technique. PMID:26328034

  3. RELN-expressing Neuron Density in Layer I of the Superior Temporal Lobe is Similar in Human Brains with Autism and in Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C.; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. PMID:25067827

  4. Comparing the neural bases of self-referential processing in typically developing and 22q11.2 adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maude; Debbané, Martin; Lagioia, Annalaura; Salomon, Roy; d'Argembeau, Arnaud; Eliez, Stephan

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of self-reflective processing during adolescence is relevant, as this period is characterized by deep reorganization of the self-concept. It may be the case that an atypical development of brain regions underlying self-reflective processing increases the risk for psychological disorders and impaired social functioning. In this study, we investigated the neural bases of self- and other-related processing in typically developing adolescents and youths with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a rare neurogenetic condition associated with difficulties in social interactions and increased risk for schizophrenia. The fMRI paradigm consisted in judging if a series of adjectives applied to the participant himself/herself (self), to his/her best friend or to a fictional character (Harry Potter). In control adolescents, we observed that self- and other-related processing elicited strong activation in cortical midline structures (CMS) when contrasted with a semantic baseline condition. 22q11DS exhibited hypoactivation in the CMS and the striatum during the processing of self-related information when compared to the control group. Finally, the hypoactivation in the anterior cingulate cortex was associated with the severity of prodromal positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The findings are discussed in a developmental framework and in light of their implication for the development of schizophrenia in this at-risk population. PMID:22483077

  5. Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders Compared to Typically Developing Controls on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahan, Sara; Matson, Johnny L.

    2011-01-01

    As the "Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Second Edition" ("BASC-2") is often used to aid in diagnosis it is important to discern how children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) score on the "BASC-2" compared to typically developing controls. This study compared scores of typically developing children and adolescents to…

  6. Mathematical skills in 3- and 5-year-olds with spina bifida and their typically developing peers: a longitudinal approach.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marcia A; Stubbs, Allison; Raghubar, Kimberly P; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan; Fletcher, Jack M; Smith-Chant, Brenda

    2011-05-01

    Preschoolers with spina bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing (TD) children on tasks tapping mathematical knowledge at 36 months (n = 102) and 60 months of age (n = 98). The group with SB had difficulty compared to TD peers on all mathematical tasks except for transformation on quantities in the subitizable range. At 36 months, vocabulary knowledge, visual-spatial, and fine motor abilities predicted achievement on a measure of informal math knowledge in both groups. At 60 months of age, phonological awareness, visual-spatial ability, and fine motor skill were uniquely and differentially related to counting knowledge, oral counting, object-based arithmetic skills, and quantitative concepts. Importantly, the patterns of association between these predictors and mathematical performance were similar across the groups. A novel finding is that fine motor skill uniquely predicted object-based arithmetic abilities in both groups, suggesting developmental continuity in the neurocognitive correlates of early object-based and later symbolic arithmetic problem solving. Models combining 36-month mathematical ability and these language-based, visual-spatial, and fine motor abilities at 60 months accounted for considerable variance on 60-month informal mathematical outcomes. Results are discussed with reference to models of mathematical development and early identification of risk in preschoolers with neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:21418718

  7. Gambling Related Cognitive Distortions in Adolescence: Relationships with Gambling Problems in Typically Developing and Special Needs Students.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robyn N; Parker, James D A; Keefer, Kateryna V; Kloosterman, Patricia H; Summerfeldt, Laura J

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the link between problematic gambling and gambling related cognitions (GRCs) in a large sample of adolescents with (N = 266) and without (N = 1,738) special education needs (SEN) between the ages of 14 and 18 years attending several high schools in eastern central Ontario. The adolescents with SENs were identified as having various learning disorders and/or internalizing and externalizing problems [e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)]. All adolescents completed a self-report questionnaire package that included the GRC Scale (GRCS; Raylu and Oei in Addiction 99:757-769, 2004), as well as measures of problem gambling, negative affect, and ADHD symptomatology. Results showed that adolescents with SEN hold more erroneous beliefs about gambling and had a higher risk of developing problematic patterns of gambling behaviour than their typically developing peers. Moreover, the GRCS subscales were found to be strong predictors of problem gambling among adolescents both with and without SEN, accounting for a substantial amount of the variance even when controlling for the effects of age, gender, ADHD, and negative affect. It is suggested that intervention and prevention programs aimed at adolescent gambling need to give particular attention to those with SEN. PMID:25023184

  8. Development of Product Relatedness and Distance Effects in Typical Achievers and in Children With Mathematics Learning Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the development of two effects that have been found in single-digit multiplication errors: relatedness and distance. Typically achieving (TA) second, fourth, and sixth graders and adults, and sixth and eighth graders with a mathematics learning disability (MLD) performed a verification task. Relatedness was defined by a slow and inaccurate response to false results that were related to one of the operands via a shared multiplication row (e.g., 3 × 4 = 16). Distance was defined by a slow and inaccurate response to false results that were close in magnitude to the true result (e.g., 6 × 8 = 49). The presence of these effects indicates that participants are sensitive to numerical features of products. TA children demonstrated sensitivity to relatedness and distance from second grade onward. With age their sensitivity expanded from easy problems (e.g., 2 × 3) to difficult ones (e.g., 8 × 9). Children with MLD were sensitive to relatedness on easy problems. Their sensitivity to distance differed from the pattern seen in sixth grade and was partial in eighth grade. The presence of numerical sensitivity in children with MLD calls for instructional methods that would further develop their number sense. PMID:24509566

  9. Portable Intermodal Preferential Looking (IPL): Investigating Language Comprehension in Typically Developing Toddlers and Young Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Naigles, Letitia R.; Tovar, Andrea T.

    2012-01-01

    One of the defining characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is difficulty with language and communication.1 Children with ASD's onset of speaking is usually delayed, and many children with ASD consistently produce language less frequently and of lower lexical and grammatical complexity than their typically developing (TD) peers.6,8,12,23 However, children with ASD also exhibit a significant social deficit, and researchers and clinicians continue to debate the extent to which the deficits in social interaction account for or contribute to the deficits in language production.5,14,19,25 Standardized assessments of language in children with ASD usually do include a comprehension component; however, many such comprehension tasks assess just one aspect of language (e.g., vocabulary),5 or include a significant motor component (e.g., pointing, act-out), and/or require children to deliberately choose between a number of alternatives. These last two behaviors are known to also be challenging to children with ASD.7,12,13,16 We present a method which can assess the language comprehension of young typically developing children (9-36 months) and children with autism.2,4,9,11,22 This method, Portable Intermodal Preferential Looking (P-IPL), projects side-by-side video images from a laptop onto a portable screen. The video images are paired first with a 'baseline' (nondirecting) audio, and then presented again paired with a 'test' linguistic audio that matches only one of the video images. Children's eye movements while watching the video are filmed and later coded. Children who understand the linguistic audio will look more quickly to, and longer at, the video that matches the linguistic audio.2,4,11,18,22,26 This paradigm includes a number of components that have recently been miniaturized (projector, camcorder, digitizer) to enable portability and easy setup in children's homes. This is a crucial point for assessing young children with ASD, who are frequently

  10. Portable Intermodal Preferential Looking (IPL): investigating language comprehension in typically developing toddlers and young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Naigles, Letitia R; Tovar, Andrea T

    2012-01-01

    One of the defining characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is difficulty with language and communication.(1) Children with ASD's onset of speaking is usually delayed, and many children with ASD consistently produce language less frequently and of lower lexical and grammatical complexity than their typically developing (TD) peers.(6,8,12,23) However, children with ASD also exhibit a significant social deficit, and researchers and clinicians continue to debate the extent to which the deficits in social interaction account for or contribute to the deficits in language production.(5,14,19,25) Standardized assessments of language in children with ASD usually do include a comprehension component; however, many such comprehension tasks assess just one aspect of language (e.g., vocabulary),(5) or include a significant motor component (e.g., pointing, act-out), and/or require children to deliberately choose between a number of alternatives. These last two behaviors are known to also be challenging to children with ASD.(7,12,13,16) We present a method which can assess the language comprehension of young typically developing children (9-36 months) and children with autism.(2,4,9,11,22) This method, Portable Intermodal Preferential Looking (P-IPL), projects side-by-side video images from a laptop onto a portable screen. The video images are paired first with a 'baseline' (nondirecting) audio, and then presented again paired with a 'test' linguistic audio that matches only one of the video images. Children's eye movements while watching the video are filmed and later coded. Children who understand the linguistic audio will look more quickly to, and longer at, the video that matches the linguistic audio.(2,4,11,18,22,26) This paradigm includes a number of components that have recently been miniaturized (projector, camcorder, digitizer) to enable portability and easy setup in children's homes. This is a crucial point for assessing young children with ASD, who are

  11. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  12. High-frequency oscillatory response to illusory contour in typically developing boys and boys with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Stroganova, Tatiana A; Orekhova, Elena V; Prokofyev, Andrey O; Tsetlin, Marina M; Gratchev, Vitaliy V; Morozov, Alexey A; Obukhov, Yuriy V

    2012-06-01

    Illusory contour (IC) perception, a fruitful model for studying the automatic contextual integration of local image features, can be used to investigate the putative impairment of such integration in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We used the illusory Kanizsa square to test how the phase-locked (PL) gamma and beta electroencephalogram (EEG) responses of typically developing (TD) children aged 3-7 years and those with ASD were modulated by the presence of IC in the image. The PL beta and gamma activity strongly differentiated between IC and control figures in both groups of children (IC effect). However, the timing, topography, and direction of the IC effect differed in TD and ASD children. Between 40 msec and 120 msec after stimulus onset, both groups demonstrated lower power of gamma oscillations at occipital areas in response to IC than in response to the control figure. In TD children, this relative gamma suppression was followed by relatively higher parieto-occipital gamma and beta responses to IC within 120-270 msec after stimulus onset. This second stage of IC processing was absent in children with ASD. Instead, their response to IC was characterized by protracted (40-270 msec) relative reduction of gamma and beta oscillations at occipital areas. We hypothesize that children with ASD rely more heavily on lower-order processing in the primary visual areas and have atypical later stage related to higher-order processes of contour integration. PMID:21458787

  13. Verbal creativity in autism: comprehension and generation of metaphoric language in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and typical development.

    PubMed

    Kasirer, Anat; Mashal, Nira

    2014-01-01

    Studies on creativity in participants with autism generally show impoverished performance as well as deficient comprehension of metaphoric language. However, very little is known about the ability to generate metaphors in this population. The present study examines verbal creativity in adults with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) through tasks that rely on novel metaphoric language. Seventeen adults with ASD (mean age = 21.06) and 17 typically developing peers (mean age = 22.71) participated in the study. A multiple-choice questionnaire consisting of conventional and novel metaphors was used to test comprehension, and a sentence completion questionnaire was used to test generation of creative language. Results show similar performance in comprehension of conventional and novel metaphors in both groups, whereas adults with ASD generated more creative metaphors relative to the control group. Scores on tests of vocabulary and naming contributed to the prediction of conventional metaphor comprehension, while scores on tests of mental flexibility contributed to the prediction of novel metaphor comprehension. In addition, scores on a test of non-verbal intelligence contributed to the prediction of metaphor generation. The study points to unique verbal creativity in ASD. PMID:25157225

  14. Differential Brain Responses to Cries of Infants with Autistic Disorder and Typical Development: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Venuti, Paola; Caria, Andrea; Esposito, Gianluca; De Pisapia, Nicola; Bornstein, Marc H.; de Falco, Simona

    2012-01-01

    This study used fMRI to measure brain activity during adult processing of cries of infants with autistic disorder (AD) compared to cries of typically developing (TD) infants. Using whole brain analysis, we found that cries of infants with AD compared to those of TD infants elicited enhanced activity in brain regions associated with verbal and prosodic processing, perhaps because altered acoustic patterns of AD cries render them especially difficult to interpret, and increased activity in brain regions associated with emotional processing, indicating that AD cries also elicit more negative feelings and may be perceived as more aversive and/or arousing. Perceived distress engendered by AD cries related to increased activation in brain regions associated with emotional processing. This study supports the hypothesis that cry is an early and meaningful anomaly displayed by children with AD. It could be that cries associated with AD alter parent-child interactions much earlier than the time that reliable AD diagnosis normally occurs. PMID:22835685

  15. Reinforcement Enhances Vigilance Among Children With ADHD: Comparisons to Typically Developing Children and to the Effects of Methylphenidate

    PubMed Central

    Bubnik, Michelle G.; Hawk, Larry W.; Pelham, William E.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Rosch, Keri S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustained attention and reinforcement are posited as causal mechanisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but their interaction has received little empirical study. In two studies, we examined the impact of performance-based reinforcement on sustained attention over time, or vigilance, among 9- to 12-year-old children. Study 1 demonstrated the expected vigilance deficit among children with ADHD (n=25; 12% female) compared to typically developing (TD) controls (n=33; 22% female) on a standard continuous performance task (CPT). During a subsequent visit, reinforcement improved attention more among children with ADHD than controls. Study 2 examined the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and acute methylphenidate (MPH) on CPT performance in children with ADHD (n=19; 21% female). Both reinforcement and MPH enhanced overall target detection and attenuated the vigilance decrement that occurred in no-reinforcement, placebo condition. Cross-study comparisons suggested that the combination of MPH and reinforcement eliminated the vigilance deficit in children with ADHD, normalizing sustained attention. This work highlights the clinically and theoretically interesting intersection of reinforcement and sustained attention. PMID:24931776

  16. Validating the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning for Children With ADHD and Their Typically Developing Peers.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Fiona; Cherry, Kathlyn; Corkum, Penny

    2016-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF) has been widely used both clinically and in research for measuring executive functioning (EF) in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined the concurrent validity of the BRIEF (both parent and teacher ratings) compared to performance-based measures of EF in children with ADHD compared to typically developing (TD) children. The authors assessed 20 children with ADHD and 20 TD controls on 4 EF domains-working memory, planning, inhibition, and set shifting-using the BRIEF and performance-based measures of EF. Children (aged 8-12 years old) with ADHD demonstrated more EF impairment than their TD peers on both questionnaire- and performance-based measures. Ratings on questionnaire- and performance-based measures did not uniquely correlate with each other. Questionnaire-based measures were better at discriminating between children with ADHD and TD children, specifically BRIEF parent ratings, and discrimination depended mostly on the Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Inhibit subscales. The BRIEF has clinical utility for discriminating between children with ADHD and their TD peers; however, some limitations exist for interpretation of the BRIEF, and it should be used with caution in the assessment and diagnosis of ADHD. PMID:26110907

  17. Verbal creativity in autism: comprehension and generation of metaphoric language in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and typical development

    PubMed Central

    Kasirer, Anat; Mashal, Nira

    2014-01-01

    Studies on creativity in participants with autism generally show impoverished performance as well as deficient comprehension of metaphoric language. However, very little is known about the ability to generate metaphors in this population. The present study examines verbal creativity in adults with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) through tasks that rely on novel metaphoric language. Seventeen adults with ASD (mean age = 21.06) and 17 typically developing peers (mean age = 22.71) participated in the study. A multiple-choice questionnaire consisting of conventional and novel metaphors was used to test comprehension, and a sentence completion questionnaire was used to test generation of creative language. Results show similar performance in comprehension of conventional and novel metaphors in both groups, whereas adults with ASD generated more creative metaphors relative to the control group. Scores on tests of vocabulary and naming contributed to the prediction of conventional metaphor comprehension, while scores on tests of mental flexibility contributed to the prediction of novel metaphor comprehension. In addition, scores on a test of non-verbal intelligence contributed to the prediction of metaphor generation. The study points to unique verbal creativity in ASD. PMID:25157225

  18. Learning Novel Words: Detail and Vulnerability of Initial Representations for Children with Specific Language Impairment and Typically-Developing Peers

    PubMed Central

    Alt, Mary; Suddarth, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the phonological representations that children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers (TD) have during the initial process of word learning. The goals of this study were to determine if children with SLI attended to different components of words than peers, and whether they were more vulnerable to interference than peers. Forty 7- and 8-year-old children, half with SLI, took part in a fast mapping, word learning task. In addition to producing the word, there was a mispronunciation detection task that included mispronunciations of the target word in the initial position, final position or that modified the word's syllable structure. Children with SLI showed a different learning profile than peers, demonstrating stronger representations of the word-initial phonemes, but less information about word-final phonemes. They were more prone to interference overall, but especially from word-final foils. Children with SLI did not demonstrate less-defined phonological representations, but did attend to different features than TD children, perhaps in an attempt to compensate for problems learning longer words. The greatest weakness of children with SLI appears to be their susceptibility to interference, particularly for word-final information. PMID:22225571

  19. The effects of indexical and phonetic variation on vowel perception in typically developing 9- to 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate how linguistic knowledge interacts with indexical knowledge in older children's perception under demanding listening conditions created by extensive talker variability. METHOD Twenty-five 9- to 12-year-old children, 12 from North Carolina (NC) and 13 from Wisconsin (WI), identified 12 vowels in isolated /hVd/ words produced by 120 talkers representing the 2 dialects (NC and WI), both genders, and 3 age groups (generations) of residents from the same geographic locations as the listeners. RESULTS Identification rates were higher for responses to talkers from the same dialect as the listeners and for female speech. Listeners were sensitive to systematic positional variations in vowels and their dynamic structure (formant movement) associated with generational differences in vowel pronunciation resulting from sound change in a speech community. Overall identification rate was 71.7%, which is 8.5% lower than for the adults responding to the same stimuli in Jacewicz and Fox (2012). CONCLUSION Typically developing older children were successful in dealing with both phonetic and indexical variation related to talker dialect, gender, and generation. They were less consistent than the adults, most likely because of less efficient encoding of acoustic-phonetic information in the speech of multiple talkers and relative inexperience with indexical variation. PMID:24686520

  20. Gamma Activation in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically-Developing Controls When Viewing Emotions on Faces

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Barry; Alderson-Day, Ben; Prendergast, Garreth; Bennett, Sophie; Jordan, Jo; Whitton, Clare; Gouws, Andre; Jones, Nick; Attur, Ram; Tomlinson, Heather; Green, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background Behavioural studies have highlighted irregularities in recognition of facial affect in children and young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Recent findings from studies utilising electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) have identified abnormal activation and irregular maintenance of gamma (>30 Hz) range oscillations when ASD individuals attempt basic visual and auditory tasks. Methodology/Principal Fndings The pilot study reported here is the first study to use spatial filtering techniques in MEG to explore face processing in children with ASD. We set out to examine theoretical suggestions that gamma activation underlying face processing may be different in a group of children and young people with ASD (n = 13) compared to typically developing (TD) age, gender and IQ matched controls. Beamforming and virtual electrode techniques were used to assess spatially localised induced and evoked activity. While lower-band (3–30 Hz) responses to faces were similar between groups, the ASD gamma response in occipital areas was observed to be largely absent when viewing emotions on faces. Virtual electrode analysis indicated the presence of intact evoked responses but abnormal induced activity in ASD participants. Conclusions/Significance These findings lend weight to previous suggestions that specific components of the early visual response to emotional faces is abnormal in ASD. Elucidation of the nature and specificity of these findings is worthy of further research. PMID:22859975

  1. Sex differences in multisensory speech processing in both typically developing children and those on the autism spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lars A.; Del Bene, Victor A.; Molholm, Sophie; Frey, Hans-Peter; Foxe, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous work has revealed sizeable deficits in the abilities of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to integrate auditory and visual speech signals, with clear implications for social communication in this population. There is a strong male preponderance in ASD, with approximately four affected males for every female. The presence of sex differences in ASD symptoms suggests a sexual dimorphism in the ASD phenotype, and raises the question of whether this dimorphism extends to ASD traits in the neurotypical population. Here, we investigated possible sexual dimorphism in multisensory speech integration in both ASD and neurotypical individuals. Methods: We assessed whether males and females differed in their ability to benefit from visual speech when target words were presented under varying levels of signal-to-noise, in samples of neurotypical children and adults, and in children diagnosed with an ASD. Results: In typically developing (TD) children and children with ASD, females (n = 47 and n = 15, respectively) were significantly superior in their ability to recognize words under audiovisual listening conditions compared to males (n = 55 and n = 58, respectively). This sex difference was absent in our sample of neurotypical adults (n = 28 females; n = 28 males). Conclusions: We propose that the development of audiovisual integration is delayed in male relative to female children, a delay that is also observed in ASD. In neurotypicals, these sex differences disappear in early adulthood when females approach their performance maximum and males “catch up.” Our findings underline the importance of considering sex differences in the search for autism endophenotypes and strongly encourage increased efforts to study the underrepresented population of females within ASD. PMID:26074757

  2. A meta-analysis of functional reading systems in typically developing and struggling readers across different alphabetic languages.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Courtney; Luk, Gigi; Christodoulou, Joanna A

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging research has identified multiple brain regions supporting reading-related activity in typical and atypical readers across different alphabetic languages. Previous meta-analyses performed on these functional magnetic resonance imaging findings typically report significant between-group contrasts comparing typical readers and readers with reading difficulty or a clinical diagnosis of developmental dyslexia. In order to advance our understanding of cross-linguistic convergence of reading-related brain activations for these reader groups, analyses using activation likelihood estimation were carried out separately for typical and atypical readers who ranged from children to adults. Contrasts were analyzed for tasks involving rhyming or reading of letter or word stimuli presented visually in English, Dutch, Italian, German, French, or Norwegian. Typical readers showed reliable activation in only left lateralized regions, including the inferior frontal area, precentral area and middle temporal gyrus. Atypical readers also showed activation in the left inferior frontal area and precentral region, in addition to significant activations in the right hemisphere, including the superior, medial and inferior frontal regions, lingual gyrus and the inferior occipital area. These results distinguish between typical and atypical reader group activations, showing common and distinct regions of activation when engaged in reading-related activities, extending previous meta-analyses on identifying brain regions relevant to reading to include cross-linguistic analyses for alphabetic scripts. Results support the universality of a signature pattern of brain activation in developmental dyslexia across alphabetic languages. PMID:25806009

  3. A meta-analysis of functional reading systems in typically developing and struggling readers across different alphabetic languages

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Courtney; Luk, Gigi; Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging research has identified multiple brain regions supporting reading-related activity in typical and atypical readers across different alphabetic languages. Previous meta-analyses performed on these functional magnetic resonance imaging findings typically report significant between-group contrasts comparing typical readers and readers with reading difficulty or a clinical diagnosis of developmental dyslexia. In order to advance our understanding of cross-linguistic convergence of reading-related brain activations for these reader groups, analyses using activation likelihood estimation were carried out separately for typical and atypical readers who ranged from children to adults. Contrasts were analyzed for tasks involving rhyming or reading of letter or word stimuli presented visually in English, Dutch, Italian, German, French, or Norwegian. Typical readers showed reliable activation in only left lateralized regions, including the inferior frontal area, precentral area and middle temporal gyrus. Atypical readers also showed activation in the left inferior frontal area and precentral region, in addition to significant activations in the right hemisphere, including the superior, medial and inferior frontal regions, lingual gyrus and the inferior occipital area. These results distinguish between typical and atypical reader group activations, showing common and distinct regions of activation when engaged in reading-related activities, extending previous meta-analyses on identifying brain regions relevant to reading to include cross-linguistic analyses for alphabetic scripts. Results support the universality of a signature pattern of brain activation in developmental dyslexia across alphabetic languages. PMID:25806009

  4. Resting-state oscillatory dynamics in sensorimotor cortex in benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes and typical brain development.

    PubMed

    Koelewijn, Loes; Hamandi, Khalid; Brindley, Lisa M; Brookes, Matthew J; Routley, Bethany C; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Williams, Natalie; Thomas, Marie A; Kirby, Amanda; Te Water Naudé, Johann; Gibbon, Frances; Singh, Krish D

    2015-10-01

    Benign Epilepsy with Centro-Temporal Spikes (BECTS) is a common childhood epilepsy associated with deficits in several neurocognitive domains. Neurophysiological studies in BECTS often focus on centro-temporal spikes, but these correlate poorly with morphology and cognitive impairments. To better understand the neural profile of BECTS, we studied background brain oscillations, thought to be integrally involved in neural network communication, in sensorimotor areas. We used independent component analysis of temporally correlated sources on magnetoencephalography recordings to assess sensorimotor resting-state network activity in BECTS patients and typically developing controls. We also investigated the variability of oscillatory characteristics within focal primary motor cortex (M1), localized with a separate finger abduction task. We hypothesized that background oscillations would differ between patients and controls in the sensorimotor network but not elsewhere, especially in the beta band (13-30 Hz) because of its role in network communication and motor processing. The results support our hypothesis: in the sensorimotor network, patients had a greater variability in oscillatory amplitude compared to controls, whereas there was no difference in the visual network. Network measures did not correlate with age. The coefficient of variation of resting M1 peak frequency correlated negatively with age in the beta band only, and was greater than average for a number of patients. Our results point toward a "disorganized" functional sensorimotor network in BECTS, supporting a neurodevelopmental delay in sensorimotor cortex. Our findings further suggest that investigating the variability of oscillatory peak frequency may be a useful tool to investigate deficits of disorganization in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26177579

  5. Muscle contributions to centre of mass acceleration during turning gait in typically developing children: A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Philippe C; Jansen, Karen; Jonkers, Ilse; Stebbins, Julie; Theologis, Tim; Zavatsky, Amy B

    2015-12-16

    Turning while walking requires substantial joint kinematic and kinetic adaptations compared to straight walking in order to redirect the body centre of mass (COM) towards the new walking direction. The role of muscles and external forces in controlling and redirecting the COM during turning remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the contributors to COM medio-lateral acceleration during 90° pre-planned turns about the inside limb (spin) and straight walking in typically developing children. Simulations of straight walking and turning gait based on experimental motion data were implemented in OpenSim. The contributors to COM global medio-lateral acceleration during the approach (outside limb) and turn (inside limb) stance phase were quantified via an induced acceleration analysis. Changes in medio-lateral COM acceleration occurred during both turning phases, compared to straight walking (p<0.001). During the approach, outside limb plantarflexors (soleus and medial gastrocnemius) contribution to lateral (away from the turn side) COM acceleration was reduced (p<0.001), whereas during the turn, inside limb plantarflexors (soleus and gastrocnemii) contribution to lateral acceleration (towards the turn side) increased (p≤0.013) and abductor (gluteus medius and minimus) contribution medially decreased (p<0.001), compared to straight walking, together helping accelerate the COM towards the new walking direction. Knowledge of the changes in muscle contributions required to modulate the COM position during turning improves our understanding of the control mechanisms of gait and may be used clinically to guide the management of gait disorders in populations with restricted gait ability. PMID:26555714

  6. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  7. Keys to Play: A Strategy to Increase the Social Interactions of Young Children with Autism and their Typically Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Catherine; McDonnell, Andrea P.; Johnston, Susan S.; Crompton, Angie; Nelson, Andrew R.

    2007-01-01

    Crucial to the successful inclusion of young children with disabilities is the premise that benefit occurs when children socialize with peers and are actively involved in preschool activities including play. Playgroups are often primary to learning in typical preschool classrooms since it is within playgroups that preschool-age children learn both…

  8. Differences in age-related effects on brain volume in Down syndrome as compared to Williams syndrome and typical development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) are reported to experience early onset of brain aging. However, it is not well understood how pre-existing neurodevelopmental effects versus neurodegenerative processes might be contributing to the observed pattern of brain atrophy in younger adults with DS. The aims of the current study were to: (1) to confirm previous findings of age-related changes in DS compared to adults with typical development (TD), (2) to test for an effect of these age-related changes in a second neurodevelopmental disorder, Williams syndrome (WS), and (3) to identify a pattern of regional age-related effects that are unique to DS. Methods High-resolution T1-weighted MRI of the brains of subjects with DS, WS, and TD controls were segmented, and estimates of regional brain volume were derived using FreeSurfer. A general linear model was employed to test for age-related effects on volume between groups. Secondary analyses in the DS group explored the relationship between brain volume and neuropsychological tests and APOE. Results Consistent with previous findings, the DS group showed significantly greater age-related effects relative to TD controls in total gray matter and in regions of the orbitofrontal cortex and the parietal cortex. Individuals with DS also showed significantly greater age-related effects on volume of the left and right inferior lateral ventricles (LILV and RILV, respectively). There were no significant differences in age-related effects on volume when comparing the WS and TD groups. In the DS group, cognitive tests scores measuring signs of dementia and APOE ϵ4 carrier status were associated with LILV and RILV volume. Conclusions Individuals with DS demonstrated a unique pattern of age-related effects on gray matter and ventricular volume, the latter of which was associated with dementia rating scores in the DS group. Results may indicate that early onset of brain aging in DS is primarily due to DS

  9. Three physiological responses in fathers and non-fathers’ to vocalizations of typically developing infants and infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Gianluca; Valenzi, Stefano; Islam, Tanvir; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Children with ASD, even before receiving a formal diagnosis, express atypical patterns of distress vocalizations (namely, episodes of crying). Their cries have higher fundamental frequencies, shorter inter-bout pauses, and fewer utterances. Cries of children with ASD are also perceived differently from other cries, and these perceptual differences may alter parent-infant interaction. This study assessed multiple physiological responses in fathers and non-fathers to atypical distress vocalizations (cries of children with ASD), acoustically matched typical distress vocalizations (cries of typically developing children), and positive vocalizations (laughter of typically developing children). The experimental procedures were designed to measure how components of the autonomic nervous system respond to typical and atypical infant vocalizations. Three convergent methodologies (Galvanic Skin Response – GSR; cardiac dynamics via Inter-Beat Interval – IBI; right hand temperature change – RHTC) were performed on two groups with contrasting caregiving experience: fathers of typically developing children (n=10) and non-fathers (n=10). Inferential statistical analysis compared the two groups (fathers, non-fathers) and three stimulus types (ASD cry, typical cry, laughter) for the three measures (GSR, IBI, RHTC). Both fathers and non-fathers showed greater negative responses (increased GSR) to ASD cries compared to typical cries and laughter. Fathers showed higher IBI and greater temperature increases (RHTC) than non-fathers while listening to typical and atypical cries. Fathers and non-fathers showed more emotional arousal mediated by sympathetic activation while listening to cries of children with ASD. Fathers were calmer and acted more promptly than non-fathers while listening to typical cries, perhaps because the fathers had more experience in caring for crying infants. These findings point to similarities and differences in fathers’ and non-fathers’ physiological

  10. Three physiological responses in fathers and non-fathers' to vocalizations of typically developing infants and infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gianluca; Valenzi, Stefano; Islam, Tanvir; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-01-01

    Children with ASD, even before receiving a formal diagnosis, express atypical patterns of distress vocalizations (namely, episodes of crying). Their cries have higher fundamental frequencies, shorter inter-bout pauses, and fewer utterances. Cries of children with ASD are also perceived differently from other cries, and these perceptual differences may alter parent-infant interaction. This study assessed multiple physiological responses in fathers and non-fathers to atypical distress vocalizations (cries of children with ASD), acoustically matched typical distress vocalizations (cries of typically developing children), and positive vocalizations (laughter of typically developing children). The experimental procedures were designed to measure how components of the autonomic nervous system respond to typical and atypical infant vocalizations. Three convergent methodologies (Galvanic Skin Response-GSR; cardiac dynamics via Inter-Beat Interval-IBI; right hand temperature change-RHTC) were performed on two groups with contrasting caregiving experience: fathers of typically developing children (n=10) and non-fathers (n=10). Inferential statistical analysis compared the two groups (fathers, non-fathers) and three stimulus types (ASD cry, typical cry, laughter) for the three measures (GSR, IBI, RHTC). Both fathers and non-fathers showed greater negative responses (increased GSR) to ASD cries compared to typical cries and laughter. Fathers showed higher IBI and greater temperature increases (RHTC) than non-fathers while listening to typical and atypical cries. Fathers and non-fathers showed more emotional arousal mediated by sympathetic activation while listening to cries of children with ASD. Fathers were calmer and acted more promptly than non-fathers while listening to typical cries, perhaps because the fathers had more experience in caring for crying infants. These findings point to similarities and differences in fathers' and non-fathers' physiological responsiveness to

  11. Cognitive Mechanisms underlying visual perspective taking in typical and ASC children.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Amy; Marsh, Lauren; Ropar, Danielle; Hamilton, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that people with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) may have difficulty with visual perspective taking (VPT) but it is not clear how this relates to different strategies that can be used in perspective taking tasks. The current study examined VPT in 30 children with autism and 30 verbal mental age matched typical children, in comparison to mental rotation (MR) abilities and body representation abilities. Using a similar paradigm to Hamilton, Brindley, and Frith [2009] all children completed three tasks: a VPT task in which children decided what a toy on a table would look like from a different points of view; a MR task in which the child decided what a toy would look like after it had been rotated; and a body posture matching task, in which children matched pictures of a body shown from different viewpoints. Results showed that children with ASC performed better than the typically developing children on the MR task, and at a similar level on the VPT task and body matching task. Importantly, in the typical children VPT performance was predicted by performance on the body matching task, whereas in the ASC children VPT performance was predicted by MR ability. These findings suggest that differences in VPT in ASC may be explained by the use of a spatial rotation strategy rather than the embodied egocentric transformation strategy used by typical children. PMID:26052836

  12. How HANDy Are Baby Signs? A Commentary on a Systematic Review of the Impact of Gestural Communication on Typically Developing, Hearing Infants under the Age of 36 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Lorraine E.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth

    2014-01-01

    The ethos behind provision of early intervention programmes to infants and young children with additional support needs has been established for some time (e.g. Right-from-the-Start), but targeting the development of typically developing infants has been a relatively recent phenomenon. Baby sign is one of the many intervention techniques…

  13. The Impact of Executive Function Skills on Writing: A Comparison of Fifth-Grade Students with Learning Disabilities and Students with Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Anne Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between verbal fluency skills and writing skills in developing writers. There were three research questions addressed: (1) Was there a difference between fifth-grade students who have a learning disability (LD) in written language and fifth-grade students with typical development (TD) on the Delis-Kaplan…

  14. How HANDy Are Baby Signs? A Systematic Review of the Impact of Gestural Communication on Typically Developing, Hearing Infants under the Age of 36 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Thibert, Jonelle; Grandpierre, Viviane; Johnston, J. Cyne

    2014-01-01

    Baby sign language is advocated to improve children's communication development. However, the evidence to support the advantages of baby sign has been inconclusive. A systematic review was undertaken to summarize and appraise the research related to the effectiveness of symbolic gestures for typically developing, hearing infants with hearing…

  15. Indicators of Theory of Mind in Narrative Production: A Comparison between Individuals with Genetic Syndromes and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorusso, M. L.; Galli, R.; Libera, L.; Gagliardi, C.; Borgatti, R.; Hollebrandse, B.

    2007-01-01

    It is a matter of debate whether the development of theory of mind (ToM) depends on linguistic development or is, rather, an expression of cognitive development. The study of genetic syndromes, which are characterized by intellectual impairment as well as by different linguistic profiles, may provide useful information with respect to this issue.…

  16. Binocular saccade coordination in reading and visual search: a developmental study in typical reader and dyslexic children

    PubMed Central

    Seassau, Magali; Gérard, Christophe Loic; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2014-01-01

    Studies dealing with developmental aspects of binocular eye movement behavior during reading are scarce. In this study we have explored binocular strategies during reading and visual search tasks in a large population of dyslexic and typical readers. Binocular eye movements were recorded using a video-oculography system in 43 dyslexic children (aged 8–13) and in a group of 42 age-matched typical readers. The main findings are: (i) ocular motor characteristics of dyslexic children are impaired in comparison to those reported in typical children in reading task; (ii) a developmental effect exists in reading in control children, in dyslexic children the effect of development was observed only on fixation durations; and (iii) ocular motor behavior in the visual search tasks is similar for dyslexic children and for typical readers, except for the disconjugacy during and after the saccade: dyslexic children are impaired in comparison to typical children. Data reported here confirms and expands previous studies on children’s reading. Both reading skills and binocular saccades coordination improve with age in typical readers. The atypical eye movement’s patterns observed in dyslexic children suggest a deficiency in the visual attentional processing as well as an impairment of the ocular motor saccade and vergence systems interaction. PMID:25400559

  17. Everyday social and conversation applications of theory-of-mind understanding by children with autism-spectrum disorders or typical development.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Candida C; Garnett, Michelle; Kelly, Adrian; Attwood, Tony

    2009-02-01

    Children with autism-spectrum disorders (ASD) often fail laboratory false-belief tests of theory of mind (ToM). Yet how this impacts on their everyday social behavior is less clear, partly owing to uncertainty over which specific everyday conversational and social skills require ToM understanding. A new caregiver-report scale of these everyday applications of ToM was developed and validated in two studies. Study 1 obtained parent ratings of 339 children (85 with autism; 230 with Asperger's; 24 typically-developing) on the new scale and results revealed (a) that the scale had good psychometric properties and (b) that children with ASD had significantly more everyday mindreading difficulties than typical developers. In Study 2, we directly tested links between laboratory ToM and everyday mindreading using teacher ratings on the new scale. The sample of 25 children included 15 with autism and 10 typical developers aged 5-12 years. Children in both groups who passed laboratory ToM tests had fewer everyday mindreading difficulties than those of the same diagnosis who failed. Yet, intriguingly, autistic ToM-passers still had more problems with everyday mindreading than younger typically-developing ToM-failers. The possible roles of family conversation and peer interaction, along with ToM, in everyday social functioning were considered. PMID:18810310

  18. Language, Cognitive Flexibility, and Explicit False Belief Understanding: Longitudinal Analysis in Typical Development and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrant, Brad M.; Maybery, Murray T.; Fletcher, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that language plays a role in theory-of-mind (ToM) development is supported by a number of lines of evidence (e.g., H. Lohmann & M. Tomasello, 2003). The current study sought to further investigate the relations between maternal language input, memory for false sentential complements, cognitive flexibility, and the development of…

  19. Gaze behavior and affect at 6 months: predicting clinical outcomes and language development in typically developing infants and infants at risk for autism.

    PubMed

    Young, Gregory S; Merin, Noah; Rogers, Sally J; Ozonoff, Sally

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents follow-up longitudinal data to research that previously suggested the possibility of abnormal gaze behavior marked by decreased eye contact in a subgroup of 6-month-old infants at risk for autism (Merin, Young, Ozonoff & Rogers, 2007). Using eye-tracking data and behavioral data recorded during a live mother-infant interaction involving the still-face procedure, the predictive utility of gaze behavior and affective behaviors at 6 months was examined using diagnostic outcome data obtained longitudinally over the following 18 months. Results revealed that none of the infants previously identified as showing lower rates of eye contact had any signs of autism at outcome. In contrast, three infants who were diagnosed with autism demonstrated consistent gaze to the eye region and typical affective responses at 6 months. Individual differences in face scanning and affective responsivity during the live interaction were not related to any continuous measures of symptom frequency or symptom severity. In contrast, results of growth curve models for language development revealed significant relationships between face scanning and expressive language. Greater amounts of fixation to the mother's mouth during live interaction predicted higher levels of expressive language at outcome and greater rates of growth. These findings suggest that although gaze behavior at 6 months may not provide early markers for autism as initially conceived, gaze to the mouth in particular may be useful in predicting individual differences in language development. PMID:19702771

  20. Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Bee-Oh; O’Sullivan, David; Choi, Bum-Gwon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ± 2.8 years; weight, 48.1 ± 14.1 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ± 2.9 years; weight, 43.6 ± 10 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite® system while their plantar pressure was being recorded. [Results] The results showed a reduction in cadence, gait velocity, and step length, and an increase in step width in children with autism. Plantar pressure variables highlight the differences between the active pressure areas, especially in the hindfoot of children with autism. [Conclusion] The results suggest that children with autism have an abnormal gait compared with that of age-matched controls, and thus they need extra attention to correct these abnormal gait patterns. PMID:26957776

  1. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  2. Observation of Classroom Social Communication: Do Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Spend Their Time Differently than Their Typically Developing Peers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Svensson, Liselotte; Astley, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this research, the authors examined how social communication profiles during classroom activities differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and typically developing pair-matched peers. Method: Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms 20 min a day for 4 days across 2 weeks. Coders…

  3. Personality Dimensions, Religious Tendencies and Coping Strategies as Predictors of General Health in Iranian Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability: A Comparison with Mothers of Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirsaleh, Y. R.; Rezai, H.; Khabaz, M.; Afkhami Ardekani, I.; Abdi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Challenges related to rearing children with intellectual disability (ID) may cause mothers of these children to have mental health status problems. Method: A total of 124 mothers who had a child with ID and 124 mothers of typically developing children were selected using random sampling. Data were collected using General health…

  4. Facilitating Other-Awareness in Low-Functioning Children with Autism and Typically-Developing Preschoolers Using Dual-Control Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Samantha; Yuill, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism are said to lack other-awareness, which restricts their opportunities for peer collaboration. We assessed other-awareness in non-verbal children with autism and typically-developing preschoolers collaborating on a shared computerised picture-sorting task. The studies compared a novel interface, designed to support…

  5. Relationship of the Acoustic Startle Response and Its Modulation to Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Typical Development Children and Those with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Komatsu, Sahoko; Nakahachi, Takayuki; Ogino, Kazuo; Kamio, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    Auditory hyper-reactivity is a common sensory-perceptual abnormality in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which interrupts behavioral adaptation. We investigated acoustic startle response (ASR) modulations in 17 children with ASD and 27 with typical development (TD). Compared to TD, children with ASD had larger ASR magnitude to weak stimuli and…

  6. From Action to Interaction: Exploring the Contribution of Body Motion Cues to Social Understanding in Typical Development and in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centelles, Laurie; Assaiante, Christine; Etchegoyhen, Katallin; Bouvard, Manuel; Schmitz, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated whether typically developing children (TD) and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were able to decide whether two characters were communicating or not on the basis of point-light displays. Point-lights portrayed actors engaged or not in a social interaction. In study 1, TD children (4-10 years old; n = 36)…

  7. Assessment of the Communicative and Coordination Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children Using Social Signal Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaherche, Emilie; Chetouani, Mohamed; Bigouret, Fabienne; Xavier, Jean; Plaza, Monique; Cohen, David

    2013-01-01

    To cooperate with a partner, it is essential to communicate by sharing information through all available avenues, including hand gestures, gazes, head gestures and naturally, speech. In this paper, we compare the communicative and coordination skills of children with typical development to those of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in…

  8. The Effect Inclusive Education Practice during Preschool Has on the Peer Relations and Social Skills of 5-6-Year Olds with Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogelman, Hulya Gulay; Secer, Zarife

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to set forth the effect preschool inclusive education practices have on the peer relations of 5-6 year olds with typical development. The study comprised of two sample groups. The children in both groups were attendees of kindergartens at primary schools governed by the Ministry of National Education located in the…

  9. Iconicity Influences How Effectively Minimally Verbal Children with Autism and Ability-Matched Typically Developing Children Use Pictures as Symbols in a Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous word learning studies suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder may have difficulty understanding pictorial symbols. Here we investigate the ability of children with autism spectrum disorder and language-matched typically developing children to contextualize symbolic information communicated by pictures in a search task that did…

  10. Visual/Verbal-Analytic Reasoning Bias as a Function of Self-Reported Autistic-Like Traits: A Study of Typically Developing Individuals Solving Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugard, Andrew J. B.; Stewart, Mary E.; Stenning, Keith

    2011-01-01

    People with autism spectrum condition (ASC) perform well on Raven's matrices, a test which loads highly on the general factor in intelligence. However, the mechanisms supporting enhanced performance on the test are poorly understood. Evidence is accumulating that milder variants of the ASC phenotype are present in typically developing individuals,…

  11. Factors Associated with Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension for Typically-Developing Students and for a Pilot Sample of Students Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissinger, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated some of the underlying factors that may relate to and predict the reading comprehension of children in fourth through eighth grade (N = 47). A subset of these children previously had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 10); the remainder are classified as typically-developing (n = 37). The participants…

  12. Comparison of Accuracy and Efficiency of Directed Scanning and Group-Item Scanning for Augmentative Communication Selection Techniques with Typically Developing Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dropik, Patricia L.; Reichle, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Directed scanning and group-item scanning both represent options for increased scanning efficiency. This investigation compared accuracy and speed of selection with preschoolers using each scanning method. The study's purpose was to describe performance characteristics of typically developing children and to provide a reliable assessment…

  13. The Effects of Color Cues on Typically Developing Preschoolers' Speed of Locating a Target Line Drawing: Implications for Augmentative and Alternative Communication Display Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistle, Jennifer J.; Wilkinson, Krista

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This research examined how the presence of color in relation to a target within an augmentative and alternative communication array influenced the speed with which typically developing preschoolers located a target line drawing. Method: Fifteen children over the age of 4 years (from 4;2 [years;months] to 5;4) and 15 children under the age…

  14. Parental Sensitivity and Attachment in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Comparison with Children with Mental Retardation, with Language Delays, and with Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Rutgers, Anna H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; van Daalen, Emma; Dietz, Claudine; Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-01-01

    This study on sensitivity and attachment included 55 toddlers and their parents. Samples included children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), mental retardation, language delay, and typical development. Children were diagnosed at 4 years of age. Two years before diagnosis, attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation procedure, and…

  15. Theory of Mind, Socio-Emotional Problem-Solving, Socio-Emotional Regulation in Children with Intellectual Disability and in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Celine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    This study has examined the link between social information processing (SIP) and socio-emotional regulation (SER) in 45 children with intellectual disability (ID) and 45 typically developing (TD) children, matched on their developmental age. A Coding Grid of SER, focusing on Emotional Expression, Social Behaviour and Behaviours towards Social…

  16. Effect of Phonotactic Probability and Neighborhood Density on Word-Learning Configuration by Preschoolers with Typical Development and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Shelley; Pittman, Andrea; Weinhold, Juliet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors assessed the effects of phonotactic probability and neighborhood density on word-learning configuration by preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI) and typical language development (TD). Method: One hundred thirty-one children participated: 48 with SLI, 44 with TD matched on age and gender, and 39…

  17. The Relationships among Verbal Short-Term Memory, Phonological Awareness, and New Word Learning: Evidence from Typical Development and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrold, Christopher; Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Stephens, Emma

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing…

  18. Evaluating the Effects of Massed and Distributed Practice on Acquisition and Maintenance of Tacts and Textual Behavior with Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haq, Shaji S.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of massed and distributed practice on the acquisition of tacts and textual behavior in typically developing children. We compared the effects of massed practice (i.e., consolidating all practice opportunities during the week into a single session) and distributed practice (i.e., distributing all practice…

  19. Motor and Tactile-Perceptual Skill Differences between Individuals with High-Functioning Autism and Typically Developing Individuals Ages 5-21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Dahab, Sana M. N.; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Holm, Margo B.; Rogers, Joan C.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    We examined motor and tactile-perceptual skills in individuals with high-functioning autism (IHFA) and matched typically developing individuals (TDI) ages 5-21 years. Grip strength, motor speed and coordination were impaired in IHFA compared to matched TDI, and the differences between groups varied with age. Although tactile-perceptual skills of…

  20. Social Acceptance and the Choosing of Favourite Classmates: A Comparison between Students with Special Educational Needs and Typically Developing Students in a Context of Full Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nepi, L. D.; Fioravanti, J.; Nannini, P.; Peru, A.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical data on the effects of inclusion regarding the social participation of typically developing students and those with special educational needs are still controversial. While some studies suggest that the more extensive the inclusion, the higher the social position of students with special educational needs, evidence from other studies…

  1. Vocabulary, syntax, and narrative development in typically developing children and children with early unilateral brain injury: Early parental talk about the there-and-then matters

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Rowe, Meredith L.; Heller, Gabriella; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of a particular kind of linguistic input––talk about the past and future, pretend, and explanations, that is, talk that is decontextualized––in the development of vocabulary, syntax, and narrative skill in typically developing (TD) children and children with pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI). Decontextualized talk has been shown to be particularly effective in predicting children’s language skills, but it is not clear why. We first explored the nature of parent decontextualized talk and found it to be linguistically richer than contextualized talk in parents of both TD and BI children. We then found, again for both groups, that parent decontextualized talk at child age 30 months was a significant predictor of child vocabulary, syntax, and narrative performance at kindergarten, above and beyond the child’s own early language skills, parent contextualized talk and demographic factors. Decontextualized talk played a larger role in predicting kindergarten syntax and narrative outcomes for children with lower syntax and narrative skill at 30 months, and also a larger role in predicting kindergarten narrative outcomes for children with BI than for TD children. The difference between the two groups stemmed primarily from the fact that children with BI had lower narrative (but not vocabulary or syntax) scores than TD children. When the two groups were matched in terms of narrative skill at kindergarten, the impact that decontextualized talk had on narrative skill did not differ for children with BI and for TD children. Decontextualized talk is thus a strong predictor of later language skill for all children, but may be particularly potent for children at the lower-end of the distribution for language skill. The findings also suggest that variability in the language development of children with BI is influenced not only by the biological characteristics of their lesions, but also by the language input they receive. PMID:25621756

  2. Vocabulary, syntax, and narrative development in typically developing children and children with early unilateral brain injury: early parental talk about the "there-and-then" matters.

    PubMed

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Rowe, Meredith L; Heller, Gabriella; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the role of a particular kind of linguistic input--talk about the past and future, pretend, and explanations, that is, talk that is decontextualized--in the development of vocabulary, syntax, and narrative skill in typically developing (TD) children and children with pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI). Decontextualized talk has been shown to be particularly effective in predicting children's language skills, but it is not clear why. We first explored the nature of parent decontextualized talk and found it to be linguistically richer than contextualized talk in parents of both TD and BI children. We then found, again for both groups, that parent decontextualized talk at child age 30 months was a significant predictor of child vocabulary, syntax, and narrative performance at kindergarten, above and beyond the child's own early language skills, parent contextualized talk and demographic factors. Decontextualized talk played a larger role in predicting kindergarten syntax and narrative outcomes for children with lower syntax and narrative skill at age 30 months, and also a larger role in predicting kindergarten narrative outcomes for children with BI than for TD children. The difference between the 2 groups stemmed primarily from the fact that children with BI had lower narrative (but not vocabulary or syntax) scores than TD children. When the 2 groups were matched in terms of narrative skill at kindergarten, the impact that decontextualized talk had on narrative skill did not differ for children with BI and for TD children. Decontextualized talk is thus a strong predictor of later language skill for all children, but may be particularly potent for children at the lower-end of the distribution for language skill. The findings also suggest that variability in the language development of children with BI is influenced not only by the biological characteristics of their lesions, but also by the language input they receive. PMID:25621756

  3. Design and development testing of the bonded joint between a typical launch vehicle attachment ring and CFRP thrust cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkey, J. T.; Nayler, G. H. F.; Reynolds, J.

    1986-02-01

    The development of the principal structural joint of a Shuttle payload is described. The joint is subjected to large tension and compression loads due to the spacecraft being cantilevered perpendicular to the direction of flight of the launch vehicle. Finite element modeling was included in the investigation of joint designs. A bonded and bolted double lap shear configuration was chosen. Manufacturing and inspection methods were developed and testing of joint samples was undertaken including static, thermal and fatigue loading. The static test results were used to determine the design allowable strength of the joint.

  4. Successes with Reversing the Negative Student Attitudes Developed in Typical Biology Classes for 8th and 10th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacieminoglu, Esme; Ali, Mohamed Moustafa; Oztas, Fulya; Yager, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare changes in attitudes of students about their study of biology in the classes thought by five biology teachers who experienced an Iowa Chautauqua workshop with and two non-Chautauqua teachers who had no experience with any professional development program. The results indicated that there are significant…

  5. An Examination of the Associations among Multiple Memory Systems, Past Tense, and Vocabulary in Typically Developing 5-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Kidd, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Considerable research has investigated the role of verbal working memory in language development in children with and without language problems. Much less is currently known about the relationship between language and the declarative and procedural memory systems. This study examined whether these 2 memory systems were related to…

  6. Brief Report: A Comparison of Statistical Learning in School-Aged Children with High Functioning Autism and Typically Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Jessica; Eigsti, Inge-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders have impairments in language acquisition, but the underlying mechanism of these deficits is poorly understood. Implicit learning is potentially relevant to language development, particularly in speech segmentation, which relies on sensitivity to transitional probabilities between speech sounds. This study…

  7. Language and Social Competence in Typically Developing Children and Late Talkers between 18 and 35 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Frigerio, Alessandra; Rescorla, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between language and social ability in a sample of 268 preschoolers aged 18-35 months. Expressive language was assessed with the Italian adaptation of the Language Development Survey (LDS), and Social Competence was assessed with the Questionnaire on Peer Interactions in the Kindergarten (QPI). Results…

  8. Task Dependency and the Role of Category Typicality and Metamemory in the Development of an Organizational Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasselhorn, Marcus

    1992-01-01

    Examined qualitative developmental change in the use of category organization between ages 8 and 10 and the supportive functions of task environment and category knowledge in this development. Results support the hypothesis that most 10 year olds are capable of strategically activating category knowledge in appropriate task environments when items…

  9. Behavioural Patterns of Conflict Resolution Strategies in Preschool Boys with Language Impairment in Comparison with Boys with Typical Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Laura; Jansson, Liselotte; Ljungberg, Tomas; Hedenbro, Monica

    2005-01-01

    Background: Children with language impairment (LI) experience social difficulties, including conflict management. This paper is therefore motivated to examine behavioural processes guiding preschool peer conflict progression, which ultimately contributes to overall development. Aims: To describe behavioural sequences in conflicts between children…

  10. Malaria in the State of Amazonas: a typical Brazilian tropical disease influenced by waves of economic development.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Siqueira, André Machado; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Marchesini, Paola Barbosa; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio; Nascimento, Joabi; Figueira, Élder Augusto Guimarães; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912), malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, resulting in a large migratory influx to the capital Manaus. Over time, a gradual increase in malaria transmission was observed in peri-urban areas. In the 1990s, the stimulation of agroforestry, particularly fish farming, led to the formation of permanent Anopheline breeding sites and increased malaria in settlements. The estimation of environmental impacts and the planning of measures to mitigate them, as seen in the construction of the Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, proved effective. Considering the changes occurred since the Amsterdam Conference in 1992, disease control has been based on early diagnosis and treatment, but the development of parasites that are resistant to major antimalarial drugs in Brazilian Amazon has posed a new challenge. Despite the decreased lethality and the gradual decrease in the number of malaria cases, disease elimination, which should be associated with government programs for economic development in the region, continues to be a challenge. PMID:26061365

  11. Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted. PMID:23906874

  12. Examining anticipatory turn signaling in typically developing 4- and 5-year-old children for applications in active orthotic devices.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Leia; Weatherly, Jake

    2013-03-01

    To develop active pediatric orthotics, it is important to accurately predict alterations to a straight path, such as turns. In this study we examine anticipatory signals prior to a pre-defined turn in seven healthy children. Subjects walked along a predefined 4.25m straight path and then made either a 40-degree turn left or right, or continued straight based on a pre-set color panel at the endpoint. The forward center of mass (COM) velocity for the stride prior to the turn region was 1.16±0.22m/s (no significant difference was seen with respect to turn direction, p>0.05). In the stride prior to landing in the turn region, subjects showed a significant difference in the mediolateral COM velocity with respect to the turn direction (p=0.003 for 30% and p<0.0005 for 40-100% of the gait cycle). No significant differences were observed in the sagittal plane kinematics of the hip, knee, or ankle during the preparatory stride with respect to turn direction (p>0.05) when compared at 10% gait increments. However, significant differences were observed in pelvic rotation for 10-30% (p<0.05) and 70-100% (p<0.0005) of the gait cycle. The subjects were inconsistent in strategy used to perform a turn. In trials to the left and right, 66% and 56% of the trials were step turns, respectively. The varying turn strategy may be a function of limited instructions provided to the child, or ongoing development in the children's COM control. Yet even with the varying strategies, there exist anticipatory signals that can be used to design real-time controllers for assistive devices with readily available sensor systems. PMID:22921492

  13. Iconicity influences how effectively minimally verbal children with autism and ability-matched typically developing children use pictures as symbols in a search task.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L

    2015-07-01

    Previous word learning studies suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder may have difficulty understanding pictorial symbols. Here we investigate the ability of children with autism spectrum disorder and language-matched typically developing children to contextualize symbolic information communicated by pictures in a search task that did not involve word learning. Out of the participant's view, a small toy was concealed underneath one of four unique occluders that were individuated by familiar nameable objects or unfamiliar unnamable objects. Children were shown a picture of the hiding location and then searched for the toy. Over three sessions, children completed trials with color photographs, black-and-white line drawings, and abstract color pictures. The results reveal zero group differences; neither children with autism spectrum disorder nor typically developing children were influenced by occluder familiarity, and both groups' errorless retrieval rates were above-chance with all three picture types. However, both groups made significantly more errorless retrievals in the most-iconic photograph trials, and performance was universally predicted by receptive language. Therefore, our findings indicate that children with autism spectrum disorder and young typically developing children can contextualize pictures and use them to adaptively guide their behavior in real time and space. However, this ability is significantly influenced by receptive language development and pictorial iconicity. PMID:24916452

  14. The mind behind the message: advancing theory-of-mind scales for typically developing children, and those with deafness, autism, or Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Candida C; Wellman, Henry M; Slaughter, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Children aged 3-12 years (n = 184) with typical development, deafness, autism, or Asperger syndrome took a series of theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks to confirm and extend previous developmental scaling evidence. A new sarcasm task, in the format of H. M. Wellman and D. Liu's (2004) 5-step ToM Scale, added a statistically reliable 6th step to the scale for all diagnostic groups. A key previous finding, divergence in task sequencing for children with autism, was confirmed. Comparisons among diagnostic groups, controlling age, and language ability, showed that typical developers mastered the 6 ToM steps ahead of each of the 3 disabled groups, with implications for ToM theories. The final (sarcasm) task challenged even nondisabled 9-year-olds, demonstrating the new scale's sensitivity to post-preschool ToM growth. PMID:22304467

  15. The mind behind the message: Advancing theory of mind scales for typically developing children, and those with deafness, autism, or Asperger Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Candida C.; Wellman, Henry M.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Children aged 3 to 12 years (n=184) with typical development, deafness, autism or Asperger Syndrome took a series of theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks to confirm and extend previous developmental scaling evidence. A new sarcasm task, in the format of Wellman and Liu’s (2004) 5-step ToM scale, added a statistically reliable sixth step to the scale for all diagnostic groups. A key previous finding, divergence in task sequencing for children with autism, was confirmed. Comparisons among diagnostic groups, controlling age and language ability, showed that typical developers mastered the six ToM steps ahead of each of the three disabled groups, with implications for ToM theories. The final (sarcasm) task challenged even nondisabled 9-year-olds, demonstrating the new scale’s sensitivity to post-preschool ToM growth. PMID:22304467

  16. A Cost of Illness Study of Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders and Comorbid Anxiety Disorders as Compared to Clinically Anxious and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steensel, Francisca J.; Dirksen, Carmen D.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The study's aim was to estimate the societal costs of children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorder(s) (ASD + AD-group; n = 73), and to compare these costs to children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; n = 34), and typically developing children (controls; n = 87). Mean total costs for the ASD + AD-group amounted €17,380 per…

  17. The Mind behind the Message: Advancing Theory-of-Mind Scales for Typically Developing Children, and Those with Deafness, Autism, or Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Wellman, Henry M.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Children aged 3-2 years (n = 184) with typical development, deafness, autism, or Asperger syndrome took a series of theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks to confirm and extend previous developmental scaling evidence. A new sarcasm task, in the format of H. M. Wellman and D. Liu's (2004) 5-step ToM Scale, added a statistically reliable 6th step to the scale…

  18. Sensorimotor Control of Tracking Movements at Various Speeds for Stroke Patients as Well as Age-Matched and Young Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-yu

    2015-01-01

    There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides) and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals) were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s). The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE), normalized integrated jerk (NIJ) and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS), were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (P<0.01), and the values were ranked in the following order: young controls < age-matched controls

  19. Intensively managed young children with type 1 diabetes consume high-fat, low-fiber diets similar to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sanjeev N; Volkening, Lisa K; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M B

    2014-05-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n = 67) aged 2 to 12 years attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared with a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared with children participating in NHANES (42% vs 30%, P = .04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs 13%, P = .03), whole grains (12% vs 5%, P = .005), and dairy (55% vs 36%, P = .001) compared with NHANES children, whereas similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs 33%, P = .2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than did NHANES children (14% vs 12% total energy intake, P = .0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared with NHANES children, children with T1D had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores (59.6 vs 49.7, P = .0006) primarily because of lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable with youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  20. “Hunting with a knife and … fork”: Examining central coherence in autism, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and typical development with a linguistic task

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Rhonda; Happé, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    A local processing bias, referred to as “weak central coherence,” has been postulated to underlie key aspects of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Little research has examined whether individual differences in this cognitive style can be found in typical development, independent of intelligence, and how local processing relates to executive control. We present a brief and easy-to-administer test of coherence requiring global sentence completions. We report results from three studies assessing (a) 176 typically developing (TD) 8- to 25-year-olds, (b) individuals with ASD and matched controls, and (c) matched groups with ASD or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results suggest that the Sentence Completion Task can reveal individual differences in cognitive style unrelated to IQ in typical development, that most (but not all) people with ASD show weak coherence on this task, and that performance is not related to inhibitory control. The Sentence Completion Task was found to be a useful test instrument, capable of tapping local processing bias in a range of populations. PMID:20655060

  1. How are they doing? Listening as fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder compare themselves to fathers of children who are typically developing.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, Samantha; Lashewicz, Bonnie

    2016-04-01

    The growing prevalence of autism spectrum disorder is accompanied by ongoing efforts to understand and support parents in the face of challenges related to their child's autism spectrum disorder. Although fathers are increasingly hands-on in raising children, research focus on parenting children with autism spectrum disorder continues to be skewed toward experiences of mothers. Our purpose in this article is to contribute understandings of how fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder perceive themselves to be managing, and we undertake this by examining comparisons fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder make between their parenting experiences and experiences of fathers of typically developing children. A purposive sample of 28 fathers of children (aged 2-13 years) with autism spectrum disorder living in an urban center in Western Canada participated in in-depth interviews about their parenting successes and challenges. We found fathers speak of universal fathering experiences yet articulate their own sense of loss and efforts to come to terms with unanticipated demands associated with autism spectrum disorder. Fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder feel "pangs of jealousy" toward fathers of typically developing children, yet they are keenly attentive to their own child's development and convey a sense of gratitude for their child's capabilities and personality amidst an appreciation for trials and triumphs of fathering in general and fathering a child with autism spectrum disorder in particular. PMID:25976158

  2. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  3. Ideals and Category Typicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ShinWoo; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2011-01-01

    Barsalou (1985) argued that exemplars that serve category goals become more typical category members. Although this claim has received support, we investigated (a) whether categories have a single ideal, as negatively valenced categories (e.g., cigarette) often have conflicting goals, and (b) whether ideal items are in fact typical, as they often…

  4. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  5. Are we typical?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartle, James B.; Srednicki, Mark

    2007-06-01

    Bayesian probability theory is used to analyze the oft-made assumption that humans are typical observers in the Universe. Some theoretical calculations make the selection fallacy that we are randomly chosen from a class of objects by some physical process, despite the absence of any evidence for such a process, or any observational evidence favoring our typicality. It is possible to favor theories in which we are typical by appropriately choosing their prior probabilities, but such assumptions should be made explicit to avoid confusion.

  6. Differences in object sharing between infants at risk for autism and typically developing infants from 9 to 15 months of age.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sudha M; Bhat, Anjana N

    2016-02-01

    Object sharing abilities of infants at risk for autism (AR infants) and typically developing (TD) infants were compared from 9 to 15 months of age. Specifically, we examined the effects of infants' locomotor abilities on their object sharing skills. 16 TD infants and 16 AR infants were observed during an "object sharing" paradigm at crawling and walking ages. Overall, AR walking infants demonstrated lower rates of object sharing with caregivers compared to TD walking infants. Specifically, AR walking infants had lower rates of giving and approaches toward caregivers compared to TD walking infants. AR walking infants also had lower step rates toward task-appropriate targets, i.e. caregivers and objects compared to TD walking infants. No group differences in object sharing were observed at crawling ages. Object sharing could be a valuable context for early identification of delays in infants at risk for developing Autism spectrum disorder. PMID:26803417

  7. The brain's sense of walking: a study on the intertwine between locomotor imagery and internal locomotor models in healthy adults, typically developing children and children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Iosa, Marco; Zoccolillo, Loredana; Montesi, Michela; Morelli, Daniela; Paolucci, Stefano; Fusco, Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Motor imagery and internal motor models have been deeply investigated in literature. It is well known that the development of motor imagery occurs during adolescence and it is limited in people affected by cerebral palsy. However, the roles of motor imagery and internal models in locomotion as well as their intertwine received poor attention. In this study we compared the performances of healthy adults (n = 8, 28.1 ± 5.1 years old), children with typical development (n = 8, 8.1 ± 3.8 years old) and children with cerebral palsy (CCP) (n = 12, 7.5 ± 2.9 years old), measured by an optoelectronic system and a trunk-mounted wireless inertial magnetic unit, during three different tasks. Subjects were asked to achieve a target located at 2 or 3 m in front of them simulating their walking by stepping in place, or actually walking blindfolded or normally walking with open eyes. Adults performed a not significantly different number of steps (p = 0.761) spending not significantly different time between tasks (p = 0.156). Children with typical development showed task-dependent differences both in terms of number of steps (p = 0.046) and movement time (p = 0.002). However, their performance in simulated and blindfolded walking (BW) were strictly correlated (R = 0.871 for steps, R = 0.673 for time). Further, their error in BW was in mean only of -2.2% of distance. Also CCP showed significant differences in number of steps (p = 0.022) and time (p < 0.001), but neither their number of steps nor their movement time recorded during simulated walking (SW) were found correlated with those of blindfolded and normal walking (NW). Adults used a unique strategy among different tasks. Children with typical development seemed to be less reliable on their motor predictions, using a task-dependent strategy probably more reliable on sensorial feedback. CCP showed less efficient performances, especially in SW, suggesting an altered locomotor imagery. PMID:25386131

  8. Postural control during sit-to-stand movement and its relationship with upright position in children with hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy and in typically developing children

    PubMed Central

    Pavão, Silvia L.; Santos, Adriana N.; Oliveira, Ana B.; Rocha, Nelci A. C. F.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare postural control in typically developing (TD) children and children with cerebral palsy (CP) during the sit-to-stand (STS) movement and to assess the relationship between static (during static standing position) and dynamic postural control (during STS movement) in both groups. METHOD: The center of pressure (CoP) behavior of 23 TD children and 6 children with spastic hemiplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] I and II) was assessed during STS movement performance and during static standing conditions with the use of a force plate. The data obtained from the force plate were used to calculate CoP variables: anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) amplitudes of CoP displacement and the area and velocity of CoP oscillation. RESULTS: According to the Mann-Whitney test, children with CP exhibited higher CoP values in all of the analyzed variables during the beginning of STS movement. Pearson's correlation verified a positive correlation between the CoP variables during both static conditions and the performance of STS movement. CONCLUSIONS: Children with spastic hemiplegic CP present major postural oscillations during the beginning of STS movement compared with typical children. Moreover, the observed relationship between postural control in static and dynamic conditions reveals the importance of body control in the static position for the performance of functional activities that put the body in motion, such as STS movement. PMID:25651131

  9. Theory of mind, socio-emotional problem-solving, socio-emotional regulation in children with intellectual disability and in typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Baurain, Céline; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2013-05-01

    This study has examined the link between social information processing (SIP) and socio-emotional regulation (SER) in 45 children with intellectual disability (ID) and 45 typically developing (TD) children, matched on their developmental age. A Coding Grid of SER, focusing on Emotional Expression, Social Behaviour and Behaviours towards Social Rules displayed by children in three dyadic contexts (neutral, competitive or cooperative) was applied. Correlational analyses highlighted specific "bi-directional" links between some abilities in SIP and in SER, presenting between-groups partial similarities and dissimilarities that allowed discussing the developmental delay versus difference hypotheses in ID children. Cluster cases analyses identified subgroups with variable patterns of links. In both groups, the SIP and some categories of SER varied depending on developmental age. PMID:22965300

  10. Componential Deconstruction of Infant Distress Vocalizations via Tree-Based Models: A Study of Cry in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Gianluca; Nakazawa, Jun; Venuti, Paola; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding early episodes of cry is essential to improve caregiver-child interaction and child well-being. Caregiver perceptions of cry are based on interpretations of different acoustic characteristics of the cry, including the length of the pauses, the number of utterances, and the fundamental frequency. In this study, we used tree-based models to establish a hierarchy of effect in terms of how these acoustic characteristics influence perceptions of cries of children with autism compared to cries of typically developing children. In two studies, one in Italy and the other in Japan, we found that cries of children with autism are perceived more negatively. We also found that the length of the pauses, more than the number of utterances or fundamental frequency, determines listeners’ negative perceptions. Implications for early caregiver-child interactions are discussed. PMID:23774058

  11. Parental sensitivity and attachment in children with autism spectrum disorder: comparison with children with mental retardation, with language delays, and with typical development.

    PubMed

    van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Rutgers, Anna H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Swinkels, Sophie H N; van Daalen, Emma; Dietz, Claudine; Naber, Fabienne B A; Buitelaar, Jan K; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-01-01

    This study on sensitivity and attachment included 55 toddlers and their parents. Samples included children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), mental retardation, language delay, and typical development. Children were diagnosed at 4 years of age. Two years before diagnosis, attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation procedure, and parental sensitivity and child involvement during free play were assessed with the Emotional Availability Scale. Parents of children with ASD were equally sensitive as parents of children without ASD, but their children showed more attachment disorganization and less child involvement. More sensitive parents had more secure children, but only in the group without ASD. Less severe autistic symptoms in the social domain predicted more attachment security. Autism challenges the validity of attachment theory. PMID:17381792

  12. ‘What Brings Him Here Today?’: Medical Problem Presentation Involving Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Olga; Heritage, John; Yin, Larry; Maynard, Douglas W; Bauman, Margaret L

    2016-02-01

    Conversation and discourse analyses were used to examine medical problem presentation in pediatric care.Healthcare visits involving children with ASD and typically developing children were analyzed. We examined how children’s communicative and epistemic capabilities, and their opportunities to be socialized into a competent patient role are interactionally achieved. We found that medical problem presentation is designed to contain a ‘pre-visit’ account of the interactional and epistemic work that children and caregivers carry out at home to identify the child’s health problems; and that the intersubjective accessibility of children’s experiences that becomes disrupted by ASD presents a dilemma to all participants in the visit. The article examines interactional roots of unmet healthcare needs and foregone medical care of people with ASD. PMID:26463739

  13. Relationship of the Acoustic Startle Response and Its Modulation to Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Typical Development Children and Those with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Komatsu, Sahoko; Nakahachi, Takayuki; Ogino, Kazuo; Kamio, Yoko

    2016-02-01

    Auditory hyper-reactivity is a common sensory-perceptual abnormality in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which interrupts behavioral adaptation. We investigated acoustic startle response (ASR) modulations in 17 children with ASD and 27 with typical development (TD). Compared to TD, children with ASD had larger ASR magnitude to weak stimuli and more prolonged peak startle-latency. We could not find significant difference of prepulse inhibition (PPI) or habituation in ASD children compared to TD. However, habituation and PPI at 70-dB prepulses were negatively related to several subscales of Social Responsiveness Scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, when considering all children. Comprehensive investigation of ASR and its modulation might increase understanding of the neurophysiological impairments underlying ASD and other mental health problems in children. PMID:26362152

  14. Neural mechanisms of selective auditory attention are enhanced by computerized training: Electrophysiological evidence from language-impaired and typically developing children

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Courtney; Fanning, Jessica; Coch, Donna; Sanders, Lisa; Neville, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Recent proposals suggest that some interventions designed to improve language skills might also target or train selective attention. The present study examined whether six weeks of high-intensity (100 min/day) training with a computerized intervention program designed to improve language skills would also influence neural mechanisms of selective auditory attention previously shown to be deficient in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twenty children received computerized training, including 8 children diagnosed with SLI and 12 children with typically developing language. An additional 13 children with typically developing language received no specialized training (NoTx control group) but were tested and retested after a comparable time period to control for maturational and test-retest effects. Before and after training (or a comparable delay period for the NoTx control group), children completed standardized language assessments and an event-related brain potential (ERP) measure of selective auditory attention. Relative to the NoTx control group, children receiving training showed increases in standardized measures of receptive language. In addition, children receiving training showed larger increases in the effects of attention on neural processing following training relative to the NoTx control group. The enhanced effect of attention on neural processing represented a large effect size (Cohen’s d = 0.8), and was specific to changes in signal enhancement of attended stimuli. These findings indicate that the neural mechanisms of selective auditory attention, previously shown to be deficient in children with SLI, can be remediated through training and can accompany improvements on standardized measures of language. Section Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience PMID:18353284

  15. Emotion regulation patterns in adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: comparison to typically developing adolescents and association with psychiatric symptoms.

    PubMed

    Mazefsky, Carla A; Borue, Xenia; Day, Taylor N; Minshew, Nancy J

    2014-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often associated with poor emotional control and psychopathology, such as anxiety and depression; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Emotion regulation (ER) is a potential contributing factor, but there has been limited research on ER and its role in comorbid psychopathology in ASD. In this study, we compared self-reported ER with self- and parent reports of psychopathology in 25 high-functioning adolescents with ASD and 23 age- and Intelligence Quotient (IQ)-matched typically developing controls. Contrary to expectations, both groups reported similar levels of adaptive, voluntary forms of ER (problem solving, acceptance, etc.). However, the ASD group reported significantly greater use of involuntary forms of ER that are typically maladaptive, including remaining focused on the stressor (e.g. rumination and emotional arousal) and shutting down (e.g. emotional numbing and being unable to think or act). Associations between ER and psychopathology were generally more robust using self-report rather than parent report. For both groups, greater endorsement of involuntary ER strategies was associated with higher ratings of psychopathology, whereas voluntary ER strategies focused on changing or adapting to the situation were significantly associated with lower levels of psychopathology. The magnitude and direction of association between ER types and psychopathology were similar for measures of depression and anxiety. These findings can help guide the development of psychosocial treatments targeting dysfunctional ER in adolescents with ASD. Interventions focused on ER as a transdiagnostic process may be a more robust method to improve emotional control and decrease emotional distress in ASD than disorder-specific interventions. PMID:24610869

  16. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  17. No consistent difference in gray matter volume between individuals with fibromyalgia and age-matched healthy subjects when controlling for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Michael C; Harris, Richard E; Sundgren, Pia C; Welsh, Robert C; Fernandes, Carlo R; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, David A

    2009-06-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for the presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p< or =.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={-28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=-.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  18. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  19. Relationship between Gestures and Words in Children with Down's Syndrome and Typically Developing Children in the Early Stages of Communicative Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Jana M.; Longobardi, Emiddia; Caselli, M. Cristina

    2003-01-01

    Background: Previous research has emphasized the importance of gesture in early communicative development. These studies have reported that gestures are used frequently during the first two years of life and may play a transitional role in the language acquisition process. Although there are now numerous descriptions of the relationship between…

  20. Utility of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory in Identifying Language Abilities of Late-Talking and Typically Developing Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilmann, John; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Evans, Julia; Hollar, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the validity of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) for a group of toddlers 30 months of age. Study 1 examined the concurrent validity of the CDI for a group of 38 late talkers. Significant correlations were found between the CDI and direct measures of language abilities. Study 2 used…

  1. Project 5322 Mid-Term Report: Key Eco-Hydrological Parameters Retrieval And Land Data Assimilation System Development In A Typical Inland River Basin Of Chinas Arid Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faivre, R.; Colin, J.; Menenti, M.; Lindenbergh, R.; Van Den Bergh, L.; Yu, H.; Jia, L.; Xin, L.

    2010-10-01

    Improving the understanding and the monitoring of high elevation regions hydrology is of major relevance from both societal and environmental points of view for many Asian countries, in particular in terms of flood and drought, but also in terms of food security in a chang- ing environment. Satellite and airborne remote sensing technologies are of utmost for such a challenge. Exist- ing imaging spectro-radiometers, radars, microwave ra- diometers and backscatter LIDAR provide a very com- prehensive suite of measurements over a wide rage of wavelengths, time frequencies and spatial resolu- tions. It is however needed to devise new algorithms to convert these radiometric measurements into useful eco-hydrological quantitative parameters for hydrologi- cal modeling and water management. The DRAGON II project entitled Key Eco-Hydrological Parameters Re- trieval and Land Data Assimilation System Development in a Typical Inland River Basin of Chinas Arid Region (ID 5322) aims at improving the monitoring, understand- ing, and predictability of hydrological and ecological pro- cesses at catchment scale, and promote the applicability of quantitative remote sensing in watershed science. Ex- isting Earth Observation platforms provided by the Euro- pean Space Agency as well as prototype airborne systems developed in China - ENVISAT/AATSR, ALOS/PRISM and PALSAR, Airborne LIDAR - are used and combined to retrieve advanced land surface physical properties over high elevation arid regions of China. The existing syn- ergies between this project, the CEOP-AEGIS project (FP7) and the WATER project (CAS) provide incentives for innovative studies. The investigations presented in the following report focus on the development of advanced and innovative methodologies and algorithms to monitor both the state and the trend of key eco-hydrological vari- ables: 3D vegetation properties, land surface evaporation, glacier mass balance and drought indicators.

  2. Evaluating the effects of massed and distributed practice on acquisition and maintenance of tacts and textual behavior with typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Haq, Shaji S; Kodak, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of massed and distributed practice on the acquisition of tacts and textual behavior in typically developing children. We compared the effects of massed practice (i.e., consolidating all practice opportunities during the week into a single session) and distributed practice (i.e., distributing all practice opportunities across 4 sessions during the week) on the acquisition of textual behavior in English, tacting pictures of common nouns in Spanish, and textual behavior in Spanish using an adapted alternating treatments design embedded within a multiple probe design. We also examined correct responding during probes that (a) excluded prompts and reinforcement and (b) occurred 48 hr after training each week. The results indicated that distributed practice was the more efficient training format. Maintenance data collected up to 4 weeks after training also indicated that the participants consistently displayed higher levels of correct responding to targets that had been trained in distributed format. We discuss implications for practice and potential areas for future research. PMID:25376717

  3. Emotion recognition through static faces and moving bodies: a comparison between typically developed adults and individuals with high level of autistic traits

    PubMed Central

    Actis-Grosso, Rossana; Bossi, Francesco; Ricciardelli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether the type of stimulus (pictures of static faces vs. body motion) contributes differently to the recognition of emotions. The performance (accuracy and response times) of 25 Low Autistic Traits (LAT group) young adults (21 males) and 20 young adults (16 males) with either High Autistic Traits or with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HAT group) was compared in the recognition of four emotions (Happiness, Anger, Fear, and Sadness) either shown in static faces or conveyed by moving body patch-light displays (PLDs). Overall, HAT individuals were as accurate as LAT ones in perceiving emotions both with faces and with PLDs. Moreover, they correctly described non-emotional actions depicted by PLDs, indicating that they perceived the motion conveyed by the PLDs per se. For LAT participants, happiness proved to be the easiest emotion to be recognized: in line with previous studies we found a happy face advantage for faces, which for the first time was also found for bodies (happy body advantage). Furthermore, LAT participants recognized sadness better by static faces and fear by PLDs. This advantage for motion kinematics in the recognition of fear was not present in HAT participants, suggesting that (i) emotion recognition is not generally impaired in HAT individuals, (ii) the cues exploited for emotion recognition by LAT and HAT groups are not always the same. These findings are discussed against the background of emotional processing in typically and atypically developed individuals. PMID:26557101

  4. The frequency and distribution of spontaneous attention shifts between social and nonsocial stimuli in autistic, typically developing, and nonautistic developmentally delayed infants.

    PubMed

    Swettenham, J; Baron-Cohen, S; Charman, T; Cox, A; Baird, G; Drew, A; Rees, L; Wheelwright, S

    1998-07-01

    Spontaneous shifts of attention were observed in autistic, typically developing, and nonautistic developmentally delayed infants. Three types of attention shifting behaviour were observed; (1) between an object and another object, (2) between an object and a person, and (3) between a person and another person. The two control groups shifted attention more frequently between an object and a person than between an object and another object or between a person and another person. The infants with autism showed a different pattern, shifting attention between an object and another object more than any other type of shift. Furthermore, infants with autism showed fewer shifts of attention between an object and a person, and between person and person, than did the two control groups. They also spent less time overall looking at people and looked more briefly at people and for longer durations at objects, compared to the two control groups. These results indicate an abnormality in social orientation in autism even at the early age of 20 months. PMID:9690937

  5. Emotion recognition through static faces and moving bodies: a comparison between typically developed adults and individuals with high level of autistic traits.

    PubMed

    Actis-Grosso, Rossana; Bossi, Francesco; Ricciardelli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether the type of stimulus (pictures of static faces vs. body motion) contributes differently to the recognition of emotions. The performance (accuracy and response times) of 25 Low Autistic Traits (LAT group) young adults (21 males) and 20 young adults (16 males) with either High Autistic Traits or with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HAT group) was compared in the recognition of four emotions (Happiness, Anger, Fear, and Sadness) either shown in static faces or conveyed by moving body patch-light displays (PLDs). Overall, HAT individuals were as accurate as LAT ones in perceiving emotions both with faces and with PLDs. Moreover, they correctly described non-emotional actions depicted by PLDs, indicating that they perceived the motion conveyed by the PLDs per se. For LAT participants, happiness proved to be the easiest emotion to be recognized: in line with previous studies we found a happy face advantage for faces, which for the first time was also found for bodies (happy body advantage). Furthermore, LAT participants recognized sadness better by static faces and fear by PLDs. This advantage for motion kinematics in the recognition of fear was not present in HAT participants, suggesting that (i) emotion recognition is not generally impaired in HAT individuals, (ii) the cues exploited for emotion recognition by LAT and HAT groups are not always the same. These findings are discussed against the background of emotional processing in typically and atypically developed individuals. PMID:26557101

  6. How do typically developing deaf children and deaf children with autism spectrum disorder use the face when comprehending emotional facial expressions in British sign language?

    PubMed

    Denmark, Tanya; Atkinson, Joanna; Campbell, Ruth; Swettenham, John

    2014-10-01

    Facial expressions in sign language carry a variety of communicative features. While emotion can modulate a spoken utterance through changes in intonation, duration and intensity, in sign language specific facial expressions presented concurrently with a manual sign perform this function. When deaf adult signers cannot see facial features, their ability to judge emotion in a signed utterance is impaired (Reilly et al. in Sign Lang Stud 75:113-118, 1992). We examined the role of the face in the comprehension of emotion in sign language in a group of typically developing (TD) deaf children and in a group of deaf children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We replicated Reilly et al.'s (Sign Lang Stud 75:113-118, 1992) adult results in the TD deaf signing children, confirming the importance of the face in understanding emotion in sign language. The ASD group performed more poorly on the emotion recognition task than the TD children. The deaf children with ASD showed a deficit in emotion recognition during sign language processing analogous to the deficit in vocal emotion recognition that has been observed in hearing children with ASD. PMID:24803370

  7. Visual/verbal-analytic reasoning bias as a function of self-reported autistic-like traits: a study of typically developing individuals solving Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices.

    PubMed

    Fugard, Andrew J B; Stewart, Mary E; Stenning, Keith

    2011-05-01

    People with autism spectrum condition (ASC) perform well on Raven's matrices, a test which loads highly on the general factor in intelligence. However, the mechanisms supporting enhanced performance on the test are poorly understood. Evidence is accumulating that milder variants of the ASC phenotype are present in typically developing individuals, and that those who are further along the autistic-like trait spectrum show similar patterns of abilities and impairments as people with clinically diagnosed ASC. We investigated whether self-reported autistic-like traits in a university student sample, assessed using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, et al., 2001), predict performance on Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices. We found that reporting poorer social skills but better attention switching predicted a higher Advanced matrices score overall. DeShon, Chan, and Weissbein (1995) classified Advanced matrices items as requiring a visuospatial, or a verbal-analytic strategy. We hypothesised that higher AQ scores would predict better performance on visuospatial items than on verbal-analytic items. This prediction was confirmed. These results are consistent with the continuum view and can be explained by the enhanced perceptual functioning theory of performance peaks in ASC. The results also confirm a new prediction about Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices performance in people with ASC. PMID:21325371

  8. Typical universal entanglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Luo, MingXing; Chen, XiuBo; Yang, YiXian; Wang, XiaoJun

    2014-10-01

    A universal entangler is a very powerful fault-tolerant entangling device for generating quantum entanglements from any joint states. Our paper aims to address the construction of universal entanglers. We prove that universal entanglers may be obtained from random unitary gates according to the Harr measure. The success probability is close to 1 for large system spaces. This result represents the typical density of entanglement subspaces in large state spaces. It also partially solves an open problem of universal bipartite entanglers and is explained by some experiment simulations.

  9. Coordination of precision grip in 2–6 years-old children with autism spectrum disorders compared to children developing typically and children with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    David, Fabian J.; Baranek, Grace T.; Wiesen, Chris; Miao, Adrienne F.; Thorpe, Deborah E.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired motor coordination is prevalent in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and affects adaptive skills. Little is known about the development of motor patterns in young children with ASD between 2 and 6 years of age. The purpose of the current study was threefold: (1) to describe developmental correlates of motor coordination in children with ASD, (2) to identify the extent to which motor coordination deficits are unique to ASD by using a control group of children with other developmental disabilities (DD), and (3) to determine the association between motor coordination variables and functional fine motor skills. Twenty-four children with ASD were compared to 30 children with typical development (TD) and 11 children with DD. A precision grip task was used to quantify and analyze motor coordination. The motor coordination variables were two temporal variables (grip to load force onset latency and time to peak grip force) and two force variables (grip force at onset of load force and peak grip force). Functional motor skills were assessed using the Fine Motor Age Equivalents of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Mixed regression models were used for all analyses. Children with ASD presented with significant motor coordination deficits only on the two temporal variables, and these variables differentiated children with ASD from the children with TD, but not from children with DD. Fine motor functional skills had no statistically significant associations with any of the motor coordination variables. These findings suggest that subtle problems in the timing of motor actions, possibly related to maturational delays in anticipatory feed-forward mechanisms, may underlie some motor deficits reported in children with ASD, but that these issues are not unique to this population. Further research is needed to investigate how children with ASD or DD compensate for motor control deficits to establish functional skills

  10. A cross-linguistic study of real-word and non-word repetition as predictors of grammatical competence in children with typical language development

    PubMed Central

    Dispaldro, Marco; Deevy, Patricia; Altoe, Gianmarco; Benelli, Beatrice; Leonard Purdue, Laurence B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although relationships among non-word repetition, real-word repetition and grammatical ability have been documented, it is important to study whether the specific nature of these relationships is tied to the characteristics of a given language. Aims The aim of this study is to explore the potential cross-linguistic differences (Italian and English) in the relationship among non-word repetition, real-word repetition, and grammatical ability in three- and four-year-old children with typical language development. Methods & Procedures To reach this goal, two repetition tasks (one real-word list and one non-word list for each language) were used. In Italian the grammatical categories were the third person plural inflection and the direct-object clitic pronouns, while in English they were the third person singular present tense inflection and the past tense in regular and irregular forms. Outcomes & Results A cross-linguistic comparison showed that in both Italian and English, non-word repetition was a significant predictor of grammatical ability. However, performance on real-word repetition explained children’s grammatical ability in Italian but not in English. Conclusions & Implications Abilities underlying non-word repetition performance (e.g., the processing and/or storage of phonological material) play an important role in the development of children’s grammatical abilities in both languages. Lexical ability (indexed by real-word repetition) showed a close relationship to grammatical ability in Italian but not in English. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of cross-linguistic differences, genetic research, clinical intervention and methodological issues. PMID:21899673

  11. Disease severity of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157 and factors influencing the development of typical haemolytic uraemic syndrome: a retrospective cohort study, 2009–2012

    PubMed Central

    Launders, N; Byrne, L; Jenkins, C; Harker, K; Charlett, A; Adak, G K

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Assess the disease severity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 infection and factors influencing the development of typical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (tHUS). Design A retrospective cohort study using data collected through routine surveillance questionnaires between 2009 and 2012. Participants 3323 symptomatic cases of STEC O157. Main outcome measures Incidence of human STEC O157 and tHUS, proportion of cases reporting bloody diarrhoea, hospitalisation, tHUS and death. Odds of progression to tHUS and predicted percentage chance of developing tHUS based on case demographics, STEC O157 strain characteristics and clinical symptoms. Results From 2009 to 2012, 3323 cases of symptomatic STEC O157 with completed questionnaires were reported, of which 172 developed tHUS (5.18%). Being aged 1–4 years (OR 8.65, 95% CI 5.01 to 14.94, p=0.004) or female (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.30, p=0.009), being infected with phage type (PT) 21/28 (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.42, p=0.005) or PT 2 (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.06 to 4.50, p=0.034), receiving β-lactam antibiotics (OR 4.08, 95% CI 1.43 to 11.68, p=0.009) and presenting with vomiting (OR 3.16, 95% CI 2.16 to 4.62, p<0.001) or bloody diarrhoea (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.38 to 3.20, p=0.001) were found to be significant risk factors for progression to tHUS. The predicted percentage chance of developing tHUS varied from under 1% to 50% if all risk factors were present. Conclusions The data from this study indicate the use of β-lactam antibiotics should be avoided in suspected cases of STEC infection in all age groups, particularly in those under the age of 5. PMID:26826153

  12. Patterns of differences in wayfinding performance and correlations among abilities between persons with and without Down syndrome and typically developing children

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Megan; Merrill, Edward C.; Conners, Frances A.; Roskos, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) impacts several brain regions including the hippocampus and surrounding structures that have responsibility for important aspects of navigation and wayfinding. Hence it is reasonable to expect that DS may result in a reduced ability to engage in these skills. Two experiments are reported that evaluated route-learning of youth with DS, youth with intellectual disability (ID) and not DS, and typically developing (TD) children matched on mental age (MA). In both experiments, participants learned routes with eight choice point presented via computer. Several objects were placed along the route that could be used as landmarks. Participants navigated the route once with turn indicators pointing the way and then retraced the route without them. In Experiment 1 we found that the TD children and ID participants performed very similarly. They learned the route in the same number of attempts, committed the same number of errors while learning the route, and recalled approximately the same number of landmarks. The participants with DS performed significantly worse on both measures of navigation (attempts and errors) and also recalled significantly fewer landmarks. In Experiment 2, we attempted to reduce TD and ID vs DS differences by focusing participants’ attention on the landmarks. Half of the participants in each group were instructed to identify the landmarks as they passed them the first time. The participants with DS again committed more errors than the participants in the ID and TD groups in the navigation task. In addition, they recalled fewer landmarks. While landmark identification improved landmark memory for both groups, it did not have a significant impact on navigation. Participants with DS still performed more poorly than did the TD and ID participants. Of additional interest, we observed that the performance of persons with DS correlated with different ability measures than did the performance of the other groups. The results the two

  13. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial investigating the behavioural effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 fatty acid supplementation in typically developing adolescent schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Tammam, Jonathan D; Steinsaltz, David; Bester, D W; Semb-Andenaes, Turid; Stein, John F

    2016-01-28

    Nutrient deficiencies have been implicated in anti-social behaviour in schoolchildren; hence, correcting them may improve sociability. We therefore tested the effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 supplementation on behaviour in a 12-week double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in typically developing UK adolescents aged 13-16 years (n 196). Changes in erythrocyte n-3 and 6 fatty acids and some mineral and vitamin levels were measured and compared with behavioural changes, using Conners' teacher ratings and school disciplinary records. At baseline, the children's PUFA (n-3 and n-6), vitamin and mineral levels were low, but they improved significantly in the group treated with n-3, vitamins and minerals (P=0·0005). On the Conners disruptive behaviour scale, the group given the active supplements improved, whereas the placebo group worsened (F=5·555, d=0·35; P=0·02). The general level of disciplinary infringements was low, thus making it difficult to obtain improvements. However, throughout the school term school disciplinary infringements increased significantly (by 25 %; Bayes factor=115) in both the treated and untreated groups. However, when the subjects were split into high and low baseline infringements, the low subset increased their offences, whereas the high-misbehaviour subset appeared to improve after treatment. But it was not possible to determine whether this was merely a statistical artifact. Thus, when assessed using the validated and standardised Conners teacher tests (but less clearly when using school discipline records in a school where misbehaviour was infrequent), supplementary nutrition might have a protective effect against worsening behaviour. PMID:26573368

  14. Does somatosensory discrimination activate different brain areas in children with unilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children? An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Van de Winckel, Ann; Verheyden, Geert; Wenderoth, Nici; Peeters, Ron; Sunaert, Stefan; Van Hecke, Wim; De Cock, Paul; Desloovere, Kaat; Eyssen, Maria; Feys, Hilde

    2013-05-01

    Aside from motor impairment, many children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) experience altered tactile, proprioceptive, and kinesthetic awareness. Sensory deficits are addressed in rehabilitation programs, which include somatosensory discrimination exercises. In contrast to adult stroke patients, data on brain activation, occurring during somatosensory discrimination exercises, are lacking in CP children. Therefore, this study investigated brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during passively guided somatosensory discrimination exercises in 18 typically developing children (TD) (age, M=14 ± 1.92 years; 11 girls) and 16 CP children (age, M=15 ± 2.54 years; 8 girls). The demographic variables between both groups were not statistically different. An fMRI compatible robot guided the right index finger and performed pairs of unfamiliar geometric shapes in the air, which were judged on their equality. The control condition comprised discrimination of music fragments. Both groups exhibited significant activation (FDR, p<.05) in frontoparietal, temporal, cerebellar areas, and insula, similar to studies in adults. The frontal areas encompassed ventral premotor areas, left postcentral gyrus, and precentral gyrus; additional supplementary motor area (SMA proper) activation in TD; as well as dorsal premotor, and parietal operculum recruitment in CP. On uncorrected level, p<.001, TD children revealed more left frontal lobe, and right cerebellum activation, compared to CP children. Conversely, CP children activated the left dorsal cingulate gyrus to a greater extent than TD children. These data provide incentives to investigate the effect of somatosensory discrimination during rehabilitation in CP, on clinical outcome and brain plasticity. PMID:23500165

  15. Patterns of differences in wayfinding performance and correlations among abilities between persons with and without Down syndrome and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Davis, Megan; Merrill, Edward C; Conners, Frances A; Roskos, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) impacts several brain regions including the hippocampus and surrounding structures that have responsibility for important aspects of navigation and wayfinding. Hence it is reasonable to expect that DS may result in a reduced ability to engage in these skills. Two experiments are reported that evaluated route-learning of youth with DS, youth with intellectual disability (ID) and not DS, and typically developing (TD) children matched on mental age (MA). In both experiments, participants learned routes with eight choice point presented via computer. Several objects were placed along the route that could be used as landmarks. Participants navigated the route once with turn indicators pointing the way and then retraced the route without them. In Experiment 1 we found that the TD children and ID participants performed very similarly. They learned the route in the same number of attempts, committed the same number of errors while learning the route, and recalled approximately the same number of landmarks. The participants with DS performed significantly worse on both measures of navigation (attempts and errors) and also recalled significantly fewer landmarks. In Experiment 2, we attempted to reduce TD and ID vs DS differences by focusing participants' attention on the landmarks. Half of the participants in each group were instructed to identify the landmarks as they passed them the first time. The participants with DS again committed more errors than the participants in the ID and TD groups in the navigation task. In addition, they recalled fewer landmarks. While landmark identification improved landmark memory for both groups, it did not have a significant impact on navigation. Participants with DS still performed more poorly than did the TD and ID participants. Of additional interest, we observed that the performance of persons with DS correlated with different ability measures than did the performance of the other groups. The results the two

  16. How does the topic of conversation affect verbal exchange and eye gaze? A comparison between typical development and high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Nadig, Aparna; Lee, Iris; Singh, Leher; Bosshart, Kyle; Ozonoff, Sally

    2010-07-01

    Conversation is a primary area of difficulty for individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) although they have unimpaired formal language abilities. This likely stems from the unstructured nature of face-to-face conversation as well as the need to coordinate other modes of communication (e.g. eye gaze) with speech. We conducted a quantitative analysis of both verbal exchange and gaze data obtained from conversations between children with HFA and an adult, compared with those of typically developing children matched on language level. We examined a new question: how does speaking about a topic of interest affect reciprocity of verbal exchange and eye gaze? Conversations on generic topics were compared with those on individuals' circumscribed interests, particularly intense interests characteristic of HFA. Two opposing hypotheses were evaluated. Speaking about a topic of interest may improve reciprocity in conversation by increasing participants' motivation and engagement. Alternatively, it could engender more one-sided interaction, given the engrossing nature of circumscribed interests. In their verbal exchanges HFA participants demonstrated decreased reciprocity during the interest topic, evidenced by fewer contingent utterances and more monologue-style speech. Moreover, a measure of stereotyped behaviour and restricted interest symptoms was inversely related to reciprocal verbal exchange. However, both the HFA and comparison groups looked significantly more to their partner's face during the interest than generic topic. Our interpretation of results across modalities is that circumscribed interests led HFA participants to be less adaptive to their partner verbally, but speaking about a highly practiced topic allowed for increased gaze to the partner. The function of this increased gaze to partner may differ for the HFA and comparison groups. PMID:20493890

  17. Differences in Speech Recognition Between Children with Attention Deficits and Typically Developed Children Disappear When Exposed to 65 dB of Auditory Noise

    PubMed Central

    Söderlund, Göran B. W.; Jobs, Elisabeth Nilsson

    2016-01-01

    The most common neuropsychiatric condition in the in children is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), affecting ∼6–9% of the population. ADHD is distinguished by inattention and hyperactive, impulsive behaviors as well as poor performance in various cognitive tasks often leading to failures at school. Sensory and perceptual dysfunctions have also been noticed. Prior research has mainly focused on limitations in executive functioning where differences are often explained by deficits in pre-frontal cortex activation. Less notice has been given to sensory perception and subcortical functioning in ADHD. Recent research has shown that children with ADHD diagnosis have a deviant auditory brain stem response compared to healthy controls. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the speech recognition threshold differs between attentive and children with ADHD symptoms in two environmental sound conditions, with and without external noise. Previous research has namely shown that children with attention deficits can benefit from white noise exposure during cognitive tasks and here we investigate if noise benefit is present during an auditory perceptual task. For this purpose we used a modified Hagerman’s speech recognition test where children with and without attention deficits performed a binaural speech recognition task to assess the speech recognition threshold in no noise and noise conditions (65 dB). Results showed that the inattentive group displayed a higher speech recognition threshold than typically developed children and that the difference in speech recognition threshold disappeared when exposed to noise at supra threshold level. From this we conclude that inattention can partly be explained by sensory perceptual limitations that can possibly be ameliorated through noise exposure. PMID:26858679

  18. Validation of hip joint center localization methods during gait analysis using 3D EOS imaging in typically developing and cerebral palsy children.

    PubMed

    Assi, Ayman; Sauret, Christophe; Massaad, Abir; Bakouny, Ziad; Pillet, Hélène; Skalli, Wafa; Ghanem, Ismat

    2016-07-01

    Localization of the hip joint center (HJC) is essential in computation of gait data. EOS low dose biplanar X-rays have been shown to be a good reference in evaluating various methods of HJC localization in adults. The aim is to evaluate predictive and functional techniques for HJC localization in typically developing (TD) and cerebral palsy (CP) children, using EOS as an image based reference. Eleven TD and 17 CP children underwent 3D gait analysis. Six HJC localization methods were evaluated in each group bilaterally: 3 predictive (Plug in Gait, Bell and Harrington) and 3 functional methods based on the star arc technique (symmetrical center of rotation estimate, center transformation technique and geometrical sphere fitting). All children then underwent EOS low dose biplanar radiographs. Pelvis, lower limbs and their corresponding external markers were reconstructed in 3D. The center of the femoral head was considered as the reference (HJCEOS). Euclidean distances between HJCs estimated by each of the 6 methods and the HJCEOS were calculated; distances were shown to be lower in predictive compared to functional methods (p<0.0001). Contrarily to findings in adults, functional methods were shown to be less accurate than predictive methods in TD and CP children, which could be mainly due to the shorter thigh segment in children. Harrington method was shown to be the most accurate in the prediction of HJC (mean error≈18mm, SD=9mm) and quasi-equivalent to the Bell method. The bias for each method was quantified, allowing its correction for an improved HJC estimation. PMID:27477704

  19. A Comparison of Topography-Based and Selection-Based Verbal Behavior in Typically Developed Children and Developmentally Disabled Persons with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vignes, Tore

    2007-01-01

    This study is a replication of Sundberg and Sundberg (1990) that compared topography-based verbal behavior with selection-based verbal behavior in terms of acquisition, accuracy, and testing for the emergence of a new verbal relation. Participants were three typical children and three developmentally disabled persons with autism. The study sought…

  20. Inversion Effects in the Perception of the Moving Human Form: A Comparison of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Laura; Looney, Kathy; Brady, Nuala; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The "body inversion effect" refers to superior recognition of upright than inverted images of the human body and indicates typical configural processing. Previous research by Reed et al. using static images of the human body shows that people with autism fail to demonstrate this effect. Using a novel task in which adults, adolescents…

  1. Typical and atypical AIS. Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dudin, M; Pinchuk, D

    2012-01-01

    AIS hypothesis has the right to recognition, if it explains the transition of "healthy" vertebra column into status of "scoliotic" one. AIS is the most investigated disease in the history of orthopedics, but up the present time there is no clear explanation of some its phenomena: vertebra column mono-form deformation along with its poly etiology character, interrelation of its origin and development and child's growth process etc. The key for authors' view at AIS was scoliosis with non-standard (concave side) rotation. On the bases of its' multifunctional instrumental investigation results (Rtg, EMG, EEG, optical topography, hormonal and neuropeptides trials, thermo-vision methods and other) in comparison with typical AIS was worked out the new hypothesis, part of it is suggested for discussion. In the work under observation is the sequence of appearance of typical and atypical scoliosis symptomatology beginning from the preclinical stage. PMID:22744477

  2. The Typical General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnbull, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The reliability of General Aviation aircraft is unknown. In order to "assist the development of future GA reliability and safety requirements", a reliability study needs to be performed. Before any studies on General Aviation aircraft reliability begins, a definition of a typical aircraft that encompasses most of the general aviation characteristics needs to be defined. In this report, not only is the typical general aviation aircraft defined for the purpose of the follow-on reliability study, but it is also separated, or "sifted" into several different categories where individual analysis can be performed on the reasonably independent systems. In this study, the typical General Aviation aircraft is a four-place, single engine piston, all aluminum fixed-wing certified aircraft with a fixed tricycle landing gear and a cable operated flight control system. The system breakdown of a GA aircraft "sifts" the aircraft systems and components into five categories: Powerplant, Airframe, Aircraft Control Systems, Cockpit Instrumentation Systems, and the Electrical Systems. This breakdown was performed along the lines of a failure of the system. Any component that caused a system to fail was considered a part of that system.

  3. Implicit learning and reading: insights from typical children and children with developmental dyslexia using the artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pavlidou, Elpis V; Williams, Joanne M

    2014-07-01

    We examined implicit learning in school-aged children with and without developmental dyslexia based on the proposal that implicit learning plays a significant role in mastering fluent reading. We ran two experiments with 16 typically developing children (9 to 11-years-old) and 16 age-matched children with developmental dyslexia using the artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigm. In Experiment 1 (non-transfer task), children were trained on stimuli that followed patterns (rules) unknown to them. Subsequently, they were asked to decide from a novel set which stimuli follow the same rules (grammaticality judgments). In Experiment 2 (transfer task), training and testing stimuli differed in their superficial characteristics but followed the same rules. Again, children were asked to make grammaticality judgments. Our findings expand upon previous research by showing that children with developmental dyslexia show difficulties in implicit learning that are most likely specific to higher-order rule-like learning. These findings are discussed in relation to current theories of developmental dyslexia and of implicit learning. PMID:24751907

  4. Use of NARCCAP Model Projections to Develop a Future Typical Meteorological Year and Estimate the Impact of a Changing Climate on Building Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, S. L.; Takle, E. S.; Passe, U.; Kalvelage, K.

    2013-12-01

    Current simulations of building energy consumption use weather input files based on the past thirty years of climate observations. These 20th century climate conditions may be inadequate when designing buildings meant to function well into the 21st century. An alternative is using model projections of climate change to estimate future risk to the built environment. In this study, model-projected changes in climate were combined with existing typical meteorological year data to create future typical meteorological year data. These data were then formatted for use in EnergyPlus simulation software to evaluate their potential impact on commercial building energy consumption. The modeled climate data were taken from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). NARCCAP uses results of global climate models to drive regional climate models, also known as dynamical downscaling. This downscaling gives higher resolution results over specific locations, and the multiple global/regional climate model combinations provide a unique opportunity to quantify the uncertainty of climate change projections and their impacts. Our results show a projected decrease in heating energy consumption and a projected increase in cooling energy consumption for nine locations across the United States for all model combinations. Warmer locations may expect a decrease in heating load of around 30% to 45% and an increase in cooling load of around 25% to 35%. Colder locations may expect a decrease in heating load of around 15% to 25% and an increase in cooling load of around 40% to 70%. The change in net energy consumption is determined by the balance between the magnitudes of heating change and cooling change. Net energy consumption is projected to increase by an average of 5% for lower-latitude locations and decrease by an average of 5% for higher-latitude locations. With these projected annual and seasonal changes presenting strong evidence for the unsuitable nature of

  5. Individual differences in the shape bias in preschool children with specific language impairment and typical language development: theoretical and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Collisson, Beverly Anne; Grela, Bernard; Spaulding, Tammie; Rueckl, Jay G; Magnuson, James S

    2015-05-01

    We investigated whether preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit the shape bias in word learning: the bias to generalize based on shape rather than size, color, or texture in an object naming context ('This is a wek; find another wek') but not in a non-naming similarity classification context ('See this? Which one goes with this one?'). Fifty-four preschool children (16 with SLI, 16 children with typical language [TL] in an equated control group, and 22 additional children with TL included in individual differences analyses but not group comparisons) completed a battery of linguistic and cognitive assessments and two experiments. In Experiment 1, children made generalization choices in object naming and similarity classification contexts on separate days, from options similar to a target object in shape, color, or texture. On average, TL children exhibited the shape bias in an object naming context, but children with SLI did not. In Experiment 2, we tested whether the failure to exhibit the shape bias might be linked to ability to detect systematicities in the visual domain. Experiment 2 supported this hypothesis, in that children with SLI failed to learn simple paired visual associations that were readily learned by children with TL. Analyses of individual differences in the two studies revealed that visual paired-associate learning predicted degree of shape bias in children with SLI and TL better than any other measure of nonverbal intelligence or standard assessments of language ability. We discuss theoretical and clinical implications. PMID:25164789

  6. Initial analysis of non-typical Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) at onset and late developing demyelinating disease in Italian patients by SSCP and automated DNA sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sartore, M.; Semeraro, A.; Fortina, P.

    1994-09-01

    LHON is a mitochondrial genetic disease characterized by maternal inheritance and late onset of blindness caused by bilateral retinal degeneration. A number of molecular defects are known affecting expression of seven mitochondrial genes encoding subunits of respiratory chain complex I, III and IV. We screened genomic DNA from Italian patients for seven of the known point mutations in the ND-1, ND-4 and ND-6 subunits of complex I by PCR followed by SSCP and restriction enzyme digestion. Most of the patients had nonfamilial bilateral visual loss with partial or no recovery and normal neurological examination. Fundoscopic examination revealed that none of the patients had features typical of LHON. Nine of 21 patients (43%) showed multifocal CNS demyelination on MRI. Our results show aberrant SSCP patterns for a PCR product from the ND-4 subunit in one affected child and his mother. Sfa NI and Mae III digestions suggested the absence of a previously defined LHON mutation, and automated DNA sequence analysis revealed two A to G neutral sequence polymorphisms in the third position of codons 351 and 353. In addition, PCR products from the same two samples and an unrelated one showed abnormal SSCP patterns for the ND-1 subunit region of complex I due to the presence of a T to C change at nt 4,216 which was demonstrated after Nla III digestion of PCR products and further confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. Our results indicate that additional defects are present in the Italian population, and identification of abnormal SSCP patterns followed by targeted automated DNA sequence analysis is a reasonable strategy for delineation of new LHON mutations.

  7. How Does Brain Activation Differ in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Compared to Typically Developing Children, during Active and Passive Movements, and Tactile Stimulation? An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Winckel, Ann; Klingels, Katrijn; Bruyninckx, Frans; Wenderoth, Nici; Peeters, Ron; Sunaert, Stefan; Van Hecke, Wim; De Cock, Paul; Eyssen, Maria; De Weerdt, Willy; Feys, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to investigate brain activation associated with active and passive movements, and tactile stimulation in 17 children with right-sided unilateral cerebral palsy (CP), compared to 19 typically developing children (TD). The active movements consisted of repetitive opening and…

  8. How HANDy Are Baby Signs? A Systematic Review of the Impact of Gestural Communication on Typically Developing, Hearing Infants under the Age of 36 Months: Response to Howard and Doherty-Sneddon's Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Johnston, J. Cyne; Thibert, Jonelle; Grandpierre, Viviane

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to synthesize the evidence related to the effectiveness of baby sign language for children with typical development. This response to a Commentary on the review stresses that the primary purpose of the review was to assist caregivers and policy makers with informed decision-making related to the benefits of the…

  9. Characteristics of Parent-Child Interactions: A Systematic Review of Studies Comparing Children with Primary Language Impairment and Their Typically Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Anna K. M.; Harding, Sam; Babayigit, Selma; Roulstone, Sue

    2015-01-01

    The importance of parent-child interaction (PCI) for language development has been well established. This has led many speech and language therapy (SLT) interventions to focus on modifying PCI as a means to improving children's early language delay. However, the success of such programs is mixed. The current review compares PCI, observed in…

  10. Early language and executive skills predict variations in number and arithmetic skills in children at family-risk of dyslexia and typically developing controls

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J.; Göbel, Silke M.; Hulme, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Two important foundations for learning are language and executive skills. Data from a longitudinal study tracking the development of 93 children at family-risk of dyslexia and 76 controls was used to investigate the influence of these skills on the development of arithmetic. A two-group longitudinal path model assessed the relationships between language and executive skills at 3–4 years, verbal number skills (counting and number knowledge) and phonological processing skills at 4–5 years, and written arithmetic in primary school. The same cognitive processes accounted for variability in arithmetic skills in both groups. Early language and executive skills predicted variations in preschool verbal number skills, which in turn, predicted arithmetic skills in school. In contrast, phonological awareness was not a predictor of later arithmetic skills. These results suggest that verbal and executive processes provide the foundation for verbal number skills, which in turn influence the development of formal arithmetic skills. Problems in early language development may explain the comorbidity between reading and mathematics disorder. PMID:26412946

  11. Construct Validity of the MCDI-I Receptive Vocabulary Scale Can Be Improved: Differential Item Functioning between Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckner, Cornelia; Yoder, Paul; Stone, Wendy; Saylor, Megan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the validity of the Receptive Vocabulary scale of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory for Infants (MCDI-I; L. Fenson et al., 1991), a parent-report measure of early vocabulary, could be improved for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) by removing items that are biased. Method: Logistic…

  12. Key Eco-Hydrological Parameters Retrieval and Land Data Assimilation System Development in a Typical Inland River Basin of China's Arid Region- Final Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Shuguo; Han, Xujun

    2013-01-01

    During Dragon 2 period, fruitful results have been achieved with regard to the estimation of land surface parameters and the development of a catchment scale land data assimilation system in the Heihe River Basin (HRB), China. By using multi-platforms (satellite, aircraft, crane-based, ground station etc.), various observation results have been obtained, paving the way for carrying out a variety of dedicated and novel retrieval investigations related to eco-hydrological parameters, e.g. precipitation, snow properties, soil moisture (SM), land surface temperature (LST), evapotranspiration (ET), canopy resistance, leaf chlorophyll content, bi-directional reflectance, albedo. In addition, the Heihe data assimilation system has been developed to make use of these multi-source observations at the catchment scale, in order to improve the estimation of SM, soil temperature, ET, snow and streamflow at 1 km spatial resolution with a temporal resolution of 1 hour.

  13. Development of emission factors for motorcycles and shared auto-rickshaws using real-world driving cycle for a typical Indian city.

    PubMed

    Adak, Prasenjit; Sahu, Ravi; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2016-02-15

    Vehicular emission is one of the most important contributors of urban air pollution. To quantify the impact of traffic on urban air quality, it is necessary to quantify vehicular emission. In many cities of India, such as Dhanbad, shared auto-rickshaw is the pre-dominant mode of transportation. Indian Driving Cycle (IDC) and Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) are used for emission testing of motorcycles, shared auto-rickshaws and passenger cars in India for regulatory purposes. IDC used for motorcycles and shared auto-rickshaws does not recognize the difference in two vehicle classes in terms of driving pattern. In real world, shared auto-rickshaws, behave differently than motorcycles. To quantify the impact of shared auto-rickshaws on urban air quality accurately, emission factors (EFs) are required to derive from real-world driving cycles (DCs). In heterogeneous traffic, vehicles of one class affect the behavior of vehicles of other classes. To estimate the emissions from different vehicle classes accurately, EFs for motorcycles and passenger cars are also required to be revised. In this study, real-world DCs were developed for motorcycles, shared auto-rickshaws and passenger cars in Dhanbad. Developed DCs were used to calculate EFs for respective classes. Shared auto-rickshaws were found to have the highest deviation from EFs derived using IDC. PMID:26657376

  14. Beyond the C18 frontier: Androgen and glucocorticoid metabolism in breast cancer tissues: The role of non-typical steroid hormones in breast cancer development and progression.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Keely May; Sasano, Hironobu

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer's hormonal dependence is well known and has been so for a long time. However in the last two decades great advances have been made in understanding the local metabolism of steroids within tissue. In the form of aromatase inhibition this is already one of the mainstays of breast cancer therapy. This review aims to summarise briefly what is known in terms of the metabolism of C18 steroids but perhaps more importantly to touch on the new developments regarding the importance of the metabolism of androgens and glucocorticoids in breast tissue. It is our hope that this review should provide the reader with a "birds eye view" of the current state of knowledge regarding localised steroid metabolism in the breast. PMID:26057662

  15. The typical development of posterior medial frontal cortex function and connectivity during task control demands in youth 8-19years old.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanni; Angstadt, Mike; Taylor, Stephan F; Fitzgerald, Kate D

    2016-08-15

    To characterize the development of neural substrate for interference processing and task control, this study examined both linear and non-linear effects of age on activation and connectivity during an interference task designed to engage the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC). Seventy-two youth, ages 8-19years, performed the Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). With increasing age, overall performance across high-interference incongruent and low-interference congruent trials became faster and more accurate. Effects of age on activation to interference- (incongruent versus congruent conditions), error- (errors versus correct trials during the incongruent condition) and overall task-processing (incongruent plus congruent conditions, relative to implicit baseline) were tested in whole-brain voxel-wise analyses. Age differentially impacted activation to overall task processing in discrete sub-regions of the pMFC: activation in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) decreased with age, whereas activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) followed a non-linear (i.e., U-shaped) pattern in relation to age. In addition, connectivity of pre-SMA with anterior insula/frontal operculum (AI/FO) increased with age. These findings suggest differential development of pre-SMA and dACC sub-regions within the pMFC. Moreover, as children age, decreases in pre-SMA activation may couple with increases in pre-SMA-AI/FO connectivity to support gains in processing speed in response to demands for task control. PMID:27173761

  16. Effects of developmental music groups for parents and premature or typical infants under two years on parental responsiveness and infant social development.

    PubMed

    Walworth, Darcy D

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of music therapy intervention on premature infants' and full term infants' developmental responses and parents' responsiveness. Subjects (n=56) were parent-infant dyads who attended developmental music groups or a control condition assessing responsiveness during toy play. All subjects were matched according to developmental age and were also matched by group for socioeconomic status and for maternal depression. Types of infant play and parent responsiveness were measured using observation of a standardized toy play for parent-infant dyads. Observations were coded with the number of seconds spent in each behavior using the SCRIBE observation program. Parents completed a questionnaire on the perception of their infant's general development, interpretations of their child's needs, the purpose of using music with their child, and their child's response to music. The infants attending the developmental music groups with their parents demonstrated significantly more social toy play (p < .05) during the standardized parent-infant toy play than infants who did not attend the music groups. While not significant, graphic analysis of parent responsiveness showed parents who attended the developmental music groups engaged in more positive and less negative play behaviors with their infants than parents who did not attend the music groups. This study demonstrates the first findings of positive effects of developmental music groups on social behaviors for both premature and full term infants under 2 years old. PMID:19256731

  17. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  18. Premature infants display increased noxious-evoked neuronal activity in the brain compared to healthy age-matched term-born infants.

    PubMed

    Slater, Rebeccah; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2010-08-15

    This study demonstrates that infants who are born prematurely and who have experienced at least 40days of intensive or special care have increased brain neuronal responses to noxious stimuli compared to healthy newborns at the same postmenstrual age. We have measured evoked potentials generated by noxious clinically-essential heel lances in infants born at term (8 infants; born 37-40weeks) and in infants born prematurely (7 infants; born 24-32weeks) who had reached the same postmenstrual age (mean age at time of heel lance 39.2+/-1.2weeks). These noxious-evoked potentials are clearly distinguishable from shorter latency potentials evoked by non-noxious tactile sensory stimulation. While the shorter latency touch potentials are not dependent on the age of the infant at birth, the noxious-evoked potentials are significantly larger in prematurely-born infants. This enhancement is not associated with specific brain lesions but reflects a functional change in pain processing in the brain that is likely to underlie previously reported changes in pain sensitivity in older ex-preterm children. Our ability to quantify and measure experience-dependent changes in infant cortical pain processing will allow us to develop a more rational approach to pain management in neonatal intensive care. PMID:20438855

  19. Testing typicality in multiverse cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2015-05-01

    In extracting predictions from theories that describe a multiverse, we face the difficulty that we must assess probability distributions over possible observations prescribed not just by an underlying theory, but by a theory together with a conditionalization scheme that allows for (anthropic) selection effects. This means we usually need to compare distributions that are consistent with a broad range of possible observations with actual experimental data. One controversial means of making this comparison is by invoking the "principle of mediocrity": that is, the principle that we are typical of the reference class implicit in the conjunction of the theory and the conditionalization scheme. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the principle of mediocrity in a range of cosmological settings, employing "xerographic distributions" to impose a variety of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that for a fixed theory, the assumption that we are typical gives rise to higher likelihoods for our observations. If, however, one allows both the underlying theory and the assumption of typicality to vary, then the assumption of typicality does not always provide the highest likelihoods. Interpreted from a Bayesian perspective, these results support the claim that when one has the freedom to consider different combinations of theories and xerographic distributions (or different "frameworks"), one should favor the framework that has the highest posterior probability; and then from this framework one can infer, in particular, how typical we are. In this way, the invocation of the principle of mediocrity is more questionable than has been recently claimed.

  20. Typical errors of ESP users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.; Korneva, Anna A.

    2004-07-01

    The paper presents analysis of the errors made by ESP (English for specific purposes) users which have been considered as typical. They occur as a result of misuse of resources of English grammar and tend to resist. Their origin and places of occurrence have also been discussed.

  1. Gender typicality in children's speech: A comparison of boys with and without gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Munson, Benjamin; Crocker, Laura; Pierrehumbert, Janet B; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether boys with gender identity disorder (GID) produced less prototypically male speech than control boys without GID, a possibility that has been suggested by clinical observations. Two groups of listeners participated in tasks where they rated the gender typicality of single words (group 1) or sentences (group 2) produced by 15 5-13 year old boys with GID and 15 age-matched boys without GID. Detailed acoustic analyses of the stimuli were also conducted. Boys with GID were rated as less boy-like than boys without GID. In the experiment using sentence stimuli, these group differences were larger than in the experiment using single-word stimuli. Listeners' ratings were predicted by a variety of acoustic parameters, including ones that differ between the two groups and ones that are stereotypically associated with adult men's and women's speech. Future research should examine how these variants are acquired. PMID:25920850

  2. Electrophysiological evidence of a typical cognitive distortion in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Juliane; Volkert, Julia; Heidler, Sarah; Dresler, Thomas; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Gessner, Alexandra; Herrmann, Martin J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Reif, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Patients suffering from bipolar disorder often report negative thoughts and a bias towards negative environmental stimuli. Previous studies show that this mood-congruent attentional bias could mediated by dysfunctions in anterior limbic regions. The Error-Related Negativity (ERN), which originates in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), has been used to research this negativity bias in depressed patients, and could also help to better understand the underlying mechanisms causing the negativity bias in bipolar patients. In this study we investigated error processing in patients with bipolar disorder. Acute depressive bipolar patients (n = 20) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 20) underwent a modified Eriksen Flanker Task to assess test performance and two error-related event-related potentials (ERPs), i.e., the ERN and Error Positivity (Pe) were measured by EEG. Half of the patients were measured again in a euthymic state. We found similar ERN amplitudes in bipolar patients as compared to healthy controls, but significantly reduced Pe amplitudes. Moreover, acutely depressed bipolar patients displayed an ERN and Pe even if they responded accurately or too slow, which indicates that correct responses are processed in a way similar to wrong responses. This can be interpreted as a psychophysiological correlate of typical cognitive distortions in depression, i.e., an erroneous perception of personal failures. This biased error perception partially remained when patients were in a euthymic state. Together, our data indicate that aberrant error processing of bipolar patients may be regarded a trait marker possibly reflecting a risk factor for depressive relapses in bipolar disorder. PMID:25824981

  3. What's in a Name? Typicality and Relatedness Effects in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.

    2005-01-01

    We studied how category typicality and out-of-category relatedness affect speeded category verification (vote ''yes'' if pictured object is clothing) in typically developing 4- to 14-year-olds and adults. Stimuli were typical and atypical category objects (e.g., pants, glove) and related and unrelated out-of-category objects (e.g., necklace,…

  4. The Typicality Ranking Task: A New Method to Derive Typicality Judgments from Children

    PubMed Central

    Ameel, Eef; Storms, Gert

    2016-01-01

    An alternative method for deriving typicality judgments, applicable in young children that are not familiar with numerical values yet, is introduced, allowing researchers to study gradedness at younger ages in concept development. Contrary to the long tradition of using rating-based procedures to derive typicality judgments, we propose a method that is based on typicality ranking rather than rating, in which items are gradually sorted according to their typicality, and that requires a minimum of linguistic knowledge. The validity of the method is investigated and the method is compared to the traditional typicality rating measurement in a large empirical study with eight different semantic concepts. The results show that the typicality ranking task can be used to assess children’s category knowledge and to evaluate how this knowledge evolves over time. Contrary to earlier held assumptions in studies on typicality in young children, our results also show that preference is not so much a confounding variable to be avoided, but that both variables are often significantly correlated in older children and even in adults. PMID:27322371

  5. UP-BEAT (Upper Limb Baby Early Action–observation Training): protocol of two parallel randomised controlled trials of action–observation training for typically developing infants and infants with asymmetric brain lesions

    PubMed Central

    Guzzetta, Andrea; Boyd, Roslyn N; Perez, Micah; Ziviani, Jenny; Burzi, Valentina; Slaughter, Virginia; Rose, Stephen; Provan, Kerry; Findlay, Lisa; Fisher, Imogen; Colombini, Francesca; Tealdi, Gessica; Marchi, Viviani; Whittingham, Koa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Infants with asymmetric brain lesions are at high risk of developing congenital hemiplegia. Action–observation training (AOT) has been shown to effectively improve upper limb motor function in adults with chronic stroke. AOT is based on action observation, whereby new motor skills can be learnt by observing motor actions. This process is facilitated by the Mirror Neuron System, which matches observed and performed motor actions. This study aims to determine the efficacy of AOT in: (1) influencing the early development of reaching and grasping of typically developing infants and (2) improving the upper limb activity of infants with asymmetric brain lesions. Methods and analysis This study design comprises two parallel randomised sham-controlled trials (RCTs) in: (1) typically developing infants (cohort I) and (2) infants with asymmetric brain lesions (eg, arterial stroke, venous infarction, intraventricular haemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia; cohort II). Cohort II will be identified through a neonatal ultrasound or neonatal MRI. A sham control will be used for both RCTs, taking into consideration that it would be unethical to give no intervention to an at-risk population. Based on a two-tailed t test of two independent means, with a significance (α) level of 0.05, 80% power, predicted effect size of 0.8 and a 90% retention rate, we require 20 participants in each group (total sample of 40) for cohort I. The sample size for cohort II was based on the assumption that the effect size of the proposed training would be similar to that found by Heathcock et al in preterm born infants (n=26) with a mean effect size of 2.4. Given the high effect size, the calculation returned a sample of only four participants per group, on a two-tailed t test, with a significance (α) level of 0.05 and 80% power. As cohort II will consist of two subgroups of lesion type (ie, arterial stroke and venous infarction), we have quadrupled the sample to include 16

  6. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  7. Typical motions in multiple systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anosova, Joanna P.

    1990-01-01

    In very old times, people counted - one, two, many. The author wants to show that they were right. Consider the motions of isolated bodies: (1) N = 1 - simple motion; (2) N = 2 - Keplerian orbits; and (3) N = 3 - this is the difficult problem. In general, this problem can be studied only by computer simulations. The author studied this problem over many years (see, e.g., Agekian and Anosova, 1967; Anosova, 1986, 1989 a,b). The principal result is that two basic types of dynamics take place in triple systems. The first special type is the stable hierarchical systems with two almost Keplerian orbits. The second general type is the unstable triple systems with complicated motions of the bodies. By random choice of the initial conditions, by the Monte-Carlo method, the stable systems comprised about approx. 10% of the examined cases; the unstable systems comprised the other approx. 90% of cases under consideration. In N greater than 3, the studies of dynamics of such systems by computer simulations show that we have in general also the motions roughly as at the cases 1 - 3 with the relative negative or positive energies of the bodies. In the author's picture, the typical trajectories of the bodies in unstable triple systems of the general type of dynamics are seen. Such systems are disrupted always after close triple approaches of the bodies. These approaches play a role like the gravitational slingshot. Often, the velocities of escapers are very large. On the other hand, the movie also shows the dynamical processes of a formation, dynamical evolution and disruption of the temporary wide binaries in triples and a formation of final hard massive binaries in the final evolution of triples.

  8. A protocol for a randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of increasing Omega-3 index with krill oil supplementation on learning, cognition, behaviour and visual processing in typically developing adolescents

    PubMed Central

    van der Wurff, I S M; von Schacky, C; Berge, K; Kirschner, P A; de Groot, R H M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The influence of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation on brain functioning is debated. Some studies have found positive effects on cognition in children with learning difficulties, elderly people with cognitive impairment and depression scores in depressed individuals. Other studies have found null or negative effects. Observational studies in adolescents have found positive associations between fish consumption (containing n-3 LCPUFAs) and academic achievement. However, intervention studies in typically developing adolescents are missing. Objective The goal of this study is to determine the influence of increasing Omega-3 Index on cognitive functioning, academic achievement and mental well-being of typically developing adolescents. Methods and data analysis Double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled intervention; 264 adolescents (age 13–15 years) attending lower general secondary education started daily supplementation of 400 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA) in cohort I (n=130) and 800 mg EPA+DHA in cohort II (n=134) or a placebo for 52 weeks. Recruitment took place according to a low Omega-3 Index (<5%). The Omega-3 Index was monitored via a finger prick at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months. The supplement dose was adjusted after 3 months (placebo analogously) to reach an Omega-3 Index of 8–11%. At baseline, 6 and 12 months, a neuropsychological test battery, a number of questionnaires and a standardised math test (baseline and 12 months) were administered. School grades were collected. In a subsample, sleep quality and quantity data (n=64) and/or eye-tracking data (n=33) were collected. Ethics and dissemination Food2Learn is performed according to Good Clinical Practice. All data collected are linked to participant number only. The results will be disseminated on group level to participants and schools. The results will be presented at conferences and published in

  9. Insect Ferritins: typical or atypical?

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Daphne Q. D.; Winzerling, Joy J.

    2010-01-01

    Insects transmit millions of cases of disease each year, and cost millions of dollars in agricultural losses. The control of insect-borne diseases is vital for numerous developing countries, and the management of agricultural insect pests is a very serious business for developed countries. Control methods should target insect-specific traits in order to avoid non-target effects, especially in mammals. Since insect cells have had a billion years of evolutionary divergence from those of vertebrates, they differ in many ways that might be promising for the insect control field—especially, in iron metabolism because current studies have indicated that significant differences exist between insect and mammalian systems. Insect iron metabolism differs from that of vertebrates in the following respects. Insect ferritins have a heavier mass than mammalian ferritins. Unlike their mammalian counterparts, the insect ferritin subunits are often glycosylated and are synthesized with a signal peptide. The crystal structure of insect ferritin also shows a tetrahedral symmetry consisting of 12 heavy chain and 12 light chain subunits in contrast to that of mammalian ferritin that exhibits an octahedral symmetry made of 24 heavy chain and 24 light chain subunits. Insect ferritins associate primarily with the vacuolar system and serve as iron transporters—quite the opposite of the mammalian ferritins, which are mainly cytoplasmic and serve as iron storage proteins. This review will discuss these differences. PMID:20230873

  10. [Typical findings of maltreated children].

    PubMed

    Rauch, E; Zinka, B; Schneider, K; Penning, R; Eisenmenger, W

    2006-06-15

    Childhood maltreatment manifests in a variety of forms and the underlying causes are manifold. In contrast to other offences involving physical injury, reporting behavior has, statistically speaking, remained unchanged. Patterns of injury must first be established and documented, and this involves a complete examination of the child's body. Depending on the constellation of findings, a radiological diagnosis is usually necessary. When all the findings have been collected, the further steps to be taken--where indicated a report to the police--must be discussed. All the evidence must be recorded, and photos obtained of all externally visible injuries before they fade. It is not the task of the physician to develop criminalistic ambitions, for example, by grilling (a parent) on the cause of the injuries. However, he/she has a duty to do everything necessary to protect the well-being of the child. PMID:16850804

  11. 19. View northwest of Tropic Chamber reciprocal compressors (typical), in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View northwest of Tropic Chamber reciprocal compressors (typical), in machine area. - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  12. 6. Detail view north of typical window and loading door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail view north of typical window and loading door at east end of south elevation. - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  13. 9. View to west of Tropic Dressing Room (typical). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View to west of Tropic Dressing Room (typical). - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  14. 11. Detail view west from airlock chamber of typical refrigerator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail view west from airlock chamber of typical refrigerator door into Trophic Chamber. - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  15. 10. View south of Arctic Observation Room (typical). Natick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View south of Arctic Observation Room (typical). - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  16. The impact of phonological neighborhood density on typical and atypical emerging lexicons*.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Stephanie F; Stokes, Stephanie L

    2014-05-01

    According to the Extended Statistical Learning account (ExSL; Stokes, Kern & dos Santos, 2012) late talkers (LTs) continue to use neighborhood density (ND) as a cue for word learning when their peers no longer use a density learning mechanism. In the current article, LTs expressive (active) lexicon ND values differed from those of their age-matched, but not language-matched, TD peers, a finding that provided support for the ExSL account. Stokes (2010) claimed that LTs had difficulty abstracting sparse words, but not dense, from the ambient language. If true, then LTs' receptive (passive), as well as active lexicons should be comprised of words of high ND. However, in the current research only active lexicons were of high ND. LTs' expressive lexicons may be small not because of an abstraction deficit, but because they are unable to develop sufficiently strong phonological representations to support word production. PMID:23651703

  17. Comparison of Scores on the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale for Children with Low Functioning Autism, High Functioning Autism, Asperger's Disorder, ADHD, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Morrow, Jill D.; Yurich, Kirsten K. L.; Mahr, Fauzia; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Bouder, James N.; Petersen, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and validity for three autism instruments were compared for 190 children with low functioning autism (LFA), 190 children with high functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (HFA), 76 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 64 typical children. The instruments were the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder…

  18. Effects of target typicality on categorical search

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Justin T.; Stalder, Westri D.; Zelinsky, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    The role of target typicality in a categorical visual search task was investigated by cueing observers with a target name, followed by a five-item target present/absent search array in which the target images were rated in a pretest to be high, medium, or low in typicality with respect to the basic-level target cue. Contrary to previous work, we found that search guidance was better for high-typicality targets compared to low-typicality targets, as measured by both the proportion of immediate target fixations and the time to fixate the target. Consistent with previous work, we also found an effect of typicality on target verification times, the time between target fixation and the search judgment; as target typicality decreased, verification times increased. To model these typicality effects, we trained Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers on the target categories, and tested these on the corresponding specific targets used in the search task. This analysis revealed significant differences in classifier confidence between the high-, medium-, and low-typicality groups, paralleling the behavioral results. Collectively, these findings suggest that target typicality broadly affects both search guidance and verification, and that differences in typicality can be predicted by distance from an SVM classification boundary. PMID:25274990

  19. Blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Chen, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Renal transplantation has become one of the most common surgical procedures performed to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy kidney from a donor. It can help patients with kidney failure live decades longer. However, renal transplantation also faces a risk of developing various blood disorders. The blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation can be divided into two main categories: (1) Common disorders including post-transplant anemia (PTA), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), post-transplant erythrocytosis (PTE), and post-transplant cytopenias (PTC, leukopenia/neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia); and (2) Uncommon but serious disorders including hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), therapy-related myelodysplasia (t-MDS), and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML). Although many etiological factors involve the development of post-transplant blood disorders, immunosuppressive agents, and viral infections could be the two major contributors to most blood disorders and cause hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency by suppressing hematopoietic function of bone marrow. Hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency will result in severe clinical outcomes in renal transplant recipients. Understanding how blood disorders develop will help cure these life-threatening complications. A potential therapeutic strategy against post-transplant blood disorders should focus on tapering immunosuppression or replacing myelotoxic immunosuppressive drugs with lower toxic alternatives, recognizing and treating promptly the etiological virus, bacteria, or protozoan, restoring both hematopoietic function of bone marrow and normal blood counts, and improving kidney graft survival. PMID:25853131

  20. Blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Chen, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Renal transplantation has become one of the most common surgical procedures performed to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy kidney from a donor. It can help patients with kidney failure live decades longer. However, renal transplantation also faces a risk of developing various blood disorders. The blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation can be divided into two main categories: (1) Common disorders including post-transplant anemia (PTA), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), post-transplant erythrocytosis (PTE), and post-transplant cytopenias (PTC, leukopenia/neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia); and (2) Uncommon but serious disorders including hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), therapy-related myelodysplasia (t-MDS), and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML). Although many etiological factors involve the development of post-transplant blood disorders, immunosuppressive agents, and viral infections could be the two major contributors to most blood disorders and cause hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency by suppressing hematopoietic function of bone marrow. Hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency will result in severe clinical outcomes in renal transplant recipients. Understanding how blood disorders develop will help cure these life-threatening complications. A potential therapeutic strategy against post-transplant blood disorders should focus on tapering immunosuppression or replacing myelotoxic immunosuppressive drugs with lower toxic alternatives, recognizing and treating promptly the etiological virus, bacteria, or protozoan, restoring both hematopoietic function of bone marrow and normal blood counts, and improving kidney graft survival. PMID:25853131

  1. Typicality and Misinformation: Two Sources of Distortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of two sources of memory error: exposure to post-event information and extracting typical contents from schemata. Participants were shown a video of a bank robbery and presented with high-and low-typicality misinformation extracted from two normative studies. The misleading suggestions consisted of either changes in…

  2. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-02-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios.

  3. What is typical is good: the influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality's influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness judgments. Here, we argue that face typicality is an important factor for social perception because it affects trustworthiness judgments, which approximate the basic evaluation of faces. This effect has been overlooked because trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments have a high level of shared variance for most face samples. We show that for a continuum of faces that vary on a typicality-attractiveness dimension, trustworthiness judgments peak around the typical face. In contrast, perceived attractiveness increases monotonically past the typical face, as faces become more like the most attractive face. These findings suggest that face typicality is an important determinant of face evaluation. PMID:25512052

  4. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  5. Atypical and Typical Antipsychotics in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noggle, Chad A.; Dean, Raymond S.

    2009-01-01

    The use of antipsychotic medications within the school-age population is rapidly increasing. Although typical antipsychotics may be used in rare cases, this influx is largely secondary to the availability of the atypical antipsychotics. Reduction of possible adverse effects and increased efficacy represent the primary basis for the atypical…

  6. Extended Article: Typicality, Graded Membership, and Vagueness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, James A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses theoretical problems arising from the vagueness of language terms, and intuitions of the vagueness of the concepts to which they refer. It is argued that the central intuitions of prototype theory are sufficient to account for both typicality phenomena and psychological intuitions about degrees of membership in vaguely defined…

  7. Hearing and Listening in a Typical Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Catherine V.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses factors that affect how well students with hearing loss and typical students can hear in classrooms. Soundfield equalization is discussed as a way to create an environment where each child is at a favorable speaker-listener distance by routing the teacher's voice to loudspeakers around the classroom. (CR)

  8. What is a typical optic nerve head?

    PubMed

    Voorhees, A P; Grimm, J L; Bilonick, R A; Kagemann, L; Ishikawa, H; Schuman, J S; Wollstein, G; Sigal, I A

    2016-08-01

    Whereas it is known that elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) increases the risk of glaucoma, it is not known why optic nerve heads (ONHs) vary so much in sensitivity to IOP and how this sensitivity depends on the characteristics of the ONH such as tissue mechanical properties and geometry. It is often assumed that ONHs with uncommon or atypical sensitivity to IOP, high sensitivity in normal tension glaucoma or high robustness in ocular hypertension, also have atypical ONH characteristics. Here we address two specific questions quantitatively: Do atypical ONH characteristics necessarily lead to atypical biomechanical responses to elevated IOP? And, do typical biomechanical responses necessarily come from ONHs with typical characteristics. We generated 100,000 ONH numerical models with randomly selected values for the characteristics, all falling within literature ranges of normal ONHs. The models were solved to predict their biomechanical response to an increase in IOP. We classified ONH characteristics and biomechanical responses into typical or atypical using a percentile-based threshold, and calculated the fraction of ONHs for which the answers to the two questions were true and/or false. We then studied the effects of varying the percentile threshold. We found that when we classified the extreme 5% of individual ONH characteristics or responses as atypical, only 28% of ONHs with an atypical characteristic had an atypical response. Further, almost 29% of typical responses came from ONHs with at least one atypical characteristic. Thus, the answer to both questions is no. This answer held irrespective of the threshold for classifying typical or atypical. Our results challenge the assumption that ONHs with atypical sensitivity to IOP must have atypical characteristics. This finding suggests that the traditional approach of identifying risk factors by comparing characteristics between patient groups (e.g. ocular hypertensive vs. primary open angle glaucoma) may not

  9. Memory for Sequences of Events Impaired in Typical Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Timothy A.; Morris, Andrea M.; Stark, Shauna M.; Fortin, Norbert J.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2015-01-01

    Typical aging is associated with diminished episodic memory performance. To improve our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying this age-related memory deficit, we previously developed an integrated, cross-species approach to link converging evidence from human and animal research. This novel approach focuses on the ability to…

  10. Weak and strong typicality in quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Santos, Lea F; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Rigol, Marcos

    2012-07-01

    We study the properties of mixed states obtained from eigenstates of many-body lattice Hamiltonians after tracing out part of the lattice. Two scenarios emerge for generic systems: (i) The diagonal entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a few sites are traced out (weak typicality); and (ii) the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a large fraction of the lattice is traced out (strong typicality). Remarkably, the results for few-body observables obtained with the reduced, diagonal, and canonical density matrices are very similar to each other, no matter which fraction of the lattice is traced out. Hence, for all physical quantities studied here, the results in the diagonal ensemble match the thermal predictions. PMID:23005351

  11. Statistical mechanics of typical set decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Kazutaka; van Mourik, Jort

    2002-09-01

    The performance of ``typical set (pairs) decoding'' for ensembles of Gallager's linear code is investigated using statistical physics. In this decoding method, errors occur, either when the information transmission is corrupted by atypical noise, or when multiple typical sequences satisfy the parity check equation as provided by the received corrupted codeword. We show that the average error rate for the second type of error over a given code ensemble can be accurately evaluated using the replica method, including the sensitivity to message length. Our approach generally improves the existing analysis known in the information theory community, which was recently reintroduced in IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 45, 399 (1999), and is believed to be the most accurate to date.

  12. Wrist ROM and Motion Frequency during Toy and Game Play with a Joint-Specific Controller Specially Designed to Provide Neuromuscular Therapy: A proof of concept study in typically developing children

    PubMed Central

    Crisco, Joseph J.; Schwartz, Joel B.; Wilcox, Bethany; Brideau, Holly; Basseches, Benjamin; Kerman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremities affected by hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) and other neuromuscular disorders have been demonstrated to benefit from therapy, and the greater the duration of the therapy, the greater the benefit. A great motivator for participating in and extending the duration of therapy with children is play. Our focus is on active motion therapy of the wrist and forearm. In this study we examine the wrist motions associated with playing with two toys and three computer games controlled by a specially-designed play controller. Twenty children (ages 5-11) with no diagnosis of a muscular disorder were recruited. The play controller was fitted to the wrist and forearm of each child and used to measure and log wrist flexion and extension. Play activity and enjoyment were quantified by average wrist range of motion (ROM), motion frequency measures, and a discrete visual scale. We found significant differences in the average wrist ROM and motion frequency among the toys and games, yet there were no differences in the level of enjoyment across all toys and games, which was high. These findings indicate which toys and games may elicit the greater number of goal-directed movements, and lay the foundation for our long-term goal to develop and evaluate innovative motion-specific play controllers that are engaging rehabilitative devices for enhancing therapy and promoting neural plasticity and functional recovery in children with CP. PMID:25935686

  13. Wrist range of motion and motion frequency during toy and game play with a joint-specific controller specially designed to provide neuromuscular therapy: A proof of concept study in typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Crisco, Joseph J; Schwartz, Joel B; Wilcox, Bethany; Brideau, Holly; Basseches, Benjamin; Kerman, Karen

    2015-08-20

    Upper extremities affected by hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) and other neuromuscular disorders have been demonstrated to benefit from therapy, and the greater the duration of the therapy, the greater the benefit. A great motivator for participating in and extending the duration of therapy with children is play. Our focus is on active motion therapy of the wrist and forearm. In this study we examine the wrist motions associated with playing with two toys and three computer games controlled by a specially-designed play controller. Twenty children (ages 5-11) with no diagnosis of a muscular disorder were recruited. The play controller was fitted to the wrist and forearm of each child and used to measure and log wrist flexion and extension. Play activity and enjoyment were quantified by average wrist range of motion (ROM), motion frequency measures, and a discrete visual scale. We found significant differences in the average wrist ROM and motion frequency among the toys and games, yet there were no differences in the level of enjoyment across all toys and games, which was high. These findings indicate which toys and games may elicit the greater number of goal-directed movements, and lay the foundation for our long-term goal to develop and evaluate innovative motion-specific play controllers that are engaging rehabilitative devices for enhancing therapy and promoting neural plasticity and functional recovery in children with CP. PMID:25935686

  14. [Typical atrial flutter : Diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dierk; Eckardt, Lars; Estner, Heidi L; Kuniss, Malte; Meyer, Christian; Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht; Sommer, Philipp; Steven, Daniel; Voss, Frederik; Bonnemeier, Hendrik

    2016-03-01

    Typical, cavotricuspid-dependent atrial flutter is the most common atrial macroreentry tachycardia. The incidence of atrial flutter (typical and atypical forms) is age-dependent with 5/100,000 in patients less than 50 years and approximately 600/100,000 in subjects > 80 years of age. Concomitant heart failure or pulmonary disease further increases the risk of typical atrial flutter.Patients with atrial flutter may present with symptoms of palpitations, reduced exercise capacity, chest pain, or dyspnea. The risk of thromboembolism is probably similar to atrial fibrillation; therefore, the same antithrombotic prophylaxis is required in atrial flutter patients. Acutely symptomatic cases may be subjected to cardioversion or pharmacologic rate control to relieve symptoms. Catheter ablation of the cavotricuspid isthmus represents the primary choice in long-term therapy, associated with high procedural success (> 97 %) and low complication rates (0.5 %).This article represents the third part of a manuscript series designed to improve professional education in the field of cardiac electrophysiology. Mechanistic and clinical characteristics as well as management of isthmus-dependent atrial flutter are described in detail. Electrophysiological findings and catheter ablation of the arrhythmia are highlighted. PMID:26846223

  15. Typicality ratings of male and female voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spisak, Brian; Mullennix, John; Moro, Kelly; Will, Jessica; Farnsworth, Lynn

    2002-05-01

    Researchers have suggested that human voices are represented in memory in terms of prototypes [e.g., Kreiman and Papcun (1991); Papcun et al. (1989)]. Others have suggested that speech utterances are stored in memory via detailed exemplar-based representations [e.g., Lachs et al. (2000)]. The goal of the present study was to provide the first step toward assessing the viability of a prototype view of voice. Ten hVd utterances were recorded from each of 20 male and 20 female speakers. The utterances were blocked by speaker gender and presented to male and female listeners who rated each stimulus on a 1-7 typicality scale from ``least typical voice'' to ``most typical voice.'' There were significant effects of the type of vowel and speaker voice on the ratings, as well as interactions of vowel type with gender of subject and speaker voice. The results are discussed in terms of the strength of evidence for a graded category structure of voice categories that would be consistent with a prototype perspective of long-term memory representations of voice.

  16. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals. PMID:25790831

  17. Mass loss parameters for typical Shuttle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscari, J. A.; Odonnell, T.

    1982-01-01

    The weight loss of twenty different typical Shuttle materials was measured with a thermogravimetric analyzer as the material temperature was increased from ambient to 300 C. An additional ten tests were performed where conditioning of the material varied. The materials were selected from each general grouping such as adhesives, coatings, lubricants, encapsulants, elastomers, and resins. Care was taken in the preparation, curing, and preconditioning of the materials to simulate flight use. Making the assumption that the weight loss follows first order rate theory, the source outgassing parameters for these thirty materials is presented.

  18. Energy conservation in typical Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, M.; Rumsey, P.

    1997-06-01

    Various policies and programs have been created to promote energy conservation in Asia. Energy conservation centers, energy conservation standards and labeling, commercial building codes, industrial energy use regulations, and utility demand-side management (DSM) are but a few of them. This article attempts to analyze the roles of these different policies and programs in seven typical Asian countries: China, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. The conclusions show that the two most important features behind the success policies and programs are (1) government policy support and (2) long-run self-sustainability of financial support to the programs.

  19. On Typicality in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Denis J.; Williams, Stephen R.; Searles, Debra J.; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-06-01

    From the statistical mechanical viewpoint, relaxation of macroscopic systems and response theory rest on a notion of typicality, according to which the behavior of single macroscopic objects is given by appropriate ensembles: ensemble averages of observable quantities represent the measurements performed on single objects, because "almost all" objects share the same fate. In the case of non-dissipative dynamics and relaxation toward equilibrium states, "almost all" is referred to invariant probability distributions that are absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure. In other words, the collection of initial micro-states (single systems) that do not follow the ensemble is supposed to constitute a set of vanishing, phase space volume. This approach is problematic in the case of dissipative dynamics and relaxation to nonequilibrium steady states, because the relevant invariant distributions attribute probability 1 to sets of zero volume, while evolution commonly begins in equilibrium states, i.e., in sets of full phase space volume. We consider the relaxation of classical, thermostatted particle systems to nonequilibrium steady states. We show that the dynamical condition known as Ω T-mixing is necessary and sufficient for relaxation of ensemble averages to steady state values. Moreover, we find that the condition known as weak T-mixing applied to smooth observables is sufficient for ensemble relaxation to be independent of the initial ensemble. Lastly, we show that weak T-mixing provides a notion of typicality for dissipative dynamics that is based on the (non-invariant) Lebesgue measure, and that we call physical ergodicity.

  20. On Typicality in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Denis J.; Williams, Stephen R.; Searles, Debra J.; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-08-01

    From the statistical mechanical viewpoint, relaxation of macroscopic systems and response theory rest on a notion of typicality, according to which the behavior of single macroscopic objects is given by appropriate ensembles: ensemble averages of observable quantities represent the measurements performed on single objects, because " almost all" objects share the same fate. In the case of non-dissipative dynamics and relaxation toward equilibrium states, " almost all" is referred to invariant probability distributions that are absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure. In other words, the collection of initial micro-states (single systems) that do not follow the ensemble is supposed to constitute a set of vanishing, phase space volume. This approach is problematic in the case of dissipative dynamics and relaxation to nonequilibrium steady states, because the relevant invariant distributions attribute probability 1 to sets of zero volume, while evolution commonly begins in equilibrium states, i.e., in sets of full phase space volume. We consider the relaxation of classical, thermostatted particle systems to nonequilibrium steady states. We show that the dynamical condition known as Ω T-mixing is necessary and sufficient for relaxation of ensemble averages to steady state values. Moreover, we find that the condition known as weak T-mixing applied to smooth observables is sufficient for ensemble relaxation to be independent of the initial ensemble. Lastly, we show that weak T-mixing provides a notion of typicality for dissipative dynamics that is based on the (non-invariant) Lebesgue measure, and that we call physical ergodicity.

  1. Predicting Friendship Quality in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit; Solomon, Marjorie; Rogers, Sally J.

    2010-01-01

    The role played by social relationship variables (attachment security; mother-child relationship qualities) and social-cognitive capacities (theory of mind) was examined in both observed friendship behaviors and in children's descriptions of friendships (age 8-12) with high functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) (n = 44) and…

  2. Segmental Trunk Control Acquisition and Reaching in Typically Developing Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rachwani, Jaya; Santamaria, Victor; Saavedra, Sandra L.; Wood, Stacy; Porter, Francine; Woollacott, Marjorie H.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the influence of an external support at the thoracic and pelvic level of the trunk on the success of reaching, postural stability and reaching kinematics while infants reached for a toy. Seventeen infants (4–6 months) were clustered into two groups according to their trunk control assessed with the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Major differences were seen between groups with pelvic support, whereas with thoracic support, all infants showed similar quality reaching behaviours. With the external pelvic support, infants who had acquired trunk control in the lumbar region were more accurate in their reaching movements (less movement time, improved straightness of reach, less movement units and path length per movement unit) and were more stable (decreased trunk and head displacement) during a reach than infants that had only acquired trunk control in the thoracic region. These results support the hypothesis that trunk control influences the quality of reaching behaviour. PMID:23681292

  3. Management of Typical and Atypical Hangman's Fractures.

    PubMed

    Al-Mahfoudh, Rafid; Beagrie, Christopher; Woolley, Ele; Zakaria, Rasheed; Radon, Mark; Clark, Simon; Pillay, Robin; Wilby, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Retrospective study of a prospectively maintained database. Objective Our aim was to retrospectively review management and outcomes of patients with low-grade hangman's fractures, specifically looking at differences in outcomes between collars and halo immobilization. We also studied fracture patterns and their treatment outcomes. Methods Forty-one patients with hangman's fractures were identified from 105 patients with axis fractures between 2007 and 2013. Typical hangman's fractures were defined as traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis causing a bilateral pars interarticularis fracture. Fractures involving the posterior cortex of C2 on one or both sides or an asymmetrical pattern were defined as atypical. Results There were 41 patients with a mean age of 59 years, with 13 (31.7%) typical and 28 (68.2%) atypical fractures. There were 22 (53.6%) type 1 fractures, 7 (41.4%) type 2 fractures, and 2 (4.9%) type 2a fractures in this series. Cervical collars were used to manage 11 patients (27% of all patients with hangman's fractures) and halo orthosis was used in 27 (65.8%). Three (7.3%) patients underwent surgical fixation of the fracture. Bony union was achieved in all patients on radiologic follow-up. Permanent neurologic deficit occurred in one patient due to associated injuries. Neck pain and stiffness were reported more commonly in the atypical group, but this finding was not statistically significant. Conclusions The majority of hangman type fractures can be treated nonoperatively. We found no difference in outcomes between a rigid collar or halo immobilization for treatment of low-grade fractures. Radiologic follow-up is essential to identify cases of nonunion. PMID:27099816

  4. Management of Typical and Atypical Hangman's Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mahfoudh, Rafid; Beagrie, Christopher; Woolley, Ele; Zakaria, Rasheed; Radon, Mark; Clark, Simon; Pillay, Robin; Wilby, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study of a prospectively maintained database. Objective Our aim was to retrospectively review management and outcomes of patients with low-grade hangman's fractures, specifically looking at differences in outcomes between collars and halo immobilization. We also studied fracture patterns and their treatment outcomes. Methods Forty-one patients with hangman's fractures were identified from 105 patients with axis fractures between 2007 and 2013. Typical hangman's fractures were defined as traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis causing a bilateral pars interarticularis fracture. Fractures involving the posterior cortex of C2 on one or both sides or an asymmetrical pattern were defined as atypical. Results There were 41 patients with a mean age of 59 years, with 13 (31.7%) typical and 28 (68.2%) atypical fractures. There were 22 (53.6%) type 1 fractures, 7 (41.4%) type 2 fractures, and 2 (4.9%) type 2a fractures in this series. Cervical collars were used to manage 11 patients (27% of all patients with hangman's fractures) and halo orthosis was used in 27 (65.8%). Three (7.3%) patients underwent surgical fixation of the fracture. Bony union was achieved in all patients on radiologic follow-up. Permanent neurologic deficit occurred in one patient due to associated injuries. Neck pain and stiffness were reported more commonly in the atypical group, but this finding was not statistically significant. Conclusions The majority of hangman type fractures can be treated nonoperatively. We found no difference in outcomes between a rigid collar or halo immobilization for treatment of low-grade fractures. Radiologic follow-up is essential to identify cases of nonunion. PMID:27099816

  5. Clinical and neuroimaging differences between posterior cortical atrophy and typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease patients at an early disease stage.

    PubMed

    Peng, Guoping; Wang, Jianqin; Feng, Zhan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Yafei; He, Fangping; Chen, Zhongqin; Zhao, Kui; Luo, Benyan

    2016-01-01

    To identify clinical and neuroimaging characteristics between posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients at an early disease stage, 16 PCA and 13 age-matched tAD patients were enrolled. Compared with tAD patients, PCA patients showed higher mean recognition and recall test scores, and lower mean calculation, spatial attention, shape discrimination, and writing test scores. Mean right hippocampal volume was larger in PCA patients compared with tAD patients, while cortical gray matter (GM) volume of bilateral parietal and occipital lobes was smaller in PCA patients. Further, when compared with tAD patients, significant hypometabolism was observed in bilateral parietal and occipital lobes, particularly the right occipitotemporal junction in PCA patients. Additionally, there were significant positive correlations in recognition and recall scores with hippocampal volumes. In PCA patients, calculation and visuospatial ability scores are positively associated with GM volume of parietal and occipital lobes. And only spatial attention and shape discrimination scores are positively associated with regional glucose metabolism of parietal and occipital lobes. Therefore, PCA patients display better recognition and recall scores, which are associated with larger hippocampal volumes and poorer performance in visual spatial tasks because of marked GM atrophy and hypometabolism of parietal and occipital lobes. PMID:27377199

  6. Deaf and Hearing Children: A Comparison of Peripheral Vision Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codina, Charlotte; Buckley, David; Port, Michael; Pascalis, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated peripheral vision (at least 30[degrees] eccentric to fixation) development in profoundly deaf children without cochlear implantation, and compared this to age-matched hearing controls as well as to deaf and hearing adult data. Deaf and hearing children between the ages of 5 and 15 years were assessed using a new,…

  7. Lateral jet injection into typical combustor flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental problem of lateral jet injection into typical flow fields in the absence of combustion was studied. All flow fields being investigated have no expansion of the crossflow (the test section to swirler diameter ratio D/d = 1), after its passage through an optional swirler (with swirl vane angle phi = 0 (swirler removed), 45, and 70 degree). The lateral jet(s) is(are) located one test-section diameter downstream of the test-section inlet (x/D = 1). The lateral jets have round-sectioned nozzles, each of which has an area of 1/100th of the cross sectional area of the crossflow (A sub j/A sub c = 1/100). Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of R = v sub j/u sub o = 2, 4, and 6 were investigated. Helium-bubble low visualization, five-hole pitot probe time-mean velocity measurements, and single-wire time-mean velocity and normal and shear stress turbulence data were obtained in the research program.

  8. Management of refractory typical GERD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Scarpellini, Emidio; Ang, Daphne; Pauwels, Ans; De Santis, Adriano; Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The management of patients with refractory GERD (rGERD) is a major clinical challenge for gastroenterologists. In up to 30% of patients with typical GERD symptoms (heartburn and/or regurgitation), acid-suppressive therapy does not provide clinical benefit. In this Review, we discuss the current management algorithm for GERD and the features and management of patients who do not respond to treatment (such as those individuals with an incorrect diagnosis of GERD, inadequate PPI intake, persisting acid reflux and persisting weakly acidic reflux). Symptom response to existing surgical techniques, novel antireflux procedures, and the value of add-on medical therapies (including prokinetics and reflux inhibitors) for rGERD symptoms are discussed. Pharmaceutical agents targeting oesophageal sensitivity, a condition that can contribute to symptom generation in rGERD, are also discussed. Finally, on the basis of available published data and our expert opinion, we present an outline of a current, usable algorithm for management of patients with rGERD that considers the timing and diagnostic use of pH-impedance monitoring on or off PPI, additional diagnostic tests, the clinical use of baclofen and the use of add-on neuromodulators (tricyclic agents and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). PMID:27075264

  9. Record breaking properties for typical autocorrelation structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulou, Eirini; Galani, Andriani; Dimas, Panagiotis; Karanasios, Alexandros; Mastrotheodoros, Theodoros; Michaelidi, Eleni-Maria; Nikolopoulos, Dionisios; Pontikos, Stamatis; Sourla, Fani; Chazapi, Anna; Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2013-04-01

    Record-breaking occurrences in hydrometeorological processes are often used particularly in communicating information to the public and their analysis offers the possibility of better comprehending extreme events. However, the typical comprehension depends on prototypes characterized by pure randomness. In fact the occurrence of record breaking depends on the marginal distribution and the autocorrelation function of the process as well the length of available record. Here we study the influence of the process autocorrelation structure on the statistics of record-breaking occurrences giving emphasis on the differences with those of a purely random process. The particular stochastic processes, which we examine, are the AR(1), AR(2) and ARMA(1,1), as well as the Hurst-Kolmogorov process. The necessary properties are calculated using either analytical methods when possible or Monte Carlo simulation. We also compare the model results with observed hydrometeorological time series. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  10. Information extraction of typical karst landform based on RS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shufen; Lan, Anjun; Ma, Jiaqiong; Guo, Haixiang

    2014-05-01

    Guizhou Province is the most typical karst landform area of Southwest China Karst, and how to exactly extract the typical karst landform information is important to the economic development of Guizhou. Not any method based on Remote Sensing (Hereinafter referred to as RS) to extract the karst landform were reported or published. For obtaining the accuracy information of karst landform, 10 meters resolution ALOS image is used to extract the karst landform information in Guanling County of Guizhou Province in this paper. The multiscale segmentations of RS images were finished and typical of karst landform in case study area were classified with the different segmentation rules created on the eCognition Developer platform. For mostly improving the accuracy of extraction information, the experiment areas are focused on the fengcong depressions, fengcong valleys, and fenglin basins. The results show that the fengcong depressions, fengcong valleys, and fenglin basins can be respectively well extracted from the images when the segmentation scale are respectively 280, 480 and 200, shape parameter is 0.8, and tightness parameter is 0.5. We believed the research would provide an important reference to extract the karst landform information in whole Guizhou, China or global level.

  11. Finite-cluster typical medium theory for disordered electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekuma, C. E.; Moore, C.; Terletska, H.; Tam, K.-M.; Moreno, J.; Jarrell, M.; Vidhyadhiraja, N. S.

    2015-07-01

    We use the recently developed typical medium dynamical cluster (TMDCA) approach [Ekuma et al., Phys. Rev. B 89, 081107 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.081107] to perform a detailed study of the Anderson localization transition in three dimensions for the box, Gaussian, Lorentzian, and binary disorder distributions, and benchmark them with exact numerical results. Utilizing the nonlocal hybridization function and the momentum resolved typical spectra to characterize the localization transition in three dimensions, we demonstrate the importance of both spatial correlations and a typical environment for the proper characterization of the localization transition in all the disorder distributions studied. As a function of increasing cluster size, the TMDCA systematically recovers the re-entrance behavior of the mobility edge for disorder distributions with finite variance, obtaining the correct critical disorder strengths, and shows that the order parameter critical exponent for the Anderson localization transition is universal. The TMDCA is computationally efficient, requiring only a small cluster to obtain qualitative and quantitative data in good agreement with numerical exact results at a fraction of the computational cost. Our results demonstrate that the TMDCA provides a consistent and systematic description of the Anderson localization transition.

  12. 12 CFR 408.6 - Typical classes of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Typical classes of action. 408.6 Section 408.6... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Eximbank Implementing Procedures § 408.6 Typical classes of action. (a) Section 1507.3... three typical classes of action for similar treatment under NEPA. These typical classes of action...

  13. 12 CFR 408.6 - Typical classes of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Typical classes of action. 408.6 Section 408.6... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Eximbank Implementing Procedures § 408.6 Typical classes of action. (a) Section 1507.3... three typical classes of action for similar treatment under NEPA. These typical classes of action...

  14. 12 CFR 408.6 - Typical classes of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Typical classes of action. 408.6 Section 408.6... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Eximbank Implementing Procedures § 408.6 Typical classes of action. (a) Section 1507.3... three typical classes of action for similar treatment under NEPA. These typical classes of action...

  15. 12 CFR 408.6 - Typical classes of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Typical classes of action. 408.6 Section 408.6... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Eximbank Implementing Procedures § 408.6 Typical classes of action. (a) Section 1507.3... three typical classes of action for similar treatment under NEPA. These typical classes of action...

  16. 12 CFR 408.6 - Typical classes of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Typical classes of action. 408.6 Section 408.6... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Eximbank Implementing Procedures § 408.6 Typical classes of action. (a) Section 1507.3... three typical classes of action for similar treatment under NEPA. These typical classes of action...

  17. Investigation and Control of Rotordynamic Instability in Typical Large Turbogenerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Songyuan

    1991-01-01

    Described here are the investigation and results of recent studies to solve oil whip in typical large turbogenerators. Included are calculations of the instability speeds and system damping of rotor-bearing systems. The polynomial-transfer matrix method which was developed by the author during the last few years is used in the calculations. Vibration measurements and data indicate the stability of these units. Research indicates that the cause of the instability lies in the three-bole offset bearings. Work was done to solve these problems, and industry tests were performed on one of these abnormal systems.

  18. Typical action perception and interpretation without motor simulation.

    PubMed

    Vannuscorps, Gilles; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Every day, we interact with people synchronously, immediately understand what they are doing, and easily infer their mental state and the likely outcome of their actions from their kinematics. According to various motor simulation theories of perception, such efficient perceptual processing of others' actions cannot be achieved by visual analysis of the movements alone but requires a process of motor simulation--an unconscious, covert imitation of the observed movements. According to this hypothesis, individuals incapable of simulating observed movements in their motor system should have difficulty perceiving and interpreting observed actions. Contrary to this prediction, we found across eight sensitive experiments that individuals born with absent or severely shortened upper limbs (upper limb dysplasia), despite some variability, could perceive, anticipate, predict, comprehend, and memorize upper limb actions, which they cannot simulate, as efficiently as typically developed participants. We also found that, like the typically developed participants, the dysplasic participants systematically perceived the position of moving upper limbs slightly ahead of their real position but only when the anticipated position was not biomechanically awkward. Such anticipatory bias and its modulation by implicit knowledge of the body biomechanical constraints were previously considered as indexes of the crucial role of motor simulation in action perception. Our findings undermine this assumption and the theories that place the locus of action perception and comprehension in the motor system and invite a shift in the focus of future research to the question of how the visuo-perceptual system represents and processes observed body movements and actions. PMID:26699468

  19. Typical action perception and interpretation without motor simulation

    PubMed Central

    Vannuscorps, Gilles; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Every day, we interact with people synchronously, immediately understand what they are doing, and easily infer their mental state and the likely outcome of their actions from their kinematics. According to various motor simulation theories of perception, such efficient perceptual processing of others’ actions cannot be achieved by visual analysis of the movements alone but requires a process of motor simulation—an unconscious, covert imitation of the observed movements. According to this hypothesis, individuals incapable of simulating observed movements in their motor system should have difficulty perceiving and interpreting observed actions. Contrary to this prediction, we found across eight sensitive experiments that individuals born with absent or severely shortened upper limbs (upper limb dysplasia), despite some variability, could perceive, anticipate, predict, comprehend, and memorize upper limb actions, which they cannot simulate, as efficiently as typically developed participants. We also found that, like the typically developed participants, the dysplasic participants systematically perceived the position of moving upper limbs slightly ahead of their real position but only when the anticipated position was not biomechanically awkward. Such anticipatory bias and its modulation by implicit knowledge of the body biomechanical constraints were previously considered as indexes of the crucial role of motor simulation in action perception. Our findings undermine this assumption and the theories that place the locus of action perception and comprehension in the motor system and invite a shift in the focus of future research to the question of how the visuo-perceptual system represents and processes observed body movements and actions. PMID:26699468

  20. Temporal characteristics of the speech of typical and lexically precocious two-year-old children: preliminary observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bruce L.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2002-05-01

    To examine the extent to which temporal properties of speech might be affected by children's lexical knowledge as opposed to their age and general development, productions by a group of two-year-olds with average-sized vocabularies were compared with those of a group of age-matched, lexically precocious children. It was hypothesized that because of their additional lexical knowledge and experience, the lexically precocious children would manifest shorter durations and/or less temporal variability in their speech. Multiple repetitions of several different target words were obtained from children with vocabularies at about the 50th percentile (ca. 300 words) versus the 90th percentile (ca. 600 words) on the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. In general, acoustic measurements indicated that there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of their segmental durations or temporal variability. Thus, the additional linguistic knowledge and experience the precocious talkers had gained from having learned to produce many more words did not appear to have influenced temporal properties of their speech. This suggests that the children's age and/or other aspects of their development had a greater impact on temporal aspects of their speech than did their level of lexical knowledge and experience.