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Sample records for age-predicted maximum heart

  1. Maximum Age Predictions for Optical Dating on Mars Based on Dose/Depth Models and Martian Meteorite Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklund, R. T.; Lepper, K.

    2004-12-01

    A fundamental need in the Mars exploration portfolio is in-situ absolute dating. Optical dating has been proposed for determining the age of Mars surface features and landforms as well as the rates of martian surface processes. On Earth, the method is employed for Quaternary studies because the technique currently has a terrestrial maximum age limit of approximately 350 ka. This maximum age limit is a function of the saturation dose of the dosimeter material (silicate sediments) and the local ionizing radiation dose rate. The sources of ionizing radiation germane to optical dating are K, Rb, U, Th in the sediment/soil environment and cosmic rays. On Mars the near surface dose rate will be dominated by cosmic rays, however, at depth the decay of radioisotopes will be the principle contributor of ionizing radiation. In this work we present an evaluation of the maximum age limits for OSL dating on Mars as a function of depth. At this time we have considered only static burial. Our calculations are based on published models of and data for: (i) Mars surface cosmic dose rate and its attenuation by martian regolith, (ii) elemental analyses of Mars meteorites, (iii) an experimental evaluation of the saturation dose for the martian soil simulant JSC Mars-1. Our analysis confirms earlier inferences that optical dating should have a greater effective age range on Mars than on Earth. At depths easily accessible by penetrators or moles (1-3 m), maximum optical ages greater than 600 ka are possible. Geochronology on this scale would include at least two stadial/interstadial cycles within Mars' last "Glacial Epoch" (synchronized insolation variations between the poles). A wide range of landforms and surface processes associated with climate variability -- e.g. outwash and lacustrine deposition, large-scale eolian activation -- could potentially be optically dated. At greater depths, that could be reached by mobile drilling rigs or cryobots (10-30m), optical age maximums of 4

  2. A real-time maximum-likelihood heart-rate estimator for wearable textile sensors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mu-Huo; Chen, Li-Chung; Hung, Ying-Che; Yang, Chang Ming

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time maximum-likelihood heart-rate estimator for ECG data measured via wearable textile sensors. The ECG signals measured from wearable dry electrodes are notorious for its susceptibility to interference from the respiration or the motion of wearing person such that the signal quality may degrade dramatically. To overcome these obstacles, in the proposed heart-rate estimator we first employ the subspace approach to remove the wandering baseline, then use a simple nonlinear absolute operation to reduce the high-frequency noise contamination, and finally apply the maximum likelihood estimation technique for estimating the interval of R-R peaks. A parameter derived from the byproduct of maximum likelihood estimation is also proposed as an indicator for signal quality. To achieve the goal of real-time, we develop a simple adaptive algorithm from the numerical power method to realize the subspace filter and apply the fast-Fourier transform (FFT) technique for realization of the correlation technique such that the whole estimator can be implemented in an FPGA system. Experiments are performed to demonstrate the viability of the proposed system. PMID:19162641

  3. Relation between VE/VCO2 slope and maximum phonation time in chronic heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi; Brubaker, Peter H; Tochimoto, Shinobu; Hirano, Yasuyuki; Matsushima, Shinya; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Oka, Koichiro; Saito, Takashi; Omori, Yutaka; Suzuki, Kengo; Osada, Naohiko; Omiya, Kazuto; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Akashi, Yoshihiro J

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the relation between the regression slope relating minute ventilation to carbon dioxide output (VE/VCO2 slope) and maximum phonation time (MPT), and the MPT required to attain a threshold value for VE/VCO2 slope of ≤ 34 in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. This cross-sectional study enrolled 115 CHF patients (mean age, 54.5 years; men, 84.9%). VE/VCO2 slope was assessed during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Thereafter, patients were divided into 2 groups according to exercise capacity: VE/VCO2 slope ≤ 34 (VE/VCO2 ≤ 34 group, n = 81) and VE/VCO2 slope > 34 (VE/VCO2 > 34 group, n = 34). For MPT measurements, all patients produced a sustained vowel/a:/ for as long as possible during respiratory effort from the seated position. All subjects showed significant negative correlation between VE/VCO2 slope and MPT (r = -0.51, P < 0.001). After adjustment for clinical characteristics, MPT was significantly higher in the VE/VCO2 ≤ 34 group vs VE/VCO2 > 34 group (21.4 ± 6.4 vs 17.4 ± 4.3 s, F = 7.4, P = 0.007). The appropriate MPT cut-off value for identifying a VE/VCO2 slope ≤ 34 was 18.12 seconds. An MPT value of 18.12 seconds may be a useful target value for identifying CHF patients with a VE/VCO2 slope ≤ 34 and for risk management in these patients. PMID:25546676

  4. Heart mass and the maximum cardiac output of birds and mammals: implications for estimating the maximum aerobic power input of flying animals

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, C. M.

    1997-01-01

    Empirical studies of cardiovascular variables suggest that relative heart muscle mass (relative Mh) is a good indicator of the degree of adaptive specialization for prolonged locomotor activities, for both birds and mammals. Reasonable predictions for the maximum oxygen consumption of birds during flight can be obtained by assuming that avian heart muscle has the same maximum physiological and biomechanical performance as that of terrestrial mammals. Thus, data on Mh can be used to provide quantitative estimates for the maximum aerobic power input (aerobic Pi,max) available to animals during intense levels of locomotor activity. The maximum cardiac output of birds and mammals is calculated to scale with respect to Mh (g) as 213 Mh0.88+-0.04 (ml min-1), while aerobic Pi,max is estimated to scale approximately as 11 Mh0.88+-0.09 (W). In general, estimated inter-species aerobic Pi,max, based on Mh for all bird species (excluding hummingbirds), is calculated to scale with respect to body mass (Mb in kg) as 81 Mb0.82+-0.11 (W). Comparison of family means for Mh indicate that there is considerable diversity in aerobic capacity among birds and mammals, for example, among the medium to large species of birds the Tinamidae have the smallest relative Mh (0.25 per cent) while the Otidae have unusually large relative Mh (1.6 per cent). Hummingbirds have extremely large relative Mh (2.28 per cent), but exhibit significant sexual dimorphism in their scaling of Mh and flight muscle mass, so that when considering hummingbird flight performance it may be useful to control for sexual differences in morphology. The estimated scaling of aerobic Pi,max (based on Mh and Mb in g) for male and female hummingbirds is 0.51 Mb0.83 +/-0.07 and 0.44 Mb0.85+- 0.11 (W), respectively. Locomotory muscles are dynamic structures and it might be anticipated that where additional energetic 'costs' occur seasonally (e.g. due to migratory fattening or the development of large secondary sexual

  5. Maximum entropy, fractal dimension and lacunarity in quantification of cellular rejection in myocardial biopsy of patients submitted to heart transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, L. A.; Oliveira, F. R.; Peres, F. A.; Moreira, R. D.; Moriel, A. R.; de Godoy, M. F.; Murta Junior, L. O.

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a method for the quantification of cellular rejection in endomyocardial biopsies of patients submitted to heart transplant. The model is based on automatic multilevel thresholding, which employs histogram quantification techniques, histogram slope percentage analysis and the calculation of maximum entropy. The structures were quantified with the aid of the multi-scale fractal dimension and lacunarity for the identification of behavior patterns in myocardial cellular rejection in order to determine the most adequate treatment for each case.

  6. Effects of box size, frequency of lifting, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift and heart rate for male university students in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abadi, Ali Salehi Sahl; Mazlomi, Adel; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Zeraati, Hojjat; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Amir Homayoun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In spite of the widespread use of automation in industry, manual material handling (MMH) is still performed in many occupational settings. The emphasis on ergonomics in MMH tasks is due to the potential risks of workplace accidents and injuries. This study aimed to assess the effect of box size, frequency of lift, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) on the heart rates of male university students in Iran. Methods This experimental study was conducted in 2015 with 15 male students recruited from Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Each participant performed 18 different lifting tasks that involved three lifting frequencies (1lift/min, 4.3 lifts/min and 6.67 lifts/min), three lifting heights (floor to knuckle, knuckle to shoulder, and shoulder to arm reach), and two box sizes. Each set of experiments was conducted during the 20 min work period using the free-style lifting technique. The working heart rates (WHR) were recorded for the entire duration. In this study, we used SPSS version 18 software and descriptive statistical methods, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the t-test for data analysis. Results The results of the ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.02). Tukey’s post hoc test indicated that there was a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0. 01). There was a significant difference between the mean heart rates in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.006), and Tukey’s post hoc test indicated a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0.004). But, there was no significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of lifting heights (p > 0.05). The results of the t-test showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of the sizes of the two boxes (p

  7. The heart rate VO2 relationship of aerobic dance: a comparison of target heart rate methods.

    PubMed

    Scharff-Olson, M; Williford, H N; Smith, F H

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) for aerobic dance exercise. Therefore, eleven females completed 20 minutes of aerobic dance with continuous monitoring of HR and VO2. These physiological responses were analyzed with correlation/regression techniques. The results showed that for aerobic dance to produce a response in excess of 50% of VO2 max, the target HR must be approximately 80% of the age-predicted HR max or greater. In contrast, previously reported data for treadmill running shows that 50% of VO2 max is achieved at approximately 65% of age-predicted HR max in females. The maximum heart rate reserve (Karvonen) method was also found to underestimate the actual VO2 of AD. With the Karvonen method, the target heart rate must approximate 65% of maximum HR reserve in order to elicit a VO2 response which is representative of 50% of VO2 max. These data support recent research which illustrates that target heart rate prescriptions derived from treadmill testing may fail to accurately place AD participants in the recommended training zone. PMID:1293420

  8. Ultra-weak photon emission of hands in aging prediction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; van Wijk, Eduard; Yan, Yu; van Wijk, Roeland; Yang, Huanming; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Aging has been one of the several topics intensely investigated during recent decades. More scientists have been scrutinizing mechanisms behind the human aging process. Ultra-weak photon emission is known as one type of spontaneous photon emission that can be detected with a highly sensitive single photon counting photomultiplier tube (PMT) from the surface of human bodies. It may reflect the body's oxidative damage. Our aim was to examine whether ultra-weak photon emission from a human hand is able to predict one's chronological age. Sixty subjects were recruited and grouped by age. We examined four areas of each hand: palm side of fingers, palm side of hand, dorsum side of fingers, and dorsum side of hand. Left and right hand were measured synchronously with two independent PMTs. Mean strength and Fano factor values of photon counts were utilized to compare the UPE patterns of males and females of different age groups. Subsequently, we utilized UPE data from the most sensitive PMT to develop an age prediction model. We randomly picked 49 subjects to construct the model, whereas the remaining 11 subjects were utilized for validation. The results demonstrated that the model was a good regression compared to the observed values (Pearson's r=0.6, adjusted R square=0.4, p=9.4E-7, accuracy=49/60). Further analysis revealed that the average difference between the chronological age and predicted age was only 7.6±0.8years. It was concluded that this fast and non-invasive photon technology is sufficiently promising to be developed for the estimation of biological aging. PMID:27472904

  9. Absorbed Radiation Dose in Radiosensitive Organs During Coronary CT Angiography Using 320-MDCT: Effect of Maximum Tube Voltage and Heart Rate Variations

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Boris; Khosa, Faisal; Lin, Pei-Jan Paul; Khan, Atif N.; Sarwar, Sheryar; Yam, Chun-Shan; Court, Laurence E.; Raptopoulos, Vassilios; Clouse, Melvin E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to estimate the absorbed radiation dose in radiosensitive organs during coronary MDCT angiography using 320-MDCT and to determine the effects of tube voltage variation and heart rate (HR) control on absorbed radiation dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS Semiconductor field effect transistor detectors were used to measure absorbed radiation doses for the thyroid, midbreast, breast, and midlung in an anthropomorphic phantom at 100, 120, and 135 kVp at two different HRs of 60 and 75 beats per minute (bpm) with a scan field of view of 320 mm, 400 mA, 320 × 0.5 mm detectors, and 160 mm collimator width (160 mm range). The paired Student’s t test was used for data evaluation. RESULTS At 60 bpm, absorbed radiation doses for 100, 120, and 135 kVp were 13.41 ± 3.59, 21.7 ± 4.12, and 29.28 ± 5.17 mGy, respectively, for midbreast; 11.76 ± 0.58, 18.86 ± 1.06, and 24.82 ± 1.45 mGy, respectively, for breast; 12.19 ± 2.59, 19.09 ± 3.12, and 26.48 ± 5.0 mGy, respectively, for lung; and 0.37 ± 0.14, 0.69 ± 0.14, and 0.92 ± 0.2 mGy, respectively, for thyroid. Corresponding absorbed radiation doses for 75 bpm were 38.34 ± 2.02, 59.72 ± 3.13, and 77.8 ± 3.67 mGy for midbreast; 26.2 ± 1.74, 44 ± 1.11, and 52.84 ± 4.07 mGy for breast; 38.02 ± 1.58, 58.89 ± 1.68, and 78 ± 2.93 mGy for lung; and 0.79 ± 0.233, 1.04 ± 0.18, and 2.24 ± 0.52 mGy for thyroid. Absorbed radiation dose changes were significant for all organs for both tube voltage reductions as well as for HR control from 75 to 60 bpm at all tube voltage settings (p < 0.05). The absorbed radiation doses for the calcium score protocol were 11.2 ± 1.4 mGy for midbreast, 9.12 ± 0.48 mGy for breast, 10.36 ± 1.3 mGy for lung, and 0.4 ± 0.05 mGy for thyroid. CONCLUSION CT angiography with 320-MDCT scanners results in absorbed radiation doses in radiosensitive organs that compare favorably to those previously reported. Significant dose reductions can be achieved by tube

  10. Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connected Home » Heart Health Heath and Aging Heart Health Your Heart Changes to Your Heart With ... are both taking steps toward heart health. Your Heart Your heart is a strong muscle about the ...

  11. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  12. Maximum Jailbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, B.

    First formulated one hundred and fifty years ago by the heretical scholar Nikolai Federov, the doctrine of cosmism begins with an absolute refusal to treat the most basic factors conditioning life on Earth ­ gravity and death ­ as necessary constraints on action. As manifest through the intoxicated cheers of its early advocates that humans should storm the heavens and conquer death, cosmism's foundational gesture was to conceive of the earth as a trap. Its duty was therefore to understand the duty of philosophy, economics and design to be the creation of means to escape it. This could be regarded as a jailbreak at the maximum possible scale, a heist in which the human species could steal itself from the vault of the Earth. After several decades of relative disinterest new space ventures are inspiring scientific, technological and popular imaginations, this essay explores what kind of cosmism might be constructed today. In this paper cosmism's position as a means of escape is both reviewed and evaluated by reflecting on the potential of technology that actually can help us achieve its aims and also through the lens and state-ofthe-art philosophy of accelerationism, which seeks to outrun modern tropes by intensifying them.

  13. Heart transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... 10 years. Alternative Names Cardiac transplant; Transplant - heart; Transplantation - heart Images Heart, section through the middle Heart, ... 28. Bernstein D. Pediatric heart and heart-lung transplantation. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton ...

  14. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump enough ... failure often experience tiredness and shortness of breath. Heart Failure is Serious Heart failure is a serious and ...

  15. Metabolic Youth in Middle Age: Predicting Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans Using Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Davies, Sarah K; Bundy, Jacob G; Leroi, Armand M

    2015-11-01

    Many mutations and allelic variants are known that influence the rate at which animals age, but when in life do such variants diverge from normal patterns of aging? Is this divergence visible in their physiologies? To investigate these questions, we have used (1)H NMR spectroscopy to study how the metabolome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans changes as it grows older. We identify a series of metabolic changes that, collectively, predict the age of wild-type worms. We then show that long-lived mutant daf-2(m41) worms are metabolically youthful compared to wild-type worms, but that this relative youth only appears in middle age. Finally, we show that metabolic age predicts the timing and magnitude of differences in age-specific mortality between these strains. Thus, the future mortality of these two genotypes can be predicted long before most of the worms die. PMID:26381038

  16. Development of a forensically useful age prediction method based on DNA methylation analysis.

    PubMed

    Zbieć-Piekarska, Renata; Spólnicka, Magdalena; Kupiec, Tomasz; Parys-Proszek, Agnieszka; Makowska, Żanetta; Pałeczka, Anna; Kucharczyk, Krzysztof; Płoski, Rafał; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-07-01

    Forensic DNA phenotyping needs to be supplemented with age prediction to become a relevant source of information on human appearance. Recent progress in analysis of the human methylome has enabled selection of multiple candidate loci showing linear correlation with chronological age. Practical application in forensic science depends on successful validation of these potential age predictors. In this study, eight DNA methylation candidate loci were analysed using convenient and reliable pyrosequencing technology. A total number of 41 CpG sites was investigated in 420 samples collected from men and women aged from 2 to 75 years. The study confirmed correlation of all the investigated markers with human age. The five most significantly correlated CpG sites in ELOVL2 on 6p24.2, C1orf132 on 1q32.2, TRIM59 on 3q25.33, KLF14 on 7q32.3 and FHL2 on 2q12.2 were chosen to build a prediction model. This restriction allowed the technical analysis to be simplified without lowering the prediction accuracy significantly. Model parameters for a discovery set of 300 samples were R(2)=0.94 and the standard error of the estimate=4.5 years. An independent set of 120 samples was used to test the model performance. Mean absolute deviation for this testing set was 3.9 years. The number of correct predictions ±5 years achieved a very high level of 86.7% in the age category 2-19 and gradually decreased to 50% in the age category 60-75. The prediction model was deterministic for individuals belonging to these two extreme age categories. The developed method was implemented in a freely available online age prediction calculator. PMID:26026729

  17. A novel strategy for forensic age prediction by DNA methylation and support vector regression model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cheng; Qu, Hongzhu; Wang, Guangyu; Xie, Bingbing; Shi, Yi; Yang, Yaran; Zhao, Zhao; Hu, Lan; Fang, Xiangdong; Yan, Jiangwei; Feng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    High deviations resulting from prediction model, gender and population difference have limited age estimation application of DNA methylation markers. Here we identified 2,957 novel age-associated DNA methylation sites (P < 0.01 and R2 > 0.5) in blood of eight pairs of Chinese Han female monozygotic twins. Among them, nine novel sites (false discovery rate < 0.01), along with three other reported sites, were further validated in 49 unrelated female volunteers with ages of 20–80 years by Sequenom Massarray. A total of 95 CpGs were covered in the PCR products and 11 of them were built the age prediction models. After comparing four different models including, multivariate linear regression, multivariate nonlinear regression, back propagation neural network and support vector regression, SVR was identified as the most robust model with the least mean absolute deviation from real chronological age (2.8 years) and an average accuracy of 4.7 years predicted by only six loci from the 11 loci, as well as an less cross-validated error compared with linear regression model. Our novel strategy provides an accurate measurement that is highly useful in estimating the individual age in forensic practice as well as in tracking the aging process in other related applications. PMID:26635134

  18. Open heart surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart bypass surgery (coronary artery bypass graft - CABG) Heart transplant Heart valve surgery Hypoplastic left heart repair Minimally ... Heart bypass surgery Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive Heart transplant Heart valve surgery Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Patent ...

  19. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack treatment works best when it's given right after symptoms occur. Prompt treatment of a heart attack can help prevent or limit damage to the heart and prevent sudden death. Call 9-1-1 Right Away A heart ...

  20. Heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... infarction; Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI; CAD-heart attack; Coronary artery disease-heart attack ... made up of cholesterol and other cells. A heart attack may occur when: A tear in the ...

  1. Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & ... heart block. Doctors use a test called an EKG (electrocardiogram) to help diagnose heart block. This test ...

  2. Heart Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incredible Machine Bonus poster (PDF) The Human Heart Anatomy Blood The Conduction System The Coronary Arteries The ... of the Leg Vasculature of the Torso Heart anatomy illustrations and animations for grades K-6. Heart ...

  3. Heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... a heart attack take part in a cardiac rehabilitation program. ... al. eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014: ...

  4. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get help immediately. It's ... few hours causes the affected heart muscle to die. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  5. Heart Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  6. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  7. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... re like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. ... disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is ...

  8. Height loss starting in middle age predicts increased mortality in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Masunari, Naomi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Takahashi, Ikuno; Yamada, Michiko; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mortality risk among Japanese men and women with height loss starting in middle age, taking into account lifestyle and physical factors. A total of 2498 subjects (755 men and 1743 women) aged 47 to 91 years old underwent physical examinations during the period 1994 to 1995. Those individuals were followed for mortality status through 2003. Mortality risk was estimated using an age-stratified Cox proportional hazards model. In addition to sex, adjustment factors such as radiation dose, lifestyle, and physical factors measured at the baseline--including smoking status, alcohol intake, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and diagnosed diseases--were used for analysis of total mortality and mortality from each cause of death. There were a total of 302 all-cause deaths, 46 coronary heart disease and stroke deaths, 58 respiratory deaths including 45 pneumonia deaths, and 132 cancer deaths during the follow-up period. Participants were followed for 20,787 person-years after baseline. Prior history of vertebral deformity and hip fracture were not associated with mortality risk. However, more than 2 cm of height loss starting in middle age showed a significant association with all-cause mortality among the study participants (HR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.38, p = 0.0002), after adjustment was made for sex, attained age, atomic-bomb radiation exposure, and lifestyle and physical factors. Such height loss also was significantly associated with death due to coronary heart disease or stroke (HR = 3.35, 95% CI 1.63 to 6.86, p = 0.0010), as well as respiratory-disease death (HR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.22, p = 0.0130), but not cancer death. Continuous HL also was associated with all-cause mortality and CHD- or stroke-caused mortality. Association between height loss and mortality was still significant, even after excluding persons with vertebral deformity. Height loss of more than 2 cm starting in middle age

  9. Prediction of Maximum Aerobic Power in Untrained Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolgener, Forrest A.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents an equation for predicting maximum aerobic power in untrained females from values of percent body fat, weight, and submaximal values of heart rate, respiratory quotient, and expired gas. (MJB)

  10. Heart pacemaker

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 ounce. Most pacemakers have 2 parts: The generator contains the battery and the information to control ... are wires that connect the heart to the generator and carry the electrical messages to the heart. ...

  11. Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/Go4Life Heart Health Just like an engine makes a car go, your heart keeps your ... all at once —10-minute periods will do. Start by doing activities you enjoy—brisk walking, dancing, ...

  12. Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... with heart disease? What do my cholesterol and triglyceride numbers mean? How can I lower my cholesterol? ... weight Know your numbers (blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides) You can reduce your chances of getting heart ...

  13. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... arrhythmias) The use of toxic substances (such as alcohol or drug abuse) Congenital heart defect (a heart problem you were born with) Diabetes Thyroid problems Diagnosis & Tests How will my doctor know if I ...

  14. Heart palpitations

    MedlinePlus

    Heart palpitations can be due to: Anxiety, stress, panic attack, or fear Caffeine intake Nicotine intake Cocaine or other illegal drugs Diet pills Exercise Fever However, some palpitations are due to an abnormal heart rhythm, ...

  15. Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  16. Maximum power tracking

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, G.

    1983-03-01

    By definition, a maximum power tracking device causes the photovoltaic array to operate on the locus of maximum power points within a specified accuracy. There are limitations to the application of maximum power tracking. A prerequisite is that the load be capable of absorbing all of the power availble at all times. Battery chargers, electrical heaters, water pumps, and most significantly, returning power to the utility grid, are prime examples of applications that are adaptable to maximum power tracking. Maximum power tracking is available to either dc or ac loads. An inverter equipped with a means of changing input voltage by controlling its input impedance can deliver maximum power to ac loads. The inverter can be fixed or variable frequency and fixed or variable voltage, but must be compatible with the ac load. The discussion includes applications, techniques, and cost factors.

  17. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...

  18. Maximum thrust mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

  19. Epigenetic age predictions based on buccal swabs are more precise in combination with cell type-specific DNA methylation signatures.

    PubMed

    Eipel, Monika; Mayer, Felix; Arent, Tanja; Ferreira, Marcelo R P; Birkhofer, Carina; Gerstenmaier, Uwe; Costa, Ivan G; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Aging is reflected by highly reproducible DNA methylation (DNAm) changes that open new perspectives for estimation of chronological age in legal medicine. DNA can be harvested non-invasively from cells at the inside of a person's cheek using buccal swabs - but these specimens resemble heterogeneous mixtures of buccal epithelial cells and leukocytes with different epigenetic makeup. In this study, we have trained an age predictor based on three age-associated CpG sites (associated with the genesPDE4C, ASPA, and ITGA2B) for swab samples to reach a mean absolute deviation (MAD) between predicted and chronological age of 4.3 years in a training set and of 7.03 years in a validation set. Subsequently, the composition of buccal epithelial cells versus leukocytes was estimated by two additional CpGs (associated with the genes CD6 and SERPINB5). Results of this "Buccal-Cell-Signature" correlated with cell counts in cytological stains (R2 = 0.94). Combination of cell type-specific and age-associated CpGs into one multivariate model enabled age predictions with MADs of 5.09 years and 5.12 years in two independent validation sets. Our results demonstrate that the cellular composition in buccal swab samples can be determined by DNAm at two cell type-specific CpGs to improve epigenetic age predictions. PMID:27249102

  20. Epigenetic age predictions based on buccal swabs are more precise in combination with cell type-specific DNA methylation signatures

    PubMed Central

    Eipel, Monika; Mayer, Felix; Arent, Tanja; Ferreira, Marcelo R. P.; Birkhofer, Carina; Gerstenmaier, Uwe; Costa, Ivan G.; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is reflected by highly reproducible DNA methylation (DNAm) changes that open new perspectives for estimation of chronological age in legal medicine. DNA can be harvested non-invasively from cells at the inside of a person's cheek using buccal swabs – but these specimens resemble heterogeneous mixtures of buccal epithelial cells and leukocytes with different epigenetic makeup. In this study, we have trained an age predictor based on three age-associated CpG sites (associated with the genes PDE4C, ASPA, and ITGA2B) for swab samples to reach a mean absolute deviation (MAD) between predicted and chronological age of 4.3 years in a training set and of 7.03 years in a validation set. Subsequently, the composition of buccal epithelial cells versus leukocytes was estimated by two additional CpGs (associated with the genes CD6 and SERPINB5). Results of this “Buccal-Cell-Signature” correlated with cell counts in cytological stains (R2 = 0.94). Combination of cell type-specific and age-associated CpGs into one multivariate model enabled age predictions with MADs of 5.09 years and 5.12 years in two independent validation sets. Our results demonstrate that the cellular composition in buccal swab samples can be determined by DNAm at two cell type-specific CpGs to improve epigenetic age predictions. PMID:27249102

  1. Heart regeneration.

    PubMed

    Breckwoldt, Kaja; Weinberger, Florian; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Regenerating an injured heart holds great promise for millions of patients suffering from heart diseases. Since the human heart has very limited regenerative capacity, this is a challenging task. Numerous strategies aiming to improve heart function have been developed. In this review we focus on approaches intending to replace damaged heart muscle by new cardiomyocytes. Different strategies for the production of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, by direct reprogramming and induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation are discussed regarding their therapeutic potential and respective advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, different methods for the transplantation of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are described and their clinical perspectives are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. PMID:26597703

  2. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    HLHS; Congenital heart - hypoplastic left heart; Cyanotic heart disease - hypoplastic left heart ... Hypoplastic left heart is a rare type of congenital heart disease. It is more common in males than in females. As ...

  3. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood the way it should. It can affect one or both sides of the heart. The weakening of the heart's pumping ability causes Blood and fluid to back up into the lungs The buildup of fluid in the feet, ankles and legs - called edema Tiredness and shortness of breath Common causes of ...

  4. Having Heart.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Christine

    2015-01-01

    A heart comes in many forms. This article shares the experience of behavioral health nurses caring for a suicidal patient who needs a heart. As a team, the nurses and their patient shared the journey of what it takes to achieve an optimum quality of life with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) while battling mental illness. PMID:26731919

  5. Heart CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - heart; Computed axial tomography scan - heart; Computed tomography scan - heart; Calcium scoring; Multi-detector CT scan - heart; Electron beam computed tomography - heart; Agaston score; Coronary calcium scan

  6. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary heart ...

  7. Wine and heart health

    MedlinePlus

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  8. What Is Heart Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Heart Failure? Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can' ... force. Some people have both problems. The term "heart failure" doesn't mean that your heart has stopped ...

  9. Hearts Wish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lethonee A.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates characteristics and themes in 102 drawings by sexually abused children. Themes of the drawings included genitalia, the absence of specific body parts, phallic symbols, inappropriate smiles, distorted body images, kinetic activity, prominent hands and fingers, and hearts. (RJC)

  10. Heart palpitations

    MedlinePlus

    Heart palpitations can be due to: Anxiety, stress, panic attack, or fear Caffeine intake Nicotine intake Cocaine or other illegal drugs Diet pills Exercise Fever However, some palpitations are due ...

  11. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... together. About Rise Above HF Rise Above Heart Failure seeks to increase the dialogue about HF and improve the lives of people affected by the condition through awareness, education and support. Through the initiative, AHA strives to ...

  12. Heart Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Doctors remove the patient's heart by transecting the aorta , the main pulmonary artery and the superior and ... sewing together the recipient and donor vena cavae, aorta, pulmonary artery and left atrium. In patients with ...

  13. Heart MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... an imaging method that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the heart. It does ... radiation involved in MRI. The magnetic fields and radio waves used during the scan have not been shown ...

  14. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... lower “bad” cholesterol (also called LDL, or low-density lipoprotein) levels and may help increase “good” cholesterol (also called HDL, or high-density lipoprotein). If you have had a heart attack, ...

  15. Heart pacemaker

    MedlinePlus

    ... may not get enough oxygen. Symptoms may be light-headedness, tiredness, fainting spells, and shortness of breath. Some pacemakers can be used to stop a heart rate that is too fast ( tachycardia ) ...

  16. Heart transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... have symptoms. You must take drugs that prevent transplant rejection for the rest of your life. You will ... heart transplant. The main problem, as with other transplants, is rejection. If rejection can be controlled, survival increases to ...

  17. Maximum mixing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjorth, Jens

    The unique feature of MEM is that C(-1)(z) = exp(z) amplifies all scales equally. Narayan & Nityananda (1986) have shown that this leads to Gaussian deconvolved peaks. In MMM different scales are treated differently, depending on the choice of C. This gives different peak shapes, but also allows one to experiment with the degree of peak sharpening as a function of peak height. In fact, despite its strong information-theoretic background, MEM is known to redistribute flux incorrectly during deconvolution, thus making the method problematic if the goal is to get correct intensities out. MMM could remedy this problem by using an alternative to the entropy. In conclusion, some ideas connecting the physics of blurring with a proposed reconstruction scheme, dubbed Maximum Mixing Method, have been presented. It has been shown that this physically motivated, non-information theoretic, non-probabilistic, non-Bayesian approach can be turned into a powerful deconvolution technique, competitive with, and having as a special case, the Maximum Entropy Method. Further work within the proposed framework is required to fully explore the consequences of the theory. A paper including proofs and examples is in preparation.

  18. Maximum bow force revisited.

    PubMed

    Mores, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Schelleng [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 53, 26-41 (1973)], Askenfelt [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 503-516 (1989)], Schumacher [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1985-1998 (1994)], and Schoonderwaldt, Guettler, and Askenfelt [Acta Acust. Acust. 94, 604-622 (2008)] formulated-in different ways-how the maximum bow force relates to bow velocity, bow-bridge distance, string impedance, and friction coefficients. Issues of uncertainty are how to account for friction or for the rotational admittance of the strings. Related measurements at the respective transitions between regimes of Helmholtz motion and non-Helmholtz motion employ a variety of bowing machines and stringed instruments. The related findings include all necessary parameters except the friction coefficients, leaving the underlying models unconfirmed. Here, a bowing pendulum has been constructed which allows precise measurement of relevant bowing parameters, including the friction coefficients. Two cellos are measured across all strings for three different bow-bridge distances. The empirical data suggest that-taking the diverse elements of existing models as options-Schelleng's model combined with Schumacher's velocity term yields the best fit. Furthermore, the pendulum employs a bow driving mechanism with adaptive impedance which discloses that mentioned regimes are stable and transitions between them sometimes require a hysteresis on related parameters. PMID:27586745

  19. Generalized Maximum Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John

    2005-01-01

    A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

  20. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tiredness and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and diabetes. It is more common in people who are 65 years old or older, African Americans, people who are overweight, and people who have ...

  1. Heart Truth

    MedlinePlus

    ... about women’s risk for heart disease―the #1 killer of women in the United States―and share ... t Care What You Wear—It's the #1 Killer of Women ® are registered trademarks of U.S. ...

  2. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Attack Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Attack Symptoms Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... NHLBI has uncovered some of the causes of heart diseases and conditions, as well as ways to prevent ...

  3. After Heart Attack, New Threat: Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... of heart attack known as STEMI (ST elevation myocardial infarction). "Patients with ischemic heart disease are at the ... failure]. This includes those who have had a myocardial infarction, also called heart attack," Gho said. "Research studying ...

  4. Heart Health - Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Most heart attacks happen when a clot in the coronary ...

  5. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...

  6. Heart Health - Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Cover Story Heart Health Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents ... or both arms, the neck, jaw, or stomach. Diagnosis Key heart tests include: Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) — ...

  7. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduced appetite Alternate Names Congenital heart surgery - discharge; Patent ductus arteriosus ligation - discharge; Hypoplastic left heart repair - ... of the aorta Congenital heart defect - corrective surgery Patent ductus arteriosus Pediatric heart surgery Tetralogy of Fallot ...

  8. Problem: Heart Valve Regurgitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Problem: Heart Valve Regurgitation Updated:May 26,2016 What ... content was last reviewed May 2016. Heart Valve Problems and Disease • Home • About Heart Valves • Heart Valve ...

  9. Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis Updated:Aug 10,2016 About ... content was last reviewed May 2016. Heart Valve Problems and Disease • Home • About Heart Valves • Heart Valve ...

  10. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  11. About Heart Attacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... survive. A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that brings oxygen to the heart muscle is severely reduced or ... survive. A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that brings oxygen to the heart muscle is severely reduced or ...

  12. Heart disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association -- www.heart.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/heartdisease

  13. What Causes Heart Block?

    MedlinePlus

    ... or inflammation of the heart muscle. Heart failure . Rheumatic (roo-MAT-ik) fever. Cardiomyopathy (KAR-de-o-mi-OP-a-the), or heart muscle diseases. Other diseases may increase the risk of heart ...

  14. Congenital heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital heart disease is a problem with the heart's structure and function that is present at birth. ... Congenital heart disease (CHD) can describe a number of different problems affecting the heart. It is the most common ...

  15. Heart CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arteries to determine your risk for heart disease Congenital heart disease (heart problems that are present at birth) Problems ... Abnormal results may be due to: Aneurysm Congenital heart disease ... Narrowing of one or more coronary arteries (coronary artery ...

  16. Heart Attack Risk Assessment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Risk Assessment Updated:May 31,2016 We're sorry, but ... Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Quiz Risk Assessment Patient Information Sheets: Heart Attack Heart Attack Personal ...

  17. Pediatric heart surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... after the baby is born. For others, your child may be able to safely wait for months ...

  18. Prediction of Maximum Oxygen Consumption from Walking, Jogging, or Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Gary E.; George, James D.; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; Aldana, Steve G.; Parcell, Allen C.

    2002-01-01

    Developed a cardiorespiratory endurance test that retained the inherent advantages of submaximal testing while eliminating reliance on heart rate measurement in predicting maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). College students completed three exercise tests. The 1.5-mile endurance test predicted VO2max from submaximal exercise without requiring heart…

  19. Heart Disease in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. In fact, coronary heart disease (CHD)—the most common type of heart ... heart information http://womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/heart-disease.html New Heart Guidelines Released; Talk to ...

  20. Pediatric heart surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  1. Heart Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    James Antaki and a group of researchers from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine used many elements of the Technology Utilization Program while looking for a way to visualize and track material points within the heart muscle. What they needed were tiny artificial "eggs" containing copper sulfate solution, small enough (about 2 mm in diameter) that they would not injure the heart, and large enough to be seen in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images; they also had to be biocompatible and tough enough to withstand the beating of the muscle. The group could not make nor buy sufficient containers. After reading an article on microspheres in NASA Tech Briefs, and a complete set of reports on microencapsulation from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), JPL put Antaki in touch with Dr.Taylor Wang of Vanderbilt University who helped construct the myocardial markers. The research is expected to lead to improved understanding of how the heart works and what takes place when it fails.

  2. Prediction of Heart Rates on a Ropes Course from Simple Physical Measures. Research Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Simon; Montelpare, William

    1995-01-01

    This study identified the highest heart rates attained on a ropes course for a corporate population; examined relationships between highest heart rate and other physical measures (basal heart rate, blood pressure, height, weight, body girths, cholesterol, maximum number of pushups, and heart rate after brisk walk); and developed an equation for…

  3. [Heart transplantation].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Norihide; Matsuda, Hikaru

    2005-11-01

    While nearly 4,000 patients undergo heart transplantation (HTx) every year in the world, only 27 HTx were performed since February, 1999, because of very strict Organ Transplantation Law in Japan. All were treated with triple immunosuppressive regimen. Although two patients died of infection 4 months and 4 years after HTx, respectively, 23 were discharged and 16 returned to work or go to school. New immunosuppressive drugs, such as sirolimus and everolimus, treatment of presensitized patients before transplantation using cyclophosphamide and intravenous globulin infusion, compact implantable left ventricular assist supports and the future of pediatric HTx in Japan are discussed. PMID:16277260

  4. Heart Health for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs of a heart attack. 1. Eat a heart healthy diet. The nutrition facts on the food label can help you make ... heart health for women . (PDF 190KB) Get the facts about heart attacks in women . Learn More About Heart Disease: ...

  5. Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... be coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure, and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetes by itself puts you at risk for heart disease. Other risk factors include Family history of heart disease Carrying extra ... Some people who have diabetic heart disease have no signs or symptoms of ...

  6. How the Heart Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the Public » Health Topics » How the Heart Works Explore How the Heart Works What Is... Anatomy Contraction Circulation Electrical System Heart ... Heart Disease Heart Valve Disease How the Lungs Work Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ...

  7. Minimizing the probable maximum flood

    SciTech Connect

    Woodbury, M.S.; Pansic, N. ); Eberlein, D.T. )

    1994-06-01

    This article examines Wisconsin Electric Power Company's efforts to determine an economical way to comply with Federal Energy Regulatory Commission requirements at two hydroelectric developments on the Michigamme River. Their efforts included refinement of the area's probable maximum flood model based, in part, on a newly developed probable maximum precipitation estimate.

  8. Holes in the Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Holes in the Heart? Holes in the heart are simple congenital (kon-JEN- ... the heart. However, some babies are born with holes in the upper or lower septum. A hole ...

  9. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Keane JF, Lock JE, Fyler DC, eds. Nadas' Pediatric Cardiology . 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO; WB Saunders; ...

  10. Right heart ventriculography

    MedlinePlus

    Angiography - right heart ... moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can ... is injected into the right side of the heart. It helps the cardiologist determine the size and ...

  11. Left heart catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye will be injected into your ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  12. What Causes Heart Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the heart, leading to heart failure. High Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the ... weaken your heart and lead to plaque buildup. Blood pressure is considered high if it stays at or ...

  13. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Aug 24,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  14. Heart Murmurs (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... than normal. You also might get an electrocardiogram (EKG), which measures electrical activity of the heart. None ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC The Heart Getting an EKG (Video) Your Heart & Circulatory System Mitral Valve Prolapse ...

  15. Congenital Heart Information Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

  16. Heart failure - home monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice ... Cardiovascular Nursing; American Heart Association Council on Clinical ... Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, ...

  17. Heart failure - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your heart muscle is stiff and does not fill up with blood easily. This is called diastolic heart failure. As the heart's pumping becomes less effective, blood may back up in other areas of the body. Fluid ...

  18. Heart and Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Associated Conditions » The Heart & Down Syndrome The Heart & Down Syndrome Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are common in ... the Most Common Heart Defects in Children With Down Syndrome? The most common defects are Atrioventricular Septal Defect ( ...

  19. Heart failure - medicines

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  20. After Heart Attack, New Threat: Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159007.html After Heart Attack, New Threat: Heart Failure 1 in 4 survivors develops this serious ... TUESDAY, May 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Risk of heart failure appears high within a few years of ...

  1. Arctic Sea Ice Maximum 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began ...

  2. Heart murmurs and other sounds

    MedlinePlus

    Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... The heart has four chambers: Two upper chambers (atria) Two lower chambers (ventricles) The heart has valves that close ...

  3. Who Needs a Heart Transplant?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs a Heart Transplant? Most patients referred to heart transplant centers have ... for heart failure. Who Is Eligible for a Heart Transplant? The specialists at the heart transplant center will ...

  4. Who Needs Heart Surgery?

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease (CHD) Fix heart valves that don't work well Control abnormal heart rhythms Place medical devices Replace a damaged heart with a healthy one If other treatments—such as lifestyle changes, medicines, and medical ... surgeon will work with you to decide whether you need heart ...

  5. Advanced Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Advanced Heart Failure Updated:Oct 8,2015 When heart failure (HF) ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  6. Broken Heart Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart attacks are caused by blockages and blood clots forming in the coronary arteries, which supply the heart with blood. If these ... who experience broken heart syndrome have fairly normal coronary arteries, without severe blockages or clots. The heart cells are “stunned” by stress hormones ...

  7. Convex accelerated maximum entropy reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Bradley

    2016-04-01

    Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) spectral reconstruction methods provide a powerful framework for spectral estimation of nonuniformly sampled datasets. Many methods exist within this framework, usually defined based on the magnitude of a Lagrange multiplier in the MaxEnt objective function. An algorithm is presented here that utilizes accelerated first-order convex optimization techniques to rapidly and reliably reconstruct nonuniformly sampled NMR datasets using the principle of maximum entropy. This algorithm - called CAMERA for Convex Accelerated Maximum Entropy Reconstruction Algorithm - is a new approach to spectral reconstruction that exhibits fast, tunable convergence in both constant-aim and constant-lambda modes. A high-performance, open source NMR data processing tool is described that implements CAMERA, and brief comparisons to existing reconstruction methods are made on several example spectra.

  8. The Maximum Density of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)

  9. Maximum cooling and maximum efficiency of thermoacoustic refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartibu, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    This work provides valid experimental evidence on the difference between design for maximum cooling and maximum efficiency for thermoacoustic refrigerators. In addition, the influence of the geometry of the honeycomb ceramic stack on the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerators is presented as it affects the cooling power. Sixteen cordierite honeycomb ceramic stacks with square cross sections having four different lengths of 26, 48, 70 and 100 mm are considered. Measurements are taken at six different locations of the stack hot ends from the pressure antinode, namely 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm respectively. Measurement of temperature difference across the stack ends at steady state for different stack geometries are used to compute the cooling load and the coefficient of performance. The results obtained with atmospheric air showed that there is a distinct optimum depending on the design goal.

  10. Maximum Power Point Regulator System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simola, J.; Savela, K.; Stenberg, J.; Tonicello, F.

    2011-10-01

    The target of the study done under the ESA contract No.17830/04/NL/EC (GSTP4) for Maximum Power Point Regulator System (MPPRS) was to investigate, design and test a modular power system (a core PCU) fulfilling requirement for maximum power transfer even after a single failure in the Power System by utilising a power concept without any potential and credible single point failure. The studied MPPRS concept is of a modular construction, able to track the MPP individually on each SA sections, maintaining its functionality and full power capability after a loss of a complete MPPR module (by utilizingN+1module).Various add-on DCDC converter topology candidates were investigated and redundancy, failure mechanisms and protection aspects were studied

  11. Solar maximum: Solar array degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

  12. Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang

    2016-07-01

    Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported. PMID:26111403

  13. Heart rate variability and heart rate recovery as prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    GRAD, COSMIN

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim Heart rate (HR) can appear static and regular at rest, during exercise or recovery after exercise. However, HR is constantly adjusted due to factors such as breathing, blood pressure control, thermoregulation and the renin-angiotensin system, leading to a more dynamic response that can be quantified using HRV (heart rate variability). HRV is defined as the deviation in time between successive normal heart beat and is a noninvasive method to measure the total variation in a number of HR interval. HRV can serve as measure of autonomic activity of sino-atrial node. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of certain clinical and paraclinical parameters on heart rate recovery after exercise in patients with ischemic heart disease and the relation with HRV using 24 h Holter monitoring. Methods The study included 46 patients who were submitted to cardiovascular exercise stress test and also to 24 h Holter EKG monitoring. Subjects had a mean age of 56.2±11.2 years, with a minimum of 25 and a maximum of 79 years. The study included 22 (47.8%) men and 24 (52.2%) women. Statistical analysis was performed using MedCalc software version 14.8.1. Multivariate analysis consisted of the construction of several multiple linear regression models. A p value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The HRV values (time domain) were all lower in the IHD compared with the group without coronary heart disease, even if the difference is not statistically significant. Also rest and maximal HR values were similar but during the test varies in the sense that those with IHD had higher values of rest and maximal HR and lower HRR, but not statistically significant. Conclusions HRV is a very easy and safe method if there is an available device and it is used for evaluation of the autonomic nervous system in many cardiovascular diseases, but also in other pathologies. In uncomplicated ischemic heart disease HRV is depressed, but not significant. HRR

  14. Heart failure overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... your heart contract at the same time. A defibrillator sends an electrical pulse to stop life-threatening ... heart rhythms. These people often receive an implanted defibrillator. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your ...

  15. Overview of Heart Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... the heart. Most heart tumors are metastatic cancer. Did You Know... Noncancerous tumors can be as deadly ... slow the tumor's growth. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Table 2 ...

  16. Congenital heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... about genetic counseling and screening if you have a family history of cogenital heart disease. ... Fraser CD, Carberry KE. Congenital heart disease. In: Townsend CM ... Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  17. Heart failure - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... any drugs you may be taking for Diabetes, high blood pressure, or other medical conditions you have. ... of the arteries Heart failure - overview Heart pacemaker High blood pressure Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator Smoking - tips on ...

  18. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Mann DL, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  19. Structure of the Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  20. Heart disease and intimacy

    MedlinePlus

    ... document from the American Heart Association and the ESC Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (CCNAP). ... document from the American Heart Association and the ESC Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (CCNAP). ...

  1. Right heart ventriculography

    MedlinePlus

    Angiography - right heart ... The catheter will be moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can record pressures from the right atrium and right ventricle. Contrast material ("dye") is ...

  2. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  3. Men and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  4. Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment can include medicines, catheter procedures, surgery, and heart transplants. The treatment depends on the type of the defect, how severe it is, and a child's age, size, and general health. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  5. Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Balance › Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease January 2014 Download PDFs English ... nervous system, body temperature, and weight. What is hypothyroidism and what are its symptoms? Hypothyroidism, also called ...

  6. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000166.htm Pericarditis - after heart attack To use the sharing features on this page, ... occur in the days or weeks following a heart attack. Causes Two types of pericarditis can occur after ...

  7. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivable, manageable, yet in the routine years between infancy and adulthood, sometimes forgettable. The Adult Congenital Heart ... understand the continuum of the disease from its infancy. The Adult Congential Heart Association brings together valuable ...

  8. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & ... the P and the R waves on the EKG (electrocardiogram). First-degree heart block may not cause ...

  9. Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More The Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia Click a letter below to get a ... dozens of cardiovascular terms from our Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia and get links to in-depth information. ...

  10. Heart disease - risk factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000106.htm Heart disease - risk factors To use the sharing features on this ... may help you live a longer, healthier life. Risk Factors You Cannot Change Some of your heart ...

  11. Heart failure - tests

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... An echocardiogram (Echo) is a test that uses sound waves to create a moving picture of the heart. The picture is much more detailed than a plain ...

  12. Heart failure - home monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000113.htm Heart failure - home monitoring To use the sharing features on ... body and the symptoms that tell you your heart failure is getting worse will help you stay healthier ...

  13. Getting a New Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in place, the donor's main arteries—the aorta and pulmonary arteries—are sewn to yours. o ... heart and cause strokes and heart attacks. 4. Diabetes Mellitus Anti-rejection medications can cause diabetes. If ...

  14. Heart failure - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines: ... a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. ...

  15. Texas Heart Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join us! James T. Willerson MD Cardiovascular Seminar Texas Heart Institute Journal Scientific Publications Library & Learning Resources ... Education 12th Annual Diabetes Symposium September 17, 2016 Texas Heart Institute Program Director: Mandeep Bajaj, MD Clinical ...

  16. Heart Rhythm Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search: Education & Meetings Scientific Sessions Certified Education Courses & Online Learning Heart Rhythm On Demand Co-Sponsored & Endorsed Events ... Education & Meetings less Scientific Sessions Certified Education Courses & Online Learning Heart Rhythm On Demand Co-Sponsored & Endorsed Events ...

  17. Cyanotic heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... or rhythms The treatment of choice for most congenital heart diseases is surgery to repair the defect . There are ... Some inherited factors may play a role in congenital heart disease. Many family members may be affected. If you ...

  18. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... to ACHA Search The futures of adults with congenital heart disease made brighter by their pasts Get Involved 2016 ... conference theme is "The Changing Landscape of Adult Congenital Heart Disease." Join Us Help us improve the quality of ...

  19. Left heart catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bonow RO. Cardiac catheterization. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook ... arteriography and intracoronary imaging In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook ...

  20. Heart and vascular services

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/007459.htm Heart and vascular services To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood vessels (arteries and veins). Heart and vascular services refers to the branch of medicine that focuses ...

  1. Heart bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... angina: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines ... Surgery. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice ...

  2. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice ... of the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Society of Hypertension. Treatment of hypertension ...

  3. Heart valve surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines.American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. ...

  4. Target Heart Rate Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » + - Text Size Target Heart Rate Calculator Compute your best workout Enter your age ... is your age? years. How to Check Your Heart Rate Right after you stop exercising, take your pulse: ...

  5. Maximum longevities of chemically protected and non-protected fishes, reptiles, and amphibians support evolutionary hypotheses of aging.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M Andres; Sherman, Paul W

    2005-01-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses of aging predict that species with low rates of mortality from extrinsic sources, such as predation, should senesce more slowly and have longer maximum life spans than related species with higher rates of extrinsic mortality. We tested this prediction by synthesizing information on maximum body lengths and life spans in captivity of 1193 species of chemically protected (venomous or poisonous) and non-chemically protected fishes, snakes, caudatans (salamanders and newts), and anurans (frogs and toads). In every phylogenetic group maximum longevity was positively correlated with body size and, when size was controlled for statistically, chemically protected species and genera usually had longer maximum life spans than non-protected species. These results reemphasize the importance of life history traits, particularly protection from predation, in the evolution of senescence. PMID:15888334

  6. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  7. Heart bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest . 2012;141:e637S-e68S. Read More Angina Coronary heart disease Heart bypass surgery Heart failure - overview High blood cholesterol levels Smoking - ...

  8. Working Model Hearts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, David

    2009-01-01

    Despite student interest, the heart is often a poorly understood topic in biology. To help students understand this vital organ's physiology, the author created this investigation activity involving the mammalian heart and its role in the circulatory system. Students design, build, and demonstrate working artificial "hearts" to exhibit what they…

  9. The Heart of Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docheff, Dennis M.; Gerdes, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This article challenges coaches to address the more personal, human elements of coaching--the HEART of coaching. While there is much research on numerous aspects of coaching, this article provides ideas that make a lasting impact on the hearts of athletes. Using HEART as an acronym, five elements of effective coaching are presented: Humility,…

  10. Heart bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Heart bypass surgery begins with an incision made in the chest, with the breastbone cut exposing the heart. Next, a portion of the saphenous vein is ... used to bypass the blocked arteries in the heart. The venous graft is sewn to the aorta ...

  11. Heart Disease in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing ... the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and ...

  12. Heart Valve Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your heart has four valves. Normally, these valves open to let blood flow through or out of your heart, and then shut to keep it from flowing ... close tightly. It's one of the most common heart valve conditions. Sometimes it causes regurgitation. Stenosis - when ...

  13. What Is Heart Surgery?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Related Topics Aneurysm Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Heart Transplant Pacemakers Ventricular Assist Device Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | PRINT | SHARE this page from the ... Is Heart Surgery? Heart surgery is done to correct problems ...

  14. Heart bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Heart bypass surgery creates a new route, called a bypass, for blood and oxygen to go around a blockage to reach your heart. ... heart is still beating. This is called off-pump coronary artery bypass, or OPCAB. To create the bypass graft: The doctor will take a ...

  15. Heart disease and depression

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease and depression often go hand-in-hand. You are are more likely to feel sad or depressed after a heart attack ... heart disease. The good news is that treating depression may help improve both your mental and physical ...

  16. Heart Disease in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing or ... the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and it happens slowly over time. It's the ...

  17. How Is Heart Failure Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a pocket, or hung around your neck. Nuclear Heart Scan A nuclear heart scan shows how well blood is flowing ... blood is reaching your heart muscle. During a nuclear heart scan, a safe, radioactive substance called a ...

  18. What Happens After Heart Surgery?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Happens After Heart Surgery? What are the ICU and CCU? In a ... doctors. This is where patients go after open-heart surgery or a heart attack. You’re watched around ...

  19. What Is a Heart Transplant?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Transplant? A heart transplant is surgery to remove a ... return to work for many different reasons. The Heart Transplant Process The heart transplant process starts when doctors ...

  20. Medications for Heart Valve Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Medications for Heart Valve Symptoms Updated:Aug 26,2015 How do medications ... was last reviewed on 03/26/14. Heart Valves Problems and Disease • Home • About Heart Valves • Heart ...

  1. Living with Heart Valve Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Congenital Heart Defects Endocarditis Heart Murmur How the Heart Works Mitral Valve ... your doctor if you have symptoms of infective endocarditis (IE). Symptoms of this heart infection include fever, ...

  2. Maximum Aerobic Capacity of Underground Coal Miners in India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Ratnadeep; Dey, Netai Chandra; Samanta, Amalendu; Biswas, Rajib

    2011-01-01

    Miners fitness test was assessed in terms of determination of maximum aerobic capacity by an indirect method following a standard step test protocol before going down to mine by taking into consideration of heart rates (Telemetric recording) and oxygen consumption of the subjects (Oxylog-II) during exercise at different working rates. Maximal heart rate was derived as 220−age. Coal miners reported a maximum aerobic capacity within a range of 35–38.3 mL/kg/min. It also revealed that oldest miners (50–59 yrs) had a lowest maximal oxygen uptake (34.2 ± 3.38 mL/kg/min) compared to (42.4 ± 2.03 mL/kg/min) compared to (42.4 ± 2.03 mL/kg/min) the youngest group (20–29 yrs). It was found to be negatively correlated with age (r = −0.55 and −0.33 for younger and older groups respectively) and directly associated with the body weight of the subjects (r = 0.57 – 0.68, P ≤ 0.001). Carriers showed maximum cardio respiratory capacity compared to other miners. Indian miners VO2max was found to be lower both compared to their abroad mining counterparts and various other non-mining occupational working groups in India. PMID:21961020

  3. Maximum acceptable weights for asymmetric lifting of Chinese females.

    PubMed

    Wu, Swei-Pi

    2003-05-01

    This study used the psychophysical approach to evaluate the effects of asymmetric lifting on the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) and the resulting heart rate, oxygen uptake and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). A randomized complete block factorial design was employed. Twelve female college students lifted weights at three different lifting frequencies (one-time maximum, 1 and 4 lifts/min) in the sagittal plane and at three different asymmetric angles (30 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees ) from the floor to a 68-cm height pallet. This lifting experiment was conducted for a 1-h work period using a free-style lifting technique. The MAWLs for asymmetric lifting were significantly lower than those for symmetric lifting in the sagittal plane. The MAWL decreased with the increase in the angle of asymmetry. However, the heart rate, oxygen uptake and RPE remained unchanged. Though the MAWL decreased significantly with lifting frequency, both the physiological costs (heart rate and oxygen uptake) and rating of perceived exertion increased with the increase in lift frequency. The most stressed body part was the arm. Lifting frequency had no significant effect on the percentage decrease in MAWL from the sagittal plane values. On average, decreases of 5%, 9% and 14% for MAWL at 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees asymmetric lifting, respectively, were revealed. This result was in agreement with the findings of Chinese males studied by Wu [Int. J. Ind. Ergonom. 25 (2000) 675]. The percentage decrease in MAWL with twisting angle for the Chinese participants was somewhat lower than those for Occidental participants. In addition, even though there was an increase in heart rate and RPE with the increase in the symmetrical lift angle for Occidental participants, it was different from the Chinese participants. Lastly, the 1991 NIOSH equation asymmetry multiplier is more conservative in comparison with the results of the present study. PMID:12737921

  4. Economics and Maximum Entropy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2003-04-01

    Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.

  5. Living with Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Disease » Living With Diabetic Heart Disease Explore Diabetic Heart Disease What Is... Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Cardiomyopathy Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Heart Failure Send ...

  6. What Is Heart Valve Surgery?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is Heart Valve Surgery? The four valves in your heart make sure that blood flows through your heart in the right direction. Heart valve surgery is done to replace or repair heart valves that Aortic ...

  7. Balinese dance exercises improve the maximum aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Adiputra, N; Alex, P; Sutjana, D P; Tirtayasa, K; Manuaba, A

    1996-06-01

    The maximum aerobic capacity can be used to predict the maximum working capacity. The maximum working capacity plays an important role in achieving the best performance. Therefore, physical fitness program for maintaining maximum working capacity is a must. A study on the application of Balinese dance exercise was carried out. Sixty young male Balinese, aged from 17 to 19 years were used as subjects. They were divided into two groups: Experimental group (EG) and control group (CG) based on their VO2max. The EG participated in a program of Balinese dance exercise 3 x 50 min per week for 8 weeks. Pretest-posttest control group design was applied. The maximum aerobic capacity was measured, based on the Modified Harvard Step-up Test and nomogram of Astrand. The results are as follows: there is a very significant improvement of VO2max from 2.7 +/- 0.5 l/min or 51.1 +/- 9.1 ml/kg/min into 3.1 +/- 0.5 l/min or 58.9 +/- 9.8 ml/kg/min. Other parameters such as resting heart rate, blood pressure and percent body fat were decreased significantly. The study concludes that Balinese dance exercise could be used as a program for physical fitness maintenance. PMID:9551128

  8. Minimum cause--maximum effect: the travelogue of a bullet.

    PubMed

    Hartert, Marc; Dahm, Manfred; Neufang, Achim; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich

    2010-11-01

    This case report involves a 57-year-old male, accidentally shot in the chest with a small bore firearm. The bullet entered the left hemithorax, disrupting the left internal mammarian artery. It then penetrated the anterior wall of the right ventricle causing a pericardial tamponade. After leaving the base of the right heart it perforated the diaphragm, the liver, the spleen and the pancreas. Finally, it penetrated the abdominal aorta 3 cm proximally to the coeliac trunk and reached its final position paravertebrally. This case report illustrates that the management of even minimum gunshot wounds requires a maximum variety of surgical skills. PMID:20709697

  9. Maximum entropy and drug absorption.

    PubMed

    Charter, M K; Gull, S F

    1991-10-01

    The application of maximum entropy to the calculation of drug absorption rates was introduced in an earlier paper. Here it is developed further, and the whole procedure is presented as a problem in scientific inference to be solved using Bayes' theorem. Blood samples do not need to be taken at equally spaced intervals, and no smoothing, interpolation, extrapolation, or other preprocessing of the data is necessary. The resulting input rate estimates are smooth and physiologically realistic, even with noisy data, and their accuracy is quantified. Derived quantities such as the proportion of the dose absorbed, and the mean and median absorption times, are also obtained, together with their error estimates. There are no arbitrarily valued parameters in the analysis, and no specific functional form, such as an exponential or polynomial, is assumed for the input rate functions. PMID:1783989

  10. Discrimination networks for maximum selection.

    PubMed

    Jain, Brijnesh J; Wysotzki, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    We construct a novel discrimination network using differentiating units for maximum selection. In contrast to traditional competitive architectures like MAXNET the discrimination network does not only signal the winning unit, but also provides information about its evidence. In particular, we show that a discrimination network converges to a stable state within finite time and derive three characteristics: intensity normalization (P1), contrast enhancement (P2), and evidential response (P3). In order to improve the accuracy of the evidential response we incorporate distributed redundancy into the network. This leads to a system which is not only robust against failure of single units and noisy data, but also enables us to sharpen the focus on the problem given in terms of a more accurate evidential response. The proposed discrimination network can be regarded as a connectionist model for competitive learning by evidence. PMID:14690714

  11. The maximum drag reduction asymptote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choueiri, George H.; Hof, Bjorn

    2015-11-01

    Addition of long chain polymers is one of the most efficient ways to reduce the drag of turbulent flows. Already very low concentration of polymers can lead to a substantial drag and upon further increase of the concentration the drag reduces until it reaches an empirically found limit, the so called maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote, which is independent of the type of polymer used. We here carry out a detailed experimental study of the approach to this asymptote for pipe flow. Particular attention is paid to the recently observed state of elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT) which has been reported to occur in polymer solutions at sufficiently high shear. Our results show that upon the approach to MDR Newtonian turbulence becomes marginalized (hibernation) and eventually completely disappears and is replaced by EIT. In particular, spectra of high Reynolds number MDR flows are compared to flows at high shear rates in small diameter tubes where EIT is found at Re < 100. The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement n° [291734].

  12. Maximum entropy production in daisyworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2012-05-01

    Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

  13. Objects of Maximum Electromagnetic Chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Fruhnert, Martin; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. Reciprocal objects attain the upper bound if and only if they are transparent for all the fields of one polarization handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e., helicity preservation upon interaction, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal objects to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal objects. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar objects or on the material constitutive relations for continuous media. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: a twofold resonantly enhanced and background-free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle-independent helicity filtering glasses. Finally, we use the theoretically obtained requirements to guide the design of a specific structure, which we then analyze numerically and discuss its performance with respect to maximal electromagnetic chirality.

  14. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  15. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  16. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  17. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  18. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  19. Heart transplantation: review

    PubMed Central

    Mangini, Sandrigo; Alves, Bárbara Rubim; Silvestre, Odílson Marcos; Pires, Philippe Vieira; Pires, Lucas José Tachotti; Curiati, Milena Novaes Cardoso; Bacal, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heart transplantation is currently the definitive gold standard surgical approach in the treatment of refractory heart failure. However, the shortage of donors limits the achievement of a greater number of heart transplants, in which the use of mechanical circulatory support devices is increasing. With well-established indications and contraindications, as well as diagnosis and treatment of rejection through defined protocols of immunosuppression, the outcomes of heart transplantation are very favorable. Among early complications that can impact survival are primary graft failure, right ventricular dysfunction, rejection, and infections, whereas late complications include cardiac allograft vasculopathy and neoplasms. Despite the difficulties for heart transplantation, in particular, the shortage of donors and high mortality while on the waiting list, in Brazil, there is a great potential for both increasing effective donors and using circulatory assist devices, which can positively impact the number and outcomes of heart transplants. PMID:26154552

  20. Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention & Treatment of High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources ... signals in the heart's upper chambers fire abnormally, which interferes with electrical signals coming from ...

  1. Heart Rate Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.

  2. Maximum Entropy Principle for Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilich, F.; DaSilva, R.

    2008-11-01

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  3. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-11-06

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  4. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period—The Da Qing Children Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan Yan; Wang, Jin Ping; Jiang, Ya Yun; Li, Hui; Hu, Ying Hua; Lee, Kok Onn; Li, Guang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance. Objective To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood. Methods 424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later. Results Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight). Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001) in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001) in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index) at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglycerides at 10 years of age. Conclusions Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin. PMID:26047327

  5. Dimensional analysis of heart rate variability in heart transplant recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Zbilut, J.P.; Mayer-Kress, G.; Geist, K.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss periodicities in the heart rate in normal and transplanted hearts. We then consider the possibility of dimensional analysis of these periodicities in transplanted hearts and problems associated with the record.

  6. The stressed heart

    SciTech Connect

    Legato, M.J. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 16 papers. Some of the titles are: Regulation of gene expression in the normal and overloaded heart; Cell stress and the initiation of growth; Subcellular growth of cardiocytes during hypertrophy; Microcirculation is the stressed heart; and The biochemistry of myocardial failure.

  7. Inflammation and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Answers by Heart Fact Sheets Learn and live with our downloadable patient information sheets . Dozens of topics in a question-and-answer format that's brief, easy to follow and easy to read. ... Sodium and Salt 3 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) 4 What are the Symptoms of ...

  8. Heart imaging method

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale; Gribble, R. Parks; Busse, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.

  9. Mapping the Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  10. Heart transplant - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100086.htm Heart transplant - series To use the sharing features on this ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heart Transplantation A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  11. The total artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jason A.; Shah, Keyur B.; Quader, Mohammed A.; Cooke, Richard H.; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K.; Smallfield, Melissa C.; Tchoukina, Inna

    2015-01-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient’s native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review. PMID:26793338

  12. Heart failure - palliative care

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic heart failure very often gets worse over time. Many people who have heart failure die of ... failure to take in enough calories and nutrients. Wasting of muscles and weight loss are part of the natural disease process. It can help to eat several small ...

  13. Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Women Share: Print Page Text Size: A A ... heart-and-circulation, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Women Coronary Heart Disease Sexual Health Women and ...

  14. Heart transplant - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The main problem, as with other transplants, is graft rejection. If rejection can be controlled, then survival can ... major problems are the same all major organ transplants face: a shortage of donor hearts rejection of the transplanted heart cost of the surgery ...

  15. Theory of heart

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, L. . Dept. of Physiology); Hunter, P. . Dept. of Engineering Science); McCulloch, A. )

    1991-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growth in interest in studying the heart from the perspective of the physical sciences: mechanics, fluid flow, electromechanics. This volume is the result of a workshop held in July 1989 at the Institute for Nonlinear Sciences at the University of California at San Diego that brought together scientists and clinicians with graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who share an interest in the heart. The chapters were prepared by the invited speakers as didactic reviews of their subjects but also include up-to-date results in their fields. Topics covered include the structure, mechanical properties, and function of the heart and the myocardium, electrical activity of the heart and myocardium, and mathematical models of heart function. Individual chapters are abstracted separately.

  16. Heart murmurs and other sounds

    MedlinePlus

    Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... classified ("graded") depending on how loud the murmur sounds with a stethoscope. The grading is on a ...

  17. Heart failure - fluids and diuretics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Cardiology; American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism; American Heart Association Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research. State of the science: promoting self-care in persons with heart failure: ...

  18. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge; PTCA - discharge; Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty - discharge; Heart artery dilatation - discharge ... the blood vessels that supply blood to your heart. You may have had a heart attack or ...

  19. Data and Statistics: Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... to Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases Million Hearts® Web Sites with More Information About Heart Failure For ...

  20. Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

  1. Congenital heart defect - corrective surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... born with one or more heart defects has congenital heart disease . Surgery is needed if the defect could harm ... 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/ ...

  2. What Causes Heart Valve Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Congenital Heart Defects Endocarditis Heart Murmur How the Heart Works Mitral Valve ... This rare but serious infection is called infective endocarditis . The germs can enter the bloodstream through needles, ...

  3. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... about Alcohol and Heart Disease . Avoiding or limiting caffeine Consume only a moderate amount of caffeine per day, no more than a cup or two of coffee. Learn more about Caffeine and Heart Disease . Eating a heart-healthy diet ...

  4. Heart and body growth in ducks.

    PubMed

    Gille, U; Salomon, F V

    1994-01-01

    Growth of body and heart weight in drakes was measured to 154 days of age in Mallards, 2 lines of White Pekins (Anas platyrhynchos), Muscovys (Cairina moschata), and a Muscovy x White Pekin cross. Allometric heart growth was slightly negative in the Mallard and its domestic forms (allometric exponent 0.895 < b < 0.943) whereas no significant difference from isometry was detected in Muscovy ducks and its cross. The relation between heart and body weight, using all stocks combined, yielded an exponent b = 0.937, being significantly smaller than 1. Coefficients of determination were high varying between 0.981 and 0.992. Breaks, i.e. changes of the slope during the postnatal development, could not be detected in any of the stocks. Using the modified Janoschek growth curve, both heart and body weight showed a similar growth pattern with respect to time. The degree of maturity at hatching and at the point of inflection (ui) was similar within stocks for both weights. This was also true for the age at maximum growth. The similarity between heart and whole body growth patterns, which is not found in most of the other internal organs, implies strong functional constraints. The ui values varied between 32 and 50% which should be taken into account when choosing an appropriate model. Differences among the various types of ducks resulting from their origin or domestication are discussed. PMID:7928022

  5. The scaling of maximum and basal metabolic rates of mammals and birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Lauro A.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.

    2006-01-01

    Allometric scaling is one of the most pervasive laws in biology. Its origin, however, is still a matter of dispute. Recent studies have established that maximum metabolic rate scales with an exponent larger than that found for basal metabolism. This unpredicted result sets a challenge that can decide which of the concurrent hypotheses is the correct theory. Here, we show that both scaling laws can be deduced from a single network model. Besides the 3/4-law for basal metabolism, the model predicts that maximum metabolic rate scales as M, maximum heart rate as M, and muscular capillary density as M, in agreement with data.

  6. Angioplasty and stent placement - heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... angioplasty; Coronary artery angioplasty; Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; Heart artery dilatation ... to carefully guide the catheter up into your heart and arteries. Dye will be injected into your ...

  7. Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Generalized Rasch Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Jan; Verhelst, Norman

    1986-01-01

    Maximum likelihood procedures are presented for a general model to unify the various models and techniques that have been proposed for item analysis. Unconditional maximum likelihood estimation, proposed by Wright and Haberman, and conditional maximum likelihood estimation, proposed by Rasch and Andersen, are shown as important special cases. (JAZ)

  8. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be...

  9. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be...

  10. Heart rate turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death. PMID:24215748

  11. Heart antibodies in cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed Central

    Trueman, T; Thompson, R A; Cummins, P; Littler, W A

    1981-01-01

    The reported frequency of circulating heart reactive antibodies in cardiomyopathies has varied and their significance is unknown. In this study such antibodies were sought in patients with primary congestive and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies and other heart diseases. Standard "single sandwich" and the more sensitive "double sandwich" indirect immunofluorescence techniques failed to disclose a significant difference between any cardiomyopathic group and controls in repeated experiments. With both techniques results were subject to considerable method-specific artefacts and observer variation. No published work associating heart antibodies detected by immunofluorescence methods with cariomyopathies adequately takes these into account. PMID:7028058

  12. Heart to Heart Art: Empowering Homeless Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Jerri; Booth, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This article describes Heart to Heart Art, an after-school program developed for homeless children and youth at the YWCA in Spokane, Washington. Pre-service teacher candidates from a local university create meaningful activities that engage homeless students in visual art, music, drama, cooking, and community service. Heart to Heart Art was…

  13. Smoking Thickens Heart Wall, Leading to Heart Failure: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160932.html Smoking Thickens Heart Wall, Leading to Heart Failure: Study The more you smoke and the ... Sept. 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking leads to heart failure by causing thickened heart walls and reducing ...

  14. Heart Murmurs and Your Child (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Heart Murmurs and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Heart ... to know how the heart works. How the Heart Works The normal heart has four chambers and ...

  15. Keeping Hearts Pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A collaboration between NASA, Dr. Michael DeBakey, Dr. George Noon, and MicroMed Technology, Inc., resulted in a life-saving heart pump for patients awaiting heart transplants. The MicroMed DeBakey VAD functions as a "bridge to heart transplant" by pumping blood throughout the body to keep critically ill patients alive until a donor heart is available. Weighing less than 4 ounces and measuring 1 inch by 3 inches, the pump is approximately one-tenth the size of other currently marketed pulsatile VADs. This makes it less invasive and ideal for smaller adults and children. Because of the pump's small size, less than 5 percent of the patients implanted developed device-related infections. It can operate up to 8 hours on batteries, giving patients the mobility to do normal, everyday activities.The MicroMed DeBakey VAD is a registered trademark of MicroMed Technology, Inc.

  16. Heart valve surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Valve replacement; Valve repair; Heart valve prosthesis; Mechanical valves, Prosthetic valves ... place. The main types of new valves are: Mechanical -- made of man-made materials, such as metal ( ...

  17. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  18. Heart bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... slow this process down, including: Not smoking Eating a heart-healthy diet Getting regular exercise Treating high blood pressure Controlling high blood sugar (if you have diabetes) and high cholesterol

  19. Heart valve surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur, but this is rare. There is always a risk of infection. Talk to your doctor before having any type of medical procedure. The clicking of mechanical heart valves may be heard in the chest. This is normal.

  20. Heart, front view (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the heart. The vessels colored blue indicate the transport of blood with relatively low content of oxygen ... carbon dioxide. The vessels colored red indicate the transport of blood with relatively high content of oxygen ...

  1. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    Dressler syndrome; Post-MI pericarditis; Post-cardiac injury syndrome; Postcardiotomy pericarditis ... Two types of pericarditis can occur after a heart attack . Early pericarditis: This form most occurs within ...

  2. Heart bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... of this great vein will be used to bypass the blocked arteries in the heart. The venous graft is sewn to the aorta and to the affected coronary artery past the blocked site. The internal mammary ...

  3. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... very fast, but steady, heartbeat. Sick Sinus Syndrome ( SSS ) Sick sinus syndrome is not a disease, but ... the sinus node, is not working properly. In SSS , the heart rate can alternate between slow ( bradycardia ) ...

  4. Types of Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be made. Here we delve into the importance of shared decision making. This content was last ... heart failure. Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Low Blood Pressure ...

  5. Classes of Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be made. Here we delve into the importance of shared decision making. HF Resources For Life ... heart failure. Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Low Blood Pressure ...

  6. Heart failure - medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ACE inhibitors (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) and ARBs (angiotensin II receptor blockers) work by opening blood vessels and lowering blood pressure. These medicines can: Reduce the work your heart has to do Help ...

  7. Target Heart Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  8. Alcohol and Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  9. Protein and Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  10. Caffeine and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  11. Meditation and Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  12. Stress and Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  13. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  14. Anatomy of the Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... upper chambers, the right and left atria (AY-tree-uh), are shown in purple. The heart's lower chambers, the right and left ventricles (VEN-trih-kuls), are shown in red. Some of the main blood vessels (arteries and ...

  15. Heart valve surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aspirin or clopidogrel (Plavix) or another blood thinner Warfarin (Coumadin). If you are taking warfarin, you will need to have regular blood tests. ... Instructions Aspirin and heart disease Clopidogrel (Plavix) Taking warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) - what to ask your doctor Taking ...

  16. Picturing the Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information You are here Home » SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ... Links for Students Glossary Picturing the Heart SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ...

  17. American Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) Healthy Living Conditions Caregiver ...

  18. Stress and your heart

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary heart disease - stress; Coronary artery disease - stress ... Your body responds to stress on many levels. First, it releases stress hormones that make you breathe faster. Your blood pressure goes up. Your muscles ...

  19. Heart Truth for Latinas

    MedlinePlus

    ... for about a fifth. Latinas also have high rates of some factors that increase the risk of developing heart disease, such as diabetes, overweight and obesity, and physical inactivity. But there’s good news too: ...

  20. Is Heart Rate a Norepiphenomenon in Heart Failure?

    PubMed

    Hensey, Mark; O'Neill, James

    2016-09-01

    There has been an increased focus on heart rate as a target in the management of cardiovascular disease and more specifically in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in recent years with several studies showing the benefit of a lower resting heart rate on outcomes. This review paper examines the pathophysiology behind the benefits of lowering heart rate in heart failure and also the evidence for and against the pharmacological agents available to achieve this. PMID:27457085

  1. Music and the heart.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-11-21

    Music can powerfully evoke and modulate emotions and moods, along with changes in heart activity, blood pressure (BP), and breathing. Although there is great heterogeneity in methods and quality among previous studies on effects of music on the heart, the following findings emerge from the literature: Heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) are higher in response to exciting music compared with tranquilizing music. During musical frissons (involving shivers and piloerection), both HR and RR increase. Moreover, HR and RR tend to increase in response to music compared with silence, and HR appears to decrease in response to unpleasant music compared with pleasant music. We found no studies that would provide evidence for entrainment of HR to musical beats. Corresponding to the increase in HR, listening to exciting music (compared with tranquilizing music) is associated with a reduction of heart rate variability (HRV), including reductions of both low-frequency and high-frequency power of the HRV. Recent findings also suggest effects of music-evoked emotions on regional activity of the heart, as reflected in electrocardiogram amplitude patterns. In patients with heart disease (similar to other patient groups), music can reduce pain and anxiety, associated with lower HR and lower BP. In general, effects of music on the heart are small, and there is great inhomogeneity among studies with regard to methods, findings, and quality. Therefore, there is urgent need for systematic high-quality research on the effects of music on the heart, and on the beneficial effects of music in clinical settings. PMID:26354957

  2. Heart Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the mid 70's, NASA saw a need for a long term electrocardiographic electrode suitable for use on astronauts. Heart Rate Inc.'s insulated capacitive electrode is constructed of thin dielectric film applied to stainless steel surface, originally developed under a grant by Texas Technical University. HRI, Inc. was awarded NASA license and continued development of heart rate monitor for use on exercise machines for physical fitness and medical markets.

  3. Congenital Heart Defects and CCHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart. Heart valves. These open and close to control blood flow to and from the heart. Arteries and veins. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to the body. Veins are blood vessels that carry blood from ...

  4. How Is Heart Failure Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... have surgery or as a long-term treatment. Heart transplant . A heart transplant is an operation in which a person’s diseased ... with a healthy heart from a deceased donor. Heart transplants are done as a life-saving measure for ...

  5. Pathophysiology of Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Tanai, Edit; Frantz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is considered an epidemic disease in the modern world affecting approximately 1% to 2% of adult population. It presents a multifactorial, systemic disease, in which--after cardiac injury--structural, neurohumoral, cellular, and molecular mechanisms are activated and act as a network to maintain physiological functioning. These coordinated, complex processes lead to excessive volume overload, increased sympathetic activity, circulation redistribution, and result in different, parallel developing clinical signs and symptoms. These signs and symptoms sum up to an unspecific clinical picture; thus invasive and noninvasive diagnostic tools are used to get an accurate diagnosis and to specify the underlying cause. The most important, outcome determining factor in heart failure is its constant progression. Constant optimizing of pharmatherapeutical regimes, novel targets, and fine regulation of these processes try to keep these compensatory mechanisms in a physiological range. Beside pharmacological therapy, interventional and surgical therapy options give new chances in the management of heart failure. For the optimization and establishment of these and novel therapeutical approaches, complete and comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms is essentially needed. Besides diagnosis and treatment, efforts should be made for better prevention in heart failure by treatment of risk factors, or identifying and following risk groups. This summary of the pathophysiology of heart failure tries to give a compact overview of basic mechanisms and of the novel unfolding, progressive theory of heart failure to contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge of the disease. PMID:26756631

  6. Devices in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Munir, Shahzeb M.; Bogaev, Roberta C.; Sobash, Ed; Shankar, K. J.; Gondi, Sreedevi; Stupin, Igor V.; Robertson, Jillian; Brewer, M. Alan; Casscells, S. Ward; Delgado, Reynolds M.; Ahmed, Amany

    2008-01-01

    Congestive heart failure has long been one of the most serious medical conditions in the United States; in fact, in the United States alone, heart failure accounts for 6.5 million days of hospitalization each year. One important goal of heart-failure therapy is to inhibit the progression of congestive heart failure through pharmacologic and device-based therapies. Therefore, there have been efforts to develop device-based therapies aimed at improving cardiac reserve and optimizing pump function to meet metabolic requirements. The course of congestive heart failure is often worsened by other conditions, including new-onset arrhythmias, ischemia and infarction, valvulopathy, decompensation, end-organ damage, and therapeutic refractoriness, that have an impact on outcomes. The onset of such conditions is sometimes heralded by subtle pathophysiologic changes, and the timely identification of these changes may promote the use of preventive measures. Consequently, device-based methods could in the future have an important role in the timely identification of the subtle pathophysiologic changes associated with congestive heart failure. PMID:18612451

  7. Duality in a maximum generalized entropy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, Shinto; Komori, Osamu; Ohara, Atsumi

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a possible generalization for the maximum entropy principle. A class of generalized entropy is introduced by that of generator functions, in which the maximum generalized distribution model is explicitly derived including q-Gaussian distributions, Wigner semicircle distributions and Pareto distributions. We define a totally geodesic subspace in the total space of all probability density functions in a framework of information geometry. The model of maximum generalized entropy distributions is shown to be totally geodesic. The duality of the model and the estimation in the maximum generalized principle is elucidated to give intrinsic understandings from the point of information geometry.

  8. Upper thermal limits of the hearts of Arctic cod Boreogadus saida: adults compared with larvae.

    PubMed

    Drost, H E; Fisher, J; Randall, F; Kent, D; Carmack, E C; Farrell, A P

    2016-02-01

    Wild adult and reared larval Boreogadus saida were acclimated to 3·5° C before testing their cardiac response to acute warming. Heart rate transition temperatures during warming were similar for adult and larval hearts, except that the maximum temperature for heart rate was 3° C warmer for adults. Thus, in a rapidly warming Arctic Ocean, the upper temperature limit for larval rather than adult B. saida appears more likely to dictate the southern range of the species. PMID:26608719

  9. 33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.29 Maximum draft. (a) Notwithstanding any provision herein, the...

  10. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  11. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  12. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  13. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  14. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  15. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not... the filing of an application. (b) Grants made for repairs, partial replacement, or...

  16. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  17. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  18. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not... the filing of an application. (b) Grants made for repairs, partial replacement, or...

  19. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  20. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30,...

  1. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30,...

  2. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130.440 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the...

  3. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130.440 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the...

  4. Magnetic field generated resistivity maximum in graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollam, J. A.; Kreps, L. W.; Rojeski, M.; Vold, T.; Devaty, R.

    1976-01-01

    In zero magnetic field, B, the electrical resistivity, rho(O,T) of highly oriented pyrolytic (polycrystalline) graphite drops smoothly with decreasing T, becoming constant below 4 K. However, in a fixed applied magnetic field B, the resistivity rho(B,T) goes through a maximum as a function of T, with larger maximum for larger B. The temperature of the maximum increases with B, but saturates to a constant value near 25 K (exact T depends on sample) at high B. In single crystal graphite a maximum in rho(B,T) as a function of T is also present, but has the effects of Landau level quantization superimposed. Several possible explanations for the rho(B,T) maximum are proposed, but a complete explanation awaits detailed calculations involving the energy band structure of graphite, and the particular scattering mechanisms involved.

  5. Predicted maximal heart rate for upper body exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Hill, M; Talbot, C; Price, M

    2016-03-01

    Age-predicted maximal heart rate (HRMAX ) equations are commonly used for the purpose of prescribing exercise regimens, as criteria for achieving maximal exertion and for diagnostic exercise testing. Despite the growing popularity of upper body exercise in both healthy and clinical settings, no recommendations are available for exercise modes using the smaller upper body muscle mass. The purpose of this study was to determine how well commonly used age-adjusted prediction equations for HRMAX estimate actual HRMAX for upper body exercise in healthy young and older adults. A total of 30 young (age: 20 ± 2 years, height: 171·9 ± 32·8 cm, mass: 77·7 ± 12·6 kg) and 20 elderly adults (age: 66 ± 6 years, height: 162 ± 8·1 cm, mass: 65·3 ± 12·3 kg) undertook maximal incremental exercise tests on a conventional arm crank ergometer. Age-adjusted maximal heart rate was calculated using prediction equations based on leg exercise and compared with measured HRMAX data for the arms. Maximal HR for arm exercise was significantly overpredicted compared with age-adjusted prediction equations in both young and older adults. Subtracting 10-20 beats min(-1) from conventional prediction equations provides a reasonable estimate of HRMAX for upper body exercise in healthy older and younger adults. PMID:25319169

  6. Alterations in the heart rate and activity rhythms of three orbital astronauts on a space mission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhizhen; Wan, Yufeng; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Yu; Lv, Ke; Li, Yinghui; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Xiaoping; Chen, Shanguang; Guo, Jinhu

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors in space are dramatically different from those on Earth. The spaceflight environment has been known to influence human physiology and behavior on orbital missions. In this study, we investigated alterations in the diurnal rhythms of activity and heart rate of three Chinese astronauts on a space mission. An analysis of the heart rate data showed a significant decrease in heart rate amplitudes during flight in all three subjects. The heart rate amplitudes of all the three astronauts were significantly dampened during flight, and the minimum as well as the maximum value of heart rate increased after flight. A phase shift in heart rate was observed in one of the three astronauts after flight. These results demonstrate the influence of spaceflight on heart physiology and function. In addition, a significant decrease in body trunk activity and rhythmicity occurred during flight, demonstrating that the spaceflight environment disturbs motion adaptation and diurnal activity rhythms. PMID:26177621

  7. Characterizing potential heart agents with an isolated perfused heart system

    SciTech Connect

    Pendleton, D.B.; Sands, H.; Gallagher, B.M.; Camin, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have used an isolated perfused heart system for characterizing potential myocardial perfusion radiopharamaceuticals. Rabbit or guinea pig (GP) hearts are removed and perfused through the aorta with a blood-free buffer. Heart rate and ventricular pressure are monitored as indices of viability. Tc-99m-MAA is 96-100% retained in these hearts, and Tc-99m human serum albumin shows less than 5% extraction. Tl-201 is 30-40% extracted. It is known that in-vivo, Tc-99m(dmpe)/sub 2/Cl/sub 2//sup +/ is taken up by rabbit heart but not by GP or human heart. Analogous results are obtained with the isolated perfused heart model, where the complex is extracted well by the isolated rabbit heart (24%) but not by the GP heart (<5%). Values are unchanged if human, rabbit or GP blood is mixed and co-injected with the complex. Tc-99m)dmpe)/sub 3//sup +/ is also taken up by rabbit but not by GP hearts in-vivo. However, isolated perfused hearts of both species extract this complex well (45-52%). Heart uptake is diminished to <7% if the complex is pre-equilibrated with human blood. GP blood produces a moderate inhibition (in GP hearts only) and rabbit blood has no effect. This suggests that a human or GP blood factor may have a significant effect on heart uptake of this complex. Tc-99m(CN-t-butyl)/sub 6//sup +/ is taken up well by both rabbit and GP hearts in-vivo, and is extracted 100% by both isolated perfused hearts. Heart retention remains high (73-75%) in the presence of human blood.

  8. Changing Role of Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kittleson, Michelle M

    2016-07-01

    Heart transplantation has become standard of care for end-stage heart failure. Challenges include the limited supply of donor organs and the increased complexity of heart transplant candidates who are at higher risk for poor outcomes. Recent advances may address these challenges, including proposed changes in heart transplant allocation policy, a better understanding of the definition and management of primary graft dysfunction, and advances in the management of sensitized heart transplant candidates. Developments in these areas may result in more equitable distribution and expansion of the donor pool and improved quality of life and survival for heart transplant recipients. PMID:27371517

  9. Estimating the seasonal maximum light use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Kanako; Furumi, Shinobu; Soyama, Noriko; Daigo, Motomasa

    2014-11-01

    Light use efficiency (LUE) is a key parameter in estimating gross primary production (GPP) based on global Earth-observation satellite data and model calculations. In current LUE-based GPP estimation models, the maximum LUE is treated as a constant for each biome type. However, the maximum LUE varies seasonally. In this study, seasonal maximum LUE values were estimated from the maximum incident LUE versus the incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the fraction of absorbed PAR. First, an algorithm to estimate maximum incident LUE was developed to estimate GPP capacity using a light response curve. One of the parameters required for the light response curve was estimated from the linear relationship of the chlorophyll index and the GPP capacity at a high PAR level of 2000 (µmolm-2s-1), and was referred to as" the maximum GPP capacity at 2000". The relationship was determined for six plant functional types: needleleaf deciduous trees, broadleaf deciduous trees, needleleaf evergreen trees, broadleaf evergreen trees, C3 grass, and crops. The maximum LUE values estimated in this study displayed seasonal variation, especially those for deciduous broadleaf forest, but also those for evergreen needleleaf forest.

  10. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  11. The heart sound preprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W. T.

    1972-01-01

    Technology developed for signal and data processing was applied to diagnostic techniques in the area of phonocardiography (pcg), the graphic recording of the sounds of the heart generated by the functioning of the aortic and ventricular valves. The relatively broad bandwidth of the PCG signal (20 to 2000 Hz) was reduced to less than 100 Hz by the use of a heart sound envelope. The process involves full-wave rectification of the PCG signal, envelope detection of the rectified wave, and low pass filtering of the resultant envelope.

  12. Protect Your Heart: Plan and Cook Heart-Healthy Meals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Audio CME Program Point of Care Searching and Learning Other Opportunities Protect Your Heart: Plan and Cook Heart-Healthy Meals - English Patient education library Open in new window Download ...

  13. Mitochondrial membrane peroxidizability index is inversely related to maximum life span in mammals.

    PubMed

    Pamplona, R; Portero-Otín, M; Riba, D; Ruiz, C; Prat, J; Bellmunt, M J; Barja, G

    1998-10-01

    The oxidative stress theory of aging predicts a low degree of fatty acid unsaturation in tissues of longevous animals, because membrane lipids increase their sensitivity to oxidative damage as a function of their unsaturation. Accordingly, the fatty acids analyses of liver mitochondria from eight mammals, ranging in maximum life span from 3.5 to 46 years, show that the total number of double bonds and the peroxidizability index are negatively correlated with maximum life span (r = -0. 88, P < 0.003; r = -0.87, P < 0.004, respectively). This is not due to a low content of unsaturated fatty acids in longevous animals, but mainly to a redistribution between kinds of the polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids series, shifting from the highly unsaturated docosahexaenoic acid (r = -0.89, P < 0.003) to the less unsaturated linolenic acid (r = 0.97, P < 0.0001). This redistribution pattern strongly suggests the presence of a constitutively low delta6-desaturase activity in longevous animals (r = -0.96, P < 0.0001). Thus, it may be proposed that, during evolution, a low degree of fatty acid unsaturation in liver mitochondria may have been selected in longevous mammals in order to protect the tissues against oxidative damage, while maintaining an appropriate environment for membrane function. PMID:9788245

  14. Heart failure patients utilizing an electric home monitor: What effects does heart failure have on their quality of life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simuel, Gloria J.

    Heart Failure continues to be a major public health problem associated with high mortality and morbidity. Heart Failure is the leading cause of hospitalization for persons older than 65 years, has a poor prognosis and is associated with poor quality of life. More than 5.3 million American adults are living with heart failure. Despite maximum medical therapy and frequent hospitalizations to stabilize their condition, one in five heart failure patients die within the first year of diagnosis. Several disease-management programs have been proposed and tested to improve the quality of heart failure care. Studies have shown that hospital admissions and emergency room visits decrease with increased nursing interventions in the home and community setting. An alternative strategy for promoting self-management of heart failure is the use of electronic home monitoring. The purpose of this study was to examine what effects heart failure has on patient's quality of life that had been monitoring on an electronic home monitor longer than 2 months. Twenty-one questionnaires were given to patients utilizing an electronic home monitor by their home health agency nurse. Eleven patients completed the questionnaire. The findings showed that there is some deterioration in quality of life with more association with the physical aspects of life than with the emotional aspects of life, which probably was due to the small sample size. There was no significant difference in readmission rates in patients utilizing an electronic home monitor. Further research is needed with a larger population of patients with chronic heart failure and other chronic diseases which may provide more data, and address issues such as patient compliance with self-care, impact of heart failure on patient's quality of life, functional capacity, and heart failure patient's utilization of the emergency rooms and hospital. Telemonitoring holds promise for improving the self-care abilities of persons with HF.

  15. Women's Heart Disease: Join the Heart Truth Community

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Join The Heart Truth Community Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents National Symbol The centerpiece of The Heart Truth ® is The Red Dress ® which was introduced ...

  16. Heart Health: Learn the Truth About Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Learn the Truth About Your Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock February is American Heart Month. Now is the time to make sure ...

  17. The Maximum Entropy Principle for Generalized Entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Makoto

    2008-03-01

    It is well known that Gibbs states and the Gaussian distribution are characterized by the maximum entropy principle. In this paper we discuss probability distributions which maximize generalized entropies including Rényi's and Tsal-lis's.

  18. Maximum forces and deflections from orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J

    1983-08-01

    The maximum bending moment of an orthodontic wire is an important parameter in the design and use of an orthodontic appliance. It is the wire property that determines how much force an appliance can deliver. A bending test which allows direct measurement of the maximum bending moment was developed. Data produced from this test are independent of wire length and configuration. The maximum bending moment, percent recovery, and maximum springback were determined for round and rectangular cross sections of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium wires. The data suggest the need for more specifically defining maximum moment and maximum springback. Three maximum bending moments are described: Me, My, and Mult. My and Mult are clinically the most significant. Appliances that are required to have no permanent deformation must operate below My. Appliances that exhibit marked permanent deformation may be used in some applications and, if so, higher bending moments can be produced. In order of magnitude, the maximum bending moment at yield is largest in stainless steel, beta-titanium, and nickel-titanium for a given cross section. Nickel-titanium and beta-titanium have significantly larger springback than stainless steel determined at the moment at yield. Nickel-titanium did not follow the theoretical ratio between ultimate bending moment and the bending moment at yield, exhibiting a very large ratio. The study supports the hypothesis that most orthodontic appliances are activated in a range where both plastic and elastic behavior occurs; therefore, the use of yield strengths for calculation of force magnitude can lead to a significant error in predicting the forces delivered. PMID:6576645

  19. Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1993-01-01

    Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

  20. Teaching from the Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apps, Jerold W.

    This book is designed to illustrate learning for the whole person, including attending to spiritual, biological, intellectual, and emotional dimensions. It is expected that learners will discover the meaning of learning from the heart and teachers will learn how to develop their own such learning and then to explore ways that they can teach from…

  1. Heart attack - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... infarction: management. In Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA:Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 55. Cannon CP, Braunwald E. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation ...

  2. [Mineralization of heart valves].

    PubMed

    Pawlikowski, M; Pfitzner, R

    1992-01-01

    Mineralization (calcification) of heart valves (mitral, aortic and aortic bioprosthesis) have been analyzed using; histology, x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning microscopy, atomic absorption and electron microprobe. Obtained results showed the presence of two type of mineralization. First type is represented by grains composed of hydroxyapatite containing admixture of carbonates. This mineralization is seen macroscopically. Second type of mineralization is possible to determine only using chemical methods. It is represented by biological structures containing amount of Ca, P and other elements higher then normal heart valves. This second type of the mineralization conducts to the changes of physical features of the tissue. Both types of calcification develops because of the defects of atomic structure of biological components of heart valves (mainly collagen). These defects show the presence of free atomic bindings i.e. electric potential. Because of this, they are able to react with surrounding free joints, starting calcification. Defects of biological structures of heart valves are the results of infections, mechanical destruction of the valves etc. Calcification may be stopped on different stages of its development: or as secret calcification or may pass to the stage seen as apatite grains. PMID:1342999

  3. Sweet & Simple Clay Hearts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Nothing pleases parents more than receiving handmade gifts from their children, especially if the gift is in the shape of a heart. Nothing pleases an art teacher more than having a lesson that is easy to follow, teaches basic skills, and enables students to be successful with the activity. In this article, the author describes how to create a…

  4. FRAMINGHAM HEART STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identify the common factors or characteristics that contribute to CVD by following its development over a long period of time in a large group of participants who had not yet developed overt symptoms of CVD or suffered a heart attack or stroke.

  5. Anthocyanins and heart disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins are red, blue, and purple pigments distributed throughout nature, and in our diet. One potential health benefit of dietary anthocyanins is protection against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence for beneficial effects of anthocyanins with respect to heart disease comes from epidemio...

  6. Feedback on heart attack.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-04-13

    The Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust in London is the largest heart and lung centre in the UK. This article explores a project carried out by nurses at the trust looking at the experiences of having an acute myocardial infarction, and how patients felt about taking part in a research study. PMID:27532071

  7. Exercise and Your Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  8. Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... obesity and metabolic syndrome —interact to cause harmful physical changes to the heart. Third, diabetes raises the risk ... outlook. The good news is that many lifestyle changes help control multiple risk factors. For example, physical activity can lower your blood pressure, help control ...

  9. Educating the Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Japan's elementary and junior high schools have a formal, nationally mandated moral curriculum called Kokoro-no-kyoiku--education of the heart. Japanese educators include moral growth as an integral part of one's intellectual growth and believe that democratic societies must promote virtuous decision making. Moral education in Japan nurtures the…

  10. Polish artificial heart program.

    PubMed

    El Fray, Miroslawa; Czugala, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant advances in the development of artificial heart substitutes, anthrombogenic materials and surfaces remain to be the main challenge for implants, which can prevent thrombosis that leads to rejection. The goal of material engineering is essentially to design polymeric materials of high durability and optimal thrombogenicity in mechanical heart prosthesis, being developed recently in a frame of the polish artificial heart program. For these reasons, various surface modifications are being continuously developed for a 'gold standard' material, which is a polyurethane (PU) thermoplastic elastomer and they will be shortly reviewed. However, new polymeric materials can meet medical word's attention if they are able to provide similar or better characteristics in term of bulk and surface properties. Specifically, if they will show appropriate surface topography, which is the most influential in determining the response of live tissues toward biomaterials. Nanostructured polyester thermoplastic elastomers of high biodurability as an alternative to PU materials for artificial heart are challenging new materials, and they will be discussed briefly. PMID:22110047

  11. Left heart ventricular angiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... your heart. When the tube is in place, dye is injected through it. The dye flows through the blood vessels, making them easier to see. X-rays are taken as the dye moves through the blood vessels. These x-ray ...

  12. Heart failure - tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the heart muscle that are not moving well. This test uses x-ray contrast fluid to fill the ... BUN) and serum creatinine tests help monitor how well your kidneys are working. You will need these test regularly if: You are taking medicines called ACE ...

  13. Living with Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... should be. This includes advice on daily activities, work, leisure time, sex, and exercise. Your level of activity will depend on the stage of your heart failure (how severe it is). Keep all of your ... to get tests and lab work. Your doctor needs the results of these tests ...

  14. Heart disease and women

    MedlinePlus

    ... leading killer of women over age 25. It kills nearly twice as many women in the United States as all types of cancer. Men have a greater risk for heart disease earlier in life than women. Women's risk increases after menopause. EARLY ...

  15. Heart Ed 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lynne E.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States. Risk factors and health behaviors combine over time to contribute to the disease process. College communities provide a unique environment for health promotion, risk reduction, and primary intervention. Heart health should be an integral part of college…

  16. Be Still My Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Betsy; Ball, Rhonda

    This project description is designed to show how graphing calculators and calculator-based laboratories (CBLs) can be used to explore topics in physics and health sciences. The activities address such topics as respiration, heart rate, and the circulatory system. Teaching notes and calculator instructions are included as are blackline masters. (MM)

  17. Give your heart a workout

    MedlinePlus

    Exercise - heart workout ... Exercise helps your heart in a few ways. Burns calories. This can help you lose extra pounds ... blood pressure. Doing some type of moderate aerobic exercise, for 30 to 60 minutes on most days ...

  18. All about Heart Rate (Pulse)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More All About Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Apr 19,2016 ... Sodium and Salt 3 Low Blood Pressure 4 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) 5 How to Eat ...

  19. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition (PDF) Obesity (PDF) Peripheral Artery Disease (PDF) ... statistics, please contact the American Heart Association National Center, Office of Science & Medicine at statistics@heart.org . Please direct all ...

  20. Heart Failure Society of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site Terms and Conditions Copyright © 2016 Heart Failure Society of America. All Rights Reserved 2016 Board Review ... Membership Membership Information Membership in the Heart Failure Society is open to all health care professionals with ...

  1. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations (PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Page Content On this page: ... stroke. [Top] What is the connection between diabetes, heart disease, and stroke? If you have diabetes, you ...

  2. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... MIDCAB; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass; RACAB; Keyhole heart surgery ... To perform this surgery: The heart surgeon will make a 3- to 5-inch-long surgical cut in the left part of your chest between your ribs ...

  3. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Diabetes Educators JDRF American Heart Association MedlinePlus Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Page Content On this ...

  4. Adults with Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Apr ... topic from the list below to learn more. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Introduction Introduction: ...

  5. What Is Heart Valve Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart work harder and affect its ability to pump blood. Overview How the Heart Valves Work At the ... into the atria. As the ventricles contract, they pump blood through the pulmonary and aortic valves. The pulmonary ...

  6. Find a Heart Rhythm Specialist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search: Education & Meetings Scientific Sessions Certified Education Courses & Online Learning Heart Rhythm On Demand Co-Sponsored & Endorsed Events ... Education & Meetings less Scientific Sessions Certified Education Courses & Online Learning Heart Rhythm On Demand Co-Sponsored & Endorsed Events ...

  7. Infant open heart surgery (image)

    MedlinePlus

    During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia. ... During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia.

  8. Heart failure - surgeries and devices

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery; Cardiomyopathy - surgery; HF - surgery; Intra-aortic balloon pumps - heart failure; IABP - heart failure; Catheter based assist ... is weakened, gets too large, and does not pump blood very well, you are at high risk ...

  9. Impact of Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... complex lesions, limitations are common. Some children with congenital heart disease have developmental delay or other learning difficulties. What ... defects? Successful treatment requires highly specialized care. Severe congenital heart disease requires extensive financial resources both in and out ...

  10. About the Operation: Heart Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Short gut syndrome Living with Devices Artificial hearts LVADS ICDs Pacemakers Hemodialysis Peritoneal dialysis About Organ Allocation ... because the new heart can act as an assist device if complications occur. Your physician can explain ...

  11. Panic Attack or Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... with echocardiography. It is a good first-line test for a woman with symptoms and risk factors for heart disease. Echocardiography uses sound waves technology to give detailed information about the heart muscle, ...

  12. Modelling Heart Rate Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual’s cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women). PMID:25876164

  13. Modelling heart rate kinetics.

    PubMed

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual's cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women). PMID:25876164

  14. An Improved Forecasting Method of Sunspot Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Z.; Tian, L.; Han, Y.; Wang, B.; Han, Y.

    2015-12-01

    It has been paid more and more attention for forecasting sunspot maximum of future solar cycle in recent decades, and a variety of forecasting methods have been studied. However, to make an accurate prediction is still very difficult due to the complexities of the characteristics of solar activity. Some authors summerized a variety of methods for the maximum predictions of 22nd, 23rd, 24th solar cycles, the incomplete statistics are 63, 54 and 75 cases respectively, results of the methods, which the difference between forecasting and observed values within the range of ±15%, are 27.0%, 25.9% and 24.3% respectively. Using the 13 points smoothed value of monthly sunspot numbers, we studied correlation between sunspot number rising rate of the first 24 months of the solar cycle and the coming cycle maximum, published forecasting result that the maximum value was 139.2 ± 18.8 for 23rd solar cycle (Han et al., 2000), and the observed value is 120.8, the error is about 15.2%. The present paper describes our improved forecasting methods. First, Vondrak smoothing method is used to deal with the monthly sunspot numbers. It is studied that the relationship between the rise rate of earlier months of sunspot numbers of this smoothed sequence and the coming maximum value in each solar cycles. The results show that the first 22, 23, 24 months rise rate of sunspot numbers are highly related with the coming maximum values, and simulated prediction of maximum for 22~24 cycles show that using the 22-month rise rate of three solar cycles, the maximum forecasting error is about 13.2%, using 23-month rise rate, the maximum error is about 11.2%, while using 24-month rise rate, the maximum error is only about 9.3%. The new method not only improves the forecasting accuracy but also can make the forecasting time in advance at least half a year than the common method using 13 points monthly smoothed value.

  15. Lightweight wrist photoplethysmography for heavy exercise: motion robust heart rate monitoring algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lai, Po-Hsiang; Kim, Insoo

    2015-02-01

    The challenge of heart rate monitoring based on wrist photoplethysmography (PPG) during heavy exercise is addressed. PPG is susceptible to motion artefacts, which have to be mitigated for accurate heart rate estimation. Motion artefacts are particularly apparent for wrist devices, for example, a smart watch, because of the high mobility of the arms. Proposed is a low complexity highly accurate heart rate estimation method for continuous heart rate monitoring using wrist PPG. The proposed method achieved 2.57% mean absolute error in a test data set where subjects ran for a maximum speed of 17 km/h. PMID:26609397

  16. Common Types of Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... heart defect, treatment options and expected results. The descriptions and pictures of common heart defects that follow ...

  17. Heart failure - fluids and diuretics

    MedlinePlus

    When you have heart failure, your heart does not pump out enough blood. This causes fluids to build up in your body. If you ... the amount of fluids you drink: When your heart failure is not very bad, you may not have ...

  18. Planning Ahead: Advanced Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Planning Ahead: Advanced Heart Failure Updated:Aug 24,2016 An important part of ... content was last reviewed on 04/16/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  19. Your Heart Failure Healthcare Team

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Your Heart Failure Healthcare Team Updated:Mar 25,2016 Patients with ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  20. Heart Failure in South America

    PubMed Central

    Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2013-01-01

    Continued assessment of temporal trends in mortality and epidemiology of specific heart failure in South America is needed to provide a scientific basis for rational allocation of the limited health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk and predict the future burden of heart failure. The epidemiology of heart failure in South America was reviewed. Heart failure is the main cause of hospitalization based on available data from approximately 50% of the South American population. The main etiologies of heart failure are ischemic, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, valvular, hypertensive and chagasic etiologies. In endemic areas, Chagas heart disease may be responsible by 41% of the HF cases. Also, heart failure presents high mortality especially in patients with Chagas etiology. Heart failure and etiologies associated with heart failure may be responsible for 6.3% of causes of deaths. Rheumatic fever is the leading cause of valvular heart disease. However, a tendency to reduction of HF mortality due to Chagas heart disease from 1985 to 2006, and reduction in mortality due to HF from 1999 to 2005 were observed in selected states in Brazil. The findings have important public health implications because the allocation of health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk of heart failure should also consider the control of neglected Chagas disease and rheumatic fever in South American countries. PMID:23597301

  1. HEART OF MYTH – HEART OF SCIENCE Part I

    PubMed Central

    Bound Alberti, Fay

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the history and meanings of the heart and its diseases as aspects of the histories of science and emotion. Analyzing the twofold meanings of the heart as both bodily object and cultural symbol, it explores the reasons for the apparent conflict in meanings of the heart of science and the heart of emotion in Western medical culture since the 19th century. In Part I, a case study of the writer, economist, and philosopher Harriet Martineau is used to demonstrate and trace that conflict, while Part II highlights the manifold meanings of the heart both in the past and in the present. PMID:26167117

  2. What Is a Nuclear Heart Scan?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Nuclear Heart Scan? A nuclear heart scan is a test that provides important ... use it to create pictures of your heart. Nuclear heart scans are used for three main purposes: ...

  3. Fetal Echocardiography/Your Unborn Baby's Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the Young, American Heart Association Overview of congenital heart disease: Congenital heart disease is a problem that occurs with the baby's ... Find answers to common questions about children and heart disease. CHD Personal Stories ... and hope. Popular Articles ...

  4. What to Expect during a Heart Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During a Heart Transplant Just before heart transplant surgery, the patient will ... are not replaced as part of the surgery. Heart Transplant Figure A shows where the diseased heart is ...

  5. Heart rate reduction in coronary artery disease and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Roberto; Fox, Kim

    2016-08-01

    Elevated heart rate is known to induce myocardial ischaemia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and heart rate reduction is a recognized strategy to prevent ischaemic episodes. In addition, clinical evidence shows that slowing the heart rate reduces the symptoms of angina by improving microcirculation and coronary flow. Elevated heart rate is an established risk factor for cardiovascular events in patients with CAD and in those with chronic heart failure (HF). Accordingly, reducing heart rate improves prognosis in patients with HF, as demonstrated in SHIFT. By contrast, data from SIGNIFY indicate that heart rate is not a modifiable risk factor in patients with CAD who do not also have HF. Heart rate is also an important determinant of cardiac arrhythmias; low heart rate can be associated with atrial fibrillation, and high heart rate after exercise can be associated with sudden cardiac death. In this Review, we critically assess these clinical findings, and propose hypotheses for the variable effect of heart rate reduction in cardiovascular disease. PMID:27226153

  6. Cell Development obeys Maximum Fisher Information

    PubMed Central

    Frieden, B. Roy; Gatenby, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10μm and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6μm. The NM contains ≈ 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order δI = 0 and approximate 2nd-order δ2I ≈ 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1–4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the flux value F ≈1016 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL → IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information → non-equilibrium, one condition for life. PMID:23747917

  7. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  8. Effect of heart rate on the hemodynamics of bileaflet mechanical heart valves' prostheses (St. Jude Medical) in the aortic position and in the opening phase: A computational study.

    PubMed

    Jahandardoost, Mehdi; Fradet, Guy; Mohammadi, Hadi

    2016-03-01

    To date, to the best of the authors' knowledge, in almost all of the studies performed around the hemodynamics of bileaflet mechanical heart valves, a heart rate of 70-72 beats/min has been considered. In fact, the heart rate of ~72 beats/min does not represent the entire normal physiological conditions under which the aortic or prosthetic valves function. The heart rates of 120 or 50 beats/min may lead to hemodynamic complications, such as plaque formation and/or thromboembolism in patients. In this study, the hemodynamic performance of the bileaflet mechanical heart valves in a wide range of normal and physiological heart rates, that is, 60-150 beats/min, was studied in the opening phase. The model considered in this study was a St. Jude Medical bileaflet mechanical heart valve with the inner diameter of 27 mm in the aortic position. The hemodynamics of the native valve and the St. Jude Medical valve were studied in a variety of heart rates in the opening phase and the results were carefully compared. The results indicate that peak values of the velocity profile downstream of the valve increase as heart rate increases, as well as the location of the maximum velocity changes with heart rate in the St. Jude Medical valve model. Also, the maximum values of shear stress and wall shear stresses downstream of the valve are proportional to heart rate in both models. Interestingly, the maximum shear stress and wall shear stress values in both models are in the same range when heart rate is <90 beats/min; however, these values significantly increase in the St. Jude Medical valve model when heart rate is >90 beats/min (up to ~40% growth compared to that of the native valve). The findings of this study may be of importance in the hemodynamic performance of bileaflet mechanical heart valves. They may also play an important role in design improvement of conventional prosthetic heart valves and the design of the next generation of prosthetic valves, such as

  9. Electrophysiological Remodeling in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanggan; Hill, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Heart failure affects nearly 6 million Americans, with a half-million new cases emerging each year. Whereas up to 50% of heart failure patients die of arrhythmia, the diverse mechanisms underlying heart failure-associated arrhythmia are poorly understood. As a consequence, effectiveness of antiarrhythmic pharmacotherapy remains elusive. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of heart failure-associated molecular events impacting the electrical function of the myocardium. We approach this from an anatomical standpoint, summarizing recent insights gleaned from pre-clinical models and discussing their relevance to human heart failure. PMID:20096285

  10. Surface tension maximum of liquid 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koichi; Hasegawa, Syuichi; Suzuki, Masaru; Okuda, Yuichi

    2000-07-01

    The surface tension of liquid 3He was measured using the capillary-rise method. Suzuki et al. have reported that its temperature dependence was almost quenched below 120 mK. Here we have examined it with higher precision and found that it has a small maximum around 100 mK. The amount of the maximum is about 3×10 -4 as a fraction of the surface tension at 0 K. The density of liquid 3He increases with temperature by about 5×10 -4 in Δ ρ/ ρ between 0 and 100 mK. This density change could be one of the reasons of the surface tension maximum around 100 mK.

  11. The Maximum Mass of Rotating Strange Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkudlarek, M.; Gondek-Rosiń; ska, D.; Villain, L.; Ansorg, M.

    2012-12-01

    Strange quark stars are considered as a possible alternative to neutron stars as compact objects (e.g. Weber 2003). A hot compact star (a proto-neutron star or a strange star) born in a supernova explosion or a remnant of neutron stars binary merger are expected to rotate differentially and be important sources of gravitational waves. We present results of the first relativistic calculations of differentially rotating strange quark stars for broad ranges of degree of differential rotation and maximum densities. Using a highly accurate, relativistic code we show that rotation may cause a significant increase of maximum allowed mass of strange stars, much larger than in the case of neutron stars with the same degree of differential rotation. Depending on the maximum allowed mass a massive neutron star (strange star) can be temporarily stabilized by differential rotation or collapse to a black hole.

  12. Maximum stabilizer dimension for nonproduct states

    SciTech Connect

    Walck, Scott N.; Lyons, David W.

    2007-08-15

    Composite quantum states can be classified by how they behave under local unitary transformations. Each quantum state has a stabilizer subgroup and a corresponding Lie algebra, the structure of which is a local unitary invariant. In this paper, we study the structure of the stabilizer subalgebra for n-qubit pure states, and find its maximum dimension to be n-1 for nonproduct states of three qubits and higher. The n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state has a stabilizer subalgebra that achieves the maximum possible dimension for pure nonproduct states. The converse, however, is not true: We show examples of pure 4-qubit states that achieve the maximum nonproduct stabilizer dimension, but have stabilizer subalgebra structures different from that of the n-qubit GHZ state.

  13. Heart Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Johnson Space Flight Center's device to test astronauts' heart function in microgravity has led to the MultiWire Gamma Camera, which images heart conditions six times faster than conventional devices. Dr. Jeffrey Lacy, who developed the technology as a NASA researcher, later formed Proportional Technologies, Inc. to develop a commercially viable process that would enable use of Tantalum-178 (Ta-178), a radio-pharmaceutical. His company supplies the generator for the radioactive Ta-178 to Xenos Medical Systems, which markets the camera. Ta-178 can only be optimally imaged with the camera. Because the body is subjected to it for only nine minutes, the radiation dose is significantly reduced and the technique can be used more frequently. Ta-178 also enables the camera to be used on pediatric patients who are rarely studied with conventional isotopes because of the high radiation dosage.

  14. Malnutrition and the heart.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, J G; Kiess, M C; Chan-Yan, C C

    1986-01-01

    Earlier concepts that the heart is spared in malnutrition have been shown to be incorrect. Inadequate intake of protein and energy results in proportional loss of skeletal and myocardial muscle. As myocardial mass decreases, so does the ability to generate cardiac output; however, various compensatory factors come into play. Nutritional supplementation for malnourished patients reverses the compensatory factors and may increase the short-term potential for heart failure. Severe cardiac debility results in poor nutrition, which may in turn produce unsuspected but clinically significant myocardial atrophy. Nutritional support may play a role in improving cardiac function in selected patients with cardiac cachexia who are being prepared for cardiac surgery and in patients with rapid weight loss who are at risk for sudden death due to arrhythmias. Malnutrition is common in hospitalized patients, and many patients in hospital now receive nutritional supplementation; both facts have important cardiac implications. PMID:3093042

  15. Lipotoxicity in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Wende, Adam R.; Abel, E. Dale

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with ectopic lipid deposition in multiple tissues, including the heart. Excess lipid may be stored as triglycerides, but are also shunted into non-oxidative pathways that disrupt normal cellular signaling leading to organ dysfunction and in some cases apoptosis, a process termed lipotoxicity. Various pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed to lead to lipotoxic tissue injury, which might vary by cell type. Specific mechanisms by which lipotoxicity alters cardiac structure and function are incompletely understood, but are beginning to be elucidated. This review will focus on mechanisms that have been proposed to lead to lipotoxic injury in the heart and will review the state of knowledge regarding potential causes and correlates of increased myocardial lipid content in animal models and humans. We will seek to highlight those areas where additional research is warranted. PMID:19818871

  16. Maximum predictive power and the superposition principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summhammer, Johann

    1994-01-01

    In quantum physics the direct observables are probabilities of events. We ask how observed probabilities must be combined to achieve what we call maximum predictive power. According to this concept the accuracy of a prediction must only depend on the number of runs whose data serve as input for the prediction. We transform each probability to an associated variable whose uncertainty interval depends only on the amount of data and strictly decreases with it. We find that for a probability which is a function of two other probabilities maximum predictive power is achieved when linearly summing their associated variables and transforming back to a probability. This recovers the quantum mechanical superposition principle.

  17. Maximum likelihood clustering with dependent feature trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittineni, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The decomposition of mixture density of the data into its normal component densities is considered. The densities are approximated with first order dependent feature trees using criteria of mutual information and distance measures. Expressions are presented for the criteria when the densities are Gaussian. By defining different typs of nodes in a general dependent feature tree, maximum likelihood equations are developed for the estimation of parameters using fixed point iterations. The field structure of the data is also taken into account in developing maximum likelihood equations. Experimental results from the processing of remotely sensed multispectral scanner imagery data are included.

  18. Straight from the Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonell, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Every adult who reads to a child has seen what happens when a book speaks. For a time, the book becomes the child's beloved friend. It is asked for repeatedly and learned by heart. But books do more than speak to a child. Children use books to speak to adults. If one wants to understand a child's deepest emotions, take a look at the books they…

  19. The isolated working heart model in infarcted rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Itter, G; Jung, W; Schoelkens, B A; Linz, W

    2005-04-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is one of the most common causes of death in western countries. The aim of this study was to establish and validate the working heart model in rat hearts with CHF. In the rat model the animals show parameters and symptoms that can be extrapolated to the clinical situation of patients with end-stage heart failure. The focus of attention was the evaluation of cardiodynamics (e.g.contractility) in the isolated 'working heart' model. The geometric properties of the left ventricle were measured by planimetry (stereology). Formulae available in the past for determining certain parameters in the working heart model (e.g.external heart work) have to be fitted to the circumstances of the infarcted rat hearts with its different organ properties.CHF was induced in Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NHsd) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/NHsd) by creating a permanent (8 week) occlusion of the left coronary artery, 2 mm distal to the origin from the aorta, by a modified technique (Itter et al. 2004). This resulted in a large infarction of the free left ventricular wall. We were able to establish and adapt a new and predictive working heart model in spontaneously hypertensive rat hearts with myocardial infarction (MI) 8-12 weeks after coronary artery ligation. At this stage the WKY rat did not show any symptoms of CHF. The SHR rat represented characteristic parameters and symptoms that could be extrapolated to the clinical situation of patients with end-stage heart failure (NYHA III-IV). Upon inspection, severe clinical symptoms of CHF such as dyspnoea, subcutaneous oedema, palebluish limbs and impaired motion were prominent. On necropsy the SHR showed lung oedema, hydrothorax, large dilated left and right ventricular chambers and hypertrophy of the septum. In the working heart model the infarcted animals showed reduced heart power, diminished contractility and enhanced heart work, much more so in the SHR/NHsd than in the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY/NHsd). The

  20. Pharmacogenetics of Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mestroni, Luisa; Begay, Rene; Graw, Sharon L; Taylor, Matthew RG

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review Novel medical approaches and personalized medicine seek to use genetic information to “individualize” and improve diagnosis, prevention, and therapy. The personalized management of cardiovascular disease involves a large spectrum of potential applications, from diagnostics of monogenic disorders, to prevention and management strategies based on modifier genes, to pharmacogenetics in which individual genetic information is used to optimize pharmacological treatments. Recent Findings Evidence suggests that common polymorphic variants of modifier genes could influence drug response in cardiovascular disease in a variety of areas including heart failure, arrhythmias, dyslipidemia and hypertension. In heart failure, common genetic variants of beta-adrenergic receptors, alpha-adrenergic receptors, and endothelin receptors (among others) have been associated with variable response to heart failure therapies. The challenge remains to develop strategies to leverage this information in ways that personalize and optimize cardiovascular therapy based on a patient's genetic profile. Summary While advances in technologies will continue to transition personalized medicine from the research to the clinical setting, health care providers will need to reshape clinical diagnostic paradigms. Ultimately, pharmacogenetics will give providers options for improving patient management on the basis of pharmacogenetic data. PMID:24717669

  1. Broken Heart Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Therkleson, Tessa; Stronach, Shona

    2015-01-01

    This case describes a combination external treatment for “Broken Heart Syndrome” that includes a lavender footbath, massage using moor extract, and oxalis ointment to the abdomen applied by an Anthroposophic nurse for a specific personality type. Lavender footbaths have been used since ancient times for relaxation and calming, while moor extract has been used medicinally in Europe since the middle ages for warmth and environmental protection. Rhythmical massage using moor extract and oxalis ointment poultice to the abdomen are part of the tradition of Anthroposophic nursing when managing stress induced by emotional and physical trauma. An elderly lady with specific characteristics diagnosed as Broken Heart Syndrome received one treatment a week for 4 weeks given by an Anthroposophic nurse at an integrative medical center. Between treatments, education was given to enable self-treatment in the home. The nursing treatments, each using lavender footbaths, moor extract massage, and oxalis ointment poultice to the abdomen, proved very effect, and no negative effects were reported. External applications need to be considered by nurses caring for specific personality types with Broken Heart Syndrome. PMID:25673580

  2. Hormonal regulatory role of eyestalk factors on growth of heart in mud crab, Scylla serrata

    PubMed Central

    Allayie, Sartaj Ahmad; Ravichandran, S.; Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The present study was attempted to know the growth regulation of eyestalk factors on the growth of heart in Scylla serrata using eyestalk extractions and bilateral eyestalk ablations. The bilateral eyestalk ablation led to the maximum growth indices of the heart ((H) indices) to 0.162 and 0.158 in ablated male and female, respectively, in comparison to 0.153 and 0.167 in the control male and female and 0.147 and 0.157 in injected male and female, respectively. The data have shown that the heart of male crabs grows faster than female crabs. The study has also shown that bilateral eyestalk ablation resulted in a significant increase in the heart indices in males and has least effect on the growth of the female heart. The results presented strongly support a potential role of the eyestalk factors and molting hormone regulating the growth of the heart in S. serrata. PMID:23961136

  3. Heart failure prognostic model.

    PubMed

    Axente, L; Sinescu, C; Bazacliu, G

    2011-05-15

    Heart failure (HF) is a common, costly, disabling and deadly syndrome. Heart failure is a progressive disease characterized by high prevalence in society, significantly reducing physical and mental health, frequent hospitalization and high mortality (50% of the patients survive up to 4 years after the diagnosis, the annual mortality varying from 5% to 75%). The purpose of this study is to develop a prognostic model with easily obtainable variables for patients with heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS. Our lot included 101 non-consecutive hospitalized patients with heart failure diagnosis. It included 49.5% women having the average age of 71.23 years (starting from 40 up to 91 years old) and the roughly estimated period for monitoring was 35.1 months (5-65 months). Survival data were available for all patients and the median survival duration was of 44.0 months. A large number of variables (demographic, etiologic, co morbidity, clinical, echocardiograph, ECG, laboratory and medication) were evaluated. We performed a complex statistical analysis, studying: survival curve, cumulative hazard, hazard function, lifetime distribution and density function, meaning residual life time, Ln S (t) vs. t and Ln(H) t vs. Ln (t). The Cox multiple regression model was used in order to determine the major factors that allow the forecasting survival and their regression coefficients: age (0.0369), systolic blood pressure (-0.0219), potassium (0.0570), sex (-0.3124) and the acute myocardial infarction (0.2662). DISCUSSION. Our model easily incorporates obtainable variables that may be available in any hospital, accurately predicting survival of the heart failure patients and enables risk stratification in a few hours after the patients' presentation. Our model is derived from a sample of patients hospitalized in an emergency department of cardiology, some with major life-altering co morbidities. The benefit of being aware of the prognosis of these patients with high risk is extremely

  4. Heart failure prognostic model

    PubMed Central

    Axente, L; Sinescu, C; Bazacliu, G

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a common, costly, disabling and deadly syndrome. Heart failure is a progressive disease characterized by high prevalence in society, significantly reducing physical and mental health, frequent hospitalization and high mortality (50% of the patients survive up to 4 years after the diagnosis, the annual mortality varying from 5% to 75%). The purpose of this study is to develop a prognostic model with easily obtainable variables for patients with heart failure. Methods and Results. Our lot included 101 non–consecutive hospitalized patients with heart failure diagnosis. It included 49,5% women having the average age of 71.23 years (starting from 40 up to 91 years old) and the roughly estimated period for monitoring was 35.1 months (5–65 months). Survival data were available for all patients and the median survival duration was of 44.0 months. A large number of variables (demographic, etiologic, co morbidity, clinical, echocardiograph, ECG, laboratory and medication) were evaluated. We performed a complex statistical analysis, studying: survival curve, cumulative hazard, hazard function, lifetime distribution and density function, meaning residual life time, Ln S (t) vs. t and Ln(H) t vs. Ln (t). The Cox multiple regression model was used in order to determine the major factors that allow the forecasting survival and their regression coefficients: age (0.0369), systolic blood pressure (–0.0219), potassium (0.0570), sex (–0.3124) and the acute myocardial infarction (0.2662). Discussion. Our model easily incorporates obtainable variables that may be available in any hospital, accurately predicting survival of the heart failure patients and enables risk stratification in a few hours after the patients' presentation. Our model is derived from a sample of patients hospitalized in an emergency department of cardiology, some with major life–altering co morbidities. The benefit of being aware of the prognosis of these patients with high risk is

  5. Maximum rotation frequency of strange stars

    SciTech Connect

    Zdunik, J.L.; Haensel, P. )

    1990-07-15

    Using the MIT bag model of strange-quark matter, we calculate the maximum angular frequency of the uniform rotation of strange stars. After studying a broad range of the MIT bag-model parameters, we obtain an upper bound of 12.3 kHz.

  6. 33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 1 The main channels between the Port of Montreal and Lake Erie have a controlling depth of 8.23m....

  7. 33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 1 The main channels between the Port of Montreal and Lake Erie have a controlling depth of 8.23m....

  8. 33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 1 The main channels between the Port of Montreal and Lake Erie have a controlling depth of 8.23m....

  9. 33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... tendency to list or squat, so as to avoid striking bottom.1 1 The main channels between the Port...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum rates. 9701.312 Section 9701.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  11. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...

  12. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...

  13. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...

  14. Maximum hyperchaos in chaotic nonmonotonic neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuai, J. W.; Chen, Z. X.; Liu, R. T.; Wu, B. X.

    1997-07-01

    Hyperchaos in chaotic nonmonotonic neuronal networks is discussed with computer simulations. Maximum chaos with all Lyapunov exponents positive is found not only in the present dissipative model with weak coupling connections between neurons, but also with some strong-coupling connections. Although the model presented is a noninvertible map, the information dimension of simple chaos still yields a good approximation to the Lyapunov dimension.

  15. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.312 Maximum rates. (a) DHS may...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.312 Maximum rates. (a) DHS may...

  17. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.312 Maximum rates. (a) DHS may...

  18. Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography

    PubMed Central

    Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Milstead, W. Bryan; Urrutia, M. Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual lakes where detailed data exist and regional studies where access to useful data on lake depth is unavailable, we developed a method to predict maximum lake depth from the slope of the topography surrounding a lake. We use the National Elevation Dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset – Plus to estimate the percent slope of surrounding lakes and use this information to predict maximum lake depth. We also use field measured maximum lake depths from the US EPA's National Lakes Assessment to empirically adjust and cross-validate our predictions. We were able to predict maximum depth for ∼28,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States with an average cross-validated RMSE of 5.95 m and 5.09 m and average correlation of 0.82 and 0.69 for Hydrological Unit Code Regions 01 and 02, respectively. The depth predictions and the scripts are openly available as supplements to this manuscript. PMID:21984945

  19. Maximum Possible Transverse Velocity in Special Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhekar, Sarang

    1991-01-01

    Using a physical picture, an expression for the maximum possible transverse velocity and orientation required for that by a linear emitter in special theory of relativity has been derived. A differential calculus method is also used to derive the expression. (Author/KR)

  20. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-03-01

    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  1. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum rates. 9701.312 Section 9701.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  2. Comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, Stanwood W; Lee, Stephen M

    1922-01-01

    Thin metal diaphragms form a satisfactory means for comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines. The diaphragm is clamped between two metal washers in a spark plug shell and its thickness is chosen such that, when subjected to explosion pressure, the exposed portion will be sheared from the rim in a short time.

  3. 24 CFR 200.15 - Maximum mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum mortgage. 200.15 Section 200.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  4. 24 CFR 200.15 - Maximum mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum mortgage. 200.15 Section 200.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  5. Menu Plans: Maximum Nutrition for Minimum Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that menu planning is the key to getting maximum nutrition in day care meals and snacks for minimum cost. Explores United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid guidelines for children and tips for planning menus and grocery shopping. Includes suggested meal patterns and portion sizes. (HTH)

  6. Pattern of arrhythmias among Nigerians with congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Olufemi E; Abiodun, Olugbenga O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Ogunyemi, Suraj A; Balogun, Michael O; Bamikole, Olaniyi J; Ajibare, Adeola O; Ajayi, Adesuyi A

    2015-01-01

    Background In patients with heart failure, death is often sudden due to life-threatening arrhythmias. This work was carried out to evaluate the pattern of arrhythmias in Nigerians with heart failure. Materials and methods Thirty subjects with congestive heart failure (CHF), 30 subjects with hypertensive heart disease, and 15 normal subjects with no obvious features of heart disease were evaluated with resting and 24-hour electrocardiographic monitoring and transthoracic echocardiography. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance with post hoc Duncan’s analysis, Fisher’s exact test, and linear regression analysis using SPSS version 16. Results CHF subjects had more instances of supraventricular tachycardia (P=0.005), ventricular extrasystoles (P<0.001), bigeminy (P<0.001), trigeminy (P<0.001), couplets (P<0.001), triplets (P<0.001), and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) (P=0.003) than the other two control groups. They also showed a significantly longer VT duration (4.6±5.6 seconds) compared with the other groups (P<0.001). Linear regression analysis showed a significant direct relationship between VT and the maximum number of ventricular extrasystoles per hour (P=0.001). Conclusion Cardiac arrhythmias are common in subjects with CHF and are more frequent when compared with patients with hypertensive heart disease and normal subjects. PMID:25870514

  7. The 2011 Northern Hemisphere Solar Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altrock, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Altrock (1997, Solar Phys. 170, 411) discusses a process in which Fe XIV 530.3 nm emission features appear at high latitudes and gradually migrate towards the equator, merging with the sunspot "butterfly diagram". In cycles 21 - 23 solar maximum occurred when the number of Fe XIV emission regions per day > 0.19 (averaged over 365 days and both hemispheres) first reached latitudes 18°, 21° and 21°, for an average of 20° ± 1.7°. Another high-latitude process is the "Rush to the Poles" of polar crown prominences and their associated coronal emission, including Fe XIV. The Rush is a harbinger of solar maximum (cf. Altrock, 2003, Solar Phys. 216, 343). Solar maximum in cycles 21 - 23 occurred when the center line of the Rush reached a critical latitude. These latitudes were 76°, 74° and 78°, respectively, for an average of 76° ± 2°. Cycle 24 displays an intermittent Rush that is only well-defined in the northern hemisphere. In 2009 an initial slope of 4.6°/yr was found in the north, compared to an average of 9.4 ± 1.7 °/yr in the previous three cycles. However, in 2010 the slope increased to 7.5°/yr. Extending that rate to 76° ± 2° indicates that the solar maximum smoothed sunspot number in the northern hemisphere already occurred at 2011.6 ± 0.3. In the southern hemisphere the Rush is very poorly defined. A linear fit to several maxima would reach 76° in the south at 2014.2. In 1999, persistent Fe XIV coronal emission connected with the ESC appeared near 70° in the north and began migrating towards the equator at a rate 40% slower than the previous two solar cycles. A fit to the early ESC would not reach 20° until 2019.8. However, in 2009 and 2010 an acceleration occurred. Currently the greatest number of emission regions is at 21° in the north and 24°in the south. This indicates that solar maximum is occurring now in the north but not yet in the south. The latest global smoothed sunspot numbers show an inflection point in late 2011, which

  8. Histone methylations in heart development, congenital and adult heart diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing-Jun; Liu, Zhi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Heart development comprises myocyte specification, differentiation and cardiac morphogenesis. These processes are regulated by a group of core cardiac transcription factors in a coordinated temporal and spatial manner. Histone methylation is an emerging epigenetic mechanism for regulating gene transcription. Interplay among cardiac transcription factors and histone lysine modifiers plays important role in heart development. Aberrant expression and mutation of the histone lysine modifiers during development and in adult life can cause either embryonic lethality or congenital heart diseases, and influences the response of adult hearts to pathological stresses. In this review, we describe current body of literature on the role of several common histone methylations and their modifying enzymes in heart development, congenital and adult heart diseases. PMID:25942538

  9. Heart Rate Variability Is Associated with Exercise Capacity in Patients with Cardiac Syndrome X

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hao-Min; Yu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Chen-Huan

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the healthiness of autonomic nervous system, which is associated with exercise capacity. We therefore investigated whether HRV could predict the exercise capacity in the adults with cardiac syndrome X (CSX). A total of 238 subjects (57±12 years, 67.8% men), who were diagnosed as CSX by the positive exercise stress test and nearly normal coronary angiogram were enrolled. Power spectrum from the 24-hour recording of heart rate was analyzed in frequency domain using total power (TP) and spectral components of the very low frequency (VLF), low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) ranges. Among the study population, 129 subjects with impaired exercise capacity during the treadmill test had significantly lower HRV indices than those with preserved exercise capacity (≥90% of the age predicted maximal heart rate). After accounting for age, sex, and baseline SBP and heart rate, VLF (odds ratio per 1SD and 95% CI: 2.02, 1.19–3.42), LF (1.67, 1.10–2.55), and TP (1.82, 1.17–2.83) remained significantly associated with preserved exercise capacity. In addition, increased HRV indices were also associated with increased exercise duration, rate-pressure product, and heart rate recovery, independent of age, body mass index, and baseline SBP and heart rate. In subgroup analysis, HRV indices demonstrated similar predictive values related to exercise capacity across various subpopulations, especially in the young. In patients with CSX, HRV was independently associated with exercise capacity, especially in young subjects. The healthiness of autonomic nervous system may have a role in modulating the exercise capacity in patients with CSX. PMID:26812652

  10. Heart Rate Variability Is Associated with Exercise Capacity in Patients with Cardiac Syndrome X.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dai-Yin; Yang, Albert C; Cheng, Hao-Min; Lu, Tse-Min; Yu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Chen-Huan; Sung, Shih-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the healthiness of autonomic nervous system, which is associated with exercise capacity. We therefore investigated whether HRV could predict the exercise capacity in the adults with cardiac syndrome X (CSX). A total of 238 subjects (57±12 years, 67.8% men), who were diagnosed as CSX by the positive exercise stress test and nearly normal coronary angiogram were enrolled. Power spectrum from the 24-hour recording of heart rate was analyzed in frequency domain using total power (TP) and spectral components of the very low frequency (VLF), low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) ranges. Among the study population, 129 subjects with impaired exercise capacity during the treadmill test had significantly lower HRV indices than those with preserved exercise capacity (≥90% of the age predicted maximal heart rate). After accounting for age, sex, and baseline SBP and heart rate, VLF (odds ratio per 1SD and 95% CI: 2.02, 1.19-3.42), LF (1.67, 1.10-2.55), and TP (1.82, 1.17-2.83) remained significantly associated with preserved exercise capacity. In addition, increased HRV indices were also associated with increased exercise duration, rate-pressure product, and heart rate recovery, independent of age, body mass index, and baseline SBP and heart rate. In subgroup analysis, HRV indices demonstrated similar predictive values related to exercise capacity across various subpopulations, especially in the young. In patients with CSX, HRV was independently associated with exercise capacity, especially in young subjects. The healthiness of autonomic nervous system may have a role in modulating the exercise capacity in patients with CSX. PMID:26812652

  11. The compliance of the porcine pulmonary artery depends on pressure and heart rate

    PubMed Central

    Kornet, L; Jansen, J R C; te Nijenhuis, F C A M; Langewouters, G J; Versprille, A

    1998-01-01

    The influence of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mean Ppa) on dynamic (Cd) and pseudo-static compliance (Cps) of the pulmonary artery was studied at a constant and a changing heart rate. Cd is the change in cross-sectional area (CSA) relative to the change in Ppa throughout a heart cycle. Cps is the change in mean CSA relative to the change in mean Ppa. If Cd is known, pulmonary blood flow can be computed from the Ppa using a windkessel model. We investigated whether Cps can be interchanged with Cd. In nine anaesthetized pigs, we determined the mean CSA and Cd of the pulmonary artery at various Ppa levels, ranging from approximately 30 to 10 mmHg, established by bleeding. Two series of measurements were carried out, one series at a spontaneously changing heart rate (n = 9) and one series at a constant heart rate (n = 6). To determine CSA a conductance method was used. Cps depended on pressure. The mean CSA versus mean Ppa curves were sigmoid and steepest in the series with the increasing heart rate (established by bleeding). The CSA versus Ppa loop during a heart cycle, giving Cd, was approximately linear and almost closed. The Cdversus mean Ppa relationship was bell shaped. Its width was smaller if the heart rate increased during the series of measurements. The pressure, where Cd was maximum, was higher at higher heart rates. Furthermore, the maximum Cd was not affected by the heart rate. Because the pulmonary artery constricts with increasing heart rate, Cps will be overestimated during procedures where heart rate increases. Cd should be determined on a beat-to-beat basis to calculate flow because it changes with mean pulmonary arterial pressure and heart rate. PMID:9769432

  12. The compliance of the porcine pulmonary artery depends on pressure and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Kornet, L; Jansen, J R; Nijenhuis, F C; Langewouters, G J; Versprille, A

    1998-11-01

    1. The influence of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mean Ppa) on dynamic (Cd) and pseudo-static compliance (Cps) of the pulmonary artery was studied at a constant and a changing heart rate. Cd is the change in cross-sectional area (CSA) relative to the change in Ppa throughout a heart cycle. Cps is the change in mean CSA relative to the change in mean Ppa. If Cd is known, pulmonary blood flow can be computed from the Ppa using a windkessel model. We investigated whether Cps can be interchanged with Cd. 2. In nine anaesthetized pigs, we determined the mean CSA and Cd of the pulmonary artery at various Ppa levels, ranging from approximately 30 to 10 mmHg, established by bleeding. Two series of measurements were carried out, one series at a spontaneously changing heart rate (n = 9) and one series at a constant heart rate (n = 6). To determine CSA a conductance method was used. 3. Cps depended on pressure. The mean CSA versus mean Ppa curves were sigmoid and steepest in the series with the increasing heart rate (established by bleeding). The CSA versus Ppa loop during a heart cycle, giving Cd, was approximately linear and almost closed. The Cd versus mean Ppa relationship was bell shaped. Its width was smaller if the heart rate increased during the series of measurements. The pressure, where Cd was maximum, was higher at higher heart rates. Furthermore, the maximum Cd was not affected by the heart rate. 4. Because the pulmonary artery constricts with increasing heart rate, Cps will be overestimated during procedures where heart rate increases. Cd should be determined on a beat-to-beat basis to calculate flow because it changes with mean pulmonary arterial pressure and heart rate. PMID:9769432

  13. Ivabradine: Heart Failure and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Rahul; Garg, Jalaj; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Shah, Neeraj; Lanier, Gregg; Martinez, Mathew W; Freudenberger, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    Heart failure affects over 5 million people in the United States and carries a high rate of mortality. Ivabradine, a new agent has been added to the current medical options for managing heart failure. It is a selective funny current (If) inhibitor in sinoatrial node and slows its firing rate, prolonging diastolic depolarization without a negative inotropic effect. Ivabradine was only recently approved by Food and Drug administration after the results of Systolic Heart Failure Treatment with the If Inhibitor Ivabradine (SHIFT) trial, for a reduction in rehospitalizations from chronic heart failure. This trial assessed patients with stable heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and a heart rate of at least 70 beats per minute at rest on maximally tolerated beta-blocker therapy and demonstrated statistically significant reduction in heart failure hospitalization and deaths. Additionally, ivabradine has been associated with reduced cardiac remodeling, reduced heart rate variability, improvement in exercise tolerance, improved heart failure class of New York Heart Association, and better quality of life. It has also been tried in other conditions, such as inappropriate sinus tachycardia and cardiogenic shock, and is currently in phase II trial for patients with newly diagnosed multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. PMID:26721645

  14. Tailor-made heart simulation predicts the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy in a canine model of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Panthee, Nirmal; Okada, Jun-ichi; Washio, Takumi; Mochizuki, Youhei; Suzuki, Ryohei; Koyama, Hidekazu; Ono, Minoru; Hisada, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2016-07-01

    Despite extensive studies on clinical indices for the selection of patient candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), approximately 30% of selected patients do not respond to this therapy. Herein, we examined whether CRT simulations based on individualized realistic three-dimensional heart models can predict the therapeutic effect of CRT in a canine model of heart failure with left bundle branch block. In four canine models of failing heart with dyssynchrony, individualized three-dimensional heart models reproducing the electromechanical activity of each animal were created based on the computer tomographic images. CRT simulations were performed for 25 patterns of three ventricular pacing lead positions. Lead positions producing the best and the worst therapeutic effects were selected in each model. The validity of predictions was tested in acute experiments in which hearts were paced from the sites identified by simulations. We found significant correlations between the experimentally observed improvement in ejection fraction (EF) and the predicted improvements in ejection fraction (P<0.01) or the maximum value of the derivative of left ventricular pressure (P<0.01). The optimal lead positions produced better outcomes compared with the worst positioning in all dogs studied, although there were significant variations in responses. Variations in ventricular wall thickness among the dogs may have contributed to these responses. Thus CRT simulations using the individualized three-dimensional heart models can predict acute hemodynamic improvement, and help determine the optimal positions of the pacing lead. PMID:26973218

  15. Monitoring of heart and respiratory rates by photoplethysmography using a digital filtering technique.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, K; Tamura, T; Miike, H

    1996-07-01

    An apparatus for simultaneously monitoring heart and respiratory rates was developed using photoplethysmography (PPG) and digital filters, and compared with conventional methods. The PPG signal, which includes both heart and respiratory components, was measured at the earlobe with an original transmission mode photoplethysmographic device. A digital filtering technique was used to distinguish heart and respiratory signals from the PPG signal. The cut-off frequency of the respiratory signal filter was selected automatically depending on the heart rate. Using digital filtering techniques, heart and respiratory signals were separated at rest and during exercise. The digital signal processor was employed to realize an adaptive and real-time filtering. The heart rate was calculated by the zero-crossing method and the respiratory rate from the peak interval of the filtered signal. To evaluate the newly developed monitor, an ECG for heart rate and a transthoracic impedance plethysmogram for respiratory rate were monitored simultaneously. To obtain higher heart and respiratory rates, exercise was performed on an electrical bicycle ergometer. Heart and respiratory rates calculated by the new method compare to those obtained from ECG and the transthoracic impedance plethysmogram. The maximum error of heart and respiratory rates was 10 beats/min and 7 breaths/min, respectively. PMID:8818134

  16. Effects of increased heart work on glycolysis and adenine nucleotides in the perfused heart of normal and diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Opie, L. H.; Mansford, K. R. L.; Owen, Patricia

    1971-01-01

    1. In the isolated perfused rat heart, the contractile activity and the oxygen uptake were varied by altering the aortic perfusion pressure, or by the atrial perfusion technique (`working heart'). 2. The maximum increase in the contractile activity brought about an eightfold increase in the oxygen uptake. The rate of glycolytic flux rose, while tissue contents of hexose monophosphates, citrate, ATP and creatine phosphate decreased, and contents of ADP and AMP rose. 3. The changes in tissue contents of adenine nucleotides during increased heart work were time-dependent. The ATP content fell temporarily (30s and 2min) after the start of left-atrial perfusion; at 5 and 10min values were normal; and at 30 and 60min values were decreased. ADP and AMP values were increased in the first 15min, but were at control values 30 or 60min after the onset of increased heart work. 4. During increased heart work changes in the tissue contents of adenine nucleotide and of citrate appeared to play a role in altered regulation of glycolysis at the level of phosphofructokinase activity. 5. In recirculation experiments increased heart work for 30min was associated with increased entry of [14C]glucose (11.1mm) and glycogen into glycolysis and a comparable increase in formation of products of glycolysis (lactate, pyruvate and 14CO2). There was no major accumulation of intermediates. Glycogen was not a major fuel for respiration. 6. Increased glycolytic flux in Langendorff perfused and working hearts was obtained by the addition of insulin to the perfusion medium. The concomitant increases in the tissue values of hexose phosphates and of citrate contrasted with the decreased values of hexose monophosphates and of citrate during increased glycolytic flux obtained by increased heart work. 7. Decreased glycolytic flux in Langendorff perfused hearts was obtained by using acute alloxan-diabetic and chronic streptozotocin-diabetic rats; in the latter condition there were decreased tissue

  17. 75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... civil monetary penalties per the Inflation Act. See 74 FR 68701 (December 29, 2009). FRA's maximum and... materials violation was $275. 69 FR 30590, May 28, 2004. To implement these SAFETEA-LU amendments to the maximum and minimum penalties, FRA issued a final rule that was published on December 26, 2006, 71...

  18. Theoretical Analysis of Maximum Flow Declination Rate versus Maximum Area Declination Rate in Phonation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Maximum flow declination rate (MFDR) in the glottis is known to correlate strongly with vocal intensity in voicing. This declination, or negative slope on the glottal airflow waveform, is in part attributable to the maximum area declination rate (MADR) and in part to the overall inertia of the air column of the vocal tract (lungs to…

  19. 76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ...PHMSA is issuing an Advisory Bulletin to remind operators of gas and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform detailed threat and risk analyses that integrate accurate data and information from their entire pipeline system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum......

  20. Aerobic Fitness, Heart Rate Recovery and Heart Rate Recovery Time in Indian School Children.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Rajesh Jeniton; Ravichandran, K; Vaz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Data on aerobic fitness and heart rate recovery in children are limited. This study was done to evaluate the relation between them in Indian school going children. Three hundred children of 7 to 10.5 years were recruited and their aerobic fitness was predicted using modified Harvard's step test (VO₂max) and 20 meter shuttle test (VO₂peak). The heart rate was monitored for 12 minutes post modified Harvard's step test. The difference between the maximum and the 1st minute HR was noted as HRR1 and the time taken to reach the resting heart rate was also recorded. VO₂max was inversely correlated with HRR1 (r = -0.64, p<0.001). However, the partial correlation of the two was not significant (r(partial) = -0.037, p = 0.55), indicating children with higher basal HR had higher HRR1 and that accounted for the observed association with aerobic fitness. Cox regression analysis showed that the recovery rate per unit time was 3% greater with increasing VO₂max (HR = 1.03, 95% CI:1.01 to 1.05, p = 0.013). The heart rate parameters did not show any associat with VO₂peak This study demonstrates that there is no relation between VO₂max and HRR1 after 3 minutes of modified Harvard's step test in Indian children of 7 to 10.5 years. However, aerobic fitness is a positive predictor of heart rate recovery time in this group. PMID:27530008

  1. Fluid dynamics of heart development.

    PubMed

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Miller, Laura A

    2011-09-01

    The morphology, muscle mechanics, fluid dynamics, conduction properties, and molecular biology of the developing embryonic heart have received much attention in recent years due to the importance of both fluid and elastic forces in shaping the heart as well as the striking relationship between the heart's evolution and development. Although few studies have directly addressed the connection between fluid dynamics and heart development, a number of studies suggest that fluids may play a key role in morphogenic signaling. For example, fluid shear stress may trigger biochemical cascades within the endothelial cells of the developing heart that regulate chamber and valve morphogenesis. Myocardial activity generates forces on the intracardiac blood, creating pressure gradients across the cardiac wall. These pressures may also serve as epigenetic signals. In this article, the fluid dynamics of the early stages of heart development is reviewed. The relevant work in cardiac morphology, muscle mechanics, regulatory networks, and electrophysiology is also reviewed in the context of intracardial fluid dynamics. PMID:21327946

  2. The total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A; Slaughter, M

    2011-09-01

    In the 1960s, cardiac surgeons and biomedical engineers pioneered the development of total artificial hearts (TAH) for the treatment of left and right heart failure. As we mark the 10th anniversary of the first implantation of the AbioCor device, the use of TAH has been limited, having failed to reach its envisioned potential and promise as an alternative therapy to heart transplantation. The Syncardia/CardioWest device, originally developed 30 years ago as the Jarvik TAH and later renamed the CardioWest TAH, continues to be used clinically in over 50 centers within the US and Europe having supported over 900 patients worldwide. Syncardia continues to develop TAH technology as evidenced by their recent introduction of a new portable pneumatic driver that enables patients to be discharged from the hospital. In contrast to TAH devices, continuous flow ventricular assist devices (VAD) have made tremendous technological strides and are rapidly gaining widespread clinical acceptance. The VAD technology has demonstrated extraordinary safety and reliability records through evolving technologies, advanced biocompatible materials, and improved patient management. Subsequently, the number of TAH implantations remains low compared to the growth in LVAD implants. Nonetheless, the Syncardia/CardioWest TAH remains an important and viable option for patients with severe biventricular failure and end organ dysfunction. Overall, a 79% survival rate has been achieved in patients supported with a Syncardia/CardioWest TAH as bridge-to-transplantation. In this review article, a brief history on the evolution of TAH devices, their current use and emerging use of evolving continuous flow VAD technology as chronic biventricular and TAH device systems are presented. PMID:21775941

  3. Pareto versus lognormal: A maximum entropy test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  4. Model Fit after Pairwise Maximum Likelihood

    PubMed Central

    Barendse, M. T.; Ligtvoet, R.; Timmerman, M. E.; Oort, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Maximum likelihood factor analysis of discrete data within the structural equation modeling framework rests on the assumption that the observed discrete responses are manifestations of underlying continuous scores that are normally distributed. As maximizing the likelihood of multivariate response patterns is computationally very intensive, the sum of the log–likelihoods of the bivariate response patterns is maximized instead. Little is yet known about how to assess model fit when the analysis is based on such a pairwise maximum likelihood (PML) of two–way contingency tables. We propose new fit criteria for the PML method and conduct a simulation study to evaluate their performance in model selection. With large sample sizes (500 or more), PML performs as well the robust weighted least squares analysis of polychoric correlations. PMID:27148136

  5. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic. PMID:25871054

  6. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Chris H.; Subaşı, Yiǧit; Calabrese, Justin M.

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.

  7. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  8. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    PubMed

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope. PMID:26159097

  9. Evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost Program

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A. James; Hefner, Dennis; Dobson, Allen; Hardy, Ralph

    1983-01-01

    This article summarizes an evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost (MAC)-Estimated Acquisition Cost (EAC) program, the Federal Government's cost-containment program for prescription drugs.1 The MAC-EAC regulations which became effective on August 26, 1976, have four major components: (1) Maximum Allowable Cost reimbursement limits for selected multisource or generically available drugs; (2) Estimated Acquisition Cost reimbursement limits for all drugs; (3) “usual and customary” reimbursement limits for all drugs; and (4) a directive that professional fee studies be performed by each State. The study examines the benefits and costs of the MAC reimbursement limits for 15 dosage forms of five multisource drugs and EAC reimbursement limits for all drugs for five selected States as of 1979. PMID:10309857

  10. Maximum independent set on diluted triangular lattices.

    PubMed

    Fay, C W; Liu, J W; Duxbury, P M

    2006-05-01

    Core percolation and maximum independent set on random graphs have recently been characterized using the methods of statistical physics. Here we present a statistical physics study of these problems on bond diluted triangular lattices. Core percolation critical behavior is found to be consistent with the standard percolation values, though there are strong finite size effects. A transfer matrix method is developed and applied to find accurate values of the density and degeneracy of the maximum independent set on lattices of limited width but large length. An extrapolation of these results to the infinite lattice limit yields high precision results, which are tabulated. These results are compared to results found using both vertex based and edge based local probability recursion algorithms, which have proven useful in the analysis of hard computational problems, such as the satisfiability problem. PMID:16803003

  11. Model Fit after Pairwise Maximum Likelihood.

    PubMed

    Barendse, M T; Ligtvoet, R; Timmerman, M E; Oort, F J

    2016-01-01

    Maximum likelihood factor analysis of discrete data within the structural equation modeling framework rests on the assumption that the observed discrete responses are manifestations of underlying continuous scores that are normally distributed. As maximizing the likelihood of multivariate response patterns is computationally very intensive, the sum of the log-likelihoods of the bivariate response patterns is maximized instead. Little is yet known about how to assess model fit when the analysis is based on such a pairwise maximum likelihood (PML) of two-way contingency tables. We propose new fit criteria for the PML method and conduct a simulation study to evaluate their performance in model selection. With large sample sizes (500 or more), PML performs as well the robust weighted least squares analysis of polychoric correlations. PMID:27148136

  12. Income and heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the unadjusted and adjusted effects of income on heart disease; its main disease intermediary, high blood pressure; and its main behavioural risk factors, smoking and physical inactivity. Design Random-digit dialing telephone survey collected through the Canadian Community Health Survey by Statistics Canada. Setting Saskatchewan. Participants A total of 27 090 residents aged 20 years and older; each health region in Saskatchewan was represented. Main outcome measures Overall, 178 variables related to demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, behaviour, life stress, disease intermediaries, health outcomes, and access to health care were analyzed to determine their unadjusted and adjusted effects on heart disease. Results The mean age of the sample was 52.6 years. Women represented 55.9% of the sample. Most respondents were married (52.3%) and had some postsecondary or graduate education (52.5%). The mean personal income was $23 931 and the mean household income was $37 533. All models statistically controlled for age. Five covariates independently associated with heart disease included high blood pressure, household income of $29 999 or less per year, being a daily smoker, male sex, and being physically inactive. Five covariates independently associated with high blood pressure included being overweight or obese, being a daily smoker, household income of $29 999 or less per year, male sex, and being physically inactive. Five covariates independently associated with daily smoking included being a visible minority, household income of $29 999 or less per year, not being overweight or obese, education level of less than secondary school, and male sex. Six covariates independently associated with physical inactivity included being a visible minority, being overweight or obese, education level of less than secondary school, male sex, household income of $29 999 or less per year, and being a daily smoker. Conclusion Household

  13. Sleep and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kimberly A; Trupp, Robin J

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation occurs for many reasons but, when chronic in nature, has many consequences for optimal health and performance. Despite its high prevalence, sleep-disordered breathing is underrecognized and undertreated. This is especially true in the setting of heart failure, where sleep-disordered breathing affects more than 50% of patients. Although the optimal strategy to best identify patients is currently unknown, concerted and consistent efforts to support early recognition, diagnosis, and subsequent treatment should be encouraged. Optimization of guideline-directed medical therapy and concurrent treatment of sleep-disordered breathing are necessary to improve outcomes in this complex high-risk population. PMID:26567495

  14. Tissue Radiation Response with Maximum Tsallis Entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    2010-10-08

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.

  15. Maximum entropy production - Full steam ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2012-05-01

    The application of a principle of Maximum Entropy Production (MEP, or less ambiguously MaxEP) to planetary climate is discussed. This idea suggests that if sufficiently free of dynamical constraints, the atmospheric and oceanic heat flows across a planet may conspire to maximize the generation of mechanical work, or entropy. Thermodynamic and information-theoretic aspects of this idea are discussed. These issues are also discussed in the context of dust devils, convective vortices found in strongly-heated desert areas.

  16. Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandy, W. T., Jr.; Schick, L. H.

    This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the Tenth Annual Workshop on Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods. The thirty-six papers included cover a wide range of applications in areas such as economics and econometrics, astronomy and astrophysics, general physics, complex systems, image reconstruction, and probability and mathematics. Together they give an excellent state-of-the-art overview of fundamental methods of data analysis.

  17. Heart Disease Detection Using Wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González S., A.; Acosta P., J. L.; Sandoval M., M.

    2004-09-01

    We develop a wavelet based method to obtain standardized gray-scale chart of both healthy hearts and of hearts suffering left ventricular hypertrophy. The hypothesis that early bad functioning of heart can be detected must be tested by comparing the wavelet analysis of the corresponding ECD with the limit cases. Several important parameters shall be taken into account such as age, sex and electrolytic changes.

  18. Radiology of congenital heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Amplatz, K.

    1986-01-01

    This is a text on the radiologic diagnosis of congenital heart disease and its clinical manifestations. The main thrust of the book is the logical approach which allows an understanding of the complex theory of congenital heart disease. The atlas gives a concise overview of the entire field of congenital heart disease. Emphasis is placed on the understanding of the pathophysiology and its clinical and radiological consequences. Surgical treatment is included since it provides a different viewpoint of the anatomy.

  19. Sensor registration using airlanes: maximum likelihood solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Hwa-Tung

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution, the maximum likelihood estimation of sensor registration parameters, such as range, azimuth and elevation biases in radar measurements, using airlane information is proposed and studied. The motivation for using airlane information for sensor registration is that it is freely available as a source of reference and it provides an alternative to conventional techniques that rely on synchronised and correctly associated measurements from two or more sensors. In the paper, the problem is first formulated in terms of a measurement model that is a nonlinear function of the unknown target state and sensor parameters, plus sensor noise. A probabilistic model of the target state is developed based on airlane information. The maximum likelihood and also maximum a posteriori solutions are given. The Cramer-Rao lower bound is derived and simulation results are presented for the case of estimating the biases in radar range, azimuth and elevation measurements. The accuracy of the proposed method is compared against the Cramer-Rao lower bound and that of an existing two-sensor alignment method. It is concluded that sensor registration using airlane information is a feasible alternative to existing techniques.

  20. Sensor registration using airlanes: maximum likelihood solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Hwa-Tung

    2003-12-01

    In this contribution, the maximum likelihood estimation of sensor registration parameters, such as range, azimuth and elevation biases in radar measurements, using airlane information is proposed and studied. The motivation for using airlane information for sensor registration is that it is freely available as a source of reference and it provides an alternative to conventional techniques that rely on synchronised and correctly associated measurements from two or more sensors. In the paper, the problem is first formulated in terms of a measurement model that is a nonlinear function of the unknown target state and sensor parameters, plus sensor noise. A probabilistic model of the target state is developed based on airlane information. The maximum likelihood and also maximum a posteriori solutions are given. The Cramer-Rao lower bound is derived and simulation results are presented for the case of estimating the biases in radar range, azimuth and elevation measurements. The accuracy of the proposed method is compared against the Cramer-Rao lower bound and that of an existing two-sensor alignment method. It is concluded that sensor registration using airlane information is a feasible alternative to existing techniques.

  1. The maximum rate of mammal evolution.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D

    2012-03-13

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

  2. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.

    2012-03-01

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  3. Maximum-biomass prediction of homofermentative Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shumao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Fed-batch and pH-controlled cultures have been widely used for industrial production of probiotics. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the relationship between the maximum biomass of different homofermentative Lactobacillus and lactate accumulation, and to develop a prediction equation for the maximum biomass concentration in such cultures. The accumulation of the end products and the depletion of nutrients by various strains were evaluated. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acid anions for various strains at pH 7.0 were examined. The lactate concentration at the point of complete inhibition was not significantly different from the MIC of lactate for all of the strains, although the inhibition mechanism of lactate and acetate on Lactobacillus rhamnosus was different from the other strains which were inhibited by the osmotic pressure caused by acid anions at pH 7.0. When the lactate concentration accumulated to the MIC, the strains stopped growing. The maximum biomass was closely related to the biomass yield per unit of lactate produced (YX/P) and the MIC (C) of lactate for different homofermentative Lactobacillus. Based on the experimental data obtained using different homofermentative Lactobacillus, a prediction equation was established as follows: Xmax - X0 = (0.59 ± 0.02)·YX/P·C. PMID:26896862

  4. "SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Raymond

    2014-05-01

    The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.

  5. Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosek, Dalibor; Ebr, Jan; Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosková, Jana

    2016-03-01

    We focus on the primary composition of cosmic rays with the highest energies that cause extensive air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. A way of examining the two lowest order moments of the sample distribution of the depth of shower maximum is presented. The aim is to show that useful information about the composition of the primary beam can be inferred with limited knowledge we have about processes underlying these observations. In order to describe how the moments of the depth of shower maximum depend on the type of primary particles and their energies, we utilize a superposition model. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we are able to determine what trends in the primary composition are consistent with the input data, while relying on a limited amount of information from shower physics. Some capabilities and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. In order to achieve a realistic description of the primary mass composition, we pay special attention to the choice of the parameters of the superposition model. We present two examples that demonstrate what consequences can be drawn for energy dependent changes in the primary composition.

  6. New medications for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gordin, Jonathan S; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2016-08-01

    Heart failure is common and results in substantial morbidity and mortality. Current guideline-based therapies for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, including beta blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and aldosterone antagonists aim to interrupt deleterious neurohormonal pathways and have shown significant success in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with heart failure. Continued efforts to further improve outcomes in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction have led to the first new-in-class medications approved for heart failure since 2005, ivabradine and sacubitril/valsartan. Ivabradine targets the If channels in the sinoatrial node of the heart, decreasing heart rate. Sacubitril/valsartan combines a neprilysin inhibitor that increases levels of beneficial vasodilatory peptides with an angiotensin receptor antagonist. On a background of previously approved, guideline-directed medical therapies for heart failure, these medications have shown improved clinical outcomes ranging from decreased hospitalizations in a select group of patients to a reduction in all-cause mortality across all pre-specified subgroups. In this review, we will discuss the previously established guideline-directed medical therapies for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, the translational research that led to the development of these new therapies, and the results from the major clinical trials of ivabradine and sacubitril/valsartan. PMID:27038558

  7. Collaborative double robust targeted maximum likelihood estimation.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, Mark J; Gruber, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative double robust targeted maximum likelihood estimators represent a fundamental further advance over standard targeted maximum likelihood estimators of a pathwise differentiable parameter of a data generating distribution in a semiparametric model, introduced in van der Laan, Rubin (2006). The targeted maximum likelihood approach involves fluctuating an initial estimate of a relevant factor (Q) of the density of the observed data, in order to make a bias/variance tradeoff targeted towards the parameter of interest. The fluctuation involves estimation of a nuisance parameter portion of the likelihood, g. TMLE has been shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed (CAN) under regularity conditions, when either one of these two factors of the likelihood of the data is correctly specified, and it is semiparametric efficient if both are correctly specified. In this article we provide a template for applying collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimation (C-TMLE) to the estimation of pathwise differentiable parameters in semi-parametric models. The procedure creates a sequence of candidate targeted maximum likelihood estimators based on an initial estimate for Q coupled with a succession of increasingly non-parametric estimates for g. In a departure from current state of the art nuisance parameter estimation, C-TMLE estimates of g are constructed based on a loss function for the targeted maximum likelihood estimator of the relevant factor Q that uses the nuisance parameter to carry out the fluctuation, instead of a loss function for the nuisance parameter itself. Likelihood-based cross-validation is used to select the best estimator among all candidate TMLE estimators of Q(0) in this sequence. A penalized-likelihood loss function for Q is suggested when the parameter of interest is borderline-identifiable. We present theoretical results for "collaborative double robustness," demonstrating that the collaborative targeted maximum

  8. Collaborative Double Robust Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation*

    PubMed Central

    van der Laan, Mark J.; Gruber, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative double robust targeted maximum likelihood estimators represent a fundamental further advance over standard targeted maximum likelihood estimators of a pathwise differentiable parameter of a data generating distribution in a semiparametric model, introduced in van der Laan, Rubin (2006). The targeted maximum likelihood approach involves fluctuating an initial estimate of a relevant factor (Q) of the density of the observed data, in order to make a bias/variance tradeoff targeted towards the parameter of interest. The fluctuation involves estimation of a nuisance parameter portion of the likelihood, g. TMLE has been shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed (CAN) under regularity conditions, when either one of these two factors of the likelihood of the data is correctly specified, and it is semiparametric efficient if both are correctly specified. In this article we provide a template for applying collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimation (C-TMLE) to the estimation of pathwise differentiable parameters in semi-parametric models. The procedure creates a sequence of candidate targeted maximum likelihood estimators based on an initial estimate for Q coupled with a succession of increasingly non-parametric estimates for g. In a departure from current state of the art nuisance parameter estimation, C-TMLE estimates of g are constructed based on a loss function for the targeted maximum likelihood estimator of the relevant factor Q that uses the nuisance parameter to carry out the fluctuation, instead of a loss function for the nuisance parameter itself. Likelihood-based cross-validation is used to select the best estimator among all candidate TMLE estimators of Q0 in this sequence. A penalized-likelihood loss function for Q is suggested when the parameter of interest is borderline-identifiable. We present theoretical results for “collaborative double robustness,” demonstrating that the collaborative targeted maximum

  9. Pediatric heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Stiasny, Brian; Dave, Hitendu; Cavigelli-Brunner, Anna; Balmer, Christian; Kretschmar, Oliver; Bürki, Christoph; Klauwer, Dietrich; Hübler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric heart transplantation (pHTx) represents a small (14%) but very important and particular part in the field of cardiac transplantation. This treatment has lifelong impact on children. To achieve the best short and especially long-term survival with adequate quality of life, which is of crucial importance for this young patient population, one has to realize and understand the differences with adult HTx. Indication for transplantation, waitlist management including ABO incompatible (ABOi) transplantation and immunosuppression differ. Although young transplant recipients are ultimately likely to be considered for re-transplantation. One has to distinguish between myopathy and complex congenital heart disease (CHD). The differences in anatomy and physiology make the surgical procedure much more complex and create unique challenges. These recipients need a well-organized and educated team with pediatric cardiologists and intensivists, including a high skilled surgeon, which is dedicated to pHTx. Therefore, these types of transplants are best concentrated in specialized centers to achieve promising outcome. PMID:25922739

  10. Heart Failure After Heart Attack Tied to Cancer Risk in Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159804.html Heart Failure After Heart Attack Tied to Cancer Risk in Study Preliminary finding ... News) -- People who develop heart failure after a heart attack may also face a higher risk of cancer, ...

  11. Transfer entropy analysis of maternal and fetal heart rate coupling.

    PubMed

    Marzbanrad, Faezeh; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Endo, Miyuki; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Khandoker, Ahsan H

    2015-08-01

    Although evidence of the short term relationship between maternal and fetal heart rates has been found in previous model-based studies, knowledge about the mechanism and patterns of the coupling during gestation is still limited. In this study, a model-free method based on Transfer Entropy (TE) was applied to quantify the maternal-fetal heart rate couplings in both directions. Furthermore, analysis of the lag at which TE was maximum and its changes throughout gestation, provided more information about the mechanism of coupling and its latency. Experimental results based on fetal electrocardiograms (fECGs) and maternal ECG showed the evidence of coupling for 62 out of 65 healthy mothers and fetuses in each direction, by statistically validating against the surrogate pairs. The fetuses were divided into three gestational age groups: early (16-25 weeks), mid (26-31 weeks) and late (32-41 weeks) gestation. The maximum TE from maternal to fetal heart rate significantly increased from early to mid gestation, while the coupling delay on both directions decreased significantly from mid to late gestation. These changes occur concomitant with the maturation of the fetal sensory and autonomic nervous systems with advancing gestational age. In conclusion, the application of TE with delays revealed detailed information about the changes in fetal-maternal heart rate coupling strength and latency throughout gestation, which could provide novel clinical markers of fetal development and well-being. PMID:26738115

  12. Middle Holocene thermal maximum in eastern Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, D. S.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    A new systematic review of diverse Holocene paleoenvironmental records (Kaufman et al., Quat. Sci. Rev., in revision) has clarified the primary multi-centennial- to millennial-scale trends across eastern Beringia (Alaska, westernmost Canada and adjacent seas). Composite time series from midges, pollen, and biogeochemical indicators are compared with new summaries of mountain-glacier and lake-level fluctuations, terrestrial water-isotope records, sea-ice and sea-surface-temperature analyses, and peatland and thaw-lake initiation frequencies. The paleo observations are also compared with recently published simulations (Bartlein et al., Clim. Past Discuss., 2015) that used a regional climate model to simulate the effects of global and regional-scale forcings at 11 and 6 ka. During the early Holocene (11.5-8 ka), rather than a prominent thermal maximum as suggested previously, the newly compiled paleo evidence (mostly sensitive to summer conditions) indicates that temperatures were highly variable, at times both higher and lower than present, although the overall lowest average temperatures occurred during the earliest Holocene. During the middle Holocene (8-4 ka), glaciers retreated as the regional average temperature increased to a maximum between 7 and 5 ka, as reflected in most proxy types. The paleo evidence for low and variable temperatures during the early Holocene contrasts with more uniformly high temperatures during the middle Holocene and agrees with the climate simulations, which show that temperature in eastern Beringia was on average lower at 11 ka and higher at 6 ka than at present (pre-industrial). Low temperatures during the early Holocene can be attributed in part to the summer chilling caused by flooding the continental shelves, whereas the mid-Holocene thermal maximum was likely driven by the loss of the Laurentide ice sheet, rise in greenhouse gases, higher-than-present summer insolation, and expansion of forest over tundra.

  13. Maximum caliber inference of nonequilibrium processes.

    PubMed

    Otten, Moritz; Stock, Gerhard

    2010-07-21

    Thirty years ago, Jaynes suggested a general theoretical approach to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, called maximum caliber (MaxCal) [Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 31, 579 (1980)]. MaxCal is a variational principle for dynamics in the same spirit that maximum entropy is a variational principle for equilibrium statistical mechanics. Motivated by the success of maximum entropy inference methods for equilibrium problems, in this work the MaxCal formulation is applied to the inference of nonequilibrium processes. That is, given some time-dependent observables of a dynamical process, one constructs a model that reproduces these input data and moreover, predicts the underlying dynamics of the system. For example, the observables could be some time-resolved measurements of the folding of a protein, which are described by a few-state model of the free energy landscape of the system. MaxCal then calculates the probabilities of an ensemble of trajectories such that on average the data are reproduced. From this probability distribution, any dynamical quantity of the system can be calculated, including population probabilities, fluxes, or waiting time distributions. After briefly reviewing the formalism, the practical numerical implementation of MaxCal in the case of an inference problem is discussed. Adopting various few-state models of increasing complexity, it is demonstrated that the MaxCal principle indeed works as a practical method of inference: The scheme is fairly robust and yields correct results as long as the input data are sufficient. As the method is unbiased and general, it can deal with any kind of time dependency such as oscillatory transients and multitime decays. PMID:20649320

  14. Maximum aposteriori joint source/channel coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Gibson, Jerry D.

    1991-01-01

    A maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) approach to joint source/channel coder design is presented in this paper. This method attempts to explore a technique for designing joint source/channel codes, rather than ways of distributing bits between source coders and channel coders. For a nonideal source coder, MAP arguments are used to design a decoder which takes advantage of redundancy in the source coder output to perform error correction. Once the decoder is obtained, it is analyzed with the purpose of obtaining 'desirable properties' of the channel input sequence for improving overall system performance. Finally, an encoder design which incorporates these properties is proposed.

  15. Design of toroidal transformers for maximum efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayton, J. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The design of the most efficient toroidal transformer that can be built given the frequency, volt-ampere rating, magnetic flux density, window fill factor, and materials is described. With the above all held constant and only the dimensions of the magnetic core varied, the most efficient design occurs when the copper losses equal 60 percent of the iron losses. When this criterion is followed, efficiency is only slightly dependent on design frequency and fill factor. The ratios of inside diameter to outside diameter and height to build of the magnetic core that result in transformers of maximum efficiency are computed.

  16. Multiperiod Maximum Loss is time unit invariant.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Raimund M; Breuer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Time unit invariance is introduced as an additional requirement for multiperiod risk measures: for a constant portfolio under an i.i.d. risk factor process, the multiperiod risk should equal the one period risk of the aggregated loss, for an appropriate choice of parameters and independent of the portfolio and its distribution. Multiperiod Maximum Loss over a sequence of Kullback-Leibler balls is time unit invariant. This is also the case for the entropic risk measure. On the other hand, multiperiod Value at Risk and multiperiod Expected Shortfall are not time unit invariant. PMID:27563531

  17. Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M.

    2014-04-01

    We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

  18. Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

  19. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  20. Efficient maximum entropy algorithms for electronic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, R.N.; Roeder, H.; Voter, A.F.; Kress, J.D.

    1996-04-01

    Two Chebyshev recursion methods are presented for calculations with very large sparse Hamiltonians, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) and the maximum entropy method (MEM). If limited statistical accuracy and energy resolution are acceptable, they provide linear scaling methods for the calculation of physical properties involving large numbers of eigenstates such as densities of states, spectral functions, thermodynamics, total energies for Monte Carlo simulations and forces for molecular dynamics. KPM provides a uniform approximation to a DOS, with resolution inversely proportional to the number of Chebyshev moments, while MEM can achieve significantly higher, but non-uniform, resolution at the risk of possible artifacts. This paper emphasizes efficient algorithms.

  1. An Improved Maximum Neural Network with Stochastic Dynamics Characteristic for Maximum Clique Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gang; Tang, Zheng; Dai, Hongwei

    Through analyzing the dynamics characteristic of maximum neural network with an added vertex, we find that the solution quality is mainly determined by the added vertex weights. In order to increase maximum neural network ability, a stochastic nonlinear self-feedback and flexible annealing strategy are embedded in maximum neural network, which makes the network more powerful to escape local minima and be independent of the initial values. Simultaneously, we present that solving ability of maximum neural network is dependence on problem. We introduce a new parameter into our network to improve the solving ability. The simulation in k random graph and some DIMACS clique instances in the second DIMACS challenge shows that our improved network is superior to other algorithms in light of the solution quality and CPU time.

  2. Heart-lung transplant - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100147.htm Heart-lung transplant - series To use the sharing features on this ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heart Transplantation Lung Transplantation A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  3. [Phenomenon of heart ischemic postconditioning].

    PubMed

    Maslov, L N; Mrochek, A G; Hanus, L; Pei, J -M; Zhang, Y; Wang, H; Naryzhnaia, N V

    2012-08-01

    Authors of review analyzed papers on problem of heart ischemic postconditioning. In the review, it was demonstrated that postconditioning decreased an infarct size, prevented cardiomyocytes apoptosis, improved cardiac contractility in reperfusion period, augmented cardiac tolerance to arrhythmogenic impact ofreperfusion, prevented neutrophil invasion into the reperfused heart, abolished reperfusion endothelial dysfunction and suppressed reperfusion oxidative stress in myocardium. PMID:23155619

  4. Biomarkers in acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Aditi; Januzzi, James L

    2015-06-01

    The care of patients with acutely decompensated heart failure is being reshaped by the availability and understanding of several novel and emerging heart failure biomarkers. The gold standard biomarkers in heart failure are B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, which play an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. Novel biomarkers that are increasingly involved in the processes of myocardial injury, neurohormonal activation, and ventricular remodeling are showing promise in improving diagnosis and prognosis among patients with acute decompensated heart failure. These include midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide, soluble ST2, galectin-3, highly-sensitive troponin, and midregional proadrenomedullin. There has also been an emergence of biomarkers for evaluation of acute decompensated heart failure that assist in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea, such as procalcitonin (for identification of acute pneumonia), as well as markers that predict complications of acute decompensated heart failure, such as renal injury markers. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology and usefulness of established and emerging biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. PMID:25911167

  5. Complication Probability Models for Radiation-Induced Heart Valvular Dysfunction: Do Heart-Lung Interactions Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Cella, Laura; Palma, Giuseppe; Deasy, Joseph O.; Oh, Jung Hun; Liuzzi, Raffaele; D’Avino, Vittoria; Conson, Manuel; Pugliese, Novella; Picardi, Marco; Salvatore, Marco; Pacelli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare different normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for predicting heart valve dysfunction (RVD) following thoracic irradiation. Methods All patients from our institutional Hodgkin lymphoma survivors database with analyzable datasets were included (n = 90). All patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with a median total dose of 32 Gy. The cardiac toxicity profile was available for each patient. Heart and lung dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were extracted and both organs were considered for Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) NTCP model fitting using maximum likelihood estimation. Bootstrap refitting was used to test the robustness of the model fit. Model performance was estimated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results Using only heart-DVHs, parameter estimates were, for the LKB model: D50 = 32.8 Gy, n = 0.16 and m = 0.67; and for the RS model: D50 = 32.4 Gy, s = 0.99 and γ = 0.42. AUC values were 0.67 for LKB and 0.66 for RS, respectively. Similar performance was obtained for models using only lung-DVHs (LKB: D50 = 33.2 Gy, n = 0.01, m = 0.19, AUC = 0.68; RS: D50 = 24.4 Gy, s = 0.99, γ = 2.12, AUC = 0.66). Bootstrap result showed that the parameter fits for lung-LKB were extremely robust. A combined heart-lung LKB model was also tested and showed a minor improvement (AUC = 0.70). However, the best performance was obtained using the previously determined multivariate regression model including maximum heart dose with increasing risk for larger heart and smaller lung volumes (AUC = 0.82). Conclusions The risk of radiation induced valvular disease cannot be modeled using NTCP models only based on heart dose-volume distribution. A predictive model with an improved performance can be obtained but requires the inclusion of heart and lung volume terms

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil improves heart rate variability and heart rate responses to exercise in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Ninio, Daniel M; Hill, Alison M; Howe, Peter R; Buckley, Jonathan D; Saint, David A

    2008-11-01

    Dietary fish oil supplementation and regular physical activity can improve outcomes in patients with established CVD. Exercise has been shown to improve heart rate variability (HRV), a predictor of cardiac death, but whether fish oil benefits HRV is controversial. Obese adults at risk of future coronary disease have impaired HRV and may benefit from these interventions. We evaluated the effect of DHA-rich tuna fish oil supplementation with and without regular exercise on HRV in sedentary, overweight adults with risk factors for coronary disease. In a randomised, double-blind, parallel comparison, sixty-five volunteers consumed 6 g fish oil/d (DHA 1.56 g/d, EPA 0.36 g/d) or sunflower-seed oil (placebo) for 12 weeks. Half of each oil group also undertook regular moderate physical activity (3 d/week for 45 min, at 75 % of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HR)). Resting HR and the HR response to submaximal exercise were measured at weeks 0, 6 and 12. In forty-six subjects, HRV was also assessed by power spectrum analysis of 20 min electrocardiogram recordings taken supine at baseline and 12 weeks. Fish oil supplementation improved HRV by increasing high-frequency power, representing parasympathetic activity, compared with placebo (P = 0.01; oil x time interaction). It also reduced HR at rest and during submaximal exercise (P = 0.008; oil x time interaction). There were no significant fish oil x exercise interactions. Dietary supplementation with DHA-rich fish oil reduced HR and modulated HRV in keeping with an improved parasympathetic-sympathetic balance in overweight adults with risk factors for future coronary disease. PMID:18339222

  7. Fetal autonomic brain age scores, segmented heart rate variability analysis, and traditional short term variability.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Dirk; Kowalski, Eva-Maria; Schmidt, Alexander; Tetschke, Florian; Nowack, Samuel; Rudolph, Anja; Wallwitz, Ulrike; Kynass, Isabelle; Bode, Franziska; Tegtmeyer, Janine; Kumm, Kathrin; Moraru, Liviu; Götz, Theresa; Haueisen, Jens; Witte, Otto W; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Schneider, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances of fetal autonomic brain development can be evaluated from fetal heart rate patterns (HRP) reflecting the activity of the autonomic nervous system. Although HRP analysis from cardiotocographic (CTG) recordings is established for fetal surveillance, temporal resolution is low. Fetal magnetocardiography (MCG), however, provides stable continuous recordings at a higher temporal resolution combined with a more precise heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. A direct comparison of CTG and MCG based HRV analysis is pending. The aims of the present study are: (i) to compare the fetal maturation age predicting value of the MCG based fetal Autonomic Brain Age Score (fABAS) approach with that of CTG based Dawes-Redman methodology; and (ii) to elaborate fABAS methodology by segmentation according to fetal behavioral states and HRP. We investigated MCG recordings from 418 normal fetuses, aged between 21 and 40 weeks of gestation. In linear regression models we obtained an age predicting value of CTG compatible short term variability (STV) of R (2) = 0.200 (coefficient of determination) in contrast to MCG/fABAS related multivariate models with R (2) = 0.648 in 30 min recordings, R (2) = 0.610 in active sleep segments of 10 min, and R (2) = 0.626 in quiet sleep segments of 10 min. Additionally segmented analysis under particular exclusion of accelerations (AC) and decelerations (DC) in quiet sleep resulted in a novel multivariate model with R (2) = 0.706. According to our results, fMCG based fABAS may provide a promising tool for the estimation of fetal autonomic brain age. Beside other traditional and novel HRV indices as possible indicators of developmental disturbances, the establishment of a fABAS score normogram may represent a specific reference. The present results are intended to contribute to further exploration and validation using independent data sets and multicenter research structures. PMID:25505399

  8. Maximum likelihood decoding of Reed Solomon Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Sudan, M.

    1996-12-31

    We present a randomized algorithm which takes as input n distinct points ((x{sub i}, y{sub i})){sup n}{sub i=1} from F x F (where F is a field) and integer parameters t and d and returns a list of all univariate polynomials f over F in the variable x of degree at most d which agree with the given set of points in at least t places (i.e., y{sub i} = f (x{sub i}) for at least t values of i), provided t = {Omega}({radical}nd). The running time is bounded by a polynomial in n. This immediately provides a maximum likelihood decoding algorithm for Reed Solomon Codes, which works in a setting with a larger number of errors than any previously known algorithm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first efficient (i.e., polynomial time bounded) algorithm which provides some maximum likelihood decoding for any efficient (i.e., constant or even polynomial rate) code.

  9. States of Maximum Thermodynamic Efficiency In Daisyworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, T.

    Daisyworld is the simplest example used to illustrate the implications of the Gaia hypothesis. The interaction between the environment and the biota follows from the assumption of using daisies with different colours (i.e., albedos) than that of the bare earth. Then, the amount of daisies may modify the energy absorbed by the planet. In the classical version of Daisyworld, turbulent fluxes adopt a diffusive approximation, which clearly constraints the range of values for the solar insolation from which biota may grow in the planet. Here we apply the maximum entropy principle (MEP) to Daisyworld. We conclude that the MEP sets the maximum range of values for the solar insolation with a non-zero amount of daisies. Outside this range, daisies cannot grow in the planet for any physically realistic heat flux. Inside this range, the distribution of daisies is set to agree with the MEP. The range of values for the solar insolation from which biota stabilises the climate is substantially enlarged in comparison with the classical version of Daisyworld.

  10. Epidemiological aspects of heart diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Aimin; Tao, Ziqi; Wei, Peng; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the main cause of mortality in heart patients following stroke, rheumatic heart disease and myocardial infarctions. Approximately 80% of individuals succumb to CVDs, due to poor living conditions in low and middle income families and malnutrition. Infectious diseases, human immunodeficiency, tuberculosis, malaria, high blood pressure or hypertension, obesity and overweight, and nutritional disorders including smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, high salt and sugar intake, as well as other factors are responsible for CVDs and CHDs in young as well as elderly individuals. The focus of the present review are recent epidemiological aspects of CVD and CHD as well as the usefulness of a Mediterranean diet for heart patients and the prevention of heart diseases. PMID:27602082

  11. Artificial heart for humanoid robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Wu, Lianjun; Tadesse, Yonas

    2014-03-01

    A soft robotic device inspired by the pumping action of a biological heart is presented in this study. Developing artificial heart to a humanoid robot enables us to make a better biomedical device for ultimate use in humans. As technology continues to become more advanced, the methods in which we implement high performance and biomimetic artificial organs is getting nearer each day. In this paper, we present the design and development of a soft artificial heart that can be used in a humanoid robot and simulate the functions of a human heart using shape memory alloy technology. The robotic heart is designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate someone blushing or when someone is angry by the use of elastomeric substrates and certain features for the transport of fluids.

  12. Embryonic Heart Progenitors and Cardiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Brade, Thomas; Pane, Luna S.; Moretti, Alessandra; Chien, Kenneth R.; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian heart is a highly specialized organ, comprised of many different cell types arising from distinct embryonic progenitor populations during cardiogenesis. Three precursor populations have been identified to contribute to different myocytic and nonmyocytic cell lineages of the heart: cardiogenic mesoderm cells (CMC), the proepicardium (PE), and cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs). This review will focus on molecular cues necessary for proper induction, expansion, and lineage-specific differentiation of these progenitor populations during cardiac development in vivo. Moreover, we will briefly discuss how the knowledge gained on embryonic heart progenitor biology can be used to develop novel therapeutic strategies for the management of congenital heart disease as well as for improvement of cardiac function in ischemic heart disease. PMID:24086063

  13. Acute Heart Failure Treatment.

    PubMed

    Levy, Phillip D; Bellou, Abdel

    2013-06-01

    Dyspnea is the predominant symptom for patients with acute heart failure and initial treatment is largely directed towards the alleviation of this. Contrary to conventional belief, not all patients present with fluid overload and the approach to management is rapidly evolving from a solitary focus on diuresis to one that more accurately reflects the complex interplay of underlying cardiac dysfunction and acute precipitant. Effective treatment thus requires an understanding of divergent patient profiles and an appreciation of various therapeutic options for targeted patient stabilization. The key principle within this paradigm is directed management that aims to diminish the work of breathing through situation appropriate ventillatory support, volume reduction and hemodynamic improvement. With such an approach, clinicians can more efficiently address respiratory discomfort while reducing the likelihood of avoidable harm. PMID:24223323

  14. HEART Aerothermodynamic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the aerothermodynamic environment around an 8.3 meter High Energy Atmospheric Reentry Test (HEART) vehicle. This study generated twelve nose shape configurations and compared their responses at the peak heating trajectory point against the baseline nose shape. The heat flux sensitivity to the angle of attack variations are also discussed. The possibility of a two-piece Thermal Protection System (TPS) design at the nose is also considered, as are the surface catalytic affects of the aeroheating environment of such configuration. Based on these analyses, an optimum nose shape is proposed to minimize the surface heating. A recommendation is also made for a two-piece TPS design, for which the surface catalytic uncertainty associated with the jump in heating at the nose-IAD juncture is reduced by a minimum of 93%. In this paper, the aeroshell is assumed to be rigid and the inflatable fluid interaction effect is left for future investigations.

  15. Copeptin in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Balling, Louise; Gustafsson, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is one of the most common causes of hospitalization and mortality in the modern Western world and an increasing proportion of the population will be affected by HF in the future. Although HF management has improved quality of life and prognosis, mortality remains very high despite therapeutic options. Medical management consists of a neurohormonal blockade of an overly activated neurohormonal axis. No single marker has been able to predict or monitor HF with respect to disease progression, hospitalization, or mortality. New methods for diagnosis, monitoring therapy, and prognosis are warranted. Copeptin, a precursor of pre-provasopressin, is a new biomarker in HF with promising potential. Copeptin has been found to be elevated in both acute and chronic HF and is associated with prognosis. Copeptin, in combination with other biomarkers, could be a useful marker in the monitoring of disease severity and as a predictor of prognosis and survival in HF. PMID:26975969

  16. Epidemiology of Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Véronique L.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) has been singled out as an epidemic and is a staggering clinical and public health problem, associated with significant mortality, morbidity, and healthcare expenditures, particularly among those aged 65 and older. The case mix of HF is changing over time with a growing proportion of cases presenting with preserved ejection fraction for which there is no specific treatment. Despite progress in reducing HF-related mortality, hospitalizations for HF remain very frequent and rates of readmissions continuing to rise. To prevent hospitalizations, a comprehensive characterization of predictors of readmission in patients with HF is imperative and must integrate the impact of multimorbidity related to coexisting conditions. New models of patient-centered care that draw upon community-based resources to support HF patients with complex coexisting conditions are needed to decrease hospitalizations. PMID:23989710

  17. Restart the heart.

    PubMed

    Klingberg, Karsten; Srivastava, David

    2016-01-01

    Early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and rapid defibrillation are the most important factors for favourable outcomes after out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA)-as the new American Heart Association/European Resuscitation Council (AHA/ERC) guidelines emphasise. The patient in our case was a healthy young man who had a witnessed cardiac arrest due to a chest collision with the goalkeeper during a football match. Basic life support was immediately provided by his teammates until an automated external defibrillator was brought to the scene. Blunt cardiac injury (BCI) may result in injured myocardium or arrhythmias. Ventricular fibrillation due to BCI in absence of structural cardiac disease is one of the main causes of OHCA in young healthy athletes with high mortality rates. We demonstrate important aspects of the recently released guidelines on cardiac arrest and the chain of survival by the leading societies. PMID:26968838

  18. What Are the Risks of Heart Transplant?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a leading cause of donor heart failure and death in the years following transplant surgery. CAV can cause heart attack , heart failure , dangerous arrhythmias , and sudden cardiac arrest . To detect CAV, your doctor may ...

  19. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 9 Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats Why should I choose healthy fats? Diabetes raises your chances of having a heart ... protect your heart and blood vessels by choosing fats wisely. Some kinds of fat, such as butter ...

  20. Heart failure - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a pump that moves blood through your body. Heart failure occurs when blood does not move well and ... often, fluid collects in your lungs and legs. Heart failure most often occurs because your heart muscle is ...

  1. Common Tests for Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Defect - Fetal Circulation • Care & Treatment • Tools & Resources Web Booklets on Congenital Heart Defects These online publications ... to you or your child’s defect and concerns. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Web Booklet: ...

  2. Updated Heart Failure Treatment Guidelines Issued

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158956.html Updated Heart Failure Treatment Guidelines Issued Two new drugs added to ... drugs to the list of treatment options for heart failure. In people with the condition, the heart can' ...

  3. Insomnia Self-Management in Heart Failure

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-11

    Cardiac Failure; Heart Failure; Congestive Heart Failure; Heart Failure, Congestive; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders; Chronic Insomnia; Disorders of Initiating and Maintaining Sleep; Fatigue; Pain; Depressive Symptoms; Sleep Disorders; Anxiety

  4. Being active when you have heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease - activity ... Getting regular exercise when you have heart disease is important. Exercise can make your heart muscle stronger. It may also help you be more active without chest pain or ...

  5. Care and Treatment for Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Recommendations for Heart Health • Tools & Resources Web Booklets on Congenital Heart Defects These online publications ... to you or your child’s defect and concerns. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Web Booklet: ...

  6. On Two Hearts and Other Coronary Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1998-01-01

    Speculates as to how understanding of heart disease has developed and provides insight into how medical science makes progress. Summarizes the state of knowledge on arteriosclerosis, heart attacks, and exercising the heart. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  7. Digoxin: A Medicine for Heart Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart failure results when the heart can't pump blood well enough to supply the body's needs. If ... failure, digoxin can improve your heart's ability to pump blood. This will often improve symptoms such as shortness ...

  8. How Is Heart Valve Disease Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... have any other heart problems. Echocardiography Echo uses sound waves to create a moving picture of your heart ... the surface of your chest. The transducer sends sound waves through your chest wall to your heart. Echoes ...

  9. AUTONOMIC CONTROL OF HEART RATE AFTER EXERCISE IN TRAINED WRESTLERS

    PubMed Central

    Báez, San Martín E.; Von Oetinger, A.; Cañas, Jamett R.; Ramírez, Campillo R.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish differences in vagal reactivation, through heart rate recovery and heart rate variability post exercise, in Brazilian jiu-jitsu wrestlers (BJJW). A total of 18 male athletes were evaluated, ten highly trained (HT) and eight moderately trained (MT), who performed a maximum incremental test. At the end of the exercise, the R-R intervals were recorded during the first minute of recovery. We calculated heart rate recovery (HRR60s), and performed linear and non-linear (standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability – SD1) analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), using the tachogram of the first minute of recovery divided into four segments of 15 s each (0-15 s, 15-30 s, 30-45 s, 45-60 s). Between HT and MT individuals, there were statistically significant differences in HRR60s (p <0.05) and in the non linear analysis of HRV from SD130-45s (p <0.05) and SD145-60s (p <0.05). The results of this research suggest that heart rate kinetics during the first minute after exercise are related to training level and can be used as an index for autonomic cardiovascular control in BJJW. PMID:24744476

  10. Autonomic control of heart rate after exercise in trained wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Henríquez, Olguín C; Báez, San Martín E; Von Oetinger, A; Cañas, Jamett R; Ramírez, Campillo R

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to establish differences in vagal reactivation, through heart rate recovery and heart rate variability post exercise, in Brazilian jiu-jitsu wrestlers (BJJW). A total of 18 male athletes were evaluated, ten highly trained (HT) and eight moderately trained (MT), who performed a maximum incremental test. At the end of the exercise, the R-R intervals were recorded during the first minute of recovery. We calculated heart rate recovery (HRR60s), and performed linear and non-linear (standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability - SD1) analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), using the tachogram of the first minute of recovery divided into four segments of 15 s each (0-15 s, 15-30 s, 30-45 s, 45-60 s). Between HT and MT individuals, there were statistically significant differences in HRR60s (p <0.05) and in the non linear analysis of HRV from SD130-45s (p <0.05) and SD145-60s (p <0.05). The results of this research suggest that heart rate kinetics during the first minute after exercise are related to training level and can be used as an index for autonomic cardiovascular control in BJJW. PMID:24744476

  11. Biomarkers and heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sun, R-R; Lu, L; Liu, M; Cao, Y; Li, X-C; Liu, H; Wang, J; Zhang, P-Y

    2014-10-01

    Heart failure (HF) results from the impaired ability of heart to fill or pump out blood. HF is a common health problem with a multitude of causes and affects ~30 million people worldwide. Since ageing is a major risk factor for HF and as several treatment options are currently available to prolong the patients' survival, the number of affected patients is expected to grow. Even though traditional methods of assessment have been in use for managing HF, these are limited by time consuming and costly subjective interpretation and also by their invasive nature. Comparatively, biomarkers offer an objective and biologically relevant information that in conjunction with the patients' clinical findings provides optimal picture regarding the status of the HF patient and thus helps in diagnosis and prognosis. The current gold standard biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of HF are B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP). Additional novel biomarkers (e.g., mid-regional pro atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), mid-regional pro adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), troponins, soluble ST2 (sST2), growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15 and galectin-3) can potentially identify different pathophysiological processes such as myocardial insult, inflammation and remodeling as the causes for the development and progression of HF. Different biomarkers of HF not only reflect the underlying mechanisms/pathways of HF and also its progression and also point specific therapy options. A multi-biomarker approach for personalized medical care is not too far fetched and such approach can greatly enhance diagnosis, prognostication, and therapy guidance for HF. In this review we describe the current status of HF biomarkers in clinical use and in laboratory research and the efforts aimed at the identification of novel biomarkers for HF. PMID:25339488

  12. Neuropsychological Profile in a Large Group of Heart Transplant Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Mapelli, Daniela; Bardi, Lara; Mojoli, Marco; Volpe, Biancarosa; Gerosa, Gino; Amodio, Piero; Daliento, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have reported that patients with end-stage heart disease can have cognitive deficits ranging from mild to severe. Little is known, however, about the relationship between cognitive performance, neurophysiological characteristics and relevant clinical and instrumental indexes for an extensive evaluation of patients with heart failure, such as: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and other haemodynamic measures, maximum oxygen uptake during cardiopulmonary exercise testing, comorbidities, major cardiovascular risk factors and disease duration. Our purpose was to outline the cognitive profiles of end-stage heart disease patients in order to identify the cognitive deficits that could compromise the quality of life and the therapeutic adherence in end-stage heart disease patients, and to identify the variables associated with an increased risk of cognitive deficits in these patients. Methods 207 patients with end-stage cardiac disease, candidates for heart transplant, were assessed by complete neuropsychological evaluation and by electroencephalographic recording with EEG spectral analysis. Results Pathological scores in one or more of the cognitive tests were obtained by 86% of the patients, while 36% performed within the impaired range on five or more tests, indicating poor performance across a broad range of cognitive domains. The executive functions were the cognitive domain most impaired (70%). Poor performances were not related to the aetiology of heart disease, but rather to cerebral dysfunction secondary to haemodynamic impairment and to comorbidities. Conclusions Severe heart failure induces significant neurophysiological and neuropsychological alterations, which may produce an impairment of cognitive functioning and possibly compromise the quality of life of patients and the therapeutic adherence. PMID:22180780

  13. The pathophysiology of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Clinton D; Conte, John V

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure is a clinical syndrome that results when the heart is unable to provide sufficient blood flow to meet metabolic requirements or accommodate systemic venous return. This common condition affects over 5 million people in the United States at a cost of $10-38 billion per year. Heart failure results from injury to the myocardium from a variety of causes including ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Less common etiologies include cardiomyopathies, valvular disease, myocarditis, infections, systemic toxins, and cardiotoxic drugs. As the heart fails, patients develop symptoms which include dyspnea from pulmonary congestion, and peripheral edema and ascites from impaired venous return. Constitutional symptoms such as nausea, lack of appetite, and fatigue are also common. There are several compensatory mechanisms that occur as the failing heart attempts to maintain adequate function. These include increasing cardiac output via the Frank-Starling mechanism, increasing ventricular volume and wall thickness through ventricular remodeling, and maintaining tissue perfusion with augmented mean arterial pressure through activation of neurohormonal systems. Although initially beneficial in the early stages of heart failure, all of these compensatory mechanisms eventually lead to a vicious cycle of worsening heart failure. Treatment strategies have been developed based upon the understanding of these compensatory mechanisms. Medical therapy includes diuresis, suppression of the overactive neurohormonal systems, and augmentation of contractility. Surgical options include ventricular resynchronization therapy, surgical ventricular remodeling, ventricular assist device implantation, and heart transplantation. Despite significant understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in heart failure, this disease causes significant morbidity and carries a 50% 5-year mortality. PMID:22227365

  14. Heart failure in North America.

    PubMed

    Blair, John E A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-05-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering

  15. Heart Failure in North America

    PubMed Central

    Blair, John E. A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering

  16. Implantation of Total Artificial Heart in Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Iki; Morales, David S. L.

    2014-01-01

    In patients with end-stage heart failure (HF), a total artificial heart (TAH) may be implanted as a bridge to cardiac transplant. However, in congenital heart disease (CHD), the malformed heart presents a challenge to TAH implantation. In the case presented here, a 17 year-old patient with congenital transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA) experienced progressively worsening HF due to his congenital condition. He was hospitalized multiple times and received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). However, his condition soon deteriorated to end-stage HF with multisystem organ failure. Due to the patient's grave clinical condition and the presence of complex cardiac lesions, the decision was made to proceed with a TAH. The abnormal arrangement of the patient's ventricles and great arteries required modifications to the TAH during implantation. With the TAH in place, the patient was able to return home and regain strength and physical well-being while awaiting a donor heart. He was successfully bridged to heart transplantation 5 months after receiving the device. This report highlights the TAH is feasible even in patients with structurally abnormal hearts, with technical modification. PMID:25078059

  17. Retrograde heart perfusion: the Langendorff technique of isolated heart perfusion.

    PubMed

    Bell, Robert M; Mocanu, Mihaela M; Yellon, Derek M

    2011-06-01

    In the late 19th century, a number of investigators were working on perfecting isolated heart model, but it was Oscar Langendorff who, in 1895, pioneered the isolated perfused mammalian heart. Since that time, the Langendorff preparation has evolved and provided a wealth of data underpinning our understanding of the fundamental physiology of the heart: its contractile function, coronary blood flow regulation and cardiac metabolism. In more recent times, the procedure has been used to probe pathophysiology of ischaemia/reperfusion and disease states, and with the dawn of molecular biology and genetic manipulation, the Langendorff perfused heart has remained a stalwart tool in the study of the impact upon the physiology of the heart by pharmacological inhibitors and targeted deletion or up-regulation of genes and their impact upon intracellular signalling and adaption to clinically relevant stressful stimuli. We present here the basic structure of the Langendorff system and the fundamental experimental rules which warrant a viable heart preparation. In addition, we discuss the use of the isolated retrograde perfused heart in the model of ischaemia-reperfusion injury ex-vivo, and its applicability to other areas of study. The Langendorff perfusion apparatus is highly adaptable and this is reflected not only in the procedure's longevity but also in the number of different applications to which it has been turned. PMID:21385587

  18. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  19. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  20. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  1. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  2. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  3. Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water

  4. Heart to Heart: Using Heart Rate Telemetry to Meet Physical Education Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Tami Benham; Deal, Laurence O.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a foundation for establishing measurable physical education outcomes, demonstrating how heart rate telemetry can help measure and achieve such outcomes. After explaining heart rate telemetry function, the article examines student and teacher outcomes that could be included in school physical education outcomes and achieved using heart…

  5. Improving Children's Heart Health: A Report from the American Heart Association's Children's Heart Health Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidding, Samuel S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article presents recommendations developed at the 1994 American Heart Association's Children's Heart Health Conference to promote cardiovascular health in children, particularly regarding public health, lifestyle, and behavior. The recommendations cover the areas of physical activity, nutrition, and tobacco, providing suggestions for schools,…

  6. Development of a totally implantable artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Rowles, J R; Khanwilkar, P S; Diegel, P D; Hansen, A C; Bearnson, G B; Smith, K D; Tatsumi, E; Olsen, D B

    1992-01-01

    The first generation of an integrated, totally implantable electrohydraulic total artificial heart was designed for long-term cardiac replacement. The system consists of an elliptical blood pump with an interatrial shunt, Medtronic-Hall 27 mm and 25 mm inflow and outflow valves, respectively, an energy converter consisting of an axial-flow, hydraulic pump driven by a brushless DC motor, and an electronics system with transcutaneous energy transmission and telemetry. Energy is supplied by internal nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries that supply power for 20 min and external silver-zinc batteries that are designed to supply energy to run the system for 5 hr. The blood pump consists of a single layer diaphragm cast from Biolon, with joined right and left ventricles sharing a common base. The dynamic stroke volume is 84 ml, and maximum cardiac output is 9.2 L/min at a heart rate of 110 beats/min on the mock circulation. A 4.3 mm diameter interatrial shunt is used to balance the volumetrically coupled ventricles. The energy converter pumps hydraulic fluid alternately between ventricles, with controlled, active filling in one ventricle during the systolic phase of the other ventricle. Internal or external controllers adjust the heart rate and motor speed to maintain normal atrial filling pressures and full stroke. Electromagnetic induction is used to transfer energy through the skin and a bidirectional infrared data link incorporated within the transcutaneous energy transmission coils is used to transmit information. The entire system is being assembled and refined for long-term animal implant studies. PMID:1457955

  7. Remodeling of the heart (membrane proteins and collagen) in hypertensive cardiopathy.

    PubMed

    Sainte Beuve, C; Leclercq, C; Rannou, F; Oliviero, P; Mansier, P; Chevalier, B; Swynghedauw, B; Charlemagne, D

    1992-06-01

    The basis for impaired left ventricular function of hearts in moderate to severe stages of hypertrophy and congestive heart failure remains uncertain. At the cellular level, the mechanisms governing the movements of calcium in the myocardium are actually depressed and might at least in part account for the slowing of the maximum shortening velocity and the impaired relaxation. These alterations of membrane proteins seem particularly important in species where the slowing of Vmax cannot be a consequence of the myosin heavy chain shift. They lead to an unstable equilibrium of calcium homeostasis and to calcium overload in heart failure. On the other hand, the enhanced density and remodeling of collagen in the hypertrophied heart, which would depend on elevation in circulating aldosterone, impair myocardial stiffness with diastolic dysfunction and lead to altered pumping capacity of the heart. Disturbances of calcium metabolism and matrix collagen remodeling enhance early afterdepolarizations and arrhythmias. PMID:1385839

  8. Comparison of body composition, heart rate variability, aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Erşan; Aras, Dicle

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the body composition, heart rate variability, and aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes. [Subjects] Six cyclists and eight triathletes with experience in competitions voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects’ body composition was measured with an anthropometric tape and skinfold caliper. Maximal oxygen consumption and maximum heart rate were determined using the incremental treadmill test. Heart rate variability was measured by 7 min electrocardiographic recording. The Wingate test was conducted to determine anaerobic physical performance. [Results] There were significant differences in minimum power and relative minimum power between the triathletes and cyclists. Anthropometric characteristics and heart rate variability responses were similar among the triathletes and cyclists. However, triathletes had higher maximal oxygen consumption and lower resting heart rates. This study demonstrated that athletes in both sports have similar body composition and aerobic performance characteristics. PMID:27190476

  9. Geometry of aortic heart valves. [prosthetic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karara, H. M.

    1975-01-01

    Photogrammetric measurements of the surface topography of the aortic valves obtained from silicon rubber molds of freshly excised human aortic valves are presented. The data are part of an investigation into the design of a new prosthetic valve which will be a central-flow device, like the real valve and unlike previous central-occluding prostheses. Since the maximum stress on the heart valve is induced when the valve is closed and subject to diastolic back-pressure, it was decided to determine the valve geometry during diastole. That is, the molds were formed by pouring the rubber down the excised aortas, causing the valves to close. The molds were made under different pressures (20-120 torr); photogrammetry served as a vehicle for the assessment of the mold topography through the following outputs: digital models, surface profiles, and contour maps.

  10. Human myocardial Na,K-ATPase concentration in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bundgaard, H; Kjeldsen, K

    1996-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase is of major importance for active ion transport across the sarcolemma and thus for electrical as well as contractile function of the myocardium. Furthermore, it is receptor for digitalis glycosides. In human studies of the regulatory aspects of myocardial Na,K-ATPase concentration a major problem has been to obtain tissue samples. Methodological accomplishments in quantification of myocardial Na,K-ATPase using vanadate facilitated 3H-ouabain binding to intact samples have, however, made it possible to obtain reliable measurements on human myocardial necropsies obtained at autopsy as well as on biopsies of a wet weight of only 1-2 mg obtained during heart catheterisation. However, access to the ultimately, normal, vital myocardial tissue has come from the heart transplantation programs, through which myocardial samples from cardiovascular healthy organ donors have become available. In the present paper we evaluate the various values reported for normal human myocardial Na,K-ATPase concentration, its regulation in heart disease and the association with digitalization. Normal myocardial Na,K-ATPase concentration level is found to be 700 pmol/g wet weight. No major variations were found between or within the walls of the heart ventricles. During the first few years of life a marked decrease in myocardial Na,K-ATPase concentration is followed by a stable level obtained in early adulthood and normally maintained throughout life. In patients with enlarged cardiac x-ray silhouette a significant positive, linear correlation between left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and Na,K-ATPase concentration was established. A maximum reduction in Na,K-ATPase concentration of 89% was obtained when EF was reduced to 20%. Generally, heart failure associated with heart dilatation, myocardial hypertrophy as well as ischaemic heart disease is associated with reductions in myocardial Na,K-ATPase concentration of around 25%. During digoxin treatment of heart failure

  11. Approximate maximum likelihood decoding of block codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberger, H. J.

    1979-01-01

    Approximate maximum likelihood decoding algorithms, based upon selecting a small set of candidate code words with the aid of the estimated probability of error of each received symbol, can give performance close to optimum with a reasonable amount of computation. By combining the best features of various algorithms and taking care to perform each step as efficiently as possible, a decoding scheme was developed which can decode codes which have better performance than those presently in use and yet not require an unreasonable amount of computation. The discussion of the details and tradeoffs of presently known efficient optimum and near optimum decoding algorithms leads, naturally, to the one which embodies the best features of all of them.

  12. Lead in soil: Recommended maximum permissible levels

    SciTech Connect

    Madhavan, S.; Rosenman, K.D.; Shehata, T.

    1989-06-01

    Lead in soil has been recognized as a public health problem, particularly among children. In recent years, attention has been directed to cumulative adverse effects of lead at low levels of intake. Lead-contaminated soil and dust have been identified as important contributors to blood lead levels. Based on available data on blood lead and lead in soil, an approach has been developed to suggest a permissible level of lead in soil, below which there will be reasonable certainty that adverse health effects will not occur. An acceptable level of 600 ppm of lead in soil suggested as a ''safe'' level would contribute no more than 5 micrograms/dl to total blood lead of children under 12 years of age. Maximum permissible levels of lead in soil have been recommended based on the dose-response relationship of lead in soil and blood lead in children.

  13. Experimental shock metamorphism of maximum microcline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, P. B.

    1975-01-01

    A series of recovery experiments are conducted to study the behavior of single-crystal perthitic maximum microcline shock-loaded to a peak pressure of 417 kbar. Microcline is found to deform in a manner similar to quartz and other alkali feldspars. It is observed that shock-induced cleavages occur initially at or slightly below the Hugoniot elastic limit (60-85 kbar), that shock-induced rather than thermal disordering begins above the Hugoniot elastic limit, and that all types of planar elements form parallel to crystallographic planes of low Miller indices. When increasing pressure, it is found that bulk density, refractive indices, and birefringence of the recovered material decrease and approach diaplectic glass values, whereas disappearance and weakening of reflections in Debye-Sherrer patterns are due to disordering of the feldspar lattice.

  14. The 1988 Solar Maximum Mission event list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    Information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1988 pointed observations is presented. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) gamma ray spectrometer; (2) hard x ray burst spectrometer; (3) flat crystal spectrometers; (4) bent crystal spectrometer; (5) ultraviolet spectrometer polarimeter; and (6) coronagraph/polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts, or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observation. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.

  15. Quantum optimization and maximum clique problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsenko, Vitaliy A.; Pardalos, Panos M.; Chiarini, Bruno H.

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes a new approach to global optimization and control uses geometric methods and modern quantum mathematics. Polynomial extremal problems (PEP) are considered. PEP constitute one of the most important subclasses of nonlinear programming models. Their distinctive feature is that an objective function and constraints can be expressed by polynomial functions in one or several variables. A general approach to optimization based on quantum holonomic computing algorithms and instanton mechanism. An optimization method based on geometric Lie - algebraic structures on Grassmann manifolds and related with Lax type flows is proposed. Making use of the differential geometric techniques it is shown that associated holonomy groups properly realizing quantum computation can be effectively found concerning polynomial problems. Two examples demonstrating calculation aspects of holonomic quantum computer and maximum clique problems in very large graphs, are considered in detail.

  16. The 1980 solar maximum mission event listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speich, D. M.; Nelson, J. J.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1991-01-01

    Information is contained on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1980 pointed observations. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, (2) Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, (3) Hard X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer, (4) Flat Crystal Spectrometer, (5) Bent Crystal Spectrometer, (6) Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter, and (7) Coronagraph/Polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from Sun center are also included.

  17. Diffusivity Maximum in a Reentrant Nematic Phase

    PubMed Central

    Stieger, Tillmann; Mazza, Marco G.; Schoen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations of confined liquid crystals using the Gay–Berne–Kihara model. Upon isobaric cooling, the standard sequence of isotropic–nematic–smectic A phase transitions is found. Upon further cooling a reentrant nematic phase occurs. We investigate the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of the fluid in the nematic, smectic and reentrant nematic phases. We find a maximum in diffusivity upon isobaric cooling. Diffusion increases dramatically in the reentrant phase due to the high orientational molecular order. As the temperature is lowered, the diffusion coefficient follows an Arrhenius behavior. The activation energy of the reentrant phase is found in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data. We discuss how repulsive interactions may be the underlying mechanism that could explain the occurrence of reentrant nematic behavior for polar and non-polar molecules. PMID:22837730

  18. Diffusivity maximum in a reentrant nematic phase.

    PubMed

    Stieger, Tillmann; Mazza, Marco G; Schoen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations of confined liquid crystals using the Gay-Berne-Kihara model. Upon isobaric cooling, the standard sequence of isotropic-nematic-smectic A phase transitions is found. Upon further cooling a reentrant nematic phase occurs. We investigate the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of the fluid in the nematic, smectic and reentrant nematic phases. We find a maximum in diffusivity upon isobaric cooling. Diffusion increases dramatically in the reentrant phase due to the high orientational molecular order. As the temperature is lowered, the diffusion coefficient follows an Arrhenius behavior. The activation energy of the reentrant phase is found in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data. We discuss how repulsive interactions may be the underlying mechanism that could explain the occurrence of reentrant nematic behavior for polar and non-polar molecules. PMID:22837730

  19. Characterizing Local Optima for Maximum Parsimony.

    PubMed

    Urheim, Ellen; Ford, Eric; St John, Katherine

    2016-05-01

    Finding the best phylogenetic tree under the maximum parsimony optimality criterion is computationally difficult. We quantify the occurrence of such optima for well-behaved sets of data. When nearest neighbor interchange operations are used, multiple local optima can occur even for "perfect" sequence data, which results in hill-climbing searches that never reach a global optimum. In contrast, we show that when neighbors are defined via the subtree prune and regraft metric, there is a single local optimum for perfect sequence data, and thus, every such search finds a global optimum quickly. We further characterize conditions for which sequences simulated under the Cavender-Farris-Neyman and Jukes-Cantor models of evolution yield well-behaved search spaces. PMID:27234257

  20. The 1989 Solar Maximum Mission event list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    This document contains information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1989 pointed observations. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, (2) Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, (3) Flat Crystal Spectrometer, (4) Bent Crystal Spectrometer, (5) Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter, and (6) Coronagraph/Polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Satellite (GOES) X-ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.

  1. Maximum entropy model for business cycle synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Ning; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Azaele, Sandro; Wang, Yougui

    2014-11-01

    The global economy is a complex dynamical system, whose cyclical fluctuations can mainly be characterized by simultaneous recessions or expansions of major economies. Thus, the researches on the synchronization phenomenon are key to understanding and controlling the dynamics of the global economy. Based on a pairwise maximum entropy model, we analyze the business cycle synchronization of the G7 economic system. We obtain a pairwise-interaction network, which exhibits certain clustering structure and accounts for 45% of the entire structure of the interactions within the G7 system. We also find that the pairwise interactions become increasingly inadequate in capturing the synchronization as the size of economic system grows. Thus, higher-order interactions must be taken into account when investigating behaviors of large economic systems.

  2. Effect of caffeine on oxidative stress during maximum incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Olcina, Guillermo J; Muñoz, Diego; Timón, Rafael; Caballero, M Jesús; Maynar, Juan I; Córdova, Alfredo; Maynar, Marcos

    2006-01-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is an habitual substance present in a wide variety of beverages and in chocolate-based foods and it is also used as adjuvant in some drugs. The antioxidant ability of caffeine has been reported in contrast with its pro- oxidant effects derived from its action mechanism such as the systemic release of catecholamines. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of caffeine on exercise oxidative stress, measuring plasma vitamins A, E, C and malonaldehyde (MDA) as markers of non enzymatic antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation respectively. Twenty young males participated in a double blind (caffeine 5mg·kg- 1 body weight or placebo) cycling test until exhaustion. In the exercise test, where caffeine was ingested prior to the test, exercise time to exhaustion, maximum heart rate, and oxygen uptake significantly increased, whereas respiratory exchange ratio (RER) decreased. Vitamins A and E decreased with exercise and vitamin C and MDA increased after both the caffeine and placebo tests but, regarding these particular variables, there were no significant differences between the two test conditions. The results obtained support the conclusion that this dose of caffeine enhances the ergospirometric response to cycling and has no effect on lipid peroxidation or on the antioxidant vitamins A, E and C. Key PointsCaffeine ingestion may improve maximal aerobic performance in non trained men.Cellular oxidative damage is not altered by caffeine ingestion in maximal aerobic exercises.Antioxidant response to exercise, vitamins A, E and C, is not modified by caffeine action in maximal aerobic efforts. PMID:24357958

  3. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Rajeev; Bakken, Kristian; D'Elia, Emilia; Lewis, Gregory D

    2016-08-01

    Exercise intolerance, indicated by dyspnea and fatigue during exertion, is a cardinal manifestation of heart failure (HF). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) precisely defines maximum exercise capacity through measurement of peak oxygen uptake (VO2). Peak VO2 values have a critical role in informing patient selection for advanced HF interventions such as heart transplantation and ventricular assist devices. Oxygen uptake and ventilatory patterns obtained during the submaximal portion of CPET are also valuable to recognize because of their ease of ascertainment during low-level exercise, relevance to ability to perform activities of daily living, independence from volitional effort, and strong relationship to prognosis in HF. The ability of peak VO2 and other CPET variables to be measured reproducibly and to accurately reflect HF severity is increasingly recognized and endorsed by scientific statements. Integration of CPET with invasive hemodynamic monitoring and cardiac imaging during exercise provides comprehensive characterization of multisystem reserve capacity that can inform prognosis and the need for cardiac interventions. Here, we review both practical aspects of conducting CPETs in patients with HF for clinical and research purposes as well as interpretation of gas exchange patterns across the spectrum of preclinical HF to advanced HF. PMID:27289406

  4. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  5. Maximum magnitude in the Lower Rhine Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanneste, Kris; Merino, Miguel; Stein, Seth; Vleminckx, Bart; Brooks, Eddie; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Estimating Mmax, the assumed magnitude of the largest future earthquakes expected on a fault or in an area, involves large uncertainties. No theoretical basis exists to infer Mmax because even where we know the long-term rate of motion across a plate boundary fault, or the deformation rate across an intraplate zone, neither predict how strain will be released. As a result, quite different estimates can be made based on the assumptions used. All one can say with certainty is that Mmax is at least as large as the largest earthquake in the available record. However, because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, larger earthquakes than anticipated often occur. Estimating Mmax is especially challenging within plates, where deformation rates are poorly constrained, large earthquakes are rarer and variable in space and time, and often occur on previously unrecognized faults. We explore this issue for the Lower Rhine Graben seismic zone where the largest known earthquake, the 1756 Düren earthquake, has magnitude 5.7 and should occur on average about every 400 years. However, paleoseismic studies suggest that earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.7 occurred during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. What to assume for Mmax is crucial for critical facilities like nuclear power plants that should be designed to withstand the maximum shaking in 10,000 years. Using the observed earthquake frequency-magnitude data, we generate synthetic earthquake histories, and sample them over shorter intervals corresponding to the real catalog's completeness. The maximum magnitudes appearing most often in the simulations tend to be those of earthquakes with mean recurrence time equal to the catalog length. Because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, we expect larger earthquakes than observed to date to occur. In a next step, we will compute hazard maps for different return periods based on the

  6. Beri-Beri Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gubbay, Eric R.

    1966-01-01

    Beri-beri heart disease is a distinctive clinical entity which must be distinguished from alcoholic cardiomyopathy and other forms of heart disease in chronic alcoholics. A 27-year-old man is described who for six months before the onset of symptoms of right heart failure—admitted to hospital with dyspnea and pitting edema in the lower limbs and over the sacrum—had lived over a tavern and consumed 24 pints of beer daily. The pathophysiology of beri-beri heart disease includes right heart failure, edema and peripheral vasodilatation in the muscular bed. These features were described by Wenckebach and others as early as 1928. Within the main entity, beri-beri heart disease, a number of sub-groups with special features and prognosis such as acute pernicious beri-beri have been described. Beri-beri heart disease is due to vitamin B1 deficiency and is curable if this deficiency is corrected in time. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2aFig. 2b PMID:5940785

  7. [Metabolic therapy for heart failure].

    PubMed

    Loiacono, Ferdinando; Alberti, Luca; Lauretta, Ludovica; Puccetti, Patrizia; Silipigni, Carmen; Margonato, Alberto; Fragasso, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure may promote metabolic changes such as insulin resistance, in part through neurohumoral activation, and determining an increased utilization of non-carbohydrate substrates for energy production. In fact, fasting blood ketone bodies as well as fat oxidation have been shown to be increased in patients with heart failure. The result is depletion of myocardial ATP, phosphocreatine and creatine kinase with decreased efficiency of mechanical work. A direct approach to manipulate cardiac energy metabolism consists in modifying substrate utilization by the failing heart. To date, the most effective metabolic treatments include several pharmacological agents that directly inhibit fatty acid oxidation. The results of current research are supporting the concept that shifting the energy substrate preference away from fatty acid metabolism and toward glucose metabolism could be an effective adjunctive treatment in patients with heart failure. Trimetazidine is the most studied drug in this context. Several small studies have evidenced the usefulness of such additional therapeutic tools for heart failure. More specifically, recent meta-analyses and a multicenter retrospective study have shown that additional use of trimetazidine in patients with heart failure, along with symptoms and cardiac function improvement, also provides a significant protective effect on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events and hospitalization due to cardiac causes. Nevertheless, the exact role of metabolic therapy in heart failure is yet to be established, and a large multicenter randomized trial is necessary. PMID:25072544

  8. Bioenergetics of the failing heart.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Garnier, Anne; Veksler, Vladimir; Joubert, Frédéric

    2011-07-01

    The heart is responsible for pumping blood throughout the blood vessels to the periphery by repeated, rhythmic contractions at variable intensity. As such the heart should permanently adjust energy production to energy utilization and is a high-energy consumer. For this the heart mainly depends on oxidative metabolism for adequate energy production and on efficient energy transfer systems. In heart failure, there is disequilibrium between the work the heart has to perform and the energy it is able to produce to fulfill its needs. This has led to the concept of energy starvation of the failing heart. This includes decreased oxygen and substrate supply, altered substrate utilization, decreased energy production by mitochondria and glycolysis, altered energy transfer and inefficient energy utilization. Mitochondrial biogenesis and its transcription cascade are down-regulated. Disorganization of the cytoarchitecture of the failing cardiomyocyte also participates in energy wastage. Finally, the failing of the cardiac pump, by decreasing oxygen and substrate supply, leads to a systemic energy starvation. Metabolic therapy has thus emerged as an original and promising approach in the treatment heart failure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondria and Cardioprotection. PMID:20869993

  9. Periodontitis in Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A.; Zugck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases. PMID:27547136

  10. Periodontitis in Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A; Zugck, Christian; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2016-08-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases. PMID:27547136

  11. Frozen Plains in the Heart of Pluto's 'Heart'

    NASA Video Gallery

    In the center left of Pluto’s vast heart-shaped feature – informally named “Tombaugh Regio” - lies a vast, craterless plain that appears to be no more than 100 million years old, and is possibly st...

  12. Managing acute decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Daniel F

    2014-02-01

    Acute decompensated heart failure may occur de novo, but it most often occurs as an exacerbation of underlying chronic heart failure. Hospitalization for heart failure is usually a harbinger of a chronic disease that will require long-term, ongoing medical management. Leaders in the field generally agree that repeated inpatient admissions for treatment reflect a failure of the health care delivery system to manage the disease optimally. Newer management strategies focus on ameliorating symptoms by optimizing the hemodynamics, restoring neurohormonal balance, and making frequent outpatient adjustments when needed. PMID:24286585

  13. [Competence Network Heart Failure (CNHF). Together against heart failure].

    PubMed

    Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Börste, Rita

    2016-04-01

    Heart failure is one of the most urgent medical and socio-economic challenges of the 21(st) century. Up to three million people are affected in Germany; this means one in ten people over the age of 65  live with heart failure. The current demographic changes will accentuate the importance of this grave health problem. The care of patients with heart failure, as well as the associated research mandates a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach. The Competence Network Heart Failure (CNHF) pursues this objective. CNHF is a research alliance with 11 sites in Germany and was funded by the Federal Ministry of Research (BMBF) from 2003 through 2014. Since January 2015, the network has been an associate cooperating partner of the German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK). During the 12-year funding period by the BMBF, scientists in the field of heart failure from 30 university hospitals, 5 research institutes, 7 heart centers, 17 cardiovascular clinics, over 200 general practitioners, 4 rehabilitation clinics, as well as numerous organizations and associations were involved in cooperative CNHF research. In the context of 22 projects, the CNHF covered basic, clinical, and health care research, and generated numerous groundbreaking insights into disease mechanisms, as well as diagnosis and treatment of heart failure, which are documented in more than 350 publications. With its central study database and bank of biomaterials, the network has set up a Europe-wide unique research resource, which can be used in the future for national and international cooperations with the DZHK and other partners. Furthermore, the CNHF strongly promotes nation- and Europe-wide public relations and heart failure awareness activities. PMID:26979718

  14. Indications for Heart Transplantation in Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Siân Pincott, E; Burch, M

    2011-01-01

    In this review we have looked at indications for cardiac transplantation in congenital heart disease. An outline of the general principles of the use of transplant as a management strategy both as a first line treatment and following other surgical interventions is discussed. We explore the importance of the timing of patient referral and the evaluations undertaken, and how the results of these may vary between patients with congenital heart disease and patients with other causes of end-stage heart failure. The potential complications associated with patients with congenital heart disease need to be both anticipated and managed appropriately by an experienced team. Timing of transplantation in congenital heart disease is difficult to standardize as the group of patients is heterogeneous. We discuss the role and limitations of investigations such as BNP, 6 minute walk, metabolic exercise testing and self estimated physical functioning. We also discuss the suitability for listing. It is clear that congenital heart patients should not be considered to be at uniform high risk of death at transplant. Morbidity varies greatly in the congenital patient population with the failing Fontan circulation having a far higher risk than a failing Mustard circulation. However the underlying issue of imbalance between donor organ supply and demand needs to be addressed as transplant teams are finding themselves in the increasingly difficult situation of supporting growing numbers of patients with a diverse range of pathologies with declining numbers of donor organs. PMID:22548027

  15. Heart Monitoring By Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The ambulance antenna shown is a specially designed system that allows satellite-relayed two-way communications between a moving emergency vehicle and a hospital emergency room. It is a key component of a demonstration program aimed at showing how emergency medical service can be provided to people in remote rural areas. Satellite communication permits immediate, hospital- guided treatment of heart attacks or other emergencies by ambulance personnel, saving vital time when the scene of the emergency is remote from the hospital. If widely adopted, the system could save tens of thousands of lives annually in the U.S. alone, medical experts say. The problem in conventional communication with rural areas is the fact that radio signals travel in line of sight. They may be blocked by tall buildings, hills and mountains, or even by the curvature of the Earth, so signal range is sharply limited. Microwave relay towers could solve the problem, but a complete network of repeater towers would be extremely expensive. The satellite provides an obstruction-free relay station in space.

  16. [Chemotherapy and the heart].

    PubMed

    Plana, Juan C

    2011-05-01

    The improvements in cancer detection and therapy have created a new cohort of patients who will experience sufficient survival to develop the cardiac complications of the cancer therapy. Three-dimensional echocardiography has been validated as the ultrasound modality with the best accuracy for the calculation of ejection fraction when compared to magnetic resonance imaging, the current gold standard, making it the tool of choice, when available, for the initial evaluation and follow up of the patient receiving chemotherapy. If three-dimensional echocardiography is not available, or if the quality of the images is inadequate, the use of ultrasound contrast can be useful for the definition of the endocardial border and identification of the true apex of the heart, enhancing the ability of the interpreter to accurately calculate volumes and ejection fraction. Two-dimensional strain appears promising as a tool to identify abnormalities in myocardial mechanics very early on during cardiotoxicity, allowing the prediction of later overt systolic dysfunction. This parameter may be useful in the detection of chemotherapy treated patients who could benefit from alternate therapies, thereby decreasing the incidence of cardiotoxicity and its associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:21492985

  17. Update on heart failure, heart transplant, congenital heart disease, and clinical cardiology.

    PubMed

    Almenar, Luis; Zunzunegui, José Luis; Barón, Gonzalo; Carrasco, José Ignacio; Gómez-Doblas, Juan José; Comín, Josep; Barrios, Vivencio; Subirana, M Teresa; Díaz-Molina, Beatriz

    2013-04-01

    In the year 2012, 3 scientific sections-heart failure and transplant, congenital heart disease, and clinical cardiology-are presented together in the same article. The most relevant development in the area of heart failure and transplantation is the 2012 publication of the European guidelines for heart failure. These describe new possibilities for some drugs (eplerenone and ivabradine); expand the criteria for resynchronization, ventricular assist, and peritoneal dialysis; and cover possibilities of percutaneous repair of the mitral valve (MitraClip(®)). The survival of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome in congenital heart diseases has improved significantly. Instructions for percutaneous techniques and devices have been revised and modified for the treatment of atrial septal defects, ostium secundum, and ventricular septal defects. Hybrid procedures for addressing structural congenital heart defects have become more widespread. In the area of clinical cardiology studies have demonstrated that percutaneous prosthesis implantation has lower mortality than surgical implantation. Use of the CHA2DS2-VASc criteria and of new anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban) is also recommended. In addition, the development of new sequencing techniques has enabled the analysis of multiple genes. PMID:24775619

  18. 2013 update on congenital heart disease, clinical cardiology, heart failure, and heart transplant.

    PubMed

    Subirana, M Teresa; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Manito, Nicolás; Oliver, José M; Ripoll, Tomás; Lambert, Jose Luis; Zunzunegui, José L; Bover, Ramon; García-Pinilla, José Manuel

    2014-03-01

    This article presents the most relevant developments in 2013 in 3 key areas of cardiology: congenital heart disease, clinical cardiology, and heart failure and transplant. Within the area of congenital heart disease, we reviewed contributions related to sudden death in adult congenital heart disease, the importance of specific echocardiographic parameters in assessing the systemic right ventricle, problems in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and indication for pulmonary valve replacement, and confirmation of the role of specific factors in the selection of candidates for Fontan surgery. The most recent publications in clinical cardiology include a study by a European working group on correct diagnostic work-up in cardiomyopathies, studies on the cost-effectiveness of percutaneous aortic valve implantation, a consensus document on the management of type B aortic dissection, and guidelines on aortic valve and ascending aortic disease. The most noteworthy developments in heart failure and transplantation include new American guidelines on heart failure, therapeutic advances in acute heart failure (serelaxin), the management of comorbidities such as iron deficiency, risk assessment using new biomarkers, and advances in ventricular assist devices. PMID:24774396

  19. [An algorithm for detecting T-wave alternans (TWA) based on the maximum of T-waves].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Hua, Mei

    2005-10-01

    An algorithm of detecting the TWA (T-wave alternans) based on the maximum of T waves transformed by FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) is described in the paper. By using the method we can reduce the sampling rate, which means "smaller amount of calculation", and solve the problem "the sampling point of T wave changes with the rate of heart beat". The 128 maximum values of T wave in series normal ST-T complex are used to carry out FFT transforms. The TWA is detected by using the frequency of power spectrum. PMID:16294729

  20. Maximum life spiral bevel reduction design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed back-cone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed ratio, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Significant parameters in the design are: the spiral angle, the pressure angle, the numbers of teeth on the pinion and gear, and the location and size of the four support bearings. Interpolated polynomials expand the discrete bearing properties and proportions into continuous variables for gradient optimization. After finding the continuous optimum, a designer can analyze near optimal designs for comparison and selection. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.