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Sample records for age-related cataract arc

  1. Age-related cataract.

    PubMed

    Asbell, Penny A; Dualan, Ivo; Mindel, Joel; Brocks, Dan; Ahmad, Mehdi; Epstein, Seth

    Cataract, opacification of the lens, is one of the commonest causes of loss of useful vision, with an estimated 16 million people worldwide affected. Several risk factors have been identified in addition to increasing age--genetic composition, exposure to ultraviolet light, and diabetes. However, no method to halt the formation of a cataractous lens has been shown to be effective. Nevertheless, advances in surgical removal of cataracts, including small-incision surgery, use of viscoelastics, and the development of intraocular lenses, have made treatment very effective and visual recovery rapid in most cases. Despite these advances, cataract continues to be a leading public-health issue that will grow in importance as the population increases and life expectancy is extended worldwide. PMID:15708105

  2. Nutritional antioxidants and age-related cataract and maculopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss of vision is the second greatest, next to death, fear among the elderly. Age-related cataract (ARC) and maculopathy (ARM) are two major causes of blindness worldwide. There are several important reasons to study relationships between risk for ARC/ARM and nutrition: (1) because it is likely that...

  3. A pilot exome-wide association study of age-related cataract in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Joo-Byung; Kim, Yong-Dae; Kim, Heon

    2016-05-01

    Age-related cataract (ARC) is the most common cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. A previous study reported that genetic factors could explain approximately 50% of the heritability of cataract. However, a genetic predisposition to ARC and the contributing factors have not yet been elucidated in the Korean population. In this study, we assessed the influence of genetic polymorphisms on the risk of ARC in Koreans, including 156 cataract cases and 138 healthy adults. We conducted an exome-wide association study using Illumina Human Exome-12v1.2 platform to screen 244,770 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). No SNPs reached exome-wide significance level of association (P < 1×10(-6)). B3GNT4 rs7136356 showed the most significant association with ARC (P = 6.54×10(-5)). Two loci (MUC16 and P2RY2) among the top 20 ARC-associated SNPs were recognized as probably linked to cataractogenesis. Functions of these genes were potentially related to regulating dehydration or homeostasis of the eyes, and showed a potential association with dry eye disease. This finding suggests that mucin- and dry eye disease-related genes may play a significant role in cataractogenesis. Our study provides insight into the genetic predisposition of ARC in Koreans. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are required to confirm the results of this study. PMID:27533928

  4. Flavonoid intake and the risk of age-related cataract in China's Heilongjiang Province

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingna; Gao, Weiqi; Wu, Kun; Bao, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives Epidemiological evidence suggests that diets rich in flavonoids may reduce the risk of developing age-related cataract (ARC). Flavonoids are widely distributed in foods of plant origin, and the objective of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the association between the intakes of the five flavonoid subclasses and the risk of ARC. Subjects/methods A population-based case-control study (249 cases and 66 controls) was carried out in Heilongjiang province, which is located in the northeast of China, and where intakes and availability of fresh vegetables and fruits can be limited. Dietary data gathered by food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to calculate flavonoid intake. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by logistic regression. Results No linear associations between risk of developing ARC and intakes of total dietary flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavon-3-ol, flavanone, total flavones or total flavonols were found, but quercetin and isorhamnetin intake was inversely associated with ARC risk (OR 11.78, 95% CI: 1.62–85.84, p<0.05, and OR 6.99, 95% CI: 1.12–43.44, p<0.05, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, respectively). Conclusion As quercetin is contained in many plant foods and isorhamnetin in very few foods, we concluded that higher quercetin intake may be an important dietary factor in the reduction of the risk of ARC. PMID:26652740

  5. EPHA2 Is Associated with Age-Related Cortical Cataract in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Miao, Hui; Lee, Kristine E.; Joshi, Tripti; Buck, Matthias; Chugha, Preeti; Bardenstein, David; Klein, Alison P.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Gong, Xiaohua; Spector, Tim D.; Andrew, Toby; Hammond, Christopher J.; Elston, Robert C.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Wang, Bingcheng

    2009-01-01

    Age-related cataract is a major cause of blindness worldwide, and cortical cataract is the second most prevalent type of age-related cataract. Although a significant fraction of age-related cataract is heritable, the genetic basis remains to be elucidated. We report that homozygous deletion of Epha2 in two independent strains of mice developed progressive cortical cataract. Retroillumination revealed development of cortical vacuoles at one month of age; visible cataract appeared around three months, which progressed to mature cataract by six months. EPHA2 protein expression in the lens is spatially and temporally regulated. It is low in anterior epithelial cells, upregulated as the cells enter differentiation at the equator, strongly expressed in the cortical fiber cells, but absent in the nuclei. Deletion of Epha2 caused a significant increase in the expression of HSP25 (murine homologue of human HSP27) before the onset of cataract. The overexpressed HSP25 was in an underphosphorylated form, indicating excessive cellular stress and protein misfolding. The orthologous human EPHA2 gene on chromosome 1p36 was tested in three independent worldwide Caucasian populations for allelic association with cortical cataract. Common variants in EPHA2 were found that showed significant association with cortical cataract, and rs6678616 was the most significant in meta-analyses. In addition, we sequenced exons of EPHA2 in linked families and identified a new missense mutation, Arg721Gln, in the protein kinase domain that significantly alters EPHA2 functions in cellular and biochemical assays. Thus, converging evidence from humans and mice suggests that EPHA2 is important in maintaining lens clarity with age. PMID:19649315

  6. Selenium and Mercury in the Brazilian Amazon: Opposing Influences on Age-Related Cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Lemire, Mélanie; Fillion, Myriam; Frenette, Benoît; Mayer, Annie; Philibert, Aline; Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Guimarães, Jean Rémy Davée; Barbosa, Fernando; Mergler, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Background Age-related cataracts (ARCs) are an important cause of blindness in developing countries. Although antioxidants may be part of the body’s defense to prevent ARC, environmental contaminants may contribute to cataractogenesis. In fish-eating populations of the lower Tapajós region, elevated exposure to mercury (Hg) has been reported, and blood levels of selenium (Se) range from normal to very high (> 1,000 μg/L). Objectives We examined ARCs in relation to these elements among adults (≥ 40 years of age) from 12 riverside communities. Methods Participants (n = 211) provided blood samples and underwent an extensive ocular examination. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to assess Hg and Se in blood and plasma. Results One-third (n = 69; 32.7%) of the participants had ARC. Lower plasma Se (P-Se; < 25th percentile, 110 μg/L) and higher blood Hg (B-Hg; ≥ 25th percentile, 25 μg/L) were associated with a higher prevalence odds ratio (POR) of ARC [adjusted POR (95% confidence interval), 2.69 (1.11–6.56) and 4.45 (1.43–13.83), respectively]. Among participants with high P-Se, we observed a positive but nonsignificant association with high B-Hg exposure, whereas among those with low B-Hg, we observed no association for P-Se. However, compared with the optimum situation (high P-Se, low B-Hg), the POR for those with low P-Se and high B-Hg was 16.4 (3.0–87.9). This finding suggests a synergistic effect. Conclusion Our results suggest that persons in this population with elevated Hg, the cataractogenic effects of Hg may be offset by Se. Because of the relatively small sample size and possible confounding by other dietary nutrients, additional studies with sufficient power to assess multiple nutrient and toxic interactions are required to confirm these findings. PMID:20716509

  7. Effects of senescent lens epithelial cells on the severity of age-related cortical cataract in humans

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiuli; Qin, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiexin; Yu, Yinhui; Tang, Qiaomei; Lyu, Danni; Zhang, Lifang; Chen, Zhijian; Yao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aging of lens progenitor cell has been repeatedly proposed to play a key role in age-related cataracts (ARCs), but the mechanism is far from being understood. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between aging of lens progenitor/epithelial cells and the 4 subtypes of ARCs in humans. Lens capsules, which were collected from ARC patients during surgery, were divided into 3 groups according to the age of patients (50–60, 60–80, and >80 years). The expressions of lens progenitor cell-related markers Sox2, Abcg2, and Ki67 were first examined in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) in situ. Then, the percentage of senescent and SA-β-gal+ HLECs isolated from lens capsules were quantified. Finally, the potential relationships between the percentage of senescent (and SA-β-gal+) HLECs and the severity of ARCs were analyzed. Ki67+, Sox2+, and Abcg2+ HLECs in lens capsules were clearly more abundant in young people than in patients older than 50 years, and they were almost absent in patients older than 60 years. The percentage of primary HLECs with aging morphology increased with age, consistent with the results of SA-β-gal+ primary HLECs. Only cortical cataract classification was found to be strongly related to the percentage of SA-β-gal+ and senescent HLECs. Our study gave the initial evidence on the dynamical change of lens stem/progenitor cells in human lens capsule with age and suggested that lens progenitor/epithelial cell aging is important in the severity of cortical cataracts. PMID:27336873

  8. Polymorphism rs7278468 is associated with Age-related cataract through decreasing transcriptional activity of the CRYAA promoter

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoyin; Jiao, Xiaodong; Ma, Zhiwei; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding

    2016-01-01

    CRYAA plays critical functional roles in lens transparency and opacity, and polymorphisms near CRYAA have been associated with age-related cataract (ARC). This study examines polymorphisms in the CRYAA promoter region for association with ARC and elucidates the mechanisms of this association. Three SNPs nominally associated with ARC were identified in the promoter region of CRYAA: rs3761382 (P = 0.06, OR (Odds ratio) = 1.5), rs13053109 (P = 0.04, OR = 1.6), rs7278468 (P = 0.007, OR = 0.6). The C-G-T haplotype increased the risk for ARC overall (P = 0.005, OR = 1.8), and both alleles and haplotypes show a stronger association with cortical cataract (rs3761382, P = 0.002, OR = 2.1; rs13053109, P = 0.002, OR = 2.1; rs7278468, P = 0.0007, OR = 0.5; C-G-T haplotype, P = 0.0003, OR = 2.2). The C-G-T risk haplotype decreased transcriptional activity through rs7278468, which lies in a consensus binding site for the transcription repressor KLF10. KLF10 binding inhibited CRYAA transcription, and both binding and inhibition were greater with the T rs7278468 allele. Knockdown of KLF10 in HLE cells partially rescued the transcriptional activity of CRYAA with rs7278468 T allele, but did not affect activity with the G allele. Thus, our data suggest that the T allele of rs7278468 in the CRYAA promoter is associated with ARC through increasing binding of KLF-10 and thus decreasing CRYAA transcription. PMID:26984531

  9. Tea and Risk of Age-Related Cataracts: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yan; He, Fan; Lin, Jun-Fen; Shen, Wei; Qiu, Yin-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background The antioxidant properties of tea extracts are considered to be effective in protecting against cataracts. However, there is still insufficient epidemiological knowledge about the protective effects of different types of tea on age-related cataracts. Methods The data was derived from the Zhejiang Major Public Health Surveillance (ZJMPHS) Program on health and related factors in the elderly. The relationships between consumption of different types of tea and risk of age-related cataracts were assessed after adjusting for related covariates. Results The prevalence of age-related cataracts in this study population was 4.4% (409/9343). After adjustment for potential confounders, tea drinking was associated with reduced risk of age-related cataracts (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47–0.91). Compared to nondrinkers, green tea drinkers had a significantly reduced risk of cataracts (adjusted OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40–0.85). Average tea consumption of 14–27 cups (adjusted OR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33–0.93) and over 28 cups (adjusted OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.34–0.99) per week had a protective effect against cataracts in comparison to no consumption. In addition, ingesting a moderate concentration of tea significantly decreased the risk of cataract compared to no consumption (adjusted OR 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27–0.71). Conclusions Tea ingestion was associated with reduced risk of age-related cataracts. In light of these findings, we suggest that reasonable tea consumption (ie, favoring green tea and consuming an average of over 500 mL per day at moderate concentration) should offer protection against age-related cataracts. PMID:27180932

  10. Cost-Utility Analyses of Cataract Surgery in Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; Huang, Jiannan; Zhu, Bijun; Sun, Qian; Miao, Yuyu; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To explore the cost-utility of cataract surgery in patients with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Patients who were diagnosed as having and treated for age-related cataract and with a history of advanced AMD at the Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, were included in the study. All of the participants underwent successful phacoemulsification with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation under retrobulbar anesthesia. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and utility value elicited by time trade-off method from patients at 3-month postoperative time were compared with those before surgery. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in a lifetime were calculated at a 3% annual discounted rate. Costs per QALY gained were calculated using the bootstrap method, and probabilities of being cost-effective were presented using a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. Results Mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA in the operated eye increased from 1.37 ± 0.5 (Snellen, 20/469) to 0.98 ± 0.25 (Snellen, 20/191) (p < 0.001); BCVA in the weighted average from both eyes (=75% better eye + 25% worse eye) was changed from 1.13 ± 0.22 (Snellen, 20/270) to 0.96 ± 0.17 (Snellen, 20/182) (p < 0.001). Utility values from both patients and doctors increased significantly after surgery (p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Patients gained 1.17 QALYs by cataract surgery in their lifetime. The cost per QALY was 8835 Chinese yuan (CNY) (1400 U.S. dollars [USD]). It is cost-effective at the threshold of 115,062 CNY (18,235 USD) per QALY in China recommended by the World Health Organization. The cost per QALY varied from 7045 CNY (1116 USD) to 94,178 CNY (14,925 USD) in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Visual acuity and quality of life assessed by utility value improved significantly after surgery

  11. X-Ray induced cataract is preceded by LEC loss, and coincident with accumulation of cortical DNA, and ROS; similarities with age-related cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Zitnik, Galynn; Tsai, Ryan; Wolf, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare age-related cataractous (ARC) changes in unirradiated mice lenses to those induced by head-only X-irradiation of 3 month-old mice. Methods lens epithelial cells (LECs) as well as partially degraded cortical DNA were visualized in fixed sections using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, and in fresh lenses using the vital stain Hoechst 33342. reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity was also visualized directly in fresh lenses using the vital dye Dihydrorhodamine (DHR). In fixed lenses an antibody specific for 8-OH Guanosine (8-OH-G) lesions was used to visualize DNA oxidative adducts from ROS damage. Alpha smooth muscle actin was visualized using specific antibodies to determine if myofibroblasts were present. Fluorescence was quantified using Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM). The degree of lens opacity and cataract formation was determined by slit lamp, or from digitalized images of light reflections taken with a low magnification light microscope. Results Using DNA- and ROS-specific vital fluorescent dyes, and laser scanning confocal microscopy we have previously described 4 changes in the aging rodent lenses: 1) a significantly decreased density of surface LECs in lenses from old compared to younger mice and rats; 2) a very large increase in retained cortical nuclei and DNA fragments in the secondary lens fibers of old rodent lenses; 3) increased cortical ROS in old rodent lenses; 4) increased cataract concomitantly with the cortical DNA and ROS increases. In the current study we report that these same 4 changes also occur in an accelerated fashion in mice given head-only X-irradiation at 3 months of age. In addition to vital staining of fresh lenses, we also examined sections from fixed eyes stained with DAPI or hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and found the same loss of surface LECs and accumulation of undigested nuclei and debris in secondary lens fibers occur with age or following X-irradiation. In addition sections from fixed

  12. Contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study to the Epidemiology of Cataract, Age-Related Macular Degeneration, and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Juan; Cho, Eunyoung; Ogata, Soshiro; Jacques, Paul; Taylor, Allen; Chiu, Chung-Jung; Wiggs, Janey L.; Seddon, Johanna M.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Pasquale, Louis R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) to understanding the genetic and lifestyle factors that influence the risk of cataract, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS between 1976 and 2016. Results. The NHS has helped to elucidate the roles of genetics, lifestyle factors (e.g., cigarette smoking associated with cataract extraction and age-related macular degeneration), medical conditions (e.g., diabetes associated with cataract extraction and glaucoma), and dietary factors (e.g., greater carotenoid intake and lower glycemic diet associated with lower risk of age-related macular degeneration) in the etiology of degree and progression of lens opacities, cataract extraction, age-related macular degeneration, primary open-angle glaucoma, and exfoliation glaucoma. Conclusions. The findings from the NHS, combined with those of other studies, have provided compelling evidence to support public health recommendations for helping to prevent age-related eye diseases: abstinence from cigarette smoking, maintenance of healthy weight and diabetes prevention, and a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables. PMID:27459452

  13. The Prevalence of Age-Related Eye Diseases and Cataract Surgery among Older Adults in the City of Lodz, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Michal Szymon; Smigielski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the prevalence of age-related eye diseases and cataract surgery among older adults in the city of Lodz, in central Poland. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and observational study. A total of 1107 women and men of predominantly Caucasian origin were successfully enumerated and recruited for the study. All selected subjects were interviewed and underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations. Results. Overall 8.04% (95% CI 6.44–9.64) subjects had cataract surgery in either eye. After excluding subjects with bilateral cataract surgery, the prevalence of cataract was 12.10% (95% CI 10.18–14.03). AMD was found in 4.33% (95% CI 3.14–5.54 ) of all subjects. Of them 3.25% (95% CI 2.21–4.30 ) had early AMD and 1.08% (95% CI 0.47–1.69) had late AMD. Various types of glaucoma were diagnosed in 5.51% (95% CI 4.17–6.85) of subjects and 2.62% (95% CI 1.68–3.56) had OHT. The prevalence rates of DR and myopic macular degeneration were 1.72% (95% CI 0.95–2.48) and 0.45% (95% CI 0.06–0.85), respectively. All multiple logistic regression models were only significantly associated with older age. The highest rate of visual impairment was observed among subjects with retinal diseases. Conclusions. The study revealed high prevalence of age-related eye diseases in this older population. PMID:25789169

  14. Multilamellar spherical particles as potential sources of excessive light scattering in human age-related nuclear cataracts.

    PubMed

    Costello, M Joseph; Johnsen, Sönke; Metlapally, Sangeetha; Gilliland, Kurt O; Frame, Lesley; Balasubramanian, Dorairajan

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this project was to determine the relative refractive index (RI) of the interior of multilamellar bodies (MLBs) compared to the adjacent cytoplasm within human nuclear fiber cells. MLBs have been characterized previously as 1-4 μm diameter spherical particles covered by multiple lipid bilayers surrounding a cytoplasmic core of variable density. Age-related nuclear cataracts have more MLBs than transparent donor lenses and were predicted to have high forward scattering according to Mie scattering theory, assuming different RIs for the MLB and cytoplasm. In this study quantitative values of relative RI were determined from specific MLBs in electron micrographs of thin sections and used to calculate new Mie scattering plots. Fresh lenses were Vibratome sectioned, immersion fixed and en bloc stained with osmium tetroxide and uranyl acetate, or uranyl acetate alone, prior to dehydration and embedding in epoxy or acrylic resins. Thin sections 70 nm thick were cut on a diamond knife and imaged without grid stains at 60 kV using a CCD camera on a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Integrated intensities in digital electron micrographs were related directly to protein density, which is linearly related to RI for a given substance. The RI of the MLB interior was calculated assuming an RI value of 1.42 for the cytoplasm from the literature. Calculated RI values for MLBs ranged from 1.35 to 1.53. Thus, some MLBs appeared to have interior protein densities similar to or less than the adjacent cytoplasm whereas others had significantly higher densities. The higher density MLBs occurred preferentially in older and more advanced cataracts suggesting a maturation process. The bilayer coats were more often observed in MLBs from transparent donors and early stage cataracts indicating that bilayer loss was part of the MLB maturation, producing large low-density spaces around dense MLB cores. These spaces were frequently observed in advanced cataracts from India as

  15. Associations of Polymorphisms in MTHFR Gene with the Risk of Age-Related Cataract in Chinese Han Population: A Genotype-Phenotype Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Li; Han, Ya-di; Cui, Ning-hua; Huang, Zhu-liang; Li, Zu-hua; Zheng, Fang; Yan, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is a potential risk factor for age-related cataract (ARC). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is the key enzyme for Hcy metabolism, and variants of MTHFR may affect MTHFR enzyme activity. This study mainly evaluated the associations between variants in MTHFR gene, plasma MTHFR enzyme activity, total Hcy (tHcy) levels and ARC risk in Chinese population. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MTHFR gene were genotyped using the high-resolution melting (HRM) method in 502 ARC patients (mean age, 70.2 [SD, 9.0], 46.0% male) and 890 healthy controls (mean age, 67.1 [SD, 11.1], 47.6% male). The plasma MTHFR activity, folic acid (FA), vitamins B12 and B6 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The plasma tHcy levels were measured by an automated enzymatic assay. After the Bonferroni correction, the minor allele T of SNP rs1801133 showed a significant association with an increased risk of overall ARC (OR = 1.26, P = 0.003). Consistent association was also found between SNP rs1801133 and cortical ARC risk (OR = 1.44, P = 0.003). Haplotype analyses revealed an adverse effect of the haplotype "C-A-T-C" (alleles in order of SNPs rs3737967, rs1801131, rs1801133 and rs9651118) on ARC risk (OR = 1.55, P = 0.003). Moreover, in a joint analysis of SNPs rs9651118 and rs1801133, subjects with two unfavorable genotypes had a 1.76-fold increased risk of ARC compared with the reference group, and a statistically significant dose-response trend (Ptrend = 0.001) was also observed. Further, in healthy controls and patients with cortical ARC, the allele T of SNP rs1801133 and the increasing number of unfavorable genotypes were significantly correlated with decreased MTHFR activity as well as increased tHcy levels. However, there was no significant association between FA, vitamins B12, B6 levels and MTHFR variants. Our data indicated that variants in MTHFR gene might individually and jointly influence susceptibility to ARC by

  16. Associations between age-related nuclear cataract and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum and prevalence of age-related nuclear cataract in older women. Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study participants aged 50 y+, at 3 sites, who reported high (above the 78th percentile...

  17. Cataracts

    MedlinePlus

    ... has become cloudy, this is called a cataract. Vision problems with cataracts If your vision has become ... regularly for any changes. Cataract surgery for clearer vision When a cataract causes bothersome vision problems that ...

  18. Deficiency of circadian protein CLOCK reduces lifespan and increases age-related cataract development in mice.

    PubMed

    Dubrovsky, Yulia V; Samsa, William E; Kondratov, Roman V

    2010-12-01

    Circadian clock is implicated in the regulation of aging. The transcription factor CLOCK, a core component of the circadian system, operates in complex with another circadian clock protein BMAL1. Recently it was demonstrated that BMAL1 deficiency results in premature aging in mice. Here we investigate the aging of mice deficient for CLOCK protein. Deficiency of the CLOCK protein significantly affects longevity: the average lifespan of Clock-/- mice is reduced by 15% compared with wild type mice, while maximum lifespan is reduced by more than 20%. CLOCK deficiency also results in the development of two age-specific pathologies in these mice, cataracts and dermatitis, at a much higher rate than in wild type mice. In contrast to BMAL1 deficient animals, Clock-/- mice do not develop a premature aging phenotype and do not develop the multiple age-associated pathologies characteristic of BMAL1 deficiency. Thus, although CLOCK and BMAL1 form a transcriptional complex, the physiological result of their deficiency is different. Our results suggest that CLOCK plays an important role in aging, specifically; CLOCK activity is critical for the regulation of normal physiology and aging of the lens and skin.

  19. Age-related changes in the kinetics of human lenses: prevention of the cataract

    PubMed Central

    Pescosolido, Nicola; Barbato, Andrea; Giannotti, Rossella; Komaiha, Chiara; Lenarduzzi, Fiammetta

    2016-01-01

    The crystalline lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina and, by changing shape, it adjusts focal distance (accommodation). The three classes of structural proteins found in the lens are α, β, and γ crystallins. These proteins make up more than 90% of the total dry mass of the eye lens. Other components which can be found are sugars, lipids, water, several antioxidants and low weight molecules. When ageing changes occur in the lens, it causes a gradual reduction in transparency, presbyopia and an increase in the scattering and aberration of light waves as well as a degradation of the optical quality of the eye. The main changes that occur with aging are: 1) reduced diffusion of water from the outside to the inside of the lens and from its cortical to its nuclear zone; 2) crystalline change due to the accumulation of high molecular weight aggregates and insoluble proteins; 3) production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), lipid accumulation, reduction of reduced glutathione content and destruction of ascorbic acid. Even if effective strategies in preventing cataract onset are not already known, good results have been reached in some cases with oral administration of antioxidant substances such as caffeine, pyruvic acid, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), α-lipoic acid and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) over expression could protect lens cells both in presence and in absence of oxidative stress-induced damage. Nevertheless, promising results have been obtained by reducing ultraviolet-induced oxidative damage. PMID:27803872

  20. An eye on nutrition: The role of vitamins, essential fatty acids, and antioxidants in age-related macular degeneration, dry eye syndrome, and cataract.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Meagen M; Durrani, Khayyam; Payette, Michael J; Suchecki, Jeanine

    2016-01-01

    Visual impairment is a global epidemic. In developing countries, nutritional deficiency and cataracts continue to be the leading cause of blindness, whereas age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts are the leading causes in developed nations. The World Health Organization has instituted VISION 2020: "The Right to Sight" as a global mission to put an end to worldwide blindness. In industrialized societies, patients, physicians, researchers, nutritionists, and biochemists have been looking toward vitamins and nutrients to prevent AMD, cataracts, and dry eye syndrome (DES). Nutrients from the AREDS2 study (lutein, zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, copper, eicosapentanoic acid [EPA], and docosahexanoic acid [DHA]) set forth by the National Institutes of Health remain the most proven nutritional therapy for reducing the rate of advanced AMD. Omega-3 fatty acids, especially DHA, have been found to improve DES in randomized clinical trials. Conflicting results have been seen with regard to multivitamin supplementation on the prevention of cataract. PMID:26903189

  1. The effect of high and very low fluorescent light exposure levels on age-related cataract in a pigmented mouse strain.

    PubMed

    Wolf, N S; Penn, P E

    2001-07-01

    This study examined the effect of fluorescent light on the timing and severity of age-related cataracts in a fully pigmented mouse strain, the (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1, that normally develops slowly progressing age-related cataracts only beyond middle age. Two groups of 56 animals each were exposed, respectively, either to a daily range of 66-222 foot candles (FC) or to 1 FC of standard fluorescent lighting for a period beginning at 5 weeks of age and ending at 33.5 months (by which time approximately 65% of the colony had died). Contrary to previous reports involving albino rats or mice and a strain of pigmented but cataract-prone transgenic mice, the two groups of animals in this experiment did not differ for cataract development in time of first occurrence, rate of advancement, or degree of severity. It was concluded that genetic predisposition, based on levels of oxidative free radical production vs antioxidant enzyme and repair enzyme protection in the lens, was probably the major factor governing the rate and degree of age-related cataract development in these animals. The effect of relatively intense life-long fluorescent light exposure was so minimal as not to be manifested in this strain of mice under the conditions of this experiment. Remarkably, maintaining the one group of mice in semi-darkness from 5 weeks of age to beyond their mean lifespans did nothing to delay or reduce the incidence or severity of their age-related cataracts. PMID:11428861

  2. The Association of Dietary Lutein/Zeaxanthin and B Vitamins with Cataracts in the Age- Related Eye Disease Study AREDS Report No. 37

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Tanya S.; Doss, Lauren E.; Shih, Grace; Nigam, Divya; Sperduto, Robert D.; Ferris, Frederick L.; Agrón, Elvira; Clemons, Traci E; Chew, Emily Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether dietary intake of lutein/zeaxanthin and B vitamins is associated with cataract prevalence and incidence. Design Clinic-based, baseline cross-sectional and prospective cohort study designs. Participants 3115 (6129 eyes) persons enrolled in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study, aged 55 to 80 years, followed for mean of 9.6 years. Methods Participants completed baseline food frequency questionnaires. Baseline and annual lens photographs were graded centrally. Multivariable models controlling for previously identified risk factors for cataracts were used to measure the association of cataracts with reported dietary intake, using the lowest quintile as reference. Main Outcome Measures Cataract surgery, cataract status (type and severity) at baseline, development of cataracts. Results At baseline, increased dietary riboflavin and B12 were inversely associated with nuclear and cortical lens opacities. In comparisons of persons with and without cataract, persons with the highest riboflavin intake vs. those with the lowest intake had the following associations: odds ratio (OR): 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63–0.97 for mild nuclear, OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.43–0.90 for moderate nuclear, and OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65–0.99 for mild cortical cataracts. For B12, the results were: OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.63–0.96 for mild nuclear, OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.43–0.88 for moderate nuclear, and OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63–0.95 for mild cortical cataracts. Highest dietary B6 intake was associated with a decreased risk of developing moderate nuclear lens opacity compared with the lowest quintile, OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.45–0.99. Highest dietary intake levels of niacin and B12 were associated with a decreased risk of development of mild nuclear or mild cortical cataracts in participants not taking Centrum® multivitamin. For participants taking Centrum® during the study, highest intake of dietary folate was associated with an increased risk of development of mild

  3. Evidence of Highly Conserved β-Crystallin Disulfidome that Can be Mimicked by In Vitro Oxidation in Age-related Human Cataract and Glutathione Depleted Mouse Lens.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xingjun; Zhou, Sheng; Wang, Benlian; Hom, Grant; Guo, Minfei; Li, Binbin; Yang, Jing; Vaysburg, Dennis; Monnier, Vincent M

    2015-12-01

    Low glutathione levels are associated with crystallin oxidation in age-related nuclear cataract. To understand the role of cysteine residue oxidation, we used the novel approach of comparing human cataracts with glutathione-depleted LEGSKO mouse lenses for intra- versus intermolecular disulfide crosslinks using 2D-PAGE and proteomics, and then systematically identified in vivo and in vitro all disulfide forming sites using ICAT labeling method coupled with proteomics. Crystallins rich in intramolecular disulfides were abundant at young age in human and WT mouse lens but shifted to multimeric intermolecular disulfides at older age. The shift was ∼4x accelerated in LEGSKO lens. Most cysteine disulfides in β-crystallins (except βA4 in human) were highly conserved in mouse and human and could be generated by oxidation with H(2)O(2), whereas γ-crystallin oxidation selectively affected γC23/42/79/80/154, γD42/33, and γS83/115/130 in human cataracts, and γB79/80/110, γD19/109, γF19/79, γE19, γS83/130, and γN26/128 in mouse. Analysis based on available crystal structure suggests that conformational changes are needed to expose Cys42, Cys79/80, Cys154 in γC; Cys42, Cys33 in γD, and Cys83, Cys115, and Cys130 in γS. In conclusion, the β-crystallin disulfidome is highly conserved in age-related nuclear cataract and LEGSKO mouse, and reproducible by in vitro oxidation, whereas some of the disulfide formation sites in γ-crystallins necessitate prior conformational changes. Overall, the LEGSKO mouse model is closely reminiscent of age-related nuclear cataract.

  4. The Relationship Between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Nuclear Cataract in the Carotenoid Age-Related Eye Study (CAREDS), an Ancillary Study of the Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Prethy; Millen, Amy E.; Meyers, Kristin J.; Liu, Zhe; Voland, Rickie; Sondel, Sheri; Tinker, Lesley; Wallace, Robert B.; Blodi, Barbara A.; Binkley, Neil; Sarto, Gloria; Robinson, Jennifer; LeBlanc, Erin; Mares, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and nuclear cataract among participants of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study (OS). Methods. Nuclear cataract was assessed from slit lamp photographs (2001–2004) taken 6 years after collecting serum analyzed for 25(OH)D levels at WHI baseline (1994–1998) in 1278 CAREDS participants age 50 to 79 years. Multivariate (age, iris color, smoking, pulse pressure) odds ratios (ORs) for nuclear cataract (nuclear opacities > level 4 or cataract extraction) by quintiles of serum 25(OH)D were estimated using logistic regression. Results. No significant association was observed between serum 25(OH)D and nuclear cataract among women of all ages (age-adjusted OR [95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.97 [0.65–1.45]). However, there was a significant age interaction (P for interaction = 0.04). There were no significant associations in the women 70 years or older. In women younger than 70 years, we observed an inverse association between serum 25(OH)D and nuclear cataract (multivariate adjusted ORs [95% CI] 0.54 [0.29–0.99] and 0.66 [0.36–1.20] for quintiles 4 and 5 vs. 1, respectively; P = 0.03). Further adjustment for 25(OH)D determinants (body mass index, vitamin D intake, and UVB exposure) attenuated this association. Conclusions. Serum 25(OH)D levels were unrelated to nuclear opacities in this study sample. However, exploratory analyses suggest a protective association in women younger than 70 years. Further investigations of the relationship between vitamin D and nuclear lens opacities are warranted. PMID:26132781

  5. Cataracts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Cataracts KidsHealth > ... she takes time to help him with his homework. Lately, though, Jake's noticed that Grandma Fran has ...

  6. Cataract

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colors that seem faded Glare - headlights, lamps or sunlight may seem too bright. You may also see ... a hat with a brim to block ultraviolet sunlight may help to delay cataracts. NIH: National Eye ...

  7. Cataract - adult

    MedlinePlus

    Lens opacity; Age-related cataract ... of the eye. Until a person is around age 45, the shape of the lens is able ... is close or far away. As a person ages, proteins in the lens begin to break down. ...

  8. Targeted deletion of the murine Lgr4 gene decreases lens epithelial cell resistance to oxidative stress and induces age-related cataract formation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Hou, Qiang; Dong, Xiang Da; Wang, Zhenlian; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Dandan; Zhou, Linglin; He, Chao; Liu, Mingyao; Tu, LiLi; Qu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the formation of cataracts. The leucine rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4, also known as GPR48), is important in many developmental processes. Since deletion of Lgr4 has previously been shown to lead to cataract formation in mice, we sought to determine the specific role that Lgr4 plays in the formation of cataracts. Initially, the lens opacities of Lgr4(-/-) mice at different ages without ocular anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) were evaluated with slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Lenses from both Lgr4(-/-) and wild-type mice were subjected to oxidation induced protein denaturation to assess the ability of the lens to withstand oxidation. The expression of antioxidant enzymes was evaluated with real-time quantitative PCR. Phenotypically, Lgr4(-/-) mice showed earlier onset of lens opacification and higher incidence of cataract formation compared with wild-type mice of similar age. In addition, Lgr4(-/-) mice demonstrated increased sensitivity to environmental oxidative damage, as evidenced by altered protein expression. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that two prominent antioxidant defense enzymes, catalase (CAT) and superoxidase dismutase-1 (SOD1), were significantly decreased in the lens epithelial cells of Lgr4(-/-) mice. Our results suggest that the deletion of Lgr4 can lead to premature cataract formation, as well as progressive deterioration with aging. Oxidative stress and altered expression of several antioxidant defense enzymes contribute to the formation of cataracts. PMID:25811370

  9. Motor function benefits of visual restoration measured in age-related cataract and simulated patients: Case-control and clinical experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Nagura, Takeo; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Negishi, Kazuno; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-09-30

    The aim of the present study was to measure gait velocity in cataract and simulated patients. The study was performed on 239 cataract patients, 115 age-matched subjects, and 11 simulated patients. We measured gait velocity and analyzed gait using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Mean gait velocity before and 2 and 7 months after cataract surgery was 0.91 ± 0.19, 1.04 ± 0.21, and 1.06 ± 0.21 m/s, respectively, for males and 0.84 ± 0.22, 0.91 ± 0.24, and 0.92 ± 0.25 m/s, respectively, for females. The increase after surgery was significant in both groups at 7 months (P < 0.05). Gait velocity was significantly slower in cataract patients compared with controls before surgery, but no longer different after surgery. In simulated patients, mean velocity was 87.0 ± 11.4% of normal vision with a 3° visual field and 92.4 ± 12.3% of normal when counting fingers. Initial velocity was 89.1 ± 14.6% of normal vision with a 3° visual field and 92.7 ± 11.6% of normal when counting fingers. There was a significant difference between normal and impaired visual function (P < 0.05). The results demonstrate the close relationship between visual function and gait in cataract patients and simulated patients.

  10. Motor function benefits of visual restoration measured in age-related cataract and simulated patients: Case-control and clinical experimental studies

    PubMed Central

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Nagura, Takeo; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Negishi, Kazuno; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure gait velocity in cataract and simulated patients. The study was performed on 239 cataract patients, 115 age-matched subjects, and 11 simulated patients. We measured gait velocity and analyzed gait using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Mean gait velocity before and 2 and 7 months after cataract surgery was 0.91 ± 0.19, 1.04 ± 0.21, and 1.06 ± 0.21 m/s, respectively, for males and 0.84 ± 0.22, 0.91 ± 0.24, and 0.92 ± 0.25 m/s, respectively, for females. The increase after surgery was significant in both groups at 7 months (P < 0.05). Gait velocity was significantly slower in cataract patients compared with controls before surgery, but no longer different after surgery. In simulated patients, mean velocity was 87.0 ± 11.4% of normal vision with a 3° visual field and 92.4 ± 12.3% of normal when counting fingers. Initial velocity was 89.1 ± 14.6% of normal vision with a 3° visual field and 92.7 ± 11.6% of normal when counting fingers. There was a significant difference between normal and impaired visual function (P < 0.05). The results demonstrate the close relationship between visual function and gait in cataract patients and simulated patients. PMID:26420727

  11. A post-trial survey to assess the impact of dissemination of results and unmasking on participants in a 13-year randomised controlled trial on age-related cataract

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Italian-American Clinical Trial of Nutritional Supplements and Age-Related Cataract was designed to assess the impact of a multivitamin-mineral supplement on age-related cataract. Trial results showed evidence of a beneficial effect of the supplement on all types of cataract combined, opposite effects on two of the three types of cataract (beneficial for nuclear opacities and harmful for posterior sub-capsular opacities) and no statistically significant effect on cortical opacities. No treatment recommendations were made. A post-trial survey was conducted on 817 surviving elderly participants to assess their satisfaction, their understanding of treatment assignment to supplement or placebo and the success of masking. Methods Trial results were communicated by letter and the level of satisfaction and of understanding of the results was assessed by a questionnaire. Participants were offered the option of being unmasked: a second questionnaire was administered to this subset to assess their understanding of the randomisation process and the success of masking. Results 610 participants (74.7%) responded to the survey: 94.6% thought the description of the results was "very clear" or "quite clear", 5.4% "not clear" or "do not know"; 89.8% considered the results "very interesting" or "quite interesting", 10.2% "not interesting" or "do not know"; 60.3% expressed "satisfaction", 17.2% "both satisfaction and concern", 2.6% "concern", 19.9% "indifference" or "do not know". 480 participants (78.7%) accepted the offer to be unmasked to their treatment assignment: 395 (82.3%) recalled/understood the possibility of assignment to vitamins or placebo, 85 (17.7%) did not. 68 participants (17.2%) thought they had taken vitamins (79.4% were correct; p = 0.0006), 47 (11.9%) thought they had taken placebo (59.6% were correct; p = 0.46) and 280 (70.9%) declared they did not know. Conclusions The results were made difficult to explain to study participants by the

  12. Nutrition and age-related eye diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vision loss among the elderly is an important health problem. Approximately one person in three has some form of vision-reducing eye disease by the age of 65 [1]. Age-related cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma are the major diseases resulting in visu...

  13. Cataract (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A cataract is a cloudy or opaque area in the lens of the eye. Cataracts usually develop as a person gets older and ... substances can also accelerate the development of a cataract. Cataracts can cause visual problems such as difficulty ...

  14. Association between lutein and zeaxanthin status and the risk of cataract: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Yu, Rong-Bin; Liu, Rong; Hao, Zhen-Xuan; Han, Cheng-Cheng; Zhu, Zhong-Hai; Ma, Le

    2014-01-22

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between blood lutein and zeaxanthin concentration and the risk of age-related cataract (ARC). MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI and Cochrane Library were searched to identify relevant studies up to April 2013. Meta-analysis was conducted to obtain pooled relative risks (RRs) for the highest-versus-lowest categories of blood lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations. One cohort study and seven cross-sectional studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were significant inverse associations between nuclear cataract and blood lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations, with the pooled RRs ranging from 0.63 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.77) for zeaxanthin to 0.73 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.87) for lutein. A stronger association between nuclear cataract and blood zeaxanthin might be noted for the studies conducted in the European Nations. Blood lutein and zeaxanthin were also noted to lead towards a decrease in the risk of cortical cataract and subcapsular cataract; however, these pooled RRs were not statistically significant, with the exception of a marginal association between lutein and subcapsular cataract. Our results suggest that high blood lutein and zeaxanthin are significantly associated with a decrease in the risk of nuclear cataract. However, no significant associations were found for ARC in other regions of the lens.

  15. Congenital cataract

    MedlinePlus

    ... both eyes. Moderate to severe cataracts that affect vision, or a cataract that is in only 1 eye, will need to be treated with cataract removal surgery. In most (noncongenital) cataract surgeries, an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) is inserted into the eye. ...

  16. Cat-Map: putting cataract on the map

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Thomas M.; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding

    2010-01-01

    Lens opacities, or cataract(s), may be inherited as a classic Mendelian disorder usually with early-onset or, more commonly, acquired with age as a multi-factorial or complex trait. Many genetic forms of cataract have been described in mice and other animal models. Considerable progress has been made in mapping and identifying the genes and mutations responsible for inherited forms of cataract, and genetic determinants of age-related cataract are beginning to be discovered. To provide a convenient and accurate summary of current information focused on the increasing genetic complexity of Mendelian and age-related cataract we have created an online chromosome map and reference database for cataract in humans and mice (Cat-Map). PMID:21042563

  17. Common cell biologic and biochemical changes in aging and age-related diseases of the eye: Toward new therapeutic approaches to age-related ocular diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reviews of information about age related macular degeneration (AMD), cataract, and glaucoma make it apparent that while each eye tissue has its own characteristic metabolism, structure and function, there are common perturbations to homeostasis that are associated with age-related dysfunction. The c...

  18. Cataract surgery in pseudoexfoliation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sangal, Neha; Chen, Teresa C

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoexfoliation (PXF) syndrome is characterized by the deposition of distinctive fibrillar material in the anterior segment of the eye. It is an age-related process that is associated with open and narrow angle glaucomas and the formation of cataracts. Not only is PXF associated with the formation of dense nuclear cataracts, it is also well known that those presenting with PXF are at a higher risk of developing complications during, and even after, cataract surgery. Complications associated with cataract surgery in PXF can occur from poor pupillary dilation, zonular weakness leading to intraoperative or postoperative lens dislocation and vitreous loss, postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) spikes potentiating glaucomatous damage, capsular phimosis, prolonged inflammation, and postoperative corneal decompensation. The surgeon should be prepared to encounter the various potential intraoperative and postoperative complications in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome during cataract surgery. In this way, the surgeon can plan his/her surgical technique to help avoid surprises during cataract surgery and be prepared to manage the potential postoperative complications that can occur in pseudoexfoliation eyes. PMID:25325866

  19. [Ten most progression of cataract research in China].

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    Ten researches that may represent the most advanced cataract related studies in China were reviewed, which were recommended and voted by specialists from Chinese Cataract and Intraocular Lens Society. These researches focused on the following fields: the clinical study of the refractive cataract surgery, the clinical study on the premium intraocular lens, location and function study of the disease-associated genes of congenital cataract, the mechanism and prevention of age-related cataract, the mechanism and prevention of oxidative damage of crystalline lens and so on. These studies represented the level of crystalline lens related disease field in China.

  20. Pediatric cataracts.

    PubMed

    Wright, K W

    1997-02-01

    Posterior chamber intraocular lenses are a well-accepted treatment of aphakia in children 2 years of age and older, with many now considering them as the treatment of choice. Infants, however, are usually treated with contact lens, rather than intraocular lens implantation, as the infant eye undergoes significant axial elongation. The use of intraocular lenses in children with cataracts associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis remains controversial, but a recent article [9] describes good results in these patients, who historically have a poor prognosis. The management of amblyopia associated with unilateral congenital cataracts is evolving. In the 1970s and 1980s, full-time occlusion of the sound eye was advocated for infants with unilateral congenital cataracts. It was also taught that binocular fusion was impossible to obtain, and children with unilateral cataracts inevitably develop strabismus. Recent studies have shown that part-time occlusion may in fact yield better results, allowing the development of binocular vision and stereopsis and reducing the incidence of strabismus. PMID:10168274

  1. Cataract removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... blocks light from entering your eye. Without enough light, you cannot see as clearly. Cataracts are painless. They are most ... bathing or showering for the first few days. Light activities are best ... If you need new glasses or contact lenses, you can usually ...

  2. Mechanistically linking age-related diseases and dietary carbohydrate via autophagy and the ubiquitin proteolytic systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiological data indicate that consuming diets that deliver sugar to the blood rapidly (called high glycemic index, GI) is associated with enhanced risk for age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). These debilities...

  3. Promoter demethylation of Keap1 gene in human diabetic cataractous lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Palsamy, Periyasamy; Ayaki, Masahiko; Elanchezhian, Rajan; Shinohara, Toshimichi

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found significant Keap1 promoter demethylation in diabetic cataractous lenses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demethylation of Keap1 gene upregulated the expression of Keap1 mRNA and protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated levels of Keap1 are known to decrease the levels of Nrf2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thereby, the levels of antioxidant enzymes are suppressed by decreased Nrf2 level. -- Abstract: Age-related cataracts (ARCs) are the major cause of visual impairments worldwide, and diabetic adults tend to have an earlier onset of ARCs. Although age is the strongest risk factor for cataracts, little is known how age plays a role in the development of ARCs. It is known that oxidative stress in the lens increases with age and more so in the lenses of diabetics. One of the central adaptive responses against the oxidative stresses is the activation of the nuclear transcriptional factor, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which then activates more than 20 different antioxidative enzymes. Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) targets and binds to Nrf2 for proteosomal degradation. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia will lead to a dysfunction of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidative protection in the lens of diabetics. We studied the methylation status of the CpG islands in 15 clear and 21 diabetic cataractous lenses. Our results showed significant levels of demethylated DNA in the Keap1 promoter in the cataractous lenses from diabetic patients. In contrast, highly methylated DNA was found in the clear lens and tumorized human lens epithelial cell (HLEC) lines (SRA01/04). HLECs treated with a demethylation agent, 5-aza-2 Prime deoxycytidine (5-Aza), had a 10-fold higher levels of Keap1 mRNA, 3-fold increased levels of Keap1 protein, produced higher levels of ROS, and increased cell death. Our results indicated that demethylation of the CpG islands in the Keap1 promoter will activate the expression of Keap1 protein, which

  4. Eye Conditions in Older Adults: Cataracts.

    PubMed

    Iroku-Malize, Tochi; Kirsch, Scott

    2016-06-01

    A clinically significant cataract is defined as an opacification of the eye lens causing a significant decrease in visual acuity or a functional visual impairment. Age-related cataracts are the leading cause of blindness in the world and one of the most common etiologies of visual impairment in the United States. Consequences can include loss of driving privileges, inability to read or watch television, inability to participate in social activities, and an increased risk of falls. In the United States, cataract surgery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure among older patients. There are three main types of cataracts: nuclear, cortical, and subcapsular. Age is the strongest predictor of cataract development. Other major risk factors include a family history of cataracts, diabetes, smoking, obesity, poor nutrition, lower socioeconomic status, and alcohol use. Surgery is the definitive treatment. Phacoemulsification and implantation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens is the most common method used for managing cataracts in the United States. Glasses or contact lenses then are prescribed to correct any residual refractive errors. Cataract surgery is a low-risk procedure and routine preoperative testing typically is not needed. PMID:27348528

  5. Radiation cataract.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, N J

    2012-01-01

    Until very recently, ocular exposure guidelines were based on the assumption that radiation cataract is a deterministic event requiring threshold doses generally greater than 2 Gy. This view was, in part, based on older studies which generally had short follow-up periods, failed to take into account increasing latency as dose decreased, had relatively few subjects with doses below a few Gy, and were not designed to detect early lens changes. Newer findings, including those in populations exposed to much lower radiation doses and in subjects as diverse as astronauts, medical workers, atomic bomb survivors, accidentally exposed individuals, and those undergoing diagnostic or radiotherapeutic procedures, strongly suggest dose-related lens opacification at significantly lower doses. These observations resulted in a recent re-evaluation of current lens occupational exposure guidelines, and a proposed lowering of the presumptive radiation cataract threshold to 0.5 Gy/year and the occupational lens exposure limit to 20 mSv/year, regardless of whether received as an acute, protracted, or chronic exposure. Experimental animal studies support these conclusions and suggest a role for genotoxicity in the development of radiation cataract. Recent findings of a low or even zero threshold for radiation-induced lens opacification are likely to influence current research efforts and directions concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology. Furthermore, new guidelines are likely to have significant implications for occupational and/or accidental exposure, and the need for occupational eye protection (e.g. in fields such as interventional medicine).

  6. Silent information regulator T1 in aqueous humor of patients with cataract

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Aki; Goto, Mari; Mimura, Tatsuya; Matsubara, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1), a member of the sirtuin family, has a preventive role in various ocular diseases. We evaluated the relations between the aqueous humor level of SIRT1 and age, sex, systemic diseases, the severity of lens opacity, and other factors. Setting This study was conducted at a university teaching hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Design This study was designed based on the consecutive case series. Methods Aqueous humor samples were obtained from 29 eyes of the 21 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for age-related cataract (ARC). SIRT1 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Aqueous humor levels of SIRT1 showed a positive correlation with visual acuity (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) and with the severity of nuclear cataract (r=0.32 and 0.30, respectively, P<0.05). However, only visual acuity was correlated with SIRT1 according to the stepwise multiple regression analysis (P<0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that SIRT1 may have an effect on the formation of ARC, acting as a defensive factor against ARC. PMID:26929595

  7. Nutritional modulation of cataract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cataract, or lens opacification, remains a major cause of blindness worldwide. Cataracts reduce vision in over eighty million people, causing blindness in eighteen million people. The number afflicted by cataract will increase dramatically as the proportion of the elderly global population increase...

  8. Lutein and Age-Related Ocular Disorders in the Older Adult: A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lutein, a carotenoid found in dark green, leafy vegetables, has been implicated as being protective against the acquired ocular diseases, such as cataracts and age-related macular degeneration. In the eye, lutein may act as an antioxidant and as a blue light filter to protect the underlying tissues ...

  9. Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly. AMD is diagnosed based on characteristic retinal findings in individuals older than 50. Early detection and treatment are critical in increasing the likelihood of retaining good and functional vision.

  10. Cataracts in retired actinide-exposed radiation workers.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Baruch S

    2005-01-01

    Radiation-induced cataracts are predominantly of the posterior sub-capsular (PSC) type, whereas about 90% of age-related cataracts are of other types. Retired workers, likely to have transuranic body burdens, from three DOE-supported installations were questioned regarding their eye-care history and asked for permission to contact their eye-care providers regarding any cataracts. In 97 cases with lifetime exposure records 20 cases (20.6%) were reported to have PSC cataracts. However, of 24 individuals with recorded lifetime doses of 200-600 mSv, nine (37.5%) had PSC cataracts, compared with 15.1% of 73 cases with doses of less than 200 mSv. This difference is statistically significant at the 5% level.

  11. [Presbycusis - Age Related Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Fischer, N; Weber, B; Riechelmann, H

    2016-07-01

    Presbycusis or age related hearing loss can be defined as a progressive, bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss due to age related degeneration of inner ear structures. It can be considered a multifactorial complex disorder with environmental and genetic factors. The molecular, electrophysiological and histological damage at different levels of the inner ear cause a progressive hearing loss, which usually affects the high frequencies of hearing. The resulting poor speech recognition has a negative impact on cognitive, emotional and social function in older adults. Recent investigations revealed an association between hearing impairment and social isolation, anxiety, depression and cognitive decline in elderly. These findings emphasize the importance of diagnosis and treating hearing loss in the elderly population. Hearing aids are the most commonly used devices for treating presbycusis. The technical progress of implantable hearing devices allows an effective hearing rehabilitation even in elderly with severe hearing loss. However, most people with hearing impairments are not treated adequately. PMID:27392191

  12. [Age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Garcia Layana, A

    1998-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the occidental world. Patients suffering this process have an important reduction on their quality of life being handicapped to read, to write, to recognise faces of their friends, or even to watch the television. One of the main problems of that disease is the absence of an effective treatment able to revert the process. Laser treatment is only useful in a limited number of patients, and even in these cases recurrent lesions are frequent. These facts and the progressive ageing of our society establish the ARMD as one of the biggest aim of medical investigations for the next century, and currently is focus of attention in the most industrialised countries. One of the most promising pieces of research is focused in the investigation of the risk factors associated with the age-related macular degeneration, in order to achieve a prophylactic treatment avoiding its appearance. Diet elements such as fat ingestion or reduced antioxidant intakes are being investigated as some of these factors, what open a new possibility for a prophylactic treatment. Finally, research is looking for new therapeutic modalities such as selective radiotherapy in order to improve or maintain the vision of these patients.

  13. Age-related atrial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gramley, Felix; Lorenzen, Johann; Knackstedt, Christian; Rana, Obaida R; Saygili, Erol; Frechen, Dirk; Stanzel, Sven; Pezzella, Francesco; Koellensperger, Eva; Weiss, Christian; Münzel, Thomas; Schauerte, Patrick

    2009-03-01

    Many age-related diseases are associated with, and may be promoted by, cardiac fibrosis. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, hypoxia-induced factor (HIF), and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) system have been implicated in fibrogenesis. Thus, we investigated whether age is related to these systems and to atrial fibrosis. Right atrial appendages (RAA) obtained during heart surgery (n = 115) were grouped according to patients' age (<50 years, 51-60 years, 61-70 years, or >70 years). Echocardiographic ejection fractions (EF) and fibrosis using Sirius-red-stained histological sections were determined. TGF-beta was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and hypoxia-related factors [HIF1 alpha, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-receptor, CD34 (a surrogate marker for microvessel density), the factor inhibiting HIF (FIH), and prolyl hydroxylase 3 (PHD 3)] were detected by immunostaining. MMP-2 and -9 activity were determined zymographically, and mRNA levels of their common tissue inhibitor TIMP-1 were determined by RT-PCR. Younger patients (<50 years) had significantly less fibrosis (10.1% +/- 4.4% vs 16.6% +/- 8.3%) than older individuals (>70 years). While HIF1 alpha, FIH, the VEGF-receptor, and CD34 were significantly elevated in the young, TGF-beta and PHD3 were suppressed in these patients. MMP-2 and -9 activity was found to be higher while TIMP-1 levels were lower in older patients. Statistical analysis proved age to be the only factor influencing fibrogenesis. With increasing age, RAAs develop significantly more fibrosis. An increase of fibrotic and decrease of hypoxic signalling and microvessel density, coupled with differential expression of MMPs and TIMP-1 favouring fibrosis may have helped promote atrial fibrogenesis. PMID:19234766

  14. Genetics of Congenital Cataract.

    PubMed

    Pichi, Francesco; Lembo, Andrea; Serafino, Massimiliano; Nucci, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a type of cataract that presents at birth or during early childhood, and it is one of the most easily treatable causes of visual impairment and blindness during infancy, with an estimated prevalence of 1-6 cases per 10,000 live births. Approximately 50% of all congenital cataract cases may have a genetic cause, and such cases are quite heterogeneous. Although congenital nuclear cataract can be caused by multiple factors, genetic mutation remains the most common cause. All three types of Mendelian inheritance have been reported for cataract; however, autosomal dominant transmission seems to be the most frequent. The transparency and high refractive index of the lens are achieved by the precise architecture of fiber cells and homeostasis of the lens proteins in terms of their concentrations, stabilities, and supramolecular organization. Research on hereditary congenital cataract has led to the identification of several classes of candidate genes that encode proteins such crystallins, lens-specific connexins, aquaporin, cytoskeletal structural proteins, and developmental regulators. In this review, we highlight the identified genetic mutations that account for congenital nuclear cataract.

  15. Cataract Surgery in Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Murthy, Somashiela; Ganesh, Sudha K.; Phaik, Chee Soon; Sangwan, Virender; Biswas, Jyotimai

    2012-01-01

    Cataract surgery in uveitic eyes is often challenging and can result in intraoperative and postoperative complications. Most uveitic patients enjoy good vision despite potentially sight-threatening complications, including cataract development. In those patients who develop cataracts, successful surgery stems from educated patient selection, careful surgical technique, and aggressive preoperative and postoperative control of inflammation. With improved understanding of the disease processes, pre- and perioperative control of inflammation, modern surgical techniques, availability of biocompatible intraocular lens material and design, surgical experience in performing complicated cataract surgeries, and efficient management of postoperative complications have led to much better outcome. Preoperative factors include proper patient selection and counseling and preoperative control of inflammation. Meticulous and careful cataract surgery in uveitic cataract is essential in optimizing the postoperative outcome. Management of postoperative complications, especially inflammation and glaucoma, earlier rather than later, has also contributed to improved outcomes. This manuscript is review of the existing literature and highlights the management pearls in tackling complicated cataract based on medline search of literature and experience of the authors. PMID:22518338

  16. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS): Design Implications AREDS Report No. 1

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) was initially conceived as a long-term multicenter, prospective study of the clinical course of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and age-related cataract. Data on progression rates and risk factors from the study will increase understanding of the clinical course of both conditions, generate hypotheses about etiology, and aid in the design of clinical trials of potential interventions. In addition to collecting natural history data, AREDS includes a clinical trial of high-dose vitamin and mineral supplements for AMD and a clinical trial of high-dose vitamin supplements for cataract. The clinical trials were initiated largely because of the widespread public use in the United States of commercially available pharmacologic doses of vitamins and minerals to treat these two eye conditions and the absence of definitive studies on the safety and efficacy of their use. Important design issues for the clinical trials include: defining cataract and AMD, estimating event rates, determining the type and dosage of vitamins and minerals to be tested for each condition, and identifying the parameters necessary for monitoring safety and efficacy. This paper describes the AREDS design, including the study rationale and operational structure, and the approach adopted to combine, for two diseases, clinical trials with a natural history study. PMID:10588299

  17. Cataract Vision Simulator

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Latino-Americans Apr 26, 2016 Vitamin See: Foods Rich in Vitamin C Help Curb Cataracts Mar 28, 2016 Los Alimentos Ricos en ... at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  18. Cataract Surgery Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA-McGannon cataract surgery tool is a tiny cutter-pump which liquefies and pumps the cataract lens material from the eye. Inserted through a small incision in the cornea, the tool can be used on the hardest cataract lens. The cutter is driven by a turbine which operates at about 200,000 revolutions per minute. Incorporated in the mechanism are two passages for saline solutions, one to maintain constant pressure within the eye, the other for removal of the fragmented lens material and fluids. Three years of effort have produced a design, now being clinically evaluated, with excellent potential for improved cataract surgery. The use of this tool is expected to reduce the patient's hospital stay and recovery period significantly.

  19. Cataracts - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about cataracts; Lens implants - what to ask your doctor ... What is a cataract? How will cataract surgery help my vision? If I have cataracts in both eyes, can I have surgery on ...

  20. Cataract and latitude.

    PubMed

    Javitt, J C; Taylor, H R

    For many years, it has been suggested that exposure to sunlight, particularly its ultraviolet component, may be associated with an increased risk of senile cataract. This paper addresses 1) the physical and geographic variables that affect the entry of ultraviolet light in the eye; 2) the epidemiologic evidence that associates cataract with ultraviolet light exposure; and 3) the effectiveness of personal barrier protection (i.e. sunglasses and hats) in reducing ocular exposure to ultraviolet light. The epidemiologic evidence is drawn from studies in Australia, China, Tibet, and the United States. The U.S. evidence consists of data from the Maryland Watermen study and analyses of cataract surgery under the Medicare program which provides health insurance for nearly all Americans age 65 and over (30 million) and pays for 85% of the 1.3 million cataract extractions performed annually in the U.S. Analysis of the Medicard data shown that, after controlling for age, sex, and race, and income of the population and also controlling for supply of ophthalmologists, optometrists, price of surgery and local practice costs, the strongest predictor of cataract surgery likelihood in a Medicare beneficiary is the person's latitude of residence. Latitude correlates directly with the UV-B content of sunlight, because the incident angle of the sun determines the atmospheric penetration of ultraviolet radiation. Data suggest that the probability of cataract surgery in the U.S. increases by 3% for each 1 degree decrease (i.e. more Southerly) in latitude. PMID:7634999

  1. Comparison of optical coherence tomography imaging of cataracts with histopathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCarlo, Cheryl D.; Roach, William P.; Gagliano, Donald A.; Boppart, Stephen A.; Hammer, Daniel X.; Cox, Ann B.; Fujimoto, James G.

    1999-10-01

    This paper presents a comparison of in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) captured cataract images to subsequent histopathological examination of the lenticular opacities. OCT imaging was performed on anesthetized Rhesus monkeys, known as the delayed effects colony (DEC), with documented cataracts. These monkeys were exposed to several types of radiation during the mid and late 1960s. The radiation and age related cataracts in these animals were closely monitored using a unique grading system developed specifically for the DEC. In addition to this system, a modified version of a common cataract grading scheme for use in humans was applied. Of the original 18 monkeys imaged, lenses were collected at necropsy from seven of these animals, processed, and compared to OCT images. Results showed a direct correlation between the vertical OCT images and the cataractous lesions seen on corresponding histopathological sections of the lenses. Based on the images obtained and their corresponding documented comparison to histopathology, OCT showed tremendous potential to aid identification and characterization of cataracts. There can be artifactual problems with the images related to movement and shadows produced by opacities. However, with the advent of increased speed in imaging and multiplanar imaging, these disadvantages may easily be overcome.

  2. Cataract and Cataract Surgery: Nationwide Prevalence and Clinical Determinants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical determinants of cataract and cataract surgery in Korean population. The 2008–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed, which included 20,419 participants aged ≥ 40 years. The survey is a multistage, probability-cluster survey, which can produce nationally representative estimates. Prevalence of cataract and cataract surgery was estimated. Clinical determinants for those were investigated using logistic regression analyses (LRAs). The prevalence of cataract was 42.28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.67–43.89); 40.82% (95% CI, 38.97–42.66) for men and 43.62% (95% CI, 41.91–45.33) for women (P = 0.606). The prevalence of cataract surgery was 7.75% (95% CI, 7.30–8.20); 6.38% (95% CI, 5.80–6.96) for men and 9.01% (95% CI, 8.41–9.61) for women (P < 0.001). Cataract was associated with older age (P < 0.001), men (P = 0.032), lower household income (P = 0.031), lower education (P < 0.001), hypertension (P < 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (P < 0.001). Cataract surgery was consistently associated with older age, occupation, DM, asthma, and anemia in two LRAs, which compared participants with cataract surgery to those without cataract surgery and those having a cataract but without any cataract surgery, respectively. Hypertension, arthritis, and dyslipidemia were associated with cataract surgery at least in one of these LRAs. These results suggest that there are 9.4 million individuals with cataract and 1.7 million individuals with cataract surgery in Korea. Further studies are warranted to reveal the causality and its possible mechanism of developing/exacerbating cataract in novel determinants (i.e., anemia, asthma, and arthritic conditions) as well as well-known determinants. PMID:27247507

  3. Gene Therapy for Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Constable, Ian Jeffery; Blumenkranz, Mark Scott; Schwartz, Steven D; Barone, Sam; Lai, Chooi-May; Rakoczy, Elizabeth Piroska

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate safety and signals of efficacy of gene therapy with subretinal rAAV.sFlt-1 for wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD). A phase 1 dose-escalating single-center controlled unmasked human clinical trial was followed up by extension of the protocol to a phase 2A single-center trial. rAAV.sFlt-1 vector was used to deliver a naturally occurring anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agent, sFlt-1, into the subretinal space. In phase 1, step 1 randomized 3 subjects to low-dose rAAV.sFlt-1 (1 × 10 vector genomes) and 1 subject to the control arm; step 2 randomized an additional 3 subjects to treatment with high-dose rAAV.sFlt-1 (1 × 10 vector genomes) and 1 subject to the control arm. Follow-up studies demonstrated that rAAV.sFlt-1 was well tolerated with a favorable safety profile in these elderly subjects with wet AMD. Subretinal injection was highly reproducible, and no drug-related adverse events were reported. Procedure-related adverse events were mild and self-resolving. Two phakic patients developed cataract and underwent cataract surgery. Four of the 6 patients responded better than the small control group in this study and historical controls in terms of maintaining vision and a relatively dry retina with zero ranibizumab retreatments per annum. Two patients required 1 ranibizumab injection over the 52-week follow-up period. rAAV.sFlt-1 gene therapy may prove to be a potential adjunct or alternative to conventional intravitreal injection for patients with wet AMD by providing extended delivery of a naturally occurring antiangiogenic protein. PMID:27488071

  4. Crosslinkage theory of senile cataracts.

    PubMed

    Bellows, J G; Bellows, R T

    1976-02-01

    The theory of crosslinkage as a cause of aging of all living organic tissues has withstood the test of time. Nearly all the past theories of senile cataract formation contain elements involving a potent crosslinking agent. Therefore crosslinkage may now be recognized as the common denominator in past theories of senile cataracts. This paper proposes that crosslinkage is the mechanism for senile cataract formation.

  5. Liquefaction for cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei. PMID:26949656

  6. Liquefaction for cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei.

  7. Senile cataracts and myopia

    SciTech Connect

    Belkin, M.; Jacobs, D.R.; Jackson, S.M.; Zwick, H.

    1982-01-01

    A retrospective survey of 32 persons with myopia and 38 persons with emmetropia who had been operated on at two US Army hospitals on the California coast showed that the persons with myopia who had worn eyeglasses for at least 20 years underwent cataract extraction at a significantly (P less than .00005) older age than the persons with emmetropia (median age at the time of the operation was 70 years, compared with 64 years). These results support the theory that some protection against solar ultraviolet radiation is offered the eyes by eye wear worn continuously and that solar ultraviolet radiation may be a contributing factor in the formation of human senile cataracts.

  8. δ-Catenin Is Genetically and Biologically Associated with Cortical Cataract and Future Alzheimer-Related Structural and Functional Brain Changes

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Gyungah; Moncaster, Juliet A.; Koutras, Carolina; Seshadri, Sudha; Buros, Jacqueline; McKee, Ann C.; Levesque, Georges; Wolf, Philip A.; St. George-Hyslop, Peter; Goldstein, Lee E.; Farrer, Lindsay A.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that specific subtypes of age-related cataract (ARC) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are related etiologically. To identify shared genetic factors for ARC and AD, we estimated co-heritability of quantitative measures of cataract subtypes with AD-related brain MRI traits among 1,249 members of the Framingham Eye Study who had a brain MRI scan approximately ten years after the eye exam. Cortical cataract (CC) was found to be co-heritable with future development of AD and with several MRI traits, especially temporal horn volume (THV, ρ = 0.24, P<10−4). A genome-wide association study using 187,657 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the bivariate outcome of CC and THV identified genome-wide significant association with CTNND2 SNPs rs17183619, rs13155993 and rs13170756 (P<2.6×10−7). These SNPs were also significantly associated with bivariate outcomes of CC and scores on several highly heritable neuropsychological tests (5.7×10−9≤P<3.7×10−6). Statistical interaction was demonstrated between rs17183619 and APP SNP rs2096488 on CC (P = 0.0015) and CC-THV (P = 0.038). A rare CTNND2 missense mutation (G810R) 249 base pairs from rs17183619 altered δ-catenin localization and increased secreted amyloid-β1–42 in neuronal cell culture. Immunohistopathological analysis of lens tissue obtained from two autopsy-confirmed AD subjects and two non-AD controls revealed elevated expression of δ-catenin in epithelial and cortical regions of lenses from AD subjects compared to controls. Our findings suggest that genetic variation in delta catenin may underlie both cortical lens opacities in mid-life and subsequent MRI and cognitive changes that presage the development of AD. PMID:22984439

  9. Combined surgery versus cataract surgery alone for eyes with cataract and glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingjuan Lisa; Hirunyachote, Phenpan; Jampel, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Citation Index to search for references to publications that cited the studies included in the review. We also contacted investigators and experts in the field to identify additional trials. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of participants who had open-angle, pseudoexfoliative, or pigmentary glaucoma and age-related cataract. The comparison of interest was combined cataract surgery (phacoemulsification) and any type of glaucoma surgery versus cataract surgery (phacoemulsification) alone. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, collected data, and judged risk of bias for included studies. We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We included nine RCTs, with a total of 655 participants (657 eyes), and follow-up periods ranging from 12 to 30 months. Seven trials were conducted in Europe, one in Canada and South Africa, and one in the United States. We graded the overall quality of the evidence as low due to observed inconsistency in study results, imprecision in effect estimates, and risks of bias in the included studies. Glaucoma surgery type varied among the studies: three studies used trabeculectomy, three studies used iStent® implants, one study used trabeculotomy, and two studies used trabecular aspiration. All of these studies found a statistically significant greater decrease in mean IOP postoperatively in the combined surgery group compared with cataract surgery alone; the mean difference (MD) was -1.62 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.61 to -0.64; 489 eyes) among six studies with data at one year follow-up. No study reported the proportion of participants with a reduction in the number of medications used after surgery, but two studies found the mean number of medications used postoperatively at one year was about one less in the combined surgery group than the cataract surgery alone group (MD -0.69, 95% CI -1.28 to -0

  10. [The Use of Polymers for Intraocular Lenses in Cataract Surgery].

    PubMed

    Fizia-Orlicz, Anna; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, cataract remains the leading cause of the curable visual impairment worldwide. Cataract can only be cured by surgery during which the cloudy lens is replaced with an artificial intraocular lens. It is one of the most common surgeries being performed worldwide. There are age-related, congenital, traumatic and metabolic types of cataract which have been distinguished. Age-related cataract is the most common one and it affects people over 60 with the greatest frequency. In reference to patients whose cornea does not fulfill the requirements for a standard refractive surgery, the number of refractive intraocular lens replacement is increasing. Manufacturers aim to enhance materials in order to minimize surgical complication while increasing the patient’s eyesight. The increase in average lifespan along with patients’ expectations stimulate competition among manufacturers who bring new products and solutions into to the market. There is an augmented demand for premium lenses such as toric, multifocal or accommodating. These lenses bring patients the promise of life without the need for wearing glasses. As far as the main materials used in the production of intraocular lens are concerned, there are hydrophobic, hydrophilic, acrylic and silicone lenses in use. In this paper the author discusses characteristics as well as advantages and disadvantages of the above-mentioned materials. The associated surgical complications and the new areas of development regarding the materials used in lenses manufacturing are also examined. PMID:26994891

  11. X-82 to Treat Age-related Macular Degeneration

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-16

    Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD); Macular Degeneration; Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration; AMD; Macular Degeneration, Age-related, 10; Eye Diseases; Retinal Degeneration; Retinal Diseases

  12. Ocular Risk Factors for Age-related Macular Degeneration: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES)

    PubMed Central

    Fraser-Bell, Samantha; Choudhury, Farzana; Klein, Ronald; Azen, Stanley; Varma, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To assess the association of ocular factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Latinos. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study of 6357 self-identified Latinos aged 40 years and older. Methods Ophthalmic examination included subjective refraction, measurement of axial length, evaluation of iris color, Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II) grading of cataracts, and stereoscopic macular photographs for AMD lesions. Generalized estimating equation analysis incorporated data from both eyes to estimate odds ratios adjusted for covariates. Results After controlling for confounders (age, gender and smoking), prior cataract surgery was associated with advanced AMD (OR: 2.8, 95% CI 1.0, 7.8), increased retinal pigment (OR: 1.6, 95% CI 1.0, 1.5) and retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation (OR: 2.2, 95% CI 1.1, 4.4). The presence of any lens opacity was associated with soft drusen (OR: 1.2; 95% CI 1.0, 1.5). Longer axial length (per mm) was associated with a decreased odds of soft drusen, increased retinal pigment, and geographic atrophy (GA) (ORs: 0.8 [95% CI 0.7, 0.9], 0.8 [95% CI 0.7, 0.9], 0.7 [95% CI 0.5, 0.9], respectively. Myopia was inversely associated with soft drusen (OR: 0.8; 95% CI 0.7, 1.0). Lighter colored irises were associated with GA (OR: 5.0; 95% CI 1.0, 25.3). Conclusions Cross-sectional associations of ocular factors such as cataract, cataract surgery, and refractive errors with early AMD lesions found in Latinos were consistent with those in whites. Additionally, prior cataract surgery was associated with advanced AMD. PMID:20138605

  13. A Comparison of Endothelial Cell Loss in Combined Cataract and MIGS (Hydrus) Procedure to Phacoemulsification Alone: 6-Month Results

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Antonio M.; Consolandi, Giulia; Pignata, Giulia; Cannizzo, Paola Maria Loredana; Lavia, Carlo; Billia, Filippo; Rolle, Teresa; Grignolo, Federico M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the corneal endothelial cell loss after phacoemulsification, alone or combined with microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS), in nonglaucomatous versus primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes affected by age-related cataract. Methods. 62 eyes of 62 patients were divided into group 1 (n = 25, affected by age-related cataract) and group 2 (n = 37, affected by age-related cataract and POAG). All patients underwent cataract surgery. Group 2 was divided into subgroups A (n = 19, cataract surgery alone) and B (n = 18, cataract surgery and MIGS). Prior to and 6 months after surgery the patients' endothelium was studied. Main outcomes were CD (cell density), SD (standard deviation), CV (coefficient of variation), and 6A (hexagonality coefficient) variations after surgeries. Results. There were no significant differences among the groups concerning preoperative endothelial parameters. The differences in CD before and after surgery were significant in all groups: 9.1% in group 1, 17.24% in group 2A, and 11.71% in group 2B. All endothelial parameters did not significantly change after surgery. Conclusions. Phacoemulsification determined a loss of endothelial cells in all groups. After surgery the change in endothelial parameters after MIGS was comparable to the ones of patients who underwent cataract surgery alone. PMID:26664740

  14. A Comparison of Endothelial Cell Loss in Combined Cataract and MIGS (Hydrus) Procedure to Phacoemulsification Alone: 6-Month Results.

    PubMed

    Fea, Antonio M; Consolandi, Giulia; Pignata, Giulia; Cannizzo, Paola Maria Loredana; Lavia, Carlo; Billia, Filippo; Rolle, Teresa; Grignolo, Federico M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the corneal endothelial cell loss after phacoemulsification, alone or combined with microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS), in nonglaucomatous versus primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes affected by age-related cataract. Methods. 62 eyes of 62 patients were divided into group 1 (n = 25, affected by age-related cataract) and group 2 (n = 37, affected by age-related cataract and POAG). All patients underwent cataract surgery. Group 2 was divided into subgroups A (n = 19, cataract surgery alone) and B (n = 18, cataract surgery and MIGS). Prior to and 6 months after surgery the patients' endothelium was studied. Main outcomes were CD (cell density), SD (standard deviation), CV (coefficient of variation), and 6A (hexagonality coefficient) variations after surgeries. Results. There were no significant differences among the groups concerning preoperative endothelial parameters. The differences in CD before and after surgery were significant in all groups: 9.1% in group 1, 17.24% in group 2A, and 11.71% in group 2B. All endothelial parameters did not significantly change after surgery. Conclusions. Phacoemulsification determined a loss of endothelial cells in all groups. After surgery the change in endothelial parameters after MIGS was comparable to the ones of patients who underwent cataract surgery alone.

  15. Neighborhood Deprivation and Risk of Age-Related Eye Diseases: A Follow-up Study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Li, Xinjun; Tanito, Masaki; Nabika, Toru; Shiwaku, Kuninori; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether there is an association between neighborhood deprivation and age-related eye diseases, particularly macular degeneration, cataract, diabetes-related eye complications, and glaucoma. Methods The study population comprised a nationwide sample of 2,060,887 men and 2,250,851 women aged 40 years or older living in Sweden who were followed from 1 January 2000 until the first hospitalization/outpatient registration for age-related eye disease during the study period, death, emigration, or the end of the study period on 31 December 2010. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate the association between neighborhood deprivation and age-related eye diseases. Results In men, the odds ratio (OR) for age-related eye diseases for those living in high-deprivation neighborhoods compared to those living in low-deprivation neighborhoods remained significant after adjustment for potential confounding factors (macular degeneration, OR 1.08, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.03–1.12; cataract, OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.26–1.35; diabetes-related eye complications, OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.30–1.43; glaucoma, OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.15). In women, similar patterns were observed (macular degeneration, OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07–1.15; cataract, OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.31–1.40; diabetes-related eye complications, OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.42–1.59; glaucoma, OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.08–1.17). Conclusion Our results suggest that neighborhood deprivation is associated with age-related eye diseases in both men and women. These results implicate that individual- as well as neighborhood-level factors are important for preventing age-related eye diseases. PMID:26395658

  16. Depression in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casten, Robin; Rovner, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of disability in the elderly, substantially degrades the quality of their lives, and is a risk factor for depression. Rates of depression in AMD are substantially greater than those found in the general population of older people, and are on par with those of other chronic and disabling…

  17. Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety,…

  18. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  19. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation

    PubMed Central

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Lythgoe, Paul R.; Clark, Simon J.; Bishop, Paul N.; Day, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract). These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation. PMID:26794210

  20. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation.

    PubMed

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Lythgoe, Paul R; Clark, Simon J; Bishop, Paul N; Day, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract). These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation.

  1. Immunology of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ambati, Jayakrishna; Atkinson, John P.; Gelfand, Bradley D.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in aged individuals. Recent advances have highlighted the essential role of immune processes in the development, progression and treatment of AMD. In this Review we discuss recent discoveries related to the immunological aspects of AMD pathogenesis. We outline the diverse immune cell types, inflammatory activators and pathways that are involved. Finally, we discuss the future of inflammation-directed therapeutics to treat AMD in the growing aged population. PMID:23702979

  2. [Epidemiology of age related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Leveziel, N; Delcourt, C; Zerbib, J; Dollfus, H; Kaplan, J; Benlian, P; Coscas, G; Souied, E H; Soubrane, G

    2009-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a multifactorial and polygenic disease and is the main cause of vision loss in developed countries. The environmental factors of ARMD can modify prevalence and incidence of this disease. This article is a review of the main environmental factors currently recognized as at risk or protective factor for ARMD. Modification of these factors is of crucial importance because it could delay the onset of exudative or atrophic forms of the disease. PMID:19515460

  3. Diplopia as the Complication of Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gawęcki, Maciej; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The authors present systematic review of aetiology and treatment of diplopia related to cataract surgery. The problem is set in the modern perspective of changing cataract surgery. Actual incidence is discussed as well as various modalities of therapeutic options. The authors provide the guidance for the contemporary cataract surgeon, when to expect potential problem in ocular motility after cataract surgery. PMID:26998351

  4. Etiopathogenesis of cataract: An appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Varun B; Rajagopala, Manjusha; Ravishankar, Basavaiah

    2014-01-01

    Natural eye lens is a crystalline substance to produce a clear passage for light. Cataract is opacity within the clear lens of the eye and is the dominant cause of socio-medical problem i.e., blindness worldwide. The only available treatment of cataract is surgery. However, insufficient surgical facilities in poor and developing countries and post-operative complications inspire researchers to find out other modes of treatment for cataract. In this review, an attempt has been made to appraise various etiological factors of cataract to make their perception clear to build up counterpart treatment. Present study is an assortment of various available literatures and electronic information in view of cataract etiopathogenesis. Various risk factors have been identified in development of cataracts. They can be classified in to genetic factors, ageing (systemic diseases, nutritional and trace metals deficiencies, smoking, oxidative stress etc.), traumatic, complicated (inflammatory and degenerative diseases of eye), metabolic (diabetes, galactosemia etc.), toxic substances including drugs abuses, alcohol etc., radiation (ultraviolet, electromagnetic waves etc.) are implicated as significant risk factors in the development of cataract. PMID:24618482

  5. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. PMID:26370651

  6. [Age-related changes of the brain].

    PubMed

    Paltsyn, A A; Komissarova, S V

    2015-01-01

    The first morphological signs of aging of the brain are found in the white matter already at a young age (20-40 years), and later (40-50 years) in a gray matter. After the 40-50 years appear and in subsequently are becoming more pronounced functional manifestations of morphological changes: the weakening of sensory-motor and cognitive abilities. While in principle this dynamic of age-related changes is inevitable, the rate of their development to a large extent determined by the genetic characteristics and lifestyle of the individual. According to modem concepts age-related changes in the number of nerve cells are different in different parts of the brain. However, these changes are not large and are not the main cause of senile decline brain. The main processes that contribute to the degradation of the brain develop as in the bodies of neurons and in neuropil. In the bodies of neurons--it is a damage (usually decrease) of the level of expression of many genes, and especially of the genes determining cell communication. In neuropil: reduction in the number of synapses and the strength of synaptic connections, reduction in the number of dendritic spines and axonal buttons, reduction in the number and thickness of the dendritic branches, demyelination of axons. As the result of these events, it becomes a violation of the rate of formation and rebuilding neuronal circuits. It is deplete associative ability, brain plasticity, and memory. PMID:27116888

  7. Astigmatism following cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Reading, V M

    1984-02-01

    The changes in corneal curvature were determined at regular intervals over a one-year period following intracapsular cataract extraction by microsurgical techniques. During the first postoperative month photokeratometric measurements showed rapid changes in astigmatism associated with large changes in the direction of the axis. Thereafter astigmatism against-the-rule predominated. Data from the small group of patients who underwent surgery in which the technique of phacoemulsification was used show that the smaller changes in corneal curvature are attributable to the smaller incision size and reduced number of sutures. With patients who underwent intracapsular extraction a comparison has been made between the effects of large and small section sizes, and a procedure is outlined whereby surgically induced astigmatism may be minimised.

  8. Astigmatism in cataract surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Luntz, M. H.; Livingston, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    We report on our investigation into astigmatism in 40 eyes following a corneal cataract incision closed with a continuous 10/0 nylon monofilament suture (Ethilon). Immediately after surgery there was astigmatism caused by the nylon suture (suture-induced astigmatism), its severity depending on the tightness of the suture. It ranged from 1 to 10-5 dioptres, the mean value 4-09 dioptres with a standard deviation of +/-2-5. Removing the nylon suture eliminated this astigmatism and within a few weeks the corneal astigmatism correction in 48% of eyes returned to the preoperative level. In 80% of eyes the difference between the final postoperative corneal astigmatism (4 months after removing the continuous suture) and the preoperative astigmatism was 0-75 dioptres or less and the maximum change was 1-5 dioptres. In 40% of eyes the axis of the cylinder changed from a horizontal to an oblique axis but did not change from a with- to against-the-rule axis. The degree of astigmatism remained constant while the suture was in place and in 50% of eyes was equal to or less than 3 dioptres. The mean of the spherical equivalents was 11-31 dioptres with a standard deviation of +/-1-25. A spectacle correction 14 days after operation prescribed either as the mean spherical equivalent (11-50 dioptres) or according to the patient's refraction will give satisfactory vision until the suture is removed 4 months after operation. The degree of astigmatism following a corneal section and continuous nylon suture compares very favourably with astigmatism following other suturing techniques for cataract. Images PMID:326304

  9. Cataract surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-03-01

    Ophthalmology was one of the most important specialties in Egyptian medicine, and more specialists are known in this field than in any other. This specialization seems, however, to have been of a purely noninvasive nature. Even though it has been claimed that cataract surgery was performed in pharaonic Egypt, careful analysis of the sources does not support the claim. No example of cataract surgery or of any other invasive ophthalmologic procedure can be found in the original sources.

  10. [Treatment options for age-related infertility].

    PubMed

    Belaisch-Allart, Joëlle

    2010-06-20

    There has been a consistent trend towards delayed childbearing in most Western countries. Treatment options for age-related infertility includes controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with intrauterine insemination and in vitro fertilization (IVF). A sharp decline in pregnancy rate with advancing female age is noted with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) including IVF. Evaluation and treatment of infertility should not be delayed in women 35 years and older. No treatment other than oocyte donation has been shown to be effective for women over 40 and for those with compromised ovarian reserve, but its pratice is not easy in France hence the procreative tourism. As an increasing number of couples choose to postpone childbearing, they should be informed that maternal age is an important risk factor for failure to conceive. PMID:20623902

  11. [Epidemiology of age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Brandl, C; Stark, K J; Wintergerst, M; Heinemann, M; Heid, I M; Finger, R P

    2016-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main cause of blindness in industrialized societies. Population-based epidemiological investigations generate important data on prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and future trends. This review summarizes the most important epidemiological studies on AMD with a focus on their transferability to Germany including existing evidence for the main risk factors for AMD development and progression. Future tasks, such as the standardization of grading systems and the use of recent retinal imaging technology in epidemiological studies are discussed. In Germany, epidemiological data on AMD are scarce. However, the need for epidemiological research in ophthalmology is currently being addressed by several recently started population-based studies. PMID:27541733

  12. Inflammation in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Ema; Campbell, Matthew; Kiang, Anna-Sophia; Humphries, Marian; Doyle, Sarah L; Humphries, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of legal blindness in elderly individuals in the developed world, affecting 30-50 million people worldwide. AMD primarily affects the macular region of the retina that is responsible for the majority of central, color and daytime vision. The presence of drusen, extracellular protein aggregates that accumulate under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), is a major pathological hallmark in the early stages of the disease. The end stage 'dry' and 'wet' forms of the disease culminate in vision loss and are characterized by focal degeneration of the RPE and cone photoreceptors, and choroidal neovascularization (CNV), respectively. Being a multifactorial and genetically heterogeneous disease, the pathophysiology of AMD remains unclear, yet, there is ample evidence supporting immunological and inflammatory processes. Here, we review the recent literature implicating some of these immune processes in human AMD and in animal models. PMID:24664703

  13. Consequences of Age-Related Cognitive Declines

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Adult age differences in a variety of cognitive abilities are well documented, and many of those abilities have been found to be related to success in the workplace and in everyday life. However, increased age is seldom associated with lower levels of real-world functioning, and the reasons for this lab-life discrepancy are not well understood. This article briefly reviews research concerned with relations of age to cognition, relations of cognition to successful functioning outside the laboratory, and relations of age to measures of work performance and achievement. The final section discusses several possible explanations for why there are often little or no consequences of age-related cognitive declines in everyday functioning. PMID:21740223

  14. Medical bioremediation of age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Jacques M; Schloendorn, John; Rittmann, Bruce E; Alvarez, Pedro JJ

    2009-01-01

    Catabolic insufficiency in humans leads to the gradual accumulation of a number of pathogenic compounds associated with age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and macular degeneration. Removal of these compounds is a widely researched therapeutic option, but the use of antibodies and endogenous human enzymes has failed to produce effective treatments, and may pose risks to cellular homeostasis. Another alternative is "medical bioremediation," the use of microbial enzymes to augment missing catabolic functions. The microbial genetic diversity in most natural environments provides a resource that can be mined for enzymes capable of degrading just about any energy-rich organic compound. This review discusses targets for biodegradation, the identification of candidate microbial enzymes, and enzyme-delivery methods. PMID:19358742

  15. Age-related macular degeneration: current treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hubschman, Jean Pierre; Reddy, Shantan; Schwartz, Steven D

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Although important progress has been made in understanding age-related macular degeneration (AMD), management of the disease continues to be a challenge. AMD research has led to a widening of available treatment options and improved prognostic perspectives. This essay reviews these treatment options. Design: Interpretative essay. Methods: Literature review and interpretation. Results: Current treatments to preserve vision in patients with non-exudative AMD include antioxidant vitamins and mineral supplementations. Exudative AMD is currently most often treated monthly with anti-VEGF intravitreal injections. However, investigators are beginning to experiment with combination therapy and surgical approaches in an attempt to limit the number of treatment and reduce the financial burden on the health care system. Conclusion: By better understanding the basis and pathogenesis of AMD, newer therapies will continue to be developed that target specific pathways in patients with AMD, with the hoped for outcome of better management of the disease and improved visual acuity. PMID:19668560

  16. Electronic medical records and genomics (eMERGE) network exploration in cataract: Several new potential susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shefali S.; Hall, Molly A.; Goodloe, Robert J.; Berg, Richard L.; Carrell, Dave S.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chen, Lin; Crosslin, David R.; Denny, Joshua C.; Jarvik, Gail; Li, Rongling; Linneman, James G.; Pathak, Jyoti; Peissig, Peggy; Rasmussen, Luke V.; Ramirez, Andrea H.; Wang, Xiaoming; Wilke, Russell A.; Wolf, Wendy A.; Torstenson, Eric S.; Turner, Stephen D.; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in the world, and in the United States accounts for approximately 60% of Medicare costs related to vision. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic markers for age-related cataract through a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Methods In the electronic medical records and genomics (eMERGE) network, we ran an electronic phenotyping algorithm on individuals in each of five sites with electronic medical records linked to DNA biobanks. We performed a GWAS using 530,101 SNPs from the Illumina 660W-Quad in a total of 7,397 individuals (5,503 cases and 1,894 controls). We also performed an age-at-diagnosis case-only analysis. Results We identified several statistically significant associations with age-related cataract (45 SNPs) as well as age at diagnosis (44 SNPs). The 45 SNPs associated with cataract at p<1×10−5 are in several interesting genes, including ALDOB, MAP3K1, and MEF2C. All have potential biologic relationships with cataracts. Conclusions This is the first genome-wide association study of age-related cataract, and several regions of interest have been identified. The eMERGE network has pioneered the exploration of genomic associations in biobanks linked to electronic health records, and this study is another example of the utility of such resources. Explorations of age-related cataract including validation and replication of the association results identified herein are needed in future studies. PMID:25352737

  17. Pulfrich's phenomenon in unilateral cataract

    PubMed Central

    Scotcher, S.; Laidlaw, D; Canning, C.; Weal, M.; Harrad, R.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To determine whether unilateral cataract causes a pathological Pulfrich's phenomenon.
METHODS—29 subjects with unilateral cataract and contralateral pseudophakia were assessed on their ability to perceive the Pulfrich phenomenon. Using a computer generated pendulum image, and graded neutral density filters, a series of forced choice trials were performed in which the subject was required to describe the direction of any apparent pendulum rotation. A pathological Pulfrich effect was said to occur when apparent rotation was perceived in the presence of a zero strength neutral density filter. The size of any pathological Pulfrich effect which was present was quantified by neutralising the perceived pendulum rotation with neutral density filters of varying strength placed before the better seeing eye.
RESULTS—20 out of 29 subjects were able to perceive apparent pendulum rotation when uniocular filtering was performed. In the group (n=12) which was tested both before and after cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation, a statistically significant pathological Pulfrich effect was demonstrated preoperatively, compared with a group of normal control subjects. This effect was abolished after cataract extraction (p=0.009). The median size of the effect was equivalent to a 0.25 log unit neutral density filter over the non-cataractous eye. The subjects who were unable to perceive the Pulfrich phenomenon at all had a significantly greater difference in the visual acuity of each eye (p=0.045) and significantly worse stereoacuity than those who were able to perceive the effect (p=0.002).
CONCLUSIONS—Unilateral cataract can cause a pathological Pulfrich phenomenon. This finding may explain why some patients with unilateral cataract complain of visual symptoms that are not easily accounted for in terms of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, or stereoacuity.

 PMID:9497463

  18. Animal models of age related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pennesi, Mark E.; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the histological features of AMD and provided much insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease. In spite of the large number of models developed, no one model yet recapitulates all of the features of human AMD. However, these models have helped reveal the roles of chronic oxidative damage, inflammation and immune dysregulation, and lipid metabolism in the development of AMD. Models for induced choroidal neovascularization have served as the backbone for testing new therapies. This article will review the diversity of animal models that exist for AMD as well as their strengths and limitations. PMID:22705444

  19. Aging, frailty and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Fulop, T; Larbi, A; Witkowski, J M; McElhaney, J; Loeb, M; Mitnitski, A; Pawelec, G

    2010-10-01

    The concept of frailty as a medically distinct syndrome has evolved based on the clinical experience of geriatricians and is clinically well recognizable. Frailty is a nonspecific state of vulnerability, which reflects multisystem physiological change. These changes underlying frailty do not always achieve disease status, so some people, usually very elderly, are frail without a specific life threatening illness. Current thinking is that not only physical but also psychological, cognitive and social factors contribute to this syndrome and need to be taken into account in its definition and treatment. Together, these signs and symptoms seem to reflect a reduced functional reserve and consequent decrease in adaptation (resilience) to any sort of stressor and perhaps even in the absence of extrinsic stressors. The overall consequence is that frail elderly are at higher risk for accelerated physical and cognitive decline, disability and death. All these characteristics associated with frailty can easily be applied to the definition and characterization of the aging process per se and there is little consensus in the literature concerning the physiological/biological pathways associated with or determining frailty. It is probably true to say that a consensus view would implicate heightened chronic systemic inflammation as a major contributor to frailty. This review will focus on the relationship between aging, frailty and age-related diseases, and will highlight possible interventions to reduce the occurrence and effects of frailty in elderly people. PMID:20559726

  20. Physics of Age Related Macular Degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Family, Fereydoon

    2009-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness beyond the age of 50 years. The most common pathogenic mechanism that leads to AMD is choroidal neovascularization (CNV). CNV is produced by accumulation of residual material caused by aging of retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE). The RPE is a phagocytic system that is essential for renewal of photoreceptors (rods and cones). With time, incompletely degraded membrane material builds up in the form of lipofuscin. Lipofuscin is made of free-radical-damaged protein and fat, which forms not only in AMD, but also Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. The study of lipofuscin formation and growth is important, because of their association with cellular aging. In this talk I will discuss a model of non-equilibrium cluster growth that we have developed for studying the formation and growth of lipofuscin in AMD [K.I. Mazzitello, C.M. Arizmendi, Fereydoon Family, H. E. Grossniklaus, Physical Review E (2009)]. I will also present an overview of our theoretical and computational efforts in modeling some other aspects of the physics of AMD, including CNV and the breakdown of Bruch's membrane [Ongoing collaboration with Abbas Shirinifard and James A. Glazier, Biocomplexity Institute and Department of Physics, Indiana University, Y. Jiang, Los Alamos, and Hans E. Grossniklaus, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University].

  1. Mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ambati, Jayakrishna; Fowler, Benjamin J.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a progressive condition that is untreatable in up to 90% of patients, is a leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. The two forms of AMD, wet and dry, are classified based on the presence or absence of blood vessels that have disruptively invaded the retina, respectively. A detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying wet AMD has led to several robust FDA-approved therapies. In contrast, there are not any approved treatments for dry AMD. In this review, we provide insight into the critical effector pathways that mediate each form of disease. The interplay of immune and vascular systems for wet AMD, and the proliferating interest in hunting for gene variants to explain AMD pathogenesis, are placed in the context of the latest clinical and experimental data. Emerging models of dry AMD pathogenesis are presented, with a focus on DICER1 deficit and the toxic accumulation of retinal debris. A recurring theme that spans most aspects of AMD pathogenesis is defective immune modulation in the classically immune-privileged ocular haven. Interestingly, the latest advances in AMD research highlight common molecular disease pathways with other common neurodegenerations. Finally, the therapeutic potential of intervening at known mechanisms of AMD pathogenesis is discussed. PMID:22794258

  2. Age related degradation in operating nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, R.A.; Davis, J.A.; Banic, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    The aging issues being addressed for today`s operating commercial nuclear power plants encompass a wide spectrum of components, complexities, and reasons for concern. Issues include such things as the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of boiling water reactor (BWR) internals, the degradation of pressurized water reactor (PWR) Alloy 600 components by primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) to those associated with significant portions of piping systems, such as service water systems. a discussion of the regulatory activity and action associated with the above issues is provided. Proactive NRC/Industry programs for inspection and repair or replacement of affected components are essential for continued operation of these nuclear reactors. These programs are also essential as licensees consider license extensions for their facilities. These plants are licensed for 40 years and can be granted an extension for an additional 20 years of operation if all of the NRC rules and regulations are met. Proper handling of potential age related problems will be a key consideration in the granting of a license extension.

  3. Statistical physics of age related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Family, Fereydoon; Mazzitello, K. I.; Arizmendi, C. M.; Grossniklaus, H. E.

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness beyond the age of 50 years. The most common pathogenic mechanism that leads to AMD is choroidal neovascularization (CNV). CNV is produced by accumulation of residual material caused by aging of retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE). The RPE is a phagocytic system that is essential for renewal of photoreceptors (rods and cones). With time, incompletely degraded membrane material builds up in the form of lipofuscin. Lipofuscin is made of free-radical-damaged protein and fat, which forms not only in AMD, but also Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. The study of lipofuscin formation and growth is important, because of their association with cellular aging. We introduce a model of non-equilibrium cluster growth and aggregation that we have developed for studying the formation and growth of lipofuscin in the aging RPE. Our results agree with a linear growth of the number of lipofuscin granules with age. We apply the dynamic scaling approach to our model and find excellent data collapse for the cluster size distribution. An unusual feature of our model is that while small particles are removed from the RPE the larger ones become fixed and grow by aggregation.

  4. Patient considerations in cataract surgery – the role of combined therapy using phenylephrine and ketorolac

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Guarnieri, Adriano; Guirao Navarro, María Concepción; Saenz-de-Viteri, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Cataract, a degradation of the optical quality of the crystalline lens, progressive and age-related, is the leading cause of treatable blindness worldwide. Cataract surgery is the most common surgical procedure performed by ophthalmologists and is the only effective treatment for cataracts. Advances in the surgical techniques and better postoperative visual outcomes have progressively changed the primary concern of cataract surgery to become a procedure refined to yield the best possible refractive results. Sufficient mydriasis during cataract removal is critical to a successful surgical outcome. Poor pupil dilation can lead to serious sight-threatening complications that significantly increase the cost of surgery and decrease patients comfort. Mydriasis is obtained using anticholinergic and sympathomimetic drugs. Phenylephrine, an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, can efficiently dilate the pupil when administered by intracameral injection. Additionally, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ketorolac, which inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins, are used to decrease intraoperative miosis, control pain and inflammation associated with cataract surgery, and to prevent the development of cystoid macular edema following surgery. Recently, a new combination of phenylephrine and ketorolac (Omidria®) has been approved by United States Food and Drug Administration for use during cataract surgery to maintain intraoperative mydriasis, prevent miosis, and reduce postoperative pain and inflammation. Clinical trials have shown that this new combination is effective, combining the positive effects of both drugs with a good safety profile and patient tolerability. Moreover, recent reports suggest that this combination is also effective in patients with high risk of poor pupil dilation. In conclusion, cataract is a global problem that significantly affects patients’ quality of life. However, they can be managed with a safe and minimally invasive surgery

  5. Patient considerations in cataract surgery – the role of combined therapy using phenylephrine and ketorolac

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Guarnieri, Adriano; Guirao Navarro, María Concepción; Saenz-de-Viteri, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Cataract, a degradation of the optical quality of the crystalline lens, progressive and age-related, is the leading cause of treatable blindness worldwide. Cataract surgery is the most common surgical procedure performed by ophthalmologists and is the only effective treatment for cataracts. Advances in the surgical techniques and better postoperative visual outcomes have progressively changed the primary concern of cataract surgery to become a procedure refined to yield the best possible refractive results. Sufficient mydriasis during cataract removal is critical to a successful surgical outcome. Poor pupil dilation can lead to serious sight-threatening complications that significantly increase the cost of surgery and decrease patients comfort. Mydriasis is obtained using anticholinergic and sympathomimetic drugs. Phenylephrine, an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, can efficiently dilate the pupil when administered by intracameral injection. Additionally, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ketorolac, which inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins, are used to decrease intraoperative miosis, control pain and inflammation associated with cataract surgery, and to prevent the development of cystoid macular edema following surgery. Recently, a new combination of phenylephrine and ketorolac (Omidria®) has been approved by United States Food and Drug Administration for use during cataract surgery to maintain intraoperative mydriasis, prevent miosis, and reduce postoperative pain and inflammation. Clinical trials have shown that this new combination is effective, combining the positive effects of both drugs with a good safety profile and patient tolerability. Moreover, recent reports suggest that this combination is also effective in patients with high risk of poor pupil dilation. In conclusion, cataract is a global problem that significantly affects patients’ quality of life. However, they can be managed with a safe and minimally invasive surgery

  6. Congenital Cataract Screening

    PubMed Central

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (<6 weeks of age, based on general neonatal health) is important for achieving the best visual outcome particularly in unilateral cases. In bilateral cases, surgery is highly recommended before appearance of strabismus or nystagmus (<10 weeks of age) with no longer than a one-week interval between the fellow eyes. Parents should be informed that surgery is a starting point and not the endpoint of treatment. Appropriate postoperative management including immediate optical correction in the form of aphakic glasses or contact lenses, or intraocular lens (IOL) implantation at the appropriate age (>1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender. PMID:27621790

  7. Congenital Cataract Screening

    PubMed Central

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (<6 weeks of age, based on general neonatal health) is important for achieving the best visual outcome particularly in unilateral cases. In bilateral cases, surgery is highly recommended before appearance of strabismus or nystagmus (<10 weeks of age) with no longer than a one-week interval between the fellow eyes. Parents should be informed that surgery is a starting point and not the endpoint of treatment. Appropriate postoperative management including immediate optical correction in the form of aphakic glasses or contact lenses, or intraocular lens (IOL) implantation at the appropriate age (>1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender.

  8. Congenital Cataract Screening.

    PubMed

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (<6 weeks of age, based on general neonatal health) is important for achieving the best visual outcome particularly in unilateral cases. In bilateral cases, surgery is highly recommended before appearance of strabismus or nystagmus (<10 weeks of age) with no longer than a one-week interval between the fellow eyes. Parents should be informed that surgery is a starting point and not the endpoint of treatment. Appropriate postoperative management including immediate optical correction in the form of aphakic glasses or contact lenses, or intraocular lens (IOL) implantation at the appropriate age (>1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender. PMID:27621790

  9. Cataract Surgery in the Glaucoma Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Jennifer S.; Choi, Daniel Y.; Cheema, Anjum S.; Singh, Kuldev

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the role of cataract surgery in the glaucoma patient, in terms of the effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) as well as diagnostic and therapeutic considerations for those with both conditions. Recent evidence suggests that cataract extraction may produce a significant and sustained IOP reduction in individuals with open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, and angle-closure glaucoma. Cataract removal may improve the practitioner's ability to interpret perimetric testing, and re-establishing perimetric and optic nerve imaging baselines is recommended after cataract surgery. The sequence of cataract surgery relative to glaucoma surgery impacts the likelihood of complications and surgical success. There are multiple benefits to perform cataract surgery prior to glaucoma surgery while cataract surgery after trabeculectomy increases the risk of subsequent filtration failure. As “minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries” continue to improve in terms of efficacy, there is an evolving role for combined cataract and glaucoma surgery in patients with early to moderate stages of glaucoma. PMID:25624668

  10. Principles and practice of hormetic treatment of aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Suresh Is

    2008-02-01

    Aging is characterized by stochastic accumulation of molecular damage, progressive failure of maintenance and repair, and consequent onset of age-related diseases. Applying hormesis in aging research and therapy is based on the principle of stimulation of maintenance and repair pathways by repeated exposure to mild stress. Studies on the beneficial biological effects of repeated mild heat shock on human cells in culture, and other studies on the anti-aging and life-prolonging effects of proxidants, hypergravity, irradiation and ethanol on cells and organisms suggest that hormesis as an antiaging and gerontomodulatory approach has a promising future. Its clinical applications include prevention and treatment of diabetes, cataract, osteoporosis, dementia and some cancers.

  11. [Keratoplasty combined with cataract surgery].

    PubMed

    Muraine, M; Gueudry, J; Retout, A; Genevois, O

    2012-09-01

    Corneal pathologies leading to keratoplasty are often associated with cataract and combined surgery is therefore mandatory. Triple procedure with penetrating keratoplasty and concurrent cataract extraction followed by intra ocular lens (IOL) implantation is usually the preferential choice because visual rehabilitation is theoretically more rapid. Surgeons have to be aware of surgical conditions during open-sky surgery because vitreous pressure is not counterbalanced by anterior chamber pressure. Today, many surgeons prefer non-simultaneous procedures with cataract surgery performed months after grafting because of the improvement in spherical refractive error. More recently, new triple procedures, Descemet's stripping automated keratoplasty and concurrent cataract surgery have gained popularity, especially in patients with Fuchs dystrophy associated with cataract. Surgery starts with phacoemulsification, followed by endothelium exchange through a 3 to 5 mm incision. Advantages against classic triple procedure are quick visual rehabilitation, fewer induced refractive errors, minimal postoperative discomfort and corneal integrity. Surgeons have to consider an eventual postoperative hyperopic shift secondary to corneal lenticule shape when choosing adequate intraocular lens. PMID:22921023

  12. [Keratoplasty combined with cataract surgery].

    PubMed

    Muraine, M; Gueudry, J; Retout, A; Genevois, O

    2012-09-01

    Corneal pathologies leading to keratoplasty are often associated with cataract and combined surgery is therefore mandatory. Triple procedure with penetrating keratoplasty and concurrent cataract extraction followed by intra ocular lens (IOL) implantation is usually the preferential choice because visual rehabilitation is theoretically more rapid. Surgeons have to be aware of surgical conditions during open-sky surgery because vitreous pressure is not counterbalanced by anterior chamber pressure. Today, many surgeons prefer non-simultaneous procedures with cataract surgery performed months after grafting because of the improvement in spherical refractive error. More recently, new triple procedures, Descemet's stripping automated keratoplasty and concurrent cataract surgery have gained popularity, especially in patients with Fuchs dystrophy associated with cataract. Surgery starts with phacoemulsification, followed by endothelium exchange through a 3 to 5 mm incision. Advantages against classic triple procedure are quick visual rehabilitation, fewer induced refractive errors, minimal postoperative discomfort and corneal integrity. Surgeons have to consider an eventual postoperative hyperopic shift secondary to corneal lenticule shape when choosing adequate intraocular lens.

  13. Emerging Technology in Refractive Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, João; Neatrour, Kristin; Waring IV, George O.

    2016-01-01

    Technology in cataract surgery is constantly evolving to meet the goals of both surgeons and patients. Recent major advances in refractive cataract surgery include innovations in preoperative and intraoperative diagnostics, femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS), and a new generation of intraocular lenses (IOLs). This paper presents the latest technologies in each of these major categories and discusses how these contributions serve to improve cataract surgery outcomes in a safe, effective, and predictable manner. PMID:27433353

  14. Emerging Technology in Refractive Cataract Surgery.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, João; Neatrour, Kristin; Waring Iv, George O

    2016-01-01

    Technology in cataract surgery is constantly evolving to meet the goals of both surgeons and patients. Recent major advances in refractive cataract surgery include innovations in preoperative and intraoperative diagnostics, femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS), and a new generation of intraocular lenses (IOLs). This paper presents the latest technologies in each of these major categories and discusses how these contributions serve to improve cataract surgery outcomes in a safe, effective, and predictable manner. PMID:27433353

  15. GENETICS OF HUMAN AGE RELATED DISORDERS.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, I; Thukral, N; Hasija, Y

    2015-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable biological phenomenon. The incidence of age related disorders (ARDs) such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, dementia, osteoporosis, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases increase rapidly with aging. ARDs are becoming a key social and economic trouble for the world's elderly population (above 60 years), which is expected to reach 2 billion by 2050. Advancement in understanding of genetic associations, particularly through genome wide association studies (GWAS), has revealed a substantial contribution of genes to human aging and ARDs. In this review, we have focused on the recent understanding of the extent to which genetic predisposition may influence the aging process. Further analysis of the genetic association studies through pathway analysis several genes associated with multiple ARDs have been highlighted such as apolipoprotein E (APOE), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cadherin 13 (CDH13), CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1 (CDKAL-1), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), indicating that these genes could play a pivotal role in ARD causation. These genes were found to be significantly enriched in Jak-STAT signalling pathway, asthma and allograft rejection. Further, interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin (INS), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), estrogen receptor1 (ESR1), transforming growth factor, beta 1(TGFB1) and calmodulin 1 (CALM1) were found to be highly interconnected in network analysis. We believe that extensive research on the presence of common genetic variants among various ARDs may facilitate scientists to understand the biology behind ARDs causation. PMID:26856084

  16. Nut consumption and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Grosso, G; Estruch, R

    2016-02-01

    Current knowledge on the effects of nut consumption on human health has rapidly increased in recent years and it now appears that nuts may play a role in the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. Frequent nut consumption has been associated with better metabolic status, decreased body weight as well as lower body weight gain over time and thus reduce the risk of obesity. The effect of nuts on glucose metabolism, blood lipids, and blood pressure is still controversial. However, significant decreased cardiovascular risk has been reported in a number of observational and clinical intervention studies. Thus, findings from cohort studies show that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality (especially that due to cardiovascular-related causes). Similarly, nut consumption has been also associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, endometrial, and pancreatic neoplasms. Evidence regarding nut consumption and neurological or psychiatric disorders is scarce, but a number of studies suggest significant protective effects against depression, mild cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, particularly related to their mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as vitamin and polyphenol content). MUFA have been demonstrated to improve pancreatic beta-cell function and regulation of postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PUFA may act on the central nervous system protecting neuronal and cell-signaling function and maintenance. The fiber and mineral content of nuts may also confer health benefits. Nuts therefore show promise as useful adjuvants to prevent, delay or ameliorate a number of chronic conditions in older people. Their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments

  17. Nut consumption and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Grosso, G; Estruch, R

    2016-02-01

    Current knowledge on the effects of nut consumption on human health has rapidly increased in recent years and it now appears that nuts may play a role in the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. Frequent nut consumption has been associated with better metabolic status, decreased body weight as well as lower body weight gain over time and thus reduce the risk of obesity. The effect of nuts on glucose metabolism, blood lipids, and blood pressure is still controversial. However, significant decreased cardiovascular risk has been reported in a number of observational and clinical intervention studies. Thus, findings from cohort studies show that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality (especially that due to cardiovascular-related causes). Similarly, nut consumption has been also associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, endometrial, and pancreatic neoplasms. Evidence regarding nut consumption and neurological or psychiatric disorders is scarce, but a number of studies suggest significant protective effects against depression, mild cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, particularly related to their mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as vitamin and polyphenol content). MUFA have been demonstrated to improve pancreatic beta-cell function and regulation of postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PUFA may act on the central nervous system protecting neuronal and cell-signaling function and maintenance. The fiber and mineral content of nuts may also confer health benefits. Nuts therefore show promise as useful adjuvants to prevent, delay or ameliorate a number of chronic conditions in older people. Their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments.

  18. Complex Cases in Pediatric Cataract.

    PubMed

    Patil-Chhablani, Preeti; Kekunnaya, Ramesh; Nischal, Kanwall Ken

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the techniques and pitfalls that the reader may come across when dealing with complex pediatric cataract cases. Each eye in these circumstances is unique, and the examples and general advice shared are intended to help the reader develop a plan for surgery and a road map to avoid potential problems. As in all types of surgery, careful planning is essential. The old saying 'Fail to prepare, then you prepare to fail' is no more true than when dealing with children who have complex cataract. In this chapter, the following circumstances where pediatric cataract may be seen are discussed: retinoblastoma, retinopathy of prematurity, lenticonus, congenital rubella syndrome, trauma, microcornea, pediatric uveitis, Hallermann-Streiff syndrome, Stickler syndrome, Lowe syndrome, subluxated lens, and after previous intraocular surgery (glaucoma, keratoplasty).

  19. Association of Age Related Macular Degeneration and Age Related Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Hassan; Pourakbari, Malihe Shahidi; Entezari, Morteza; Yarmohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and sensory neural hearing impairment (SHI). Methods: In this case-control study, hearing status of 46 consecutive patients with ARMD were compared with 46 age-matched cases without clinical ARMD as a control group. In all patients, retinal involvements were confirmed by clinical examination, fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). All participants were examined with an otoscope and underwent audiological tests including pure tone audiometry (PTA), speech reception threshold (SRT), speech discrimination score (SDS), tympanometry, reflex tests and auditory brainstem response (ABR). Results: A significant (P = 0.009) association was present between ARMD, especially with exudative and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) components, and age-related hearing impairment primarily involving high frequencies. Patients had higher SRT and lower SDS against anticipated presbycusis than control subjects. Similar results were detected in exudative, CNV and scar patterns supporting an association between late ARMD with SRT and SDS abnormalities. ABR showed significantly prolonged wave I and IV latency times in ARMD (P = 0.034 and 0.022, respectively). Average latency periods for wave I in geographic atrophy (GA) and CNV, and that for wave IV in drusen patterns of ARMD were significantly higher than controls (P = 0.030, 0.007 and 0.050, respectively). Conclusion: The association between ARMD and age-related SHI may be attributed to common anatomical components such as melanin in these two sensory organs. PMID:27195086

  20. Lens opacity based modelling of the age-related straylight increase.

    PubMed

    Rozema, Jos J; Sanchez, Victoria; Artal, Natalia; Gramajo, Ana L; Torres, Eduardo; Luna, Jose D; Iribarren, Rafael; Tassignon, Marie-José; Juarez, Claudio P

    2015-12-01

    This work studies ethnic and geographical differences in the age-related straylight increase by means of a stochastic model and unpublished lens opacity data of 559 residents of Villa Maria (Argentina), as well as data of 912 Indonesian subjects published previously by Husain et al. For both cohorts the prevalence of each type and grade of lens opacity was determined as a function of age, from which a stochastic model was derived capable of simulating the lens opacity prevalence for both populations. These simulated lens opacity data were then converted to estimated straylight by means of an equation derived from previously recorded data of 107 eyes with varying degrees of cataract. Based on these opacity templates 2500 random sets of subject age and lens opacity data were generated by the stochastic model for each dataset, from which estimated straylight could be calculated. For the Argentinian data the estimated straylight was found to closely resemble the published models for age-related straylight increase. For younger eyes the straylight variation of the model was the same as what was previously published (in both cases ±0.200logunits), which doubled in size for older eyes. For the Indonesian data, however, this age-related straylight increase was found to be fundamentally different from the published age model. This suggests that current normative curves for age-related straylight increase may not always be appropriate for non-European populations, and that the inter-individual straylight variations in young, healthy eyes may possibly be due to variations in lens opacities.

  1. The Patched 1 tumor-suppressor gene protects the mouse lens from spontaneous and radiation-induced cataract.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Ilaria; Tanno, Barbara; Giardullo, Paola; Leonardi, Simona; Pasquali, Emanuela; Antonelli, Francesca; Tanori, Mirella; Casciati, Arianna; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna; Mancuso, Mariateresa

    2015-01-01

    Age-related cataract is the most common cause of visual impairment. Moreover, traumatic cataracts form after injury to the eye, including radiation damage. We report herein that sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling plays a key role in cataract development and in normal lens response to radiation injury. Mice heterozygous for Patched 1 (Ptch1), the Shh receptor and negative regulator of the pathway, develop spontaneous cataract and are highly susceptible to cataract induction by exposure to ionizing radiation in early postnatal age, when lens epithelial cells undergo rapid expansion in the lens epithelium. Neonatally irradiated and control Ptch1(+/-) mice were compared for markers of progenitors, Shh pathway activation, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Molecular analyses showed increased expression of the EMT-related transforming growth factor β/Smad signaling pathway in the neonatally irradiated lens, and up-regulation of mesenchymal markers Zeb1 and Vim. We further show a link between proliferation and the stemness property of lens epithelial cells, controlled by Shh. Our results suggest that Shh and transforming growth factor β signaling cooperate to promote Ptch1-associated cataract development by activating EMT, and that the Nanog marker of pluripotent cells may act as the primary transcription factor on which both signaling pathways converge after damage. These findings highlight a novel function of Shh signaling unrelated to cancer and provide a new animal model to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of cataract formation. PMID:25452120

  2. A Missense Mutation in the LIM2 Gene Is Associated with Autosomal Recessive Presenile Cataract in an Inbred Iraqi Jewish Family

    PubMed Central

    Pras, Eran; Levy-Nissenbaum, Etgar; Bakhan, Tangiz; Lahat, Hadas; Assia, Ehud; Geffen-Carmi, Noa; Frydman, Moshe; Goldman, Boleslaw; Pras, Elon

    2002-01-01

    In an inbred Iraqi Jewish family, we have studied three siblings with presenile cataract first noticed between the ages of 20 and 51 years and segregating in an autosomal recessive mode. Using microsatellite repeat markers in close proximity to 25 genes and loci previously associated with congenital cataracts in humans and mice, we identified five markers on chromosome 19q that cosegregated with the disease. Sequencing of LIM2, one of two candidate genes in this region, revealed a homozygous T→G change resulting in a phenylalanine-to-valine substitution at position 105 of the protein. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first report, in humans, of cataract formation associated with a mutation in LIM2. Studies of late-onset single-gene cataracts may provide insight into the pathogenesis of the more common age-related cataracts. PMID:11917274

  3. Age-Related Changes in the Misinformation Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Rachel; Hayne, Harlene

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments examined relation between age-related changes in retention and age-related changes in the misinformation effect. Found large age-related retention differences when participants were interviewed immediately and after 1 day, but after 6 weeks, differences were minimal. Exposure to misleading information increased commission errors.…

  4. Thermal cataract formation in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Kramar, P.; Harris, C.; Guy, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Intraocularly circulating hot water was used to produce cataracts in nine eyes of seven rabbits by maintaining their retrolental temperatures between 43 degrees C and 45 degrees C. A rapid rate of heating (1.3 degrees C/min) plus a sharp temperature gradient across the eye may have been contributing factors in the consistent production of cataracts at these temperatures. Biomicroscopy and light microscopy showed lens changes similar to those associated with acute exposure to microwave radiation. These findings support the assumption that microwave cataractogenesis is due to the local production of elevated temperatures.

  5. Statins for age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gehlbach, Peter; Li, Tianjing; Hatef, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive late onset disorder of the macula affecting central vision. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years in industrialized countries. Recent epidemiologic, genetic, and pathological evidence has shown AMD shares a number of risk factors with atherosclerosis, leading to the hypothesis that statins may exert protective effects in AMD. Objectives The objective of this review was to examine the effectiveness of statins compared with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in delaying the onset and progression of AMD. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 6), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2014), PubMed (January 1946 to June 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 June 2014. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared statins with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in participants who were either susceptible to or diagnosed as having early stages of AMD. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently evaluated the search results against the selection criteria, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We did not perform meta-analysis due to heterogeneity in the interventions and outcomes among the

  6. Statins for age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gehlbach, Peter; Li, Tianjing; Hatef, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive late onset disorder of the macula affecting central vision. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years in industrialized countries. Recent epidemiologic, genetic, and pathological evidence has shown AMD shares a number of risk factors with atherosclerosis, leading to the hypothesis that statins may exert protective effects in AMD. Objectives The objective of this review was to examine the effectiveness of statins compared with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in delaying the onset and progression of AMD. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 6), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2014), PubMed (January 1946 to June 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 June 2014. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared statins with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in participants who were either susceptible to or diagnosed as having early stages of AMD. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently evaluated the search results against the selection criteria, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We did not perform meta-analysis due to heterogeneity in the interventions and outcomes among the

  7. Influence of Biometric Variables on Refractive Outcomes after Cataract Surgery in Angle-closure Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Nam; Lim, Hyung Bin; Lee, Jong Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the influence of biometric variables on refractive outcomes after cataract surgery in angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) patients. Methods In this case-control study, 42 ACG patients, 40 open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients, and 35 controls without glaucoma who had undergone conventional cataract surgery were enrolled consecutively. Electronic medical records, including preoperative biometric variables (keratometric diopter, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and lens thickness), the refractive change (RC), and the absolute value of refractive change (ARC) were reviewed. Results In the control and OAG patients, the anterior chamber depth was negatively correlated with the ARC (r = -0.344, p = 0.043 and r = -0.431, p = 0.006, respectively), whereas there was no correlation in the ACG patients. Lens thickness was positively correlated with the RC, but not with the ARC, in the control and OAG groups (r = 0.391, p = 0.020 and r = 0.501, p = 0.001, respectively). In contrast, lens thickness in the ACG group was not correlated with the RC but was positively correlated with the ARC (r = 0.331, p = 0.032). Conclusions In contrast with the anterior chamber depth, preoperatively measured lens thickness may be a useful predictor of the direction of the RC after cataract surgery in control and OAG patients. However, in ACG patients, a thicker lens was correlated with a larger RC, regardless of the direction of the shift (hyperopic or myopic). PMID:27478355

  8. Importance of multi-modal approaches to effectively identify cataract cases from electronic health records

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Luke V; Berg, Richard L; Linneman, James G; McCarty, Catherine A; Waudby, Carol; Chen, Lin; Denny, Joshua C; Wilke, Russell A; Pathak, Jyotishman; Carrell, David; Kho, Abel N; Starren, Justin B

    2012-01-01

    Objective There is increasing interest in using electronic health records (EHRs) to identify subjects for genomic association studies, due in part to the availability of large amounts of clinical data and the expected cost efficiencies of subject identification. We describe the construction and validation of an EHR-based algorithm to identify subjects with age-related cataracts. Materials and methods We used a multi-modal strategy consisting of structured database querying, natural language processing on free-text documents, and optical character recognition on scanned clinical images to identify cataract subjects and related cataract attributes. Extensive validation on 3657 subjects compared the multi-modal results to manual chart review. The algorithm was also implemented at participating electronic MEdical Records and GEnomics (eMERGE) institutions. Results An EHR-based cataract phenotyping algorithm was successfully developed and validated, resulting in positive predictive values (PPVs) >95%. The multi-modal approach increased the identification of cataract subject attributes by a factor of three compared to single-mode approaches while maintaining high PPV. Components of the cataract algorithm were successfully deployed at three other institutions with similar accuracy. Discussion A multi-modal strategy incorporating optical character recognition and natural language processing may increase the number of cases identified while maintaining similar PPVs. Such algorithms, however, require that the needed information be embedded within clinical documents. Conclusion We have demonstrated that algorithms to identify and characterize cataracts can be developed utilizing data collected via the EHR. These algorithms provide a high level of accuracy even when implemented across multiple EHRs and institutional boundaries. PMID:22319176

  9. Lack of association of the WRN C1367T polymorphism with senile cataract in the Israeli population

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenberg, M.; Dratviman-Storobinsky, O.; Avraham-Lubin, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Werner syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease of premature aging caused by a polymorphic C1367T mutation in the Werner (WRN) gene. Although there are differences between the pathobiology of normal aging and the phenotype of Werner syndrome, the clinical age-related changes are similar. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of the C1367T (rs1346044) polymorphism in patients with age-related cataract. Methods The study group consisted of 81 patients with senile cataract undergoing cataract extraction surgery. Data on age, sex, and medical history of microvascular disease and cancer were obtained from the medical files. Anterior lens capsule material was collected during surgery. DNA was extracted, amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and screened for the C1367T polymorphism in WRN using restriction enzymes followed by sequencing. Results There were 33 male and 48 female patients of mean age 74.3±9 years. Genotypic frequencies were 67% for TT and 33% for TC. None of the patients had the CC genotype. Ten patients had a history of myocardial infarct, 8 cerebrovascular accident, and 8 various tumors. The distribution of these morbidities was similar in the two genotype groups. Conclusions The distribution of the C1367T WRN polymorphism in patients with senile cataract is similar to that in the normal population. Cataract formation in the elderly is not linked to a WRN mutation. PMID:20808731

  10. Cataracts in systemic diseases and syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bariciak, M D; Nichols, B D

    1995-02-01

    A comprehensive review of the ophthalmic literature on cataracts during the past year is presented. Topics covered include new epidemiologic associations, diabetic cataracts, and syndromes involving cataracts. Data from the Beaver Dam Eye Study suggest the presence of a recessive gene for nuclear sclerosis. Estrogen exposure may decrease the risk of nuclear sclerosis. The effects of amiodarone, propranolol, and lovastatin on the lens are discussed. Electron microscopy studies have furthered our understanding of diabetic cataracts and the rare Christmas tree cataract. Two new studies support the adverse effect of extracapsular cataract extraction on diabetic retinopathy. New associations between neurofibromatosis 2 and the lens will aid in the diagnosis of this condition. Other ocular and systemic syndromes are discussed.

  11. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST CUT STONE ABUTMENT FROM SOUTHWEST. Cataract ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF NORTHEAST CUT STONE ABUTMENT FROM SOUTHWEST. - Cataract Falls Bridge, Spanning Mill Creek, bypassed section of CR 279 (Cataract Falls Unit of Leiber State Recreation Area), Cataract, Owen County, IN

  12. [Anophthalmia and congenital cataract: case report].

    PubMed

    Santana, Alessandro; Koller, Karine; Waiswol, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    The authors report a case of anophthalmia, congenital cataract and systemic malformations. Male patient, 6 months old, left anophthalmia and congenital posterior polar cataract in the right eye. The patient was treated with manual aspiration of the crystalline lens, with no intraocular lens implantation with primary posterior capsulorhexis and anterior vitrectomy through a small incision. The association of anophthalmia and congenital cataract is rare. The early diagnosis and management in these cases is very important for the best visual rehabilitation.

  13. Vitrectomy as a Risk Factor for Complicated Cataract Surgery.

    PubMed

    Fenberg, Moss J; Hainsworth, Kenneth J; Rieger, Frank G; Hainsworth, Dean P

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective review of 98 cases of complicated cataract surgery and/or delayed intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation examined the relationship between vitrectomy and cataract surgery complications. Nine (9.2%) of the 98 patients had a history of vitrectomy, before or after cataract surgery, and each had complicated cataract surgery. Six patients who underwent vitrectomy before cataract surgery experienced intraoperative complications. Three patients in whom vitrectomy was performed after uneventful cataract surgery subsequently had delayed IOL dislocation.

  14. Patient satisfaction with cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wasfi, Ehab I; Pai, P; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Measuring the patient satisfaction is a very important issue that will help very much in improving the service provided to patients and improve the level of satisfaction. Aim To evaluate patient satisfaction with the cataract surgery service and identify any areas for improvement, determination of patient satisfaction with referral, out-patient consultation, pre-assessment clinic, surgery and post-operative care, also to report patients' comments relating to improvement in service provision. Methodology A retrospective study was undertaken for 150 patients underwent cataract surgery at Barrow General Hospital, UK, the survey sample was by postal questionnaires. We collected our data from the theatre lists for a period of 4 month. Results This study included 150 patients; the response rate was (72%) 108 patients, Most patients were referred from their general practitioner 86.1%, 93 (86.1%) patients were happy with the time interval from seeing their GP to eye clinic. In the eye out patient department many factors significantly affected the level of patient satisfaction, in general the more information provided for the patient the more the satisfaction. Conclusion Patient satisfaction is on important health outcome old understanding both the domains of satisfaction as well as their relative importance to patients is necessary to improve the overall quality of patient care. Meeting the doctor, presenting all relevant information and giving printed information are very important factors in improving the patient's satisfaction with cataract surgery. PMID:18950523

  15. [Depression in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration].

    PubMed

    Narváez, Yamile Reveiz; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a cause for disability in the elderly since it greatly affects their quality of life and increases depression likelihood. This article discusses the negative effect depression has on patients with age-related macular degeneration and summarizes the interventions available for decreasing their depression index. PMID:26572116

  16. [Depression in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration].

    PubMed

    Narváez, Yamile Reveiz; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a cause for disability in the elderly since it greatly affects their quality of life and increases depression likelihood. This article discusses the negative effect depression has on patients with age-related macular degeneration and summarizes the interventions available for decreasing their depression index.

  17. Slowing Down: Age-Related Neurobiological Predictors of Processing Speed

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Processing speed, or the rate at which tasks can be performed, is a robust predictor of age-related cognitive decline and an indicator of independence among older adults. This review examines evidence for neurobiological predictors of age-related changes in processing speed, which is guided in part by our source based morphometry findings that unique patterns of frontal and cerebellar gray matter predict age-related variation in processing speed. These results, together with the extant literature on morphological predictors of age-related changes in processing speed, suggest that specific neural systems undergo declines and as a result slow processing speed. Future studies of processing speed – dependent neural systems will be important for identifying the etiologies for processing speed change and the development of interventions that mitigate gradual age-related declines in cognitive functioning and enhance healthy cognitive aging. PMID:21441995

  18. Orally Active Multi-Functional Antioxidants Delay Cataract Formation in Streptozotocin (Type 1) Diabetic and Gamma-Irradiated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Randazzo, James; Zhang, Peng; Makita, Jun; Blessing, Karen; Kador, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Age-related cataract is a worldwide health care problem whose progression has been linked to oxidative stress and the accumulation of redox-active metals. Since there is no specific animal model for human age-related cataract, multiple animal models must be used to evaluate potential therapies that may delay and/or prevent cataract formation. Methods/Principal Findings Proof of concept studies were conducted to evaluate 4-(5-hydroxypyrimidin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-3,5-dioxopiperazine-1-sulfonamide (compound 4) and 4-(5-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-3,5-dioxopiperazine-1-sulfonamide (compound 8), multi-functional antioxidants that can independently chelate redox metals and quench free radicals, on their ability to delay the progression of diabetic “sugar” cataracts and gamma radiation-induced cataracts. Prior to 15 Gy of whole head irradiation, select groups of Long Evans rats received either diet containing compound 4 or 8, or a single i.p. injection of panthethine, a radioprotective agent. Compared to untreated, irradiated rats, treatment with pantethine, 4 and 8 delayed initial lens changes by 4, 47, and 38 days, respectively, and the average formation of posterior subcapsular opacities by 23, 53 and 58 days, respectively. In the second study, select groups of diabetic Sprague Dawley rats were administered chow containing compounds 4, 8 or the aldose reductase inhibitor AL1576. As anticipated, treatment with AL1576 prevented cataract by inhibiting sorbitol formation in the lens. However, compared to untreated rats, compounds 4 and 8 delayed vacuole formation by 20 days and 12 days, respectively, and cortical cataract formation by 8 and 3 days, respectively, without reducing lenticular sorbitol. Using in vitro lens culture in 30 mM xylose to model diabetic “sugar” cataract formation, western blots confirmed that multi-functional antioxidants reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress. Conclusions/Significance Multi

  19. Cathodic arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2003-10-29

    Cathodic arc plasma deposition has become the technology of choice for hard, wear and corrosion resistant coatings for a variety of applications. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions, and emerging high-tech applications are briefly reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas standout due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bias. Industrial processes often use cathodic arc plasma in reactive mode. In contrast, the science of arcs has focused on the case of vacuum arcs. Future research directions include closing the knowledge gap for reactive mode, large area coating, linear sources and filters, metal plasma immersion process, with application in high-tech and biomedical fields.

  20. Outcomes of Cataract Surgery at a Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Seyed-Farzad; Hashemi, Hassan; Mazouri, Arash; Rahman-A, Nazanin; Ashrafi, Elham; Mehrjardi, Hadi Z.; Roohipour, Ramak; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes of cataract surgery at a large referral eye hospital and to identify factors associated with less than excellent visual outcomes. Methods: Hospital records of patients, who had undergone age-related cataract extraction (1,285 procedures) within a two-year period were sampled randomly for 353 patients (405 eyes) and baseline characteristics were recorded. Up to three causes of visual loss (contributory reasons) were considered and the principal cause of “less than excellent outcome,” i.e., best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) <20/25 was defined as the primary reason. Results: Mean age of the participants was 68.6 years, and 50.7% of enrolled subjects were female. Phacoemulsification had been performed in 92.1% of cases. Out of 405 eyes, 54%, 78%, and 97% achieved BSCVA of ≥20/25, ≥20/40, and ≥20/200, respectively. Poor visual outcomes were significantly associated with older age (OR: 4.55 for age >70 years), female gender (OR: 4.64), ocular comorbidities (OR: 7.68), surgically challenging eyes (OR: 7.33), long and short eyes (versus eyes with normal axial length, OR: 3.24), and being operated on by a novice surgeon (OR: 2.41). The leading contributory reasons for unfavorable outcome, in descending order were maculopathy (17%), posterior capsule opacification (PCO, 11.8%), corneal opacity (5.7%), and degenerative myopia (5.4%). Conclusion: Maculopathy, PCO, corneal opacity, degenerative myopia and ARMD may contribute to unfavorable outcomes in cataract surgery. PMID:26730309

  1. The relevance of aging-related changes in brain function to rehabilitation in aging-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Crosson, Bruce; McGregor, Keith M.; Nocera, Joe R.; Drucker, Jonathan H.; Tran, Stella M.; Butler, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging on rehabilitation of aging-related diseases are rarely a design consideration in rehabilitation research. In this brief review we present strong coincidental evidence from these two fields suggesting that deficits in aging-related disease or injury are compounded by the interaction between aging-related brain changes and disease-related brain changes. Specifically, we hypothesize that some aphasia, motor, and neglect treatments using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in stroke patients may address the aging side of this interaction. The importance of testing this hypothesis and addressing the larger aging by aging-related disease interaction is discussed. Underlying mechanisms in aging that most likely are relevant to rehabilitation of aging-related diseases also are covered. PMID:26074807

  2. [A rare from of congenital cataract].

    PubMed

    Doden, W; Schnaudigel, O E

    1983-01-01

    In 1943 a 3 year-old-girl with hard star-like nuclear cataracts in both eyes underwent surgery. The white star-like nuclear remnants remained unchanged in the anterior chamber for more than 20 years. The son of this patient had the same rare cataract; surgery was performed on both eyes with practically the same results.

  3. Pediatric cataract: challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K

    2015-01-01

    Cataract is a significant cause of visual disability in the pediatric population worldwide and can significantly impact the neurobiological development of a child. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention is critical to prevent irreversible amblyopia. Thorough ocular evaluation, including the onset, duration, and morphology of a cataract, is essential to determine the timing for surgical intervention. Detailed assessment of the general health of the child, preferably in conjunction with a pediatrician, is helpful to rule out any associated systemic condition. Although pediatric cataracts have a diverse etiology, with the majority being idiopathic, genetic counseling and molecular testing should be undertaken with the help of a genetic counselor and/or geneticist in cases of hereditary cataracts. Advancement in surgical techniques and methods of optical rehabilitation has substantially improved the functional and anatomic outcomes of pediatric cataract surgeries in recent years. However, the phenomenon of refractive growth and the process of emmetropization have continued to puzzle pediatric ophthalmologists and highlight the need for future prospective studies. Posterior capsule opacification and secondary glaucoma are still the major postoperative complications necessitating long-term surveillance in children undergoing cataract surgery early in life. Successful management of pediatric cataracts depends on individualized care and experienced teamwork. We reviewed the etiology, preoperative evaluation including biometry, choice of intraocular lens, surgical techniques, and recent developments in the field of childhood cataract. PMID:25609909

  4. Pediatric cataract: challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K

    2015-01-01

    Cataract is a significant cause of visual disability in the pediatric population worldwide and can significantly impact the neurobiological development of a child. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention is critical to prevent irreversible amblyopia. Thorough ocular evaluation, including the onset, duration, and morphology of a cataract, is essential to determine the timing for surgical intervention. Detailed assessment of the general health of the child, preferably in conjunction with a pediatrician, is helpful to rule out any associated systemic condition. Although pediatric cataracts have a diverse etiology, with the majority being idiopathic, genetic counseling and molecular testing should be undertaken with the help of a genetic counselor and/or geneticist in cases of hereditary cataracts. Advancement in surgical techniques and methods of optical rehabilitation has substantially improved the functional and anatomic outcomes of pediatric cataract surgeries in recent years. However, the phenomenon of refractive growth and the process of emmetropization have continued to puzzle pediatric ophthalmologists and highlight the need for future prospective studies. Posterior capsule opacification and secondary glaucoma are still the major postoperative complications necessitating long-term surveillance in children undergoing cataract surgery early in life. Successful management of pediatric cataracts depends on individualized care and experienced teamwork. We reviewed the etiology, preoperative evaluation including biometry, choice of intraocular lens, surgical techniques, and recent developments in the field of childhood cataract. PMID:25609909

  5. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer ... learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. This ...

  6. New Clues to Age-Related Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161359.html New Clues to Age-Related Hearing Loss Older people's brains have a ... the brain's ability to process speech declines with age. For the study, Alessandro Presacco and colleagues divided ...

  7. AKT activation promotes PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome-associated cataract development.

    PubMed

    Sellitto, Caterina; Li, Leping; Gao, Junyuan; Robinson, Michael L; Lin, Richard Z; Mathias, Richard T; White, Thomas W

    2013-12-01

    Mutations in the human phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene cause PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS), which includes cataract development among its diverse clinical pathologies. Currently, it is not known whether cataract formation in PHTS patients is secondary to other systemic problems, or the result of the loss of a critical function of PTEN within the lens. We generated a mouse line with a lens-specific deletion of Pten (PTEN KO) and identified a regulatory function for PTEN in lens ion transport. Specific loss of PTEN in the lens resulted in cataract. PTEN KO lenses exhibited a progressive age-related increase in intracellular hydrostatic pressure, along with, increased intracellular sodium concentrations, and reduced Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Collectively, these defects lead to lens swelling, opacities and ultimately organ rupture. Activation of AKT was highly elevated in PTEN KO lenses compared to WT mice. Additionally, pharmacological inhibition of AKT restored normal Na+/K+-ATPase activity in primary cultured lens cells and reduced lens pressure in intact lenses from PTEN KO animals. These findings identify a direct role for PTEN in the regulation of lens ion transport through an AKT-dependent modulation of Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and provide a new animal model to investigate cataract development in PHTS patients. PMID:24270425

  8. A novel homozygous mutation in HSF4 causing autosomal recessive congenital cataract.

    PubMed

    Behnam, Mahdiyeh; Imagawa, Eri; Chaleshtori, Ahmad Reza Salehi; Ronasian, Firooze; Salehi, Mansoor; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2016-02-01

    Cataract is defined as opacity in the crystalline lens and congenital cataract occurs during the first year of life. Until now, mutations of more than 50 genes in congenital cataract have been reported with various modes of inheritance. Among them, HSF4 mutations have been reported in autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and age-related forms of cataract. The inheritance patterns of these mutations depend on their mutational positions in HSF4: autosomal dominant or recessive mutations are respectively found either in a DNA-binding domain or in (or downstream of) hydrophobic repeats. Here we report a novel homozygous HSF4 mutation (c.521T>C, p.Leu174Pro) in two affected sibs of an Iranian consanguineous family using whole exome sequencing. The mutation is predicted as highly pathogenic by in silico analysis (SIFT, Polyphen2 and MutationTaster) and is not found in any of control databases. This mutation is located in a hydrophobic repeat of the HSF4 protein, which is consistent with the mode of inheritance as an autosomal recessive trait. PMID:26490182

  9. Characterization of molecular mechanisms of in vivo UVR induced cataract.

    PubMed

    Galichanin, Konstantin; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Söderberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in the world (1). The World Health Organization defines cataract as a clouding of the lens of the eye which impedes the transfer of light. Cataract is a multi-factorial disease associated with diabetes, smoking, ultraviolet radiation (UVR), alcohol, ionizing radiation, steroids and hypertension. There is strong experimental (2-4) and epidemiological evidence (5,6) that UVR causes cataract. We developed an animal model for UVR B induced cataract in both anesthetized (7) and non-anesthetized animals (8). The only cure for cataract is surgery but this treatment is not accessible to all. It has been estimated that a delay of onset of cataract for 10 years could reduce the need for cataract surgery by 50% (9). To delay the incidence of cataract, it is needed to understand the mechanisms of cataract formation and find effective prevention strategies. Among the mechanisms for cataract development, apoptosis plays a crucial role in initiation of cataract in humans and animals (10). Our focus has recently been apoptosis in the lens as the mechanism for cataract development (8,11,12). It is anticipated that a better understanding of the effect of UVR on the apoptosis pathway will provide possibilities for discovery of new pharmaceuticals to prevent cataract. In this article, we describe how cataract can be experimentally induced by in vivo exposure to UVR-B. Further RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry are presented as tools to study molecular mechanisms of UVR-B induced cataract. PMID:23222480

  10. Genetic factors associated with the development of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Sergejeva, Olga; Botov, Roman; Liutkevičienė, Rasa; Kriaučiūnienė, Loresa

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affects the macula and is the leading cause of significant and irreversible central visual loss. It is the most common cause of visual loss in people aged more than 60 years. This disease affects 2.5 million individuals in Europe. AMD is caused by both environmental and genetic factors. Numerous risk factors have been reported, but the pathogenesis of AMD is complex and fairly understood. Age, female gender, obesity, race, education status, family history, hyperopia, iris color, cigarette smoking, previous cataract surgery, history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, sunlight exposure and many other factors have been shown to be associated with AMD development. Scientific evidence shows that genes may play a role in the development of nearly 3 out of 4 cases of this devastating eye disease. The genes that have been shown to be associated with AMD are genes encoding complement system components such as CFH, C2, C3, CFB, and other. PMID:27170480

  11. Parainflammation, chronic inflammation, and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei; Xu, Heping

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The retina is considered an immune-privileged tissue as a result of its unique anatomic and physiologic properties. During aging, the retina suffers from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age. As a result, the retinal innate-immune system, particularly microglia and the complement system, undergoes low levels of activation (parainflammation). In many cases, this parainflammatory response can maintain homeostasis in the healthy aging eye. However, in patients with age-related macular degeneration, this parainflammatory response becomes dysregulated and contributes to macular damage. Factors contributing to the dysregulation of age-related retinal parainflammation include genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors, and old age. Dysregulated parainflammation (chronic inflammation) in age-related macular degeneration damages the blood retina barrier, resulting in the breach of retinal-immune privilege, leading to the development of retinal lesions. This review discusses the basic principles of retinal innate-immune responses to endogenous chronic insults in normal aging and in age-related macular degeneration and explores the difference between beneficial parainflammation and the detrimental chronic inflammation in the context of age-related macular degeneration.

  12. Lanosterol synthase mutations cause cholesterol deficiency-associated cataracts in the Shumiya cataract rat.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masayuki; Li, Guixin; Abe, Ikuro; Nakayama, Jun; Guo, Zhanjun; Sawashita, Jinko; Ugawa, Tohru; Nishizono, Shoko; Serikawa, Tadao; Higuchi, Keiichi; Shumiya, Seigo

    2006-02-01

    The Shumiya cataract rat (SCR) is a hereditary cataractous strain. It is thought that the continuous occurrence of poorly differentiated epithelial cells at the bow area of the lens forms the pathophysiological basis for cataract formation in SCRs. In this study, we attempted to identify the genes associated with cataract formation in SCRs by positional cloning. Genetic linkage analysis revealed the presence of a major cataract locus on chromosome 20 as well as a locus on chromosome 15 that partially suppressed cataract onset. Hypomorphic mutations were identified in genes for lanosterol synthase (Lss) on chromosome 20 and farnesyl diphosphate farnesyl transferase 1 (Fdft1) on chromosome 15, both of which function in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. A null mutation for Lss was also identified. Cataract onset was associated with the specific combination of Lss and Fdft1 mutant alleles that decreased cholesterol levels in cataractous lenses to about 57% of normal. Thus, cholesterol insufficiency may underlie the deficient proliferation of lens epithelial cells in SCRs, which results in the loss of homeostatic epithelial cell control of the underlying fiber cells and eventually leads to cataractogenesis. These findings may have some relevance to other types of cataracts, inborn defects of cholesterol synthesis, and the effects of cholesterol-lowering medication. PMID:16440058

  13. Understanding Cataract Risk in Aerospace Flight Crew And Review of Mechanisms of Cataract Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; McCarten, M.; Manuel, K.; Djojonegoro, B.; Murray, J.; Cucinotta, F.; Feiversen, A.; Wear, M.

    2006-01-01

    Induction of cataracts by occupational exposure in flight crew has been an important topic of interest in aerospace medicine in the past five years, in association with numerous reports of flight-associated disease incidences. Due to numerous confounding variables, it has been difficult to determine if there is increased cataract risk directly caused by interaction with the flight environment, specifically associated with added radiation exposure during flight. Military aviator records from the United States Air Force (USAF) and Navy (USN) and US astronauts at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) were evaluated for the presence, location and age of diagnosis of cataracts. Military aviators were found to have a statistically significant younger average age of onset of their cataracts compared with astronauts, however the incidence density of cataracts was found to be statistically higher in astronauts than in military aviators. USAF and USN aviator s cataracts were most commonly located in the posterior subcapsular region of the lens while astronauts cataracts were most likely to originate generally in the cortical zone. A prospective clinical trial which controls for confounding variables in examination technique, cataract classification, diet, exposure, and pharmacological intervention is needed to determine what percentage of the risk for cataracts are due to radiation, and how to best develop countermeasures to protect flight crews from radiation bioeffects in the future.

  14. Pathophysiology of ageing, longevity and age related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bürkle, Alexander; Caselli, Graziella; Franceschi, Claudio; Mariani, Erminia; Sansoni, Paolo; Santoni, Angela; Vecchio, Giancarlo; Witkowski, Jacek M; Caruso, Calogero

    2007-01-01

    On April 18, 2007 an international meeting on Pathophysiology of Ageing, Longevity and Age-Related Diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. Several interesting topics on Cancer, Immunosenescence, Age-related inflammatory diseases and longevity were discussed. In this report we summarize the most important issues. However, ageing must be considered an unavoidable end point of the life history of each individual, nevertheless the increasing knowledge on ageing mechanisms, allows envisaging many different strategies to cope with, and delay it. So, a better understanding of pathophysiology of ageing and age-related disease is essential for giving everybody a reasonable chance for living a long and enjoyable final part of the life. PMID:17683521

  15. Mouse models of age-related mitochondrial neurosensory hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Han, Chul; Someya, Shinichi

    2013-07-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory disorder in the elderly population. Overall, 10% of the population has a hearing loss in the US, and this age-related hearing disorder is projected to afflict more than 28 million Americans by 2030. Age-related hearing loss is associated with loss of sensory hair cells (sensory hearing loss) and/or spiral ganglion neurons (neuronal hearing loss) in the cochlea of the inner ear. Many lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress and associated mitochondrial dysfunction play a central role in age-related neurodegenerative diseases and are a cause of age-related neurosensory hearing loss. Yet, the molecular mechanisms of how oxidative stress and/or mitochondrial dysfunction lead to hearing loss during aging remain unclear, and currently there is no treatment for this age-dependent disorder. Several mouse models of aging and age-related diseases have been linked to age-related mitochondrial neurosensory hearing loss. Evaluation of these animal models has offered basic knowledge of the mechanism underlying hearing loss associated with oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and aging. Here we review the evidence that specific mutations in the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that affect mitochondrial function result in increased oxidative damage and associated loss of sensory hair cells and/or spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea during aging, thereby causing hearing loss in these mouse models. Future studies comparing these models will provide further insight into fundamental knowledge about the disordered process of hearing and treatments to improve the lives of individuals with communication disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Mitochondrial function and dysfunction in neurodegeneration'.

  16. Age-related differences in human skin proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Carrino, David A; Calabro, Anthony; Darr, Aniq B; Dours-Zimmermann, Maria T; Sandy, John D; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Sorrell, J Michael; Hascall, Vincent C; Caplan, Arnold I

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has shown that versican, decorin and a catabolic fragment of decorin, termed decorunt, are the most abundant proteoglycans in human skin. Further analysis of versican indicates that four major core protein species are present in human skin at all ages examined from fetal to adult. Two of these are identified as the V0 and V1 isoforms, with the latter predominating. The other two species are catabolic fragments of V0 and V1, which have the amino acid sequence DPEAAE as their carboxyl terminus. Although the core proteins of human skin versican show no major age-related differences, the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) of adult skin versican are smaller in size and show differences in their sulfation pattern relative to those in fetal skin versican. In contrast to human skin versican, human skin decorin shows minimal age-related differences in its sulfation pattern, although, like versican, the GAGs of adult skin decorin are smaller than those of fetal skin decorin. Analysis of the catabolic fragments of decorin from adult skin reveals the presence of other fragments in addition to decorunt, although the core proteins of these additional decorin catabolic fragments have not been identified. Thus, versican and decorin of human skin show age-related differences, versican primarily in the size and the sulfation pattern of its GAGs and decorin in the size of its GAGs. The catabolic fragments of versican are detected at all ages examined, but appear to be in lower abundance in adult skin compared with fetal skin. In contrast, the catabolic fragments of decorin are present in adult skin, but are virtually absent from fetal skin. Taken together, these data suggest that there are age-related differences in the catabolism of proteoglycans in human skin. These age-related differences in proteoglycan patterns and catabolism may play a role in the age-related changes in the physical properties and injury response of human skin. PMID:20947661

  17. Age-related decline in emotional prosody discrimination: acoustic correlates.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rachel L C; Kingston, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    It is now accepted that older adults have difficulty recognizing prosodic emotion cues, but it is not clear at what processing stage this ability breaks down. We manipulated the acoustic characteristics of tones in pitch, amplitude, and duration discrimination tasks to assess whether impaired basic auditory perception coexisted with our previously demonstrated age-related prosodic emotion perception impairment. It was found that pitch perception was particularly impaired in older adults, and that it displayed the strongest correlation with prosodic emotion discrimination. We conclude that an important cause of age-related impairment in prosodic emotion comprehension exists at the fundamental sensory level of processing.

  18. Glutamatergic treatment strategies for age-related memory disorders.

    PubMed

    Müller, W E; Scheuer, K; Stoll, S

    1994-01-01

    Age-related changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have been found in cortical areas and in the hippocampus of many species. On the basis of a variety of experimental observations it has been suggested that the decrease of NMDA receptor density might be one of the causative factors of the cognitive decline with aging. Based on these findings several strategies have been developed to improve cognition by compensating the NMDA receptor deficits in aging. The most promising approaches are the indirect activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission by agonists of the glycine site or the restoration of the age-related deficit of receptor density by several nootropics. PMID:7997073

  19. Wound infection after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Valenton, M

    1996-01-01

    Nineteen patients were treated for bacterial and fungal infection of the sclerocorneal incision following cataract extraction during a 19-year period. The infections were caused by Staphylococcus aureus (2), Staphylococcus epidermis (2), Streptococcus pneumoniae (3), Streptococcus viridans (1), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1), Mycobacterium fortuitum (3), Aspergillus flavus (6), and Candida tropicalis (1). The predisposing factors involved were an obstructed nasolacrimal duct (S. pneumoniae, S. viridans), airborne contamination of the wound by fungal spores (A. flavus), and defective sterilization of instruments (M. fortuitum). Ten of the 19 infections resulted in complete loss of the eye from endophthalmitis. Early recognition of wound infection by frequent meticulous examination of the sclerocorneal incision for infectious infiltration is of utmost importance so that specific therapy can be instituted immediately to prevent the development of endophthalmitis. PMID:8988437

  20. Significant Improvement in Dynamic Visual Acuity after Cataract Surgery: A Promising Potential Parameter for Functional Vision

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Mingxin; Li, Xuemin; Huang, Chen; Hou, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Weiqiang; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is a relatively independent parameter for evaluating the ability to distinguish details of a moving target. The present study has been designed to discuss the extent to which age-related cataract impacts DVA in elderly individuals and to determine whether it could be restored after bilateral phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation surgery. Methods Twenty-six elderly cataract patients scheduled for binocular cataract surgery and 30 elderly volunteers without cataract were enrolled in the study. DVA at 15, 30, 60 and 90 degree per second (dps) was assessed, and velocity-dependent visual acuity decreases between consecutive speed levels were calculated. Results Compared with the control group, the patient group exhibited significantly worse DVA performance at all speed levels (p<0.001), and the decreases in velocity-dependent visual acuity were more serious in the patient group at the intervals of 0–15 dps (p<0.001), 15–30 dps (p = 0.007) and 30–60 dps (p = 0.008). Postoperatively, DVA performance at every speed level in the patient group clearly improved (p<0.001) and recovered to levels compatible to the control group. The decrease in visual acuity with increasing speed was less pronounced than during the preoperative phase (p0–15 dps = 0.001, p15–30 dps<0.001 and p30–60 dps = 0.001) and became similar to that of the control group. The postoperative visual benefit regarding DVA was more pronounced than the improvement in static visual acuity (p15 dps = 0.001 and p<0.001 at 30 dps, 60 dps and 90 dps). Conclusions The impact of age-related cataract on DVA was more severe than its effects on static visual acuity. After cataract surgery, not only static vision of the patients was restored markedly, but also the dynamic vision. DVA could be an important adjunct to the current evaluation system of functional vision, thereby meriting additional attention in clinical assessment. PMID

  1. Space radiation and cataracts in astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Manuel, F. K.; Jones, J.; Iszard, G.; Murrey, J.; Djojonegro, B.; Wear, M.

    2001-01-01

    For over 30 years, astronauts in Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions and secondary particles produced in collisions with spacecraft and tissue. Large uncertainties exist in the projection of risks of late effects from space radiation such as cancer and cataracts due to the paucity [corrected] of epidemiological data. Here we present epidemiological [corrected] data linking an increased risk of cataracts for astronauts with higher lens doses (>8 mSv) of space radiation relative to other astronauts with lower lens doses (<8 mSv). Our study uses historical data for cataract incidence in the 295 astronauts participating in NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) and individual occupational radiation exposure data. These results, while preliminary because of the use of subjective scoring methods, suggest that relatively low doses of space radiation may predispose crew to [corrected] an increased incidence and early appearance of cataracts.

  2. Cataract Surgery in Anterior Megalophthalmos: A Review

    PubMed Central

    GALVIS, Virgilio; TELLO, Alejandro; M. RANGEL, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Anterior megalophthalmos is characterized by megalocornea associated with a very broad anterior chamber and ciliary ring elongation. It is also called X-linked megalocornea. It is accompanied by early development of cataracts, zonular anomalies, and, rarely, vitreoretinal disorders. Subluxation of a cataract can occur in cataract surgery because of zonular weakness. In addition, in most patients, standard intraocular lens (IOL) decentration is a risk because of the enlarged sulcus and capsular bag. These unique circumstances make cataract surgery challenging. To date, several approaches have been developed. Implantation of a retropupillary iris-claw aphakic intraocular lens may be a good option because it is easier than suturing the IOL and can have better and more stable anatomic and visual outcomes, compared to other techniques. PMID:27350950

  3. Space radiation and cataracts in astronauts.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, F A; Manuel, F K; Jones, J; Iszard, G; Murrey, J; Djojonegro, B; Wear, M

    2001-11-01

    For over 30 years, astronauts in Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions and secondary particles produced in collisions with spacecraft and tissue. Large uncertainties exist in the projection of risks of late effects from space radiation such as cancer and cataracts due to the paucity [corrected] of epidemiological data. Here we present epidemiological [corrected] data linking an increased risk of cataracts for astronauts with higher lens doses (>8 mSv) of space radiation relative to other astronauts with lower lens doses (<8 mSv). Our study uses historical data for cataract incidence in the 295 astronauts participating in NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) and individual occupational radiation exposure data. These results, while preliminary because of the use of subjective scoring methods, suggest that relatively low doses of space radiation may predispose crew to [corrected] an increased incidence and early appearance of cataracts.

  4. Intraocular lens employed for cataract surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszkowska, A. M.; Torrisi, L.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the techniques of cataract surgery with implantation of intraocular lenses and some physical properties of the used materials. The new technology, coupled with extensive experience and the studied cases, permits to increase the standardization and accuracy of the engravings, by reducing the use and handling of surgical instruments inside the eye. At present it is possible to replace the cataract with crystalline lenses based on biopolymers such as PMMA, silicone, acrylic hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic. These materials are increasingly able to replace the natural lens and to ensure the fully functional of the eye. The role of femtosecond lasers in cataract surgery, to assist or replace several aspects of the manual cataract surgery, are discussed.

  5. CT appearance of a traumatic cataract.

    PubMed

    Segev, Y; Goldstein, M; Lazar, M; Reider-Groswasser, I

    1995-05-01

    We describe a case of a traumatic cataract that presented on CT as a hypodense lens with a hyderdense rim. The finding reflects the pathogenesis of this entity: a capsular tear and consequent entry of fluid into the lens.

  6. [Effect of cataract surgery on contrast sensitivity].

    PubMed

    Skorkovská, S; Masková, Z; Synek, S

    2001-03-01

    The authors examined in a group of patients with cataract the visual acuity on Snellen's optotypes and contrast sensitivity using Pelli-Robson's test before cataract surgery and after cataract extraction and implantation of an intraocular lens. A VF-7 questionnaire was used for subjective evaluation of the result of surgery. The values of contrast sensitivity of the pseudophakic eyes were compared with the contrast sensitivity of eyes of a age-matched control group with a natural lens. After cataract surgery and lens implantation highly significant improvement of visual acuity of the operated eye was recorded. There was also significant improvement of binocular contrast sensitivity in the study group. The authors did not detect a significant difference of the contrast sensitivity of eyes with a PMMA lens and eyes with a silicone lens. There was no significant difference in the contrast sensitivity of pseudophakic eyes and phakic eyes of the control group. The CF-7 questionnaire revealed that cataract surgery led to significant improvement of the investigated visual activities, as apparent from the subjective evaluation by the patients. However, no significant correlation was found between objective (contrast sensitivity) and subjective (VF-7 questionnaire) evaluation of cataract surgery. Only one question in the questionnaire correlated significantly with contrast sensitivity. The authors found a significant reduction of contrast sensitivity caused by an altered transparency of the lens. The decline of contrast sensitivity in eyes with cataract and relatively good vision on Snellen's optotypes is the cause of some subjective complaints of the patients and may be an important factor in indication of cataract surgery of eyes with a relatively good visual acuity.

  7. Cosmic Radiation and Cataracts in Airline Pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafnsson, V.; Olafsdottir, E.; Hrafnkelsson, J.; de Angelis, G.; Sasaki, H.; Arnarson, A.; Jonasson, F.

    Nuclear cataracts have been associated with ionising radiation exposure in previous studies. A population based case-control study on airline pilots has been performed to investigate whether employment as a commercial pilot and consequent exposure to cosmic radiation were associated to lens opacification, when adjusted for known risk factors for cataracts. Cases of opacification of the ocular lens were found in surveys among pilots and a random sample of the Icelandic population. Altogether 445 male subjects underwent a detailed eye examination and answered a questionnaire. Information from the airline company on the 79 pilots employment time, annual hours flown per aircraft type, the timetables and the flight profiles made calculation of individual cumulated radiation dose (mSv) possible. Lens opacification were classified and graded according to WHO simplified cataracts grading system using slit lamp. The odds ratio from logistic regression of nuclear cataracts risk among cases and controls was 3.02 (95% CI 1.44 to 6.35) for pilots compared with non-pilots, adjusted for age, smoking and sunbathing habits, whereas that of cortical cataracts risk among cases and controls was lower than unity (non significant) for pilots compared with non-pilots in a logistic regression analysis adjusted for same factors. Length of employment as a pilot and cumulated radiation dose (mSv) were significantly related to the risk of nuclear cataracts. So the association between radiation exposure of pilots and the risk of nuclear cataracts, adjusted for age, smoking and sunbathing habits, indicates that cosmic radiation may be cause of nuclear cataract among commercial pilots.

  8. Elements of arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This paper looks at the following arc welding techniques: (1) shielded metal-arc welding; (2) submerged-arc welding; (3) gas metal-arc welding; (4) flux-cored arc welding; (5) electrogas welding; (6) gas tungsten-arc welding; and (7) plasma-arc welding.

  9. PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, ameliorates age-related renal injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Nim; Lim, Ji Hee; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Hyung Wook; Park, Cheol Whee; Chang, Yoon Sik; Choi, Bum Soon

    2016-08-01

    The kidney ages quickly compared with other organs. Expression of senescence markers reflects changes in the energy metabolism in the kidney. Two important issues in aging are mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a member of the ligand-activated nuclear receptor superfamily. PPARα plays a major role as a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in various processes. In this study, 18-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups, the control group (n=7) and the fenofibrate-treated group (n=7) was fed the normal chow plus fenofibrate for 6months. The PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, improved renal function, proteinuria, histological change (glomerulosclerosis and tubular interstitial fibrosis), inflammation, and apoptosis in aging mice. This protective effect against age-related renal injury occurred through the activation of AMPK and SIRT1 signaling. The activation of AMPK and SIRT1 allowed for the concurrent deacetylation and phosphorylation of their target molecules and decreased the kidney's susceptibility to age-related changes. Activation of the AMPK-FOXO3a and AMPK-PGC-1α signaling pathways ameliorated oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest that activation of PPARα and AMPK-SIRT1 signaling may have protective effects against age-related renal injury. Pharmacological targeting of PPARα and AMPK-SIRT1 signaling molecules may prevent or attenuate age-related pathological changes in the kidney. PMID:27130813

  10. [Impact of thymic function in age-related immune deterioration].

    PubMed

    Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; de la Fuente, Mónica; Guerrero, Juan Miguel; Leal, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Age-related biological deterioration also includes immune system deterioration and, in consequence, a rise in the incidence and prevalence of infections and cancers, as well as low responses to vaccination strategies. Out of all immune cell subsets, T-lymphocytes seem to be involved in most of the age-related defects. Since T-lymphocytes mature during their passage through the thymus, and the thymus shows an age-related process of atrophy, thymic regression has been proposed as the triggering event of this immune deterioration in elderly people. Historically, it has been accepted that the young thymus sets the T-lymphocyte repertoire during the childhood, whereupon atrophy begins until the elderly thymus is a non-functional evolutionary trace. However, a rising body of knowledge points toward the thymus functioning during adulthood. In the elderly, higher thymic function is associated with a younger immune system, while thymic function failure is associated with all-cause mortality. Therefore, any new strategy focused on the improvement of the elderly quality of life, especially those trying to influence the immune system, should take into account, together with peripheral homeostasis, thymus function as a key element in slowing down age-related decline.

  11. Age-Related Differences in Idiom Production in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Peggy S.; Hyun, Jungmoon; O'Connor Wells, Barbara; Anema, Inge; Goral, Mira; Monereau-Merry, Marie-Michelle; Rubino, Daniel; Kuckuk, Raija; Obler, Loraine K.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether idiom production was vulnerable to age-related difficulties, we asked 40 younger (ages 18-30) and 40 older healthy adults (ages 60-85) to produce idiomatic expressions in a story-completion task. Younger adults produced significantly more correct idiom responses (73%) than did older adults (60%). When older adults generated…

  12. Age-Related Factors in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twyford, Charles William

    The convergence of several lines of psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic research suggests possible explanations for age-related influences on language acquisition. These factors, which include cognitive development, sociocultural context, affective factors, and language input, can be helpful to language educators. By being alert to the cognitive…

  13. A Context for Teaching Aging-Related Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David K.

    1999-01-01

    Describes two points of view regarding age-related public programs (Medicaid, Medicare, Social Security): that of devolutionists who would curtail them and safety netters who maintain the government's role is indispensable. Uses Relative Deprivation theory as a framework for teaching public policy about aging. (SK)

  14. Age-Related Differences in the Production of Textual Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Andrea; Boewe, Anke; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlomagno, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Narratives produced by 69 healthy Italian adults were analyzed for age-related changes of microlinguistic, macrolinguistic and informative aspects. The participants were divided into five age groups (20-24, 25-39, 40-59, 60-74, 75-84). One single-picture stimulus and two cartoon sequences were used to elicit three stories per subject. Age-related…

  15. Managed care implications of age-related ocular conditions.

    PubMed

    Cardarelli, William J; Smith, Roderick A

    2013-05-01

    The economic costs of age-related ocular diseases and vision loss are increasing rapidly as our society ages. In addition to the direct costs of treating age-related eye diseases, elderly persons with vision loss are at significantly increased risk for falls and fractures, experiencing social isolation, and suffering from an array of comorbid medical conditions compared with individuals with normal vision. Recent studies estimate the total economic burden (direct and indirect costs) of adult vision impairment in the United States at $51.4 billion. This figure is expected to increase as the baby boomer generation continues to age. While a number of highly effective new therapies have caused a paradigm shift in the management of several major age-related ocular diseases in recent years, these treatments come at a substantial cost. This article reviews the economic burdens and treatment-related costs of 4 major ocular diseases of aging-glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and dry eye disease-and the implications for managed care.

  16. Awareness, Knowledge, and Concern about Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Laban-Baker, Allie; Hamilton, Wanda S.; Stuen, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--a common eye disease causing vision loss--can be detected early through regular eye-health examinations, and measures can be taken to prevent visual decline. Getting eye examinations requires certain levels of awareness, knowledge, and concern related to AMD. However, little is known about AMD-related…

  17. The Experience of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Elaine Y. H.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Hassell, Jennifer B.; Keeffe, Jill E.

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative article describes the impact of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) among 15 participants: how a person makes sense of ARMD, the effect of ARMD on the person's quality of life, the psychological disturbances associated with the limitations of ARMD, and the influence of ARMD on social interactions. Such in-depth appreciation of…

  18. Nutritional influences on epigenetics and age-related disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional epigenetics has emerged as a novel mechanism underlying gene–diet interactions, further elucidating the modulatory role of nutrition in aging and age-related disease development. Epigenetics is defined as a heritable modification to the DNA that regulates chromosome architecture and modu...

  19. Age-Related Differences in Moral Identity across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Murua, Lourdes Andrea; Jia, Fanli

    2016-01-01

    In this study, age-related differences in adults' moral identity were investigated. Moral identity was conceptualized a context-dependent self-structure that becomes differentiated and (re)integrated in the course of development and that involves a broad range of value-orientations. Based on a cross-sectional sample of 252 participants aged 14 to…

  20. Neuroanatomical Substrates of Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    There are many reports of relations between age and cognitive variables and of relations between age and variables representing different aspects of brain structure and a few reports of relations between brain structure variables and cognitive variables. These findings have sometimes led to inferences that the age-related brain changes cause the…

  1. Nutritional modulation of age-related macular degeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30-50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated wi...

  2. Age-Related Health Stereotypes and Illusory Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madey, Scott F.; Chasteen, Alison L.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment investigated how age-related health stereotypes affect people's judgments of younger and older patients' medical compliance. Previous research has shown that stereotypes of young adults include healthy components, but stereotypes of older adults include both healthy and unhealthy components (Hummert, 1990). We predicted that…

  3. Management of cataracts in patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Law, Simon K; Riddle, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The management of the glaucoma patient who has visually significant cataracts is a practical but complex topic. As glaucoma is a chronic, potentially progressive disease that can lead to irreversible blindness, ophthalmologists should develop a treatment approach with emphasis based on the severity of glaucoma rather than on cataract alone. Trabeculectomy remains an effective surgical choice, especially in glaucoma patients with advanced disease who require a low and steady IOP. In planning for cataract surgery, surgeons should be mindful of the alterations of astigmatism in terms of power and axis, axial length fluctuation as a result of trabeculectomy, and the relative position of the IOL after surgery. As glaucoma is a potentially progressive disease, surgeons who treat patients with coexistent glaucoma and cataracts must consider that future glaucoma surgery may be necessary when planning for the cataract surgery. A complete discussion of alternatives would go beyond the limited scope of this study. Regardless of the procedures used, the surgeon should consider the secondary effects of both glaucoma surgery and cataract surgery and their impact on each other when developing an individualized treatment plan. PMID:21633234

  4. [Surgical indications in coexisting cataracts and glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Collignon-Brach, J D; Ravet, O; Robe-Collignon, N

    2000-01-01

    Cataract surgery in glaucoma patients remains a controversial subjects. Indication of surgery depends on a lot of clinical parameters: diagnosis, state, evolution of glaucoma as well as compliance with medical treatment--surgical procedures of cataract and glaucoma--sites of the surgery--use of antifibrosis agents and surgeon's experience. As cataract extraction alone decreases the intraocular pressure in open angle glaucoma and mainly in uncomplicated closed angle glaucoma and trabeculectomy alone reduces the intraocular pressure more than combined surgery with less complications we recommended the following surgical options: Cataract extraction alone in patients with controlled open angle glaucoma and in patients with closed angle glaucoma. A two step procedure: filtering surgery followed by cataract extraction in patients with poorly controlled open angle glaucoma or mixed closed angle glaucoma. Ambulatory surgery and topical anesthesia permit a two stages surgery with less inconveniences. A combined procedure in patients with a chronic closed angle glaucoma where filtering procedure alone is associated with important complications. Actually, the best surgical cataract procedure is phacoemulsification with a small supero-corneal incision and implantation of a foldable intraocular lens. The best filtering procedure remains trabeculectomy, or the new non penetrating trabecular surgery for experimented surgeons, in the superior quadrant. In the future new surgical procedures and new safe and non toxic pharmacologic drugs which modulate wound healing could be found in order to increase the efficacity and indications of combined surgery. PMID:11262885

  5. Age-Related Changes in 1/f Neural Electrophysiological Noise

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Mark A.; Case, John; Lepage, Kyle Q.; Tempesta, Zechari R.; Knight, Robert T.; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with performance decrements across multiple cognitive domains. The neural noise hypothesis, a dominant view of the basis of this decline, posits that aging is accompanied by an increase in spontaneous, noisy baseline neural activity. Here we analyze data from two different groups of human subjects: intracranial electrocorticography from 15 participants over a 38 year age range (15–53 years) and scalp EEG data from healthy younger (20–30 years) and older (60–70 years) adults to test the neural noise hypothesis from a 1/f noise perspective. Many natural phenomena, including electrophysiology, are characterized by 1/f noise. The defining characteristic of 1/f is that the power of the signal frequency content decreases rapidly as a function of the frequency (f) itself. The slope of this decay, the noise exponent (χ), is often <−1 for electrophysiological data and has been shown to approach white noise (defined as χ = 0) with increasing task difficulty. We observed, in both electrophysiological datasets, that aging is associated with a flatter (more noisy) 1/f power spectral density, even at rest, and that visual cortical 1/f noise statistically mediates age-related impairments in visual working memory. These results provide electrophysiological support for the neural noise hypothesis of aging. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the neurobiological origins of age-related cognitive decline is of critical scientific, medical, and public health importance, especially considering the rapid aging of the world's population. We find, in two separate human studies, that 1/f electrophysiological noise increases with aging. In addition, we observe that this age-related 1/f noise statistically mediates age-related working memory decline. These results significantly add to this understanding and contextualize a long-standing problem in cognition by encapsulating age-related cognitive decline within a neurocomputational model of 1/f noise

  6. Age-Related Changes in 1/f Neural Electrophysiological Noise.

    PubMed

    Voytek, Bradley; Kramer, Mark A; Case, John; Lepage, Kyle Q; Tempesta, Zechari R; Knight, Robert T; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-09-23

    Aging is associated with performance decrements across multiple cognitive domains. The neural noise hypothesis, a dominant view of the basis of this decline, posits that aging is accompanied by an increase in spontaneous, noisy baseline neural activity. Here we analyze data from two different groups of human subjects: intracranial electrocorticography from 15 participants over a 38 year age range (15-53 years) and scalp EEG data from healthy younger (20-30 years) and older (60-70 years) adults to test the neural noise hypothesis from a 1/f noise perspective. Many natural phenomena, including electrophysiology, are characterized by 1/f noise. The defining characteristic of 1/f is that the power of the signal frequency content decreases rapidly as a function of the frequency (f) itself. The slope of this decay, the noise exponent (χ), is often <-1 for electrophysiological data and has been shown to approach white noise (defined as χ = 0) with increasing task difficulty. We observed, in both electrophysiological datasets, that aging is associated with a flatter (more noisy) 1/f power spectral density, even at rest, and that visual cortical 1/f noise statistically mediates age-related impairments in visual working memory. These results provide electrophysiological support for the neural noise hypothesis of aging. Significance statement: Understanding the neurobiological origins of age-related cognitive decline is of critical scientific, medical, and public health importance, especially considering the rapid aging of the world's population. We find, in two separate human studies, that 1/f electrophysiological noise increases with aging. In addition, we observe that this age-related 1/f noise statistically mediates age-related working memory decline. These results significantly add to this understanding and contextualize a long-standing problem in cognition by encapsulating age-related cognitive decline within a neurocomputational model of 1/f noise-induced deficits in

  7. Modeling Arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Insepov, Z.; Norem, J.; Vetizer, S.; Mahalingam, S.

    2011-12-23

    Although vacuum arcs were first identified over 110 years ago, they are not yet well understood. We have since developed a model of breakdown and gradient limits that tries to explain, in a self-consistent way: arc triggering, plasma initiation, plasma evolution, surface damage and gradient limits. We use simple PIC codes for modeling plasmas, molecular dynamics for modeling surface breakdown, and surface damage, and mesoscale surface thermodynamics and finite element electrostatic codes for to evaluate surface properties. Since any given experiment seems to have more variables than data points, we have tried to consider a wide variety of arcing (rf structures, e beam welding, laser ablation, etc.) to help constrain the problem, and concentrate on common mechanisms. While the mechanisms can be comparatively simple, modeling can be challenging.

  8. The carbon footprint of cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Morris, D S; Wright, T; Somner, J E A; Connor, A

    2013-01-01

    Background Climate change is predicted to be one of the largest global health threats of the 21st century. Health care itself is a large contributor to carbon emissions. Determining the carbon footprint of specific health care activities such as cataract surgery allows the assessment of associated emissions and identifies opportunities for reduction. Aim To assess the carbon footprint of a cataract pathway in a British teaching hospital. Methods This was a component analysis study for one patient having first eye cataract surgery in the University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff. Activity data was collected from three sectors, building and energy use, travel and procurement. Published emissions factors were applied to this data to provide figures in carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2eq). Results The carbon footprint for one cataract operation was 181.8 kg CO2eq. On the basis that 2230 patients were treated for cataracts during 2011 in Cardiff, this has an associated carbon footprint of 405.4 tonnes CO2eq. Building and energy use was estimated to account for 36.1% of overall emissions, travel 10.1% and procurement 53.8%, with medical equipment accounting for the most emissions at 32.6%. Conclusions This is the first published carbon footprint of cataract surgery and acts as a benchmark for other studies as well as identifying areas for emissions reduction. Within the procurement sector, dialogue with industry is important to reduce the overall carbon footprint. Sustainability should be considered when cataract pathways are designed as there is potential for reduction in all sectors with the possible side effects of saving costs and improving patient care. PMID:23429413

  9. Stem cell transplantation improves aging-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ikehara, Susumu; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a complex process of damage accumulation, and has been viewed as experimentally and medically intractable. The number of patients with age-associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer has increased recently. Aging-related diseases are related to a deficiency of the immune system, which results from an aged thymus and bone marrow cells. Intra bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) is a useful method to treat intractable diseases. This review summarizes findings that IBM-BMT can improve and treat aging-related diseases, including T2DM, osteoporosis and AD, in animal models. PMID:25364723

  10. Veterans have less age-related cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    McLay, R N; Lyketsos, C G

    2000-08-01

    Military service involves exposure to a number of stresses, both psychological and physical. On the other hand, military personnel generally maintain excellent fitness, and veterans have increased access to education and health care. The overall effect on age-related cognitive decline, whether for good or ill, of having served in the armed forces has not been investigated previously. In this study, we examined a diverse population of 208 veterans and 1,216 civilians followed as part of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study in 1981, 1982, and 1993 to 1996. We examined change in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score after a median of 11.5 years. Veterans were found to have significantly less decrease in MMSE scores at follow-up even after sex, race, and education were taken into account. These results suggest an overall positive effect of military service on the rate of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:10957857

  11. Age-related cochlear hair cell loss in the chinchilla.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, T K; Dayal, V S

    1985-01-01

    The spiral organ of the chinchilla was studied by the surface-preparation technique in four different age groups: 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 4 years, to assess age-related hair cell loss. Decrease in hair cell population is linearly related to age, and damage rate of outer hair cells is greater than that of inner hair cells. The mean percentage of damaged total outer hair cells was 0.60%, 1.16%, 1.71%, and 7.07% in animals in 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 4 years of age, respectively. Outer hair cell loss was greatest in the apex of the cochlea and, of these cells, the outermost row was the most affected. Damage to inner hair cells also increases with age. Age-related apical cochlear cell loss in the chinchilla is comparable to that observed in other laboratory animals. PMID:3970507

  12. The suprachiasmatic nucleus: age-related decline in biological rhythms.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takahiro J; Takasu, Nana N; Nakamura, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with changes in sleep duration and quality, as well as increased rates of pathologic/disordered sleep. While several factors contribute to these changes, emerging research suggests that age-related changes in the mammalian central circadian clock within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) may be a key factor. Prior work from our group suggests that circadian output from the SCN declines because of aging. Furthermore, we have previously observed age-related infertility in female mice, caused by a mismatch between environmental light-dark cycles and the intrinsic, internal biological clocks. In this review, we address regulatory mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms in mammals and summarize recent literature describing the effects of aging on the circadian system.

  13. Ageism, age relations, and garment industry work in Montreal.

    PubMed

    McMullin, J A; Marshall, V W

    2001-02-01

    This study examined the complexities of age relations at work. Garment workers believed that their fate was linked to ageism and that their work experience was discounted by management. Managers wanted to be rid of older workers because they commanded higher wages than younger workers. The issue was cost reduction, and age was implicated unintendedly. Still, managers seemed to use stereotypical images to discourage older workers and they did not organize work routines to facilitate the adaptation of them. Instead, they subcontracted the easy jobs, relying on the experience of the older employees for difficult work while not adapting the workplace. Theoretically, the authors argue that ageism and age discrimination can best be understood through a recognition of the importance of structured age relations and human agency.

  14. Smoking and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Velilla, Sara; García-Medina, José Javier; García-Layana, Alfredo; Pons-Vázquez, Sheila; Pinazo-Durán, M. Dolores; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; Arévalo, J. Fernando; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main socioeconomical health issues worldwide. AMD has a multifactorial etiology with a variety of risk factors. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for AMD development and progression. The present review summarizes the epidemiological studies evaluating the association between smoking and AMD, the mechanisms through which smoking induces damage to the chorioretinal tissues, and the relevance of advising patients to quit smoking for their visual health. PMID:24368940

  15. Age-related changes in ultra-triathlon performances

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The age-related decline in performance has been investigated in swimmers, runners and triathletes. No study has investigated the age-related performance decline in ultra-triathletes. The purpose of this study was to analyse the age-related declines in swimming, cycling, running and overall race time for both Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (11.4-km swimming, 540-km cycling and 126.6-km running) and Deca Iron ultra-triathlon (38-km swimming, 1,800-km cycling and 420-km running). Methods The age and performances of 423 male Triple Iron ultra-triathletes and 119 male Deca Iron ultra-triathletes were analysed from 1992 to 2010 using regression analyses and ANOVA. Results The mean age of the finishers was significantly higher for Deca Iron ultra-triathletes (41.3 ± 3.1 years) compared to a Triple Iron ultra-triathletes (38.5 ± 3.3 years) (P < 0.05). For both ultra-distances, the fastest overall race times were achieved between the ages of 25 and 44 years. Deca Iron ultra-triathletes achieved the same level of performance in swimming and cycling between 25 and 54 years of age. Conclusions The magnitudes of age-related declines in performance in the three disciplines of ultra-triathlon differ slightly between Triple and Deca Iron ultra-triathlon. Although the ages of Triple Iron ultra-triathletes were on average younger compared to Deca Iron ultra-triathletes, the fastest race times were achieved between 25 and 44 years for both distances. Further studies should investigate the motivation and training of ultra-triathletes to gain better insights in ultra-triathlon performance. PMID:23849327

  16. Age-Related Hyperkyphosis: Its Causes, Consequences, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Katzman, Wendy B.; Wanek, Linda; Shepherd, John A.; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.

    2010-01-01

    Age-related postural hyperkyphosis is an exaggerated anterior curvature of the thoracic spine, sometimes referred to as Dowager’s hump or gibbous deformity. This condition impairs mobility,2,31 and increases the risk of falls33 and fractures.26 The natural history of hyperkyphosis is not firmly established. Hyperkyphosis may develop from either muscle weakness and degenerative disc disease, leading to vertebral fractures and worsening hyperkyphosis, or from initial vertebral fractures that precipitate its development. PMID:20511692

  17. Phacoemulsification surgery in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Grixti, Andre; Papavasileiou, Evangelia; Cortis, Dominic; Kumar, Balakrishna Vineeth; Prasad, Som

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the visual outcomes and effect of phacoemulsification surgery on the progression of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods. Retrospective, noncomparative, and interventional case series. Thirty eyes from 29 subjects with neovascular AMD treated with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections who underwent phacoemulsification and had a postsurgery follow-up of 6 months were included. LogMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed preoperatively; 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively; and finally at the last visit. The frequency of anti-VEGF therapy, calculated as the number of intravitreal injections per month, and central macular thickness (CMT) before and after cataract surgery were determined. Results. Median (range) logMAR BCVA was 0.69 (0.16 to 1.32) preoperatively; 0.55 (-0.04 to 1.32) at 1 month, 0.52 (-0.1 to 1.32) at 3 months, and 0.50 (0.0 to 1.32) at 6 months postoperatively; and 0.6 (0.0 to 1.4) at final visit (P = 0.0011). There was no difference in the frequency of anti-VEGF injections between the immediate 6 months before and after phacoemulsification, which was equal to 0.1667 injections per month (P = 0.6377). Median CMT measured 203  μ m preoperatively, which temporarily increased to 238  μ m at 1 month after surgery (P = 0.0093) and then spontaneously returned to baseline, measuring 212.5  μ m at 3 months postoperatively (P = 0.3811). Conclusion. Phacoemulsification surgery significantly improved vision in patients with neovascular AMD, with no increased need for anti-VEGF injections to keep the macula dry postoperatively.

  18. Phacoemulsification Surgery in Eyes with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Papavasileiou, Evangelia; Kumar, Balakrishna Vineeth; Prasad, Som

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the visual outcomes and effect of phacoemulsification surgery on the progression of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods. Retrospective, noncomparative, and interventional case series. Thirty eyes from 29 subjects with neovascular AMD treated with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections who underwent phacoemulsification and had a postsurgery follow-up of 6 months were included. LogMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed preoperatively; 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively; and finally at the last visit. The frequency of anti-VEGF therapy, calculated as the number of intravitreal injections per month, and central macular thickness (CMT) before and after cataract surgery were determined. Results. Median (range) logMAR BCVA was 0.69 (0.16 to 1.32) preoperatively; 0.55 (−0.04 to 1.32) at 1 month, 0.52 (−0.1 to 1.32) at 3 months, and 0.50 (0.0 to 1.32) at 6 months postoperatively; and 0.6 (0.0 to 1.4) at final visit (P = 0.0011). There was no difference in the frequency of anti-VEGF injections between the immediate 6 months before and after phacoemulsification, which was equal to 0.1667 injections per month (P = 0.6377). Median CMT measured 203 μm preoperatively, which temporarily increased to 238 μm at 1 month after surgery (P = 0.0093) and then spontaneously returned to baseline, measuring 212.5 μm at 3 months postoperatively (P = 0.3811). Conclusion. Phacoemulsification surgery significantly improved vision in patients with neovascular AMD, with no increased need for anti-VEGF injections to keep the macula dry postoperatively. PMID:24719771

  19. Hhip haploinsufficiency sensitizes mice to age-related emphysema.

    PubMed

    Lao, Taotao; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Yun, Jeong; Qiu, Weiliang; Guo, Feng; Huang, Chunfang; Mancini, John Dominic; Gupta, Kushagra; Laucho-Contreras, Maria E; Naing, Zun Zar Chi; Zhang, Li; Perrella, Mark A; Owen, Caroline A; Silverman, Edwin K; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    Genetic variants in Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) have consistently been associated with the susceptibility to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary function levels, including the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), in general population samples by genome-wide association studies. However, in vivo evidence connecting Hhip to age-related FEV1 decline and emphysema development is lacking. Herein, using Hhip heterozygous mice (Hhip(+/-)), we observed increased lung compliance and spontaneous emphysema in Hhip(+/-) mice starting at 10 mo of age. This increase was preceded by increases in oxidative stress levels in the lungs of Hhip(+/-) vs. Hhip(+/+) mice. To our knowledge, these results provide the first line of evidence that HHIP is involved in maintaining normal lung function and alveolar structures. Interestingly, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine treatment in mice starting at age of 5 mo improved lung function and prevented emphysema development in Hhip(+/-) mice, suggesting that N-acetyl cysteine treatment limits the progression of age-related emphysema in Hhip(+/-) mice. Therefore, reduced lung function and age-related spontaneous emphysema development in Hhip(+/-) mice may be caused by increased oxidative stress levels in murine lungs as a result of haploinsufficiency of Hhip. PMID:27444019

  20. Later developments: molecular keys to age-related memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Barad, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Age-related memory impairment, a cognitive decline not clearly related to any gross pathology, is progressive and widespread in the population, although not universal. While the mechanisms of learning and memory remain incompletely understood, the study of their molecular mechanisms is already yielding promising approaches toward therapy for such "normal" declines in the efficiency of learning. This review presents the rationale and results for two such approaches. One approach, partial inhibition of the type IV cAMP specific phosphodiesterase, appears to act indirectly. Although little evidence supports an age-related decline in this system, considerable evidence indicates that this approach can facilitate the transition from short-term to long-term memory and thus counterbalance defects in long-term memory, which may be due to other causes. A second approach, inhibition of l-type voltage gated calcium channels (LVGCCs) may be a specific corrective for a molecular pathology of aging, as substantial evidence indicates that an ongoing increase occurs throughout the lifespan in the density of these channels in hippocampal pyramidal cells, with a concomitant reduction in cellular excitability. Because LVGCCs are also crucial to extinction, a paradigm of inhibitory learning, age-related memory impairment may be an unfortunate side effect of a developmental process necessary to the maturation of the ability to suppress inappropriate behavior, an interpretation consistent with the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging.

  1. Age related alterations of adrenoreceptor activity in erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Lomsadze, G; Khetsuriani, R; Arabuli, M; Intskirveli, N; Sanikidze, T

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was the investigation of age-related functional alterations of adrenoreceptors and the effect of agonist and antagonist drugs on age related adrenoreceptor activity in erythrocyte membrane. The impact of isopropanol and propanol on functional activity β- adrenergic receptors in red blood cell membrane were studied in 50 practically healthy men--volunteers. (I group--75-89 years old, II group--22-30 years old). The EPR signals S1 and S2 were registered in red blood cell membrane samples after incubation with isopropanol and propanol respectively. It was found that decreasing sensitivity (functional activity) of red blood cells membrane adrenoreceptors comes with aging (S1oldage-related hypertension, heart failure, type II diabetes and other diseases, The findings suggests that the erythrocyte could be a new therapeutic marker in the treatment different diseases.

  2. Telomere length variations in aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Saliha; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Mahdi, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are gene sequences present at chromosomal ends and are responsible for maintaining genome integrity. Telomere length is maximum at birth and decreases progressively with advancing age and thus is considered as a biomarker of chronological aging. This age associated decrease in the length of telomere is linked to various ageing associated diseases like diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, cancer etc. and their associated complications. Telomere length is a result of combined effect of oxidative stress, inflammation and repeated cell replication on it, and thus forming an association between telomere length and chronological aging and related diseases. Thus, decrease in telomere length was found to be important in determining both, the variations in longevity and age-related diseases in an individual. Ongoing and progressive research in the field of telomere length dynamics has proved that aging and age-related diseases apart from having a synergistic effect on telomere length were also found to effect telomere length independently also. Here a short description about telomere length variations and its association with human aging and age-related diseases is reviewed.

  3. Adverse environmental conditions influence age-related innate immune responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    May, Linda; van den Biggelaar, Anita HJ; van Bodegom, David; Meij, Hans J; de Craen, Anton JM; Amankwa, Joseph; Frölich, Marijke; Kuningas, Maris; Westendorp, Rudi GJ

    2009-01-01

    Background- The innate immune system plays an important role in the recognition and induction of protective responses against infectious pathogens, whilst there is increasing evidence for a role in mediating chronic inflammatory diseases at older age. Despite indications that environmental conditions can influence the senescence process of the adaptive immune system, it is not known whether the same holds true for the innate immune system. Therefore we studied whether age-related innate immune responses are similar or differ between populations living under very diverse environmental conditions. Methods- We compared cross-sectional age-related changes in ex vivo innate cytokine responses in a population living under affluent conditions in the Netherlands (age 20–68 years old, n = 304) and a population living under adverse environmental conditions in Ghana (age 23–95 years old, n = 562). Results- We found a significant decrease in LPS-induced Interleukin (IL)-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) production with age in the Dutch population. In Ghana a similar age-related decline in IL-10 responses to LPS, as well as to zymosan, or LPS plus zymosan, was observed. TNF production, however, did not show an age-associated decline, but increased significantly with age in response to co-stimulation with LPS and zymosan. Conclusion- We conclude that the decline in innate cytokine responses is an intrinsic ageing phenomenon, while pathogen exposure and/or selective survival drive pro-inflammatory responses under adverse living conditions. PMID:19480711

  4. Soybean β-Conglycinin Prevents Age-Related Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, Tohru; Shibata, Rei; Kondo, Kazuhisa; Katahira, Nobuyuki; Kambara, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoko; Nonoyama, Hiroshi; Horibe, Yuichiro; Ueda, Hiromi; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-related complications are associated with the development of age-related hearing impairment. β-Conglycinin (β-CG), one of the main storage proteins in soy, offers multiple health benefits, including anti-obesity and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Here, to elucidate the potential therapeutic application of β-CG, we investigated the effect of β-CG on age-related hearing impairment. Male wild-type mice (age 6 months) were randomly divided into β-CG-fed and control groups. Six months later, the body weight was significantly lower in β-CG-fed mice than in the controls. Consumption of β-CG rescued the hearing impairment observed in control mice. Cochlear blood flow also increased in β-CG-fed mice, as did the expression of eNOS in the stria vascularis (SV), which protects vasculature. β-CG consumption also ameliorated oxidative status as assessed by 4-HNE staining. In the SV, lipofuscin granules of marginal cells and vacuolar degeneration of microvascular pericytes were decreased in β-CG-fed mice, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. β-CG consumption prevented loss of spiral ganglion cells and reduced the frequencies of lipofuscin granules, nuclear invaginations, and myelin vacuolation. Our observations indicate that β-CG ameliorates age-related hearing impairment by preserving cochlear blood flow and suppressing oxidative stress.

  5. Surgery for Subfoveal Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Ophthalmic Findings

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To present visual acuity (VA) and related findings from patients enrolled in one of the Submacular Surgery Trials (SST) evaluating surgical removal versus observation of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration (SST Group N Trial). Design Randomized clinical trial. Participants Eligible patients had age-related macular degeneration with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization, some with a classic pattern on fluorescein angiography, and best-corrected VA (BCVA) of 20/100 to 20/800 in one eye (study eye) that had received no treatment in the macula. Any contiguous blood had to account for <50% of the total area occupied by the subfoveal lesion (maximum size, 9.0 disc areas [22.9 mm2]). Methods Randomization was stratified by VA and by clinical center. All patients were scheduled for study examinations at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after enrollment for assessment of study outcomes. Main Outcome Measure A successful outcome was defined a priori to be either improvement of BCVA or VA no more than 1 line (7 letters) worse than baseline at the 24-month examination. Results Of 454 patients enrolled, 228 study eyes were assigned to observation and 226 to surgery. The percentages of eyes that had successful outcomes were similar in the 2 arms: 44% assigned to observation and 41% assigned to surgery. Median VA losses from baseline to the 24-month examination were 2.1 lines (10.5 letters) in the observation arm and 2.0 lines (10 letters) in the surgery arm. Median VA declined from 20/100 at baseline to 20/400 at 24 months in both arms. No subgroup of patients was identified in which submacular surgery led to better VA outcomes. In the surgery arm, 55 (39%) of 142 initially phakic eyes had cataract surgery by the 24-month examination, compared with 6 (5%) of 133 eyes in the observation arm. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment occurred in 12 surgery eyes (5%) and 1 observation eye. Conclusions Submacular surgery, as performed in this

  6. Ultraviolet radiation cataract: dose dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderberg, Per G.; Loefgren, Stefan

    1994-07-01

    Current safety limits for cataract development after acute exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are based on experiments analyzing experimental data with a quantal, effect-no effect, dose-response model. The present study showed that intensity of forward light scattering is better described with a continuous dose-response model. It was found that 3, 30 and 300 kJ/m2UVR300nm induces increased light scattering within 6 h. For all three doses the intensity of forward light scattering was constant after 6 h. The intensity of forward light scattering was proportional to the log dose of UVR300nm. There was a slight increase of the intensity of forward light scattering on the contralateral side in animals that received 300 kJ/m2. Altogether 72 Sprague-Dawley male rats were included. Half of the rats were exposed in vivo on one side to UVR300nm. The other half was kept as a control group, receiving the same treatment as exposed rats but without delivery of UVR300nm to the eye. Subgroups of the rats received either of the three doses. Rats were sacrificed at varying intervals after the exposure. The lenses were extracted and the forward light scattering was estimated. It is concluded that intensity of forward light scattering in the lens after exposure to UVR300nm should be described with a continuous dose-reponse model.

  7. Congenital cataracts following total parenteral nutrition (TPN) use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Heerasing, N; Dowling, D

    2014-08-01

    We describe a case of congenital cataracts in a newborn whose mother received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) throughout her pregnancy. We discuss the potential mechanisms by which TPN may have been causally linked to cataract formation.

  8. The first cataract surgeons in Latin America: 1611–1830

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T; Wainsztein, Ricardo D

    2016-01-01

    We strove to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in Latin America. Probably by 1611, the Genovese oculist Francisco Drago was couching cataracts in Mexico City. The surgeon Melchor Vásquez de Valenzuela probably performed cataract couching in Lima by 1697. Juan Peré of France demonstrated cataract couching in Veracruz and Mexico City between 1779 and 1784. Juan Ablanedo of Spain performed couching in Veracruz in 1791. Cataract extraction might have been performed in Havana and Caracas by 1793 and in Mexico by 1797. The earliest contemporaneously documented cataract extractions in Latin America were performed in Guatemala City by Narciso Esparragosa in 1797. In addition to Esparragosa, surgeons born in the New World who established the academic teaching of cataract surgery included José Miguel Muñoz in Mexico and José María Vargas in Caracas. Although cataract surgery came quite early to Latin America, its availability was initially inconsistent and limited. PMID:27143845

  9. Changes in cytoskeletal proteins in childhood cataract lenses

    PubMed

    Matsushima; Mukai; Obara

    2000-03-01

    Purpose: Approximately 50% of congenital and childhood cataracts seen in the clinic is of undetermined origin. Biochemical analysis of the cataracts is rare. This study analyzes lens proteins to determine the mechanism of congenital and childhood cataracts. Method: We analyzed the lens proteins from 10 young patients after cataract operations, using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), densitometry analysis, and Western immunoblotting.Results: Densitometry of separated proteins showed a decrease in the high molecular protein bands of posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC). Specifically, spectrin (235 kDa), filensin (100 kDa), and vimentin (57 kDa) were absent from the SDS-PAGE of PSC. Increases in filensin and vimentin were observed in a Christmas tree cataract and lamellar cataracts. Western immunoblots confirmed the densitometry of SDS-PAGE.Conclusion: These results suggest that changes in cytoskeletal proteins may contribute to congenital and childhood cataracts.

  10. [Development of cataract in the ontogeny of senescence-accelerated oxys rats--the basic selection trait of this strain].

    PubMed

    Rumiantseva, Iu V; Fursova, A Zh; Kolosova, N G

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that clinical manifestations of cataract in OXYS rats closely match those of senile cataract in humans, which led to using this rat strain in studies on the pathogenesis of this disease and on efficacy of new therapeutic methods. The aim of the present work was to analyze morphological changes in the lens of OXYS rats at different stages of cataractogenesis by means of light microscopy and to assess mRNA levels of αA- and αB-crystallin genes in the lens. We studied the animals at age 20 days (no clinical signs of cataract), age 3 months (cataract prevalence is 100%), and at age 12 months (when in the majority of OXYS rats, aberrations in the lens correspond to pronounced stages of this disease). Age-matched Wistar rats served as controls. In the lens of 20-day-old OXYS rats, we detected minor aberrations in the packing of cortical fibers, signs of alterations in the activity of transport systems and/ or cell-to-cell contacts as well as a compensatory, by all appearances, increase in the density of the lens epithelium and upregulation of the αA- and αB-crystallin genes. At age 3 months, there were noticeable aberrations (and at 12 months, significantly enhanced aberrations) in the structure of the lens capsule and in organization of the cortical fibers of the lens, whereas a-crystallin expression dipped below than in the Wistar rats. Recently, we reported downregulation of a-crystallin gene expression in the retina of OXYS rats. Early cataract is the basic selection trait of this strain; continued selection for this trait led to the development of a constellation of signs of premature aging. These observations suggest that manifestations of cataract--early development of age-related diseases--may be linked to systemic changes in the expression and function of crystallins.

  11. NMR analyses of the cold cataract. III. /sup 13/C acrylamide studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lerman, S.; Megaw, J.M.; Moran, M.N.

    1985-10-01

    /sup 13/C-enriched acrylamide was employed to further delineate the action of this compound in preventing the cold cataract phenomenon when it is incorporated (in vitro) into young human and rabbit lenses. The extent of acrylamide incorporation, in the dark and with concurrent UV exposure, was monitored by /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy. These studies provide further evidence that UV exposure causes permanent acrylamide photobinding within the lens. In such lenses, the gamma crystallin fraction of the soluble lens proteins is affected to the greatest extent. It appears to become aggregated and/or combined with the alpha and beta fractions resulting in an apparent loss of most of the gamma monomers. There is also an age-related effect with respect to the amount of acrylamide that can be incorporated into the lens. The decrease in acrylamide incorporation with age directly parallels the age-related decline in gamma crystallin levels.

  12. Progression of sugar cataract in the dog.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Takahashi, Y; Wyman, M; Kador, P F

    1991-05-01

    Young beagle dogs were fed a 30% galactose diet, with or without the aldose reductase inhibitors sorbinil or M79175. Cataract formation was monitored by indirect ophthalmoscope and hand-held slit-lamp microscopy and documented by retroillumination photography. In these dogs, the first sign of cataract development was an accentuation of the anterior and posterior lens sutures (1 month after feeding), then the appearance of cortical vacuoles (3 months after feeding), and finally, the formation of predominantly equatorial cortical opacities toward the posterior cortices (4-6 months after feeding). After long-term galactose feeding, a progressive, irregular, clear zone formed at the cortical equatorial regions. Light microscopic examination of these lenses shows that the cataracts are osmotic, many of the lens fibers appear to be swollen or ruptured, and vacuoles are seen near the bow region. Moreover, these histologic changes were reduced in a dose-dependent manner in galactose-fed dogs concomitantly treated with the aldose reductase inhibitors sorbinil or M79175. The osmotic nature of these cataracts and the observation that their formation can be reduced in a dose-dependent manner by aldose reductase inhibitors are consistent with the concept that the aldose-reductase catalyzed formation of polar sugar alcohols (polyols) initiates sugar cataract formation in the dog.

  13. Cataracts Heavy Ions and Individual Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E.; Worgul, B.; Brenner, D.; Smilenov, L.

    Ocular cataracts represents one of the few legacies of space flight evident in a significant proportion of astronauts X-rays are known to induce cataracts Heavy ions are known to be much more effective per unit dose than gamma -rays The object of this present study was to identify genes that confer individual susceptibility and to estimate RBE values Wild type mice were compared with animals heterozygous for Atm Mrad9 or BRCA1 or animals that were double heterozygotes for pairs of genes Mice were irradiated with x-rays at Columbia University in New York City or with heavy ions 1GeV amu 56 Fe ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory Haploinsufficiency for either Atm or mRAD9 resulted in cataracts appearing earlier than in wild type animals whether exposed to gamma -rays or heavy ions Double heterozygotes were more radiosensitive than animals haploinsufficient for either gene alone Heavy ions were much more effective than x-rays in inducing cataracts of all grades in animals of all genotypes A detailed analysis suggest that the RBE varies to some extent with the genotype of the animal and the cataract grade

  14. Increased risk of ischemic heart disease among subjects with cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei-Syun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chang, Shih-Sheng; Chen, Ming-Fong; Chang, Kuan-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Association between cataract and the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) development is not completely clear. Purpose: The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the association between cataract and the risk of incident IHD. The secondary aim was to investigate the subsequent IHD risk of patients with cataracts undergoing cataract surgery. Methods: Retrospective data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID2000) was analyzed. Study participants were composed of patients with cataracts (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] code 366) (n = 32,456), and a comparison cohort without the cataracts (n = 32,456) from 2000 to 2010. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to address the hazard ratio (HR) of IHD associated with cataract. Results: Within 12 years of follow up, the overall incidence rates of IHD were 24.2 per 1000 person-years in the cataract cohort and 18.2 per 1000 person-years in the noncataract cohort with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.35 (95% CI = 1.29–1.41; P < 0.001). Furthermore, the cataract patients undergoing cataract surgery were associated with a higher risk of IHD compared with those cataract patients without surgery (aHR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01–1.14; P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our finding suggested that patients with cataracts are at an increased risk of subsequent IHD development. PMID:27428198

  15. Triangular congenital cataract morphology associated with prenatal methamphetamine exposure.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Michael E; Schloff, Susan; Bothun, Erick D

    2009-08-01

    Bilateral congenital cataracts are often characterized by morphology, etiology, and related conditions. We report a case of unique congenital cataracts with triangular morphology and associated prenatal methamphetamine exposure. Although this association is likely coincidental, the cataract's morphology in light of the specific timing of prenatal drug use deserves reporting.

  16. The gene of an early onset progressive cataract (cerulean cataract) maps to 17q24

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, M.M.; Ferrell, R.E.; Kivlin, J.D.

    1994-09-01

    Cerulean cataract is an autosomal dominant, fully penetrant, early onset, progressive cataract characterized by blue or white opacifications in the nucleus and cortex of the lens. A five generation family with 44 available affected members in three generations allowed exclusion of linkage of the cerulean cataract phenotype to lens structural protein genes and to all of the chromosomal regions to which autosomal dominant cataract phenotypes have previously been mapped. Exclusion of the plausible candidate instigated a genome-wide search utilizing short tandem repeat polymorphims. The genome search localized the cerulean cataract disease gene to chromosomal region 17q24. The three markers closest to the disease gene are D17S802 [Z({theta})=9.20 at ({theta})=0.086], D17S836 [Z({theta})=4.22 at ({theta})=0.061], and AFMa238yb5 [Z({theta})=7.11 at ({theta})=0.032]. Multipoint analysis yielded a maximum lod score of Z({theta})=11.4 between D17S802 and D17S836 at recombination rates of 0.048 and 0.013 respectively. Three genes that map near the 17q24 chromosomal region and are known to contain highly polymorphic microsatellites were tested for linkage. The genes, DHP-sensitive calcium channel gamma subunit (CACNLG), human somatastatin receptor (SSTR2), and the skeletal muscle sodium channel alpha subunit (SCN4A), were all excluded [Z({theta})=-{infinity} at ({theta})=0] as the gene causing cerulean cataract. The galactokinase (GK1) gene has not been cloned, but its map location is 17q23-q25. Galactokinase deficiency is characterized by a recessive, progressive, early onset cataract. Because of the map location of galactokinase, the age-at-onset, and progressive nature of cataracts associated with galactokinase deficiency, galactokinase is being investigated as a candidate gene for the cerulean cataract phenotype.

  17. Clear Corneal Incision in Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Al Mahmood, Ammar M.; Al-Swailem, Samar A.; Behrens, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of sutureless clear corneal cataract incisions, the procedure has gained increasing popularity worldwide because it offers several advantages over the traditional sutured scleral tunnels and limbal incisions. Some of these benefits include lack of conjunctival trauma, less discomfort and bleeding, absence of suture-induced astigmatism, and faster visual rehabilitation. However, an increasing incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis after clear corneal cataract surgery has been reported. Different authors have shown a significant increase up to 15-fold in the incidence of endophthalmitis following clear corneal incision compared to scleral tunnels. The aim of this report is to review the advantages and disadvantages of clear corneal incisions in cataract surgery, emphasizing on wound construction recommendations based on published literature. PMID:24669142

  18. Methylphenidate (Ritalin)-associated cataract and glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao-Kung; Kuang, Tung-Mei; Chou, Joe Ching-Kuang

    2006-12-01

    Methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) is the drug of choice for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, an association of Ritalin with glaucoma has been reported. We report a case of Ritalin-associated cataract and glaucoma. A 10-year-old boy was diagnosed with ADHD and had received methylphenidate hydrochloride, 60 mg/day for 2 years. He presented with blurred vision. Best-corrected visual acuity was 6/60 in both eyes. Ocular examinations revealed intraocular pressure (IOP) of 30 mmHg under medication, dense posterior subcapsular opacity of lens, pale disc with advanced cupping, and marked constriction of visual field. Despite maximal anti-glaucomatous medication, IOP still could not be controlled. The patient then received combined cataract and glaucoma surgery. Visual acuity improved and IOP was within normal limits in both eyes postoperatively. Large dose of methylphenidate may cause cataract and glaucoma. The mechanism remains unclear. Doctors should be aware of the possible ocular side effects of methylphenidate.

  19. Cataracts induced by microwave and ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lipman, R.M.; Tripathi, B.J.; Tripathi, R.C.

    1988-11-01

    Microwaves most commonly cause anterior and/or posterior subcapsular lenticular opacities in experimental animals and, as shown in epidemiologic studies and case reports, in human subjects. The formation of cataracts seems to be related directly to the power of the microwave and the duration of exposure. The mechanism of cataractogenesis includes deformation of heat-labile enzymes, such as glutathione peroxide, that ordinarily protect lens cell proteins and membrane lipids from oxidative damage. Oxidation of protein sulfhydryl groups and the formation of high-molecular-weight aggregates cause local variations in the orderly structure of the lens cells. An alternative mechanism is thermoelastic expansion through which pressure waves in the aqueous humor cause direct physical damage to the lens cells. Cataracts induced by ionizing radiation (e.g., X-rays and gamma rays) usually are observed in the posterior region of the lens, often in the form of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Increasing the dose of ionizing radiation causes increasing opacification of the lens, which appears after a decreasing latency period. Like cataract formation by microwaves, cataractogenesis induced by ionizing radiation is associated with damage to the lens cell membrane. Another possible mechanism is damage to lens cell DNA, with decreases in the production of protective enzymes and in sulfur-sulfur bond formation, and with altered protein concentrations. Until further definitive conclusions about the mechanisms of microwaves and ionizing radiation induced cataracts are reached, and alternative protective measures are found, one can only recommend mechanical shielding from these radiations to minimize the possibility of development of radiation-induced cataracts. 74 references.

  20. Age-related degradation of Westinghouse 480-volt circuit breakers

    SciTech Connect

    Subudhi, M.; Shier, W.; MacDougall, E. )

    1990-07-01

    An aging assessment of Westinghouse DS-series low-voltage air circuit breakers was performed as part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. The objectives of this study are to characterize age-related degradation within the breaker assembly and to identify maintenance practices to mitigate their effect. Since this study has been promulgated by the failures of the reactor trip breakers at the McGuire Nuclear Station in July 1987, results relating to the welds in the breaker pole lever welds are also discussed. The design and operation of DS-206 and DS-416 breakers were reviewed. Failure data from various national data bases were analyzed to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and mechanisms. Additional operating experiences from one nuclear station and two industrial breaker-service companies were obtained to develop aging trends of various subcomponents. The responses of the utilities to the NRC Bulletin 88-01, which discusses the center pole lever welds, were analyzed to assess the final resolution of failures of welds in the reactor trips. Maintenance recommendations, made by the manufacturer to mitigate age-related degradation were reviewed, and recommendations for improving the monitoring of age-related degradation are discussed. As described in Volume 2 of this NUREG, the results from a test program to assess degradation in breaker parts through mechanical cycling are also included. The testing has characterized the cracking of center-pole lever welds, identified monitoring techniques to determine aging in breakers, and provided information to augment existing maintenance programs. Recommendations to improve breaker reliability using effective maintenance, testing, and inspection programs are suggested. 13 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Age-related changes in the meibomian gland.

    PubMed

    Nien, Chyong Jy; Paugh, Jerry R; Massei, Salina; Wahlert, Andrew J; Kao, Winston W; Jester, James V

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the age-related changes of the mouse meibomian gland. Eyelids from adult C57Bl/6 mice at 2, 6, 12 and 24 months of age were stained with specific antibodies against peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) to identify differentiating meibocytes, Oil Red O (ORO) to identify lipid, Ki67 nuclear antigen to identify cycling cells, B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp1) to identify potential stem cells and CD45 to identify immune cells. Meibomian glands from younger mice (2 and 6 months) showed cytoplasmic and perinuclear staining with anti-PPARgamma antibodies with abundant ORO staining of small, intracellular lipid droplets. Meibomian glands from older mice (12 and 24 months) showed only nuclear PPARgamma localization with less ORO staining and significantly reduced acinar tissue (p < 0.04). Acini of older mice also showed significantly reduced (p < 0.004) numbers of Ki67 stained nuclei. While Blimp1 appeared to diffusely stain the superficial ductal epithelium, isolated cells were occasionally stained within the meibomian gland duct and acini of older mice that also stained with CD45 antibodies, suggesting the presence of infiltrating plasmacytoid cells. These findings suggest that there is altered PPARgamma receptor signaling in older mice that may underlie changes in cell cycle entry/proliferation, lipid synthesis and gland atrophy during aging. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that mouse meibomian glands undergo age-related changes similar to those identified in humans and may be used as a model for age-related meibomian gland dysfunction.

  2. Age-Related Deterioration of Rod Vision in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kolesnikov, Alexander V.; Fan, Jie; Crouch, Rosalie K.; Kefalov, Vladimir J.

    2010-01-01

    Even in healthy individuals, aging leads to deterioration in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual field, and dark adaptation. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that drive the age-related changes of the retina and more specifically of photoreceptors. According to one hypothesis, the age-related deterioration in rod function is due to the limited availability of 11-cis-retinal for rod pigment formation. To determine how aging affects rod photoreceptors and to test the retinoid deficiency hypothesis, we compared the morphological and functional properties of rods of adult and aged B6D2F1/J mice. We found that the number of rods and the length of their outer segments were significantly reduced in 2.5 year-old mice compared to 4 month-old animals. Aging also resulted in a 2-fold reduction in the total level of opsin in the retina. Behavioral tests revealed that scotopic visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were decreased by 2-fold in aged mice, and rod ERG recordings demonstrated reduced amplitudes of both a- and b-waves. Sensitivity of aged rods determined from single-cell recordings was also decreased by 1.5-fold, corresponding to not more than 1% free opsin in these photoreceptors, and kinetic parameters of dim flash response were not altered. Notably, the rate of rod dark adaptation was unaffected by age. Thus, our results argue against age-related deficiency of 11-cis-retinal in the B6D2F1/J mouse rod visual cycle. Surprisingly, the level of cellular dark noise was increased in aged rods providing an alternative mechanism for their desensitization. PMID:20720130

  3. Age-related differences in updating working memory.

    PubMed

    Van der Linden, M; Brédart, S; Beerten, A

    1994-02-01

    Age-related differences in updating working memory were investigated in two experiments using a running memory task. In the first experiment, the task of the young and elderly subjects was to watch strings of four to 10 consonants and then to recall serially the four most recent items. Results revealed no age effect. A second experiment was then carried out using a memory load that was close to memory span: lists of six to 12 consonants were presented and subjects had to recall the last six items. Age interacted with list length but not with serial position. This dissociation is discussed in terms of Baddeley's (1986) model.

  4. [Diagnostic Criteria for Atrophic Age-related Macular Degeneration].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kanji; Shiraga, Fumio; Ishida, Susumu; Kamei, Motohiro; Yanagi, Yasuo; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-10-01

    Diagnostic criteria for dry age-related macular degeneration is described. Criteria include visual acuity, fundscopic findings, diagnostic image findings, exclusion criteria and classification of severity grades. Essential findings to make diagnosis as "geographic atrophy" are, 1) at least 250 μm in diameter, 2) round/oval/cluster-like or geographic in shape, 3) sharp delineation, 4) hypopigmentation or depigmentation in retinal pigment epithelium, 5) choroidal vessels are more visible than in surrounding area. Severity grades were classified as mild, medium and severe by relation of geographic atrophy to the fovea and attendant findings. PMID:26571627

  5. Effects of Vitreomacular Adhesion on Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eui Chun; Koh, Hyoung Jun

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we review the association between vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Meta-analyses have shown that eyes with neovascular AMD are twice as likely to have VMA as normal eyes. VMA in neovascular AMD may induce inflammation, macular traction, decrease in oxygenation, sequestering of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and other cytokines or may directly stimulate VEGF production. VMA may also interfere with the treatment effects of anti-VEGF therapy, which is the standard treatment for neovascular AMD, and releasing VMA can improve the treatment response to anti-VEGF treatment in neovascular AMD. We also reviewed currently available methods of relieving VMA. PMID:26425354

  6. [Glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration intricacy].

    PubMed

    Valtot, F

    2008-07-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of legal blindness among the elderly in Western nations. Age is also a well-known and well-evidenced risk factor for glaucoma. With increasing longevity and the rising prevalence of older people around the world, more and more patients will have glaucoma and AMD. Clinical evaluation of these patients still poses problems for clinicians. It is very important to order the right tests at the right time to distinguish glaucomatous defects from those caused by retinal lesions, because appropriate therapy has a beneficial effect on slowing or halting damage. PMID:18957915

  7. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Advances in Management and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Miller, Joan W.; Kim, Ivana K.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in older populations in industrialized nations. AMD is a late-onset deterioration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in the central retina caused by various environmental and genetic factors. Great strides in our understanding of AMD pathogenesis have been made in the past several decades, which have translated into revolutionary therapeutic agents in recent years. In this review, we describe the clinical and pathologic features of AMD and present an overview of current diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:26239130

  8. Squalamine lactate for exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Brian; Desai, Avinash; Garcia, Charles A; Thomas, Edgar; Gast, Michael J

    2006-09-01

    Squalamine lactate inhibits angiogenesis by a long-lived, intracellular mechanism of action. The drug is taken up into activated endothelial cells through caveolae, small invaginations in the cellular membrane. Subsequently, the drug binds to and "chaperones" calmodulin to an intracellular membrane compartment and blocks angiogenesis at several levels. A series of basic investigations, preclinical studies, and human clinical trials have begun to establish the proof of concept, efficacy, and safety parameters for use of squalamine lactate as a therapeutic agent for exudative age-related macular degeneration and several types of malignancies. PMID:16935213

  9. Hyaluronidase and sodium hyaluronate in cataract surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Calder, I. G.; Smith, V. H.

    1986-01-01

    The use of sodium hyaluronate in cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation is often followed by a postoperative rise of intraocular pressure. A trial is described in which 10 patients underwent bilateral cataract extraction and Binkhorst intraocular lens implantation with the use of sodium hyaluronate. The enzyme hyaluronidase was instilled into the anterior chamber of the right eye only, to aid removal of sodium hyaluronate, and resulted in a statistically significant lowering of postoperative intraocular pressure in right eyes compared with left. Other uses of the enzyme are discussed. PMID:3718904

  10. Cataract - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... إعتام عدسة العين - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Cataract English 白内障 - 简体中文 (Chinese - ... 白内障 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Cataract English 白內障 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - ...

  11. Current therapeutic developments in atrophic age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Jakub; Zhao, Fangkun; Wang, Shusheng

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a degenerative disorder of the central retina, is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly. The underlying mechanism of the advanced form of dry AMD, also named geographic atrophy (GA) or atrophic AMD, remains unclear. Consequently, no cure is available for dry AMD or GA. The only prevention option currently available is the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation, which has been demonstrated to slow down the progression of dry AMD. This review summarises recent advances in therapy for dry AMD and GA. Building on the new understanding of the disease and recent technological breakthroughs, numerous ongoing clinical trials have the goal of meeting the need to cure AMD. Therapeutic agents are being developed to target the key features of the disease, including inhibiting the complement pathway and other inflammatory pathways, reducing oxidative stress and protecting retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, inhibiting lipofuscin and visual cycle, regenerating RPE cells from stem cells and restoring choroidal blood flow. Some of these therapeutic options, especially the stem cell-based therapy, hold great promise, which brings great hope for this devastating blinding disease. PMID:26553922

  12. Long noncoding RNAs in aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Kour, Sukhleen; Rath, Pramod C

    2016-03-01

    Aging is the universal, intrinsic, genetically-controlled, evolutionarily-conserved and time-dependent intricate biological process characterised by the cumulative decline in the physiological functions and their coordination in an organism after the attainment of adulthood resulting in the imbalance of neurological, immunological and metabolic functions of the body. Various biological processes and mechanisms along with altered levels of mRNAs and proteins have been reported to be involved in the progression of aging. It is one of the major risk factors in the patho-physiology of various diseases and disorders. Recently, the discovery of pervasive transcription of a vast pool of heterogeneous regulatory noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including small ncRNAs (sncRNAs) and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), in the mammalian genome have provided an alternative way to study and explore the missing links in the aging process, its mechanism(s) and related diseases in a whole new dimension. The involvement of small noncoding RNAs in aging and age-related diseases have been extensively studied and recently reviewed. However, lncRNAs, whose function is far less explored in relation to aging, have emerged as a class of major regulators of genomic functions. Here, we have described some examples of known as well as novel lncRNAs that have been implicated in the progression of the aging process and age-related diseases. This may further stimulate research on noncoding RNAs and the aging process.

  13. Exploring age-related brain degeneration in meditation practitioners.

    PubMed

    Luders, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that meditation practices are associated with substantial psychological as well as physiological benefits. In searching for the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial impact of meditation, studies have revealed practice-induced alterations of neurotransmitters, brain activity, and cognitive abilities, just to name a few. These findings not only imply a close link between meditation and brain structure, but also suggest possible modulating effects of meditation on age-related brain atrophy. Given that normal aging is associated with significant loss of brain tissue, meditation-induced growth and/or preservation might manifest as a seemingly reduced brain age in meditators (i.e., cerebral measures characteristic of younger brains). Surprisingly, there are only three published studies that have addressed the question of whether meditation diminishes age-related brain degeneration. This paper reviews these three studies with respect to the brain attributes studied, the analytical strategies applied, and the findings revealed. The review concludes with an elaborate discussion on the significance of existing studies, implications and directions for future studies, as well as the overall relevance of this field of research.

  14. Long noncoding RNAs in aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Kour, Sukhleen; Rath, Pramod C

    2016-03-01

    Aging is the universal, intrinsic, genetically-controlled, evolutionarily-conserved and time-dependent intricate biological process characterised by the cumulative decline in the physiological functions and their coordination in an organism after the attainment of adulthood resulting in the imbalance of neurological, immunological and metabolic functions of the body. Various biological processes and mechanisms along with altered levels of mRNAs and proteins have been reported to be involved in the progression of aging. It is one of the major risk factors in the patho-physiology of various diseases and disorders. Recently, the discovery of pervasive transcription of a vast pool of heterogeneous regulatory noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including small ncRNAs (sncRNAs) and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), in the mammalian genome have provided an alternative way to study and explore the missing links in the aging process, its mechanism(s) and related diseases in a whole new dimension. The involvement of small noncoding RNAs in aging and age-related diseases have been extensively studied and recently reviewed. However, lncRNAs, whose function is far less explored in relation to aging, have emerged as a class of major regulators of genomic functions. Here, we have described some examples of known as well as novel lncRNAs that have been implicated in the progression of the aging process and age-related diseases. This may further stimulate research on noncoding RNAs and the aging process. PMID:26655093

  15. Curcumin, inflammation, ageing and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Sikora, E; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Barbagallo, Mario

    2010-01-17

    A Symposium regarding the Pathophysiology of Successful and Unsuccessful Ageing was held in Palermo, Italy between April 7 and 8th 2009. Here the lecture by Sikora with some input from the chairpersons Scapagnini and Barbagallo is summarized. Ageing is manifested by the decreasing health status and increasing probability to acquire age-related disease such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, metabolic disorders and others. They are likely caused by low grade inflammation driven by oxygen stress and manifested by the increased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, encoded by genes activated by the transcription factor NF-kappaB. It is believed that ageing is plastic and can be slowed down by caloric restriction as well as by some nutraceuticals. Accordingly, slowing down ageing and postponing the onset of age-related diseases might be achieved by blocking the NF-kappaB-dependent inflammation. In this review we consider the possibility of the spice curcumin, a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent possibly capable of improving the health status of the elderly.

  16. Current Therapeutic Development for Atrophic Age-related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hanus, Jakub; Zhao, Fangkun; Wang, Shusheng

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a degenerative disorder of the central retina, is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly. The underlying mechanism of the advanced form of dry AMD, also named geographic atrophy (GA) or atrophic AMD, remains unclear. Consequently, no cure is available for dry AMD or GA. The only prevention option currently available is the Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation which has been demonstrated to slow down the progression of dry AMD. This review summarizes recent advances in therapy for dry AMD and GA. Building on the new understanding of the disease and recent technological breakthroughs, numerous ongoing clinical trials have the goal of meeting the need to cure AMD. Therapeutic agents are being developed to target the key features of the disease, including inhibiting the complement pathway and other inflammatory pathways, reducing oxidative stress and protecting retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, inhibiting lipofuscin and visual cycle, regenerating RPE cells from stem cells and restoring choroidal blood flow. Some of these therapeutic options, especially the stem-cell based therapy, hold great promise, which brings great hope for this devastating blinding disease. PMID:26553922

  17. Age-related changes to the production of linguistic prosody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Daniel R.

    The production of speech prosody (the rhythm, pausing, and intonation associated with natural speech) is critical to effective communication. The current study investigated the impact of age-related changes to physiology and cognition in relation to the production of two types of linguistic prosody: lexical stress and the disambiguation of syntactically ambiguous utterances. Analyses of the acoustic correlates of stress: speech intensity (or sound-pressure level; SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), key word/phrase duration, and pause duration revealed that both young and older adults effectively use these acoustic features to signal linguistic prosody, although the relative weighting of cues differed by group. Differences in F0 were attributed to age-related physiological changes in the laryngeal subsystem, while group differences in duration measures were attributed to relative task complexity and the cognitive-linguistic load of these respective tasks. The current study provides normative acoustic data for older adults which informs interpretation of clinical findings as well as research pertaining to dysprosody as the result of disease processes.

  18. Age-Related Deficits in Reality Monitoring of Action Memories

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Lyle, Keith B.; Butler, Karin M.; Dornburg, Courtney C.

    2008-01-01

    We describe three theoretical accounts of age-related increases in falsely remembering that imagined actions were performed (Thomas & Bulevich, 2006). To investigate these accounts and further explore age-related changes in reality monitoring of action memories, we used a new paradigm in which actions were (a) imagined-only (b) actually performed, or (c) both imagined and performed. Older adults were more likely than younger adults to misremember the source of imagined-only actions, with older adults’ more often specifying that the action was imagined and also that it was performed. For both age groups, as repetitions of the imagined-only events increased, illusions that the actions were only performed decreased. These patterns suggest that both older and younger adults utilize qualitative characteristics when making reality-monitoring judgments and that repeated imagination produces richer records of both sensory details and cognitive operations. However, sensory information derived from imagination appears to be more similar to that derived from performance for older than younger adults. PMID:18808253

  19. Age-Related Loss of Muscle Mass and Strength

    PubMed Central

    Goldspink, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Age-related muscle wasting and increased frailty are major socioeconomic as well as medical problems. In the quest to extend quality of life it is important to increase the strength of elderly people sufficiently so they can carry out everyday tasks and to prevent them falling and breaking bones that are brittle due to osteoporosis. Muscles generate the mechanical strain that contributes to the maintenance of other musculoskeletal tissues, and a vicious circle is established as muscle loss results in bone loss and weakening of tendons. Molecular and proteomic approaches now provide strategies for preventing age-related muscle wasting. Here, attention is paid to the role of the GH/IGF-1 axis and the special role of the IGFI-Ec (mechano growth factor/MGF) which is derived from the IGF-I gene by alternative splicing. During aging MGF levels decline but when administered MGF activates the muscle satellite (stem) cells that “kick start” local muscle repair and induces hypertrophy. PMID:22506111

  20. Age-related preferences and age weighting health benefits.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the relevance of age in the paradigm of quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The first section outlines two rationales for incorporating age weights into QALYs. One of them is based on efficiency concerns; and the other on equity concerns. Both of these are theoretical constructs. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of published empirical support for such age weighting. The second section is a brief survey of nine empirical studies that elicited age-related preferences from the general public. Six of these quantified the strength of the preferences, and these are discussed in more detail in the third section. The analysis distinguishes three kinds of age-related preference: productivity ageism, utilitarian ageism and egalitarian ageism. The relationship between them and their relevance to the two different rationales for age weighting are then explored. It is concluded that, although there is strong prima facie evidence of public support for both types of age weighting, the empirical evidence to support any particular set of weights is at present weak. PMID:10048783

  1. Auditory white noise reduces age-related fluctuations in balance.

    PubMed

    Ross, J M; Will, O J; McGann, Z; Balasubramaniam, R

    2016-09-01

    Fall prevention technologies have the potential to improve the lives of older adults. Because of the multisensory nature of human balance control, sensory therapies, including some involving tactile and auditory noise, are being explored that might reduce increased balance variability due to typical age-related sensory declines. Auditory white noise has previously been shown to reduce postural sway variability in healthy young adults. In the present experiment, we examined this treatment in young adults and typically aging older adults. We measured postural sway of healthy young adults and adults over the age of 65 years during silence and auditory white noise, with and without vision. Our results show reduced postural sway variability in young and older adults with auditory noise, even in the absence of vision. We show that vision and noise can reduce sway variability for both feedback-based and exploratory balance processes. In addition, we show changes with auditory noise in nonlinear patterns of sway in older adults that reflect what is more typical of young adults, and these changes did not interfere with the typical random walk behavior of sway. Our results suggest that auditory noise might be valuable for therapeutic and rehabilitative purposes in older adults with typical age-related balance variability. PMID:27495013

  2. Cataract formation mechanisms and risk in aviation and space crews.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey A; McCarten, Michael; Manuel, Keith; Djojonegoro, Baby; Murray, Jocelyn; Feiversen, Al; Wear, Mary

    2007-04-01

    Induction of cataracts by occupational exposure in flight crew has been an important topic of interest in aerospace medicine over the past 5 yr, in association with numerous reports of flight-associated disease incidences. Due to numerous confounding variables, it has been difficult to determine whether there is increased cataract risk directly caused by interaction with the flight environment, specifically associated with added radiation exposure during flight. Military aviator records from the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and U.S. Navy (USN) and U.S. astronauts at NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center were evaluated for the presence, location, and age of diagnosis of cataracts. Military aviators with cataracts were found to have a younger average age at onset of their cataracts compared with astronauts with cataracts, however the prevalence of cataracts was found to be higher in astronauts than in military aviators. U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy aviators' cataracts were most commonly located in the posterior subcapsular region of the lens while astronauts' cataracts were most likely to originate in the cortical zone. A prospective clinical trial which controls for confounding variables in examination technique, cataract classification, diet, exposure, and pharmacological intervention is needed to determine what percentage of the risk for cataracts is due to radiation, and how to best develop countermeasures to protect flight crews from radiation bioeffects in the future.

  3. [Objective evaluation the application of femtosecond laser in cataract surgery].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y Z

    2016-02-01

    Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) is a novel technology and the biggest revolution in the field of cataract in the latest several years. However, increasing large-scale population randomized controlled trials (RCT) have demonstrated that FLACS does not provide significant advantages over conventional phacoemulsification cataract surgery (CPCS) for common cataract patients. Furthermore, the cost and space requirement of the femtosecond equipment are another two limitations for the universal application of FSL in cataract surgery. However, FLACS may be beneficial for complex cataract situations, such as lens dislocation, zonular laxity, traumatic cataract, low preoperative endothelial cell values, and significant corneal astigmatism. With the progress of science and technology, FLACS can be expected to achieve integration with phacoemulsification systems, and equipment costs can be reduced, making it more widely used in clinical practice in the future. PMID:26906700

  4. Visual outcome following extracapsular cataract extraction in mature cataracts with pseudoexfoliation syndrome: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mujaini, Abdullah; Wali, Upender K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To report the best corrected visual acuity, at the end of one year, in 33 patients (35 eyes), who underwent extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation (PC-IOL) for mature and hypermature cataracts, with pseudoexfoliation (PEX). Design: Retrospective, non-comparative, single-institutional (Sultan Qaboos University Hospital) study. Participants: Thirty-three patients with mature and hypermature cataracts, with PEX operated upon between January 2007 and December 2008, by one surgeon (AM). Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of thirty-three patients (35 eyes) with mature and hypermature cataracts, with ocular PEX, evaluating the visual outcome at the end of 12 months following ECCE with PC-IOL. Results: Thirty eyes (85.71%) showed improvement in the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 Snellen lines. Four eyes (11.43%) had unchanged BCVA from the baseline. There were no intraoperative complications in any patient. One eye (2.86%) that did not improve developed retinal detachment at three months follow-up, and was referred to the Vireoretinal Unit and follow-up has been lost. Conclusion: Extracapsular cataract extraction is a safe and effective technique in eyes with mature and hypermature cataracts with PEX. PMID:23772121

  5. Posterior subcapsular cataract and inhaled corticosteroid therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Abuekteish, F.; Kirkpatrick, J. N.; Russell, G.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Although posterior subcapsular cataract complicates both systemic and topical corticosteroid therapy, the literature on the effects of inhaled corticosteroids is conflicting. METHODS--One hundred and forty children and young adults on inhaled corticosteroids were examined by slit lamp ophthalmoscopy after pupillary dilatation; 103 had received one or more short courses (< or = 7 days) of oral corticosteroids in the management of acute asthmatic attacks and four had also received one or more prolonged courses (> or = 4 weeks) of alternate day oral corticosteroid therapy. RESULTS--Bilateral posterior subcapsular cataract was identified in one girl who had received several prolonged courses of oral corticosteroids, but was not identified in any other patient. CONCLUSIONS--There is no evidence to support the contention that inhaled corticosteroid therapy on its own, or in association with short courses of oral corticosteroid therapy, might cause cataracts. Although children receiving long term systemic corticosteroid therapy should be screened for cataracts, this is unnecessary in children on inhaled corticosteroids alone. PMID:7638813

  6. Sunlight and Cataracts: Are Athletes at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinque, Chris

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a recent study of Chesapeake Bay watermen, which indicates a possible association between long-term exposure of the eyes to ultraviolet B rays and risk of cataract development. Authorities recommend protective lenses for outdoor athletes, especially those involved in winter sports. (SM)

  7. Vision. Realignment of cones after cataract removal.

    PubMed

    Smallman, H S; MacLeod, D I; Doyle, P

    2001-08-01

    Through unique observations of an adult case of bilateral congenital cataract removal, we have found evidence that retinal photoreceptors will swiftly realign towards the brightest regions in the pupils of the eye. Cones may be phototropic, actively orientating themselves towards light like sunflowers in a field.

  8. Space radiation and cataracts in astronauts.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, F A; Manuel, F K; Jones, J; Iszard, G; Murrey, J; Djojonegro, B; Wear, M

    2001-11-01

    For over 30 years, astronauts in Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions and secondary particles produced in collisions with spacecraft and tissue. Large uncertainties exist in the projection of risks of late effects from space radiation such as cancer and cataracts due to the paucity [corrected] of epidemiological data. Here we present epidemiological [corrected] data linking an increased risk of cataracts for astronauts with higher lens doses (>8 mSv) of space radiation relative to other astronauts with lower lens doses (<8 mSv). Our study uses historical data for cataract incidence in the 295 astronauts participating in NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) and individual occupational radiation exposure data. These results, while preliminary because of the use of subjective scoring methods, suggest that relatively low doses of space radiation may predispose crew to [corrected] an increased incidence and early appearance of cataracts. PMID:11604058

  9. Age-related priming effects in social judgments.

    PubMed

    Hess, T M; McGee, K A; Woodburn, S M; Bolstad, C A

    1998-03-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in the impact of previously activated (and thus easily accessible) trait-related information on judgments about people. The authors hypothesized that age-related declines in the efficiency of controlled processing mechanisms during adulthood would be associated with increased susceptibility to judgment biases associated with such information. In each study, different-aged adults made impression judgments about a target, and assimilation of these judgments to trait constructs activated in a previous, unrelated task were examined. Consistent with the authors' hypotheses, older adults were likely to form impressions that were biased toward the primed trait constructs. In contrast, younger adults exhibited greater awareness of the primed information and were more likely to correct for its perceived influence, especially when distinctive contextual cues regarding the source of the primes were available. PMID:9533195

  10. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  11. Age-related changes in human vitreous structure.

    PubMed

    Sebag, J

    1987-01-01

    Changes in vitreous structure that occur with aging are important in the pathogenesis of vitreous liquefaction (synchisis senilis), vitreous detachment, and retinal disease. Vitreous morphology was studied in 59 human eyes post-mortem using dark-field horizontal slit illumination of the entire dissected vitreous. In many individuals younger than 30 years, the vitreous was homogeneous in structure. Middle-aged individuals had macroscopic fibers in the central vitreous, which coursed anteroposteriorly and inserted into the vitreous base and the vitreous cortex, posteriorly. During senescence, the vitreous volume was reduced, the vitreous body was collapsed (syneresis), and the fibers were thickened, tortuous, and surrounded by liquid vitreous. This sequence of age-related changes probably results from a progressive reorganization of the hyaluronic acid and collagen molecular networks. Characterization of the molecular events underlying these changes will elucidate the mechanisms of the phenomena of synchisis, syneresis, and detachment, and may provide methods with which to prevent or induce vitreous detachment prophylactically.

  12. Sex- and age-related differences in mathematics.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Ruth; Fischer, Natalie

    2005-08-01

    This study examined sex differences and age-related changes in mathematics based on Eccles's 1985 expectancy-value model of "achievement-related choices" and Dweck's 1986 motivation-process model. We have assessed motivational variables and performance in mathematics for youth in Grades 5, 7, and 9 in a German comprehensive secondary school. Significant sex differences in Grades 7 and 9 were observed even when school marks were controlled for. Furthermore, the results indicated differences between Grade 7 and Grade 9 on most of the motivational variables. Older students show a less favorable motivational pattern. Our results give evidence of the importance of motivational encouragement in mathematics classes, especially for girls and low achieving learners. PMID:16279324

  13. Age-Related Differences in Multiple Task Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age. PMID:25215609

  14. Gene-Diet Interactions in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Sheldon; Taylor, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a prevalent blinding disease, accounting for roughly 50 % of blindness in developed nations. Very significant advances have been made in terms of discovering genetic susceptibilities to AMD as well as dietary risk factors. To date, nutritional supplementation is the only available treatment option for the dry form of the disease known to slow progression of AMD. Despite an excellent understanding of genes and nutrition in AMD, there is remarkably little known about gene-diet interactions that may identify efficacious approaches to treat individuals. This review will summarize our current understanding of gene-diet interactions in AMD with a focus on animal models and human epidemiological studies.

  15. Age-related responses to mild restraint in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rattner, B A; Michael, S D; Altland, P D

    1983-11-01

    Immature, postpubertal, young adult, and middle-aged rats were lightly restrained for 4 h. Relative to untreated controls, restraint uniformly reduced body weight and plasma luteinizing hormone concentration and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration in all age groups. However, restraint increased activities of plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, and fructose-diphosphate aldolase in only immature and middle-aged animals. This age-related release of tissue enzymes is hypothesized to reflect enhanced responsiveness to catecholamines in immature rats, and possible ischemia related to diminished vasodilatory activity in middle-aged rats. On the basis of these changes, tolerance to restraint in postpubertal and young adults appears to be slightly greater than that of immature and middle-aged rats.

  16. A Revised Hemodynamic Theory of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Bradley D; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2016-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) afflicts one out of every 40 individuals worldwide, causing irreversible central blindness in millions. The transformation of various tissue layers within the macula in the retina has led to competing conceptual models of the molecular pathways, cell types, and tissues responsible for the onset and progression of AMD. A model that has persisted for over 6 decades is the hemodynamic, or vascular theory of AMD progression, which states that vascular dysfunction of the choroid underlies AMD pathogenesis. Here, we re-evaluate this hypothesis in light of recent advances on molecular, anatomic, and hemodynamic changes underlying choroidal dysfunction in AMD. We propose an updated, detailed model of hemodynamic dysfunction as a mechanism of AMD development and progression. PMID:27423265

  17. MicroRNAs in age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Dimmeler, Stefanie; Nicotera, Pierluigi

    2013-02-01

    Aging is a complex process that is linked to an increased incidence of major diseases such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease, but also cancer and immune disorders. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which post-transcriptionally control gene expression by inhibiting translation or inducing degradation of targeted mRNAs. MiRNAs target up to hundreds of mRNAs, thereby modulating gene expression patterns. Many miRNAs appear to be dysregulated during cellular senescence, aging and disease. However, only few miRNAs have been so far linked to age-related changes in cellular and organ functions. The present article will discuss these findings, specifically focusing on the cardiovascular and neurological systems.

  18. Molecular pathology of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaoyan; Patel, Mrinali; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2009-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of AMD remain largely unclear, a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors is thought to exist. AMD pathology is characterized by degeneration involving the retinal photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch’s membrane, as well as, in some cases, alterations in choroidal capillaries. Recent research on the genetic and molecular underpinnings of AMD brings to light several basic molecular pathways and pathophysiological processes that might mediate AMD risk, progression, and/or response to therapy. This review summarizes, in detail, the molecular pathological findings in both humans and animal models, including genetic variations in CFH, CX3CR1, and ARMS2/HtrA1, as well as the role of numerous molecules implicated in inflammation, apoptosis, cholesterol trafficking, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress. PMID:19026761

  19. Radiation Therapy for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Kishan, Amar U.; Modjtahedi, Bobeck S.; Morse, Lawrence S.; Lee, Percy

    2013-03-01

    In the enormity of the public health burden imposed by age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), much effort has been directed toward identifying effective and efficient treatments. Currently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections have demonstrated considerably efficacy in treating neovascular ARMD, but patients require frequent treatment to fully benefit. Here, we review the rationale and evidence for radiation therapy of ARMD. The results of early photon external beam radiation therapy are included to provide a framework for the sequential discussion of evidence for the usage of stereotactic radiation therapy, proton therapy, and brachytherapy. The evidence suggests that these 3 modern modalities can provide a dose-dependent benefit in the treatment of ARMD. Most importantly, preliminary data suggest that all 3 can be used in conjunction with anti-VEGF therapeutics, thereby reducing the frequency of anti-VEGF injections required to maintain visual acuity.

  20. Translational strategies in aging and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Armanios, Mary; de Cabo, Rafael; Mannick, Joan; Partridge, Linda; van Deursen, Jan; Villeda, Saul

    2015-12-01

    Aging is a risk factor for several of the world's most prevalent diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease. Although our understanding of the molecular pathways that contribute to the aging process and age-related disease is progressing through the use of model organisms, how to apply this knowledge in the clinic is less clear. In September, Nature Medicine, in collaboration with the Volkswagen Foundation, hosted a conference at the beautiful Herrenhausen Palace in Hannover, Germany with the goal of broadening our understanding of the aging process and its meaning as a 'risk factor' in disease. Here, several of the speakers at that conference answer questions posed by Nature Medicine.

  1. Targeting MAPK Signaling in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kyosseva, Svetlana V.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible blindness affecting elderly people in the world. AMD is a complex multifactorial disease associated with demographic, genetics, and environmental risk factors. It is well established that oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis play critical roles in the pathogenesis of AMD. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are activated by diverse extracellular stimuli, including growth factors, mitogens, hormones, cytokines, and different cellular stressors such as oxidative stress. They regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. This review addresses the novel findings from human and animal studies on the relationship of MAPK signaling with AMD. The use of specific MAPK inhibitors may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of this debilitating eye disease. PMID:27385915

  2. Translational strategies in aging and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Armanios, Mary; de Cabo, Rafael; Mannick, Joan; Partridge, Linda; van Deursen, Jan; Villeda, Saul

    2015-12-01

    Aging is a risk factor for several of the world's most prevalent diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease. Although our understanding of the molecular pathways that contribute to the aging process and age-related disease is progressing through the use of model organisms, how to apply this knowledge in the clinic is less clear. In September, Nature Medicine, in collaboration with the Volkswagen Foundation, hosted a conference at the beautiful Herrenhausen Palace in Hannover, Germany with the goal of broadening our understanding of the aging process and its meaning as a 'risk factor' in disease. Here, several of the speakers at that conference answer questions posed by Nature Medicine. PMID:26646495

  3. Complement factor H polymorphism and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Albert O; Ritter, Robert; Abel, Kenneth J; Manning, Alisa; Panhuysen, Carolien; Farrer, Lindsay A

    2005-04-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common, late-onset, and complex trait with multiple risk factors. Concentrating on a region harboring a locus for AMD on 1q25-31, the ARMD1 locus, we tested single-nucleotide polymorphisms for association with AMD in two independent case-control populations. Significant association (P = 4.95 x 10(-10)) was identified within the regulation of complement activation locus and was centered over a tyrosine-402 --> histidine-402 protein polymorphism in the gene encoding complement factor H. Possession of at least one histidine at amino acid position 402 increased the risk of AMD 2.7-fold and may account for 50% of the attributable risk of AMD.

  4. The Neural Consequences of Age-Related Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-07-01

    During hearing, acoustic signals travel up the ascending auditory pathway from the cochlea to auditory cortex; efferent connections provide descending feedback. In human listeners, although auditory and cognitive processing have sometimes been viewed as separate domains, a growing body of work suggests they are intimately coupled. Here, we review the effects of hearing loss on neural systems supporting spoken language comprehension, beginning with age-related physiological decline. We suggest that listeners recruit domain general executive systems to maintain successful communication when the auditory signal is degraded, but that this compensatory processing has behavioral consequences: even relatively mild levels of hearing loss can lead to cascading cognitive effects that impact perception, comprehension, and memory, leading to increased listening effort during speech comprehension. PMID:27262177

  5. The genetics of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gorin, M B; Breitner, J C; De Jong, P T; Hageman, G S; Klaver, C C; Kuehn, M H; Seddon, J M

    1999-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is increasingly recognized as a complex genetic disorder in which one or more genes contribute to an individual's susceptibility for developing the condition. Twin and family studies as well as population-based genetic epidemiologic methods have convincingly demonstrated the importance of genetics in AMD, though the extent of heritability, the number of genes involved, and the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of the condition remain unresolved. The extent to which other hereditary macular dystrophies such as Stargardts disease, familial radial drusen (malattia leventinese), Best's disease, and peripherin/RDS-related dystrophy are related to AMD remains unclear. Alzheimer's disease, another late onset, heterogeneous degenerative disorder of the central nervous system, offers a valuable model for identifying the issues that confront AMD genetics.

  6. Age-related differences in arithmetic strategy sequential effects.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    In this article, I review a series of new findings concerning how age-related changes in strategic variations are modulated by sequential effects. Sequential effects refer to how strategy selection and strategy execution on current problems are influenced by which strategy is used on immediately preceding problems. Two sequential effects during strategy selection (i.e., strategy revisions and strategy perseverations) and during strategy execution (i.e., strategy switch costs and modulations of poorer strategy effects) are presented. I also discuss how these effects change with age during adulthood. These phenomena are important, as they shed light on arithmetic processes and how these processes change with age during adulthood. In particular, they speak to the role of executive control while participants select and execute arithmetic strategies. Finally, I discuss the implications of sequential effects for theories of strategies and of arithmetic.

  7. Age-related macular degeneration and the complement system.

    PubMed

    Khandhadia, S; Cipriani, V; Yates, J R W; Lotery, A J

    2012-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. It is a complex multifactorial disease, and despite new advances in treatment, many patients still succumb to visual impairment. The complement pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases, and recently variants in several genes encoding complement pathway proteins have been associated with AMD. Complement proteins have been found in histological specimens of eyes with AMD. Altered levels of both intrinsic complement proteins and activated products have been found in the circulation of patients with AMD. Complement activation may be triggered by oxidative stress, resulting from retinal exposure to incoming light; indeed an inter-play between these two pathological processes seems to exist. Finally, complement inhibitors are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. This article reviews the role of the complement system in AMD, and the potential of complement inhibition in preventing the devastating blindness resulting from this disease.

  8. The Neural Consequences of Age-Related Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-07-01

    During hearing, acoustic signals travel up the ascending auditory pathway from the cochlea to auditory cortex; efferent connections provide descending feedback. In human listeners, although auditory and cognitive processing have sometimes been viewed as separate domains, a growing body of work suggests they are intimately coupled. Here, we review the effects of hearing loss on neural systems supporting spoken language comprehension, beginning with age-related physiological decline. We suggest that listeners recruit domain general executive systems to maintain successful communication when the auditory signal is degraded, but that this compensatory processing has behavioral consequences: even relatively mild levels of hearing loss can lead to cascading cognitive effects that impact perception, comprehension, and memory, leading to increased listening effort during speech comprehension.

  9. Dietary folate improves age-related decreases in lymphocyte function.

    PubMed

    Field, Catherine J; Van Aerde, Arne; Drager, Kelly L; Goruk, Susan; Basu, Tapan

    2006-01-01

    Although low folate status is thought to be fairly common in the older population, its implication on immunity has not been adequately investigated. Using 11-month-old and 23-month-old male rats (Fisher 344), the present study was undertaken to examine the modifying effects of feeding a control diet (NIH-07) supplemented with folate (35.7 mg/kg) for 3 weeks on the immune cells of spleen and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) origin. The serum concentrations of folate along with vitamin B(12) were elevated in response to the folate supplementation (P<.05). These results were accompanied by an improved proliferative response (stimulation index) to mitogens in both the spleen and MLNs (P<.05). The proportion of T cells in the MLNs, but not in the spleen, was significantly increased in rats fed a diet supplemented with folate. In the spleen, the folate-supplemented diet prevented the age-associated decrease (P<.05) in the production of interferon (IFN)alpha by unstimulated cells and the decrease in T-helper (Th)1/Th2-type response after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin. In the MLNs, on the other hand, the folate-supplemented diet failed to influence any age-related increase in interleukin (IL)-2, tumor necrosis factor alpha and IFNgamma following stimulation but did result in a significantly increased production of IL-4 (P<.05). Overall, this study provides data suggesting that aging is associated with changes in the proportion of T cells, the ability of immune cells to proliferate and the production of cytokines after stimulation. Supplementing a folate-sufficient diet with additional folate improves proliferative response to mitogens, the distribution of T cells in the MLNs and the age-related changes in cytokine production in the spleen. These results suggest that the dietary folate requirement may be higher in the older population than in the younger population to support immune functions.

  10. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa's ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC), it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarizes and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics. PMID:26973593

  11. Age-related macular degeneration: Evidence of a major gene

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, S.; Warren, C.; Yang, H.

    1994-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a major cause of blindness in developing countries. It remains a very poorly understood disorder. Although environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis, none have been firmly implicated. The purpose of this study was to use pedigree analysis to evaluate the possible role of a major gene as a determinant of familial aggregation. Information was collected regarding occupation, smoking, sun exposure, associated medical problems and family history. 50 probands with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and 39 age, race and sex-matched controls were included in the study. In the ARMD group 15/50 (30%) of probands reported a positive family history; 22 out of 222 first degree relatives over age 60 were reported to be affected. In the control groups, none of the 138 first degree relatives over age 50 had a history of ARMD. This difference is statistically significant (p = 0.0003), indicating that genetic factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ARMD. In the ARMD group more siblings as compared to parents (16/127 vs. 5/82) were affected. 5/50 (10%) of the ARMD probands also gave a history of a second degree relative affected with ARMD, compared to none known among the relatives of controls. Data from 50 pedigrees were analyzed by complex segregation analysis under a class A regressive logistic model using the REGD program implemented in the SAGE package. Preliminary results allow rejection of a polygenic model and suggest there is a major gene for ARMD in these families. The inheritance model most compatible with the observed familial aggregation is autosomal recessive. In conclusion, these results are suggestive of a major gene effect in the etiology of ARMD. Identification of a major gene effect is a first step to further pursue linkage analysis and to search for the gene(s) involved in the causation of ARMD.

  12. Age-related vascular stiffening: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Julie C.; Lampi, Marsha C.; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Arterial stiffening occurs with age and is closely associated with the progression of cardiovascular disease. Stiffening is most often studied at the level of the whole vessel because increased stiffness of the large arteries can impose increased strain on the heart leading to heart failure. Interestingly, however, recent evidence suggests that the impact of increased vessel stiffening extends beyond the tissue scale and can also have deleterious microscale effects on cellular function. Altered extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture has been recognized as a key component of the pre-atherogenic state. Here, the underlying causes of age-related vessel stiffening are discussed, focusing on age-related crosslinking of the ECM proteins as well as through increased matrix deposition. Methods to measure vessel stiffening at both the macro- and microscale are described, spanning from the pulse wave velocity measurements performed clinically to microscale measurements performed largely in research laboratories. Additionally, recent work investigating how arterial stiffness and the changes in the ECM associated with stiffening contributed to endothelial dysfunction will be reviewed. We will highlight how changes in ECM protein composition contribute to atherosclerosis in the vessel wall. Lastly, we will discuss very recent work that demonstrates endothelial cells (ECs) are mechano-sensitive to arterial stiffening, where changes in stiffness can directly impact EC health. Overall, recent studies suggest that stiffening is an important clinical target not only because of potential deleterious effects on the heart but also because it promotes cellular level dysfunction in the vessel wall, contributing to a pathological atherosclerotic state. PMID:25926844

  13. Genetic risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Maryam; Armstrong, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in individuals older than 65 years of age. It is a multifactorial disorder and identification of risk factors enables individuals to make lifestyle choices that may reduce the risk of disease. Collaboration between geneticists, ophthalmologists, and optometrists suggests that genetic risk factors play a more significant role in AMD than previously thought. The most important genes are associated with immune system modulation and the complement system, e.g., complement factor H (CFH), factor B (CFB), factor C3, and serpin peptidase inhibitor (SERPING1). Genes associated with membrane transport, e.g., ATP-binding cassette protein (ABCR) and voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma 3 (CACNG3), the vascular system, e.g., fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), fibulin-5, lysyl oxidase-like gene (LOXL1) and selectin-P (SELP), and with lipid metabolism, e.g., apolipoprotein E (APOE) and hepatic lipase (LIPC) have also been implicated. In addition, several other genes exhibit some statistical association with AMD, e.g., age-related maculopathy susceptibility protein 2 (ARMS2) and DNA excision repair protein gene (ERCC6) but more research is needed to establish their significance. Modifiable risk factors for AMD should be discussed with patients whose lifestyle and/or family history place them in an increased risk category. Furthermore, calculation of AMD risk using current models should be recommended as a tool for patient education. It is likely that AMD management in future will be increasingly influenced by assessment of genetic risk as such screening methods become more widely available.

  14. Age-related modifications in neural cardiovascular control.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, A U

    1992-09-01

    Integrated cardiovascular responses to a range of different stimuli, as well as the overall, spontaneously occurring variability in blood pressure and heart rate, undergo complex changes with aging. A general trend is that homeostatic control mechanisms lose part of their ability to modulate heart rate and to buffer the concomitant blood pressure variations; the two phenomena are possibly linked by a cause-effect relationship. A detailed analysis of the age-related changes in the major reflex systems reveals a clear-cut impairment in arterial baroreceptor control of the heart rate, but much less pronounced changes in its control of blood pressure, on the other hand, both the hemodynamic and humoral components of the cardiopulmonary reflex appear to be markedly attenuated. The experimental evidence of the mechanisms underlying these changes is still largely incomplete, and it appears that the gaps will have to be filled by a systematic, detailed analysis, i.e., that no generalizations or extrapolations will be possible. Indeed, the data available so far indicate that the age-related alterations are highly non-uniform, some functions undergoing a definite impairment but others being much better preserved and some being even enhanced; thus aging is by no means associated with a generalized decline in cardiovascular functions and should instead be viewed as a complex, highly selective process. These peculiar biological features of the aging phenomena merit further investigation in both the cardiovascular and the other organ systems, in order to verify the possibility that currently unrecognized homeostatic potentials in the elderly subject may be exploited to advance his/her clinical management in health and disease.

  15. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa’s ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC), it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarizes and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics. PMID:26973593

  16. Age-Related Tissue Stiffening: Cause and Effect

    PubMed Central

    Sherratt, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Tissue elasticity is severely compromised in aging skin, lungs, and blood vessels. In the vascular and pulmonary systems, respectively, loss of mechanical function is linked to hypertension, which in turn is a risk factor for heart and renal failure, stroke, and aortic aneurysms, and to an increased risk of mortality as a result of acute lung infections. Recent Advances Although cellular mechanisms were thought to play an important role in mediating tissue aging, the reason for the apparent sensitivity of elastic fibers to age-related degradation remained unclear. We have recently demonstrated that compared with type I collagen, a key component of the elastic fiber system, the cysteine-rich fibrillin microfibril is highly susceptible to direct UV exposure in a cell-free environment. We hypothesized therefore that, as a consequence of both their remarkable longevity and cysteine-rich composition, many elastic fiber-associated components will be susceptible to the accumulation of damage by both direct UV radiation and reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidation. Critical Issues Although elastic fiber remodeling is a common feature of aging dynamic tissues, the inaccessibility of most human tissues has hampered attempts to define the molecular causes. Clinical Care Relevance Although, currently, the localized repair of damaged elastic fibers may be effected by the topical application of retinoids and some cosmetic products, future studies may extend the application of systemic transforming growth factor β antagonists, which can prevent cardiovascular remodeling in murine Marfan syndrome, to aging humans. Acellular mechanisms may be key mediators of elastic fiber remodeling and hence age-related tissue stiffening. PMID:24527318

  17. Progress on retinal image analysis for age related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Kanagasingam, Yogesan; Bhuiyan, Alauddin; Abràmoff, Michael D; Smith, R Theodore; Goldschmidt, Leonard; Wong, Tien Y

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in those over the age of 50 years in the developed countries. The number is expected to increase by ∼1.5 fold over the next ten years due to an increase in aging population. One of the main measures of AMD severity is the analysis of drusen, pigmentary abnormalities, geographic atrophy (GA) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) from imaging based on color fundus photograph, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and other imaging modalities. Each of these imaging modalities has strengths and weaknesses for extracting individual AMD pathology and different imaging techniques are used in combination for capturing and/or quantification of different pathologies. Current dry AMD treatments cannot cure or reverse vision loss. However, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) showed that specific anti-oxidant vitamin supplementation reduces the risk of progression from intermediate stages (defined as the presence of either many medium-sized drusen or one or more large drusen) to late AMD which allows for preventative strategies in properly identified patients. Thus identification of people with early stage AMD is important to design and implement preventative strategies for late AMD, and determine their cost-effectiveness. A mass screening facility with teleophthalmology or telemedicine in combination with computer-aided analysis for large rural-based communities may identify more individuals suitable for early stage AMD prevention. In this review, we discuss different imaging modalities that are currently being considered or used for screening AMD. In addition, we look into various automated and semi-automated computer-aided grading systems and related retinal image analysis techniques for drusen, geographic atrophy and choroidal neovascularization detection and/or quantification for measurement of AMD severity using these imaging modalities. We also review the existing telemedicine studies which

  18. Absence of the proapoptotic Bax protein extends fertility and alleviates age-related health complications in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Gloria I.; Jurisicova, Andrea; Wise, Lisa; Lipina, Tatiana; Kanisek, Marijana; Bechard, Allison; Takai, Yasushi; Hunt, Patricia; Roder, John; Grynpas, Marc; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2007-01-01

    The menopausal transition in human females, which is driven by a loss of cyclic ovarian function, occurs around age 50 and is thought to underlie the emergence of an array of health problems in aging women. Although mice do not undergo a true menopause, female mice exhibit ovarian failure long before death because of chronological age and subsequently develop many of the same age-associated health complications observed in postmenopausal women. Here we show in mice that inactivation of the proapoptotic Bax gene, which sustains ovarian lifespan into advanced age, extends fertile potential and minimizes many age-related health problems, including bone and muscle loss, excess fat deposition, alopecia, cataracts, deafness, increased anxiety, and selective attention deficit. Further, ovariectomy studies show that the health benefits gained by aged females from Bax deficiency reflect a complex interplay between ovary-dependent and -independent pathways. Importantly, and contrary to popular belief, prolongation of ovarian function into advanced age by Bax deficiency did not lead to an increase in tumor incidence. Thus, the development of methods for postponing ovarian failure at menopause may represent an attractive option for improving the quality of life in aging females. PMID:17360389

  19. In Vivo Measurement of Age-Related Stiffening in the Crystalline Lens by Brillouin Optical Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Scarcelli, Giuliano; Kim, Pilhan; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Abtract The biophysical and biomechanical properties of the crystalline lens (e.g., viscoelasticity) have long been implicated in accommodation and vision problems, such as presbyopia and cataracts. However, it has been difficult to measure such parameters noninvasively. Here, we used in vivo Brillouin optical microscopy to characterize material acoustic properties at GHz frequency and measure the longitudinal elastic moduli of lenses. We obtained three-dimensional elasticity maps of the lenses in live mice, which showed biomechanical heterogeneity in the cortex and nucleus of the lens with high spatial resolution. An in vivo longitudinal study of mice over a period of 2 months revealed a marked age-related stiffening of the lens nucleus. We found remarkably good correlation (log-log linear) between the Brillouin elastic modulus and the Young's modulus measured by conventional mechanical techniques at low frequencies (∼1 Hz). Our results suggest that Brillouin microscopy is potentially useful for basic and animal research and clinical ophthalmology. PMID:21943436

  20. Age-related changes in deformability of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sutera, S P; Gardner, R A; Boylan, C W; Carroll, G L; Chang, K C; Marvel, J S; Kilo, C; Gonen, B; Williamson, J R

    1985-02-01

    The present study was designed to further the characterization of age-related changes in the deformability of human erythrocytes. The top (approximately young) and bottom (approximately old) 10% fractions of density-separated red cells from ten normal donors were subjected to graded levels of shear stress in a rheoscope. Measurements were made of steady-state elongation (cells tank treading in a state of dynamic equilibrium) and the time course of shape recovery following abrupt cessation of shear. In parallel with the rheologic experiments, several physical and chemical properties were assayed to determine correlates of mechanical properties. These included mean cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, type A1 hemoglobin, glucosylation of membrane proteins, and membrane phospholipid and protein concentration. The microrheologic observations revealed that only about 90% of the old cells retained their capacity to tank tread. However, the tank-treading cells elongated less than their younger counterparts at corresponding levels of shear stress, thus demonstrating a reduced level of deformability. Further analysis of the data indicates that increases in membrane viscosity and elastic modulus along with a significant loss in excess surface area contribute to the limitation of the ability of the older cells to change shape.

  1. Aging-related differences in chondrocyte viscoelastic properties.

    PubMed

    Steklov, Nikolai; Srivastava, Ajay; Sung, K L P; Chen, Peter C; Lotz, Martin K; D'Lima, Darryl D

    2009-06-01

    The biomechanical properties of articular cartilage change profoundly with aging. These changes have been linked with increased potential for cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis. However, less is known about the change in biomechanical properties of chondrocytes with increasing age. Cell stiffness can affect mechanotransduction pathways and may alter cell function. We measured aging-related changes in the biomechanical properties of chondrocytes. Human chondrocytes were isolated from knee articular cartilage within 48 hours after death or from osteochondral specimens obtained from knee arthroplasty. Cells were divided into two age groups: between 18 and 35 years (18 - 35); and greater than 55 years (55+) of age. The 55+ group was further subdivided based on visual grade of osteoarthritis: normal (N) or osteoarthritic (OA). The viscoelastic properties of the cell were measured using the previously described micropipette cell aspiration technique. The equilibrium modulus, instantaneous modulus, and apparent viscosity were significantly higher in the 55+ year age group than in the 18 - 35 age group. On the other hand, no differences were found in the equilibrium modulus, instantaneous modulus, or apparent viscosity between the N and OA groups. The increase in cell stiffness can be attributed to altered mechanical properties of the cell membrane, the cytoplasm, or the cytoskeleton. Increased stiffness has been reported in osteoarthritic chondrocytes, which in turn has been attributed to the actin cytoskeleton. A similar mechanism may be responsible for our finding of increased stiffness in aging chondrocytes. With advancing age, changes in the biomechanical properties of the cell could alter molecular and biochemical responses.

  2. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Scientometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ramin, Shahrokh; Soheilian, Masoud; Habibi, Gholamreza; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Gharebaghi, Reza; Heidary, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a major cause of central blindness among working aged adults across the world. Systematic research planning on any subject, including ARMD is in need of solid data regarding previous efforts in this field and to identify the gaps in the research. This study aimed to elucidate the most important trends, directions, and gap in this subject. The data extracted from the Institute for Scientific Information were used to perform a bibliometric analysis of the scientific productions (1993–2013) about ARMD. Specific parameters related to ARMD were analyzed to obtain a view of the topic’s structure, history, and document relationships. Additionally, the trends and authors in the most influential publications were analyzed. The number of articles in this field was found constantly increasing. Most highly cited articles addressed genetic epidemiology and clinical research topics in this field. During the past 3 years, there has been a trend toward biomarker research. Through performing the first scientometric survey on ARMD research, we analyzed the characteristics of papers and the trends in scientific production. We also identified some of the critical gaps in the current research efforts that would help in large-scale research strategic planning. PMID:26060829

  3. Promising new treatments for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Michels, Stephan; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Rosenfeld, Philip J

    2006-07-01

    Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from existing blood vessels, is responsible for vision loss in a variety of ophthalmic diseases. In neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause for legal blindness in many industrialised countries, abnormal blood vessels grow in the macula and cause blindness. There are a number of factors important in the angiogenic cascade but VEGF-A has been implicated in recent years as the major factor responsible for neovascular and exudative diseases of the eye. Numerous antiangiogenic drugs are in development but anti-VEGF drugs have shown great promise in treating neovascular AMD and other ocular diseases, and many of these drugs have been adopted from oncology where antiangiogenic therapy is gaining wide acceptance. For the first time in neovascular AMD, anti-VEGF drugs have brought the hope of vision improvement to a significant proportion of patients. This review provides an overview on angiogenic mechanisms, potential antiangiogenic treatment strategies and different antiangiogenic drugs with special focus on neovascular AMD.

  4. Radiation therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Petrarca, Robert; Jackson, Timothy L

    2011-01-01

    Antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapies represent the standard of care for most patients presenting with neovascular (wet) age-related macular degeneration (neovascular AMD). Anti-VEGF drugs require repeated injections and impose a considerable burden of care, and not all patients respond. Radiation targets the proliferating cells that cause neovascular AMD, including fibroblastic, inflammatory, and endothelial cells. Two new neovascular AMD radiation treatments are being investigated: epimacular brachytherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery. Epimacular brachytherapy uses beta radiation, delivered to the lesion via a pars plana vitrectomy. Stereotactic radiosurgery uses low voltage X-rays in overlapping beams, directed onto the lesion. Feasibility data for epimacular brachytherapy show a greatly reduced need for anti-VEGF therapy, with a mean vision gain of 8.9 ETDRS letters at 12 months. Pivotal trials are underway (MERLOT, CABERNET). Preliminary stereotactic radiosurgery data suggest a mean vision gain of 8 to 10 ETDRS letters at 12 months. A large randomized sham controlled stereotactic radiosurgery feasibility study is underway (CLH002), with pivotal trials to follow. While it is too early to conclude on the safety and efficacy of epimacular brachytherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, preliminary results are positive, and these suggest that radiation offers a more durable therapeutic effect than intraocular injections. PMID:21311657

  5. Review of nutrient actions on age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zampatti, Stefania; Ricci, Federico; Cusumano, Andrea; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Novelli, Giuseppe; Giardina, Emiliano

    2014-02-01

    The actions of nutrients and related compounds on age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are explained in this review. The findings from 80 studies published since 2003 on the association between diet and supplements in AMD were reviewed. Antioxidants and other nutrients with an effect on AMD susceptibility include carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin, β-carotene), vitamins (vitamin A, E, C, D, B), mineral supplements (zinc, copper, selenium), dietary fatty acids [monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA both omega-3 PUFA and omega-6 PUFA), saturated fatty acids and cholesterol], and dietary carbohydrates. The literature revealed that many of these antioxidants and nutrients exert a protective role by functioning synergistically. Specifically, the use of dietary supplements with targeted actions can provide minimal benefits on the onset or progression of AMD; however, this does not appear to be particularly beneficial in healthy people. Furthermore, some supplements or nutrients have demonstrated discordant effects on AMD in some studies. Since intake of dietary supplements, as well as exposure to damaging environmental factors, is largely dependent on population habits (including dietary practices) and geographical localization, an overall healthy diet appears to be the best strategy in reducing the risk of developing AMD. As of now, the precise mechanism of action of certain nutrients in AMD prevention remains unclear. Thus, future studies are required to examine the effects that nutrients have on AMD and to determine which factors are most strongly correlated with reducing the risk of AMD or preventing its progression. PMID:24461310

  6. Age-related changes in skin topography and microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Mac-Mary, Sophie; Marsaut, David; Sainthillier, Jean Marie; Nouveau, Stéphanie; Gharbi, Tijani; de Lacharriere, Olivier; Humbert, Philippe

    2006-03-01

    Skin topography and microvasculature undergo characteristic changes with age. Although several non-invasive bioengineering methods are currently available to measure them quantitatively, few publications have referred to their relationship with age in different anatomical sites. This study was carried out to observe the age-related changes of the skin topography and skin microcirculation. The microrelief was assessed with special processing software from scanning by interference fringe profilometry of silicone replicas performed on two sites (volar forearm and back of hand) on 50 female volunteers (aged 20-74 years who consisted of ten probands in each decade). The superficial vascular network of both sites was assessed by videocapillaroscopy, and the subpapillary vascular plexus was studied with laser Doppler flowmetry. Skin color, which is affected by blood flow, was observed by colorimeter. The skin roughness and the mean height between peak and valley increased with age. There were statistically significant differences between the evaluated sites. This study also shows that the capillary loops in the dermal papillae decrease but the subpapillary plexus increase with age. The interference fringe profilometry associated with videocapillaroscopy may be useful and accurate to measure the efficacy of medical or cosmetic products to delay skin aging.

  7. Age related microsatellite instability in T cells from healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Krichevsky, Svetlana; Pawelec, Graham; Gural, Alexander; Effros, Rita B; Globerson, Amiela; Yehuda, Dina Ben; Yehuda, Arie Ben

    2004-04-01

    Many immune functions decline with age and may jeopardize the elderly, as illustrated, for example by the significantly higher mortality rate from influenza in old age. Although innate and humoral immunity are affected by aging, it is the T cell compartment, which manifests most alterations. The mechanisms behind these alterations are still unclear, and several explanations have been offered including thymic involution and Telomere attrition leading to cell senescence. Age related accumulation of mutations has been documented and could serve as an additional mechanism of T cell dysfunction. One effective repair mechanism capable of rectifying errors in DNA replications is the mismatch repair (MMR) system. We previously reported a comparative examination of individual DNA samples from blood cells obtained at 10 year intervals from young and old subjects. We showed significantly higher rates of microsatellite instability (MSI), an indicator of MMR dysfunction in older subjects, compared to young. In the present study we confirm this result, using direct automated sequencing and in addition, we demonstrate that as CD8 lymphocytes from aged individuals, undergo repeated population doublings (PDs) in culture, they develop MSI. CD4 clones that also undergo repeated PDs in culture develop significant MSI as well. Elucidation of this previously unexplored facet of lymphocyte dynamics in relation to aging may help identify novel mechanisms of immunosenescence and pathways that could serve as targets for interventions to restore immune function.

  8. The Theory Behind the Age-Related Positivity Effect

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Andrew E.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    The “positivity effect” refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather and Carstensen, 2005) scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people. PMID:23060825

  9. The Chromospheric Activity-Age Relation for M Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, N. M.; Oswalt, T. D.; Hawley, S. L.

    2000-12-01

    We present preliminary results from our study in which we use moderate resolution spectroscopy to determine the correlation between the chromospheric activity and age of M dwarf stars in wide binary systems. We have observed ~50 M dwarf stars from our sample with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope. We measure the ratio of Hα luminosity to the bolometric luminosity (LHα /Lbol) of the M dwarf---a measure of activity that is proven to correlate well with age. This project is unique in that it will extend the chromospheric activity-age relation of low-mass main sequence stars beyond the ages provided by cluster methods. The ages so determined are also independent of the uncertainties in cluster age determinations. The technique has the potential to improve by at least a factor of two the precision and the range over which ages can currently be determined for main sequence stars. Work on this project is supported by the NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program grant NGT-50290 (N.M.S.).

  10. Age related changes in steroid receptors on cultured lung fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Barile, F.A.; Bienkowski, R.S.

    1986-03-05

    The number of high affinity glucocorticoid receptors (Ro) on human fetal lung fibroblasts decreases as the cells age in vitro, and it has been suggested that these cell systems may be useful models of age-related changes in vivo. They examined the relation between change in Ro with in vitro aging and donor age. Confluent monolayers of lung fibroblasts at various population doubling levels (PDL), were incubated with (/sup 3/H)-dexamethasone ((/sup 3/H)Dex) either alone or with excess (.01 mM) Dex. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between radioactivity in cells incubated with and without unlabeled Dex; Scatchard plots were used to analyze the data. Ro, measured as fmol (/sup 3/H)Dex/10/sup 6/ cells, for two lines of human fetal cells (HFL-1 and MRC-5) decreased with increasing age in vitro. However, human newborn (CRL-1485) and adult (CCL-201) cells and fetal rabbit cells (FAB-290), showed increases in Ro with continuous passage. For each cell line, the affinity constant (K/sub d/) did not change significantly with passage. They conclude that the direction of changes in steroid receptor levels on cells aging in vitro is influenced by donor age and species. Caution should be used in applying results obtained from model systems to aging organisms.

  11. Age-related neural changes in autobiographical remembering and imagining.

    PubMed

    Addis, Donna Rose; Roberts, Reece P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2011-11-01

    Numerous neuroimaging studies have revealed that in young adults, remembering the past and imagining the future engage a common core network. Although it has been observed that older adults engage a similar network during these tasks, it is unclear whether or not they activate this network in a similar manner to young adults. Young and older participants completed two autobiographical tasks (imagining future events and recalling past events) in addition to a semantic-visuospatial control task. Spatiotemporal Partial Least Squares analyses examined whole brain patterns of activity across both the construction and elaboration of autobiographical events. These analyses revealed that that both age groups activated a similar network during the autobiographical tasks. However, some key age-related differences in the activation of this network emerged. During the construction of autobiographical events, older adults showed less activation relative to younger adults, in regions supporting episodic detail such as the medial temporal lobes and the precuneus. Later in the trial, older adults showed differential recruitment of medial and lateral temporal regions supporting the elaboration of autobiographical events, and possibly reflecting an increased role of conceptual information when older adults describe their pasts and their futures.

  12. Parabiosis for the study of age-related chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Eggel, Alexander; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Summary Modern medicine wields the power to treat large numbers of diseases and injuries most of us would have died from just a hundred years ago. In view of this tremendous achievement, it can seem as if progress has slowed, and we have been unable to impact the most devastating diseases of our time. Chronic diseases of age such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, or Alzheimer’s disease turn out to be of a complexity that may require transformative ideas and paradigms to understand and treat them. Parabiosis, which mimics aspects of the naturally occurring shared blood supply in conjoined twins in humans and certain animals, may just have the power to be such a transformative experimental paradigm. Forgotten and now shunned in many countries, it has contributed to major breakthroughs in tumor biology, endocrinology, and transplantation research in the past century, and a set of new studies in the US and Britain report stunning advances in stem cell biology and tissue regeneration using parabiosis between young and old mice. We review here briefly the history of parabiosis and discuss its utility to study physiological and pathophysiological processes. We argue that parabiosis is a technique that should enjoy wider acceptance and application, and that policies should be revisited especially if one is to study complex age-related, chronic disorders. PMID:24496774

  13. eNOS-uncoupling in age-related erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J M; Bivalacqua, T J; Lagoda, G A; Burnett, A L; Musicki, B

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with ED. Although age-related ED is attributed largely to increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the penis, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not fully defined. We evaluated whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the aged rat penis is a contributing mechanism. Correlatively, we evaluated the effect of replacement with eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) on erectile function in the aged rats. Male Fischer 344 'young' (4-month-old) and 'aged' (19-month-old) rats were treated with a BH(4) precursor sepiapterin (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle for 4 days. After 1-day washout, erectile function was assessed in response to electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. Endothelial dysfunction (eNOS uncoupling) and oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) were measured by conducting western blot in penes samples. Erectile response was significantly reduced in aged rats, whereas eNOS uncoupling and TBARS production were significantly increased in the aged rat penis compared with young rats. Sepiapterin significantly improved erectile response in aged rats and prevented increase in TBARS production, but did not affect eNOS uncoupling in the penis of aged rats. These findings suggest that aging induces eNOS uncoupling in the penis, resulting in increased oxidative stress and ED. PMID:21289638

  14. eNOS-uncoupling in age-related erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, JM; Bivalacqua, TJ; Lagoda, GA; Burnett, AL; Musicki, B

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with ED. Although age-related ED is attributed largely to increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the penis, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not fully defined. We evaluated whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the aged rat penis is a contributing mechanism. Correlatively, we evaluated the effect of replacement with eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on erectile function in the aged rats. Male Fischer 344 ‘young’ (4-month-old) and ‘aged’ (19-month-old) rats were treated with a BH4 precursor sepiapterin (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle for 4 days. After 1-day washout, erectile function was assessed in response to electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. Endothelial dysfunction (eNOS uncoupling) and oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) were measured by conducting western blot in penes samples. Erectile response was significantly reduced in aged rats, whereas eNOS uncoupling and TBARS production were significantly increased in the aged rat penis compared with young rats. Sepiapterin significantly improved erectile response in aged rats and prevented increase in TBARS production, but did not affect eNOS uncoupling in the penis of aged rats. These findings suggest that aging induces eNOS uncoupling in the penis, resulting in increased oxidative stress and ED. PMID:21289638

  15. Automatic age-related macular degeneration detection and staging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Lechanteur, Yara T. E.; van de Ven, Johannes P. H.; van Ginneken, Bram; Theelen, Thomas; Sánchez, Clara I.

    2013-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disorder of the central part of the retina, which mainly affects older people and leads to permanent loss of vision in advanced stages of the disease. AMD grading of non-advanced AMD patients allows risk assessment for the development of advanced AMD and enables timely treatment of patients, to prevent vision loss. AMD grading is currently performed manually on color fundus images, which is time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we propose a supervised classification method to distinguish patients at high risk to develop advanced AMD from low risk patients and provide an exact AMD stage determination. The method is based on the analysis of the number and size of drusen on color fundus images, as drusen are the early characteristics of AMD. An automatic drusen detection algorithm is used to detect all drusen. A weighted histogram of the detected drusen is constructed to summarize the drusen extension and size and fed into a random forest classifier in order to separate low risk from high risk patients and to allow exact AMD stage determination. Experiments showed that the proposed method achieved similar performance as human observers in distinguishing low risk from high risk AMD patients, obtaining areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.929 and 0.934. A weighted kappa agreement of 0.641 and 0.622 versus two observers were obtained for AMD stage evaluation. Our method allows for quick and reliable AMD staging at low costs.

  16. Age-related hearing loss increases cross-modal distractibility.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Sandmann, Pascale; Bendixen, Alexandra; Thiel, Christiane M

    2014-10-01

    Recent electrophysiological studies have provided evidence that changes in multisensory processing in auditory cortex cannot only be observed following extensive hearing loss, but also in moderately hearing-impaired subjects. How the reduced auditory input affects audio-visual interactions is however largely unknown. Here we used a cross-modal distraction paradigm to investigate multisensory processing in elderly participants with an age-related high-frequency hearing loss as compared to young and elderly subjects with normal hearing. During the experiment, participants were simultaneously presented with independent streams of auditory and visual input and were asked to categorize either the auditory or visual information while ignoring the other modality. Unisensory sequences without any cross-modal input served as control conditions to assure that all participants were able to perform the task. While all groups performed similarly in these unisensory conditions, hearing-impaired participants showed significantly increased error rates when confronted with distracting cross-modal stimulation. This effect could be observed in both the auditory and the visual task. Supporting these findings, an additional regression analysis indicted that the degree of high-frequency hearing loss significantly modulates cross-modal visual distractibility in the auditory task. These findings provide new evidence that already a moderate sub-clinical hearing loss, a common phenomenon in the elderly population, affects the processing of audio-visual information.

  17. Modifiable risk factors for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Guymer, Robyn H; Chong, Elaine Wei-Tinn

    2006-05-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in Australia and other Western countries. As there is no cure for AMD, and treatments to stop its progression have met with limited success, there is an interest in identifying modifiable risk factors to prevent or slow disease progression. To date, smoking is the only proven modifiable risk factor for AMD. Other factors under study include (i) cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, body mass index, and atherosclerosis; and (ii) dietary risk factors including fat and antioxidant intake, but so far these studies have produced conflicting results. Dietary fat in relation to AMD has recently attracted media attention. Despite very limited work supporting an association between vegetable fat and AMD, widespread publicity advocating margarine as a cause of AMD and encouraging use of butter instead has caused confusion and anxiety among sufferers of AMD and the general public, as well as concern among health professionals. The antioxidant carotenoids--lutein and zeaxanthin--found in dark green or yellow vegetables exist in high concentrations in the macula and are hypothesised to play a protective role. Of nine controlled trials of supplementation with carotenoids and other antioxidants, three suggested that various combinations of antioxidants and carotenoids were protective. While a low-fat diet rich in dark green and yellow vegetables is advocated in general, any specific recommendations regarding certain fats or antioxidant supplementation and AMD are not based on consistent findings at this stage. PMID:16646746

  18. Eye Conditions in Older Adults: Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Iroku-Malize, Tochi; Kirsch, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes a progressive loss of photoreceptors in the macula. It is the most common cause of legal blindness in the United States, and some form of AMD is thought to affect more than 9 million individuals. Risk factors include older age, smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity, white race, female sex, and a family history of AMD. There are two types of advanced AMD: nonexudative (dry or geographic atrophy) and exudative (wet or neovascular). Both cause progressive central vision loss with intact peripheral vision. Nonexudative AMD accounts for 80% to 90% of all advanced cases, and more than 90% of patients with severe vision loss have exudative AMD. On ophthalmoscopic examination, early findings include drusen (ie, yellow deposits in the retina). Prominent choroidal vessels, subretinal edema, and/or hemorrhage are seen in wet AMD. Regular eye examinations, visual field testing, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography are used for diagnosis and to guide management. There is no specific therapy for dry AMD, but antioxidant supplementation may be helpful. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor is the treatment of choice for wet AMD. Optical aids and devices can help to maximize function for patients with AMD. PMID:27348529

  19. Age-related carbonyl stress and erythrocyte membrane protein carbonylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Guolin; Liu, Li; Hu, Hui; Zhao, Qiong; Xie, Fuxia; Chen, Keke; Liu, Shenglin; Chen, Yaqin; Shi, Wang; Yin, Dazhong

    2010-01-01

    Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) have been widely used as indicators of oxidative stress. However, the associations of carbonyl stress with aging process and biochemical alteration of erythrocyte are still poorly understood. Fresh blood samples in vacutainer tubes containing sodium heparinate were obtained from 874 volunteers who were divided into young, adult and old groups based on their age. Plasma RCS and thiols concentrations between different age groups and erythrocyte membrane protein carbonylation in the adult group were detected within 24h of the blood sampling. Results showed that the plasma thiols concentration decreased gradually during aging process, and the p-values between all three groups are less than 0.05. The plasma RCS concentration in different age groups showed a nonlinear association with age. The levels in the young group were slightly higher than the adult group (not significant) and lower than the old group (p < 0.01). The protein carbonylation of erythrocyte membrane was positively correlated with plasma RCS concentration (p < 0.01), but not plasma thiols concentration. We conclude that higher levels of RCS, not lower levels of thiols, in plasma are a direct risk factor for the protein carbonylation of erythrocyte membrane. Owing to the decrease of thiols levels and increase of RCS levels during aging process, a shift from RCS-related redox allostasis to carbonyl stress would contribute to age-related biological dysfunction and even aging process.

  20. Seven New Loci Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of blindness in older individuals. To accelerate understanding of AMD biology and help design new therapies, we executed a collaborative genomewide association study, examining >17,100 advanced AMD cases and >60,000 controls of European and Asian ancestry. We identified 19 genomic loci associated with AMD with p<5×10−8 and enriched for genes involved in regulation of complement activity, lipid metabolism, extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis. Our results include 7 loci reaching p<5×10−8 for the first time, near the genes COL8A1/FILIP1L, IER3/DDR1, SLC16A8, TGFBR1, RAD51B, ADAMTS9/MIR548A2, and B3GALTL. A genetic risk score combining SNPs from all loci displayed similar good ability to distinguish cases and controls in all samples examined. Our findings provide new directions for biological, genetic and therapeutic studies of AMD. PMID:23455636

  1. Defining the boundary: age-related changes in childhood amnesia.

    PubMed

    Tustin, Karen; Hayne, Harlene

    2010-09-01

    Childhood amnesia refers to the inability of adults to recall events that occurred during their infancy and early childhood. Although it is generally assumed that children and adolescents also experience childhood amnesia, with limited exceptions, most empirical research on the phenomenon has focused exclusively on adults. Here, we developed a new Timeline procedure to directly compare the early memories reported by children, adolescents, and adults. Overall, the proportion of memories reported before the age of 3 years was greater for the children and adolescents relative to the adults. In addition, the single earliest memory reported by children and adolescents was at a younger age than that reported by adults. In fact, the earliest memories reported by the children and adolescents, but not the adults, were significantly younger than the traditional 3 (1/2)-year-old boundary of childhood amnesia. Regardless of the age of the rememberer, participants' early memories had the same episodic characteristics. We conclude that the boundary and the density of childhood amnesia may increase over the course of human development and that age-related changes in basic memory mechanisms make an important contribution to our understanding of the source of childhood amnesia.

  2. Epigenetic modification of PKMζ rescues aging-related cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Xue, Yan-Xue; Han, Ying; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Deng, Jia-Hui; Chen, Na; Bao, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Fei-Long; Cao, Lin-Lin; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Shi, Jie; Song, Wei-Hong; Lu, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Cognition is impacted by aging. However, the mechanisms that underlie aging-associated cognitive impairment are unclear. Here we showed that cognitive decline in aged rats was associated with changes in DNA methylation of protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ) in the prelimbic cortex (PrL). PKMζ is a crucial molecule involved in the maintenance of long-term memory. Using different behavioral models, we confirmed that aged rats exhibited cognitive impairment in memory retention test 24 h after training, and overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL rescued cognitive impairment in aged rats. After fear conditioning, the protein levels of PKMζ and the membrane expression of GluR2 increased in the PrL in young and adult rats but not in aged rats, and the levels of methylated PKMζ DNA in the PrL decreased in all age groups, whereas the levels of unmethylated PKMζ DNA increased only in young and adult rats. We also found that environmentally enriched housing reversed the hypermethylation of PKMζ and restored cognitive performance in aged rats. Inactivation of PKMζ prevented the potentiating effects of environmental enrichment on memory retention in aged rats. These results indicated that PKMζ might be a potential target for the treatment of aging-related cognitive impairment, suggesting a potential therapeutic avenue.

  3. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Scientometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramin, Shahrokh; Soheilian, Masoud; Habibi, Gholamreza; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Gharebaghi, Reza; Heidary, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a major cause of central blindness among working aged adults across the world. Systematic research planning on any subject, including ARMD is in need of solid data regarding previous efforts in this field and to identify the gaps in the research. This study aimed to elucidate the most important trends, directions, and gap in this subject. The data extracted from the Institute for Scientific Information were used to perform a bibliometric analysis of the scientific productions (1993-2013) about ARMD. Specific parameters related to ARMD were analyzed to obtain a view of the topic's structure, history, and document relationships. Additionally, the trends and authors in the most influential publications were analyzed. The number of articles in this field was found constantly increasing. Most highly cited articles addressed genetic epidemiology and clinical research topics in this field. During the past 3 years, there has been a trend toward biomarker research. Through performing the first scientometric survey on ARMD research, we analyzed the characteristics of papers and the trends in scientific production. We also identified some of the critical gaps in the current research efforts that would help in large-scale research strategic planning. PMID:26060829

  4. Age-related impairment of mesenchymal progenitor cell function.

    PubMed

    Stolzing, Alexandra; Scutt, Andrew

    2006-06-01

    In most mesenchymal tissues a subcompartment of multipotent progenitor cells is responsible for the maintenance and repair of the tissue following trauma. With increasing age, the ability of tissues to repair themselves is diminished, which may be due to reduced functional capacity of the progenitor cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on rat mesenchymal progenitor cells. Mesenchymal progenitor cells were isolated from Wistar rats aged 3, 7, 12 and 56 weeks. Viability, capacity for differentiation and cellular aging were examined. Cells from the oldest group accumulated raised levels of oxidized proteins and lipids and showed decreased levels of antioxidative enzyme activity. This was reflected in decreased fibroblast colony-forming unit (CFU-f) numbers, increased levels of apoptosis and reduced proliferation and potential for differentiation. These data suggest that the reduced ability to maintain mesenchymal tissue homeostasis in aged mammals is not purely due to a decline in progenitor cells numbers but also to a loss of progenitor functionality due to the accumulation of oxidative damage, which may in turn be a causative factor in a number of age-related pathologies such as arthritis, tendinosis and osteoporosis.

  5. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Scientometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramin, Shahrokh; Soheilian, Masoud; Habibi, Gholamreza; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Gharebaghi, Reza; Heidary, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a major cause of central blindness among working aged adults across the world. Systematic research planning on any subject, including ARMD is in need of solid data regarding previous efforts in this field and to identify the gaps in the research. This study aimed to elucidate the most important trends, directions, and gap in this subject. The data extracted from the Institute for Scientific Information were used to perform a bibliometric analysis of the scientific productions (1993-2013) about ARMD. Specific parameters related to ARMD were analyzed to obtain a view of the topic's structure, history, and document relationships. Additionally, the trends and authors in the most influential publications were analyzed. The number of articles in this field was found constantly increasing. Most highly cited articles addressed genetic epidemiology and clinical research topics in this field. During the past 3 years, there has been a trend toward biomarker research. Through performing the first scientometric survey on ARMD research, we analyzed the characteristics of papers and the trends in scientific production. We also identified some of the critical gaps in the current research efforts that would help in large-scale research strategic planning.

  6. Nutritional Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Lebriz; Lechanteur, Yara T.; Hoyng, Carel B.; Kirchhof, Bernd; den Hollander, Anneke I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the role of nutritional factors, serum lipids, and lipoproteins in late age-related macular degeneration (late AMD). Methods. Intake of red meat, fruit, fish, vegetables, and alcohol, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) were ascertained questionnaire-based in 1147 late AMD cases and 1773 controls from the European Genetic Database. Serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins were determined. The relationship between nutritional factors and late AMD was assessed using logistic regression. Based on multivariate analysis, area-under-the-curve (AUC) was calculated by receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC). Results. In a multivariate analysis, besides age and smoking, obesity (odds ratio (OR): 1.44, P = 0.014) and red meat intake (daily: OR: 2.34, P = 8.22 × 10−6; 2–6x/week: OR: 1.67, P = 7.98 × 10−5) were identified as risk factors for developing late AMD. Fruit intake showed a protective effect (daily: OR: 0.52, P = 0.005; 2–6x/week: OR: 0.58, P = 0.035). Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels showed no significant association with late AMD. ROC for nutritional factors, smoking, age, and BMI revealed an AUC of 0.781. Conclusion. Red meat intake and obesity were independently associated with increased risk for late AMD, whereas fruit intake was protective. A better understanding of nutritional risk factors is necessary for the prevention of AMD. PMID:25101280

  7. Breed- and age-related differences in canine mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Ha-Young; Shin, Jong-Il; Seung, Byung-Joon; Ju, Jung-Hyung; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2016-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a type of breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). It is an important and clinically relevant condition as it has a poor prognosis and is difficult to treat. Basal-like triple-negative cancer is highly prevalent in both African-Americans and adolescents. We therefore examined whether such a cancer likewise occurs in specific breeds and age groups in dogs, focusing on basal-like triple-negative cancer in particular. In this study, 181 samples from dogs with malignant mammary carcinoma from the 5 most common breeds and 2 age groups in Korea were analyzed. Histological classification and molecular subtyping, including assessment of immunohistochemical findings, were carried out. Twenty-five of 28 (89.3%) triple-negative carcinomas were identified as basal-like triple-negative carcinomas. Analysis of associations of classified factors revealed that the shih tzu breed (9/25, 36.0%) and advanced-age (19/25, 76.0%) groups were characterized by higher prevalence of basal-like triple-negative tumors with diverse histological types and of a higher grade. These results suggest that breed- and age-related differences can be identified in canine mammary carcinoma and, notably, in the shih tzu breed and at older ages. Further investigation of these distinguishing characteristics of the shih tzu breed is warranted. PMID:27127342

  8. Oxidative modification of proteins: age-related changes.

    PubMed

    Chakravarti, Bulbul; Chakravarti, Deb N

    2007-01-01

    Aging is a complex biological phenomenon which involves progressive loss of different physiological functions of various tissues of living organisms. It is the inevitable fate of life and is a major risk factor for death and different pathological disorders. Based on a wide variety of studies performed in humans as well as in various animal models and microbial systems, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to play a key role in the aging process. The production of ROS is influenced by cellular metabolic activities as well as environmental factors. ROS can react with all major biological macromolecules such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. Since, in general, proteins are the key molecules that play the ultimate role in various structural and functional aspects of living organisms, this review will focus on the age-related oxidative modifications of proteins as well as on mechanism for removal or repair of the oxidized proteins. The topics covered include protein oxidation as a marker of oxidative stress, experimental evidence indicating the role of ROS in protein oxidation, protein carbonyl content, enzymatic degradation of oxidized proteins, and effects of caloric restriction on protein oxidation in the context of aging. Finally, we will discuss different strategies which have been or can be undertaken to slow down the oxidative damage of proteins and the aging process.

  9. Endocrine causes of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Riggs, B Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Women have an early postmenopausal phase of rapid bone loss that lasts for 5-10 years after menopause, whereas both ageing women and men have a slow continuous phase of bone loss that lasts indefinitely. In women, the rapid phase is mediated mainly by loss of the direct restraining effect of oestrogen on bone cell function, whereas the slow phase is mediated mainly by the loss of oestrogen action on extraskeletal calcium homeostasis leading to net calcium wasting and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Because elderly men have low serum bioavailable oestrogen and testosterone levels, and because recent data suggest that oestrogen is the main sex steroid regulating bone metabolism in men, oestrogen deficiency may also be the principal cause of bone loss in elderly men. Decreased bone formation contributes to bone loss in both genders and may be caused by a decreased production of growth hormone and IGF1 as well as oestrogen and testosterone deficiency. Other changes in endocrine secretion, although present in the elderly, seem less important in the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis. PMID:11855691

  10. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration among the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Rasoulinejad, Seyed Ahmad; Zarghami, Amin; Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Rajaee, Neda; Rasoulinejad, Seyed Elahe; Mikaniki, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in elderly population in the developing countries. Previous epidemiological studies revealed various potential modifiable risk factors for this disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of AMD among elderly living in Babol, North of Iran. Methods: The study population of this cross-sectional study came from the Amirkola Health and Ageing Project (AHAP), the first comprehensive cohort study of the health of people aged 60 years and over in Amirkola, North of Iran. The prevalence of AMD was estimated and its risk was determined using logistic regression analysis (LRA) with regard to variables such as smoking, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes. Results: Five hundred and five participants with mean age of 71.55±5.9 (ranged 60-89) years entered the study. The prevalence of AMD was 17.6%. There was a significant association between AMD and smoking (P<0.001) but no association was seen with AMD and age, level of education, history of hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes. Multiple LRAs revealed that smoking increased AMD by odds ratio of 5.03 (95% confidence interval 2.47-10.23 p<0.001) as compared to nonsmokers Conclusion: According to our findings, the prevalence of AMD was relatively high and smoking increased the risk of AMD in the elderly population. PMID:26644880

  11. Age-Related Changes in Demand–Withdraw Communication Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Sarah R.; Haase, Claudia M.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Demand–withdraw communication is a set of conflict-related behaviors in which one partner blames or pressures while the other partner withdraws or avoids. The present study examined age-related changes in these behaviors longitudinally over the course of later life stages. One hundred twenty-seven middle-aged and older long-term married couples were observed at 3 time points across 13 years as they engaged in a conversation about an area of relationship conflict. Husbands’ and wives’ demand–withdraw behaviors (i.e., blame, pressure, withdrawal, avoidance) were objectively rated by trained coders at each time point. Data were analyzed using dyad-level latent growth curve models in a structural equation modeling framework. For both husbands and wives, the results showed a longitudinal pattern of increasing avoidance behavior over time and stability in all other demand and withdraw behaviors. This study supports the notion that there is an important developmental shift in the way that conflict is handled in later life. PMID:23913982

  12. Breed- and age-related differences in canine mammary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Ha-Young; Shin, Jong-Il; Seung, Byung-Joon; Ju, Jung-Hyung; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a type of breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). It is an important and clinically relevant condition as it has a poor prognosis and is difficult to treat. Basal-like triple-negative cancer is highly prevalent in both African-Americans and adolescents. We therefore examined whether such a cancer likewise occurs in specific breeds and age groups in dogs, focusing on basal-like triple-negative cancer in particular. In this study, 181 samples from dogs with malignant mammary carcinoma from the 5 most common breeds and 2 age groups in Korea were analyzed. Histological classification and molecular subtyping, including assessment of immunohistochemical findings, were carried out. Twenty-five of 28 (89.3%) triple-negative carcinomas were identified as basal-like triple-negative carcinomas. Analysis of associations of classified factors revealed that the shih tzu breed (9/25, 36.0%) and advanced-age (19/25, 76.0%) groups were characterized by higher prevalence of basal-like triple-negative tumors with diverse histological types and of a higher grade. These results suggest that breed- and age-related differences can be identified in canine mammary carcinoma and, notably, in the shih tzu breed and at older ages. Further investigation of these distinguishing characteristics of the shih tzu breed is warranted. PMID:27127342

  13. Age-related changes in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Is, Merih; Comunoglu, Nil Ustundag; Comunoglu, Cem; Eren, Bulent; Ekici, Isin Dogan; Ozkan, Ferda

    2008-05-01

    The human brain is uniquely powerful in its cognitive abilities, yet the hippocampal and neocortical circuits that mediate these complex functions are highly vulnerable during aging. In this study, we analyzed age-related changes in the rat hippocampus by studying newborn (1 month), middle-aged (12 months), and older (24 months) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. We evaluated neuronal dystrophy, neuron scattering, and granulovacuolar degeneration in the hippocampal area using light microscopy, according to age and gender. We detected significant neuronal dystrophy in the CA1, CA2, and CA3 areas in male rats, and in the CA1, CA3, and CA4 areas in female rats. Degenerative changes, indicated by neuron scattering, were observed in the CA1, CA2, and CA3 areas of male and the CA2 and CA4 areas of female rats. Changes in all areas of the hippocampus were observed with increasing age; these changes included neuronal dystrophy and neuron scattering and did not differ significantly between male and female rats.

  14. Eye Conditions in Older Adults: Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Iroku-Malize, Tochi; Kirsch, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes a progressive loss of photoreceptors in the macula. It is the most common cause of legal blindness in the United States, and some form of AMD is thought to affect more than 9 million individuals. Risk factors include older age, smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity, white race, female sex, and a family history of AMD. There are two types of advanced AMD: nonexudative (dry or geographic atrophy) and exudative (wet or neovascular). Both cause progressive central vision loss with intact peripheral vision. Nonexudative AMD accounts for 80% to 90% of all advanced cases, and more than 90% of patients with severe vision loss have exudative AMD. On ophthalmoscopic examination, early findings include drusen (ie, yellow deposits in the retina). Prominent choroidal vessels, subretinal edema, and/or hemorrhage are seen in wet AMD. Regular eye examinations, visual field testing, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography are used for diagnosis and to guide management. There is no specific therapy for dry AMD, but antioxidant supplementation may be helpful. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor is the treatment of choice for wet AMD. Optical aids and devices can help to maximize function for patients with AMD.

  15. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R.; Costagliola, Ciro; Semeraro, Francesco; Incorvaia, Carlo; D'Angelo, Sergio; Perri, Paolo; De Palma, Paolo; De Nadai, Katia; Sebastiani, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease. PMID:23209345

  16. Caspase-2 Deficiency Enhances Aging-Related Traits in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingpei; Padalecki, Susan S; Chaudhuri, Asish R; Waal, Eric De; Goins, Beth A; Grubbs, Barry; Ikeno, Yuji; Richardson, Arlan; Mundy, Gregory R; Herman, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Alteration of apoptotic activity has been observed in a number of tissues in aging mammals, but it remains unclear whether and/or how apoptosis may affect aging. Caspase-2 is a member of the cysteine protease family that plays a critical role in apoptosis. To understand the impact of compromised apoptosis function on mammalian aging, we conducted a comparative study on caspase-2 deficient mice and their wild-type littermates with a specific focus on the aging-related traits at advanced ages. We found that caspase-2 deficiency enhanced a number of traits commonly seen in premature aging animals. Loss of caspase-2 was associated with shortened maximum lifespan, impaired hair growth, increased bone loss, and reduced body fat content. In addition, we found that the livers of caspase-2 deficient mice had higher levels of oxidized proteins than those of age-matched wild-type mice, suggesting that caspase-2 deficiency compromised the animal's ability to clear oxidatively damaged cells. Collectively, these results suggest that caspase-2 deficiency affects aging in the mice. This study thus demonstrates for the first time that disruption of a key apoptotic gene has a significant impact on aging. PMID:17188333

  17. Epigenetic modification of PKMζ rescues aging-related cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Xue, Yan-Xue; Han, Ying; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Deng, Jia-Hui; Chen, Na; Bao, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Fei-Long; Cao, Lin-Lin; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Shi, Jie; Song, Wei-Hong; Lu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Cognition is impacted by aging. However, the mechanisms that underlie aging-associated cognitive impairment are unclear. Here we showed that cognitive decline in aged rats was associated with changes in DNA methylation of protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ) in the prelimbic cortex (PrL). PKMζ is a crucial molecule involved in the maintenance of long-term memory. Using different behavioral models, we confirmed that aged rats exhibited cognitive impairment in memory retention test 24 h after training, and overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL rescued cognitive impairment in aged rats. After fear conditioning, the protein levels of PKMζ and the membrane expression of GluR2 increased in the PrL in young and adult rats but not in aged rats, and the levels of methylated PKMζ DNA in the PrL decreased in all age groups, whereas the levels of unmethylated PKMζ DNA increased only in young and adult rats. We also found that environmentally enriched housing reversed the hypermethylation of PKMζ and restored cognitive performance in aged rats. Inactivation of PKMζ prevented the potentiating effects of environmental enrichment on memory retention in aged rats. These results indicated that PKMζ might be a potential target for the treatment of aging-related cognitive impairment, suggesting a potential therapeutic avenue. PMID:26926225

  18. Adiponectin deficiency exacerbates age-related hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, T; Shibata, R; Ouchi, N; Kondo, K; Ishii, M; Katahira, N; Kambara, T; Inoue, Y; Takahashi, R; Ikeda, N; Kihara, S; Ueda, H; Murohara, T

    2014-04-24

    Obesity-related disorders are closely associated with the development of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). Adiponectin (APN) exerts protective effects against obesity-related conditions including endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the impact of APN on ARHI. APN-knockout (APN-KO) mice developed exacerbation of hearing impairment, particularly in the high frequency range, compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Supplementation with APN prevented the hearing impairment in APN-KO mice. At 2 months of age, the cochlear blood flow and capillary density of the stria vascularis (SV) were significantly reduced in APN-KO mice as compared with WT mice. APN-KO mice also showed a significant increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive apoptotic cells in the organ of Corti in the cochlea at 2 months of age. At the age of 6 months, hair cells were lost at the organ of Corti in APN-KO mice. In cultured auditory HEI-OC1 cells, APN reduced apoptotic activity under hypoxic conditions. Clinically, plasma APN levels were significantly lower in humans with ARHI. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified APN as a significant and independent predictor of ARHI. Our observations indicate that APN has an important role in preventing ARHI.

  19. Promising new treatments for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Michels, Stephan; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Rosenfeld, Philip J

    2006-07-01

    Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from existing blood vessels, is responsible for vision loss in a variety of ophthalmic diseases. In neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause for legal blindness in many industrialised countries, abnormal blood vessels grow in the macula and cause blindness. There are a number of factors important in the angiogenic cascade but VEGF-A has been implicated in recent years as the major factor responsible for neovascular and exudative diseases of the eye. Numerous antiangiogenic drugs are in development but anti-VEGF drugs have shown great promise in treating neovascular AMD and other ocular diseases, and many of these drugs have been adopted from oncology where antiangiogenic therapy is gaining wide acceptance. For the first time in neovascular AMD, anti-VEGF drugs have brought the hope of vision improvement to a significant proportion of patients. This review provides an overview on angiogenic mechanisms, potential antiangiogenic treatment strategies and different antiangiogenic drugs with special focus on neovascular AMD. PMID:16787141

  20. Age-related macular degeneration: experimental and emerging treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hubschman, Jean Pierre; Reddy, Shantan; Schwartz, Steven D

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This essay reviews the experimental treatments and new imaging modalities that are currently being explored by investigators to help treat patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design: Interpretative essay. Methods: Literature review and interpretation. Results: Experimental treatments to preserve vision in patients with exudative AMD include blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), binding VEGF, and modulating the VEGF receptors. Investigators are also attempting to block signal transduction with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Experimental treatments for non-exudative AMD include agents that target inflammation, oxidative stress, and implement immune-modulation. The effectiveness of these newer pharmacologic agents has the potential to grow exponentially when used in combination with new and improved imaging modalities that can help identify disease earlier and follow treatment response more precisely. Conclusion: With a better understanding, at the genetic and molecular level, of AMD and the development of superior imaging modalities, investigators are able to offer treatment options that may offer unprecedented visual gains while reducing the need for repetitive treatments. PMID:19668561

  1. Radiation cataracts: mechanisms involved in their long delayed occurrence but then rapid progression

    PubMed Central

    Pendergrass, William; Singh, Narendra; Schwartz, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    the retention and transmission of progenitor cell DNA damage in descendant LEC. The cellular and molecular events parallel those previously reported for LSCM observations in age-related cataracts. PMID:18334943

  2. Elevated Frequency of Cataracts in Birds from Chernobyl

    PubMed Central

    Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Møller, Anders Pape

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiation cataracts develop as a consequence of the effects of ionizing radiation on the development of the lens of the eye with an opaque lens reducing or eliminating the ability to see. Therefore, we would expect cataracts to be associated with reduced fitness in free-living animals. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the incidence of lens opacities typical of cataracts in more than 1100 free-living birds in the Chernobyl region in relation to background radiation. The incidence of cataracts increased with level of background radiation both in analyses based on a dichotomous score and in analyses of continuous scores of intensity of cataracts. The odds ratio per unit change in the regressor was 0.722 (95% CI 0.648, 0.804), which was less than odds ratios from investigations of radiation cataracts in humans. The relatively small odds ratio may be due to increased mortality in birds with cataracts. We found a stronger negative relationship between bird abundance and background radiation when the frequency of cataracts was higher, but also a direct effect of radiation on abundance, suggesting that radiation indirectly affects abundance negatively through an increase in the frequency of cataracts in bird populations, but also through direct effects of radiation on other diseases, food abundance and interactions with other species. There was no increase in incidence of cataracts with increasing age, suggesting that yearlings and older individuals were similarly affected as is typical of radiation cataract. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that cataracts are an under-estimated cause of morbidity in free-living birds and, by inference, other vertebrates in areas contaminated with radioactive materials. PMID:23935827

  3. Cataract influence on iris recognition performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trokielewicz, Mateusz; Czajka, Adam; Maciejewicz, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the experimental study revealing weaker performance of the automatic iris recognition methods for cataract-affected eyes when compared to healthy eyes. There is little research on the topic, mostly incorporating scarce databases that are often deficient in images representing more than one illness. We built our own database, acquiring 1288 eye images of 37 patients of the Medical University of Warsaw. Those images represent several common ocular diseases, such as cataract, along with less ordinary conditions, such as iris pattern alterations derived from illness or eye trauma. Images were captured in near-infrared light (used in biometrics) and for selected cases also in visible light (used in ophthalmological diagnosis). Since cataract is a disorder that is most populated by samples in the database, in this paper we focus solely on this illness. To assess the extent of the performance deterioration we use three iris recognition methodologies (commercial and academic solutions) to calculate genuine match scores for healthy eyes and those influenced by cataract. Results show a significant degradation in iris recognition reliability manifesting by worsening the genuine scores in all three matchers used in this study (12% of genuine score increase for an academic matcher, up to 175% of genuine score increase obtained for an example commercial matcher). This increase in genuine scores affected the final false non-match rate in two matchers. To our best knowledge this is the only study of such kind that employs more than one iris matcher, and analyzes the iris image segmentation as a potential source of decreased reliability

  4. The Zeiss surgical keratometer in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Cornic, J C

    1987-01-01

    The Zeiss keratometer is easy to use with simple and fast reading. The preoperative keratometry principle is satisfactory by allowing theorically a better control of surgical factors of postoperative astigmatism after cataract surgery. Its major interest appears in surgical training, when one wants to compensate a preoperative astigmatism or when one wishes to avoid secondary suture removal. However, its interest is very variable according to surgical experience.

  5. Hollow needle cataract aspiration in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Ascaso, Francisco J; Diab, Fathi; Alzamora-Rodríguez, Antonio; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The dislocation of the crystalline lens or couching technique was the predominant procedure to surgically remove cataracts until the 18th century A.D. However, in the Middle Ages, some Arab physicians tried to aspirate the opaque lens by means of a glass tube following a paracentesis. Some literary sources attributed the origins of this technique to Antyllus of Alexandria, a Greek surgeon who lived in the 2nd century A.D. in the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, this statement remains unclear and is probably the consequence of posterior interpretations or incorrect translations of the manuscripts. In recent years, the discovery of the hollow needles from Montbellet (France) and Viladamat (Spain), in archaeological settlements dated between the 1st century and 3rd century A.D., has reopened the possibility of cataract extraction as an option in the surgical management of soft cataracts in the antiquity. In any case, these findings are exceptional, and thus, probably this technique was not widely practised and very likely disparaged by the medical community. PMID:26385516

  6. Hollow needle cataract aspiration in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Ascaso, Francisco J; Diab, Fathi; Alzamora-Rodríguez, Antonio; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The dislocation of the crystalline lens or couching technique was the predominant procedure to surgically remove cataracts until the 18th century A.D. However, in the Middle Ages, some Arab physicians tried to aspirate the opaque lens by means of a glass tube following a paracentesis. Some literary sources attributed the origins of this technique to Antyllus of Alexandria, a Greek surgeon who lived in the 2nd century A.D. in the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, this statement remains unclear and is probably the consequence of posterior interpretations or incorrect translations of the manuscripts. In recent years, the discovery of the hollow needles from Montbellet (France) and Viladamat (Spain), in archaeological settlements dated between the 1st century and 3rd century A.D., has reopened the possibility of cataract extraction as an option in the surgical management of soft cataracts in the antiquity. In any case, these findings are exceptional, and thus, probably this technique was not widely practised and very likely disparaged by the medical community.

  7. Assessing the elasticity change of cataract lens with OCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-Hao; Raghunathan, Raksha; Singh, Manmohan; Li, Jiasong; Han, Zhaolong; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    Cataract is one of the most common degenerative diseases that causes blindness. Careful quantification of lens biomechanical properties can greatly assist in early detection of the disease as well as personalization of treatment procedures. In this study, we utilize a phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography (OCE) system to assess the effects of the cold cataract on the biomechanical properties of porcine crystalline lens in vitro. Relaxation rates of air puff induced elastic waves were measured on the same crystalline lens with and without cold cataract. Results demonstrate that the relaxation rate and, thus, associated elasticity of the porcine lens, increased due to the presence of cold cataract.

  8. Measuring aniseikonia using scattering filters to simulate cataract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jason

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between anisometropia and aniseikonia (ANK) is not well understood. Ametropic cataract patients provide a unique opportunity to study this relationship after undergoing emmetropizing lens extraction. Because light scatter may affect ANK measurement in cataract patients, its effect should also be evaluated. The Basic Aniseikonia Test (BAT) was evaluated using afocal size lenses to produce specific changes in retinal height. Several light scattering devices were then evaluated to determine which produced effects most similar to cataract. Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity (VA) losses were measured with each device and compared to those reported in cataract. After determining the most appropriate light scattering device, twenty healthy patients with normal visual function were recruited to perform the BAT using the filters to simulate cataract. Cataract patients were recruited from Vision America and the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Optometry. Patients between 20 and 75 years of age with at least 20/80 VA in each eye, ≥ 2D ametropia, and normal binocular function were recruited. Stereopsis and ANK were tested and each patient completed a symptom questionnaire. ANK measurements using afocal size lenses indicated that the BAT underestimates ANK, although the effect was minimal for vertical targets and darkened surroundings, as previously reported. Based on VA and contrast sensitivity loss, Vistech scattering filters produced changes most similar to cataract. Results of the BAT using Vistech filters demonstrated that a moderate cataract but not a mild cataract may affect the ANK measurement. ANK measurements on cataract patients indicated that those with ≥ 2 D ametropia in each eye may suffer from induced ANK after the first cataract extraction. With upcoming healthcare reform, unilateral cataract extraction may be covered, but not necessarily bilateral, depending on patient VA in each eye. However, a questionnaire about symptoms

  9. Cataracts. Lifting the clouds on an age-old problem.

    PubMed

    Trudo, E W; Stark, W J

    1998-05-01

    Cataracts are the most common treatable form of reduced vision in older adults. Although the incidence of cataracts is high after age 65, careful history taking and clinical examination are essential to establish the diagnosis. Cataract surgery is medically indicated when the view to the retina is obscured or lens-induced disorders place the eye at risk for further damage. However, even when patients have no specific associated medical problem, other than decreased visual acuity, cataract extraction offers an important means for maintaining independence and improving quality of life.

  10. Global Challenges in the Management of Congenital Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Phoebe D.; Courtright, Paul; Wilson, M. Edward; Taylor, David Samuel; Lewallen, Susan; Ventura, Marcelo C.; Bowman, Richard; Woodward, Lee; Ditta, Lauren C.; Kruger, Stacey; Haddad, Danny; El Shakankiri, Nihal; Rai, Salma KC; Bailey, Tehara; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Childhood cataracts have become a leading cause of preventable childhood blindness in many areas of the world. Here we summarize regional focus group discussions from the 4th Annual International Congenital Cataract Symposium on the current situation, challenges, and recommendations for the management of congenital cataracts in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, Central America, South America, and developed nations. Strategies for managing congenital cataracts must be adapted and developed according to regional conditions. A basic framework for acceptable outcomes must focus on developing systems to address the critical components of education, access, quality care, and good follow-up. PMID:25892047

  11. Age-Related Susceptibility of Turkeys to Enteric Viruses.

    PubMed

    Awe, Olusegun O; Kang, Kyung-il; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Ali, Ahmed; Elaish, Mohamed; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

    2015-06-01

    Several different enteric viruses have been identified as the causes of gastrointestinal infections in poultry. Enteric virus infections are well characterized in poults, but limited studies have been conducted in older birds. The susceptibility of 2-, 7-, 12-, 30-, and 52-wk-old turkeys to turkey coronavirus (TCoV) and turkey astrovirus (TAstV) was evaluated, as well as the effect of combined infection of TAstV and TCoV in 2-wk-old poults and turkey hens. From cloacal swabs and intestines, TCoV was consistently detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR throughout the experimental period (1-21 days postinoculation [DPI]) from all age groups. In contrast, the last detection point of TAstV gradually decreased to 21, 16, and 12 DPI in birds inoculated at 2, 7, and 12 wk of age, respectively, and viral RNA was rarely detected from cloacal swabs or intestinal contents in turkey hens within 3 DPI. Infection with TAstV alone did not affect body weight in poults or egg production in hens. The combined infection of TAstV and TCoV did not induce more severe clinical signs and pathology than the TCoV infection alone. However, a severe prolonged decrease in egg production (about 50%) was observed in turkey hens in the combined infection group compared with a transient egg production drop in the TCoV-infected hens alone. The underlying mechanism regarding the age-related TAstV susceptibility and the pathogenesis of the TAstV and TCoV coinfection in layer hens needs to be further elucidated. PMID:26473670

  12. Heterogeneity in age-related white matter changes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Haybaeck, Johannes; Loitfelder, Marisa; Weis, Serge; Cavalieri, Margherita; Seiler, Stephan; Enzinger, Christian; Ropele, Stefan; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Pantoni, Leonardo; Scheltens, Philip; Fazekas, Franz; Jellinger, Kurt

    2011-08-01

    White matter changes occur endemically in routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of elderly persons. MRI appearance and histopathological correlates of white matter changes are heterogeneous. Smooth periventricular hyperintensities, including caps around the ventricular horns, periventricular lining and halos are likely to be of non-vascular origin. They relate to a disruption of the ependymal lining with subependymal widening of the extracellular space and have to be differentiated from subcortical and deep white matter abnormalities. For the latter a distinction needs to be made between punctate, early confluent and confluent types. Although punctate white matter lesions often represent widened perivascular spaces without substantial ischemic tissue damage, early confluent and confluent lesions correspond to incomplete ischemic destruction. Punctate abnormalities on MRI show a low tendency for progression, while early confluent and confluent changes progress rapidly. The causative and modifying pathways involved in the occurrence of sporadic age-related white matter changes are still incompletely understood, but recent microarray and genome-wide association approaches increased the notion of pathways that might be considered as targets for therapeutic intervention. The majority of differentially regulated transcripts in white matter lesions encode genes associated with immune function, cell cycle, proteolysis, and ion transport. Genome-wide association studies identified six SNPs mapping to a locus on chromosome 17q25 to be related to white matter lesion load in the general population. We also report first and preliminary data that demonstrate apolipoprotein E (ApoE) immunoreactivity in white matter lesions and support epidemiological findings indicating that ApoE is another factor possibly related to white matter lesion occurrence. Further insights come from modern MRI techniques, such as diffusion tensor and magnetization transfer imaging, as they

  13. Age-related changes in the Brazilian woman's smile.

    PubMed

    Correia, Luiza Nayara Almeida Lyra; Reis, Silvia Augusta Braga; Conti, Ana Claudia de Castro Ferreira; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate age-related changes in the smile of Brazilian women. The sample consisted of 249 Brazilian women who had not undergone previous orthodontic treatment or facial surgery. They were divided into four groups, according to age: G1 (20-29), G2 (30-39), G3 (40-49) and G4 (50 or older). Standardized front view photographs were taken while smiling and at rest. Measurements were evaluated by ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey. The Chi-square test was applied for qualitative variables. Upper lip thickness at rest and exposure of upper incisors on smiling decreased with age. Most individuals (60.9%) exhibited a medium smile. High smiles were more often seen in G1 (45%) and less frequently in G4 (18.8%), whereas the opposite occurred with the low smile, i.e., G4 (21.9%) and G1 (6.7%). Variations among the groups were observed in the transverse exposure of the teeth on smiling. In G1 and G3, there was a balance between tooth exposures, so that the teeth were exposed as far as the premolars and/or molars. Most of the women (56.3%) in G2 exposed their teeth as far as the first molars on smiling, whereas most of those (40.6%) in G4 exposed their teeth only as far as the first premolars on smiling. As age increased, there was decreased exposure of the upper incisors, decreased upper lip thickness and lower exposure of teeth vertically and transversely.

  14. Genetic and Environmental Factors in Age-Related Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Momi, Sukhleen K; Wolber, Lisa E; Fabiane, Stella Maris; MacGregor, Alex J; Williams, Frances M K

    2015-08-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a common condition with complex etiology but a recognized genetic component. Heritability estimates for pure tone audiogram-determined hearing ability lie in the range 26-75%. The speech-in-noise (SIN) auditory test, however, may be better at encapsulating ARHI symptoms, particularly the diminished ability to segregate environmental sounds into comprehendible auditory streams. As heritability of SIN has not previously been reported, we explored the genetic and environmental contributions to ARHI determined by SIN in 2,076 twins (87.8% female) aged 18-87 (mean age 54.4). SIN was found to be significantly heritable (A, unadjusted for age=40%; 95% confidence intervals, CI=32%-47%). With age adjustment, heritability fell (A=25%; 95% CI=16-33%), and a relatively strong influence of environmental exposure unshared within twin siblings was identified (E=75%). To explore the environmental aspects further, we assessed the influence of diet (through the Food Frequency Questionnaire, FFQ), smoking (through self-report and cotinine metabolite levels) and alcohol intake (through the FFQ). A negative influence of high cholesterol diet was observed after adjustment (p=.037). A protective effect of raised serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels was observed after adjustment (p=.004). This study is the first assessment of the genetic and environmental influence on SIN perception. The findings suggest SIN is less heritable than pure tone audiogram (PTA) ability and highly influenced by the environment unique to each twin. Furthermore, a possible role of dietary fat in the etiology of ARHI is highlighted.

  15. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Genetics and Biology.

    PubMed

    Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), widely prevalent across the globe, is a major stakeholder among adult visual morbidity and blindness, not only in the Western world but also in Asia. Several risk factors have been identified, including critical genetic factors, which were never imagined 2 decades ago. The etiopathogenesis is emerging to demonstrate that immune and complement-related inflammation pathway members chronically exposed to environmental insults could justifiably influence disease morbidity and treatment outcomes. Approximately half a dozen physiological and biochemical cascades are disrupted in the AMD disease genesis, eventually leading to the distortion and disruption of the subretinal space, subretinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch membrane, thus setting off chaos and disorder for signs and symptoms to manifest. Approximately 3 dozen genetic factors have so far been identified, including the recent ones, through powerful genomic technologies and large robust sample sizes. The noteworthy genetic variants (common and rare) are complement factor H, complement factor H-related genes 1 to 5, C3, C9, ARMS2/HTRA1, vascular endothelial growth factor A, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2/KDR, and rare variants (show causal link) such as TIMP3, fibrillin, COL4A3, MMP19, and MMP9. Despite the enormous amount of scientific information generated over the years, diagnostic genetic or biomarker tests are still not available for clinicians to understand the natural course of the disease and its management in a patient. However, further research in the field should reduce this gap not only by aiding the clinician but also through the possibilities of clinical intervention with complement pathway-related inhibitors entering preclinical and clinical trials in the near future. PMID:27488064

  16. Aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG): harmonized evaluation strategy.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Gabor G; Ferrer, Isidro; Grinberg, Lea T; Alafuzoff, Irina; Attems, Johannes; Budka, Herbert; Cairns, Nigel J; Crary, John F; Duyckaerts, Charles; Ghetti, Bernardino; Halliday, Glenda M; Ironside, James W; Love, Seth; Mackenzie, Ian R; Munoz, David G; Murray, Melissa E; Nelson, Peter T; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Trojanowski, John Q; Ansorge, Olaf; Arzberger, Thomas; Baborie, Atik; Beach, Thomas G; Bieniek, Kevin F; Bigio, Eileen H; Bodi, Istvan; Dugger, Brittany N; Feany, Mel; Gelpi, Ellen; Gentleman, Stephen M; Giaccone, Giorgio; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Heale, Richard; Hof, Patrick R; Hofer, Monika; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A; Ince, Paul; Kofler, Julia; Kövari, Enikö; Kril, Jillian J; Mann, David M; Matej, Radoslav; McKee, Ann C; McLean, Catriona; Milenkovic, Ivan; Montine, Thomas J; Murayama, Shigeo; Lee, Edward B; Rahimi, Jasmin; Rodriguez, Roberta D; Rozemüller, Annemieke; Schneider, Julie A; Schultz, Christian; Seeley, William; Seilhean, Danielle; Smith, Colin; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; Toledo, Jon B; Tolnay, Markus; Troncoso, Juan C; Vinters, Harry V; Weis, Serge; Wharton, Stephen B; White, Charles L; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woulfe, John M; Yamada, Masahito; Dickson, Dennis W

    2016-01-01

    Pathological accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in astrocytes is a frequent, but poorly characterized feature of the aging brain. Its etiology is uncertain, but its presence is sufficiently ubiquitous to merit further characterization and classification, which may stimulate clinicopathological studies and research into its pathobiology. This paper aims to harmonize evaluation and nomenclature of aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG), a term that refers to a morphological spectrum of astroglial pathology detected by tau immunohistochemistry, especially with phosphorylation-dependent and 4R isoform-specific antibodies. ARTAG occurs mainly, but not exclusively, in individuals over 60 years of age. Tau-immunoreactive astrocytes in ARTAG include thorn-shaped astrocytes at the glia limitans and in white matter, as well as solitary or clustered astrocytes with perinuclear cytoplasmic tau immunoreactivity that extends into the astroglial processes as fine fibrillar or granular immunopositivity, typically in gray matter. Various forms of ARTAG may coexist in the same brain and might reflect different pathogenic processes. Based on morphology and anatomical distribution, ARTAG can be distinguished from primary tauopathies, but may be concurrent with primary tauopathies or other disorders. We recommend four steps for evaluation of ARTAG: (1) identification of five types based on the location of either morphologies of tau astrogliopathy: subpial, subependymal, perivascular, white matter, gray matter; (2) documentation of the regional involvement: medial temporal lobe, lobar (frontal, parietal, occipital, lateral temporal), subcortical, brainstem; (3) documentation of the severity of tau astrogliopathy; and (4) description of subregional involvement. Some types of ARTAG may underlie neurological symptoms; however, the clinical significance of ARTAG is currently uncertain and awaits further studies. The goal of this proposal is to raise awareness of

  17. Neuropharmacology of depression in aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Gareri, Pietro; De Fazio, Pasquale; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2002-02-01

    Depression in the elderly is nowadays a predominant health care problem, mainly due to the progressive aging of the population. It results from psychosocial stress, polypathology, as well as some biochemical changes which occur in the aged brain and can lead to cognitive impairments, increased symptoms from medical illness, higher utilization of health care services and increased rates of suicide and non-suicide mortality. Depression may be also caused by a various number of drugs currently administered; this is remarkable especially in elderly people, where polypathology is often associated with polypharmacotherapy. However, the pathogenesis of geriatric depression is not well understood; major depression may arise from dysfunction of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Some clinical observations also suggest that striato-frontal dysfunction is associated with late life depression. A number of hypotheses have been made, focusing that mood disturbances are probably linked to a disturbed central metabolism of monoamines 5-hydroxytryptamine, noradrenaline and dopamine; however most of this knowledge is derived from animal models. Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases are age-related diseases associated to decreased activity or brain lesions in the orbital frontal cortex and basal ganglia. These observations lead to the hypothesis that the dysfunction of one or more of the cortical basal ganglia-thalamic neuronal loops are involved in the pathophysiology of primary and secondary depression. This dysfunction may be mediated by decreased serotonin release and probably, also by reduction in serotonin receptors. Development of novel approaches such as dynamic brain imaging methods, together with indirect knowledge coming from the effects of new antidepressants, will increase the understanding of neurochemistry of depression in old age. PMID:12039452

  18. Factors Associated With Age-related Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Il Joon; Byun, Hayoung; Woo, Sook-young; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Hong, Sung Hwa; Chung, Won-Ho; Cho, Yang-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a complex degenerative disease in the elderly. As multiple factors interact during the development of ARHI, it is important to elucidate the major influencing factors to understand and prevent ARHI. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with the development of ARHI with a retrospective cohort from 2001 to 2010. The records of the adult subjects over 40 years of age who consecutively underwent a comprehensive health checkup including pure-tone audiometry at the Health Promotion Center were reviewed. During this period, 1560 subjects who underwent pure-tone audiometry more than twice, had no other otologic diseases, and were followed-up more than 2 years were included. A pure-tone average (PTA: 0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz) was calculated. Development of ARHI was defined as a PTA at follow-up more than 10 dB greater than the baseline PTA. Times to the first development of ARHI were investigated. Overall, 12.7% of subjects developed ARHI within the first 4 years. High blood ionized calcium (hazard ratio [HR] 0.084), albumin (HR 0.239), systolic blood pressure (HR 0.577), thyroid hormone (T3) (HR 0.593), and alpha fetoprotein levels (HR 0.883) were associated with decreased hazard for the development of ARHI. In contrast, high blood high-density lipoprotein (HR 2.105), uric acid (HR 1.684), total protein (HR 1.423), and total bilirubin levels (HR 1.220) were potential risk factors for the development of ARHI. Development of ARHI is common among the aged population, and a variety of factors may interact during this process. The results of this study can be used for counseling of adults at high-risk of developing ARHI with regard to regular audiological check-up. PMID:26512592

  19. The Age-Related Orientational Changes of Human Semicircular Canals

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Hui-Ying; Chen, Ke-Guang; Yin, Dong-Ming; Hong, Juan; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Dai, Pei-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Some changes are found in the labyrinth anatomy during postnatal development. Although the spatial orientation of semicircular canals was thought to be stable after birth, we investigated the age-related orientational changes of human semicircular canals during development. Methods We retrospectively studied the computed tomography (CT) images of both ears of 76 subjects ranged from 1 to 70 years old. They were divided into 4 groups: group A (1–6 years), group B (7–12 years), group C (13–18 years), and group D (>18 years). The anatomical landmarks of the inner ear structures were determined from CT images. Their coordinates were imported into MATLAB software for calculating the semicircular canals orientation, angles between semicircular canal planes and the jugular bulb (JB) position. Differences between age groups were analyzed using multivariate statistics. Relationships between variables were analyzed using Pearson analysis. Results The angle between the anterior semicircular canal plane and the coronal plane, and the angle between the horizontal semicircular canal plane and the coronal plane were smaller in group D than those in group A (P<0.05). The JB position, especially the anteroposterior position of right JB, correlated to the semicircular canals orientation (P<0.05). However, no statistically significant differences in the angles between ipsilateral canal planes among different age groups were found. Conclusion The semicircular canals had tendencies to tilt anteriorly simultaneously as a whole with age. The JB position correlated to the spatial arrangement of semicircular canals, especially the right JB. Our calculation method helps detect developmental and pathological changes in vestibular anatomy. PMID:27090280

  20. Glycolysis in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yokosako, Kanako; Mimura, Tatsuya; Funatsu, Hideharu; Noma, Hidetaka; Goto, Mari; Kamei, Yuko; Kondo, Aki; Matsubara, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Retinal adenosine triphosphate is mainly produced via glycolysis, so inhibition of glycolysis may promote the onset and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). When glycolysis is inhibited, pyruvate is metabolized by lactic acid fermentation instead of entering the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. We measured urinary pyruvate and lactate levels in patients with AMD. Methods: Eight patients with typical AMD (tAMD group) and 9 patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV group) were enrolled. Urinary levels of pyruvate, lactate, α-hydroxybutyrate, and β-hydroxybutyrate were measured in all patients. Results: The mean urinary levels of pyruvate and lactate were 8.0 ± 2.8 and 7.5 ± 8.3 μg/mg creatinine (reference values: 0.5-6.6 and 0.0-1.6), respectively, with the mean increase over the reference value being 83.6 ± 51.1% and 426.5 ± 527.8%, respectively. In 12 patients (70.6%), the lactate/pyruvate ratio was above the reference range. Urinary levels of α-hydroxybutyrate and β-hydroxybutyrate were decreased by -31.9 ± 15.2% and -33.1 ± 17.5% compared with the mean reference values. There were no significant differences of any of these glycolysis metabolites between the tAMD and PCV groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that none of the variables tested, including patient background factors (age, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cerebrovascular disease, alcohol, smoking, visual acuity, and AMD phenotype), were significantly associated with the lactate/pyruvate ratio. Conclusion: A high lactate/pyruvate ratio is a well-known marker of mitochondrial impairment, and it indicates poor oxidative function in AMD. Our results suggest that increased lactate levels may be implicated in the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:25191529

  1. Age-related decline in global form suppression.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas; Starman, Kornelija; Müller, Hermann J; Conci, Markus

    2015-12-01

    Visual selection of illusory 'Kanizsa' figures, an assembly of local elements that induce the percept of a whole object, is facilitated relative to configurations composed of the same local elements that do not induce a global form--an instance of 'global precedence' in visual processing. Selective attention, i.e., the ability to focus on relevant and ignore irrelevant information, declines with increasing age; however, how this deficit affects selection of global vs. local configurations remains unknown. On this background, the present study examined for age-related differences in a global-local task requiring selection of either a 'global' Kanizsa- or a 'local' non-Kanizsa configuration (in the presence of the respectively other configuration) by analyzing event-related lateralizations (ERLs). Behaviorally, older participants showed a more pronounced global-precedence effect. Electrophysiologically, this effect was accompanied by an early (150-225 ms) 'positivity posterior contralateral' (PPC), which was elicited for older, but not younger, participants, when the target was a non-Kanizsa configuration and the Kanizsa figure a distractor (rather than vice versa). In addition, timing differences in the subsequent (250-500 ms) posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) indicated that attentional resources were allocated faster to Kanizsa, as compared to non-Kanizsa, targets in both age groups, while the allocation of spatial attention seemed to be generally delayed in older relative to younger age. Our results suggest that the enhanced global-local asymmetry in the older age group originated from less effective suppression of global distracter forms on early processing stages--indicative of older observers having difficulties with disengaging from a global default selection mode and switching to the required local state of attentional resolution. PMID:26498865

  2. Individual and age-related variation in chromatic contrast adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sarah L.; Werner, John S.; Webster, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Precortical color channels are tuned primarily to the LvsM (stimulation of L and M cones varied, but S cone stimulation held constant) or SvsLM (stimulation of S cones varied, but L and M cone stimulation held constant) cone-opponent (cardinal) axes, but appear elaborated in the cortex to form higher-order mechanisms tuned to both cardinal and intermediate directions. One source of evidence for these higher-order mechanisms has been the selectivity of color contrast adaptation for noncardinal directions, yet the degree of this selectivity has varied widely across the small sample of observers tested in previous studies. This study explored the possible bases for this variation, and in particular tested whether it reflected age-related changes in the distribution or tuning of color mechanisms. Observers included 15 younger (18–22 years of age) and 15 older individuals (66–82), who adapted to temporal modulations along one of four chromatic axes (two cardinal and two intermediate axes) and then matched the hue and contrast of test stimuli lying along eight different directions in the equiluminant plane. All observers exhibited aftereffects that were selective for both the cardinal and intermediate directions, although selectivity was weaker for the intermediate axes. The degree of selectivity increased with the magnitude of adaptation for all axes, and thus adaptation strength alone may account for much of the variance in selectivity among observers. Older observers showed a stronger magnitude of adaptation thus, surprisingly, more conspicuous evidence for higher-order mechanisms. For both age groups the aftereffects were well predicted by response changes in chromatic channels with linear spectral sensitivities, and there was no evidence for weakened channel tuning with aging. The results suggest that higher-order mechanisms may become more exposed in observers or conditions in which the strength of adaptation is greater, and that both chromatic contrast

  3. Associations of Mortality With Ocular Disorders and an Intervention of High-Dose Antioxidants and Zinc in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of ocular disorders and high doses of antioxidants or zinc with mortality in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). Methods Baseline fundus and lens photographs were used to grade the macular and lens status of AREDS participants. Participants were randomly assigned to receive oral supplements of high-dose antioxidants, zinc, antioxidants plus zinc, or placebo. Risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality was assessed using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Results During median follow-up of 6.5 years, 534 (11%) of 4753 AREDS participants died. In fully adjusted models, participants with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) compared with participants with few, if any, drusen had increased mortality (relative risk [RR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08–1.86). Advanced AMD was associated with cardiovascular deaths. Compared with participants having good acuity in both eyes, those with visual acuity worse than 20/40 in 1 eye had increased mortality (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.12–1.65). Nuclear opacity (RR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.12–1.75) and cataract surgery (RR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.18–2.05) were associated with increased all-cause mortality and with cancer deaths. Participants randomly assigned to receive zinc had lower mortality than those not taking zinc (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61–0.89). Conclusions The decreased survival of AREDS participants with AMD and cataract suggests that these conditions may reflect systemic rather than only local processes. The improved survival in individuals randomly assigned to receive zinc requires further study. PMID:15136320

  4. New Treatment Greatly Improves Prognosis for Patients with AMD (Age-Related Macular Degeneration)

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Age-related Macular Degeneration New Treatment Greatly Improves Prognosis for Patients with AMD ... Eye Institute Photo Courtesy of: NEI In a new study of nearly 650 people with age-related ...

  5. Oxidative stress, innate immunity, and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Peter X.; Stiles, Travis; Douglas, Christopher; Ho, Daisy; Fan, Wei; Du, Hongjun; Xiao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss affecting tens of millions of elderly worldwide. Early AMD is characterized by the appearance of soft drusen, as well as pigmentary changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). These soft, confluent drusen can progress into two forms of advanced AMD: geographic atrophy (GA, or dry AMD) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV, or wet AMD). Both forms of AMD result in a similar clinical progression in terms of loss of central vision. The exact mechanism for developing early AMD, as well as triggers responsible for progressing to advanced stage of disease, is still largely unknown. However, significant evidence exists demonstrating a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors as causes of AMD progression. Multiple genes and/or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found associated with AMD, including various genes involved in the complement pathway, lipid metabolism and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Of the known genetic contributors to disease risk, the CFH Y402H and HTRA1/ARMS polymorphisms contribute to more than 50% of the genetic risk for AMD. Environmentally, oxidative stress plays a critical role in many aging diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and AMD. Due to the exposure to sunlight and high oxygen concentration, the oxidative stress burden is higher in the eye than other tissues, which can be further complicated by additional oxidative stressors such as smoking. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating suggesting that functional abnormalities of the innate immune system incurred via high risk genotypes may be contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD by altering the inflammatory homeostasis in the eye, specifically in the handling of oxidation products. As the eye in non-pathological instances maintains a low level of inflammation despite the presence of a relative abundance of potentially inflammatory molecules, we have

  6. Age-related alterations in retinal neurovascular and inflammatory transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Van Kirk, Colleen A.; VanGuilder, Heather D.; Young, Megan; Farley, Julie A.; Sonntag, William E.

    2011-01-01

    factor [Pedf]) displayed patterns of expression dissimilar to that previously demonstrated with diabetes. Conclusions The commonalities in retinal age-related and diabetes-induced molecular alterations provide support for the hypothesis that diabetes and aging engage some common para-inflammatory processes. However, these results also demonstrate that while the retinal genomic response to diabetes and aging share commonalities, they are not superimposable phenotypes. The observed changes in retinal gene expression provide further evidence of retinal alterations in neurovascular and inflammatory processes across the adult rat lifespan; this is indicative of para-inflammation that may contribute to the functional impairments that occur with advanced age. The data also suggest the potential for an additive effect of aging and diabetes in the development of diabetic complications. PMID:21633715

  7. A twin study on age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, S M

    1994-01-01

    A prospective twin study on age-related macular degeneration (AMD) recruited 83 monozygotic pairs, 28 dizygotic pairs, and one triplet set from 1986 through 1993. Zygosity was determined by genetic testing of red cell markers, HLA antigens, or specific DNA loci. There were no twin pairs in which I collected data on only one twin. To decrease ascertainment bias, after 1991 the recruitment notice did not mention AMD, and I did not ask about a history of eye disease before the eye examination. Because of this, twin pairs recruited from 1986 through 1991 were statistically analyzed separately from those after January 1, 1992. From 1986 through 1991, 23 twin pairs were recruited; 11 monozygotic and 2 dizygotic pairs had nonAMD retinal changes or no retinal abnormalities, 9 monozygotic pairs with AMD were all concordant, and 1 dizygotic pair was discordant for basal laminar drusen. The concordance rate of AMD did not differ significantly between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (P = .10) for 1986 through 1991. In 1992 and 1993, 88 twin pairs and one triplet set were recruited; 49 monozygotic and 19 dizygotic pairs had nonAMD retinal changes or no retinal abnormalities, 14 monozygotic pairs with AMD were all concordant, and 2 of 7 dizygotic pairs were concordant for AMD. The nonidentical triplets (1 with and 2 without AMD) were categorized as one of the discordant dizygotic pairs in the statistical evaluation. In nontwin age-matched (within 2 or 5 years of age) or age- and sex-matched sibling pairs the concordance rate of AMD ranged from 16% to 25%. The concordance rate of AMD was significantly higher in monozygotic than in dizygotic twins (P = .001) for 1992 and 1993. The concordance rate was higher for monozygotic twin pairs recruited in 1992 and 1993 than in any of the four subsets of nontwin age-method or age- and sex-matched sibling pairs (P < .0001). Overall, from 1986 through 1993, 23 of 23 monozygotic and 2 of 8 dizygotic twin pairs were concordant for AMD

  8. Hypertension and Risk of Cataract: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoning; Lyu, Danni; Dong, Xinran; He, Jiliang; Yao, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Background Cataract is the major cause of blindness across the world. Many epidemiologic studies indicated that hypertension might play an important role in the development of cataract, while others not. We therefore conducted this meta-analysis to determine the relationship between risk of cataract and hypertension. Methods Retrieved studies on the association of hypertension with cataract risk were collected from PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library during June 2014 and were included into the final analysis according to the definite inclusion criteria. Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR) were pooled with 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate the relationship between hypertension and cataract risk. Subgroup analyses were carried out on the basis of cataract type, race and whether studies were adjusted for main components of metabolic syndrome (MS). Results The final meta-analysis included 25 studies (9 cohort, 5 case-control and 11 cross-sectional) from 23 articles. The pooled results showed that cataract risk in populations with hypertension significantly increased among cohort studies (RR 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05–1.12) and case-control or cross-sectional studies (OR 1.28; 95% CI: 1.12–1.45). This association was proved to be true among both Mongolians and Caucasians, and the significance was not altered by the adjustment of main components of MS. Subgroup analysis on cataract types indicated that an increased incidence of posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) resulted among cohort studies (RR 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03–1.46) and cross-sectional/case-control studies (OR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.09–1.39). No association of hypertension with risk of nuclear cataract was found. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggests that hypertension increases the risk of cataract, especially PSC. Further efforts should be made to explore the potential biological mechanisms. PMID:25474403

  9. Efficient Generation of Lens Progenitor Cells from Cataract Patient–Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xiaodi; Yang, Jin; Liu, Tianjin; Jiang, Yongxiang; Le, Qihua; Lu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The development of a technique to induce the transformation of somatic cells to a pluripotent state via the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors was a transformational event in the field of regenerative medicine. The development of this technique also impacted ophthalmology, as patient-specific induced pluripotent stemcells (iPSCs) may be useful resources for some ophthalmological diseases. The lens is a key refractive element in the eye that focuses images of the visual world onto the retina. To establish a new model for drug screening to treat lens diseases and investigating lens aging and development, we examined whether human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) could be induced into iPSCs and if lens-specific differentiation of these cells could be achieved under defined chemical conditions. We first efficiently reprogrammed HLECs from age-related cataract patients to iPSCs with OCT-4, SOX-2, and KLF-4. The resulting HLEC-derived iPS (HLE-iPS) colonies were indistinguishable from human ES cells with respect to morphology, gene expression, pluripotent marker expression and their ability to generate all embryonic germ-cell layers. Next, we performed a 3-step induction procedure: HLE-iPS cells were differentiated into large numbers of lens progenitor-like cells with defined factors (Noggin, BMP and FGF2), and we determined that these cells expressed lens-specific markers (PAX6, SOX2, SIX3, CRYAB, CRYAA, BFSP1, and MIP). In addition, HLE-iPS-derived lens cells exhibited reduced expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers compared with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and fibroblast-derived iPSCs. Our study describes a highly efficient procedure for generating lens progenitor cells from cataract patient HLEC-derived iPSCs. These patient-derived pluripotent cells provide a valuable model for studying the developmental and molecular biological mechanisms that underlie cell determination in lens development and cataract pathophysiology

  10. [Age-related Macular Degeneration in the Japanese].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2016-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Japanese often shows different clinical features from those described in Caucasians. For example, we often observe choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in elderly patients without drusen in the fundus. The high incidence of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in AMD among Japanese is well-known. The reason why such differences occur in clinical manifestations of AMD has been one of my main interests. In this review article, I will discuss the characteristics of AMD in the Japanese population, as found in our recent study. I. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of AMD in the Japanese population. Cohort studies are important to determine the prevalence and incidence of diseases. In Japan, cohort studies began to be carried out rather late compared with Western countries. Although good cohort studies from Japan are reported in the literature, the size of the cohorts was not sufficiently large to determine the prevalence of AMD. However, a recent meta-analysis of Asian cohorts has shown that the prevalence of late AMD in Asians is not different from that reported in Caucasians. On the other hand, the prevalence of early AMD appears lower in the Japanese than in Caucasians. Recently, we have published the results of the Nagahama Cohort study. In this cohort study, we found a high prevalence of drusen. It seems that the incidence of dry AMD is likely to increase among Japanese. In Japan, most retina specialists classify AMD into three categories : typical AMD, PCV, and retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP). However, there are no definite diagnostic criteria to distinguish between the three conditions. To compare the clinical features of Japanese and Western cases of AMD, and to determine the incidence of the three types of AMD, we exchanged data about 100 consecutive cases between Kyoto University and Centre d'Ophtalmologie de Paris, France. Interestingly, the diagnoses made by the two institutes were not always in

  11. [Age-related Macular Degeneration in the Japanese].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2016-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Japanese often shows different clinical features from those described in Caucasians. For example, we often observe choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in elderly patients without drusen in the fundus. The high incidence of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in AMD among Japanese is well-known. The reason why such differences occur in clinical manifestations of AMD has been one of my main interests. In this review article, I will discuss the characteristics of AMD in the Japanese population, as found in our recent study. I. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of AMD in the Japanese population. Cohort studies are important to determine the prevalence and incidence of diseases. In Japan, cohort studies began to be carried out rather late compared with Western countries. Although good cohort studies from Japan are reported in the literature, the size of the cohorts was not sufficiently large to determine the prevalence of AMD. However, a recent meta-analysis of Asian cohorts has shown that the prevalence of late AMD in Asians is not different from that reported in Caucasians. On the other hand, the prevalence of early AMD appears lower in the Japanese than in Caucasians. Recently, we have published the results of the Nagahama Cohort study. In this cohort study, we found a high prevalence of drusen. It seems that the incidence of dry AMD is likely to increase among Japanese. In Japan, most retina specialists classify AMD into three categories : typical AMD, PCV, and retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP). However, there are no definite diagnostic criteria to distinguish between the three conditions. To compare the clinical features of Japanese and Western cases of AMD, and to determine the incidence of the three types of AMD, we exchanged data about 100 consecutive cases between Kyoto University and Centre d'Ophtalmologie de Paris, France. Interestingly, the diagnoses made by the two institutes were not always in

  12. Effects of Cataract Surgery on Endothelium in Transplanted Corneal Grafts: Comparison of Extracapsular Cataract Extraction and Phacoemulsification for Complicated Cataract after Penetrating Keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hong-Wei; Xie, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The endothelium should be carefully evaluated when choosing a surgical technique for cataract removal. Therefore, we aimed to study the effects of different cataract surgery techniques on endothelial cell loss in transplanted corneal grafts. Methods: A total of 54 patients who received complicated cataract surgery in post-penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) eyes at the Shandong Eye Institute between February 2001 and June 2014 were included, and clinical records were reviewed. Baseline demographic details, clinical characteristics, endothelial cell density (ECD), and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded. Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to test the equality of medians. A regression model was constructed to compare the reduced rate of ECD. Results: Of the 54 eyes included in this study, extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) was performed in 34 eyes of 33 patients (ECCE group) whereas phacoemulsification was performed in 20 eyes of 20 patients (phacoemulsification group). There was no significant difference in the median age (P = 0.081) or preoperative ECD (P = 0.585) between the two groups. At 6 months after cataract surgery, ECD in ECCE group was significantly higher than that in phacoemulsification group (P = 0.043). In addition, the endothelial cell loss rate in ECCE group was significantly lower than that in phacoemulsification group at 2 months (P = 0.018), 4 months (P < 0.001), and 6 months (P < 0.001) after cataract surgery. Endothelial cell loss rate after cataract surgery increased over the 6-month study duration in both ECCE group (P < 0.001) and phacoemulsification group (P < 0.001), but phacoemulsification resulted in a greater reduction in ECD than that of ECCE in transplanted corneal grafts (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in postoperative BCVA between the two groups (P = 0.065). Conclusion: ECCE is more suitable than phacoemulsification in cataract surgery in complicated cataract

  13. Gas arc constriction for plasma arc welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, William F. (Inventor); Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A welding torch for plasma arc welding apparatus has an inert gas applied circumferentially about the arc column externally of the constricting nozzle so as to apply a constricting force on the arc after it has exited the nozzle orifice and downstream of the auxiliary shielding gas. The constricting inert gas is supplied to a plenum chamber about the body of the torch and exits through a series of circumferentially disposed orifices in an annular wall forming a closure at the forward end of the constricting gas plenum chamber. The constricting force of the circumferential gas flow about the arc concentrates and focuses the arc column into a more narrow and dense column of energy after exiting the nozzle orifice so that the arc better retains its energy density prior to contacting the workpiece.

  14. Lens ER-stress response during cataract development in Mip-mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuefang; Bennett, Thomas M; Shiels, Alan

    2016-08-01

    Major intrinsic protein (MIP) is a functional water-channel (AQP0) that also plays a key role in establishing lens fiber cell architecture. Genetic variants of MIP have been associated with inherited and age-related forms of cataract; however, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. Here we have used lens transcriptome profiling by microarray-hybridization and qPCR to identify pathogenic changes during cataract development in Mip-mutant (Lop/+) mice. In postnatal Lop/+ lenses (P7) 99 genes were up-regulated and 75 were down-regulated (>2-fold, p=<0.05) when compared with wild-type. A pathway analysis of up-regulated genes in the Lop/+ lens (P7) was consistent with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The most up-regulated UPR genes (>4-fold) in the Lop/+ lens included Chac1>Ddit3>Atf3>Trib3>Xbp1 and the most down-regulated genes (>5-fold) included two anti-oxidant genes, Hspb1 and Hmox1. Lop/+ lenses were further characterized by abundant TUNEL-positive nuclei within central degenerating fiber cells, glutathione depletion, free-radical overproduction, and calpain hyper-activation. These data suggest that Lop/+ lenses undergo proteotoxic ER-stress induced cell-death resulting from prolonged activation of the Eif2ak3/Perk-Atf4-Ddit3-Chac1 branch of the UPR coupled with severe oxidative-stress.

  15. Exploiting ensemble learning for automatic cataract detection and grading.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Jiang; Li, Jianqiang; Shen, Ruifang; Zeng, Yang; He, Jian; Bi, Jing; Li, Yong; Zhang, Qinyan; Peng, Lihui; Wang, Qing

    2016-02-01

    Cataract is defined as a lenticular opacity presenting usually with poor visual acuity. It is one of the most common causes of visual impairment worldwide. Early diagnosis demands the expertise of trained healthcare professionals, which may present a barrier to early intervention due to underlying costs. To date, studies reported in the literature utilize a single learning model for retinal image classification in grading cataract severity. We present an ensemble learning based approach as a means to improving diagnostic accuracy. Three independent feature sets, i.e., wavelet-, sketch-, and texture-based features, are extracted from each fundus image. For each feature set, two base learning models, i.e., Support Vector Machine and Back Propagation Neural Network, are built. Then, the ensemble methods, majority voting and stacking, are investigated to combine the multiple base learning models for final fundus image classification. Empirical experiments are conducted for cataract detection (two-class task, i.e., cataract or non-cataractous) and cataract grading (four-class task, i.e., non-cataractous, mild, moderate or severe) tasks. The best performance of the ensemble classifier is 93.2% and 84.5% in terms of the correct classification rates for cataract detection and grading tasks, respectively. The results demonstrate that the ensemble classifier outperforms the single learning model significantly, which also illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Barriers to Cataract Surgery in Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Aboobaker, Shaheer; Courtright, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Cataract remains the leading cause of blindness in Africa. We performed a systematic literature search of articles reporting barriers to cataract surgery in Africa. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched with the terms “barriers, cataract, Africa, cataract surgery, cataract surgical coverage (CSC), and rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB).” The review covered from 1999 to 2014. In RAAB studies, barriers related to awareness and access were more commonly reported than acceptance. Other type of studies reported cost as the most common barrier. Some qualitative studies tended to report community and family dynamics as barriers to cataract surgery. CSC was lower in females in 88.2% of the studies. The variability in outcomes of studies of barriers to cataract surgery could be due to context and the type of data collection. It is likely that qualitative data will provide a deeper understanding of the complex social, family, community, financial and gender issues relating to barriers to uptake of cataract surgery in Africa. PMID:26957856

  17. Application of femtotechnologies and terahertz spectroscopy methods in cataract diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhnov, S. N.; Leksutkina, E. V.; Smolyanskaya, O. A.; Usov, A. V.; Parakhuda, S. E.; Grachev, Ya. V.; Kozlov, S. A.

    2011-08-01

    We study the destructive action of femtosecond pulses (200 fs) on the human cataractous crystalline lens and the transmission of the cataractous lens in the terahertz spectral range of electromagnetic oscillations (0.2-1 THz) in relation to the density of the nucleus of the lens.

  18. Absence of age-related dopamine transporter loss in current cocaine abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Fischman, M.

    1997-05-01

    The brain dopamine (DA) system appears to play a crucial role in the reinforcing properties of cocaine. Using PET we had previously shown significant decreases in DA D2 receptors but no changes in DA transporters (DAT) in detoxified cocaine abusers (>1 month after last cocaine use). This study evaluates DAT availability in current cocaine abusers (15 male and 5 female; age = 36.2{+-}5.3 years old) using PET and [C-11]cocaine, as a DAT ligand, and compares it to that in 18 male and 2 female age matched normal controls. Cocaine abusers had a history of abusing 4.2{+-}2.8 gm /week of cocaine for an average of 11.0{+-}4.9 years and their last use of cocaine was 5.4{+-}8 days prior to PET study. DAT availability was obtained using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, pulamen) to that in cerebellum which is a function of Bmax./Kd.+1. DAT availability in cocaine abusers did not differ to that in normals (N) (C= 1.78{+-}0.14, N= 1.77{+-}0.13). In addition, there were no differences between the groups in the distribution volume or the Kl (plasma to brain transfer constant) measures for [C-11]cocaine. However, in the normals but not in the abusers striatal DAT availability decreased with age (C: r = -0.07, p = 0.76; N: r = -0.55, p < 0.01). Though this study fails to show group differences in DAT availability between normals and current cocaine abusers it indicates a blunting of the age-related decline in DAT availability in the cocaine abusers. Future studies in older cocaine abusers at different time after detoxification arc required in order to assess if cocaine slows the loss of DAT with age or whether these changes reflect compensation to increased DAT blockade and recover with detoxification.

  19. Cataract extraction after brachytherapy for malignant melanoma of the choroid

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, G.E.; Jost, B.F.; Snyder, W.I.; Fuller, D.G.; Birch, D.G. )

    1991-05-01

    Thirteen eyes of 55 consecutive patients treated with brachytherapy for malignant melanoma of the choroid developed postirradiation cataracts. Cataract development was more common in older patients and in patients with larger and more anterior tumors. Eleven eyes had extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. Initial visual improvement occurred in 91% of eyes, with an average improvement of 5.5 lines. Visual acuity was maintained at 20/60 or better in 55% of the eyes over an average period of follow-up of 24 months (range, 6 to 40 months). These data suggest that, visually, cataract extraction can be helpful in selected patients who develop a cataract after brachytherapy for malignant melanoma of the choroid.

  20. [Developments in modern cataract surgery – a critical overview].

    PubMed

    Menapace, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    Cataract surgery has tremendously evolved in recent years. Innovations include micro-incision cataract surgery through incisions smaller than 2mm, high-fluidics phacoaspiration and laser phacoemulsification to minimize or replace the use of ultrasound, the advent of femtolasers for high-precision incisions in the cornea, the lens capsule and the cataractous lens, aspheric intraocular lenses (IOLs) to enhance the quality and contrast of the image, multifocal and enhanced-depth-of-focus IOLs to correct presbyopia, advancements in biometry and IOL power calculation, prevention of secondary capsule opacification by improvements in the design and material of the IOLs and surgical techniques like capsule polishing and posterior capsulorhexis, and pharmacological prophylaxis and possible future treatment of the cataract itself. Finally, cost-effectiveness and future potential of same-session bilateral cataract surgery are discussed.

  1. Safety and Tolerability Study of AAV2-sFLT01 in Patients With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-20

    Macular Degeneration; Age-Related Maculopathies; Age-Related Maculopathy; Maculopathies, Age-Related; Maculopathy, Age-Related; Retinal Degeneration; Retinal Neovascularization; Gene Therapy; Therapy, Gene; Eye Diseases

  2. Internal wave structures in abyssal cataract flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Liapidevskii, Valery; Morozov, Eugene; Tarakanov, Roman

    2014-05-01

    We discuss some theoretical approaches, experimental results and field data concerning wave phenomena in ocean near-bottom stratified flows. Such strong flows of cold water form everywhere in the Atlantic abyssal channels, and these currents play significant role in the global water exchange. Most interesting wave structures arise in a powerful cataract flows near orographic obstacles which disturb gravity currents by forced lee waves, attached hydraulic jumps, mixing layers etc. All these effects were observed by the authors in the Romanche and Chain fracture zones of Atlantic Ocean during recent cruises of the R/V Akademik Ioffe and R/V Akademik Sergei Vavilov (Morozov et al., Dokl. Earth Sci., 2012, 446(2)). In a general way, deep-water cataract flows down the slope are similar to the stratified flows examined in laboratory experiments. Strong mixing in the sill region leads to the splitting of the gravity current into the layers having the fluids with different densities. Another peculiarity is the presence of critical layers in shear flows sustained over the sill. In the case under consideration, this critical level separates the flow of near-bottom cold water from opposite overflow. In accordance with known theoretical models and laboratory measurements, the critical layer can absorb and reflect internal waves generated by the topography, so the upward propagation of these perturbations is blocked from above. High velocity gradients were registered downstream in the vicinity of cataract and it indicates the existence of developed wave structures beyond the sill formed by intense internal waves. This work was supported by RFBR (grants No 12-01-00671-a, 12-08-10001-k and 13-08-10001-k).

  3. Sunflower cataract: do not forget Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Tomasz; Langwińska-Wośko, Ewa; Dzieżyc, Karolina; Członkowska, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A 41-year-old man with liver cirrhosis of unknown aetiology for 6 years was admitted to our department to confirm the diagnosis of Wilson's disease. He consulted an ophthalmologist who suspected the presence of a sunflower cataract and Kayser-Fleischer ring. At admission, his liver function tests were modestly impaired (Child-Pugh C, 10 pts). Neurological examination was normal, but cognitive functions were mildly impaired. Based on the copper metabolism abnormalities and clinical manifestation, we diagnosed Wilson's disease (Ferenci score, 6 pts) and started treatment with d-penicillamine. Presenting the case we would like to emphasise the significance of the ophthalmological examination in Wilson's disease diagnosis.

  4. Single flash electroretinograms of mature cataractous and fellow eyes

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Yasuyuki; Mochizuki, Jun-ichi; Hirakata, Akito; Uda, Shigekazu

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally stated that opacities of the ocular media, including senile cataract, have little effect on the electrical responses of the retina. However, lower amplitudes and longer implicit times are sometimes observed in electroretinograms (ERGs) of patients with mature cataract. Methods Single flash ERGs of mature cataractous eyes with decimal visual acuity less than 0.1 were compared with those of the fellow eyes with decimal visual acuity better than 0.5, in 105 senile cataract patients. Results The mean amplitudes and implicit times of ERG a-waves were, respectively, 323.6±95.8 μV and 14.7±3.5 ms in the cataractous eyes and 352.3±96.6 μV and 12.0±1.5 ms in the fellow eyes. The mean amplitudes and implicit times of ERG b-waves were, respectively, 390.1±108.7 μV and 63.4±27.9 ms in the cataractous eyes and 415.3±119.1 μV and 59.0±9.3 ms in the fellow eyes. The mean amplitudes of the a- and b-waves were significantly lower and the mean implicit times of the a- and b-wave were significantly longer in the cataractous eyes as compared to those of the fellow eyes. Postoperative visual acuity was similar in cataractous and fellow eyes. Conclusion Even though single flash ERG was influenced due to mature cataract, eyes revealed good postoperative visual acuity. Single flash ERG does not always reflect the foveal function and the visual pathway; nevertheless, it remains a reliable guide to evaluate visual prognosis before cataract surgery. PMID:27799729

  5. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  6. [Treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Yuzawa, M

    2000-12-01

    I PROPHYLACTIC TREATMENT: We followed 75 eyes contralateral to eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), using indocyanine green angiography (IA), for more than one year. Hyperfluorescent areas in the late phase of IA were seen in 19 eyes at the initial examination, and in 25 eyes during follow-up. Exudative AMD developed in 9 of the 25 eyes. Using timetable analysis, we estimated that 11% of these 27 eyes developed AMD within one year and 55% within three years. The hyperfluorescent areas seen on IA appeared to be latent choroidal neovascularization (CNV) under the retinal pigment epithelium. We propose that photocoagulation aimed at hyperfluorescent areas should be considered in such cases. We performed prophylactic laser photocoagulation in 21 eyes, which were then followed up for at least six months. These eyes all had 10 or more serous drusen within 1,500 microns of the fovea and did not show hyperfluorescence, suggesting latent CNV in the late phase of IA. The majority or a small fraction of the serous drusen disappeared in 48% and 18% of the 21 eyes, respectively. CNV appeared adjacent to the laser scar in one eye (5%). Judging from these results, it is important to establish a method of definitively abolishing drusen and preventing the development of CNV. II TREATMENT OF CNV: Of 229 eyes which showed occult CNV in fluorescein angiography (FA), 124 eyes (54%) showed classic CNV outside the fovea on IA. One hundred and two of the 124 eyes (45%) underwent laser photocoagulation. We evaluated indocyanine green guided laser photocoagulation of extrafoveal CNV in 139 eyes. The success rate was 81% at 3 months after laser photocoagulation. This was estimated using timetable analyses to have decreased to 78% at one year and 71% at three years. Eighty percent of successfully treated eyes showed maintained or improved visual acuity. These results did not differ significantly from those obtained with laser photocoagulation based on FA findings. When

  7. Rotating arc spark plug

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Tsai, Chin-Chi

    2003-05-27

    A spark plug device includes a structure for modification of an arc, the modification including arc rotation. The spark plug can be used in a combustion engine to reduce emissions and/or improve fuel economy. A method for operating a spark plug and a combustion engine having the spark plug device includes the step of modifying an arc, the modifying including rotating the arc.

  8. Genetic background influences age-related decline in visual and nonvisual retinal responses, circadian rhythms, and sleep☆

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Gareth; Heise, Ines; Starbuck, Becky; Osborne, Tamzin; Wisby, Laura; Potter, Paul; Jackson, Ian J.; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Nolan, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    The circadian system is entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via retinal photoreceptors and regulates numerous aspects of physiology and behavior, including sleep. These processes are all key factors in healthy aging showing a gradual decline with age. Despite their importance, the exact mechanisms underlying this decline are yet to be fully understood. One of the most effective tools we have to understand the genetic factors underlying these processes are genetically inbred mouse strains. The most commonly used reference mouse strain is C57BL/6J, but recently, resources such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium have started producing large numbers of mouse mutant lines on a pure genetic background, C57BL/6N. Considering the substantial genetic diversity between mouse strains we expect there to be phenotypic differences, including differential effects of aging, in these and other strains. Such differences need to be characterized not only to establish how different mouse strains may model the aging process but also to understand how genetic background might modify age-related phenotypes. To ascertain the effects of aging on sleep/wake behavior, circadian rhythms, and light input and whether these effects are mouse strain-dependent, we have screened C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, C3H-HeH, and C3H-Pde6b+ mouse strains at 5 ages throughout their life span. Our data show that sleep, circadian, and light input parameters are all disrupted by the aging process. Moreover, we have cataloged a number of strain-specific aging effects, including the rate of cataract development, decline in the pupillary light response, and changes in sleep fragmentation and the proportion of time spent asleep. PMID:25179226

  9. Genetic background influences age-related decline in visual and nonvisual retinal responses, circadian rhythms, and sleep.

    PubMed

    Banks, Gareth; Heise, Ines; Starbuck, Becky; Osborne, Tamzin; Wisby, Laura; Potter, Paul; Jackson, Ian J; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N; Nolan, Patrick M

    2015-01-01

    The circadian system is entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via retinal photoreceptors and regulates numerous aspects of physiology and behavior, including sleep. These processes are all key factors in healthy aging showing a gradual decline with age. Despite their importance, the exact mechanisms underlying this decline are yet to be fully understood. One of the most effective tools we have to understand the genetic factors underlying these processes are genetically inbred mouse strains. The most commonly used reference mouse strain is C57BL/6J, but recently, resources such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium have started producing large numbers of mouse mutant lines on a pure genetic background, C57BL/6N. Considering the substantial genetic diversity between mouse strains we expect there to be phenotypic differences, including differential effects of aging, in these and other strains. Such differences need to be characterized not only to establish how different mouse strains may model the aging process but also to understand how genetic background might modify age-related phenotypes. To ascertain the effects of aging on sleep/wake behavior, circadian rhythms, and light input and whether these effects are mouse strain-dependent, we have screened C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, C3H-HeH, and C3H-Pde6b+ mouse strains at 5 ages throughout their life span. Our data show that sleep, circadian, and light input parameters are all disrupted by the aging process. Moreover, we have cataloged a number of strain-specific aging effects, including the rate of cataract development, decline in the pupillary light response, and changes in sleep fragmentation and the proportion of time spent asleep. PMID:25179226

  10. Dietary glycemic index and carbohydrate in relation to early age-related macular degeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the association between dietary carbohydrates and cataract in nondiabetic persons. The aim was to test whether recent dietary carbohydrate intakes or glycemic index (GI; a measure of carbohydrate intake quality) was associated with the presence of cortical or nuclear opacities....

  11. DC arc weld starter

    DOEpatents

    Campiotti, Richard H.; Hopwood, James E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for starting an arc for welding uses three DC power supplies, a high voltage supply for initiating the arc, an intermediate voltage supply for sustaining the arc, and a low voltage welding supply directly connected across the gap after the high voltage supply is disconnected.

  12. [Research progress in relative crystallin genes of congenital cataract].

    PubMed

    Wang, D D; Yang, H J; Yi, J L

    2016-02-01

    Congenital cataract is the common cause of visual disability in children. Nearly one third of congenital cataract cases may have a related genetic mutation. With the development of molecular genetics, especially gentechnik, more and more genes, such as crystallin genes, membrane protein genes, eytoskeletal protein genes and regulatory protein genes have been confirmed to participate in the process of congenital cataract. Furthermore, crystallin genes account for most of these genes and the crystallin has the highest amount of the whole protein in lens.It has been found that nearly one hundred mutations in crystallin genes are associated with the onset of congenital cataract. Researchers are exploring how these mutations further affect the function of cellular biology and eventually lead to cataract. Although more and more research results gradually reveal the pathogenesis of congenital cataract from the level of gene and protein, the specific pathogenesis is still unclear. The recent progression about inherited congenital cataract related with crysallin genes is summarized in this review.

  13. Automatic Cataract Hardness Classification Ex Vivo by Ultrasound Techniques.

    PubMed

    Caixinha, Miguel; Santos, Mário; Santos, Jaime

    2016-04-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of a new methodology for cataract hardness characterization and automatic classification using ultrasound techniques, different cataract degrees were induced in 210 porcine lenses. A 25-MHz ultrasound transducer was used to obtain acoustical parameters (velocity and attenuation) and backscattering signals. B-Scan and parametric Nakagami images were constructed. Ninety-seven parameters were extracted and subjected to a Principal Component Analysis. Bayes, K-Nearest-Neighbours, Fisher Linear Discriminant and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers were used to automatically classify the different cataract severities. Statistically significant increases with cataract formation were found for velocity, attenuation, mean brightness intensity of the B-Scan images and mean Nakagami m parameter (p < 0.01). The four classifiers showed a good performance for healthy versus cataractous lenses (F-measure ≥ 92.68%), while for initial versus severe cataracts the SVM classifier showed the higher performance (90.62%). The results showed that ultrasound techniques can be used for non-invasive cataract hardness characterization and automatic classification.

  14. Global prevalence of childhood cataract: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sheeladevi, S; Lawrenson, J G; Fielder, A R; Suttle, C M

    2016-09-01

    Childhood cataract is an avoidable cause of visual disability worldwide and is a priority for VISION 2020: The Right to Sight. There is a paucity of information about the burden of cataract in children and the aim of this review is to assess the global prevalence of childhood cataract. The methodology for the review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We performed a literature search for studies reporting estimates of prevalence or incidence of cataract among children (aged<18 years) at any global location using the Cochrane Library, Medline and Embase up to January 2015. No restrictions were imposed based on language or year of publication. Study quality was assessed using a critical appraisal tool designed for systematic reviews of prevalence. Twenty prevalence and four incidence studies of childhood cataract from five different geographical regions were included. The overall prevalence of childhood cataract and congenital cataract was in the range from 0.32 to 22.9/10000 children (median=1.03) and 0.63 to 9.74/10000 (median=1.71), respectively. The incidence ranged from 1.8 to 3.6/10000 per year. The prevalence of childhood cataract in low-income economies was found to be 0.42 to 2.05 compared with 0.63 to 13.6/10000 in high-income economies. There was no difference in the prevalence based on laterality or gender. This review highlights substantial gaps in the epidemiological knowledge of childhood cataract worldwide, particularly from low and lower middle-income economies. More studies are needed using standard definitions and case ascertainment methods with large enough sample sizes. PMID:27518543

  15. Increasing incidence of cataract surgery: Population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Gollogly, Heidrun E.; Hodge, David O.; St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Erie, Jay C.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To estimate the incidence of cataract surgery in a defined population and to determine longitudinal cataract surgery patterns. SETTING Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. DESIGN Cohort study. METHODS Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) databases were used to identify all incident cataract surgeries in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011. Age-specific and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated and adjusted to the 2010 United States white population. Data were merged with previous REP data (1980 to 2004) to assess temporal trends in cataract surgery. Change in the incidence over time was assessed by fitting generalized linear models assuming a Poisson error structure. The probability of second-eye cataract surgery was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS Included were 8012 cataract surgeries from 2005 through 2011. During this time, incident cataract surgery significantly increased (P < .001), peaking in 2011 with a rate of 1100 per 100 000 (95% confidence interval, 1050–1160). The probability of second-eye surgery 3, 12, and 24 months after first-eye surgery was 60%, 76%, and 86%, respectively, a significant increase compared with the same intervals in the previous 7 years (1998 to 2004) (P < .001). When merged with 1980 to 2004 REP data, incident cataract surgery steadily increased over the past 3 decades (P < .001). CONCLUSION Incident cataract surgery steadily increased over the past 32 years and has not leveled off, as reported in Swedish population-based series. Second-eye surgery was performed sooner and more frequently, with 60% of residents having second-eye surgery within 3-months of first-eye surgery. PMID:23820302

  16. Ocular safety limits for 1030nm femtosecond laser cataract surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jenny; Sramek, Christopher; Paulus, Yannis M.; Lavinsky, Daniel; Schuele, Georg; Anderson, Dan; Dewey, David; Palanker, Daniel V.

    2013-03-01

    Application of femtosecond lasers to cataract surgery has added unprecedented precision and reproducibility but ocular safety limits for the procedure are not well-quantified. We present an analysis of safety during laser cataract surgery considering scanned patterns, reduced blood perfusion, and light scattering on residual bubbles formed during laser cutting. Experimental results for continuous-wave 1030 nm irradiation of the retina in rabbits are used to calibrate damage threshold temperatures and perfusion rate for our computational model of ocular heating. Using conservative estimates for each safety factor, we compute the limits of the laser settings for cataract surgery that optimize procedure speed within the limits of retinal safety.

  17. Effect of coffee (caffeine) against human cataract blindness

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Shambhu D

    2016-01-01

    Previous biochemical and morphological studies with animal experiments have demonstrated that caffeine given topically or orally to certain experimental animal models has significant inhibitory effect on cataract formation. The present studies were undertaken to examine if there is a correlation between coffee drinking and incidence of cataract blindness in human beings. That has been found to be the case. Incidence of cataract blindness was found to be significantly lower in groups consuming higher amounts of coffee in comparison to the groups with lower coffee intake. Mechanistically, the caffeine effect could be multifactorial, involving its antioxidant as well as its bioenergetic effects on the lens. PMID:26869755

  18. Femtosecond laser cataract surgery: technology and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Timothy V; Lawless, Michael; Chan, Colin Ck; Jacobs, Mark; Ng, David; Bali, Shveta J; Hodge, Chris; Sutton, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    The recent introduction of femtosecond lasers to cataract surgery has generated much interest among ophthalmologists around the world. Laser cataract surgery integrates high-resolution anterior segment imaging systems with a femtosecond laser, allowing key steps of the procedure, including the primary and side-port corneal incisions, the anterior capsulotomy and fragmentation of the lens nucleus, to be performed with computer-guided laser precision. There is emerging evidence of reduced phacoemulsification time, better wound architecture and a more stable refractive result with femtosecond cataract surgery, as well as reports documenting an initial learning curve. This article will review the current state of technology and discuss our clinical experience.

  19. Oxidative damage impact on aging and age-related diseases: drug targeting of telomere attrition and dynamic telomerase activity flirting with imidazole-containing dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Vishnyakova, Khava S; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2014-01-01

    It has been documented that telomere-associated cellular senescence may contribute to certain age-related disorders, including an increase in cancer incidence, wrinkling and diminished skin elasticity, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, weight loss, age-related cataract, glaucoma and others. Shorter telomere length in leukocytes was associated crosssectionally with cardiovascular disorders and their risk factors, including pulse pressure and vascular aging, obesity, vascular dementia, diabetes, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction (although not in all studies), cellular turnover and exposure to oxidative and inflammatory damage in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has been proposed that telomere length may not be a strong biomarker of survival in older individuals, but it may be an informative biomarker of healthy aging. The data reveal that telomere dynamics and changes in telomerase activity are consistent elements of cellular alterations associated with changes in proliferative state and in this article these processes are consequently considered as the new therapeutic drug targets for physiological control with advanced drug delivery and nutritional formulations. In particular, the presence of highly specific correlations and early causal relationships between telomere loss in the absence of telomerase activity and replicative senescence or crisis, and from the other side, telomerase reactivation and cell immortality, point to new and important treatment strategies or the therapeutic manipulation during treatment of age related disorders and cancer. Once better controls and therapeutic treatments for aging and age-related disorders are achieved, cellular rejuvenation by manipulating telomeres and enzyme telomerase activity may reduce some of the physiological declines that accompany aging. In this work, we raise and support a therapeutic concept of using non-hydrolyzed forms of naturally occurring imidazoledipeptide based compounds carnosine and

  20. The Capsular Complications of Cataract Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Goulden, Charles

    1948-01-01

    The author considered the following important points: (1) Anterior capsular synechia to a corneal incision (made by a keratome) after the evacuation of a traumatic cataract. This might be detached early by the use of a blunt-ended knife following a perforation of the cornea with a sharp-pointed knife, much like a tenotome. (2) The involuntary prolapse of capsule with a cataract incision. (a) The danger of this was demonstrated as the cause of glaucoma, especially if it be found necessary to divide opaque capsular membrane after the extraction. (b) The danger of sympathetic ophthalmia. Prolapse might be prevented: (a) By intracapsular extraction. (b) By extracting the lens through an intact pupil, after the use of capsule forceps, followed either by a partial or total iridectomy. (3) The treatment of opaque after-cataract. Various types of opaque capsule membrane were described. (a) Opaque lens fibres imprisoned between anterior and posterior remains of capsule. (b) Grey membrane made of new lens fibres from proliferating subcapsular cells. (c) Elschnig's cells. (d) Much thickened capsular membrane following an extensive hæmorrhage into the anterior chamber occurring about the fifth day after extraction. (e) A thick membrane formed of fibrous tissue following the invasion of the coloboma of the iris after infection at the time of operation. The fibrous tissue comes from the undersurface of the conjunctival flap and causes an updrawn coloboma which is also made narrower by its contraction. When performing a capsulotomy thickened bands should be avoided and an incision made in thin capsule, parallel to thick bands. If the membrane is very thick and shows signs of being torn from its peripheral attachment when a single needle is used, then (1) Two needles may be used after the method of Bowman; (2) A Wheeler operation may be performed (Wheeler, 1939, Collected Papers, New York, 197); (3) Thick capsule may be divided by means of a Ziegler knife, as described by the

  1. Sequential intrastromal corneal ring implantation and cataract surgery in a severe keratoconus patient with cataract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jae; Kwon, Hyun Suk; Koh, Il Hwan

    2012-06-01

    A 49-year-old man with an uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of 20 / 1000, a best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) of 20 / 400, keratometric readings of K1 = 59.88 × 82° / K2 = 45.88 × 172°, and an inferior steepening that was consistent with keratoconus in his left eye was treated with clear-cornea phacoemulsification and an intraocular lens (IOL) implantation after insertion of keraring intrastromal corneal ring segments for severe keratoconus and cataract. An asymmetrical pair of kerarings was implanted with the assistance of a femtosecond laser in September 2008; the one segment was 250 µm and the other was 150 µm and both were placed at 70°. Three months after the kerarings were implanted, clear-cornea phacoemulsification and IOL implantation were performed on the left eye. After surgery, both the UCVA and the BSCVA of the left eye improved by eight lines. Postoperative central keratometry showed a decrease of 7.35 diopters in the left eye. Both the postoperative refraction (-0.75 -0.75 × 60°) and the keratometric reading (K1 = 50.05 × 93° / K2 = 48.83 × 3°) remained stable one month following the procedures. Thus, the sequential order of intrastromal corneal rings implantation and cataract surgery can be considered as a treatment option in patients with severe keratoconus and cataract.

  2. Intra-arc basins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Convergent-margin tectonic models feature forearc and back-arc basins and generally portray the arc itself as structurally static. However, intra-arc tectonics not only control distribution and petrology of extrusives and plutons, but also generate basins along the magmatic axis. Magma withdrawal and crustal loading by volcanic edifices contribute to subsidence, but most intra-arc basins are grabens or half-grabens indicative of extension. Grabens are isolated or continuous along long segments of the arc. Basin development may alternate with periods of arc uplife. No unique set of conditions causes intra-arc extension; numerous scenarios may initiate extension and subsidence of thermally weakened arc crust. Transtension related to oblique convergence contributed to the formation of most modern intra-arc basins. Andean basins may result from gravitational spreading of an unusually highstanding arc. Intra-arc basin sediment traps may starve arc-adjacent basins from coarse volcaniclastic detritus. Terrestrial intra-arc basins accommodate thick volcanic and volcaniclastic sediment sections, including lacustrine sequences. Marine intra-arc basins include bounding carbonate shelves, marginal and local intrabasinal submarine fans and aprons, and basin plains receiving pelagic and hemipelagic sediments. Structural patterns are appropriate for trapping hydrocarbons, source rocks are commonly present, and high heat flow favors early maturation. Reservoir quality is typically poor because of volcaniclastic diagenesis, but secondary porosity from dissolution of framework feldspars and carbonate or laumontite cements, and the known productivity of some volcanic reservoirs, suggest the potential for hydrocarbon accumulations. Geothermal resources and modest coal potential have also been recognized.

  3. Corneal toxic changes after cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Zabel, R W; Mintsioulis, G; MacDonald, I M; Valberg, J; Tuft, S J

    1989-12-01

    Over an 18-month period 10 patients (12 eyes) presented with severe corneal toxic changes after cataract extraction. Defined stages in the keratopathy included punctate epithelial keratopathy, pseudodendrite, central epithelial ulcer and central stromal ulcer. Periods of up to 13 months were required for resolution of the defects. Axial scarring and nonhealing epithelial defects resulted in a final visual acuity of counting fingers and hand movement in two patients. We believe that exposure during the postoperative period to benzalkonium chloride contained in ophthalmic medications represents the most likely cause of the toxic changes and that no single ophthalmic medication can be held responsible. The past ocular histories of the patients included chronic open-angle glaucoma, dry eye syndrome and anterior membrane dystrophy. Prior exposure to benzalkonium-containing antiglaucoma medications, tear film deficiencies or abnormalities of epithelial adhesion may have predisposed the corneas in these patients to the development of benzalkonium-related toxic changes.

  4. Comparative evaluation of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery and conventional phacoemulsification in white cataract

    PubMed Central

    Titiyal, Jeewan S; Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Archita; Arora, Tarun; Sharma, Namrata

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare femtosecond laser-assisted capsulotomy with conventional manual capsulorhexis in cases of white cataract. Patients and methods The prospective comparative study enrolled 80 eyes (80 patients) with white cataract that underwent either femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (Group I, n=40) or conventional manual phacoemulsification (Group II, n=40) at a tertiary care ophthalmic institution. The groups were divided based on the patient’s choice and affordability of the procedure. Capsulotomy/capsulorhexis was evaluated in terms of size, circularity index (4Π [area/perimeter2]), intraocular lens coverage, and continuity. Each group was further subdivided based on the release of white milky fluid on initiation of the capsulotomy/capsulorhexis, and the “fluid” cases were compared with the “no-fluid” cases. The primary outcome measure was capsulotomy/capsulorhexis characteristics in the two groups. The secondary outcome measures were intraoperative phacoemulsification parameters, intraoperative complications, and postoperative visual acuity. Results The size of the capsulotomy/capsulorhexis was 4.9±0.1 mm in Group I and 5.3±0.4 mm in Group II (P<0.001). Mean circularity index was 0.996±0.003 and 0.909±0.047 in Groups I and II, respectively (P<0.001). In Group I, free-floating circular capsulotomies were obtained in 52.5% (21/40) eyes; 37.5% (15/40) eyes had microadhesions; and 10% (4/40) eyes had incomplete capsulotomy in 1–2 clock hours. The incidence of residual adhesions was more in cases with release of white milky fluid (P=0.003). In Group II, a multistep capsulorhexis was performed in 70% (28/40) of the eyes. There was no difference in terms of visual outcomes and intraoperative complications. Conclusion Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery has the advantage of creating a circular and optimally sized capsulotomy in cases of white cataract. The release of white milky fluid during femtosecond laser delivery is the most

  5. Rethinking Recycling in Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P.; Behn, M. D.; Jagoutz, O.

    2012-12-01

    Hacker et al EPSL 2011 and Behn et al Nature Geosci 2011 investigated pathways for return of buoyant, subducted material to arc crust. These include (1) diapirs rising into the hot mantle wedge, with extensive melts adding a component to arc magmas, (2) flow of material back up a relatively cold "subduction channel", adding solids to the lower crust and small-degree partial melts to the upper crust, (3) flow from the forearc along the base of arc crust, and (4) imbrication of forearc material into arc crust. These processes add felsic, incompatible-element-rich components to arc crust. The flux of incompatible elements such as Th in arc lavas, thought to be mainly recycled from subducted sediments, is > sediment subduction flux. There are large uncertainties: arc crustal growth rates are imprecise; young, primitive arc lavas may not be representative of magmatic flux into arc crust; sediment subduction flux may have varied. Nevertheless, this result is found for all arcs examined, using recently published growth rates. Perhaps arc growth rates that include subduction erosion are systematically overestimated. Instead or in addition, maybe significant Th comes from material other than sediments. Here, we consider the implications of pathways 1-4 for arc growth rates and incompatible element enrichment, in the context of subduction erosion and arc-arc collision. Subducting arc lithologies can become separated, with only felsic components returned to arc crust. Buoyant lithologies are mobile in viscous instabilities at > 700-800°C. Whereas thin layers such as sediments may become mobile all at once, instabilities may periodically strip the hottest parts from the top of thick buoyant layers, replacing them with hot mantle. In arc-arc collision, the top of a subducting plate starts at about 0°C on the seafloor, so heating is slow. In subduction erosion, forearc material in the subducting package can be > 200°C before erosion so buoyant lithologies reach 700-800

  6. Arc initiation in cathodic arc plasma sources

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre

    2002-01-01

    A "triggerless" arc initiation method and apparatus is based on simply switching the arc supply voltage to the electrodes (anode and cathode). Neither a mechanical trigger electrode nor a high voltage flashover from a trigger electrode is required. A conducting path between the anode and cathode is provided, which allows a hot spot to form at a location where the path connects to the cathode. While the conductive path is eroded by the cathode spot action, plasma deposition ensures the ongoing repair of the conducting path. Arc initiation is achieved by simply applying the relatively low voltage of the arc power supply, e.g. 500 V-1 kV, with the insulator between the anode and cathode coated with a conducting layer and the current at the layer-cathode interface concentrated at one or a few contact points. The local power density at these contact points is sufficient for plasma production and thus arc initiation. A conductive surface layer, such as graphite or the material being deposited, is formed on the surface of the insulator which separates the cathode from the anode. The mechanism of plasma production (and arc initiation) is based on explosive destruction of the layer-cathode interface caused by joule heating. The current flow between the thin insulator coating and cathode occurs at only a few contact points so the current density is high.

  7. Monitoring ARC services with GangliARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, D.; Karpenko, D.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring of Grid services is essential to provide a smooth experience for users and provide fast and easy to understand diagnostics for administrators running the services. GangliARC makes use of the widely-used Ganglia monitoring tool to present web-based graphical metrics of the ARC computing element. These include statistics of running and finished jobs, data transfer metrics, as well as showing the availability of the computing element and hardware information such as free disk space left in the ARC cache. Ganglia presents metrics as graphs of the value of the metric over time and shows an easily-digestable summary of how the system is performing, and enables quick and easy diagnosis of common problems. This paper describes how GangliARC works and shows numerous examples of how the generated data can quickly be used by an administrator to investigate problems. It also presents possibilities of combining GangliARC with other commonly-used monitoring tools such as Nagios to easily integrate ARC monitoring into the regular monitoring infrastructure of any site or computing centre.

  8. 3. COPY OF A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE CATARACT MILLS, NEWBURGH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. COPY OF A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE CATARACT MILLS, NEWBURGH, OHIO. Date unknown. Photographer: Berni Rich, Score Photographers, September 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  9. Intracameral cefuroxime: prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2013-02-01

    Results of the landmark European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons trial and additional prospective and retrospective studies support the use of intracameral cefuroxime in the prophylaxis of endophthalmitis following cataract surgery. Prophylaxis with intracameral cefuroxime at the recommended dose appears to be well tolerated in patients undergoing cataract surgery. However, off-label use of intracameral cefuroxime usually requires a two-step dilution process with the potential for dilution errors, and there are also concerns regarding the risk of contamination. Aprokam® (intracameral cefuroxime) has been approved in the EU for the prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. After reconstitution of Aprokam®, no further dilution is required and each vial is only indicated for single-patient use; this has the potential to reduce the risk of both dilution errors and contamination.

  10. IOL Implants: Lens Replacement and Cataract Surgery (Intraocular Lenses)

    MedlinePlus

    ... by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Elizabeth Yeu MD Mar. 01, 2016 Before intraocular lenses (IOLs) were developed, ... Foods Rich in Vitamin C Help Curb Cataracts Mar 28, 2016 Los Alimentos Ricos en Vitamina C ...

  11. Detection of TORCH pathogens in children with congenital cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yabo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between infection rates with TORCH pathogens including toxoplasma, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) I and II and congenital cataracts. In total, the data from 69 children with congenital cataract treated at the Children's Hospital of the Zhejiang University School of Medicine between May 2006 and September 2013 were examined, including the complete serum test results for immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM that target TORCH pathogenic antibodies. These results were compared with the antibody levels of 5,914 children in a control group. Using SPSS 19.0 software, variance equation Levene tests, mean equation t tests, and completely randomized design of four tables χ2 tests were applied. The HSV II IgG positivity rates significantly differed between the cataract and control groups. These results suggested that HSV may be one of the pathogenic viruses that leads to congenital cataracts. PMID:27446337

  12. Presumptive electric cataracts in a Great Horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Dees, D Dustin; MacLaren, Nicole E

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes suspected electrocution in a juvenile female Great Horned owl (Bubo virginianus) with subsequent bilateral cataract formation. The bird flew into a high-voltage power line and was immediately rescued. Burn wounds of the head and ataxia with apparent blindness were noted. Initial ophthalmic examination 5 days after the incident revealed bilaterally symmetrical anterior subcapsular vacuolar cataracts with absence of intraocular inflammation and a predominantly clear view to the normal appearing fundus. The bird appeared to be nonvisual. No ophthalmic medications were prescribed at initial examination. Subsequent recheck examination at 8 weeks revealed moderate resolution of the cataracts and improved vision. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published report of suspected electric cataracts in an avian species. PMID:22432797

  13. College Students' Attitudes towards Age-Related Changes in Physical Appearance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Allison; Agliata, Daniel; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with young adults' concerns about age related changes in body image and their anticipated impact on psychosocial functioning. One hundred and sixty-seven college students completed the Body Image and Aging Survey, designed to assess age related issues in body image, the Peer Dieting Survey,…

  14. Experience-Based Mitigation of Age-Related Performance Declines: Evidence from Air Traffic Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Ashley; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has found age-related deficits in a variety of cognitive processes. However, some studies have demonstrated age-related sparing on tasks where individuals have substantial experience, often attained over many decades. Here, the authors examined whether decades of experience in a fast-paced demanding profession, air traffic…

  15. The relationship of major American dietary patterns to age-related macular degeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that major American dietary patterns are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk. This was a cross-sectional study with 8,103 eyes from 4,088 eligible participants in the baseline Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were classified into control (n=2,739), early ...

  16. [Cataract: based on A-bomb survivor studies].

    PubMed

    Neriishi, Kazuo

    2012-03-01

    Until now, the radiation protection community had assumed that only high doses of 2 Gy or more cause cataracts. However, new data from the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors suggest that the dose threshold for both minor opacities and vision limiting cataracts may be below 1 Gy. Other studies have shown similar results in recent years. In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) revised their guidelines for permissible occupational and medical exposures to the eye.

  17. Reducing Older Driver Motor Vehicle Collisions via Earlier Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mennemeyer, Stephen T.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Older adults who undergo cataract extraction have roughly half the rate of motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement per mile driven compared to cataract patients who do not elect cataract surgery. Currently in the U.S., most insurers do not allow payment for cataract surgery based upon the findings of a vision exam unless accompanied by an individual’s complaint of visual difficulties that seriously interfere with driving or other daily activities and individuals themselves may be slow or reluctant to complain and seek relief. As a consequence, surgery tends to occur after significant vision problems have emerged. We hypothesize that a proactive policy encouraging cataract surgery earlier for a lesser level of complaint would significantly reduce MVCs among older drivers. We used a Monte Carlo model to simulate the MVC experience of the U.S. population from age 60 to 89 under alternative protocols for the timing of cataract surgery which we call “Current Practice” (CP) and “Earlier Surgery” (ES). Our base model finds, from a societal perspective with undiscounted 2010 dollars, that switching to ES from CP reduces by about 21% the average number of MVCs, fatalities, and MVC cost per person. The net effect on total cost – all MVC costs plus cataract surgery expenditures -- is a reduction of about 16%. Quality Adjusted Life Years would increase by about 5%. From the perspective of payers for healthcare, the switch would increase cataract surgery expenditure for ages 65+ by about 8% and for ages 60 to 64 by about 47% but these expenditures are substantially offset after age 65 by reductions in the medical and emergency services component of MVC cost. Similar results occur with discounting at 3% and with various sensitivity analyses. We conclude that a policy of ES would significantly reduce MVCs and their associated consequences. PMID:23369786

  18. Outcome of Capsular Tension Ring (CTR) Implant in Complicated Cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Sahai, Anshu; Kumar, Pukhrambam Ratan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Surgery in the presence of zonular weakness or subluxated lens was a great surgical challenge and included intracapsular cataract extraction with anterior chamber IOL implantation or pars plana lensectomy and vitrectomy with a sutured (IOL). Modern surgical approache involves placement of endocapsular flexible PMMA ring that prevents iatrogenic loss of zonular support, minimizing vitreous loss and enables placement of in the bag IOL. Aim To evaluate frequency and indications of capsular tension ring (CTR) implant and analyse the visual and anatomical outcome in various complicated cataract surgeries. Materials and Methods Retrospective screening of database of 6000 consecutive cataract surgeries was done. BCVA, complete ocular examination with SLEx, intraocular pressure, direct ophthalmoscope, fundus examination with +78/+90D were noted. CTR was implanted in cases where Zonular dialysis of > 3 clock hours was present or capsular bag instability was detected during capsulorhexis or subsequent intraoperative maneuvers. In cases with capsulorrhexis extension, CTR was not implanted. Records were analysed for indication of CTR implant and clinical outcome on Day 1, 1 month and 6 month follow up. Results In this series CTR implant was done in 45 cases. The indications were hypermature senile cataract in 9 cases, hypermature senile cataract with lens induced glaucoma in 9 cases, pseudoexfoliation syndrome in 9 cases, post blunt injury traumatic cataract in 6 cases, iridochoroidal coloboma in 6 cases, hypermature cataract with pseudoexfoliation and marfan syndrome in 3 cases respectively. Decision of CTR implant was intraoperative in 42 patients. At 6 month follow up, 39 patients had best corrected visual acuity ≥6/12. IOL decentration was detected in only 3 cases, but without any subjective visual complaints. Conclusion As per the results CTR was used very infrequently (0.75%) but remains useful in cataract surgeries with difficult pre and intraoperative

  19. Cataract surgery without anaesthesia: two descriptions by Arthur Jacob.

    PubMed

    Haridas, R P

    2009-07-01

    Dr Arthur Jacob (1790-1874), of Dublin, Ireland, was one of the leading ophthalmologists of his time. He was the first to describe the membrane that contains the rods and cones in the eye (membrana Jacobi) and basal cell carcinoma (Jacob's ulcer). He made a curved needle for cataract surgery from a sewing needle (Jacob's needle). Two descriptions of cataract surgery without anaesthesia are presented. PMID:19705632

  20. [Cataract: based on A-bomb survivor studies].

    PubMed

    Neriishi, Kazuo

    2012-03-01

    Until now, the radiation protection community had assumed that only high doses of 2 Gy or more cause cataracts. However, new data from the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors suggest that the dose threshold for both minor opacities and vision limiting cataracts may be below 1 Gy. Other studies have shown similar results in recent years. In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) revised their guidelines for permissible occupational and medical exposures to the eye. PMID:22514923

  1. Predicting postoperative visual outcomes in cataract patients with maculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Macky, Tamer A; Mohamed, Abdel Moniem Hasaballah; Emarah, Ahmed M; Osman, Amr Abdellatif; Gado, Ahmed S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of the potential acuity meter (PAM) in predicting postcataract surgery visual acuity outcome in patients with healed inactive maculopathies. Study Design: Prospective interventional clinical trial. Patients and Methods: Patients scheduled for phacoemulsification had preoperative and 1 month postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), PAM test, fluorescein angiography, and macular optical coherence tomography. Patients were grouped to following preoperative BCVA: PRE1: 0.29 and better, PRE2: 0.25–0.13, and PRE3: 0.1 or worse; age: G1 <60, G2 = 60–70, and G3 >70 years. PAM accuracy was divided into: Grade 1: Postoperative BCVA ≤1 or less line error of the PAM score, Grade 2: Between 1 and 2 lines error, and Grade 3: ≥3 lines or more error. Results: This study enrolled 57 patients with a mean age of 71.05 ± 6.78 years where 34 were females. There were 21 (36.84%) patients with diabetic maculopathy and 36 (63.16%) with age-related macular degeneration. The mean preoperative BCVA was 0.198 ± 0.12 (0.1–0.5). The mean PAM score was 0.442 ± 0.24 (0.1–1.3). The mean postoperative BCVA was 0.4352 ± 0.19 (0.17–1.00). The PAM score was in Grade 1, 2, and 3 in 46 (80.7%), 54 (94.7%), and 56 (98.2), respectively. There was a highly significant correlation between the PAM score and the postoperative BCVA (P < 0.001, Chi-square test). There was no correlation between the PAM test accuracy and age, gender, diagnosis, and preoperative BCVA (P = 0.661, 0.667, 0. 0.991, 0.833, Chi-square test; respectively). Conclusion: The PAM is an accurate method of predicting postoperative visual acuity for eyes with nuclear cataracts Grade I and II and inactive maculopathies. PMID:26655002

  2. Rate of intraoperative complications during cataract surgery following intravitreal injections.

    PubMed

    Hahn, P; Jiramongkolchai, K; Stinnett, S; Daluvoy, M; Kim, T

    2016-08-01

    PurposeTo investigate the effect of prior intravitreal injections on intraoperative and postoperative complication rates associated with cataract surgery.MethodsA retrospective cohort analysis reviewed 10 105 cataract surgery procedures performed by experienced surgeons at the Duke Eye Center from 1 January 2005 to 10 December 2012. A group of 197 eyes with prior intravitreal injections was compared with an equal number of matched control eyes without prior injection using the Fisher's exact test of difference in proportions and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test of difference in means. Outcomes analyzed included baseline demographic information, preoperative clinical characteristics, prevalence of intraoperative complications, and postoperative intraocular pressure, glaucoma surgery, and glaucoma medication requirement through 1 year following cataract surgery.ResultsAn increased rate of intraoperative complications was identified during cataract surgery in eyes with prior intravitreal injections compared with control eyes (3 vs 0%, P=0.030). Injection eyes required more glaucoma medications at 1 year, but no difference was identified if steroid injections were excluded. No difference in postoperative IOP or glaucoma surgery was identified. No cases of endophthalmitis were reported.ConclusionsA history of intravitreal injections may be a risk factor for cataract surgery-related intraoperative complications. We hypothesize this may be due to unidentified iatrogenic lens trauma during intravitreal injections. Particular attention to the posterior capsule during preoperative assessment and intraoperatively is recommended in eyes undergoing cataract surgery with a prior history of intravitreal injections.

  3. Cataract blindness--challenges for the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Brian, G.; Taylor, H.

    2001-01-01

    Cataract prevalence increases with age. As the world's population ages, cataract-induced visual dysfunction and blindness is on the increase. This is a significant global problem. The challenges are to prevent or delay cataract formation, and treat that which does occur. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to cataract formation. However, reducing ocular exposure to UV-B radiation and stopping smoking are the only interventions that can reduce factors that affect the risk of cataract. The cure for cataract is surgery, but this is not equally available to all, and the surgery which is available does not produce equal outcomes. Readily available surgical services capable of delivering good vision rehabilitation must be acceptable and accessible to all in need, no matter what their circumstances. To establish and sustain these services requires comprehensive strategies that go beyond a narrow focus on surgical technique. There must be changes in government priorities, population education, and an integrated approach to surgical and management training. This approach must include supply of start-up capital equipment, establishment of surgical audit, resupply of consumables, and cost-recovery mechanisms. Considerable innovation is required. Nowhere is this more evident than in the pursuit of secure funding for ongoing services. PMID:11285671

  4. [The genetic variability of complement system in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Kubicka-Trząska, Agnieszka; Karska-Basta, Izabella; Dziedzina, Sylwia; Sanak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible central vision impairment in people aged over 50 in developed countries. Age-related macular degeneration is a complex disease derived from environmental, immune and genetic factors. The complement pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Recently, variants in several genes, such as complement H (CFH), complement factor B (CFB), complement 2 (C2), and complement 3 (C3), encoding complement pathway proteins, have been identified as associated with age-related macular degeneration. However, the associations between these genes and age-related macular degeneration varied due to genetic variation within populations and various ethnics groups. The strongest association was found between the age-related macular degeneration and SNP Y402H rs 1061170 variant of CFH gene, which is present in 30% to 50% of age-related macular degeneration patients in Caucasian population and which is a risk factor for the development of age-related macular degeneration. Cohort studies showed that polymorphism Arg102Gly (SNP rs 2230199) of C3 protein could serve as a high-risk genetic marker for the development of age-related macular degeneration. Other rare variants of C3 (Lys155Gln, Lys65Gln, Arg735Trp, Ser1619Arg), may also be associated with a high incidence of age-related macular degeneration in some ethnic groups. A protective haplotype of variants E318D and IVS10 in the C2 gene as well as L9H and R320 in the BF were associated with age-related macular degeneration but only in Caucasians. The genetic findings in age-related macular degeneration patients stress the importance of detailed phenotyping to identify age-related macular degeneration subtypes, which may be associated with the presence of different polymorphisms and various environmental risk factors in any population. Further studies may be helpful to improve the effectiveness of prophylaxis and therapeutic options in age-related

  5. Overview of the current attempts toward the medical treatment of cataract

    SciTech Connect

    Kador, P.F.

    1983-04-01

    A variety of agents are currently available that claim to either prevent, delay, or reverse cataracts associated with aging (senile cataracts), radiation, or diabetes and galactosemia (sugar cataracts). Senile cataract therapy includes formulation containing inorganic salts, nutritional supplements, natural product extracts, sulfhydryl, and sulfonic acid containing compounds and miscellaneous redox and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compounds. Agents associated with the treatment of radiation cataracts include antioxidants and free radial scavengers. Aldose reductase inhibitors have been effective in the prevention of sugar cataracts. A summary of these agents and their potential ocular effects are presented.

  6. Welding arc plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cain, Bruce L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of weld quality control and weld process dependability continue to be relevant issues in modern metal welding technology. These become especially important for NASA missions which may require the assembly or repair of larger orbiting platforms using automatic welding techniques. To extend present welding technologies for such applications, NASA/MSFC's Materials and Processes Lab is developing physical models of the arc welding process with the goal of providing both a basis for improved design of weld control systems, and a better understanding of how arc welding variables influence final weld properties. The physics of the plasma arc discharge is reasonably well established in terms of transport processes occurring in the arc column itself, although recourse to sophisticated numerical treatments is normally required to obtain quantitative results. Unfortunately the rigor of these numerical computations often obscures the physics of the underlying model due to its inherent complexity. In contrast, this work has focused on a relatively simple physical model of the arc discharge to describe the gross features observed in welding arcs. Emphasis was placed of deriving analytic expressions for the voltage along the arc axis as a function of known or measurable arc parameters. The model retains the essential physics for a straight polarity, diffusion dominated free burning arc in argon, with major simplifications of collisionless sheaths and simple energy balances at the electrodes.

  7. Genetic evidence for common pathways in human age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Simon C; Dong, Xiao; Vijg, Jan; Suh, Yousin

    2015-10-01

    Aging is the single largest risk factor for chronic disease. Studies in model organisms have identified conserved pathways that modulate aging rate and the onset and progression of multiple age-related diseases, suggesting that common pathways of aging may influence age-related diseases in humans as well. To determine whether there is genetic evidence supporting the notion of common pathways underlying age-related diseases, we analyzed the genes and pathways found to be associated with five major categories of age-related disease using a total of 410 genomewide association studies (GWAS). While only a small number of genes are shared among all five disease categories, those found in at least three of the five major age-related disease categories are highly enriched for apoliprotein metabolism genes. We found that a more substantial number of gene ontology (GO) terms are shared among the 5 age-related disease categories and shared GO terms include canonical aging pathways identified in model organisms, such as nutrient-sensing signaling, translation, proteostasis, stress responses, and genome maintenance. Taking advantage of the vast amount of genetic data from the GWAS, our findings provide the first direct evidence that conserved pathways of aging simultaneously influence multiple age-related diseases in humans as has been demonstrated in model organisms.

  8. Age-Related Degeneration of the Egg-Laying System Promotes Matricidal Hatching in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Christopher L.; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Summary The identification and characterization of age-related degenerative changes is a critical goal because it can elucidate mechanisms of aging biology and contribute to understanding interventions that promote longevity. Here we document a novel, age-related degenerative change in C. elegans hermaphrodites, an important model system for the genetic analysis of longevity. Matricidal hatching—intra-uterine hatching of progeny that causes maternal death—displayed an age-related increase in frequency and affected ∼70% of mated, wild-type hermaphrodites. The timing and incidence of matricidal hatching were largely independent of the levels of early and total progeny production and the duration of male exposure. Thus, matricidal hatching appears to reflect intrinsic age-related degeneration of the egg-laying system rather than use-dependent damage accumulation. Consistent with this model, mutations that extend longevity by causing dietary restriction significantly delayed matricidal hatching, indicating age-related degeneration of the egg-laying system is controlled by nutrient availability. To identify the underlying tissue defect, we analyzed serotonin signaling that triggers vulval muscle contractions. Mated hermaphrodites displayed an age-related decline in the ability to lay eggs in response to exogenous serotonin, indicating that vulval muscles and/or a further downstream function that is necessary for egg-laying degenerate in an age-related manner. By characterizing a new, age-related degenerative event displayed by C. elegans hermaphrodites, these studies contribute to understanding a frequent cause of death in mated hermaphrodites and establish a model of age-related reproductive complications that may be relevant to the birthing process in other animals such as humans. PMID:23551912

  9. Ultraviolet radiation as a risk factor for cataract and macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Joan E

    2011-07-01

    The human eye is constantly exposed to sunlight and artificial lighting. Light transmission through the eye is fundamental to its unique biological functions of directing vision and circadian rhythm, and therefore, light absorbed by the eye must be benign. However, exposure to the intense ambient radiation can pose a hazard particularly if the recipient is over 40 years of age. This radiation exposure can lead to impaired vision and transient or permanent blindness.Both ultraviolet-A (UV-A) and UV-B induce cataract formation and are not necessary for sight. Ultraviolet radiation is also a risk factor for damage to the retinas of children. The removal of these wavelengths from ocular exposure will greatly reduce the risk of early cataract and retinal damage. One way this may be easily done is by wearing sunglasses that block wavelengths below 400 nm (marked 400 on the glasses). However, because of the geometry of the eye, these glasses must be wraparound sunglasses to prevent reflective UV radiation from reaching the eye. Additional protection may be offered by contact lenses that absorb significant amounts of UV radiation.In addition to UV radiation, short blue visible light (400-440 nm) is a risk factor for the adult human retina. This wavelength of light is not essential for sight and not necessary for a circadian rhythm response. For those over 50 years old, it would be of value to remove these wavelengths of light with specially designed sunglasses or contact lenses to reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration.

  10. Biomass Stoves and Lens Opacity and Cataract in Nepalese Women

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Amod K.; Bates, Michael N.; Shrestha, Sachet P.; Bailey, Ian L.; DiMartino, Robert B.; Smith, Kirk R.; Joshi, N. D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cataract is the most prevalent cause of blindness in Nepal. Several epidemiologic studies have associated cataracts with use of biomass cookstoves. These studies, however, have had limitations, including potential control selection bias and limited adjustment for possible confounding. This study, in Pokhara city, in an area of Nepal where biomass cookstoves are widely used without direct venting of the smoke to the outdoors, focuses on pre-clinical measures of opacity, while avoiding selection bias and taking into account comprehensive data on potential confounding factors Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, severity of lenticular damage, judged on the LOCS III scales, was investigated in females (n=143), aged 20-65 years, without previously diagnosed cataract. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationships with stove type and length of use. Clinically significant cataract, used in the logistic regression models, was defined as a LOCS III score > 2. Results Using gas cookstoves as the reference group, logistic regression analysis for nuclear cataract showed the evidence of relationships with stove type: for biomass stoves, the odds ratio (OR) was 2.58 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-5.46) and, for kerosene stoves, the OR was 5.18 (95% CI: 0.88-30.38). Similar results were found for nuclear color (LOCS III score > 2), but no association was found with cortical cataracts. Supporting a relationship between biomass stoves and nuclear cataract was a trend with years of exposure to biomass cookstoves (p=0.01). Linear regression analyses did not show clear evidence of an association between lenticular damage and stove types. Biomass fuel used for heating was not associated with any form of opacity. Conclusions This study provides support for associations of biomass and kerosene cookstoves with nuclear opacity and change in nuclear color. The novel associations with kerosene cookstove use deserve further investigation

  11. TIGER Arc Modification Application

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Hillary

    1995-03-06

    The application enables the geometric correction of TIGER arcs to a more accurate spatial data set. This is done in a structured automated environment according to Census Bureau guidelines and New Mexico state GIS standards. Arcs may be deleted, added, combined, split, and moved relative to a coverage or image displayed in the background.

  12. Long-Term Changes in Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness After Cataract Surgery.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Tolga; Karci, Ayse Aslihan; Yilmaz, İhsan; Yılmaz, Ahu; Yıldırım, Yusuf; Sakalar, Yildirim Bayezit

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cataract surgery is associated with the development of late-onset age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The pathogenic mechanism is still not fully established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible changes in central macula thickness (CMT) and subfoveal choroid thickness (SCT) after uneventful cataract surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 65 eyes of 65 patients who underwent phacoemulsification and intracapsular lens implantation were included in this prospective study. Patients had not undergone previous ocular surgery and had no other ocular abnormality. CMT and SCT were measured at baseline and postoperatively at week 1 and months 1, 3, 6 and 12 via spectral domain optical cohorence tomography (SD-OCT). RESULTS CMT was 252.4±27.6 μm (mean ±SD) preoperatively, then 253.5±29.8, 256.1±28.7, 257.4±27.2, 253.18±23.7, and 252.8±21.7 μm at postoperative week 1 and postoperative months 1, 3, 6, and 12, respectively. There were insignificant changes in CMT, and it returned to baseline at six months after surgery (all p>0.05). SCT was 237.4±21.6 μm preoperatively, and 240.5±24.8, 241.2±25.7, 242.7±26.3, 243.1±24.2, and 244.2±21.4 μm at postoperative week 1 and postoperative months 1, 3, 6, and 12, respectively. Although there was an increase in SCT during follow-up, the difference between preoperative and postoperative values was not significant (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS Uncomplicated phacoemulsification induces subclinical changes in CMT, probably due to the inflammatory insult of surgery, and CMT returns to baseline value. There were slight, insignificant increases in choroid thickness during follow-up, and this did not return to baseline during follow-up. Changes in the choroid after cataract surgery may provide clues to the development of late-onset AMD. PMID:27158971

  13. The Bst locus on mouse chromosome 16 is associated with age-related subretinal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard S.; John, Simon W. M.; Zabeleta, Adriana; Davisson, Muriel T.; Hawes, Norman L.; Chang, Bo

    2000-01-01

    Ocular neovascularization is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries and often causes rapid loss of vision in age-related macular degeneration. Acute visual loss is most often due to hemorrhage from new vessels that have extended from the choroid into the subretinal space. Growth of abnormal vessels beneath the retina in this condition is known as subretinal neovascularization (SRN). Age-related animal models of macular degeneration and SRN have not been described. Current animal models of SRN depend on chemical or physical stimuli to initiate growth of subretinal vessels. The genes responsible for age-related human macular degeneration with SRN have not been firmly identified. We report an angiogenic phenotype in Bst/+ mice that is age-related, clinically evident, and resembles human SRN. This represents a spontaneous, genetically determined model of SRN. Bst/+ mice offer the possibility of exploring the molecular mechanisms of SRN without the need for exogenous agents. PMID:10681427

  14. Aging Changes in Retinal Microglia and their Relevance to Age-related Retinal Disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenxin; Wong, Wai T

    2016-01-01

    Age-related retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma, contain features of chronic retinal inflammation that may promote disease progression. However, the relationship between aging and neuroinflammation is unclear. Microglia are long-lived, resident immune cells of the retina, and mediate local neuroinflammatory reactions. We hypothesize that aging changes in microglia may be causally linked to neuroinflammatory changes underlying age-dependent retinal diseases. Here, we review the evidence for (1) how the retinal microglial phenotype changes with aging, (2) the factors that drive microglial aging in the retina, and (3) aging-related changes in microglial gene expression. We examine how these aspects of microglial aging changes may relate to pathogenic mechanisms of immune dysregulation driving the progression of age-related retinal disease. These relationships can highlight microglial aging as a novel target for the prevention and treatment of retinal disease.

  15. From mind wandering to involuntary retrieval: Age-related differences in spontaneous cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Maillet, David; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    The majority of studies that have investigated the effects of healthy aging on cognition have focused on age-related differences in voluntary and deliberately engaged cognitive processes. Yet many forms of cognition occur spontaneously, without any deliberate attempt at engaging them. In this article we review studies that have assessed age-related differences in four such types of spontaneous thought processes: mind-wandering, involuntary autobiographical memory, intrusive thoughts, and spontaneous prospective memory retrieval. These studies suggest that older adults exhibit a reduction in frequency of both mind-wandering and involuntary autobiographical memory, whereas findings regarding intrusive thoughts have been more mixed. Additionally, there is some preliminary evidence that spontaneous prospective memory retrieval may be relatively preserved in aging. We consider the roles of age-related differences in cognitive resources, motivation, current concerns and emotional regulation in accounting for these findings. We also consider age-related differences in the neural correlates of spontaneous cognitive processes.

  16. Age-related differences in neurotoxicity produced by organophosphorus and N-methyl carbamate pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potential pesticide effects in infants and toddlers have received much attention in the scientific literature and the public media, including the concern for increased response to acute or shortterm exposures. Age-related differences in the acute neurotoxicity of acetylcholinest...

  17. AGE-RELATED GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN HUMAN SKIN FIBROBLASTS INDUCED BY MMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Age-Related Gene Expression Changes In Human Skin Fibroblasts Induced By methyl methanesulfonate. Geremy W. Knapp, Alan H. Tennant, and Russell D. Owen. Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U. S. Environmental Prote...

  18. Lazy arc consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Schiex, T.; Gaspin, C.; Regin, J.C.; Verfaillie, G.

    1996-12-31

    Arc consistency filtering is widely used in the framework of binary constraint satisfaction problems: with a low complexity, inconsistency may be detected and domains are filtered. In this paper, we show that when detecting inconsistency is the objective, a systematic domain filtering is useless and a lazy approach is more adequate. Whereas usual arc consistency algorithms produce the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, when it exists, we propose a method, called LAC{tau}, which only looks for any arc consistent sub-domain. The algorithm is then extended to provide the additional service of locating one variable with a minimum domain cardinality in the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, without necessarily computing all domain sizes. Finally, we compare traditional AC enforcing and lazy AC enforcing using several benchmark problems, both randomly generated CSP and real life problems.

  19. Controlled processes account for age-related decrease in episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Vanderaspoilden, Valérie; Adam, Stéphane; der Linden, Martial Van; Morais, José

    2007-05-01

    A decrease in controlled processes has been proposed to be responsible for age-related episodic memory decline. We used the Process Dissociation Procedure, a method that attempts to estimate the contribution of controlled and automatic processes to cognitive performance, and entered both estimates in regression analyses. Results indicate that only controlled processes explained a great part of the age-related variance in a word recall task, especially when little environmental support was offered. PMID:16860766

  20. Altered Hippocampal Transcript Profile Accompanies an Age-Related Spatial Memory Deficit in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbitsky, Miguel; Yonan, Amanda L.; Malleret, Gael; Kandel, Eric R.; Gilliam, T. Conrad; Pavlidis, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out a global survey of age-related changes in mRNA levels in the 57BL/6NIA mouse hippocampus and found a difference in the hippocampal gene expression profile between 2-month-old young mice and 15-month-old middle-aged mice correlated with an age-related cognitive deficit in hippocampal-based explicit memory formation. Middle-aged…

  1. Computational assessment of effective dose and patient specific doses for kilovoltage stereotactic radiosurgery of wet age-related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlon, Justin Mitchell

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss and a major health problem for people over the age of 50 in industrialized nations. The current standard of care, ranibizumab, is used to help slow and in some cases stabilize the process of AMD, but requires frequent invasive injections into the eye. Interest continues for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), an option that provides a non-invasive treatment for the wet form of AMD, through the development of the IRay(TM) (Oraya Therapeutics, Inc., Newark, CA). The goal of this modality is to destroy choroidal neovascularization beneath the pigment epithelium via delivery of three 100 kVp photon beams entering through the sclera and overlapping on the macula delivering up to 24 Gy of therapeutic dose over a span of approximately 5 minutes. The divergent x-ray beams targeting the fovea are robotically positioned and the eye is gently immobilized by a suction-enabled contact lens. Device development requires assessment of patient effective dose, reference patient mean absorbed doses to radiosensitive tissues, and patient specific doses to the lens and optic nerve. A series of head phantoms, including both reference and patient specific, was derived from CT data and employed in conjunction with the MCNPX 2.5.0 radiation transport code to simulate treatment and evaluate absorbed doses to potential tissues-at-risk. The reference phantoms were used to evaluate effective dose and mean absorbed doses to several radiosensitive tissues. The optic nerve was modeled with changeable positions based on individual patient variability seen in a review of head CT scans gathered. Patient specific phantoms were used to determine the effect of varying anatomy and gaze. The results showed that absorbed doses to the non-targeted tissues were below the threshold levels for serious complications; specifically the development of radiogenic cataracts and radiation induced optic neuropathy (RON). The effective dose

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis should continually assess competing health care options especially in high volume environments like cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ashiya; Amitava, Abadan Khan; Rizvi, Syed Ali Raza; Siddiqui, Ziya; Kumari, Namita; Grover, Shivani

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cost-effectiveness analysis should continually assess competing health care options especially in high volume environments like cataract surgery. Aims: To compare the cost effectiveness of phacoemulsification (PE) versus manual small-incision cataract surgery (MSICS). Settings and Design: Prospective randomized controlled trial. Tertiary care hospital setting. Subjects and Methods: A total of 52 consenting patients with age-related cataracts, were prospectively recruited, and block randomized to PE or MSICS group. Preoperative and postoperative LogMAR visual acuity (VA), visual function-14 (VF-14) score and their quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were obtained, and the change in their values calculated. These were divided by the total cost incurred in the surgery to calculate and compare the cost effectiveness and cost utility. Surgery duration was also compared. Statistical Analysis Used: Two group comparison with Student's t-test. Significance set at P < 0.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) quoted where appropriate. Results: Both the MSICS and PE groups achieved comparative outcomes in terms of change (difference in mean [95% CI]) in LogMAR VA (0.03 [−0.05−0.11]), VF-14 score (7.92 [−1.03−16.86]) and QALYs (1.14 [−0.89−3.16]). However, with significantly lower costs (INR 3228 [2700–3756]), MSICS was more cost effective, with superior cost utility value. MSICS was also significantly quicker (10.58 min [6.85–14.30]) than PE. Conclusions: MSICS provides comparable visual and QALY improvement, yet takes less time, and is significantly more cost-effective, compared with PE. Greater push and penetration of MSICS, by the government, is justifiably warranted in our country. PMID:26265639

  3. Dynamic and differential regulation in the microRNA expression in the developing and mature cataractous rat lens

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Eri; Hasanova, Nailia; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Singh, Dhirendra P

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence supports a role for microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating gene expression, and alterations in gene expression are known to affect cells involved in the development of ageing disorders. Using developing rat lens epithelial cells (LECs), we profiled the expression of miRNAs by a microarray-based approach. Few gene expression changes known to be involved in pathogenesis or cytoprotection were uniquely influenced by miRNA expression. Most miRNAs increased or decreased in abundance (let 7b, let 7c, miR29a, miR29c, miR126 and miR551b) in LECs/lenses during late embryonic and post-natal development and in cataract. Among them, miR29a, miR29c and miR126 were dramatically decreased in cataractous LECs from Shumiya Cataract Rats (SCRs). Specifically, the cytoskeleton remodelling genes tropomyosin (Tm) 1α and 2β, which have been implicated in the initiation of pathophysiology, were targets of miR29c and were over-stimulated as demonstrated by inhibitor experiments. In transfection experiments, increasing the level of miR29c caused a corresponding decrease in the expression of Tm1α and 2β, suggesting that miR29c may regulate the translation of Tm1α and 2β. 3′UTR luciferase activity of Tm1α, not 2β, was significantly decreased in miR29c-transfected mouse LECs. These findings demonstrate changes in miRNAs expression, and target molecules have potential as diagnostic indicators of ageing and as a foundation of miR-based therapeutics for age-related diseases. PMID:23844765

  4. The Digital Ageing Atlas: integrating the diversity of age-related changes into a unified resource.

    PubMed

    Craig, Thomas; Smelick, Chris; Tacutu, Robi; Wuttke, Daniel; Wood, Shona H; Stanley, Henry; Janssens, Georges; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Moskalev, Alexey; Arking, Robert; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies characterizing the human ageing phenotype have been conducted for decades. However, there is no centralized resource in which data on multiple age-related changes are collated. Currently, researchers must consult several sources, including primary publications, in order to obtain age-related data at various levels. To address this and facilitate integrative, system-level studies of ageing we developed the Digital Ageing Atlas (DAA). The DAA is a one-stop collection of human age-related data covering different biological levels (molecular, cellular, physiological, psychological and pathological) that is freely available online (http://ageing-map.org/). Each of the >3000 age-related changes is associated with a specific tissue and has its own page displaying a variety of information, including at least one reference. Age-related changes can also be linked to each other in hierarchical trees to represent different types of relationships. In addition, we developed an intuitive and user-friendly interface that allows searching, browsing and retrieving information in an integrated and interactive fashion. Overall, the DAA offers a new approach to systemizing ageing resources, providing a manually-curated and readily accessible source of age-related changes.

  5. The Digital Ageing Atlas: integrating the diversity of age-related changes into a unified resource

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Thomas; Smelick, Chris; Tacutu, Robi; Wuttke, Daniel; Wood, Shona H.; Stanley, Henry; Janssens, Georges; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Moskalev, Alexey; Arking, Robert; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies characterizing the human ageing phenotype have been conducted for decades. However, there is no centralized resource in which data on multiple age-related changes are collated. Currently, researchers must consult several sources, including primary publications, in order to obtain age-related data at various levels. To address this and facilitate integrative, system-level studies of ageing we developed the Digital Ageing Atlas (DAA). The DAA is a one-stop collection of human age-related data covering different biological levels (molecular, cellular, physiological, psychological and pathological) that is freely available online (http://ageing-map.org/). Each of the >3000 age-related changes is associated with a specific tissue and has its own page displaying a variety of information, including at least one reference. Age-related changes can also be linked to each other in hierarchical trees to represent different types of relationships. In addition, we developed an intuitive and user-friendly interface that allows searching, browsing and retrieving information in an integrated and interactive fashion. Overall, the DAA offers a new approach to systemizing ageing resources, providing a manually-curated and readily accessible source of age-related changes. PMID:25232097

  6. Age-related differences in brain activity in the subsequent memory paradigm: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Maillet, David; Rajah, M Natasha

    2014-09-01

    Healthy aging is associated with declines in episodic memory. This reduction is thought to be due in part to age-related differences in encoding-related processes. In the current study, we performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies assessing age-related differences in the neural correlates of episodic encoding. Only studies using the subsequent memory paradigm were included. We found age-related under-recruitment of occipital and fusiform cortex, but over-recruitment in a set of regions including bilateral middle/superior frontal gyri, anterior medial frontal gyrus, precuneus and left inferior parietal lobe. We demonstrate that all of the regions consistently over-recruited by older adults during successful encoding exhibit either direct overlap, or occur in close vicinity to regions consistently involved in unsuccessful encoding in young adults. We discuss the possibility that this overall pattern of age-related differences represents an age-related shift in focus: away from perceptual details, and toward evaluative and personal thoughts and feelings during memory tasks. We discuss whether these age-related differences in brain activation benefit performance in older adults, and additional considerations.

  7. Association of age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Neelesh; Smith, R Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of adult blindness in the developed world. Thus, major endeavors to understand the risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease have been undertaken. Reticular macular disease is a proposed subtype of age-related macular degeneration correlating histologically with subretinal drusenoid deposits located between the retinal pigment epithelium and the inner segment ellipsoid zone. Reticular lesions are more prevalent in females and in older age groups and are associated with a higher mortality rate. Risk factors for developing age-related macular degeneration include hypertension, smoking, and angina. Several genes related to increased risk for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease are also associated with cardiovascular disease. Better understanding of the clinical and genetic risk factors for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease has led to the hypothesis that these eye diseases are systemic. A systemic origin may help to explain why reticular disease is diagnosed more frequently in females as males suffer cardiovascular mortality at an earlier age, before the age of diagnosis of reticular macular disease and age-related macular degeneration.

  8. [Age-related macular degeneration as a local manifestation of atherosclerosis - a novel insight into pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Machalińska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible visual impairment and disability among the elderly in developed countries. There is compelling evidence that atherosclerosis and age-related macular degeneration share a similar pathogenic process. The association between atherosclerosis and age-related macular degeneration has been inferred from histological, biochemical and epidemiological studies. Many published data indicate that drusen are similar in molecular composition to plaques in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, a great body of evidence has emerged over the past decade that implicates the chronic inflammatory processes in the pathogenesis and progression of both disorders. We speculate that vascular atherosclerosis and age-related macular degeneration may represent different manifestations of the same disease induced by a pathologic tissue response to the damage caused by oxidative stress and local ischemia. In this review, we characterise in detail a strong association between age-related macular degeneration and atherosclerosis development, and we postulate the hypothesis that age-related macular degeneration is a local manifestation of a systemic disease. This provides a new approach for understanding the aspects of pathogenesis and might improve the prevention and treatment of both diseases which both result from ageing of the human body.

  9. The first cataract surgeons in Anglo-America.

    PubMed

    Leffler, Christopher T; Schwartz, Stephen G; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Braich, Puneet S

    2015-01-01

    We tried to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in the English-speaking areas of America. In 1751, couching was performed on the Caribbean island of Montserrat by John Morphy. William Stork of England, who couched cataracts, practiced in Jamaica in 1760 and then in cities from Annapolis to Boston between 1761 and 1764. Frederick William Jericho of Germany, upon completion of his training at Utrecht, published his 1767 treatise on his preferred surgical technique of extracapsular cataract extraction. Jericho had practiced in the Leeward Islands by 1776 and then in cities from Charleston to Boston between 1783 and 1785. The French surgeon Lewis Leprilete was the first to advertise cataract extraction in the United States in 1782 and probably passed on the skill to his protégé, Nathaniel Miller of Massachusetts. Leprilete was also the first to publicize Benjamin Franklin's invention of bifocals. These pioneers exposed American doctors and the public to cataract surgery. Shortly after their arrival, evidence emerges of other surgeons performing these procedures in America.

  10. Effect of radioprotective agents on X-ray cataracts

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, V.N.; Ikebe, H.; Giblin, F.J.; Clark, J.I.; Livesey, J.C. )

    1989-01-01

    The effect of some protective agents on cataract development is briefly reviewed and new evidence is presented on the efficacy of a phosphorothioate compound (Amifostine) in inhibiting the development of X-ray-induced cataract. Morphological studies showed that at the end of 4 months, lenses from X-irradiated rats which had not received any drugs showed liquefaction in the equatorial region and at the posterior pole, as well as a marked swelling of the fibers in the anterior cortex. Animals which received 1.16g/kg of WR77913 showed considerable protection against the development of radiation induced cataracts with morphological changes in the lens being less severe than in animals receiving no drugs. When animals were treated with 0.5g/kg of Amifostine (WR2721) the lenses showed much greater protection against cataract development than with WR77913. Amifostine appears to be more effective than WR77913 in inhibiting X-ray-induced cataract development. 20 refs.

  11. High contrast radiography of normal and cataractous canine lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, A.; Hönnicke, M. G.; Cusatis, C.; Morelhão, S. L.

    2005-05-01

    Cataract is a disease that degrades the transparency of crystalline lenses. The crystalline lens is a cellular structure that has a unique shape and protein composition. Cataract is associated with changes in the structure and composition of the lenses. Analyser-based x-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI) is a non-destructive technique that presents images with more contrast and details than the images acquired with conventional synchrotron radiography. Here, an analyser-based x-ray PCI set-up was optimized in the XRD2 beamline at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory for comparative studies on PCI and conventional synchrotron radiography, for non-cataractous (healthy tissue) and cataractous crystalline (diseased tissue) lenses. Refraction angle and apparent absorption contrast images (diffraction enhanced imaging—DEI) were also obtained. The present PCI and DEI images indicate that the healthy tissue shows enhanced shell structures, while in the diseased tissue these are almost absent. This is associated with the clinical case of total opacity of the cataractous crystalline lenses when it is exposed to visible light.

  12. The first cataract surgeons in Anglo-America.

    PubMed

    Leffler, Christopher T; Schwartz, Stephen G; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Braich, Puneet S

    2015-01-01

    We tried to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in the English-speaking areas of America. In 1751, couching was performed on the Caribbean island of Montserrat by John Morphy. William Stork of England, who couched cataracts, practiced in Jamaica in 1760 and then in cities from Annapolis to Boston between 1761 and 1764. Frederick William Jericho of Germany, upon completion of his training at Utrecht, published his 1767 treatise on his preferred surgical technique of extracapsular cataract extraction. Jericho had practiced in the Leeward Islands by 1776 and then in cities from Charleston to Boston between 1783 and 1785. The French surgeon Lewis Leprilete was the first to advertise cataract extraction in the United States in 1782 and probably passed on the skill to his protégé, Nathaniel Miller of Massachusetts. Leprilete was also the first to publicize Benjamin Franklin's invention of bifocals. These pioneers exposed American doctors and the public to cataract surgery. Shortly after their arrival, evidence emerges of other surgeons performing these procedures in America. PMID:25444521

  13. Prognostic Factors for Visual Outcome in Traumatic Cataract Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan F.; Zhu, Yu; Wan, Ming G.; Du, Shan S.; Yue, Zhen Z.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the prognostic factors for visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients. Methods. The demographic features of traumatic cataract patients in Central China were studied. The factors that might influence the visual outcome were analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of OTS (ocular trauma score) in predicting VA were calculated. Results. The study enrolled 480 cases. 65.5% of patients achieved VA at >20/60. The factors associated with the final VA were initial VA, injury type, wound location, the way of cataract removal, and IOL implantation. The sensitivities of OTS in predicting the VA at NLP (nonlight perception), LP/HM (light perception/hand motion), and ≥20/40 were 100%. The specificity of OTS to predict the final VA at 1/200-19/200 and 20/200-20/50 was 100%. Conclusion. The prognostic factors were initial VA, injury type, wound location, cataract removal procedure, and the way of IOL implantation. The OTS has good sensitivity and specificity in predicting visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients in long follow-up.

  14. Prognostic Factors for Visual Outcome in Traumatic Cataract Patients.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ying; Zhang, Yan F; Zhu, Yu; Wan, Ming G; Du, Shan S; Yue, Zhen Z

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the prognostic factors for visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients. Methods. The demographic features of traumatic cataract patients in Central China were studied. The factors that might influence the visual outcome were analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of OTS (ocular trauma score) in predicting VA were calculated. Results. The study enrolled 480 cases. 65.5% of patients achieved VA at >20/60. The factors associated with the final VA were initial VA, injury type, wound location, the way of cataract removal, and IOL implantation. The sensitivities of OTS in predicting the VA at NLP (nonlight perception), LP/HM (light perception/hand motion), and ≥20/40 were 100%. The specificity of OTS to predict the final VA at 1/200-19/200 and 20/200-20/50 was 100%. Conclusion. The prognostic factors were initial VA, injury type, wound location, cataract removal procedure, and the way of IOL implantation. The OTS has good sensitivity and specificity in predicting visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients in long follow-up. PMID:27595014

  15. Prognostic Factors for Visual Outcome in Traumatic Cataract Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan F.; Zhu, Yu; Wan, Ming G.; Du, Shan S.; Yue, Zhen Z.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the prognostic factors for visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients. Methods. The demographic features of traumatic cataract patients in Central China were studied. The factors that might influence the visual outcome were analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of OTS (ocular trauma score) in predicting VA were calculated. Results. The study enrolled 480 cases. 65.5% of patients achieved VA at >20/60. The factors associated with the final VA were initial VA, injury type, wound location, the way of cataract removal, and IOL implantation. The sensitivities of OTS in predicting the VA at NLP (nonlight perception), LP/HM (light perception/hand motion), and ≥20/40 were 100%. The specificity of OTS to predict the final VA at 1/200-19/200 and 20/200-20/50 was 100%. Conclusion. The prognostic factors were initial VA, injury type, wound location, cataract removal procedure, and the way of IOL implantation. The OTS has good sensitivity and specificity in predicting visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients in long follow-up. PMID:27595014

  16. The First Cataract Surgeons in Anglo-America

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Braich, Puneet S.

    2014-01-01

    We tried to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in the English-speaking areas of America. In 1751, couching was performed on the Caribbean island of Montserrat by John Morphy. William Stork of England, who couched cataracts, practiced in Jamaica in 1760 and then in cities from Annapolis to Boston between 1761 and 1764. Frederick William Jericho of Germany, upon completion of his training at Utrecht, published his 1767 treatise on his preferred surgical technique of extracapsular cataract extraction. Jericho had practiced in the Leeward Islands by 1776 and then in cities from Charleston to Boston between 1783 and 1785. The French surgeon Lewis Leprilete was the first to advertise cataract extraction in the United States in 1782 and probably passed on the skill to his protégé, Nathaniel Miller of Massachusetts. Leprilete was also the first to publicize Benjamin Franklin's invention of bifocals.. These pioneers exposed American doctors and the public to cataract surgery. Shortly after their arrival, evidence emerges of other surgeons performing these procedures in America. PMID:25444521

  17. Contesting the dogma of an age-related heat shock response impairment: implications for cardiac-specific age-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Carnemolla, Alisia; Labbadia, John P; Lazell, Hayley; Neueder, Andreas; Moussaoui, Saliha; Bates, Gillian P

    2014-07-15

    Ageing is associated with the reduced performance of physiological processes and has been proposed as a major risk factor for disease. An age-related decline in stress response pathways has been widely documented in lower organisms. In particular, the heat shock response (HSR) becomes severely compromised with age in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, a comprehensive analysis of the consequences of ageing on the HSR in higher organisms has not been documented. We used both HS and inhibition of HSP90 to induce the HSR in wild-type mice at 3 and 22 months of age to investigate the extent to which different brain regions, and peripheral tissues can sustain HSF1 activity and HS protein (HSP) expression with age. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we were unable to detect a difference in the level or kinetics of HSP expression between young and old mice in all brain regions. In contrast, we did observe an age-related reduction in chaperone levels and HSR-related proteins in the heart. This could result in a decrease in the protein folding capacity of old hearts with implications for age-related cardiac disorders.

  18. Surgical and Functional Results of Hybrid 25-27-Gauge Vitrectomy Combined with Coaxial 2.2 mm Small Incision Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Höhn, Fabian; Kretz, Florian; Pavlidis, Mitrofanis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate outcomes after coaxial 2.2 mm small incision cataract surgery combined with hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy in eyes with vitreoretinal disease and age-related cataract. Methods. A single-center, retrospective case series study of 55 subjects (55 eyes) with a mean age of 70 years who underwent combined small incision phacoemulsification, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy during the 12-month period to December 2014. Intraoperative and postoperative complications and visual results were the main outcome measures. Results. The mean follow-up period was 6 months (range: 2–18 months). Intraoperative findings were 3 retinal breaks (5.5%). No cases required corneal or scleral suture or conversion to larger-gauge vitrectomy. Postoperative complications consisted of posterior capsule opacification (12.7%), elevated intraocular pressure >30 mmHg (1.8%), and fibrin reaction (5.5%). There were no cases of hypotony (<7 mmHg), IOL decentration, or postoperative endophthalmitis. Visual acuity (mean ± SD) improved from 0.52 ± 0.6 logMAR preoperatively to 0.22 ± 0.46 logMAR at final postoperative visit (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. Surgical and visual outcomes suggest hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy combined with small incision phacoemulsification and IOL implantation is feasible, safe, and effective as a one-step surgical procedure for the management of vitreoretinal pathologies and concurrent cataract. PMID:26966558

  19. The use of vitamin supplements and the risk of cataract among US male physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, J M; Christen, W G; Manson, J E; LaMotte, F S; Glynn, R J; Buring, J E; Hennekens, C H

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to examine prospectively the association between reported use of vitamin supplements and risk of cataract and cataract extraction. METHODS. The study population consisted of 17,744 participants in the Physicians' Health Study, a randomized trial of aspirin therapy and beta-carotene among US male physicians 40 to 84 years of age in 1982 who did not report cataract at baseline and provided complete information about vitamin supplementation and other risk factors for cataract. Self-reports of cataract and cataract extraction were confirmed by medical record review. RESULTS. During 60 months of follow-up, there were 370 incident cataracts and 109 cataract extractions. In comparison with physicians who did not use any supplements, those who took only multivitamins had a relative risk of cataract of 0.73 after adjustment for other risk factors. For cataract extraction, the corresponding relative risk was 0.79. Use of vitamin C and/or E supplements alone was not associated with a reduced risk of cataract, but the size of this subgroup was small. CONCLUSIONS. These data suggest that men who took multivitamin supplements tended to experience a decreased risk of cataract and support the need for rigorous testing of this hypothesis in large-scale randomized trials in men and women. PMID:8179050

  20. Effects of histone acetylation on superoxide dismutase 1 gene expression in the pathogenesis of senile cataract

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Xianfang; Qiu, Xiaodi; Jiang, Yongxiang; Li, Dan; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Yinglei; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation plays key roles in gene expression, but its effects on superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) expression in senile cataract remains unknown. To address this problem, the study was to investigate the influence of histone acetylation on SOD1 expression and its effects in the pathogenesis of senile cataract. Senile cataract was classified into three types—nuclear cataract (NC), cortical cataract (CC), and posterior subcapsular cataract (SC)—using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. In senile cataracts, SOD1 expression decreased significantly. Both H3 and H4 were deacetylated at −600 bp of the SOD1 promoter of cataract lenses, and hypoacetylated at −1500, −1200, and −900 bp. In hypoacetylated histones, the hypoacetylation pattern differed among the cataracts. In vitro, anacardic acid (AA) significantly reduced H3 and H4 acetylation at the SOD1 promoter, decreased protein expression, and induced cataract formation in rabbits. AA also inhibited HLEC viability and increased cell apoptosis. In contrast, trichostatin A (TSA) was able to efficaciously stop AA’s effects on both rabbit lenses and HLECs. Decreased histone acetylation at the SOD1 promoter is associated with declined SOD1 expression in senile cataracts. Histone acetylation plays an essential role in the regulation of SOD1 expression and in the pathogenesis of senile cataracts. PMID:27703255

  1. Two new cataract loci, Ccw and To3, and further mapping of the Npp and Opj cataracts in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerscher, S.; Glenister, P.H.; Lyon, M.F.; Favor, J.

    1996-08-15

    Many types of inherited early onset cataract are known in both human and mouse. Here we describe the mapping of two novel dominant cataract loci in the mouse genome. Cataract and curly whiskers, Ccw, maps to Chromosome 4, 3.1 {+-} 1.1 cM distal to the b (brown) locus. Total opacity 3, To3, maps to Chromosome 7, 7.1 {+-} 1.8 cM proximal top (pink-eyed dilution). The map positions of two other dominant cataract mutants have now been refined by three-point crosses. Nuclear and posterior polar cataract, Npp, maps to the central part of Chromosome 5,1.4 {+-} 0.5 cM distal to W{sup e} (dominant spotting-extreme, an allele at the Kit locus), and Opaque secondary fiber cell junctions, Opj, maps to the proximal region of Chromosome 16, 9.1 {+-} 1.5 cM distal to the marker md (mahoganoid). While there are no obvious candidate genes in the vicinity of the Ccw, Npp, and Opj mutations, To3 lies remarkably close to the recently mapped Lim2 locus, which encodes lens intrinsic membrane protein 2. also called MP19. 24 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. A novel MIP mutation in familial congenital nuclear cataracts.

    PubMed

    Qin, Litao; Guo, Liangjie; Wang, Hongdan; Li, Tao; Lou, Guiyu; Guo, Qiannan; Hou, Qiaofang; Liu, Hongyan; Liao, Shixiu; Liu, Zhe

    2016-09-01

    We screened 60 known genes which are involved in inherited cataract in a pregnant woman with a four-generation family history of autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract through next-generation sequencing (NGS) and identified a heterozygous mutation, c.508dupC (p.L170fs), in the major intrinsic protein (MIP) gene. This mutation results in a frame-shift in MIP and has not been previously reported. The correlation of the mutation with disease was validated by Sanger sequencing of DNA from the other affected or unaffected members of the family. Therefore, our data expand the mutation spectrum of MIP mutation, and suggest that NGS is an accurate, rapid, and cost-effective method in the genetic diagnosis of congenital nuclear cataract.

  3. State of the Art in Pediatric Cataract Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nischal, Kanwal Ken

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric cataract surgery has evolved dramatically in the past 10 years. Our understanding of the child's eye both in terms of tissue mechanics, neurobiological plasticity and physiological growth has allowed better and better surgical outcomes. The fact remains that the younger the child - infants especially - the more difficult the surgery. It is also true to say that not only is a child's eye not a small adult eye, but also that the child him- or herself is not a small adult. The importance of this statement is evident when we discuss the effects of anesthesia and fluid input in infants during infant cataract surgery. This chapter discusses the factors that should help give a child the best possible outcome after cataract surgery including timing of surgery, type of operation, biometry, the size and type of intraocular lens material , postoperative refraction, operative considerations, wound size and type, capsule management, anterior vitrectomy technique, wound closure and viscoelastic removal and perioperative medications. PMID:27043389

  4. Congenital cataracts in an Ayrshire herd: a herd case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An Ayrshire dairy herd was investigated for occurrence of ocular abnormalities in new-born calves. Ophthalmic examinations were performed on all the animals in the herd and 26% of them were diagnosed with bilateral cataracts. Cataracts varied in extent and severity but the majority were restricted to the lens nucleus. Epidemiological analysis showed the prevalence was higher in male animals and lower in animals born to heifers. A family tree was designed but no genetic impact of dam lines was evident. Sire data was incomplete and could therefore not be included. Based on the information provided by the farmer there was no obvious environmental or nutritional cause of these cataracts. However, data records were incomplete and further investigation/monitoring of the herd would be needed to establish a cause and enable a better insight into the aetiology of this disease in cattle. PMID:24460638

  5. Cataract production in mice by heavy charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ainsworth, E. J.; Jose, U.; Yang, V. V.; Barker, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The cataractogenic effects of heavy charged particles are evaluated in mice in relation to dose and ionization density. The relative biological effectiveness in relation to linear energy transfer for various particles is considered. Results indicated that low single doses (5 to 20 rad) of Fe 56 or Ar 40 particles are cataractogenic at 11 to 18 months after irradiation; onset and density of the opacification are dose related and cataract density (grade) at 9, 11, 13, and 16 months after irradiation shows partial linear energy transfer dependence. The severity of cataracts is reduced significantly when 417 rad of Co 60 gamma radiation is given in 24 weekly 17 rad fractions compared to giving this radiation as a single dose, but cataract severity is not reduced by fractionation of C12 doses over 24 weeks.

  6. Predicting the Incidence of Human Cataract through Retinal Imaging Technology.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Sun, Han-Ying; Liu, Hsiang-Jui; Lue, Jiann-Hwa; Yeh, Shang-Min

    2015-11-01

    With the progress of science, technology and medicine, the proportion of elderly people in society has gradually increased over the years. Thus, the medical care and health issues of this population have drawn increasing attention. In particular, among the common medical problems of the elderly, the occurrence of cataracts has been widely observed. In this study, we developed retinal imaging technology by establishing a human eye module with ray tracing. Periodic hole arrays with different degrees were constructed on the anterior surface of the lens to emulate the eyesight decline caused by cataracts. Then, we successfully predicted the incidence of cataracts among people with myopia ranging from -3.0 D to -9.0 D. Results show that periodic hole arrays cause severe eyesight decline when they are centralized in the visual center. However, the wide distribution of these arrays on the anterior surface of the lens would not significantly affect one's eyesight. PMID:26610533

  7. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, Paul R [Richland, WA

    1986-01-01

    A portable, hand held electric arc saw has a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc to erode a workpiece. Electric current is supplied to the blade by biased brushes and a slip ring which are mounted in the frame. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads stretched between two pulleys are used to facilitate movement of the electric arc saw. The pulleys are formed of dielectric material to electrically insulate the crawler treads from the frame.

  8. Tokamak ARC damage

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.G.; Gorker, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Tokamak fusion reactors will have large plasma currents of approximately 10 MA with hundreds of megajoules stored in the magnetic fields. When a major plasma instability occurs, the disruption of the plasma current induces voltage in the adjacent conducting structures, giving rise to large transient currents. The induced voltages may be sufficiently high to cause arcing across sector gaps or from one protruding component to another. This report reviews a tokamak arcing scenario and provides guidelines for designing tokamaks to minimize the possibility of arc damage.

  9. Welding arc initiator

    DOEpatents

    Correy, T.B.

    1989-05-09

    An improved inert gas shielded tungsten arc welder is disclosed of the type wherein a tungsten electrode is shielded within a flowing inert gas, and, an arc, following ignition, burns between the energized tungsten electrode and a workpiece. The improvement comprises in combination with the tungsten electrode, a starting laser focused upon the tungsten electrode which to ignite the electrode heats a spot on the energized electrode sufficient for formation of a thermionic arc. Interference problems associated with high frequency starters are thus overcome. 3 figs.

  10. Welding arc initiator

    DOEpatents

    Correy, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    An improved inert gas shielded tungsten arc welder is disclosed of the type wherein a tungsten electrode is shielded within a flowing inert gas, and, an arc, following ignition, burns between the energized tungsten electrode and a workpiece. The improvement comprises in combination with the tungsten electrode, a starting laser focused upon the tungsten electrode which to ignite the electrode heats a spot on the energized electrode sufficient for formation of a thermionic arc. Interference problems associated with high frequency starters are thus overcome.

  11. Gender and cataract--the role of estrogen.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Madeleine; Celojevic, Dragana

    2015-02-01

    There is evidence from epidemiologic data that cataract is more common in women than men. This is not solely due to a higher rate of cataract extraction in women, as is the case in the western world, but several population-based studies show that females have a higher prevalence of lens opacities, especially cortical. There is no firm evidence that lifestyle-related factors are the cause of this gender discrepancy. Focus has therefore been directed towards the role of estrogen in cataract formation. Although data on endogenous and exogenous estrogen involvement in cataractogenesis are conflicting, some studies have indicated that hormone therapy may decrease the risk of cataract and thus be protective. It has been hypothesized that the decrease in estrogen at menopause cause increased risk of cataract in women, i.e. not strictly the concentration of estrogen, but more the withdrawal effect. Estrogens are known to exert several anti-aging effects that may explain the longer lifespan in women, including metabolically beneficial effects, neuroprotection, preservation of telomeres and anti-oxidative properties. Since oxidative stress is considered important in cataractogenesis, studies have investigated the effects of estrogens on lens epithelial cells in culture or in animal models. Several investigators have found protection by physiological concentrations of 17β-estradiol against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in cultured lens epithelial cells. Although both main types of estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, have been demonstrated in lens epithelium, most studies so far indicate that the estrogen-mediated protection in the lens is exerted through non-genomic, i.e. receptor-independent mechanisms, possibly through phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/ERK2), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-signaling pathway. Further studies are needed, both epidemiologic as to the role of hormone therapies, and laboratory studies

  12. Natural therapies for ocular disorders, part two: cataracts and glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Head, K A

    2001-04-01

    Pathophysiological mechanisms of cataract formation include deficient glutathione levels contributing to a faulty antioxidant defense system within the lens of the eye. Nutrients to increase glutathione levels and activity include lipoic acid, vitamins E and C, and selenium. Cataract patients also tend to be deficient in vitamin A and the carotenes, lutein and zeaxanthin. The B vitamin riboflavin appears to play an essential role as a precursor to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), a co-factor for glutathione reductase activity. Other nutrients and botanicals, which may benefit cataract patients or help prevent cataracts, include pantethine, folic acid, melatonin, and bilberry. Diabetic cataracts are caused by an elevation of polyols within the lens of the eye catalyzed by the enzyme aldose reductase. Flavonoids, particularly quercetin and its derivatives, are potent inhibitors of aldose reductase. Glaucoma is characterized by increased intraocular pressure (IOP) in some but not all cases. Some patients with glaucoma have normal IOP but poor circulation, resulting in damage to the optic nerve. Faulty glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis or breakdown in the trabecular meshwork associated with aqueous outflow has also been implicated. Similar to patients with cataracts, those with glaucoma typically have compromised antioxidant defense systems as well. Nutrients that can impact GAGs such as vitamin C and glucosamine sulfate may hold promise for glaucoma treatment. Vitamin C in high doses has been found to lower IOP via its osmotic effect. Other nutrients holding some potential benefit for glaucoma include lipoic acid, vitamin B12, magnesium, and melatonin. Botanicals may offer some therapeutic potential. Ginkgo biloba increases circulation to the optic nerve; forskolin (an extract from Coleus forskohlii) has been used successfully as a topical agent to lower IOP; and intramuscular injections of Salvia miltiorrhiza have shown benefit in improving visual acuity and

  13. Falls and postural control in older adults with cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Nodehi Moghadam, Afsun; Goudarzian, Maryam; Azadi, Farhad; Hosseini, Seide Masume; Mosallanezhad, Zahra; Karimi, Nouraddin; Larne, Yassin; Habibi, Maryam; Yaghmaei, Poorya

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that visual impairment contribute to falling. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of vision impairment of old adult patients with cataract on the occurrence of falls and postural control. Methods: According to the results of screening ophthalmic examination, 48 cataract patients (mean±SD aged 68.5 ± 6.08 yrs.) and 50 individuals without any obvious eye disorders (mean age ± SD 70.7 ± 5.97 yrs.) were enrolled in this study. The postural control was determined using the clinical test of Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIB) and Timed up and Go (TUG) test. Results: The results of this study revealed that 18% (n = 9) of the normal individuals and 22.9% (n =11) of the cataract patients had at least two falls in the past 12 months. However, the result of chisquare test did not show any differences between the two groups (p= 0.36). The mean ± SD TUG times in cataract and control groups in our study were15.17 ± 3.58 and13.77 ± 4.90, respectively. However, no significant differences were found between the two groups (p= 0.12).The results of CTSIB test showed no significant differences between the two groups on standing on the floor with eyes open and eyes closed (p= 0.61, p= 0.89) and on standing on the foam with eyes open and eyes closed (p= 0.32, p= 0.74 ). Conclusion: According to the results of CTSIB and TUG tests, vision impairment of old adult patients with cataract is not associated with falls and balance disorders. Further work including assessment of postural control with advanced devices and considering other falls risk factors are also required to identify predictors of falls in cataract patients. PMID:26913274

  14. Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiman, Norman Jay

    2013-11-30

    The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of lens opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. Because of the transparency of the eye, radiation induced lens changes can easily be followed non-invasively over time. Thus, the lens provides a unique model system in which to study the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in a complex, highly organized tissue. Despite this observation, considerable uncertainties remain surrounding the relationship between dose and risk of developing radiation cataract. For example, a growing number of human epidemiological findings suggest significant risk among various groups of occupationally and accidentally exposed individuals and confidence intervals that include zero dose. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning the relationship between lens opacities, visual disability, clinical cataract, threshold dose and/or the role of genetics in determining radiosensitivity. Experimentally, the response of the rodent eye to radiation is quite similar to that in humans and thus animal studies are well suited to examine the relationship between radiation exposure, genetic determinants of radiosensitivity and cataractogenesis. The current work has expanded our knowledge of the low-dose effects of X-irradiation or high-LET heavy ion exposure on timing and progression of radiation cataract and has provided new information on the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological features which contribute to this pathology. Furthermore, findings have indicated that single and/or multiple haploinsufficiency for various genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, such as Atm, Brca1 or Rad9

  15. Lensectomy-vitrectomy indications and techniques in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Sourdille, P

    1997-02-01

    Lensectomy-vitrectomy is the removal of the crystalline lens through a transscleral retrociliary incision (usually the pars plana) under clinical conditions in which the vitreous gel has to be partially or totally removed. It was designed in the early 1970s at the onset of modern vitreous surgery. The vitreous cutter was used to remove the lens and the vitreous (lensectomy as vitrectomy). With the development of small incision cataract surgery, foldable IOL, the term lensectomy-vitrectomy also applies to separate incisions in one procedure combining lens and vitreous surgery. With this in mind, it covers several very different situations from neonatal congenital cataracts to adult or senile-associated diseases. This type of surgery is widely accepted, and the main controversy is about the consequences of neonatal surgery and the age of IOL implantation in uni- or bilateral congenital cataracts. My personal work with laser flare and cellmetry demonstrates that pars plana vitrectomy alone creates very little trauma to the blood-aqueous barrier, as can be checked by the anterior chamber level of proteins (ie, flare). The postoperative flare in pars plana vitrectomy alone is very close to the preoperative level. Therefore, the association of pars plana vitrectomy and lens surgery should not be more traumatizing to the eye than lens surgery alone. This review will first report the consequences of neonatal lensectomy-vitrectomy to the eye. Subsequent indications for surgery and implantation will be discussed as well as special indications and complications in congenital cataracts, dislocated nucleus in cataract operation, cataract and associated vitreoretinal disorders in diabetes, and giant retinal tears and removal of the lens during vitrectomy. PMID:10168275

  16. Metal halide arc discharge lamp having short arc length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muzeroll, Martin E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A metal halide arc discharge lamp includes a sealed light-transmissive outer jacket, a light-transmissive shroud located within the outer jacket and an arc tube assembly located within the shroud. The arc tube assembly includes an arc tube, electrodes mounted within the arc tube and a fill material for supporting an arc discharge. The electrodes have a spacing such that an electric field in a range of about 60 to 95 volts per centimeter is established between the electrodes. The diameter of the arc tube and the spacing of the electrodes are selected to provide an arc having an arc diameter to arc length ratio in a range of about 1.6 to 1.8. The fill material includes mercury, sodium iodide, scandium tri-iodide and a rare gas, and may include lithium iodide. The lamp exhibits a high color rendering index, high lumen output and high color temperature.

  17. [Pharmacological therapy of age-related macular degeneration based on etiopathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Tamás

    2015-11-15

    It is of great therapeutic significance that disordered function of the vascular endothelium which supply the affected ocular structures plays a major role in the pathogenesis and development of age-related macular degeneration. Chronic inflammation is closely linked to diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction, and age-related macular degeneration is accompanied by a general inflammatory response. According to current concept, age-related macular degeneration is a local manifestation of systemic vascular disease. This recognition could have therapeutic implications because restoration of endothelial dysfunction can restabilize the condition of chronic vascular disease including age-related macular degeneration as well. Restoration of endothelial dysfunction by pharmaacological or non pharmacological interventions may prevent the development or improve endothelial dysfunction, which result in prevention or improvement of age related macular degeneration as well. Medicines including inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers and renin inhibitors), statins, acetylsalicylic acid, trimetazidin, third generation beta-blockers, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists, folate, vitamin D, melatonin, advanced glycation end-product crosslink breaker alagebrium, endothelin-receptor antagonist bosentan, coenzyme Q10; "causal" antioxidant vitamins, N-acetyl-cysteine, resveratrol, L-arginine, serotonin receptor agonists, tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockers, specific inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway, curcumin and doxycyclin all have beneficial effects on endothelial dysfunction. Restoration of endothelial dysfunction can restabilize chronic vascular disease including age-related macular degeneration as well. Considering that the human vascular system is consubstantial, medicines listed above should be given to patients (1) who have no macular degeneration but have risk factors

  18. [Pharmacological therapy of age-related macular degeneration based on etiopathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Tamás

    2015-11-15

    It is of great therapeutic significance that disordered function of the vascular endothelium which supply the affected ocular structures plays a major role in the pathogenesis and development of age-related macular degeneration. Chronic inflammation is closely linked to diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction, and age-related macular degeneration is accompanied by a general inflammatory response. According to current concept, age-related macular degeneration is a local manifestation of systemic vascular disease. This recognition could have therapeutic implications because restoration of endothelial dysfunction can restabilize the condition of chronic vascular disease including age-related macular degeneration as well. Restoration of endothelial dysfunction by pharmaacological or non pharmacological interventions may prevent the development or improve endothelial dysfunction, which result in prevention or improvement of age related macular degeneration as well. Medicines including inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers and renin inhibitors), statins, acetylsalicylic acid, trimetazidin, third generation beta-blockers, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists, folate, vitamin D, melatonin, advanced glycation end-product crosslink breaker alagebrium, endothelin-receptor antagonist bosentan, coenzyme Q10; "causal" antioxidant vitamins, N-acetyl-cysteine, resveratrol, L-arginine, serotonin receptor agonists, tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockers, specific inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway, curcumin and doxycyclin all have beneficial effects on endothelial dysfunction. Restoration of endothelial dysfunction can restabilize chronic vascular disease including age-related macular degeneration as well. Considering that the human vascular system is consubstantial, medicines listed above should be given to patients (1) who have no macular degeneration but have risk factors

  19. Development of cataract caused by diabetes mellitus: Raman study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furić, Krešimir; Mohaček-Grošev, Vlasta; Hadžija, Mirko

    2005-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus succeeded by diabetic cataract was induced to experimental animals (Wistar rats) by applying an Alloxan injection. Eye properties deterioration were monitored from clinical standpoint and using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. All cases of developed cataract were followed by important changes in vibrational spectra, but Raman spectroscopy proved to be more useful because of larger number of resolved bands. Each kth Raman spectrum of diseased lens (in our notation k denotes disease age and cataract degree as described in chapter Alloxan diabetes) can be expressed as a sum of the Raman spectrum of healthy lens, I R, multiplied by a suitable constant ck, and the fluorescent background spectrum, I FB. We introduce the ratio of integrated intensities IFB and ck* IR as a physical parameter called fluorescent background index F FB. It turns out that FFB grows as cataract progresses and has its maximum at approx. 4, whence it decreases. FFB values are larger for 200-1800 cm -1 spectral interval than for 2500-4000 cm -1 interval. In the same manner another quantity called water band index FW is defined for each Raman spectrum of diseased lens in the 2800-3730 cm -1 interval. It is the ratio of the integrated intensity from 3100 to 3730 cm -1 (water band interval) divided by the integrated intensity of the 2800-3100 cm -1 interval (C-H stretching region). FW increases monotonously with cataract progression with maximum at the end of monitored period (5 months). These two indices helped us to formulate a model describing disease development from the earliest molecular changes to its macroscopic manifestation. As glucose and other small saccharide molecules enter the lens tissue, they bind to crystallin and other proteins via O- and S-glycosidic linkages which occur probably at tyrosine and cystein sites. In Raman spectrum this corresponds to broad bands at 540 and 1100 cm -1 which grow together with the fluorescent background, because both contributions

  20. Stromal Fibroblast in Age-Related Cancer: Role in Tumorigenesis and Potential as Novel Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Elkhattouti, Abdelouahid; Hassan, Mohamed; Gomez, Christian R.

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of most common cancers increases with age due to accumulation of damage to cells and tissues. Stroma, the structure close to the basement membrane, is gaining increased attention from clinicians and researchers due to its increasingly, yet incompletely understood role in the development of age-related cancer. With advanced age, stroma generates a pro-tumorigenic microenvironment, exemplified by the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Components of the SASP, such as cytokines, chemokines, and high energy metabolites are main drivers of age-related cancer initiation and sustain its progression. Our purpose is to provide insight into the mechanistic role of the stroma, with particular emphasis on stromal fibroblasts, on the development of age-related tumors. We also present evidence of the potential of the stroma as target for tumor therapy. Likewise, a rationale for age-related antitumor therapy targeting the stroma is presented. We expect to foster debate on the underlining basis of age-related cancer pathobiology. We also would like to promote discussion on novel stroma-based anticancer therapeutic strategies tailored to treat the elderly. PMID:26284191

  1. A Systematic Investigation into Aging Related Genes in Brain and Their Relationship with Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Meng, Guofeng; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Mei, Hongkang

    2016-01-01

    Aging, as a complex biological process, is accompanied by the accumulation of functional loses at different levels, which makes age to be the biggest risk factor to many neurological diseases. Even following decades of investigation, the process of aging is still far from being fully understood, especially at a systematic level. In this study, we identified aging related genes in brain by collecting the ones with sustained and consistent gene expression or DNA methylation changes in the aging process. Functional analysis with Gene Ontology to these genes suggested transcriptional regulators to be the most affected genes in the aging process. Transcription regulation analysis found some transcription factors, especially Specificity Protein 1 (SP1), to play important roles in regulating aging related gene expression. Module-based functional analysis indicated these genes to be associated with many well-known aging related pathways, supporting the validity of our approach to select aging related genes. Finally, we investigated the roles of aging related genes on Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We found that aging and AD related genes both involved some common pathways, which provided a possible explanation why aging made the brain more vulnerable to Alzheimer's Disease.

  2. Age-related infertility and unexplained infertility: an intricate clinical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Somigliana, Edgardo; Paffoni, Alessio; Busnelli, Andrea; Filippi, Francesca; Pagliardini, Luca; Vigano, Paola; Vercellini, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    A diagnosis of unexplained infertility is commonly made when clinical investigations fail to identify any obvious barriers to conception. As a consequence, unexplained infertility includes several heterogeneous conditions, one being women with age-related infertility. However, the latter represent a peculiar and different situation. Women with age-related infertility may have a different prognosis and may benefit from different treatments. Unfortunately, since fecundity declines with age, discerning between unexplained infertility and age-related infertility becomes more and more difficult as the woman's age increases. In this opinion, with the use of a mathematical model we show that the rate of false positive diagnoses of unexplained infertility increases rapidly after 35 years of age. Using a threshold of 2 years of unfruitful, regular unprotected intercourse, this rate exceeds 50% in women starting pregnancy seeking after 37 years. The scenario is much worse using a threshold of 1 year. From a clinical perspective, extrapolating results obtained in a population of young women with unexplained infertility to those with age-related infertility is not justified. It is noteworthy that, if Assisted Reproductive Technologies are unable to overcome age-related infertility, the older women erroneously labeled with unexplained infertility may receive inappropriate therapies. These may expose women to unjustified risks and waste financial resources. Unfortunately, the available literature about older women is scanty and does not provide valid evidence. Randomized controlled trials aimed at identifying the most suitable clinical management of older women with a normal infertility work-up are pressingly needed. PMID:27060173

  3. Stromal Fibroblast in Age-Related Cancer: Role in Tumorigenesis and Potential as Novel Therapeutic Target.

    PubMed

    Elkhattouti, Abdelouahid; Hassan, Mohamed; Gomez, Christian R

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of most common cancers increases with age due to accumulation of damage to cells and tissues. Stroma, the structure close to the basement membrane, is gaining increased attention from clinicians and researchers due to its increasingly, yet incompletely understood role in the development of age-related cancer. With advanced age, stroma generates a pro-tumorigenic microenvironment, exemplified by the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Components of the SASP, such as cytokines, chemokines, and high energy metabolites are main drivers of age-related cancer initiation and sustain its progression. Our purpose is to provide insight into the mechanistic role of the stroma, with particular emphasis on stromal fibroblasts, on the development of age-related tumors. We also present evidence of the potential of the stroma as target for tumor therapy. Likewise, a rationale for age-related antitumor therapy targeting the stroma is presented. We expect to foster debate on the underlining basis of age-related cancer pathobiology. We also would like to promote discussion on novel stroma-based anticancer therapeutic strategies tailored to treat the elderly. PMID:26284191

  4. Aging assessment of reactor instrumentation and protection system components. Aging-related operating experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Gehl, A.C.; Hagen, E.W.

    1992-07-01

    A study of the aging-related operating experiences throughout a five-year period (1984--1988) of six generic instrumentation modules (indicators, sensors, controllers, transmitters, annunciators, and recorders) was performed as a part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The effects of aging from operational and environmental stressors were characterized from results depicted in Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The data are graphically displayed as frequency of events per plant year for operating plant ages from 1 to 28 years to determine aging-related failure trend patterns. Three main conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) Instrumentation and control (I&C) modules make a modest contribution to safety-significant events: 17% of LERs issued during 1984--1988 dealt with malfunctions of the six I&C modules studied, and 28% of the LERs dealing with these I&C module malfunctions were aging related (other studies show a range 25--50%); (2) Of the six modules studied, indicators, sensors, and controllers account for the bulk (83%) of aging-related failures; and (3) Infant mortality appears to be the dominant aging-related failure mode for most I&C module categories (with the exception of annunciators and recorders, which appear to fail randomly).

  5. A Systematic Investigation into Aging Related Genes in Brain and Their Relationship with Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Meng, Guofeng; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Mei, Hongkang

    2016-01-01

    Aging, as a complex biological process, is accompanied by the accumulation of functional loses at different levels, which makes age to be the biggest risk factor to many neurological diseases. Even following decades of investigation, the process of aging is still far from being fully understood, especially at a systematic level. In this study, we identified aging related genes in brain by collecting the ones with sustained and consistent gene expression or DNA methylation changes in the aging process. Functional analysis with Gene Ontology to these genes suggested transcriptional regulators to be the most affected genes in the aging process. Transcription regulation analysis found some transcription factors, especially Specificity Protein 1 (SP1), to play important roles in regulating aging related gene expression. Module-based functional analysis indicated these genes to be associated with many well-known aging related pathways, supporting the validity of our approach to select aging related genes. Finally, we investigated the roles of aging related genes on Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We found that aging and AD related genes both involved some common pathways, which provided a possible explanation why aging made the brain more vulnerable to Alzheimer's Disease. PMID:26937969

  6. Profiling age-related epigenetic markers of stomach adenocarcinoma in young and old subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung-Chul; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Park, Daeui; Kim, Chul-Hong; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Dae Hyun; Im, Eunok; Kim, Nam Deuk; Lee, Sunghoon; Yu, Byung Pal; Bhak, Jong; Chung, Hae Young

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to identify epigenetic markers that are differently expressed in the stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) condition. Based on data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we were able to detect an age-related difference in methylation patterns and changes in gene and miRNA expression levels in young (n = 14) and old (n = 70) STAD subjects. Our analysis identified 323 upregulated and 653 downregulated genes in old STAD subjects. We also found 76 miRNAs with age-related expression patterns and 113 differentially methylated genes (DMGs), respectively. Our further analysis revealed that significant upregulated genes (n = 35) were assigned to the cell cycle, while the muscle system process (n = 27) and cell adhesion-related genes (n = 57) were downregulated. In addition, by comparing gene and miRNA expression with methylation change, we identified that three upregulated genes (ELF3, IL1β, and MMP13) known to be involved in inflammatory responses and cell growth were significantly hypomethylated in the promoter region. We further detected target candidates for age-related, downregulated miRNAs (hsa-mir-124-3, hsa-mir-204, and hsa-mir-125b-2) in old STAD subjects. This is the first report of the results from a study exploring age-related epigenetic biomarkers of STAD using high-throughput data and provides evidence for a complex clinicopathological condition expressed by the age-related STAD progression.

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells: a revolution in therapeutic strategies of age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Huang, Sha; Cheng, Biao; Nie, Xiaohu; Enhe, Jirigala; Feng, Changjiang; Fu, Xiaobing

    2013-01-01

    The great evolutionary biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky once said: "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution". Aging is a complex biological phenomenon and the factors governing the process of aging and age-related diseases are only beginning to be understood, oxidative stress, telomere shortening in DNA components and genetic changes were shown to be the mainly regulating mechanisms during the recent decades. Although a considerable amount of both animal and clinical data that demonstrate the extensive and safe use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is available, the precise summarization and identification of MSCs in age-related diseases remains a challenge. Along this line, this review discussed several typical age-related diseases for which MSCs have been proved to confer protection and put forward a hypothesis for the association among MSCs and age-related diseases from an evolutionary perspective. Above all, we hope further and more research efforts could be aroused to elucidate the role and mechanisms that MSCs involved in the age-related diseases.

  8. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-18

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45[degree] to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures.

  9. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, Steven; Sanders, David M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  10. Combined cataract phacoemulsification and aniridia endocapsular rings implantation in a patient with bilateral congenital aniridia and cataract: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Pena-Guani, Fabiola

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article was to determine the long-term outcome of surgical treatment in a patient with bilateral congenital aniridia and congenital cataracts. The patient was treated by cataract removal and implantation of a single piece IOL in both eyes. Two aniridia rings were also implanted in the capsular bag. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), stability of the intraocular lens (IOL) and subjective glare reduction were measured for two years after the surgery. After 10 months, the IOP in the left eye had increased to 26 mmHg despite the fact that anti-glaucoma medication was added. Therefore, the patient was scheduled for an Ahmed valve implantation. These results suggest that good visual outcomes can be achieved in patients with bilateral congenital aniridia and cataracts. Nevertheless, the IOPs must be continuously monitored, and glaucoma screening performed to prevent further complications. PMID:26949363

  11. Spontaneous dislocation of lens bag with acrylic lens after uneventful cataract surgery – unusual complication of cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mehul A.; Shah, Shreya M.; Mehta, Ruchir; Shah, Prerna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Spontaneous dislocation of intraocular lens with bag is rare. Methods: We report a case of a 56-year-old male who presented with spontaneous anterior dislocation of an in-the-bag intraocular lens 3 years after manual small incision cataract surgery. He had undergone manual small incision cataract surgery with foldable acrylic intraocular lens implantation, and 18 months after cataract surgery ND: YAG capsulotomy with uneventful post capsulotomy follow-up. 17 months after capsulotomy, the patient presented with sudden decrease of vision. On anterior segment examination, the intraocular lens with bag was dislocated into the anterior chamber. Result: It was managed with intraocular lens explantation with bag, anterior vitrectomy and sclera fixated intraocular lens. Conclusion: Spontaneous intraocular lens dislocation with bag is possible after 1.5 years of uneventful surgery which may be managed using different techniques. PMID:27625955

  12. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1983-08-08

    A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

  13. Intracameral Interleukin 1β, 6, 8, 10, 12p, Tumor Necrosis Factor α and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Axial Length in Patients with Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dan; Yang, Da-Yong; Guo, Yuan-Yuan; Zheng, Yan-Fei; Li, Jun-Lian; Wang, Bin; Tao, Yong; Jonas, Jost B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between the aqueous humour concentration of interleukin IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12p, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and axial length in eyes with cataract. Methods The hospital-based investigation included patients who underwent cataract surgery between March 2014 and April 2014. Using aqueous humour collected at the start of cataract surgery, the interleukins IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12p, TNF-α and VEGF were examined using a cytometric bead array. Axial length was determined by partial coherence laser interferometry (IOL Master). Results The study included 33 patients with cataract (33 eyes) with a mean age of 69.2±10.8 years (range:50–87 years) and a mean axial length of 24.7±1.9 mm (range:22.6–31.5 mm). Lower aqueous concentration of VEGF was significantly associated with longer axial length (VEGF concentration (pg/mL) = -5.12 x Axial Length (mm) + 163; correlation coefficient r = -0.41; P<0.001) and more myopic refractive error (VEGF concentration (pg/mL) = 1.27xspherical equivalent (diopters)+44.8; r = 0.383; P = 0.002). The aqueous concentrations of all other substances were not significantly (all P>0.10) associated with axial length or refractive error. Conclusions Higher intravitreal concentrations of VEGF were measured in eyes with a longer axial length, while the intraocular concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p and TNF-α were not correlated with axial length. The lower concentration of VEGF in axially elongated eyes may be one of the reasons for the lower prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy in myopic eyes. PMID:25679504

  14. Initial experience using a femtosecond laser cataract surgery system at a UK National Health Service cataract surgery day care centre

    PubMed Central

    Dhallu, Sandeep K; Maurino, Vincenzo; Wilkins, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the initial outcomes following installation of a cataract surgery laser system. Setting National Health Service cataract surgery day care unit in North London, UK. Participants 158 eyes of 150 patients undergoing laser-assisted cataract surgery. Interventions Laser cataract surgery using the AMO Catalys femtosecond laser platform. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome measure: intraoperative complications including anterior and posterior capsule tears. Secondary outcome measures: docking to the laser platform, successful treatment delivery, postoperative visual acuities. Results Mean case age was 67.7±10.8 years (range 29–88 years). Docking was successful in 94% (148/158 cases), and in 4% (6/148 cases) of these, the laser delivery was aborted part way during delivery due to patient movement. A total of 32 surgeons, of grades from junior trainee to consultant, performed the surgeries. Median case number per surgeon was 3 (range from 1–20). The anterior capsulotomy was complete in 99.3% of cases, there were no anterior capsule tears (0%). There were 3 cases with posterior capsule rupture requiring anterior vitrectomy, and 1 with zonular dialysis requiring anterior vitrectomy (4/148 eyes, 2.7%). These 4 cases were performed by trainee surgeons, and were either their first laser cataract surgery (2 surgeons) or their first and second laser cataract surgeries (1 surgeon). Conclusions Despite the learning curve, docking and laser delivery were successfully performed in almost all cases, and surgical complication rates and visual outcomes were similar to those expected based on national data. Complications were predominately confined to trainee surgeons, and with the exception of intraoperative pupil constriction appeared unrelated to the laser-performed steps. PMID:27466243

  15. Bivalent separation into univalents precedes age-related meiosis I errors in oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Yogo; Hashimoto, Shu; Nakaoka, Yoshiharu; Kouznetsova, Anna; Höög, Christer; Kitajima, Tomoya S.

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of chromosome segregation errors during meiosis I (MI) in oocytes increases with age. The two-hit model suggests that errors are caused by the combination of a first hit that creates susceptible crossover configurations and a second hit comprising an age-related reduction in chromosome cohesion. This model predicts an age-related increase in univalents, but direct evidence of this phenomenon as a major cause of segregation errors has been lacking. Here, we provide the first live analysis of single chromosomes undergoing segregation errors during MI in the oocytes of naturally aged mice. Chromosome tracking reveals that 80% of the errors are preceded by bivalent separation into univalents. The set of the univalents is biased towards balanced and unbalanced predivision of sister chromatids during MI. Moreover, we find univalents predisposed to predivision in human oocytes. This study defines premature bivalent separation into univalents as the primary defect responsible for age-related aneuploidy. PMID:26130582

  16. Genetics and age-related macular degeneration: a practical review for the clinician

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Hampton, Blake M; Kovach, Jaclyn L; Brantley, Milam A

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a complex disease, with both genetic and environmental risk factors interacting in unknown ways. Currently, 52 gene variants within 34 loci have been significantly associated with age-related macular degeneration. Two well-studied major genes are complement factor H (CFH) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2). There exist several commercially available tests that are proposed to stratify patients into high-risk and low-risk groups, as well as predict response to nutritional supplementation. However, at present, the bulk of the available peer-reviewed evidence suggests that genetic testing is more useful as a research tool than for clinical management of patients. PMID:27445455

  17. Understanding Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Muscle Metabolism: Differences Between Females and Males.

    PubMed

    Gheller, Brandon J F; Riddle, Emily S; Lem, Melinda R; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E

    2016-07-17

    Skeletal muscle is the largest metabolic organ system in the human body. As such, metabolic dysfunction occurring in skeletal muscle impacts whole-body nutrient homeostasis. Macronutrient metabolism changes within the skeletal muscle with aging, and these changes are associated in part with age-related skeletal muscle remodeling. Moreover, age-related changes in skeletal muscle metabolism are affected differentially between males and females and are likely driven by changes in sex hormones. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors impact observed age-related changes and sex-related differences in skeletal muscle metabolism. Despite some support for sex-specific differences in skeletal muscle metabolism with aging, more research is necessary to identify underlying differences in mechanisms. Understanding sex-specific aging skeletal muscle will assist with the development of therapies to attenuate adverse metabolic and functional outcomes.

  18. Mitochondrial ROS regulate oxidative damage and mitophagy but not age-related muscle fiber atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sakellariou, Giorgos K.; Pearson, Timothy; Lightfoot, Adam P.; Nye, Gareth A.; Wells, Nicola; Giakoumaki, Ifigeneia I.; Vasilaki, Aphrodite; Griffiths, Richard D.; Jackson, Malcolm J.; McArdle, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is a major contributor to morbidity and has a profound effect on the quality of life of older people. The potential role of age-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and cumulative oxidative stress as the underlying cause of muscle aging remains a controversial topic. Here we show that the pharmacological attenuation of age-related mitochondrial redox changes in muscle with SS31 is associated with some improvements in oxidative damage and mitophagy in muscles of old mice. However, this treatment failed to rescue the age-related muscle fiber atrophy associated with muscle atrophy and weakness. Collectively, these data imply that the muscle mitochondrial redox environment is not a key regulator of muscle fiber atrophy during sarcopenia but may play a key role in the decline of mitochondrial organelle integrity that occurs with muscle aging. PMID:27681159

  19. Progressive Bidirectional Age-Related Changes in Default Mode Network Effective Connectivity across Six Decades

    PubMed Central

    Li, Karl; Laird, Angela R.; Price, Larry R.; McKay, D. Reese; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C.; Fox, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a set of regions that is tonically engaged during the resting state and exhibits task-related deactivation that is readily reproducible across a wide range of paradigms and modalities. The DMN has been implicated in numerous disorders of cognition and, in particular, in disorders exhibiting age-related cognitive decline. Despite these observations, investigations of the DMN in normal aging are scant. Here, we used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquired during rest to investigate age-related changes in functional connectivity of the DMN in 120 healthy normal volunteers comprising six, 20-subject, decade cohorts (from 20–29 to 70–79). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess age-related changes in inter-regional connectivity within the DMN. SEM was applied both using a previously published, meta-analytically derived, node-and-edge model, and using exploratory modeling searching for connections that optimized model fit improvement. Although the two models were highly similar (only 3 of 13 paths differed), the sample demonstrated significantly better fit with the exploratory model. For this reason, the exploratory model was used to assess age-related changes across the decade cohorts. Progressive, highly significant changes in path weights were found in 8 (of 13) paths: four rising, and four falling (most changes were significant by the third or fourth decade). In all cases, rising paths and falling paths projected in pairs onto the same nodes, suggesting compensatory increases associated with age-related decreases. This study demonstrates that age-related changes in DMN physiology (inter-regional connectivity) are bidirectional, progressive, of early onset and part of normal aging. PMID:27378909

  20. Dizziness and Imbalance in the Elderly: Age-related Decline in the Vestibular System.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-02-01

    Dizziness and imbalance are amongst the most common complaints in older people, and are a growing public health concern since they put older people at a significantly higher risk of falling. Although the causes of dizziness in older people are multifactorial, peripheral vestibular dysfunction is one of the most frequent causes. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most frequent form of vestibular dysfunction in the elderly, followed by Meniere's disease. Every factor associated with the maintenance of postural stability deteriorates during aging. Age-related deterioration of peripheral vestibular function has been demonstrated through quantitative measurements of the vestibulo-ocular reflex with rotational testing and of the vestibulo-collic reflex with testing of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Age-related decline of vestibular function has been shown to correlate with the age-related decrease in the number of vestibular hair cells and neurons. The mechanism of age-related cellular loss in the vestibular endorgan is unclear, but it is thought that genetic predisposition and cumulative effect of oxidative stress may both play an important role. Since the causes of dizziness in older people are multi-factorial, management of this disease should be customized according to the etiologies of each individual. Vestibular rehabilitation is found to be effective in treating both unilateral and bilateral vestibular dysfunction. Various prosthetic devices have also been developed to improve postural balance in older people. Although there have been no medical treatments improving age-related vestibular dysfunction, new medical treatments such as mitochondrial antioxidants or caloric restriction, which have been effective in preventing age-related hearing loss, should be ienvestigated in the future. PMID:25657851

  1. Dizziness and Imbalance in the Elderly: Age-related Decline in the Vestibular System

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Dizziness and imbalance are amongst the most common complaints in older people, and are a growing public health concern since they put older people at a significantly higher risk of falling. Although the causes of dizziness in older people are multifactorial, peripheral vestibular dysfunction is one of the most frequent causes. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most frequent form of vestibular dysfunction in the elderly, followed by Meniere’s disease. Every factor associated with the maintenance of postural stability deteriorates during aging. Age-related deterioration of peripheral vestibular function has been demonstrated through quantitative measurements of the vestibulo-ocular reflex with rotational testing and of the vestibulo-collic reflex with testing of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Age-related decline of vestibular function has been shown to correlate with the age-related decrease in the number of vestibular hair cells and neurons. The mechanism of age-related cellular loss in the vestibular endorgan is unclear, but it is thought that genetic predisposition and cumulative effect of oxidative stress may both play an important role. Since the causes of dizziness in older people are multi-factorial, management of this disease should be customized according to the etiologies of each individual. Vestibular rehabilitation is found to be effective in treating both unilateral and bilateral vestibular dysfunction. Various prosthetic devices have also been developed to improve postural balance in older people. Although there have been no medical treatments improving age-related vestibular dysfunction, new medical treatments such as mitochondrial antioxidants or caloric restriction, which have been effective in preventing age-related hearing loss, should be ienvestigated in the future. PMID:25657851

  2. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Risk Factors for Age-Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The

  3. Age-Related Differences in Cortical Thickness Vary by Socioeconomic Status.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Luciane R; Merz, Emily C; He, Xiaofu; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Noble, Kimberly G

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings indicate robust associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain structure in children, raising questions about the ways in which SES may modify structural brain development. In general, cortical thickness and surface area develop in nonlinear patterns across childhood and adolescence, with developmental patterns varying to some degree by cortical region. Here, we examined whether age-related nonlinear changes in cortical thickness and surface area varied by SES, as indexed by family income and parental education. We hypothesized that SES disparities in age-related change may be particularly evident for language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. Participants were 1148 typically-developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Results indicated that SES factors moderate patterns of age-associated change in cortical thickness but not surface area. Specifically, at lower levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were curvilinear, with relatively steep age-related decreases in cortical thickness earlier in childhood, and subsequent leveling off during adolescence. In contrast, at high levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were linear, with consistent reductions across the age range studied. Notably, this interaction was prominent in the left fusiform gyrus, a region that is critical for reading development. In a similar pattern, SES factors significantly moderated linear age-related change in left superior temporal gyrus, such that higher SES was linked with steeper age-related decreases in cortical thickness in this region. These findings suggest that SES may moderate patterns of age-related cortical thinning, especially in language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. PMID:27644039

  4. Progressive Bidirectional Age-Related Changes in Default Mode Network Effective Connectivity across Six Decades.

    PubMed

    Li, Karl; Laird, Angela R; Price, Larry R; McKay, D Reese; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C; Fox, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a set of regions that is tonically engaged during the resting state and exhibits task-related deactivation that is readily reproducible across a wide range of paradigms and modalities. The DMN has been implicated in numerous disorders of cognition and, in particular, in disorders exhibiting age-related cognitive decline. Despite these observations, investigations of the DMN in normal aging are scant. Here, we used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquired during rest to investigate age-related changes in functional connectivity of the DMN in 120 healthy normal volunteers comprising six, 20-subject, decade cohorts (from 20-29 to 70-79). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess age-related changes in inter-regional connectivity within the DMN. SEM was applied both using a previously published, meta-analytically derived, node-and-edge model, and using exploratory modeling searching for connections that optimized model fit improvement. Although the two models were highly similar (only 3 of 13 paths differed), the sample demonstrated significantly better fit with the exploratory model. For this reason, the exploratory model was used to assess age-related changes across the decade cohorts. Progressive, highly significant changes in path weights were found in 8 (of 13) paths: four rising, and four falling (most changes were significant by the third or fourth decade). In all cases, rising paths and falling paths projected in pairs onto the same nodes, suggesting compensatory increases associated with age-related decreases. This study demonstrates that age-related changes in DMN physiology (inter-regional connectivity) are bidirectional, progressive, of early onset and part of normal aging. PMID:27378909

  5. Age-Related Differences in Cortical Thickness Vary by Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaofu; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Noble, Kimberly G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings indicate robust associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain structure in children, raising questions about the ways in which SES may modify structural brain development. In general, cortical thickness and surface area develop in nonlinear patterns across childhood and adolescence, with developmental patterns varying to some degree by cortical region. Here, we examined whether age-related nonlinear changes in cortical thickness and surface area varied by SES, as indexed by family income and parental education. We hypothesized that SES disparities in age-related change may be particularly evident for language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. Participants were 1148 typically-developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Results indicated that SES factors moderate patterns of age-associated change in cortical thickness but not surface area. Specifically, at lower levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were curvilinear, with relatively steep age-related decreases in cortical thickness earlier in childhood, and subsequent leveling off during adolescence. In contrast, at high levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were linear, with consistent reductions across the age range studied. Notably, this interaction was prominent in the left fusiform gyrus, a region that is critical for reading development. In a similar pattern, SES factors significantly moderated linear age-related change in left superior temporal gyrus, such that higher SES was linked with steeper age-related decreases in cortical thickness in this region. These findings suggest that SES may moderate patterns of age-related cortical thinning, especially in language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. PMID:27644039

  6. The Potential of Chitosan and Its Derivatives in Prevention and Treatment of Age-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kerch, Garry

    2015-01-01

    Age-related, diet-related and protein conformational diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, cancer, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases are common in the elderly population. The potential of chitosan, chitooligosaccharides and their derivatives in prevention and treatment of age-related dysfunctions is reviewed and discussed in this paper. The influence of oxidative stress, low density lipoprotein oxidation, increase of tissue stiffness, protein conformational changes, aging-associated chronic inflammation and their pathobiological significance have been considered. The chitosan-based functional food also has been reviewed. PMID:25871293

  7. "Older is always better": Age-related differences in vocabulary scores across 16 years.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Erel, Hadas; Goy, Huiwen; Schneider, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies of cognitive aging compare age groups at 1 time point. It is unclear from such studies whether age-related cognitive differences remain stable across time. We present a cross-sectional investigation of vocabulary scores of 2,000 younger and older adults collected across 16 years, using the same laboratory and protocol. We found a steady decrease with year of testing and an advantage for older adults. An additive relation between age group and year of testing implied that age-related differences in vocabulary are independent of changes over time, suggesting that younger and older adults are similarly affected by changes in word usage.

  8. The potential of chitosan and its derivatives in prevention and treatment of age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Kerch, Garry

    2015-04-01

    Age-related, diet-related and protein conformational diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, cancer, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases are common in the elderly population. The potential of chitosan, chitooligosaccharides and their derivatives in prevention and treatment of age-related dysfunctions is reviewed and discussed in this paper. The influence of oxidative stress, low density lipoprotein oxidation, increase of tissue stiffness, protein conformational changes, aging-associated chronic inflammation and their pathobiological significance have been considered. The chitosan-based functional food also has been reviewed.

  9. [Soft tissue enhancement with injectable fillers for correction of age related folds and wrinkles].

    PubMed

    Hönig, J; Fricke, M

    2005-12-01

    Injectable fillers for facial soft tissue enhancement have been developed and used for decades for the correction of age related folds and wrinkles. Many of the disadvantages of xenogenic and prior exogenous materials have been overcome with the advent of autologous and synthetic alternative materials. Autologous and synthetic injectable fillers herald a new era in the treatment of the aging face. Therefore this article will give an in-depth look at the implant choice, surgical approach, and possible complications and will provide a review of current injectable fillers for age related facial soft tissue augmentation.

  10. [Relationship between educational level and dementia: social factor and age-related chronic disease].

    PubMed

    Dartigues, J-F; Foubert-Samier, A; Helmer, C

    2013-08-01

    Dementia is an age-related chronic syndrome, whose the first cause is a neurodegenerative disease: Alzheimer's disease (AD). In spite of some controversies, educational level is now considered as a major risk factor for dementia and AD. The protective effect of a high level of education could be related to a preservation of cognitive reserve and a reinforcement of brain reserve. Moreover, subjects with a high level of education have a better access to health care and a better management of vascular risk factors. With the general improvement of the educational level, the age-related incidence of AD and dementia should decrease in the future.

  11. Improved word recognition for observers with age-related maculopathies using compensation filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, Teri B.

    1988-01-01

    A method for improving word recognition for people with age-related maculopathies, which cause a loss of central vision, is discussed. It is found that the use of individualized compensation filters based on an person's normalized contrast sensitivity function can improve word recognition for people with age-related maculopathies. It is shown that 27-70 pct more magnification is needed for unfiltered words compared to filtered words. The improvement in word recognition is positively correlated with the severity of vision loss.

  12. Fatty old hearts: role of cardiac lipotoxicity in age-related cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Drosatos, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cardiomyopathy accounts for a significant part of heart failure cases. Imbalance of the energetic equilibrium of the heart along with mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired β-adrenergic receptor signaling contributes in the aggravation of cardiac function in the elderly. In this review article, studies that correlate cardiac aging with lipotoxicity are summarized. The involvement of inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, β-adrenergic receptor desensitization, and mitochondrial dysfunction as underlying mechanisms for the lipid-driven age-related cardiomyopathy are presented with the aim to indicate potential therapeutic targets for cardiac aging. PMID:27558317

  13. Mimicking cataract-induced visual dysfunction by means of protein denaturation in egg albumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandracchia, B.; Finizio, A.; Ferraro, P.

    2016-03-01

    As the world's population ages, cataract-induced visual dysfunction and blindness is on the increase. This is a significant global problem. The most common symptoms of cataracts are glared and blurred vision. Usually, people with cataract have trouble seeing and reading at distance or in low light and also their color perception is altered. Furthermore, cataract is a sneaky disease as it is usually a very slow but progressive process, which creates adaptation so that patients find it difficult to recognize. All this can be very difficult to explain, so we built and tested an optical device to help doctors giving comprehensive answers to the patients' symptoms. This device allows visualizing how cataract impairs vision mimicking the optical degradation of the crystalline related cataracts. This can be a valuable optical tool for medical education as well as to provide a method to illustrate the patients how cataract progression process will affect their vision.

  14. The effect of lens aging and cataract surgery on circadian rhythm.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shen-Shen; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Many organisms have evolved an approximately 24-hour circadian rhythm that allows them to achieve internal physiological homeostasis with external environment. Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the central pacemaker of circadian rhythm, and its activity is entrained to the external light-dark cycle. The SCN controls circadian rhythm through regulating the synthesis of melatonin by pineal gland via a multisynaptic pathway. Light, especially short-wavelength blue light, is the most potent environmental time cue in circadian photoentrainment. Recently, the discovery of a novel type of retinal photoreceptors, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, sheds light on the mechanism of circadian photoentrainment and raises concerns about the effect of ocular diseases on circadian system. With age, light transmittance is significantly decreased due to the aging of crystalline lens, thus possibly resulting in progressive loss of circadian photoreception. In the current review, we summarize the circadian physiology, highlight the important role of light in circadian rhythm regulation, discuss about the correlation between age-related cataract and sleep disorders, and compare the effect of blue light- filtering intraocular lenses (IOLs) and ultraviolet only filtering IOLs on circadian rhythm.

  15. The effect of lens aging and cataract surgery on circadian rhythm.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shen-Shen; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Many organisms have evolved an approximately 24-hour circadian rhythm that allows them to achieve internal physiological homeostasis with external environment. Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the central pacemaker of circadian rhythm, and its activity is entrained to the external light-dark cycle. The SCN controls circadian rhythm through regulating the synthesis of melatonin by pineal gland via a multisynaptic pathway. Light, especially short-wavelength blue light, is the most potent environmental time cue in circadian photoentrainment. Recently, the discovery of a novel type of retinal photoreceptors, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, sheds light on the mechanism of circadian photoentrainment and raises concerns about the effect of ocular diseases on circadian system. With age, light transmittance is significantly decreased due to the aging of crystalline lens, thus possibly resulting in progressive loss of circadian photoreception. In the current review, we summarize the circadian physiology, highlight the important role of light in circadian rhythm regulation, discuss about the correlation between age-related cataract and sleep disorders, and compare the effect of blue light- filtering intraocular lenses (IOLs) and ultraviolet only filtering IOLs on circadian rhythm. PMID:27500118

  16. The effect of lens aging and cataract surgery on circadian rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shen-Shen; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Many organisms have evolved an approximately 24-hour circadian rhythm that allows them to achieve internal physiological homeostasis with external environment. Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the central pacemaker of circadian rhythm, and its activity is entrained to the external light-dark cycle. The SCN controls circadian rhythm through regulating the synthesis of melatonin by pineal gland via a multisynaptic pathway. Light, especially short-wavelength blue light, is the most potent environmental time cue in circadian photoentrainment. Recently, the discovery of a novel type of retinal photoreceptors, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, sheds light on the mechanism of circadian photoentrainment and raises concerns about the effect of ocular diseases on circadian system. With age, light transmittance is significantly decreased due to the aging of crystalline lens, thus possibly resulting in progressive loss of circadian photoreception. In the current review, we summarize the circadian physiology, highlight the important role of light in circadian rhythm regulation, discuss about the correlation between age-related cataract and sleep disorders, and compare the effect of blue light- filtering intraocular lenses (IOLs) and ultraviolet only filtering IOLs on circadian rhythm. PMID:27500118

  17. Cataract production in mice by heavy charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, E.H.; Jose, J.; Yang, V.V.; Barker, M.E.

    1981-03-01

    The cataractogenic effects of heavy charged particles have been evaluated in mice in relation to dose and ionization density (LET/sub infinity/). The study was undertaken due to the high potential for eye exposures to HZE particles among SPS personnel working in outer space. This has made it imperative that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in relation to LET/sub infinity/ for various particles be defined so that appropriate quality factors (Q) could be assigned for estimation of risk. Although mice and men differ in susceptibility to radiation-induced cataracts, the results from this project should assist in defining appropriate quality factors in relation to LET/sub infinity/, particle mass, charge, or velocity. Evaluation of results indicated that : (1) low single doses (5 to 20 rad) of iron (/sup 56/Fe) or argon (/sup 40/Ar) particles are cataractogenic at 11 to 18 months after irradiation; (2) onset and density of the opacification are dose related; (3) cataract density (grade) at 9, 11, 13, and 16 months after irradiation shows partial LET/sub infinity/-dependence; and (4) the severity of cataracts is reduced significantly when 417 rad of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation is given in 24 weekly 17 rad fractions compared to giving this radiation as a single dose, but cataract severity is not reduced by fractionation of /sup 12/C doses over 24 weeks.

  18. Posterior Iris Fixated Intraocular Lens for Pediatric Traumatic Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, V.; Balasubramanian, Preethi; Heralgi, Mallikarjun M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the postoperative visual outcomes and complications of posterior iris fixated intraocular lens (IFIOL) implantation for pediatric traumatic cataract. Methods: A retrospective clinical audit was performed of all the pediatric traumatic cataract patients who underwent lens removal and iris fixated lens implantation due to inadequate capsular support with or without corneal tear repair between January 2009 and December 2013. Data were collected and analyzed on the preoperative and postoperative visual outcomes and complications. Results: Twenty-five children (25 eyes; 21 males and 4 females) were enrolled with the mean age of 11 ± 4.0 years. There were 72% of eyes that underwent primary cataract removal with IFIOL implantation. Twenty-eight percent of eyes underwent corneal tear repair prior to intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was hand motion in 32% eyes, counting fingers in 24%, and perception of light in 44%. Postoperative BCVA of 0-0.2 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution was reported in the 64% of eyes. One eye developed secondary glaucoma, one eye underwent re-enclavation, and none developed retinal complications. Conclusion: Posterior IFIOL implantation resulted in an improved visual outcome, low incidence of postoperative complications, and is a good alternative to other IOL, in the cases of pediatric traumatic cataract without adequate capsular support. PMID:27162456

  19. [Laser phacoemulsification--a method of cataract surgery].

    PubMed

    Filip, M; Măgureanu, M; Barbu, C; Manga, C; Gregorian, F

    2001-01-01

    Today, ultrasound phacoemulsification is the most used method of cataract surgery. Because the side effects (injury of corneal endothelium and other nearly tissues), was tried to find alternative energy forms. Erbium laser was proven to be the most effective method among all of these. PMID:11519335

  20. Emerging issues in radiogenic cataracts and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Fujii, Noriko; Furuhashi, Masato; Kubo, Eri; Minamino, Tohru; Nomura, Takaharu; Sato, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (i) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (ii) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (iii) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (iv) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. PMID:24824673