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Sample records for age-related cognitive disorders

  1. Closed-Loop Rehabilitation of Age-Related Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Jyoti; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are common in older adults, as a result of both the natural aging process and neurodegenerative disease. Although medical advancements have successfully prolonged the human lifespan, the challenge of remediating cognitive aging remains. The authors discuss the current state of cognitive therapeutic interventions and then present the need for development and validation of more powerful neurocognitive therapeutics. They propose that the next generation of interventions be implemented as closed-loop systems that target specific neural processing deficits, incorporate quantitative feedback to the individual and clinician, and are personalized to the individual’s neurocognitive capacities using real-time performance-adaptive algorithms. This approach should be multimodal and seamlessly integrate other treatment approaches, including neurofeedback and transcranial electrical stimulation. This novel approach will involve the generation of software that engages the individual in an immersive and enjoyable game-based interface, integrated with advanced biosensing hardware, to maximally harness plasticity and assure adherence. Introducing such next-generation closed-loop neurocognitive therapeutics into the mainstream of our mental health care system will require the combined efforts of clinicians, neuroscientists, bioengineers, software game developers, and industry and policy makers working together to meet the challenges and opportunities of translational neuroscience in the 21st century. PMID:25520029

  2. Closed-loop rehabilitation of age-related cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Jyoti; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive deficits are common in older adults, as a result of both the natural aging process and neurodegenerative disease. Although medical advancements have successfully prolonged the human lifespan, the challenge of remediating cognitive aging remains. The authors discuss the current state of cognitive therapeutic interventions and then present the need for development and validation of more powerful neurocognitive therapeutics. They propose that the next generation of interventions be implemented as closed-loop systems that target specific neural processing deficits, incorporate quantitative feedback to the individual and clinician, and are personalized to the individual's neurocognitive capacities using real-time performance-adaptive algorithms. This approach should be multimodal and seamlessly integrate other treatment approaches, including neurofeedback and transcranial electrical stimulation. This novel approach will involve the generation of software that engages the individual in an immersive and enjoyable game-based interface, integrated with advanced biosensing hardware, to maximally harness plasticity and assure adherence. Introducing such next-generation closed-loop neurocognitive therapeutics into the mainstream of our mental health care system will require the combined efforts of clinicians, neuroscientists, bioengineers, software game developers, and industry and policy makers working together to meet the challenges and opportunities of translational neuroscience in the 21st century. PMID:25520029

  3. Age-related differences in cognition across the adult lifespan in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lever, Anne G; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-06-01

    It is largely unknown how age impacts cognition in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated whether age-related cognitive differences are similar, reduced or increased across the adult lifespan, examined cognitive strengths and weaknesses, and explored whether objective test performance is related to subjective cognitive challenges. Neuropsychological tests assessing visual and verbal memory, generativity, and theory of mind (ToM), and a self-report measure assessing cognitive failures were administered to 236 matched participants with and without ASD, aged 20-79 years (IQ > 80). Group comparisons revealed that individuals with ASD had higher scores on visual memory, lower scores on generativity and ToM, and similar performance on verbal memory. However, ToM impairments were no longer present in older (50+ years) adults with ASD. Across adulthood, individuals with ASD demonstrated similar age-related effects on verbal memory, generativity, and ToM, while age-related differences were reduced on visual memory. Although adults with ASD reported many cognitive failures, those were not associated with neuropsychological test performance. Hence, while some cognitive abilities (visual and verbal memory) and difficulties (generativity and semantic memory) persist across adulthood in ASD, others become less apparent in old age (ToM). Age-related differences characteristic of typical aging are reduced or parallel, but not increased in individuals with ASD, suggesting that ASD may partially protect against an age-related decrease in cognitive functioning. Despite these findings, adults with ASD experience many cognitive daily challenges, which highlights the need for adequate social support and the importance of further research into this topic, including longitudinal studies. Autism Res 2016, 9: 666-676. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26333004

  4. Consequences of Age-Related Cognitive Declines

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Adult age differences in a variety of cognitive abilities are well documented, and many of those abilities have been found to be related to success in the workplace and in everyday life. However, increased age is seldom associated with lower levels of real-world functioning, and the reasons for this lab-life discrepancy are not well understood. This article briefly reviews research concerned with relations of age to cognition, relations of cognition to successful functioning outside the laboratory, and relations of age to measures of work performance and achievement. The final section discusses several possible explanations for why there are often little or no consequences of age-related cognitive declines in everyday functioning. PMID:21740223

  5. GENETICS OF HUMAN AGE RELATED DISORDERS.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, I; Thukral, N; Hasija, Y

    2015-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable biological phenomenon. The incidence of age related disorders (ARDs) such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, dementia, osteoporosis, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases increase rapidly with aging. ARDs are becoming a key social and economic trouble for the world's elderly population (above 60 years), which is expected to reach 2 billion by 2050. Advancement in understanding of genetic associations, particularly through genome wide association studies (GWAS), has revealed a substantial contribution of genes to human aging and ARDs. In this review, we have focused on the recent understanding of the extent to which genetic predisposition may influence the aging process. Further analysis of the genetic association studies through pathway analysis several genes associated with multiple ARDs have been highlighted such as apolipoprotein E (APOE), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cadherin 13 (CDH13), CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1 (CDKAL-1), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), indicating that these genes could play a pivotal role in ARD causation. These genes were found to be significantly enriched in Jak-STAT signalling pathway, asthma and allograft rejection. Further, interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin (INS), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), estrogen receptor1 (ESR1), transforming growth factor, beta 1(TGFB1) and calmodulin 1 (CALM1) were found to be highly interconnected in network analysis. We believe that extensive research on the presence of common genetic variants among various ARDs may facilitate scientists to understand the biology behind ARDs causation. PMID:26856084

  6. Neuroanatomical Substrates of Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    There are many reports of relations between age and cognitive variables and of relations between age and variables representing different aspects of brain structure and a few reports of relations between brain structure variables and cognitive variables. These findings have sometimes led to inferences that the age-related brain changes cause the…

  7. Cognitive Impairment and Age-Related Vision Disorders: Their Possible Relationship and the Evaluation of the Use of Aspirin and Statins in a 65 Years-and-Over Sardinian Population.

    PubMed

    Mandas, Antonella; Mereu, Rosa Maria; Catte, Olga; Saba, Antonio; Serchisu, Luca; Costaggiu, Diego; Peiretti, Enrico; Caminiti, Giulia; Vinci, Michela; Casu, Maura; Piludu, Stefania; Fossarello, Maurizio; Manconi, Paolo Emilio; Dessí, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Neurological disorders (Alzheimer's disease, vascular and mixed dementia) and visual loss (cataract, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy) are among the most common conditions that afflict people of at least 65 years of age. An increasing body of evidence is emerging, which demonstrates that memory and vision impairment are closely, significantly, and positively linked and that statins and aspirin may lessen the risk of developing age-related visual and neurological problems. However, clinical studies have produced contradictory results. Thus, the intent of the present study was to reliably establish whether a relationship exist between various types of dementia and age-related vision disorders, and to establish whether statins and aspirin may or may not have beneficial effects on these two types of disorders. We found that participants with dementia and/or vision problems were more likely to be depressed and displayed worse functional ability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living than controls. Mini mental state examination scores were significantly lower in patients with vision disorders compared to subjects without vision disorders. A closer association with macular degeneration was found in subjects with Alzheimer's disease than in subjects without dementia or with vascular dementia, mixed dementia, or other types of age-related vision disorders. When we considered the associations between different types of dementia and vision disorders and the use of statins and aspirin, we found a significant positive association between Alzheimer's disease and statins on their own or in combination with aspirin, indicating that these two drugs do not appear to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease or improve its clinical evolution and may, on the contrary, favor its development. No significant association in statin use alone, aspirin use alone, or the combination of these was found in subjects without vision disorders but

  8. Cognitive Impairment and Age-Related Vision Disorders: Their Possible Relationship and the Evaluation of the Use of Aspirin and Statins in a 65 Years-and-Over Sardinian Population

    PubMed Central

    Mandas, Antonella; Mereu, Rosa Maria; Catte, Olga; Saba, Antonio; Serchisu, Luca; Costaggiu, Diego; Peiretti, Enrico; Caminiti, Giulia; Vinci, Michela; Casu, Maura; Piludu, Stefania; Fossarello, Maurizio; Manconi, Paolo Emilio; Dessí, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Neurological disorders (Alzheimer’s disease, vascular and mixed dementia) and visual loss (cataract, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy) are among the most common conditions that afflict people of at least 65 years of age. An increasing body of evidence is emerging, which demonstrates that memory and vision impairment are closely, significantly, and positively linked and that statins and aspirin may lessen the risk of developing age-related visual and neurological problems. However, clinical studies have produced contradictory results. Thus, the intent of the present study was to reliably establish whether a relationship exist between various types of dementia and age-related vision disorders, and to establish whether statins and aspirin may or may not have beneficial effects on these two types of disorders. We found that participants with dementia and/or vision problems were more likely to be depressed and displayed worse functional ability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living than controls. Mini mental state examination scores were significantly lower in patients with vision disorders compared to subjects without vision disorders. A closer association with macular degeneration was found in subjects with Alzheimer’s disease than in subjects without dementia or with vascular dementia, mixed dementia, or other types of age-related vision disorders. When we considered the associations between different types of dementia and vision disorders and the use of statins and aspirin, we found a significant positive association between Alzheimer’s disease and statins on their own or in combination with aspirin, indicating that these two drugs do not appear to reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease or improve its clinical evolution and may, on the contrary, favor its development. No significant association in statin use alone, aspirin use alone, or the combination of these was found in subjects without vision

  9. Veterans have less age-related cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    McLay, R N; Lyketsos, C G

    2000-08-01

    Military service involves exposure to a number of stresses, both psychological and physical. On the other hand, military personnel generally maintain excellent fitness, and veterans have increased access to education and health care. The overall effect on age-related cognitive decline, whether for good or ill, of having served in the armed forces has not been investigated previously. In this study, we examined a diverse population of 208 veterans and 1,216 civilians followed as part of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study in 1981, 1982, and 1993 to 1996. We examined change in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score after a median of 11.5 years. Veterans were found to have significantly less decrease in MMSE scores at follow-up even after sex, race, and education were taken into account. These results suggest an overall positive effect of military service on the rate of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:10957857

  10. Glutamatergic treatment strategies for age-related memory disorders.

    PubMed

    Müller, W E; Scheuer, K; Stoll, S

    1994-01-01

    Age-related changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have been found in cortical areas and in the hippocampus of many species. On the basis of a variety of experimental observations it has been suggested that the decrease of NMDA receptor density might be one of the causative factors of the cognitive decline with aging. Based on these findings several strategies have been developed to improve cognition by compensating the NMDA receptor deficits in aging. The most promising approaches are the indirect activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission by agonists of the glycine site or the restoration of the age-related deficit of receptor density by several nootropics. PMID:7997073

  11. Epigenetic modification of PKMζ rescues aging-related cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Xue, Yan-Xue; Han, Ying; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Deng, Jia-Hui; Chen, Na; Bao, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Fei-Long; Cao, Lin-Lin; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Shi, Jie; Song, Wei-Hong; Lu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Cognition is impacted by aging. However, the mechanisms that underlie aging-associated cognitive impairment are unclear. Here we showed that cognitive decline in aged rats was associated with changes in DNA methylation of protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ) in the prelimbic cortex (PrL). PKMζ is a crucial molecule involved in the maintenance of long-term memory. Using different behavioral models, we confirmed that aged rats exhibited cognitive impairment in memory retention test 24 h after training, and overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL rescued cognitive impairment in aged rats. After fear conditioning, the protein levels of PKMζ and the membrane expression of GluR2 increased in the PrL in young and adult rats but not in aged rats, and the levels of methylated PKMζ DNA in the PrL decreased in all age groups, whereas the levels of unmethylated PKMζ DNA increased only in young and adult rats. We also found that environmentally enriched housing reversed the hypermethylation of PKMζ and restored cognitive performance in aged rats. Inactivation of PKMζ prevented the potentiating effects of environmental enrichment on memory retention in aged rats. These results indicated that PKMζ might be a potential target for the treatment of aging-related cognitive impairment, suggesting a potential therapeutic avenue. PMID:26926225

  12. Review: Axon pathology in age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Adalbert, R; Coleman, M P

    2013-02-01

    'Dying back' axon degeneration is a prominent feature of many age-related neurodegenerative disorders and is widespread in normal ageing. Although the mechanisms of disease- and age-related losses may differ, both contribute to symptoms. Here, we review recent advances in understanding axon pathology in age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and glaucoma. In particular, we highlight the importance of axonal transport, autophagy, traumatic brain injury and mitochondrial quality control. We then place these disease mechanisms in the context of changes to axons and dendrites that occur during normal ageing. We discuss what makes ageing such an important risk factor for many neurodegenerative disorders and conclude that the processes of normal ageing and disease combine at the molecular, cellular or systems levels in a range of disorders to produce symptoms. Pathology identical to disease also occurs at the cellular level in most elderly individuals. Thus, normal ageing and age-related disease are inextricably linked and the term 'healthy ageing' downplays the important contributions of cellular pathology. For a full understanding of normal ageing or age-related disease we must study both processes. PMID:23046254

  13. Age-related difference in relationships between cognitive processing speed and general cognitive status.

    PubMed

    Tam, Helena M K; Lam, Charlene L M; Huang, Haixia; Wang, Baolan; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-01-01

    General cognitive status (GCS) is a composite of cognitive abilities reflecting full function. The literature suggests a relationship between cognitive processing speed and GCS, as well as age-related changes of processing speed on cognitive performance. Therefore, this study recruited 34 younger and 39 older adults to verify age-related differences in relationships between cognitive processing speed and GCS. We measured cognitive processing speed with the Processing Speed Index of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Findings indicated that cognitive processing speed predicted GCS in older but not younger adults. Future research may be needed to verify the training effect of processing speed on GCS. This study also further examined cognitive factors related to processing speed in aging and the relationships between cognitive processing speed and verbal fluency, cognitive inhibition, and divided attention. A stepwise regression analysis indicated that only verbal fluency contributed significantly to cognitive processing speed in older adults, accounting for 21% of the variance. These observations suggest that age-related changes of prefrontal regions may not fully explain age-related decline in cognitive processing speed. PMID:24927241

  14. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    MedlinePlus

    ... for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  15. The role of cognition in age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Craik, Fergus I M

    2007-01-01

    The article presents a commentary on the accompanying six papers from the perspective of a cognitive psychologist. Treisman's (1964, 1969) levels of analysis model of selective attention is suggested as a framework within which the interactions between 'bottom-up' auditory factors and 'top-down' cognitive factors may be understood. The complementary roles of auditory and cognitive aspects of hearing are explored, and their mutually compensatory properties discussed. The findings and ideas reported in the six accompanying papers fit well into such a 'levels of processing' framework, which may therefore be proposed as a model for understanding the effects of aging on speech processing and comprehension. PMID:18236642

  16. Multiple Brain Markers are Linked to Age-Related Variation in Cognition.

    PubMed

    Hedden, Trey; Schultz, Aaron P; Rieckmann, Anna; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Buckner, Randy L

    2016-04-01

    Age-related alterations in brain structure and function have been challenging to link to cognition due to potential overlapping influences of multiple neurobiological cascades. We examined multiple brain markers associated with age-related variation in cognition. Clinically normal older humans aged 65-90 from the Harvard Aging Brain Study (N = 186) were characterized on a priori magnetic resonance imaging markers of gray matter thickness and volume, white matter hyperintensities, fractional anisotropy (FA), resting-state functional connectivity, positron emission tomography markers of glucose metabolism and amyloid burden, and cognitive factors of processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Partial correlation and mediation analyses estimated age-related variance in cognition shared with individual brain markers and unique to each marker. The largest relationships linked FA and striatum volume to processing speed and executive function, and hippocampal volume to episodic memory. Of the age-related variance in cognition, 70-80% was accounted for by combining all brain markers (but only ∼20% of total variance). Age had significant indirect effects on cognition via brain markers, with significant markers varying across cognitive domains. These results suggest that most age-related variation in cognition is shared among multiple brain markers, but potential specificity between some brain markers and cognitive domains motivates additional study of age-related markers of neural health. PMID:25316342

  17. From mind wandering to involuntary retrieval: Age-related differences in spontaneous cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Maillet, David; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    The majority of studies that have investigated the effects of healthy aging on cognition have focused on age-related differences in voluntary and deliberately engaged cognitive processes. Yet many forms of cognition occur spontaneously, without any deliberate attempt at engaging them. In this article we review studies that have assessed age-related differences in four such types of spontaneous thought processes: mind-wandering, involuntary autobiographical memory, intrusive thoughts, and spontaneous prospective memory retrieval. These studies suggest that older adults exhibit a reduction in frequency of both mind-wandering and involuntary autobiographical memory, whereas findings regarding intrusive thoughts have been more mixed. Additionally, there is some preliminary evidence that spontaneous prospective memory retrieval may be relatively preserved in aging. We consider the roles of age-related differences in cognitive resources, motivation, current concerns and emotional regulation in accounting for these findings. We also consider age-related differences in the neural correlates of spontaneous cognitive processes. PMID:26617263

  18. Age-related changes in intrinsic function of the superior temporal sulcus in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Alaerts, Kaat; Nayar, Kritika; Kelly, Clare; Raithel, Jessica; Milham, Michael P; Di Martino, Adriana

    2015-10-01

    Currently, the developmental trajectories of neural circuits implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are largely unknown. Here, we specifically focused on age-related changes in the functional circuitry of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), a key hub underlying social-cognitive processes known to be impaired in ASD. Using a cross-sectional approach, we analysed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected from children, adolescents and adults available through the autism brain imaging data exchange repository [n = 106 with ASD and n = 109 typical controls (TC), ages 7-30 years]. The observed age-related changes of pSTS intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) suggest that no single developmental pattern characterizes ASD. Instead, pSTS circuitry displayed a complex developmental picture, with some functional circuits showing patterns consistent with atypical development in ASD relative to TC (pSTS-iFC with fusiform gyrus and angular gyrus) and others showing delayed maturation (pSTS-iFC with regions of the action perception network). Distinct developmental trajectories in different functional circuits in ASD likely reflect differential age-related changes in the socio-cognitive processes they underlie. Increasing insight on these mechanisms is a critical step in the development of age-specific interventions in ASD. PMID:25809403

  19. Shared and Unique Genetic and Environmental Influences on Aging-Related Changes in Multiple Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Finkel, Deborah; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Aging-related declines occur in many different domains of cognitive function during middle and late adulthood. However, whether a global dimension underlies individual differences in changes in different domains of cognition and whether global genetic influences on cognitive changes exist is less clear. We addressed these issues by applying…

  20. The potential effects of meditation on age-related cognitive decline: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gard, Tim; Hölzel, Britta K.; Lazar, Sara W.

    2014-01-01

    With a rapidly aging society it becomes increasingly important to counter normal age-related decline in cognitive functioning. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training programs may have the potential to counteract this decline. On the basis of a growing body of research that shows that meditation has positive effects on cognition in younger and middle-aged adults, meditation may be able to offset normal age-related cognitive decline or even enhance cognitive function in older adults. In this paper, we review studies investigating the effects of meditation on age-related cognitive decline. We searched the Web of Science (1900 to present), PsycINFO (1597 to present), MEDLINE (1950 to present), and CABI (1910 to present) to identify original studies investigating the effects of meditation on cognition and cognitive decline in the context of aging. Twelve studies were included in the review, six of which were randomized controlled trials. Studies involved a wide variety of meditation techniques and reported preliminary positive effects on attention, memory, executive function, processing speed, and general cognition. However, most studies had a high risk of bias and small sample sizes. Reported dropout rates were low and compliance rates high. We conclude that meditation interventions for older adults are feasible, and preliminary evidence suggests that meditation can offset age-related cognitive decline. PMID:24571182

  1. [Age-related factors of psychopathology of impulse control disorders].

    PubMed

    Shiurkute, A

    1999-01-01

    15 children and adolescents with impulse control disorders (mean age 12.9 years) were examined. These disorders were presented as dromomania, kleptomania, aggressive-sadistic actions, tricholillomania, pyromania; a combination of different types was observed in some cases. Schizophrenia was diagnosed in 7 cases, affective disorders--in 8 patients. Independently of the nosologic unity of the disease, development of the impulse control disorders took place in affective disorders which manifested either by monopolar course (depression) (11 cases), or by bypolar attacks with unclear outlines of the phases (4 patients). Psychopathology of impulse control disorders in children and juveniles was analogous to that of the adults, however, their structure wasn't so complex and development of the phases wasn't so clear. PMID:11530454

  2. Genetic Markers in Biological Fluids for Aging-Related Major Neurocognitive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Chavira, S.A.; Fernández, T.; Nicolini, H.; Diaz-Cintra, S.; Prado-Alcalá, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related major neurocognitive disorder (NCD), formerly named dementia, comprises of the different acquired diseases whose primary deficit is impairment in cognitive functions such as complex attention, executive function, learning and memory, language, perceptual/motor skills, and social cognition, and that are related to specific brain regions and/or networks. According to its etiology, the most common subtypes of major NCDs are due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular disease (VaD), Lewy body disease (LBD), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). These pathologies are frequently present in mixed forms, i.e., AD plus VaD or AD plus LBD, thus diagnosed as due to multiple etiologies. In this paper, the definitions, criteria, pathologies, subtypes and genetic markers for the most common age-related major NCD subtypes are summarized. The current diagnostic criteria consider cognitive decline leading to major NCD or dementia as a progressive degenerative process with an underlying neuropathology that begins before the manifestation of symptoms. Biomarkers associated with this asymptomatic phase are being developed as accurate risk factor and biomarker assessments are fundamental to provide timely treatment since no treatments to prevent or cure NCD yet exist. Biological fluid assessment represents a safer, cheaper and less invasive method compared to contrast imaging studies to predict NCD appearance. Genetic factors particularly have a key role not only in predicting development of the disease but also the age of onset as well as the presentation of comorbidities that may contribute to the disease pathology and trigger synergistic mechanisms which may, in turn, accelerate the neurodegenerative process and its resultant behavioral and functional disorders. PMID:25731625

  3. Genetic markers in biological fluids for aging-related major neurocognitive disorder.

    PubMed

    Castro-Chavira, S A; Fernandez, T; Nicolini, H; Diaz-Cintra, S; Prado-Alcala, R A

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related major neurocognitive disorder (NCD), formerly named dementia, comprises of the different acquired diseases whose primary deficit is impairment in cognitive functions such as complex attention, executive function, learning and memory, language, perceptual/motor skills, and social cognition, and that are related to specific brain regions and/or networks. According to its etiology, the most common subtypes of major NCDs are due to Alzheimer' s disease (AD), vascular disease (VaD), Lewy body disease (LBD), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). These pathologies are frequently present in mixed forms, i.e., AD plus VaD or AD plus LBD, thus diagnosed as due to multiple etiologies. In this paper, the definitions, criteria, pathologies, subtypes and genetic markers for the most common age-related major NCD subtypes are summarized. The current diagnostic criteria consider cognitive decline leading to major NCD or dementia as a progressive degenerative process with an underlying neuropathology that begins before the manifestation of symptoms. Biomarkers associated with this asymptomatic phase are being developed as accurate risk factor and biomarker assessments are fundamental to provide timely treatment since no treatments to prevent or cure NCD yet exist. Biological fluid assessment represents a safer, cheaper and less invasive method compared to contrast imaging studies to predict NCD appearance. Genetic factors particularly have a key role not only in predicting development of the disease but also the age of onset as well as the presentation of comorbidities that may contribute to the disease pathology and trigger synergistic mechanisms which may, in turn, accelerate the neurodegenerative process and its resultant behavioral and functional disorders. PMID:25731625

  4. Hippocampal dysregulation of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins with age-related cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    VanGuilder, Heather D.; Farley, Julie A.; Yan, Han; Van Kirk, Colleen A.; Mitschelen, Matthew; Sonntag, William E.; Freeman, Willard M.

    2011-01-01

    Age-related cognitive decline occurs without frank neurodegeneration and is the most common cause of memory impairment in aging individuals. With increasing longevity, cognitive deficits, especially in hippocampus-dependent memory processes, are increasing in prevalence. Nevertheless, the neurobiological basis of age-related cognitive decline remains unknown. While concerted efforts have led to the identification of neurobiological changes with aging, few age-related alterations have been definitively correlated to behavioral measures of cognitive decline. In this work, adult (12 Months) and aged (28 months) rats were categorized by Morris water maze performance as Adult cognitively Intact, Aged cognitively Intact or Aged cognitively Impaired, and protein expression was examined in hippocampal synaptosome preparations. Previously described differences in synaptic expression of neurotransmission-associated proteins (Dnm1, Hpca, Stx1, Syn1, Syn2, Syp, SNAP25, VAMP2 and 14-3-3 eta, gamma, and zeta) were confirmed between Adult and Aged rats, with no further dysregulation associated with cognitive impairment. Proteins related to synaptic structural stability (MAP2, drebrin, Nogo-A) and activity-dependent signaling (PSD-95, 14-3-3θ, CaMKIIα) were up- and down-regulated, respectively, with cognitive impairment but were not altered with increasing age. Localization of MAP2, PSD-95, and CaMKIIα demonstrated protein expression alterations throughout the hippocampus. The altered expression of activity- and structural stability-associated proteins suggests that impaired synaptic plasticity is a distinct phenomenon that occurs with age-related cognitive decline, and demonstrates that cognitive decline is not simply an exacerbation of the aging phenotype. PMID:21440628

  5. Sleep Duration and Age-Related Changes in Brain Structure and Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Loh, Kep Kee; Zheng, Hui; Sim, Sam K.Y.; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the contribution of sleep duration and quality to age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance in relatively healthy older adults. Design: Community-based longitudinal brain and cognitive aging study using a convenience sample. Setting: Participants were studied in a research laboratory. Participants: Relatively healthy adults aged 55 y and older at study commencement. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment every 2 y. Subjective assessments of sleep duration and quality and blood samples were obtained. Each hour of reduced sleep duration at baseline augmented the annual expansion rate of the ventricles by 0.59% (P = 0.007) and the annual decline rate in global cognitive performance by 0.67% (P = 0.050) in the subsequent 2 y after controlling for the effects of age, sex, education, and body mass index. In contrast, global sleep quality at baseline did not modulate either brain or cognitive aging. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation, showed no correlation with baseline sleep duration, brain structure, or cognitive performance. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, short sleep duration is associated with greater age-related brain atrophy and cognitive decline. These associations are not associated with elevated inflammatory responses among short sleepers. Citation: Lo JC, Loh KK, Zheng H, Sim SK, Chee MW. Sleep duration and age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1171-1178. PMID:25061245

  6. Age-related decline in cognitive control: the role of fluid intelligence and processing speed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on cognitive control suggests an age-related decline in proactive control abilities whereas reactive control seems to remain intact. However, the reason of the differential age effect on cognitive control efficiency is still unclear. This study investigated the potential influence of fluid intelligence and processing speed on the selective age-related decline in proactive control. Eighty young and 80 healthy older adults were included in this study. The participants were submitted to a working memory recognition paradigm, assessing proactive and reactive cognitive control by manipulating the interference level across items. Results Repeated measures ANOVAs and hierarchical linear regressions indicated that the ability to appropriately use cognitive control processes during aging seems to be at least partially affected by the amount of available cognitive resources (assessed by fluid intelligence and processing speed abilities). Conclusions This study highlights the potential role of cognitive resources on the selective age-related decline in proactive control, suggesting the importance of a more exhaustive approach considering the confounding variables during cognitive control assessment. PMID:24401034

  7. Disconnected aging: cerebral white matter integrity and age-related differences in cognition.

    PubMed

    Bennett, I J; Madden, D J

    2014-09-12

    Cognition arises as a result of coordinated processing among distributed brain regions and disruptions to communication within these neural networks can result in cognitive dysfunction. Cortical disconnection may thus contribute to the declines in some aspects of cognitive functioning observed in healthy aging. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is ideally suited for the study of cortical disconnection as it provides indices of structural integrity within interconnected neural networks. The current review summarizes results of previous DTI aging research with the aim of identifying consistent patterns of age-related differences in white matter integrity, and of relationships between measures of white matter integrity and behavioral performance as a function of adult age. We outline a number of future directions that will broaden our current understanding of these brain-behavior relationships in aging. Specifically, future research should aim to (1) investigate multiple models of age-brain-behavior relationships; (2) determine the tract-specificity versus global effect of aging on white matter integrity; (3) assess the relative contribution of normal variation in white matter integrity versus white matter lesions to age-related differences in cognition; (4) improve the definition of specific aspects of cognitive functioning related to age-related differences in white matter integrity using information processing tasks; and (5) combine multiple imaging modalities (e.g., resting-state and task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging; fMRI) with DTI to clarify the role of cerebral white matter integrity in cognitive aging. PMID:24280637

  8. Myelin Breakdown Mediates Age-Related Slowing in Cognitive Processing Speed in Healthy Elderly Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Po H.; Lee, Grace J.; Tishler, Todd A.; Meghpara, Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Bartzokis, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the hypothesis that in a sample of very healthy elderly men selected to minimize risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease, myelin breakdown in late-myelinating regions mediates age-related slowing in cognitive processing speed (CPS). Materials and methods: The prefrontal lobe white matter and the genu of…

  9. Recent Advances in Berry Supplementation and Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To summarize recent findings and current concepts in the beneficial effects of berry consumption on brain function during aging. Berryfruit supplementation has continued to demonstrate efficacy in reversing age-related cognitive decline in animal studies. In terms of the mechanisms behind the effe...

  10. Cognitive Abilities Explaining Age-Related Changes in Time Perception of Short and Long Durations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated how the development of cognitive abilities explains the age-related changes in temporal judgment over short and long duration ranges from 0.5 to 30 s. Children (5- and 9-year-olds) as well as adults were given a temporal bisection task with four different duration ranges: a duration range shorter than 1 s, two…

  11. Glutamatergic regulation prevents hippocampal-dependent age-related cognitive decline through dendritic spine clustering

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana C.; Lambert, Hilary K.; Grossman, Yael S.; Dumitriu, Dani; Waldman, Rachel; Jannetty, Sophia K.; Calakos, Katina; Janssen, William G.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Morrison, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The dementia of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) results primarily from degeneration of neurons that furnish glutamatergic corticocortical connections that subserve cognition. Although neuron death is minimal in the absence of AD, age-related cognitive decline does occur in animals as well as humans, and it decreases quality of life for elderly people. Age-related cognitive decline has been linked to synapse loss and/or alterations of synaptic proteins that impair function in regions such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. These synaptic alterations are likely reversible, such that maintenance of synaptic health in the face of aging is a critically important therapeutic goal. Here, we show that riluzole can protect against some of the synaptic alterations in hippocampus that are linked to age-related memory loss in rats. Riluzole increases glutamate uptake through glial transporters and is thought to decrease glutamate spillover to extrasynaptic NMDA receptors while increasing synaptic glutamatergic activity. Treated aged rats were protected against age-related cognitive decline displayed in nontreated aged animals. Memory performance correlated with density of thin spines on apical dendrites in CA1, although not with mushroom spines. Furthermore, riluzole-treated rats had an increase in clustering of thin spines that correlated with memory performance and was specific to the apical, but not the basilar, dendrites of CA1. Clustering of synaptic inputs is thought to allow nonlinear summation of synaptic strength. These findings further elucidate neuroplastic changes in glutamatergic circuits with aging and advance therapeutic development to prevent and treat age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25512503

  12. Glutamatergic regulation prevents hippocampal-dependent age-related cognitive decline through dendritic spine clustering.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana C; Lambert, Hilary K; Grossman, Yael S; Dumitriu, Dani; Waldman, Rachel; Jannetty, Sophia K; Calakos, Katina; Janssen, William G; McEwen, Bruce S; Morrison, John H

    2014-12-30

    The dementia of Alzheimer's disease (AD) results primarily from degeneration of neurons that furnish glutamatergic corticocortical connections that subserve cognition. Although neuron death is minimal in the absence of AD, age-related cognitive decline does occur in animals as well as humans, and it decreases quality of life for elderly people. Age-related cognitive decline has been linked to synapse loss and/or alterations of synaptic proteins that impair function in regions such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. These synaptic alterations are likely reversible, such that maintenance of synaptic health in the face of aging is a critically important therapeutic goal. Here, we show that riluzole can protect against some of the synaptic alterations in hippocampus that are linked to age-related memory loss in rats. Riluzole increases glutamate uptake through glial transporters and is thought to decrease glutamate spillover to extrasynaptic NMDA receptors while increasing synaptic glutamatergic activity. Treated aged rats were protected against age-related cognitive decline displayed in nontreated aged animals. Memory performance correlated with density of thin spines on apical dendrites in CA1, although not with mushroom spines. Furthermore, riluzole-treated rats had an increase in clustering of thin spines that correlated with memory performance and was specific to the apical, but not the basilar, dendrites of CA1. Clustering of synaptic inputs is thought to allow nonlinear summation of synaptic strength. These findings further elucidate neuroplastic changes in glutamatergic circuits with aging and advance therapeutic development to prevent and treat age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25512503

  13. Molecular aspects of age-related cognitive decline: the role of GABA signaling

    PubMed Central

    McQuail, Joseph A.; Frazier, Charles J.; Bizon, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in inhibitory interneurons contribute to cognitive deficits associated with several psychiatric and neurological diseases. Phasic and tonic inhibition imparted by γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) receptors regulates neural activity and helps to establish the appropriate network dynamics in cortical circuits that support normal cognition. This review highlights basic science demonstrating that inhibitory signaling is altered in aging, and discusses the impact of age-related shifts in inhibition on different forms of memory function, including hippocampus-dependent spatial reference memory and prefrontal cortex (PFU)-dependent working memory. The clinical appropriateness and tractability of select therapeutic candidates for cognitive aging that target receptors mediating inhibition are also discussed. PMID:26070271

  14. Contribution of changes in ubiquitin and myelin basic protein to age-related cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deng-Shun; Bennett, David A; Mufson, Elliott J; Mattila, Petri; Cochran, Elizabeth; Dickson, Dennis W

    2004-01-01

    The structural substrates for age-associated cognitive and motor slowing are not known, but age-related white matter changes, such as ubiquitin (UBQ)-immunoreactive granular degeneration of myelin, might contribute to this slowing. To address this hypothesis we measured immunoreactivity for UBQ and myelin basic protein (MBP) in frontal white matter of age-, sex- and postmortem interval-matched cases with no cognitive impairment (NCI; N=12), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N=14) and Alzheimer disease (AD; N=12). There were no significant correlations between UBQ in white matter and cognitive measures, but MBP was significantly lower in AD compared with NCI and MCI. MBP correlated with overall cognition as assessed by neuropsychological summary scores, as well as with timed cognitive tests and those that reflect frontal functions. An age-related decrease in MBP immunoreactivity was detected in NCI cases (r=0.71). These results support the hypothesis that white matter pathology may contribute to age-associated decline in cognition. PMID:14687885

  15. Foreign language training as cognitive therapy for age-related cognitive decline: A hypothesis for future research

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Mark; Gunasekera, Geshri; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the next fifty years, the number of older adults is set to reach record levels. Protecting older adults from the age-related effects of cognitive decline is one of the greatest challenges of the next few decades as it places increasing pressure on families, health systems, and economies on a global scale. The disease-state of age-related cognitive decline—Alzheimer's disease and other dementias—hijacks our consciousness and intellectual autonomy. However, there is evidence that cognitively stimulating activities protect against the adverse effects of cognitive decline. Similarly, bilingualism is also considered to be a safeguard. We propose that foreign language learning programs aimed at older populations are an optimal solution for building cognitive reserve because language learning engages an extensive brain network that is known to overlap with the regions negatively affected by the aging process. It is recommended that future research should test this potentially fruitful hypothesis. PMID:24051310

  16. Computer Simulations of Loss of Organization of Neurons as a Model for Age-related Cognitive Decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Luis; Fengometidis, Elene; Jones, Frank; Jampani, Srinivas

    2011-03-01

    In normal aging, brains suffer from progressive cognitive decline not linked with loss of neurons common in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. However, in some brain areas neurons have lost positional organization specifically within microcolumns: arrays of interconnected neurons which may constitute fundamental computational units in the brain. This age-related loss of organization, likely a result of micron-sized random displacements in neuronal positions, is hypothesized to be a by-product of the loss of support from the surrounding medium, including dendrites. Using a dynamical model applied to virtual 3D representation of neuronal arrangements, that previously showed loss of organization in brains of cognitively tested rhesus monkeys, the relationship between these displacements and changes to the surrounding dendrite network are presented. The consequences of these displacements on the structure of the dendritic network, with possible disruptions in signal synchrony important to cognitive function, are discussed. NIH R01AG021133.

  17. Young blood reverses age-related impairments in cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in mice.

    PubMed

    Villeda, Saul A; Plambeck, Kristopher E; Middeldorp, Jinte; Castellano, Joseph M; Mosher, Kira I; Luo, Jian; Smith, Lucas K; Bieri, Gregor; Lin, Karin; Berdnik, Daniela; Wabl, Rafael; Udeochu, Joe; Wheatley, Elizabeth G; Zou, Bende; Simmons, Danielle A; Xie, Xinmin S; Longo, Frank M; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2014-06-01

    As human lifespan increases, a greater fraction of the population is suffering from age-related cognitive impairments, making it important to elucidate a means to combat the effects of aging. Here we report that exposure of an aged animal to young blood can counteract and reverse pre-existing effects of brain aging at the molecular, structural, functional and cognitive level. Genome-wide microarray analysis of heterochronic parabionts--in which circulatory systems of young and aged animals are connected--identified synaptic plasticity-related transcriptional changes in the hippocampus of aged mice. Dendritic spine density of mature neurons increased and synaptic plasticity improved in the hippocampus of aged heterochronic parabionts. At the cognitive level, systemic administration of young blood plasma into aged mice improved age-related cognitive impairments in both contextual fear conditioning and spatial learning and memory. Structural and cognitive enhancements elicited by exposure to young blood are mediated, in part, by activation of the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (Creb) in the aged hippocampus. Our data indicate that exposure of aged mice to young blood late in life is capable of rejuvenating synaptic plasticity and improving cognitive function. PMID:24793238

  18. Young blood reverses age-related impairments in cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Villeda, Saul A; Plambeck, Kristopher E; Middeldorp, Jinte; Castellano, Joseph M; Mosher, Kira I; Luo, Jian; Smith, Lucas K; Bieri, Gregor; Lin, Karin; Berdnik, Daniela; Wabl, Rafael; Udeochu, Joe; Wheatley, Elizabeth G; Zou, Bende; Simmons, Danielle A; Xie, Xinmin S; Longo, Frank M; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2014-01-01

    As human lifespan increases, a greater fraction of the population is suffering from age-related cognitive impairments, making it important to elucidate a means to combat the effects of aging1,2. Here we report that exposure of an aged animal to young blood can counteract and reverse pre-existing effects of brain aging at the molecular, structural, functional and cognitive level. Genome-wide microarray analysis of heterochronic parabionts—in which circulatory systems of young and aged animals are connected—identified synaptic plasticity–related transcriptional changes in the hippocampus of aged mice. Dendritic spine density of mature neurons increased and synaptic plasticity improved in the hippocampus of aged heterochronic parabionts. At the cognitive level, systemic administration of young blood plasma into aged mice improved age-related cognitive impairments in both contextual fear conditioning and spatial learning and memory. Structural and cognitive enhancements elicited by exposure to young blood are mediated, in part, by activation of the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (Creb) in the aged hippocampus. Our data indicate that exposure of aged mice to young blood late in life is capable of rejuvenating synaptic plasticity and improving cognitive function. PMID:24793238

  19. Vagal Recovery From Cognitive Challenge Moderates Age-Related Deficits in Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Olga V; Kimhy, David; McKinley, Paula S; Burg, Matthew M; Schwartz, Joseph E; Lachman, Margie E; Tun, Patricia A; Ryff, Carol D; Seeman, Teresa E; Sloan, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    Decline in executive functioning (EF) is a hallmark of cognitive aging. We have previously reported that faster vagal recovery from cognitive challenge is associated with better EF. This study examined the association between vagal recovery from cognitive challenge and age-related differences in EF among 817 participants in the Midlife in the U.S. study (aged 35-86). Cardiac vagal control was measured as high-frequency heart rate variability. Vagal recovery moderated the association between age and EF (β = .811, p = .004). Secondary analyses revealed that older participants (aged 65-86) with faster vagal recovery had superior EF compared to their peers who had slower vagal recovery. In contrast, among younger (aged 35-54) and middle-aged (aged 55-64) participants, vagal recovery was not associated with EF. We conclude that faster vagal recovery from cognitive challenge is associated with reduced deficits in EF among older, but not younger individuals. PMID:26303063

  20. Vagal Recovery From Cognitive Challenge Moderates Age-Related Deficits in Executive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Olga V.; Kimhy, David; McKinley, Paula S.; Burg, Matthew M.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Lachman, Margie E.; Tun, Patricia A.; Ryff, Carol D.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Sloan, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Decline in executive functioning (EF) is a hallmark of cognitive aging. We have previously reported that faster vagal recovery from cognitive challenge is associated with better EF. This study examined the association between vagal recovery from cognitive challenge and age-related differences in EF among 817 participants in the Midlife in the U.S. study (aged 35–86). Cardiac vagal control was measured as high-frequency heart rate variability. Vagal recovery moderated the association between age and EF (β = .811, p = .004). Secondary analyses revealed that older participants (aged 65–86) with faster vagal recovery had superior EF compared to their peers who had slower vagal recovery. In contrast, among younger (aged 35–54) and middle-aged (aged 55–64) participants, vagal recovery was not associated with EF. We conclude that faster vagal recovery from cognitive challenge is associated with reduced deficits in EF among older, but not younger individuals. PMID:26303063

  1. Prevention of Age-Related Cognitive Decline: Which Strategies, When, and for Whom?

    PubMed

    Shatenstein, Bryna; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Brain aging is characterized by the progressive and gradual accumulation of detrimental changes in structure and function, which increase risk of age-related cognitive decline and dementia. This devastating chronic condition generates a huge social and economic burden and accounts for 11.2% of years of disability. The increase in lifespan has contributed to the increase in dementia prevalence; however, there is currently no curative treatment for most causes of dementias. This paper reviews evidence-based strategies to build, enhance, and preserve cognition over the lifespan by examining approaches that work best, proposing when in the life course they should be implemented, and in which population group(s). Recent work shows a tendency to decreased age-specific prevalence and incidence of cognitive problems and dementia among people born later in the first half of the 20th century, citing higher educational levels, improvements in lifestyle, and better handling of vascular risk factors. This implies that we can target modifiable environmental, lifestyle, and health risk factors to modify the trajectory of cognitive decline before the onset of irreversible dementia. Because building cognitive reserve and prevention of cognitive decline are of critical importance, interventions are needed at every stage of the life course to foster cognitive stimulation, and enable healthy eating habits and physical activity throughout the lifespan. Preventive interventions to decrease and delay cognitive decline and its consequences in old age will also require collaboration and action on the part of policy-makers at the political and social level. PMID:26401926

  2. Can psychosocial work conditions protect against age-related cognitive decline? Results from a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Nexø, Mette Andersen; Meng, Annette; Borg, Vilhelm

    2016-01-01

    According to the use it or lose it hypothesis, intellectually stimulating activities postpone age-related cognitive decline. A previous systematic review concluded that a high level of mental work demands and job control protected against cognitive decline. However, it did not distinguish between outcomes that were measured as cognitive function at one point in time or as cognitive decline. Our study aimed to systematically review which psychosocial working conditions were prospectively associated with high levels of cognitive function and/or changes in cognitive function over time. Articles were identified by a systematic literature search (MEDLINE, Web of Science (WOS), PsycNET, Occupational Safety and Health (OSH)). We included only studies with longitudinal designs examining the impact of psychosocial work conditions on outcomes defined as cognitive function or changes in cognitive function. Two independent reviewers compared title-abstract screenings, full-text screenings and quality assessment ratings. Eleven studies were included in the final synthesis and showed that high levels of mental work demands, occupational complexity or job control at one point in time were prospectively associated with higher levels of cognitive function in midlife or late life. However, the evidence to clarify whether these psychosocial factors also affected cognitive decline was insufficient, conflicting or weak. It remains speculative whether job control, job demands or occupational complexity can protect against cognitive decline. Future studies using methodological advancements can reveal whether workers gain more cognitive reserve in midlife and late life than the available evidence currently suggests. The public health implications of a previous review should thereby be redefined accordingly. PMID:27178844

  3. Can psychosocial work conditions protect against age-related cognitive decline? Results from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nexø, Mette Andersen; Meng, Annette; Borg, Vilhelm

    2016-07-01

    According to the use it or lose it hypothesis, intellectually stimulating activities postpone age-related cognitive decline. A previous systematic review concluded that a high level of mental work demands and job control protected against cognitive decline. However, it did not distinguish between outcomes that were measured as cognitive function at one point in time or as cognitive decline. Our study aimed to systematically review which psychosocial working conditions were prospectively associated with high levels of cognitive function and/or changes in cognitive function over time. Articles were identified by a systematic literature search (MEDLINE, Web of Science (WOS), PsycNET, Occupational Safety and Health (OSH)). We included only studies with longitudinal designs examining the impact of psychosocial work conditions on outcomes defined as cognitive function or changes in cognitive function. Two independent reviewers compared title-abstract screenings, full-text screenings and quality assessment ratings. Eleven studies were included in the final synthesis and showed that high levels of mental work demands, occupational complexity or job control at one point in time were prospectively associated with higher levels of cognitive function in midlife or late life. However, the evidence to clarify whether these psychosocial factors also affected cognitive decline was insufficient, conflicting or weak. It remains speculative whether job control, job demands or occupational complexity can protect against cognitive decline. Future studies using methodological advancements can reveal whether workers gain more cognitive reserve in midlife and late life than the available evidence currently suggests. The public health implications of a previous review should thereby be redefined accordingly. PMID:27178844

  4. Shared and unique genetic and environmental influences on aging-related changes in multiple cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Reynolds, Chandra A; Finkel, Deborah; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2014-01-01

    Aging-related declines occur in many different domains of cognitive function during middle and late adulthood. However, whether a global dimension underlies individual differences in changes in different domains of cognition and whether global genetic influences on cognitive changes exist is less clear. We addressed these issues by applying multivariate growth curve models to longitudinal data from 857 individuals from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging, who had been measured on 11 cognitive variables representative of verbal, spatial, memory, and processing speed abilities up to 5 times over up to 16 years between ages 50 and 96 years. Between ages 50 and 65 years scores on different tests changed relatively independently of one another, and there was little evidence for strong underlying dimensions of change. In contrast, over the period between 65 and 96 years of age, there were strong interrelations among rates of change both within and across domains. During this age period, variability in rates of change were, on average, 52% domain-general, 8% domain-specific, and 39% test-specific. Quantitative genetic decomposition indicated that 29% of individual differences in a global domain-general dimension of cognitive changes during this age period were attributable to genetic influences, but some domain-specific genetic influences were also evident, even after accounting for domain-general contributions. These findings are consistent with a balanced global and domain-specific account of the genetics of cognitive aging. PMID:23586942

  5. Diagnosis of Age-Related Cardiovascular Disorders | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers at the NIH, National Institute on Aging, Cardiovascular Biology Unit-Vascular Group have discovered a method for the diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular aging, and is seeking parties interested in in-licensing or collaborative research to co-develop, evaluate, or commercialize novel methods for diagnosing age-related cardiovascular disorders.

  6. High cognitive reserve is associated with a reduced age-related deficit in spatial conflict resolution

    PubMed Central

    Puccioni, Olga; Vallesi, Antonino

    2012-01-01

    Several studies support the existence of a specific age-related difficulty in suppressing potentially distracting information. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether spatial conflict resolution is selectively affected by aging. The way aging affects individuals could be modulated by many factors determined by the socieconomic status: we investigated whether factors such as cognitive reserve (CR) and years of education may play a compensatory role against age-related deficits in the spatial domain. A spatial Stroop task with no feature repetitions was administered to a sample of 17 non-demented older adults (69–79 years-old) and 18 younger controls (18–34 years-old) matched for gender and years of education. The two age groups were also administered with measures of intelligence and CR. The overall spatial Stroop effect did not differ according to age, neither for speed nor for accuracy. The two age groups equally showed sequential effects for congruent trials: reduced response times (RTs) if another congruent trial preceded them, and accuracy at ceiling. For incongruent trials, older adults, but not younger controls, were influenced by congruency of trialn−1, since RTs increased with preceding congruent trials. Interestingly, such an age-related modulation negatively correlated with CR. These findings suggest that spatial conflict resolution in aging is predominantly affected by general slowing, rather than by a more specific deficit. However, a high level of CR seems to play a compensatory role for both factors. PMID:23248595

  7. Age-related differences in gap detection: Effects of task difficulty and cognitive ability

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kelly C.; Eckert, Mark A.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Dubno, Judy R.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in gap detection for younger and older adults have been shown to vary with the complexity of the task or stimuli, but the factors that contribute to these differences remain unknown. To address this question, we examined the extent to which age-related differences in processing speed and workload predicted age-related differences in gap detection. Gap detection thresholds were measured for 10 younger and 11 older adults in two conditions that varied in task complexity but used identical stimuli: (1) gap location fixed at the beginning, middle, or end of a noise burst and (2) gap location varied randomly from trial to trial from the beginning, middle, or end of the noise. We hypothesized that gap location uncertainty would place increased demands on cognitive and attentional resources and result in significantly higher gap detection thresholds for older but not younger adults. Overall, gap detection thresholds were lower for the middle location as compared to beginning and end locations and were lower for the fixed than the random condition. In general, larger age-related differences in gap detection were observed for more challenging conditions. That is, gap detection thresholds for older adults were significantly larger for the random condition than for the fixed condition when the gap was at the beginning and end locations but not the middle. In contrast, gap detection thresholds for younger adults were not significantly different for the random and fixed condition at any location. Subjective ratings of workload indicated that older adults found the gap-detection task more mentally demanding than younger adults. Consistent with these findings, results of the Purdue Pegboard and Connections tests revealed age-related slowing of processing speed. Moreover, age group differences in workload and processing speed predicted gap detection in younger and older adults when gap location varied from trial to trial; these associations were not observed when gap

  8. Age-related differences in white matter integrity and cognitive function are related to APOE status

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lee; Walther, Katrin; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Lue, Lih-Fen; Walker, Douglas G.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    While an extensive literature is now available on age-related differences in white matter integrity measured by diffusion MRI, relatively little is known about the relationships between diffusion and cognitive functions in older adults. Even less is known about whether these relationships are influenced by the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele, despite growing evidence that ε4 increases cognitive impairment in older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine these relationships in a group of community-dwelling cognitively normal older adults. Data were obtained from a sample of 126 individuals (ages 52–92) that included 32 ε4 heterozygotes, 6 ε4 homozygotes, and 88 non-carriers. Two measures of diffusion, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA), were obtained from six brain regions – frontal white matter, lateral parietal white matter, the centrum semiovale, the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and the temporal stem white matter – and were used to predict composite scores of cognitive function in two domains, executive function and memory function. Results indicated that ADC and FA differed with increasing age in all six brain regions, and these differences were significantly greater for ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Importantly, after controlling for age, diffusion measures predicted cognitive function in a region-specific way that was also influenced by ε4 status. Regardless of APOE status, frontal ADC and FA independently predicted executive function scores for all participants, while temporal lobe ADC additionally predicted executive function for ε4 carriers, but not noncarriers. Memory scores were predicted by temporal lobe ADC but not frontal diffusion for all participants, and this relationship was significantly stronger in ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Taken together, age and temporal lobe ADC accounted for a striking 53% of the variance in memory scores within the ε4 carrier

  9. Inspection Time and Cognitive Abilities in Twins Aged 7 to 17 Years: Age-Related Changes, Heritability and Genetic Covariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Caroline J.; Isaacs, Elizabeth B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Rogers, Mary; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; Gringras, Paul; Denton, Jane; Deary, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the age-related differences in inspection time and multiple cognitive domains in a group of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 7 to 17 years. Data from 111 twin pairs and 19 singleton siblings were included. We found clear age-related trends towards more efficient visual information processing in older participants. There…

  10. Age-related cognitive decline during normal aging: the complex effect of education.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Ostrosky-Solis, F; Rosselli, M; Gómez, C

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education on cognitive decline during normal aging. An 806-subject sample was taken from five different Mexican regions. Participants ranged in age from 16 to 85 years. Subjects were grouped into four educational levels: illiterate, 1-4, 5-9, and 10 or more years of education, and four age ranges: 16-30, 31-50, 51-65, and 66-85 years. A brief neuropsychological test battery (NEUROPSI), standardized and normalized in Spanish, was administered. The NEUROPSI test battery includes assessment of orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, motor skills, and executive functions. In general, test scores were strongly associated with level of educational, and differences among age groups were smaller than differences among education groups. However, there was an interaction between age and education such as that among illiterate individuals scores of participants 31-50 years old were higher than scores of participants 16-30 years old for over 50% of the tests. Different patterns of interaction among educational groups were distinguished. It was concluded that: (a) The course of life-span changes in cognition are affected by education. Among individuals with a low level of education, best neuropsychological test performance is observed at an older age than among higher-educated subjects; and (b) there is not a single relationship between age-related cognitive decline and education, but different patterns may be found, depending upon the specific cognitive domain. PMID:14590204

  11. Perspective: A Critical Look at the Ancillary Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2: Nutrition and Cognitive Function Results in Older Individuals with Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Billy R; Renzi-Hammond, Lisa M

    2016-05-01

    A large body of literature suggests that the dietary carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid are related to improved cognitive function across the life span. A recent report by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) group appears to contradict the general findings of others in the field. In this review, we look critically at the methods, study designs, and analysis techniques used in the larger body of literature and compare them with the recent AREDS reports. PMID:27184270

  12. Longitudinal Attentional Engagement Rescues Mice from Age-Related Cognitive Declines and Cognitive Inflexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matzel, Louis D.; Light, Kenneth R.; Wass, Christopher; Colas-Zelin, Danielle; Denman-Brice, Alexander; Waddel, Adam C.; Kolata, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Learning, attentional, and perseverative deficits are characteristic of cognitive aging. In this study, genetically diverse CD-1 mice underwent longitudinal training in a task asserted to tax working memory capacity and its dependence on selective attention. Beginning at 3 mo of age, animals were trained for 12 d to perform in a dual radial-arm…

  13. Carnosine and Related Peptides: Therapeutic Potential in Age-Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cararo, José H; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patricia F; Ferreira, Gustavo da C

    2015-09-01

    Imidazole dipeptides (ID), such as carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine), are compounds widely distributed in excitable tissues of vertebrates. ID are also endowed of several biochemical properties in biological tissues, including antioxidant, bivalent metal ion chelating, proton buffering, and carbonyl scavenger activities. Furthermore, remarkable biological effects have been assigned to such compounds in age-related human disorders and in patients whose activity of serum carnosinase is deficient or undetectable. Nevertheless, the precise biological role of ID is still to be unraveled. In the present review we shall discuss some evidences from clinical and basic studies for the utilization of ID as a drug therapy for age-related human disorders. PMID:26425391

  14. Carnosine and Related Peptides: Therapeutic Potential in Age-Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cararo, José H; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patricia F; Ferreira, Gustavo da C

    2015-01-01

    Imidazole dipeptides (ID), such as carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine), are compounds widely distributed in excitable tissues of vertebrates. ID are also endowed of several biochemical properties in biological tissues, including antioxidant, bivalent metal ion chelating, proton buffering, and carbonyl scavenger activities. Furthermore, remarkable biological effects have been assigned to such compounds in age-related human disorders and in patients whose activity of serum carnosinase is deficient or undetectable. Nevertheless, the precise biological role of ID is still to be unraveled. In the present review we shall discuss some evidences from clinical and basic studies for the utilization of ID as a drug therapy for age-related human disorders. PMID:26425391

  15. Effects of a computer-based cognitive exercise program on age-related cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Bozoki, Andrea; Radovanovic, Mirjana; Winn, Brian; Heeter, Carrie; Anthony, James C

    2013-01-01

    We developed a 'senior friendly' suite of online 'games for learning' with interactive calibration for increasing difficulty, and evaluated the feasibility of a randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that seniors aged 60-80 can improve key aspects of cognitive ability with the aid of such games. Sixty community-dwelling senior volunteers were randomized to either an online game suite designed to train multiple cognitive abilities, or to a control arm with online activities that simulated the look and feel of the games but with low level interactivity and no calibration of difficulty. Study assessment included measures of recruitment, retention and play-time. Cognitive change was measured with a computerized assessment battery administered just before and within two weeks after completion of the six-week intervention. Impediments to feasibility included: limited access to in-home high-speed internet, large variations in the amount of time devoted to game play, and a reluctance to pursue more challenging levels. Overall analysis was negative for assessed performance (transference effects) even though subjects improved on the games themselves. Post hoc analyses suggest that some types of games may have more value than others, but these effects would need to be replicated in a study designed for that purpose. We conclude that a six-week, moderate-intensity computer game-based cognitive intervention can be implemented with high-functioning seniors, but the effect size is relatively small. Our findings are consistent with Owen et al. (2010), but there are open questions about whether more structured, longer duration or more intensive 'games for learning' interventions might yield more substantial cognitive improvement in seniors. PMID:23542053

  16. Jumping Stand Apparatus Reveals Rapidly Specific Age-Related Cognitive Impairments in Mouse Lemur Primates

    PubMed Central

    Picq, Jean-Luc; Villain, Nicolas; Gary, Charlotte; Pifferi, Fabien; Dhenain, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is a promising primate model for investigating normal and pathological cerebral aging. The locomotor behavior of this arboreal primate is characterized by jumps to and from trunks and branches. Many reports indicate insufficient adaptation of the mouse lemur to experimental devices used to evaluate its cognition, which is an impediment to the efficient use of this animal in research. In order to develop cognitive testing methods appropriate to the behavioral and biological traits of this species, we adapted the Lashley jumping stand apparatus, initially designed for rats, to the mouse lemur. We used this jumping stand apparatus to compare performances of young (n = 12) and aged (n = 8) adults in acquisition and long-term retention of visual discriminations. All mouse lemurs completed the tasks and only 25 trials, on average, were needed to master the first discrimination problem with no age-related differences. A month later, all mouse lemurs made progress for acquiring the second discrimination problem but only the young group reached immediately the criterion in the retention test of the first discrimination problem. This study shows that the jumping stand apparatus allows rapid and efficient evaluation of cognition in mouse lemurs and demonstrates that about half of the old mouse lemurs display a specific deficit in long-term retention but not in acquisition of visual discrimination. PMID:26716699

  17. Epigenetic alterations in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and hippocampus contribute to age-related cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Deibel, Scott H.; Zelinski, Erin L.; Keeley, Robin J.; Kovalchuk, Olga; McDonald, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythm dysfunction and cognitive decline, specifically memory loss, frequently accompany natural aging. Circadian rhythms and memory are intertwined, as circadian rhythms influence memory formation and recall in young and old rodents. Although, the precise relationship between circadian rhythms and memory is still largely unknown, it is hypothesized that circadian rhythm disruption, which occurs during aging, contributes to age-associated cognitive decline, specifically memory loss. While there are a variety of mechanisms that could mediate this effect, changes in the epigenome that occur during aging has been proposed as a potential candidate. Interestingly, epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and sirtuin1 (SIRT1) are necessary for both circadian rhythms and memory. During aging, similar alterations of epigenetic mechanisms occur in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and hippocampus, which are necessary for circadian rhythm generation and memory, respectively. Recently, circadian rhythms have been linked to epigenetic function in the hippocampus, as some of these epigenetic mechanisms oscillate in the hippocampus and are disrupted by clock gene deletion. The current paper will review how circadian rhythms and memory change with age, and will suggest how epigenetic changes in these processes might contribute to age-related cognitive decline. PMID:26252151

  18. Jumping Stand Apparatus Reveals Rapidly Specific Age-Related Cognitive Impairments in Mouse Lemur Primates.

    PubMed

    Picq, Jean-Luc; Villain, Nicolas; Gary, Charlotte; Pifferi, Fabien; Dhenain, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is a promising primate model for investigating normal and pathological cerebral aging. The locomotor behavior of this arboreal primate is characterized by jumps to and from trunks and branches. Many reports indicate insufficient adaptation of the mouse lemur to experimental devices used to evaluate its cognition, which is an impediment to the efficient use of this animal in research. In order to develop cognitive testing methods appropriate to the behavioral and biological traits of this species, we adapted the Lashley jumping stand apparatus, initially designed for rats, to the mouse lemur. We used this jumping stand apparatus to compare performances of young (n = 12) and aged (n = 8) adults in acquisition and long-term retention of visual discriminations. All mouse lemurs completed the tasks and only 25 trials, on average, were needed to master the first discrimination problem with no age-related differences. A month later, all mouse lemurs made progress for acquiring the second discrimination problem but only the young group reached immediately the criterion in the retention test of the first discrimination problem. This study shows that the jumping stand apparatus allows rapid and efficient evaluation of cognition in mouse lemurs and demonstrates that about half of the old mouse lemurs display a specific deficit in long-term retention but not in acquisition of visual discrimination. PMID:26716699

  19. Like cognitive function, decision making across the life span shows profound age-related changes

    PubMed Central

    Tymula, Agnieszka; Rosenberg Belmaker, Lior A.; Ruderman, Lital; Glimcher, Paul W.; Levy, Ifat

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that human cognitive function improves through young adulthood and then declines across the later life span. Here we examined how decision-making function changes across the life span by measuring risk and ambiguity attitudes in the gain and loss domains, as well as choice consistency, in an urban cohort ranging in age from 12 to 90 y. We identified several important age-related patterns in decision making under uncertainty: First, we found that healthy elders between the ages of 65 and 90 were strikingly inconsistent in their choices compared with younger subjects. Just as elders show profound declines in cognitive function, they also show profound declines in choice rationality compared with their younger peers. Second, we found that the widely documented phenomenon of ambiguity aversion is specific to the gain domain and does not occur in the loss domain, except for a slight effect in older adults. Finally, extending an earlier report by our group, we found that risk attitudes across the life span show an inverted U-shaped function; both elders and adolescents are more risk-averse than their midlife counterparts. Taken together, these characterizations of decision-making function across the life span in this urban cohort strengthen the conclusions of previous reports suggesting a profound impact of aging on cognitive function in this domain. PMID:24082105

  20. Lower cognitive function in patients with age-related macular degeneration: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li-Xiao; Sun, Cheng-Lin; Wei, Li-Juan; Gu, Zhi-Min; Lv, Liang; Dang, Yalong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cognitive impairment in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Relevant articles were identified through a search of the following electronic databases through October 2015, without language restriction: 1) PubMed; 2) the Cochrane Library; 3) EMBASE; 4) ScienceDirect. Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA 12.0 software. Standardized mean differences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. All of the included studies met the following four criteria: 1) the study design was a case–control or randomized controlled trial (RCT) study; 2) the study investigated cognitive function in the patient with AMD; 3) the diagnoses of AMD must be provided; 4) there were sufficient scores data to extract for evaluating cognitive function between cases and controls. The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale criteria were used to assess the methodological quality of the studies. Results Of the initial 278 literatures, only six case–control and one RCT studies met all of the inclusion criteria. A total of 794 AMD patients and 1,227 controls were included in this study. Five studies were performed with mini-mental state examination (MMSE), two studies with animal fluency, two studies with trail making test (TMT)-A and -B, one study with Mini-Cog. Results of the meta-analysis revealed lower cognitive function test scores in patients with AMD, especially with MMSE and Mini-Cog test (P≤0.001 for all). The results also showed that differences in the TMT-A (except AMD [total] vs controls) and TMT-B test had no statistical significance (P>0.01). The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale score was ≥5 for all of the included studies. Based on the sensitivity analysis, no single study influenced the overall pooled estimates. Conclusion This meta-analysis suggests lower cognitive function test scores in patients with AMD, especially with MMSE and Mini-Cog test. The other cognitive impairment screening tests, such as animal fluency test and

  1. Cognitive Load and Listening Effort: Concepts and Age-Related Considerations.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Ulrike; Besser, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Listening effort has been recognized as an important dimension of everyday listening, especially with regard to the comprehension of spoken language. At constant levels of comprehension performance, the level of effort exerted and perceived during listening can differ considerably across listeners and situations. In this article, listening effort is used as an umbrella term for two different types of effort that can arise during listening. One of these types is processing effort, which is used to denote the utilization of "extra" mental processing resources in listening conditions that are adverse for an individual. A conceptual description is introduced how processing effort could be defined in terms of situational influences, the listener's auditory and cognitive resources, and the listener's personal state. Also, the proposed relationship between processing effort and subjectively perceived listening effort is discussed. Notably, previous research has shown that the availability of mental resources, as well as the ability to use them efficiently, changes over the course of adult aging. These common age-related changes in cognitive abilities and their neurocognitive organization are discussed in the context of the presented concept, especially regarding situations in which listening effort may be increased for older people. PMID:27355774

  2. ROLE OF SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE IN AGE-RELATED VASCULAR COGNITIVE DECLINE

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jonathan W.; Young, Jennifer M.; Borkar, Rohan; Woltjer, Randy L.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Silbert, Lisa C.; Grafe, Marjorie R.; Alkayed, Nabil J.

    2014-01-01

    P450 eicosanoids are important regulators of the cerebral microcirculation, but their role in cerebral small vessel disease is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is linked to reduced cerebral microvascular eicosanoid signaling. We analyzed human brain tissue from individuals formerly enrolled in the Oregon Brain Aging Study, who had a history of cognitive impairment histopathological evidence of microvascular disease. VCI subjects had significantly higher lesion burden both on premortem MRI and postmortem histopathology compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Mass spectrometry-based eicosanoid analysis revealed that 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DHET) was elevated in cortical brain tissue from VCI subjects. Immunoreactivity of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), the enzyme responsible for 14,15-DHET formation, was localized to cerebral microvascular endothelium, and was enhanced in microvessels of affected tissue. Finally, we evaluated the genotype frequency of two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms of sEH gene EPHX2 in VCI and control groups. Our findings support a role for sEH and a potential benefit from sEH inhibitors in age-related VCI. PMID:25277097

  3. Age-related differences in the course of cognitive skill acquisition: the role of regional cortical shrinkage and cognitive resources.

    PubMed

    Head, Denise; Raz, Naftali; Gunning-Dixon, Faith; Williamson, Adrienne; Acker, James D

    2002-03-01

    This study examined the impact of age-related differences in regional cerebral volumes and cognitive resources on acquisition of a cognitive skill. Volumes of brain regions were measured on magnetic resonance images of healthy adults (aged 22-80). At the early stage of learning to solve the Tower of Hanoi puzzle, speed and efficiency were associated with age, prefrontal cortex volume, and working memory. A similar pattern of brain-behavior associations was observed with perseveration measured on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. None of the examined structural brain variables were important at the later stages of skill acquisition. When hypertensive participants were excluded, the effect of prefrontal shrinkage on executive aspects of performance was no longer significant, but the effect of working memory remained. PMID:11931289

  4. Microstructural white matter changes mediate age-related cognitive decline on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA).

    PubMed

    Jolly, Todd A D; Cooper, Patrick S; Badwi, Syarifah Azizah Wan Ahmadul; Phillips, Natalie A; Rennie, Jaime L; Levi, Christopher R; Drysdale, Karen A; Parsons, Mark W; Michie, Patricia T; Karayanidis, Frini

    2016-02-01

    Although the relationship between aging and cognitive decline is well established, there is substantial individual variability in the degree of cognitive decline in older adults. The present study investigates whether variability in cognitive performance in community-dwelling older adults is related to the presence of whole brain or tract-specific changes in white matter microstructure. Specifically, we examine whether age-related decline in performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), a cognitive screening tool, is mediated by the white matter microstructural decline. We also examine if this relationship is driven by the presence of cardiovascular risk factors or variability in cerebral arterial pulsatility, an index of cardiovascular risk. Sixty-nine participants (aged 43-87) completed behavioral and MRI testing including T1 structural, T2-weighted FLAIR, and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences. Measures of white matter microstructure were calculated using diffusion tensor imaging analyses on the DWI sequence. Multiple linear regression revealed that MoCA scores were predicted by radial diffusivity (RaD) of white matter beyond age or other cerebral measures. While increasing age and arterial pulsatility were associated with increasing RaD, these factors did not mediate the relationship between total white matter RaD and MoCA. Further, the relationship between MoCA and RaD was specific to participants who reported at least one cardiovascular risk factor. These findings highlight the importance of cardiovascular risk factors in the presentation of cognitive decline in old age. Further work is needed to establish whether medical or lifestyle management of these risk factors can prevent or reverse cognitive decline in old age. PMID:26511789

  5. The Relation between canine cognitive dysfunction and age-related brain lesions

    PubMed Central

    OZAWA, Makiko; CHAMBERS, James K.; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is a syndrome that manifests itself in abnormal behaviors, such as disorientation and wandering. β-amyloid deposition in the brain, including the senile plaque (SP) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), has been suggested as a major cause of the syndrome. However, the pathological significance of β-amyloid deposition in CCD dogs remains unclear. The present study was conducted using 16 dogs aged 10 years or older to clarify the relationship between the age-related histopathological lesions, such as β-amyloid deposition, in the brain and the clinical symptoms of CCD as evaluated in a questionnaire previously established in a large survey. In addition, age-related brain lesions were assessed in 37 dogs. The pathological lesions were evaluated by the severity of β-amyloid deposition (SP and CAA), the amount of ubiquitin-positive granules (UBQ), GFAP-positive astrocytes, Iba-1-positive microglia and Nissle stain-positive nerve cells. The results revealed that there was no significant correlation between the severities of canine SP and CCD. The SP increased until 14 years old, but decreased thereafter, although the incidence of CCD is high at these ages. The CAA consistently increased with age, but did not correlate greatly with the CCD score. In contrast, the increases of UBQ, astrocytes and microglia were significantly correlated with CCD. Thus, the impairment in the synapse and/or myelin suggested by increased UBQ and glial activation might be involved in CCD pathogenesis, but β-amyloid deposition, especially SP, is not a direct pathogenic factor of CCD. PMID:26922972

  6. ERBB4 Polymorphism and Family History of Psychiatric Disorders on Age-Related Cortical Changes in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Douet, Vanessa; Chang, Linda; Lee, Kristin; Ernst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic variations in ERBB4 were associated with increased susceptibility for schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorders (BPD). Structural imaging studies showed cortical abnormalities in adolescents and adults with SCZ or BPD. However, less is known about subclinical cortical changes or the influence of ERBB4 on cortical development. Methods 971 healthy children (ages 3–20 years old; 462 girls and 509 boys) were genotyped for the ERBB4-rs7598440 variants, had structural MRI, and cognitive evaluation (NIH Toolbox ®). We investigated the effects of ERBB4 variants and family history of SCZ and/or BPD (FH) on cortical measures and cognitive performances across ages 3–20 years using a general additive model. Results Variations in ERBB4 and FH impact differentially the age-related cortical changes in regions often affected by SCZ and BPD. The ERBB4-TT-risk genotype children with no FH had subtle cortical changes across the age span, primarily located in the left temporal lobe and superior parietal cortex. In contrast, the TT-risk genotype children with FH had more pronounced age-related changes, mainly in the frontal lobes compared to the non-risk genotype children. Interactive effects of age, FH and ERBB4 variations were also found on episodic memory and working memory, which are often impaired in SCZ and BPD. Conclusions Healthy children carrying the risk-genotype in ERBB4 and/or with FH had cortical measures resembling those reported in SCZ or BPD. These subclinical cortical variations may provide early indicators for increased risk of psychiatric disorders and improve our understanding of the effect of the NRG1–ERBB4 pathway on brain development. PMID:25744101

  7. Processing Speed, Inhibitory Control, and Working Memory: Three Important Factors to Account for Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereiro Rozas, Arturo X.; Juncos-Rabadan, Onesimo; Gonzalez, Maria Soledad Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    Processing speed, inhibitory control and working memory have been identified as the main possible culprits of age-related cognitive decline. This article describes a study of their interrelationships and dependence on age, including exploration of whether any of them mediates between age and the others. We carried out a LISREL analysis of the…

  8. Age-related abnormalities in white matter microstructure in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Pauley, Gregory; Richards, Todd; Neuhaus, Emily; Martin, Nathalie; Corrigan, Neva M.; Shaw, Dennis W.; Estes, Annette; Dager, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in structural and functional connectivity have been reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across a wide age range. However, developmental changes in white matter microstructure are poorly understood. We used a cross-sectional design to determine whether white matter abnormalities measured using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were present in adolescents and adults with ASD and whether age-related changes in white matter microstructure differed between ASD and typically developing (TD) individuals. Participants included 28 individuals with ASD and 33 TD controls matched on age and IQ and assessed at one time point. Widespread decreased fractional anisotropy (FA), and increased radial diffusivity (RaD) and mean diffusivity (MD) were observed in the ASD group compared to the TD group. In addition, significant group-by-age interactions were also observed in FA, RaD, and MD in all major tracts except the brain stem, indicating that age-related changes in white matter microstructure differed between the groups. We propose that white matter microstructural changes in ASD may reflect myelination and/or other structural differences including differences in axonal density/arborization. In addition, we suggest that white matter microstuctural impairments may be normalizing during young adulthood in ASD. Future longitudinal studies that include a wider range of ages and more extensive clinical characterization will be critical for further uncovering the neurodevelopmental processes unfolding during this dynamic time in development. PMID:22902768

  9. Emerging therapeutic roles for NAD(+) metabolism in mitochondrial and age-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sarika

    2016-12-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is a central metabolic cofactor in eukaryotic cells that plays a critical role in regulating cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis. NAD(+) in its reduced form (i.e. NADH) serves as the primary electron donor in mitochondrial respiratory chain, which involves adenosine triphosphate production by oxidative phosphorylation. The NAD(+)/NADH ratio also regulates the activity of various metabolic pathway enzymes such as those involved in glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, and fatty acid oxidation. Intracellular NAD(+) is synthesized de novo from L-tryptophan, although its main source of synthesis is through salvage pathways from dietary niacin as precursors. NAD(+) is utilized by various proteins including sirtuins, poly ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs) and cyclic ADP-ribose synthases. The NAD(+) pool is thus set by a critical balance between NAD(+) biosynthetic and NAD(+) consuming pathways. Raising cellular NAD(+) content by inducing its biosynthesis or inhibiting the activity of PARP and cADP-ribose synthases via genetic or pharmacological means lead to sirtuins activation. Sirtuins modulate distinct metabolic, energetic and stress response pathways, and through their activation, NAD(+) directly links the cellular redox state with signaling and transcriptional events. NAD(+) levels decline with mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced NAD(+)/NADH ratio is implicated in mitochondrial disorders, various age-related pathologies as well as during aging. Here, I will provide an overview of the current knowledge on NAD(+) metabolism including its biosynthesis, utilization, compartmentalization and role in the regulation of metabolic homoeostasis. I will further discuss how augmenting intracellular NAD(+) content increases oxidative metabolism to prevent bioenergetic and functional decline in multiple models of mitochondrial diseases and age-related disorders, and how this knowledge could be translated to the clinic for human relevance. PMID

  10. Niemann-Pick C disease gene mutations and age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Zech, Michael; Nübling, Georg; Castrop, Florian; Jochim, Angela; Schulte, Eva C; Mollenhauer, Brit; Lichtner, Peter; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Marquardt, Thorsten; Vanier, Marie T; Latour, Philippe; Klünemann, Hans; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Perneczky, Robert; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Haslinger, Bernhard; Lorenzl, Stefan; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a rare autosomal-recessively inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in NPC1 (95%) or NPC2. Given the highly variable phenotype, diagnosis is challenging and particularly late-onset forms with predominantly neuropsychiatric presentations are likely underdiagnosed. Pathophysiologically, genetic alterations compromising the endosomal/lysosomal system are linked with age-related neurodegenerative disorders. We sought to examine a possible association of rare sequence variants in NPC1 and NPC2 with Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and to genetically determine the proportion of potentially misdiagnosed NPC patients in these neurodegenerative conditions. By means of high-resolution melting, we screened the coding regions of NPC1 and NPC2 for rare genetic variation in a homogenous German sample of patients clinically diagnosed with PD (n = 563), FTLD (n = 133) and PSP (n = 94), and 846 population-based controls. The frequencies of rare sequence variants in NPC1/2 did not differ significantly between patients and controls. Disease-associated NPC1/2 mutations were found in six PD patients (1.1%) and seven control subjects (0.8%), but not in FTLD or PSP. All rare variation was detected in the heterozygous state and no compound heterozygotes were observed. Our data do not support the hypothesis that rare NPC1/2 variants confer susceptibility for PD, FTLD, or PSP in the German population. Misdiagnosed NPC patients were not present in our samples. However, further assessment of NPC disease genes in age-related neurodegeneration is warranted. PMID:24386122

  11. Niemann-Pick C Disease Gene Mutations and Age-Related Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zech, Michael; Nübling, Georg; Castrop, Florian; Jochim, Angela; Schulte, Eva C.; Mollenhauer, Brit; Lichtner, Peter; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Marquardt, Thorsten; Vanier, Marie T.; Latour, Philippe; Klünemann, Hans; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Perneczky, Robert; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Haslinger, Bernhard; Lorenzl, Stefan; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a rare autosomal-recessively inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in NPC1 (95%) or NPC2. Given the highly variable phenotype, diagnosis is challenging and particularly late-onset forms with predominantly neuropsychiatric presentations are likely underdiagnosed. Pathophysiologically, genetic alterations compromising the endosomal/lysosomal system are linked with age-related neurodegenerative disorders. We sought to examine a possible association of rare sequence variants in NPC1 and NPC2 with Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and to genetically determine the proportion of potentially misdiagnosed NPC patients in these neurodegenerative conditions. By means of high-resolution melting, we screened the coding regions of NPC1 and NPC2 for rare genetic variation in a homogenous German sample of patients clinically diagnosed with PD (n = 563), FTLD (n = 133) and PSP (n = 94), and 846 population-based controls. The frequencies of rare sequence variants in NPC1/2 did not differ significantly between patients and controls. Disease-associated NPC1/2 mutations were found in six PD patients (1.1%) and seven control subjects (0.8%), but not in FTLD or PSP. All rare variation was detected in the heterozygous state and no compound heterozygotes were observed. Our data do not support the hypothesis that rare NPC1/2 variants confer susceptibility for PD, FTLD, or PSP in the German population. Misdiagnosed NPC patients were not present in our samples. However, further assessment of NPC disease genes in age-related neurodegeneration is warranted. PMID:24386122

  12. Age-related changes in dentate gyrus cell numbers, neurogenesis, and associations with cognitive impairments in the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Ngwenya, Laura B; Heyworth, Nadine C; Shwe, Yamin; Moore, Tara L; Rosene, Douglas L

    2015-01-01

    The generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain is well-established for the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). However, the role of neurogenesis in hippocampal function and cognition, how it changes in aging, and the mechanisms underlying this are yet to be elucidated in the monkey brain. To address this, we investigated adult neurogenesis in the DG of 42 rhesus monkeys (39 cognitively tested) ranging in age from young adult to the elderly. We report here that there is an age-related decline in proliferation and a delayed development of adult neuronal phenotype. Additionally, we show that many of the new neurons survive throughout the lifetime of the animal and may contribute to a modest increase in total neuron number in the granule cell layer of the DG over the adult life span. Lastly, we find that measures of decreased adult neurogenesis are only modestly predictive of age-related cognitive impairment. PMID:26236203

  13. Age-related changes in dentate gyrus cell numbers, neurogenesis, and associations with cognitive impairments in the rhesus monkey

    PubMed Central

    Ngwenya, Laura B.; Heyworth, Nadine C.; Shwe, Yamin; Moore, Tara L.; Rosene, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    The generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain is well-established for the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). However, the role of neurogenesis in hippocampal function and cognition, how it changes in aging, and the mechanisms underlying this are yet to be elucidated in the monkey brain. To address this, we investigated adult neurogenesis in the DG of 42 rhesus monkeys (39 cognitively tested) ranging in age from young adult to the elderly. We report here that there is an age-related decline in proliferation and a delayed development of adult neuronal phenotype. Additionally, we show that many of the new neurons survive throughout the lifetime of the animal and may contribute to a modest increase in total neuron number in the granule cell layer of the DG over the adult life span. Lastly, we find that measures of decreased adult neurogenesis are only modestly predictive of age-related cognitive impairment. PMID:26236203

  14. A genome-wide scan for common variants affecting the rate of age-related cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    De Jager, Philip L.; Shulman, Joshua M.; Chibnik, Lori B.; Keenan, Brendan T.; Raj, Towfique; Wilson, Robert S.; Yu, Lei; Leurgans, Sue E.; Tran, Dong; Aubin, Cristin; Anderson, Christopher D.; Biffi, Alessandro; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Rosand, Jonathan; Daly, Mark J.; Myers, Amanda J.; Reiman, Eric M.; Bennett, David A.; Evans, Denis A.

    2011-01-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is likely promoted by accumulated brain injury due to chronic conditions of aging, including neurodegenerative and vascular disease. Since common neuronal mechanisms may mediate the adaptation to diverse cerebral insults, we hypothesized that susceptibility for age-related cognitive decline may be due in part to a shared genetic network. We have therefore performed a genome-wide association study using a quantitative measure of global cognitive decline slope, based on repeated measures of 17 cognitive tests in 749 subjects from the Religious Orders Study. Top results were evaluated in three independent replication cohorts, consisting of 2,279 additional subjects with repeated cognitive testing. As expected, we find that the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) susceptibility locus, APOE, is strongly associated with rate of cognitive decline (PDISC=5.6×10−9; PJOINT=3.7×10−27). We additionally discover a variant, rs10808746, which shows consistent effects in the replication cohorts and modestly improved evidence of association in the joint analysis (PDISC=6.7×10−5; PREP=9.4×10−3; PJOINT=2.3×10−5). This variant influences the expression of two adjacent genes, PDE7A and MTFR1, which are potential regulators of inflammation and oxidative injury, respectively. Using aggregate measures of genetic risk, we find that known susceptibility loci for cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and inflammatory diseases are not significantly associated with cognitive decline in our cohort. Our results suggest that intermediate phenotypes, when coupled with larger sample sizes, may be a useful tool to dissect susceptibility loci for age-related cognitive decline and uncover shared molecular pathways with a role in neuronal injury. PMID:22054870

  15. Guidelines for the Evaluation of Dementia and Age-Related Cognitive Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Dementia in its many forms is a leading cause of functional limitation among older adults worldwide and will continue to ascend in global health importance as populations continue to age and effective cures remain elusive. The following guidelines were developed for psychologists who perform evaluations of dementia and age-related cognitive…

  16. Age-Related Changes in Sleep and Circadian Rhythms: Impact on Cognitive Performance and Underlying Neuroanatomical Networks

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Christina; Peigneux, Philippe; Cajochen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Circadian and homeostatic sleep-wake regulatory processes interact in a fine tuned manner to modulate human cognitive performance. Dampening of the circadian alertness signal and attenuated deterioration of psychomotor vigilance in response to elevated sleep pressure with aging change this interaction pattern. As evidenced by neuroimaging studies, both homeostatic sleep pressure and circadian sleep-wake promotion impact on cognition-related cortical and arousal-promoting subcortical brain regions including the thalamus, the anterior hypothalamus, and the brainstem locus coeruleus (LC). However, how age-related changes in circadian and homeostatic processes impact on the cerebral activity subtending waking performance remains largely unexplored. Post-mortem studies point to neuronal degeneration in the SCN and age-related modifications in the arousal-promoting LC. Alongside, cortical frontal brain areas are particularly susceptible both to aging and misalignment between circadian and homeostatic processes. In this perspective, we summarize and discuss here the potential neuroanatomical networks underlying age-related changes in circadian and homeostatic modulation of waking performance, ranging from basic arousal to higher order cognitive behaviors. PMID:22855682

  17. Age-related changes in the cerebral substrates of cognitive procedural learning.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Valérie; Beaunieux, Hélène; Chételat, Gaël; Platel, Hervé; Landeau, Brigitte; Viader, Fausto; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2009-04-01

    Cognitive procedural learning occurs in three qualitatively different phases (cognitive, associative, and autonomous). At the beginning of this process, numerous cognitive functions are involved, subtended by distinct brain structures such as the prefrontal and parietal cortex and the cerebellum. As the learning progresses, these cognitive components are gradually replaced by psychomotor abilities, reflected by the increasing involvement of the cerebellum, thalamus, and occipital regions. In elderly subjects, although cognitive studies have revealed a learning effect, performance levels differ during the acquisition of a procedure. The effects of age on the learning of a cognitive procedure have not yet been examined using functional imaging. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the cerebral substrates involved in the learning of a cognitive procedure, comparing a group of older subjects with young controls. For this purpose, we performed a positron emission tomography activation study using the Tower of Toronto task. A direct comparison of the two groups revealed the involvement of a similar network of brain regions at the beginning of learning (cognitive phase). However, the engagement of frontal and cingulate regions persisted in the older group as learning continued, whereas it ceased in the younger controls. We assume that this additional activation in the older group during the associative and autonomous phases reflected compensatory processes and the fact that some older subjects failed to fully automate the procedure. PMID:18537110

  18. Age-related changes in the cerebral substrates of cognitive procedural learning

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Valérie; Beaunieux, Hélène; Chételat, Gaël; Platel, Hervé; Landeau, Brigitte; Viader, Fausto; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive procedural learning occurs in three qualitatively different phases (cognitive, associative and autonomous). At the beginning of this process, numerous cognitive functions are involved, subtended by distinct brain structures such as the prefrontal and parietal cortex and the cerebellum. As the learning progresses, these cognitive components are gradually replaced by psychomotor abilities, reflected by the increasing involvement of the cerebellum, thalamus and occipital regions. In elderly subjects, although cognitive studies have revealed a learning effect, performance levels differ during the acquisition of a procedure. The effects of age on the learning of a cognitive procedure have not yet been examined using functional imaging. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the cerebral substrates involved in the learning of a cognitive procedure, comparing a group of older subjects with young controls. For this purpose, we performed a positron emission tomography activation study using the Tower of Toronto task. A direct comparison of the two groups revealed the involvement of a similar network of brain regions at the beginning of learning (cognitive phase). However, whereas the engagement of frontal and cingulate regions persisted in the older group as learning continued, it ceased in the younger controls. We assume that this additional activation in the older group during the associative and autonomous phases reflected compensatory processes and the fact that some older subjects failed to fully automate the procedure. PMID:18537110

  19. Are delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase inhibition and metal concentrations additional factors for the age-related cognitive decline?

    PubMed

    Baierle, Marília; Charão, Mariele F; Göethel, Gabriela; Barth, Anelise; Fracasso, Rafael; Bubols, Guilherme; Sauer, Elisa; Campanharo, Sarah C; Rocha, Rafael C C; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Bordignon, Suelen; Zibetti, Murilo; Trentini, Clarissa M; Avila, Daiana S; Gioda, Adriana; Garcia, Solange C

    2014-01-01

    Aging is often accompanied by cognitive impairments and influenced by oxidative status and chemical imbalances. Thus, this study was conducted to examine whether age-related cognitive deficit is associated with oxidative damage, especially with inhibition of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), as well as to verify the influence of some metals in the enzyme activity and cognitive performance. Blood ALA-D activity, essential (Fe, Zn, Cu, Se) and non-essential metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni, V) were measured in 50 elderly and 20 healthy young subjects. Cognitive function was assessed by tests from Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery and other. The elderly group presented decreased ALA-D activity compared to the young group. The index of ALA-D reactivation was similar to both study groups, but negatively associated with metals. The mean levels of essential metals were within the reference values, while the most toxic metals were above them in both groups. Cognitive function impairments were observed in elderly group and were associated with decreased ALA-D activity, with lower levels of Se and higher levels of toxic metals (Hg and V). Results suggest that the reduced ALA-D activity in elderly can be an additional factor involved in cognitive decline, since its inhibition throughout life could lead to accumulation of the neurotoxic compound ALA. Toxic metals were found to contribute to cognitive decline and also to influence ALA-D reactivation. PMID:25329536

  20. Video Games as a Means to Reduce Age-Related Cognitive Decline: Attitudes, Compliance, and Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Walter R.; Champion, Michael; Blakely, Daniel P.; Wright, Timothy; Souders, Dustin J.; Charness, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a “brain fitness” game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game) induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants’ ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why. PMID:23378841

  1. Video games as a means to reduce age-related cognitive decline: attitudes, compliance, and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Boot, Walter R; Champion, Michael; Blakely, Daniel P; Wright, Timothy; Souders, Dustin J; Charness, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a "brain fitness" game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game) induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants' ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why. PMID:23378841

  2. APOE and aging-related cognitive change in a longitudinal cohort of men.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, Ville; Lahti, Jari; Henriksson, Markus; Kajantie, Eero; Tienari, Pentti; Eriksson, Johan G; Raikkonen, Katri

    2016-08-01

    We examined associations between APOE major isoforms, rs405509 promoter and rs440446 intron-1 polymorphisms, and nonpathologic cognitive aging. Men from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study took the Finnish Defence Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test twice, at age 20.1 (n = 404) and 67.6 years (n = 247). APOE major isoforms did not associate with cognitive ability. In the APOE major isoform-adjusted analyses, the number of rs405509 minor alleles was associated with a higher cognitive ability total and verbal, arithmetic, and visuospatial subtest scores at 67.6 years (p-values < 0.004). In the analyses of cognitive change, the visuospatial subtest score increased across time in rs440446 minor allele carriers but decreased in noncarriers (p = 0.007). Associations in the APOE major isoform-stratified analyses were significant in the APOE ε3/3 homozygotes only. The APOE locus harbors additional modifying alleles, independent of APOE major isoforms that are associated with better preserved general cognitive ability in nondemented elderly men and change in visuospatial ability across 5 decades. These results suggest that at least 2 distinct mechanisms link the APOE locus with cognitive ability. PMID:27318143

  3. Formaldehyde as a trigger for protein aggregation and potential target for mitigation of age-related, progressive cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Su, Tao; Monte, Woodrow C; Hu, Xintian; He, Yingge; He, Rongqiao

    2016-01-01

    Recently, formaldehyde (FA), existing in a number of different cells including neural cells, was found to affect age-related cognitive impairment. Oral administration of methanol (the metabolic precursor of FA) triggers formation of senile plaques (SPs) and Tau hyperphosphorylation in the brains of monkeys with memory decline. Intraperitoneal injection of FA leads to hyperphosphorylation of Tau in wild-type mouse brains and N2a cells through activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Furthermore, formaldehyde at low concentrations can directly induce Tau aggregation and amyloid β (Aβ) peptide deposits in vitro. Formaldehyde-induced Tau aggregation is implicated in cytotoxicity and neural cell apoptosis. Clarifying how FA triggers Aβ deposits and Tau hyperphosphorlyation will not only improve our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of age-related cognitive impairment but will also contribute to the ongoing investigation of alternate targets for new drugs. Here, we review the role of FA, particularly that of endogenous origin, in protein aggregation and as a potential drug intervention in the development of agerelated cognitive impairment. PMID:26268337

  4. Age-Related Changes in Cognitive Processing of Moral and Social Conventional Violations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahat, Ayelet; Helwig, Charles C.; Zelazo, Philip David

    2012-01-01

    Moral and conventional violations are usually judged differently: Only moral violations are treated as independent of social rules. To investigate the cognitive processing involved in the development of this distinction, undergraduates (N = 34), adolescents (N = 34), and children (N = 14) read scenarios presented on a computer that had 1 of 3…

  5. Cognitive Treatments for Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    Sees cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as applicable to all eating disorders but most intensively studied in treatment of bulimia nervosa. Briefly reviews most commonly used cognitive treatments for eating disorders, provides critical evaluation of their effectiveness, and speculates about their mechanisms of action. Notes that CBT has not been…

  6. Cognitive Therapy of Anxiety Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambless, Dianne L.; Gillis, Martha M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews studies of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder with and without agoraphobia, and social phobia. Sees CBT as consistently more effective than waiting-list and placebo control groups. Notes that cognitive change may be strong predictor of treatment outcome but that such change may be produced…

  7. dbAARD & AGP: A computational pipeline for the prediction of genes associated with age related disorders.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Isha; Gahlot, Lokesh Kumar; Khurana, Pooja; Hasija, Yasha

    2016-04-01

    The atrocious behavioral and physiological shift with aging accelerate occurrence of deleterious disorders. Contemporary research is focused at uncovering the role of genetic associations in age-related disorders (ARDs). While the completion of the Human Genome Project and the HapMap project has generated huge amount of data on genetic variations; Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variations, essentially SNPs associated with several disorders including ARDs. However, a repository that houses all such ARD associations is lacking. The present work is aimed at filling this void. A database, dbAARD (database of Aging and Age Related Disorders) has been developed which hosts information on more than 3000 genetic variations significantly (p-value <0.05) associated with 51 ARDs. Furthermore, a machine learning based gene prediction tool AGP (Age Related Disorders Gene Prediction) has been constructed by employing rotation forest algorithm, to prioritize genes associated with ARDs. The tool achieved an overall accuracy in terms of precision 75%, recall 76%, F-measure 76% and AUC 0.85. Both the web resources have been made available online at http://genomeinformatics.dce.edu/dbAARD/ and http://genomeinformatics.dce.edu/AGP/ respectively for easy retrieval and usage by the scientific community. We believe that this work may facilitate the analysis of plethora of variants associated with ARDs and provide cues for deciphering the biology of aging. PMID:26836976

  8. HDL and Cognition in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hottman, David A.; Chernick, Dustin; Cheng, Shaowu; Wang, Zhe; Li, Ling

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are a heterogeneous group of lipoproteins composed of various lipids and proteins. HDL is formed both in the systemic circulation and in the brain. In addition to being a crucial player in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway, HDL possesses a wide range of other functions including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, pro-endothelial function, anti-thrombosis, and modulation of immune function. It has been firmly established that high plasma levels of HDL protect against cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that the beneficial role of HDL extends to many other systems including the central nervous system. Cognition is a complex brain function that includes all aspects of perception, thought, and memory. Cognitive function often declines during aging and this decline manifests as cognitive impairment/dementia in age-related and progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A growing concern is that no effective therapy is currently available to prevent or treat these devastating diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that HDL may play a pivotal role in preserving cognitive function under normal and pathological conditions. This review attempts to summarize recent genetic, clinical and experimental evidence for the impact of HDL on cognition in aging and in neurodegenerative disorders as well as the potential of HDL-enhancing approaches to improve cognitive function. PMID:25131449

  9. Intranasal Insulin Improves Age-Related Cognitive Deficits and Reverses Electrophysiological Correlates of Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Maimaiti, Shaniya; Anderson, Katie L; DeMoll, Chris; Brewer, Lawrence D; Rauh, Benjamin A; Gant, John C; Blalock, Eric M; Porter, Nada M; Thibault, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral insulin resistance is a key component of metabolic syndrome associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. While the impact of insulin resistance is well recognized in the periphery, it is also becoming apparent in the brain. Recent studies suggest that insulin resistance may be a factor in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) whereby intranasal insulin therapy, which delivers insulin to the brain, improves cognition and memory in AD patients. Here, we tested a clinically relevant delivery method to determine the impact of two forms of insulin, short-acting insulin lispro (Humalog) or long-acting insulin detemir (Levemir), on cognitive functions in aged F344 rats. We also explored insulin effects on the Ca(2+)-dependent hippocampal afterhyperpolarization (AHP), a well-characterized neurophysiological marker of aging which is increased in the aged, memory impaired animal. Low-dose intranasal insulin improved memory recall in aged animals such that their performance was similar to that seen in younger animals. Further, because ex vivo insulin also reduced the AHP, our results suggest that the AHP may be a novel cellular target of insulin in the brain, and improved cognitive performance following intranasal insulin therapy may be the result of insulin actions on the AHP. PMID:25659889

  10. Mitochondrial haplogroups modify the effect of black carbon on age-related cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traffic-related air pollution has been linked with impaired cognition in older adults, possibly due to effects of oxidative stress on the brain. Mitochondria are the main source of cellular oxidation. Haplogroups in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mark individual differences in oxidative potential and are possible determinants of neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mtDNA haplogroups determined differential susceptibility to cognitive effects of long-term exposure to black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic-related air pollution. Methods We investigated 582 older men (72 ± 7 years) in the VA Normative Aging Study cohort with ≤4 visits per participant (1.8 in average) between 1995–2007. Low (≤25) Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to assess impaired cognition in multiple domains. We fitted repeated-measure logistic regression using validated-LUR BC estimated in the year before their first visit at the participant’s address. Results Mitochondrial haplotyping identified nine haplogroups phylogenetically categorized in four clusters. BC showed larger effect on MMSE in Cluster 4 carriers, including I, W and X haplogroups, [OR = 2.7; 95% CI (1.3-5.6)], moderate effect in Cluster 1, including J and T haplogroups [OR = 1.6; 95% CI: (0.9-2.9)], and no effect in Cluster 2 (H and V haplogroups) [OR = 1.1; 95% CI: (0.8-1.5)] or Cluster 3 (K and U haplogroups) [OR = 1.0; 95% CI: (0.6-1.6)]. BC effect varied only moderately across the I, X, and W haplogroups or across the J and T haplogroups. Conclusions The association of BC with impaired cognition was worsened in carriers of phylogenetically-related mtDNA haplogroups in Cluster 4. No BC effects were detected in Cluster 2 and 3 carriers. MtDNA haplotypes may modify individual susceptibility to the particle cognitive effects. PMID:24884505

  11. Age-Related Decline in Cognitive Pain Modulation Induced by Distraction: Evidence From Event-Related Potentials.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shu; Després, Olivier; Pebayle, Thierry; Dufour, André

    2015-09-01

    Distraction is known to reduce perceived pain but not always efficiently. Overlapping cognitive resources play a role in both pain processing and executive functions. We hypothesized that with aging, the analgesic effects of cognitive modulation induced by distraction would be reduced as a result of functional decline of frontal networks. Twenty-eight elderly and 28 young participants performed a tonic heat pain test with and without distraction (P + D vs P condition), and 2 executive tasks involving the frontal network (1-back [working memory] and go/no-go [response inhibition]), during which event-related potentials were recorded. A significant age-related difference in modulatory effect was observed during the pain-distraction test, with the older group reporting higher pain perception than the younger group during the P + D than during the P condition. Greater brain activity of early processes (P2 component) in both go/no-go and 1-back tasks correlated with less perceived pain during distraction in younger participants. For later processes, more cognitive control and attentional resources (increased N2 and P3 amplitude) needed for working memory processes were associated with greater pain perception in the older group. Inhibition processes were related to conscious distraction estimation in both groups. These findings indicate that cognitive processes subtended by resources in the frontal network, particularly working memory processes, are elicited more in elderly than in younger individuals for pain tolerance when an irrelevant task is performed simultaneously. Perspective: This study suggests that age-related declines in pain modulation are caused by functional degeneration of frontal cerebral networks, which may contribute to a higher prevalence of chronic pain. Analyzing the impact of frontal network function on pain modulation may assist in the development of more effective targeted treatment plans. PMID:26080043

  12. Lutein and Age-Related Ocular Disorders in the Older Adult: A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lutein, a carotenoid found in dark green, leafy vegetables, has been implicated as being protective against the acquired ocular diseases, such as cataracts and age-related macular degeneration. In the eye, lutein may act as an antioxidant and as a blue light filter to protect the underlying tissues ...

  13. Examining age-related shared variance between face cognition, vision, and self-reported physical health: a test of the common cause hypothesis for social cognition

    PubMed Central

    Olderbak, Sally; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The shared decline in cognitive abilities, sensory functions (e.g., vision and hearing), and physical health with increasing age is well documented with some research attributing this shared age-related decline to a single common cause (e.g., aging brain). We evaluate the extent to which the common cause hypothesis predicts associations between vision and physical health with social cognition abilities specifically face perception and face memory. Based on a sample of 443 adults (17–88 years old), we test a series of structural equation models, including Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models, and estimate the extent to which vision and self-reported physical health are related to face perception and face memory through a common factor, before and after controlling for their fluid cognitive component and the linear effects of age. Results suggest significant shared variance amongst these constructs, with a common factor explaining some, but not all, of the shared age-related variance. Also, we found that the relations of face perception, but not face memory, with vision and physical health could be completely explained by fluid cognition. Overall, results suggest that a single common cause explains most, but not all age-related shared variance with domain specific aging mechanisms evident. PMID:26321998

  14. Examining age-related shared variance between face cognition, vision, and self-reported physical health: a test of the common cause hypothesis for social cognition.

    PubMed

    Olderbak, Sally; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The shared decline in cognitive abilities, sensory functions (e.g., vision and hearing), and physical health with increasing age is well documented with some research attributing this shared age-related decline to a single common cause (e.g., aging brain). We evaluate the extent to which the common cause hypothesis predicts associations between vision and physical health with social cognition abilities specifically face perception and face memory. Based on a sample of 443 adults (17-88 years old), we test a series of structural equation models, including Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models, and estimate the extent to which vision and self-reported physical health are related to face perception and face memory through a common factor, before and after controlling for their fluid cognitive component and the linear effects of age. Results suggest significant shared variance amongst these constructs, with a common factor explaining some, but not all, of the shared age-related variance. Also, we found that the relations of face perception, but not face memory, with vision and physical health could be completely explained by fluid cognition. Overall, results suggest that a single common cause explains most, but not all age-related shared variance with domain specific aging mechanisms evident. PMID:26321998

  15. Age-related cortical thinning in cognitively healthy individuals in their 60s: the PATH Through Life study.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Marnie E; Sachdev, Perminder S; Anstey, Kaarin J; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Although it is recognized that the human cortex thins with age, longitudinal estimates of thinning patterns specific to healthy young-old age (<75 years) individuals are lacking. Importantly, many neurodegenerative disorders first manifest between midlife and old age, and normative estimates may provide a reference for differential change associated with such disorders. Here, we provide longitudinal estimates of cortical thinning observed over 12 years in a large group (n = 396) of healthy individuals, aged 60-66 years at baseline scan, who were scanned with magnetic resonance imaging (1.5T) on 4 occasions. Longitudinal age-related thinning was observed across most of the cortices, with a mean change of -0.3% per year. We measured significant thinning in heteromodal association cortex, with less thinning in regions expected to atrophy later in life (e.g., primary sensory cortex). Men showed more extensive thinning than women. Our comparison of cross-sectional and longitudinal estimates adds to growing evidence that cross-sectional designs may underestimate age-related changes in cortical thickness. PMID:26923417

  16. Combined effects of physical exercise and education on age-related cortical thinning in cognitively normal individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin San; Shin, Hee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Jang, Young Kyoung; Jung, Na-Yeon; Lee, Juyoun; Kim, Yeo Jin; Chun, Phillip; Yang, Jin-Ju; Lee, Jong-Min; Kang, Mira; Park, Key-Chung; Na, Duk L.; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between self-reported physical exercise and cortical thickness in a large sample of cognitively normal individuals. We also determined whether a combination of physical exercise and education had more protective effects on age-related cortical thinning than either parameter alone. A total of 1,842 participants were included in this analysis. Physical exercise was assessed using a questionnaire regarding intensity, frequency, and duration. Cortical thickness was measured using a surface-based method. Longer duration of exercise (≥1 hr/day), but not intensity or frequency, was associated with increased mean cortical thickness globally (P-value = 0.013) and in the frontal regions (P-value = 0.007). In particular, the association of exercise with cortical thinning had regional specificity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal, precuneus, left postcentral, and inferior parietal regions. The combination of higher exercise level and higher education level showed greater global and frontal mean thickness than either parameter alone. Testing for a trend with the combination of high exercise level and high education level confirmed this finding (P-value = 0.001–0.003). Our findings suggest that combined exercise and education have important implications for brain health, especially considering the paucity of known protective factors for age-related cortical thinning. PMID:27063336

  17. [Presbycusis - Age Related Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Fischer, N; Weber, B; Riechelmann, H

    2016-07-01

    Presbycusis or age related hearing loss can be defined as a progressive, bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss due to age related degeneration of inner ear structures. It can be considered a multifactorial complex disorder with environmental and genetic factors. The molecular, electrophysiological and histological damage at different levels of the inner ear cause a progressive hearing loss, which usually affects the high frequencies of hearing. The resulting poor speech recognition has a negative impact on cognitive, emotional and social function in older adults. Recent investigations revealed an association between hearing impairment and social isolation, anxiety, depression and cognitive decline in elderly. These findings emphasize the importance of diagnosis and treating hearing loss in the elderly population. Hearing aids are the most commonly used devices for treating presbycusis. The technical progress of implantable hearing devices allows an effective hearing rehabilitation even in elderly with severe hearing loss. However, most people with hearing impairments are not treated adequately. PMID:27392191

  18. Age-Related Declines in General Cognitive Abilities of Balb/C Mice and General Activity Are Associated with Disparities in Working Memory, Body Weight, and General Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matzel, Louis D.; Grossman, Henya; Light, Kenneth; Townsend, David; Kolata, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    A defining characteristic of age-related cognitive decline is a deficit in general cognitive performance. Here we use a testing and analysis regimen that allows us to characterize the general learning abilities of young (3-5 mo old) and aged (19-21 mo old) male and female Balb/C mice. Animals' performance was assessed on a battery of seven diverse…

  19. Learning and Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Anil; Uderman, Jodi; Feirsen, Nicole; Bedard, Anne-Claude; Marks, David

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this article is to provide a select review of treatments for addressing reading disorder, mathematics disorder, disorder of written expression, auditory processing disorder and poor working memory. This information will be valuable to practitioners in determining the suitability of certain treatments for these various disorders/problems which has direct implications for providing comprehensive, multi-disciplinary treatment for youth. PMID:23806314

  20. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on age-related cognitive decline in long-term-care institutions

    PubMed Central

    De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; De Macedo, Liliane Dias E Dias; Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present report was to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on improving cognition in elderly persons living in long-term-care institutions (institutionalized [I]) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized [NI]). We compared neuropsychological performance using language and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test scores before and after 24 and 48 stimulation sessions. The two groups were matched by age and years of schooling. Small groups of ten or fewer volunteers underwent the stimulation program, twice a week, over 6 months (48 sessions in total). Sessions were based on language and memory exercises, as well as visual, olfactory, auditory, and ludic stimulation, including music, singing, and dance. Both groups were assessed at the beginning (before stimulation), in the middle (after 24 sessions), and at the end (after 48 sessions) of the stimulation program. Although the NI group showed higher performance in all tasks in all time windows compared with I subjects, both groups improved their performance after stimulation. In addition, the improvement was significantly higher in the I group than the NI group. Language tests seem to be more efficient than the MMSE to detect early changes in cognitive status. The results suggest the impoverished environment of long-term-care institutions may contribute to lower cognitive scores before stimulation and the higher improvement rate of this group after stimulation. In conclusion, language tests should be routinely adopted in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects, and long-term-care institutions need to include regular sensorimotor, social, and cognitive stimulation as a public health policy for elderly persons. PMID:24600211

  1. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on age-related cognitive decline in long-term-care institutions.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; De Macedo, Liliane Dias E Dias; Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present report was to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on improving cognition in elderly persons living in long-term-care institutions (institutionalized [I]) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized [NI]). We compared neuropsychological performance using language and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test scores before and after 24 and 48 stimulation sessions. The two groups were matched by age and years of schooling. Small groups of ten or fewer volunteers underwent the stimulation program, twice a week, over 6 months (48 sessions in total). Sessions were based on language and memory exercises, as well as visual, olfactory, auditory, and ludic stimulation, including music, singing, and dance. Both groups were assessed at the beginning (before stimulation), in the middle (after 24 sessions), and at the end (after 48 sessions) of the stimulation program. Although the NI group showed higher performance in all tasks in all time windows compared with I subjects, both groups improved their performance after stimulation. In addition, the improvement was significantly higher in the I group than the NI group. Language tests seem to be more efficient than the MMSE to detect early changes in cognitive status. The results suggest the impoverished environment of long-term-care institutions may contribute to lower cognitive scores before stimulation and the higher improvement rate of this group after stimulation. In conclusion, language tests should be routinely adopted in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects, and long-term-care institutions need to include regular sensorimotor, social, and cognitive stimulation as a public health policy for elderly persons. PMID:24600211

  2. Computer-Based Cognitive Programs for Improvement of Memory, Processing Speed and Executive Function during Age-Related Cognitive Decline: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yan-kun; Mang, Jing; Li, Pei-lan; Wang, Jie; Deng, Ting; Xu, Zhong-xin

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have assessed the effects of computer-based cognitive programs (CCP) in the management of age-related cognitive decline, but the role of CCP remains controversial. Therefore, this systematic review evaluated the evidence on the efficacy of CCP for age-related cognitive decline in healthy older adults. Methods Six electronic databases (through October 2014) were searched. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of a random-effects model were calculated. The heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran Q statistic and quantified with the I2 index. Results Twelve studies were included in the current review and were considered as moderate to high methodological quality. The aggregated results indicate that CCP improves memory performance (SMD, 0.31; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.45; p < 0.0001) and processing speed (SMD, 0.50; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.87; p = 0.007) but not executive function (SMD, -0.12; 95% CI -0.33 to 0.09; p = 0.27). Furthermore, there were long-term gains in memory performance (SMD, 0.59; 95% CI 0.13 to 1.05; p = 0.01). Conclusion CCP may be a valid complementary and alternative therapy for age-related cognitive decline, especially for memory performance and processing speed. However, more studies with longer follow-ups are warranted to confirm the current findings. PMID:26098943

  3. [Cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gabriele; Schaffer, Markus; Winklbaur, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    Bipolar disorders are often associated with cognitive deficits which have an influence on social functioning and the course of the illness. These deficits have an impact on occupational ability and social integration. To date, specific cognitive domains have been found which characterize bipolar affective disorders. However, there is evidence of stable and lasting cognitive impairment in all phases of the disorder, including the remission phase, in the following domains: sustained attention, memory and executive functions (e.g. cognitive flexibility and problem solving). Although their cognitive deficits are comparable the deficits in patients with schizophrenia are more severe than those with bipolar disorder. Recent brain imaging findings indicate structural and functional abnormalities in the cortical and limbic networks of the brain in patients with bipolar disorder compared to healthy controls. Mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotics may reduce cognitive deficits in certain domains (e.g. executive functions and word fluency) and may have a positive effect on quality of life and social functioning. PMID:17640495

  4. The effectiveness of unitization in mitigating age-related relational learning impairments depends on existing cognitive status.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Maria C; Smith, Victoria M; Kacollja, Arber; Zhang, Felicia; Binns, Malcolm A; Barense, Morgan D; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2016-11-01

    Binding relations among items in the transverse patterning (TP) task is dependent on the integrity of the hippocampus and its extended network. Older adults have impaired TP learning, corresponding to age-related reductions in hippocampal volumes. Unitization is a training strategy that can mitigate TP impairments in amnesia by reducing reliance on hippocampal-dependent relational binding and increasing reliance on fused representations. Here we examined whether healthy older adults and those showing early signs of cognitive decline would also benefit from unitization. Although both groups of older adults had neuropsychological performance within the healthy range, their TP learning differed both under standard and unitized training conditions. Healthy older adults with impaired TP learning under standard training benefited from unitized training. Older adults who failed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) showed greater impairments under standard conditions, and showed no evidence of improvement with unitization. These individuals' failures to benefit from unitization may be a consequence of early deficits not seen in older adults who pass the MoCA. PMID:27049878

  5. The effectiveness of unitization in mitigating age-related relational learning impairments depends on existing cognitive status

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Maria C.; Smith, Victoria M.; Kacollja, Arber; Zhang, Felicia; Binns, Malcolm A.; Barense, Morgan D.; Ryan, Jennifer D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Binding relations among items in the transverse patterning (TP) task is dependent on the integrity of the hippocampus and its extended network. Older adults have impaired TP learning, corresponding to age-related reductions in hippocampal volumes. Unitization is a training strategy that can mitigate TP impairments in amnesia by reducing reliance on hippocampal-dependent relational binding and increasing reliance on fused representations. Here we examined whether healthy older adults and those showing early signs of cognitive decline would also benefit from unitization. Although both groups of older adults had neuropsychological performance within the healthy range, their TP learning differed both under standard and unitized training conditions. Healthy older adults with impaired TP learning under standard training benefited from unitized training. Older adults who failed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) showed greater impairments under standard conditions, and showed no evidence of improvement with unitization. These individuals’ failures to benefit from unitization may be a consequence of early deficits not seen in older adults who pass the MoCA. PMID:27049878

  6. The role of extracellular matrix in age-related conduction disorders: a forgotten player?

    PubMed Central

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Rainer, Alberto; Mozetic, Pamela; Trombetta, Marcella; Dion, Robert A; Barbato, Raffaele; Nappi, Francesco; Chello, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular aging is a physiological process gradually leading to structural degeneration and functional loss of all the cardiac and vascular components. Conduction system is also deeply influenced by the aging process with relevant reflexes in the clinical side. Age-related arrhythmias carry significant morbidity and mortality and represent a clinical and economical burden. An important and unjustly unrecognized actor in the pathophysiology of aging is represented by the extracellular matrix (ECM) that not only structurally supports the heart determining its mechanical and functional properties, but also sends a biological signaling regulating cellular function and maintaining tissue homeostasis. At the biophysical level, cardiac ECM exhibits a peculiar degree of anisotropy, which is among the main determinants of the conductive properties of the specialized electrical conduction system. Age-associated alterations of cardiac ECM are therefore able to profoundly affect the function of the conduction system with striking impact on the patient clinical conditions. This review will focus on the ECM changes that occur during aging in the heart conduction system and on their translation to the clinical scenario. Potential diagnostic and therapeutical perspectives arising from the knowledge on ECM age-associated alterations are further discussed. PMID:25678907

  7. Hearing, Cognition, and Healthy Aging: Social and Public Health Implications of the Links between Age-Related Declines in Hearing and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Mick, Paul; Reed, Marilyn

    2015-08-01

    Sensory input provides the signals used by the brain when listeners understand speech and participate in social activities with other people in a range of everyday situations. When sensory inputs are diminished, there can be short-term consequences to brain functioning, and long-term deprivation can affect brain neuroplasticity. Indeed, the association between hearing loss and cognitive declines in older adults is supported by experimental and epidemiologic evidence, although the causal mechanisms remain unknown. These interactions of auditory and cognitive aging play out in the challenges confronted by people with age-related hearing problems when understanding speech and engaging in social interactions. In the present article, we use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the Selective Optimization with Compensation models to highlight the importance of adopting a healthy aging perspective that focuses on facilitating active social participation by older adults. First, we examine epidemiologic evidence linking ARHL to cognitive declines and other health issues. Next, we examine how social factors influence and are influenced by auditory and cognitive aging and if they may provide a possible explanation for the association between ARHL and cognitive decline. Finally, we outline how audiologists could reposition hearing health care within the broader context of healthy aging. PMID:27516713

  8. Hearing, Cognition, and Healthy Aging: Social and Public Health Implications of the Links between Age-Related Declines in Hearing and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Mick, Paul; Reed, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Sensory input provides the signals used by the brain when listeners understand speech and participate in social activities with other people in a range of everyday situations. When sensory inputs are diminished, there can be short-term consequences to brain functioning, and long-term deprivation can affect brain neuroplasticity. Indeed, the association between hearing loss and cognitive declines in older adults is supported by experimental and epidemiologic evidence, although the causal mechanisms remain unknown. These interactions of auditory and cognitive aging play out in the challenges confronted by people with age-related hearing problems when understanding speech and engaging in social interactions. In the present article, we use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the Selective Optimization with Compensation models to highlight the importance of adopting a healthy aging perspective that focuses on facilitating active social participation by older adults. First, we examine epidemiologic evidence linking ARHL to cognitive declines and other health issues. Next, we examine how social factors influence and are influenced by auditory and cognitive aging and if they may provide a possible explanation for the association between ARHL and cognitive decline. Finally, we outline how audiologists could reposition hearing health care within the broader context of healthy aging. PMID:27516713

  9. Over the hill at 24: persistent age-related cognitive-motor decline in reaction times in an ecologically valid video game task begins in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Joseph J; Blair, Mark R; Henrey, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey [1]. Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load. PMID:24718593

  10. Over the Hill at 24: Persistent Age-Related Cognitive-Motor Decline in Reaction Times in an Ecologically Valid Video Game Task Begins in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Joseph J.; Blair, Mark R.; Henrey, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey [1]. Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load. PMID:24718593

  11. Inherited catalase deficiency: is it benign or a factor in various age related disorders?

    PubMed

    Góth, László; Nagy, Teréz

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was - and is still - considered toxic for a wide range of living organisms. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an excess of pro-oxidants over antioxidants and it has been implicated in several diseases. Catalase is involved in hydrogen peroxide catabolism and is important in defense against oxidative stress. Acatalasemia means the inherited near-total deficiency of catalase activity, usually in reference to red cell catalase. Acatalasemia was thought at first to be an asymptotic disorder. In the absence of catalase, neither the Japanese, or Hungarian acatalasemics nor acatalasemic mice had significantly increased blood glutathione peroxidase activity. In animal models, catalase deficient tissues show much slower rates of removal of extracellular hydrogen peroxide. In catalase knock-out mice, a decreased hydrogen peroxide removing capacity and increased reactive oxygen species formation were reported. Hydrogen peroxide may cause methemoglobinemia in patients with catalase deficiency. During anesthesia for a Japanese acatalasemic patient the disinfection with hydrogen peroxide solution caused severe methemoglobinemia. Patients with inherited catalase deficiency, who are treated with uric acid oxidase (rasburicase) may experience very high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and may suffer from methemoglobinemia and hemolysis. The high (18.5%) prevalence of diabetes mellitus in inherited catalase deficient individuals and the earlier (10 years) manifestation of the disease may be attributed to the oxidative damage of oxidant sensitive, insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells. Ninety-seven of 114 acatalasemics had diseases related to oxidative stress and aging. The oxidative stress due to catalase deficiency could contribute to the manifestation of diabetes while for the other diseases it may be one of the factors in their causations. In summary, inherited catalase deficiency is associated with clinical features, pathologic laboratory test results

  12. Hippocampal expression of myelin-associated inhibitors is induced with age-related cognitive decline and correlates with deficits of spatial learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    VanGuilder, Heather D.; Bixler, Georgina V.; Sonntag, William E.; Freeman, Willard M.

    2012-01-01

    Impairment of cognitive functions including hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory affects nearly half of the aged population. Age-related cognitive decline is associated with synaptic dysfunction that occurs in the absence of neuronal cell loss, suggesting that impaired neuronal signaling and plasticity may underlie age-related deficits of cognitive function. Expression of myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs) of synaptic plasticity, including the ligands MAG, Nogo-A, and OMgp, and their common receptor, NgR1, was examined in hippocampal synaptosomes and CA1, CA3 and DG subregions derived from adult (12–13 months) and aged (26–28 months) Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats. Rats were behaviorally phenotyped by Morris water maze testing and classified as aged cognitively intact (n=7–8) or aged cognitively impaired (n=7–10) relative to adults (n=5–7). MAI protein expression was induced in cognitively impaired, but not cognitively intact, aged rats and correlated with cognitive performance in individual rats. Immunohistochemical experiments demonstrated that upregulation of MAIs occurs, in part, in hippocampal neuronal axons and somata. While a number of pathways and processes are altered with brain aging, we report a coordinated induction of myelin-associated inhibitors of functional and structural plasticity only in cognitively impaired aged rats. Induction of MAIs may decrease stimulus-induced synaptic strengthening and structural remodeling, ultimately impairing synaptic mechanisms of spatial learning and memory and resulting in cognitive decline. PMID:22269040

  13. Intrinsic Hippocampal Excitability Changes of Opposite Signs and Different Origins in CA1 and CA3 Pyramidal Neurons Underlie Aging-Related Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Oh, M. Matthew; Simkin, Dina; Disterhoft, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Aging-related cognitive deficits have been attributed to dysfunction of neurons due to failures at synaptic or intrinsic loci, or both. Given the importance of the hippocampus for successful encoding of memory and that the main output of the hippocampus is via the CA1 pyramidal neurons, much of the research has been focused on identifying the aging-related changes of these CA1 pyramidal neurons. We and others have discovered that the postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) following a train of action potentials is greatly enlarged in CA1 pyramidal neurons of aged animals. This enlarged postburst AHP is a significant factor in reducing the intrinsic excitability of these neurons, and thus limiting their activity in the neural network during learning. Based on these data, it has largely been thought that aging-related cognitive deficits are attributable to reduced activity of pyramidal neurons. However, recent in vivo and ex vivo studies provide compelling evidence that aging-related deficits could also be due to a converse change in CA3 pyramidal neurons, which show increased activity with aging. In this review, we will incorporate these recent findings and posit that an interdependent dynamic dysfunctional change occurs within the hippocampal network, largely due to altered intrinsic excitability in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons, which ultimately leads to the aging-related cognitive deficits. PMID:27375440

  14. Cognitive dysfunction in mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, J

    2012-07-01

    Among the various central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of mitochondrial disorders (MIDs), cognitive impairment is increasingly recognized and diagnosed (mitochondrial cognitive dysfunction). Aim of the review was to summarize recent findings concerning the aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of cognitive decline in MIDs. Among syndromic MIDs due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, cognitive impairment occurs in patients with mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes syndrome, myoclonus epilepsy with ragged-red fibres syndrome, mitochondrial chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, Kearns-Sayre syndrome, neuropathy, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa syndrome and maternally inherited diabetes and deafness. Among syndromic MIDs due to nuclear DNA (nDNA) mutations, cognitive decline has been reported in myo-neuro-gastro-intestinal encephalopathy, mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome, spinocerebellar ataxia with encephalopathy, Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome, leuko-encephalopathy; brain and spinal cord involvement and lactic acidosis, CMT2, Wolfram syndrome, Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and Leigh syndrome. In addition to syndromic MIDs, a large number of non-syndromic MIDs due to mtDNA as well as nDNA mutations have been reported, which present with cognitive impairment as the sole or one among several other CNS manifestations of a MID. Delineation of mitochondrial cognitive impairment from other types of cognitive impairment is essential to guide the optimal management of these patients. Treatment of mitochondrial cognitive impairment is largely limited to symptomatic and supportive measures. Cognitive impairment may be a CNS manifestation of syndromic as well as non-syndromic MIDs. Correct diagnosis of mitochondrial cognitive impairment is a prerequisite for the optimal management of these patients. PMID:22335339

  15. [Cognitive function in eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yuri

    2014-04-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by uncontrolled eating behaviors. The core psychopathology is expressed in a variety of ways: body image distortion, preoccupation with food and weight, fear of weight gain, and so on. Brain-imaging techniques provide many opportunities to study neural circuits related symptoms in eating disorder. The present article focuses studies about functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of eating disorders. Studies of anorexia nervosa suggest 1) relationship between amygdala activation and fear of weight gain, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive flexibility. Studies of bulimic eating disorder (bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and so on) suggest 1) relationship between brain reward system and overeating, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and impulse control. PMID:24796094

  16. Towards finding the linkage between metabolic and age-related disorders using semantic gene data network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Uzzal Hossain, Mohammad; Zaffar Shibly, Abu; Md. Omar, Taimur; Tous Zohora, Fatama; Sara Santona, Umme; Hossain, Md. Jakir; Hosen Khoka, Md. Sadek; Ara Keya, Chaman; Salimullah, Md.

    2016-01-01

    A metabolic disorder (MD) occurs when the metabolic process is disturbed. This process is carried out by thousands of enzymes participating in numerous inter-dependent metabolic pathways. Critical biochemical reactions that involve the processing and transportation of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are affected in metabolic diseases. Therefore, it is of interest to identify the common pathways of metabolic disorders by building protein-protein interactions (PPI) for network analysis. The molecular network linkages between MD and age related diseases (ARD) are intriguing. Hence, we created networks of protein-protein interactions that are related with MD and ARD using relevant known data in the public domain. The network analysis identified known MD associated proteins and predicted genes and or its products of ARD in common pathways. The genes in the common pathways were isolated from the network and further analyzed for their co-localization and shared domains. Thus, a model hypothesis is proposed using interaction networks that are linked between MD and ARD. This data even if less conclusive finds application in understanding the molecular mechanism of known diseases in relation to observed molecular events PMID:27212841

  17. Towards finding the linkage between metabolic and age-related disorders using semantic gene data network analysis.

    PubMed

    Uzzal Hossain, Mohammad; Zaffar Shibly, Abu; Md Omar, Taimur; Tous Zohora, Fatama; Sara Santona, Umme; Hossain, Md Jakir; Hosen Khoka, Md Sadek; Ara Keya, Chaman; Salimullah, Md

    2016-01-01

    A metabolic disorder (MD) occurs when the metabolic process is disturbed. This process is carried out by thousands of enzymes participating in numerous inter-dependent metabolic pathways. Critical biochemical reactions that involve the processing and transportation of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are affected in metabolic diseases. Therefore, it is of interest to identify the common pathways of metabolic disorders by building protein-protein interactions (PPI) for network analysis. The molecular network linkages between MD and age related diseases (ARD) are intriguing. Hence, we created networks of protein-protein interactions that are related with MD and ARD using relevant known data in the public domain. The network analysis identified known MD associated proteins and predicted genes and or its products of ARD in common pathways. The genes in the common pathways were isolated from the network and further analyzed for their co-localization and shared domains. Thus, a model hypothesis is proposed using interaction networks that are linked between MD and ARD. This data even if less conclusive finds application in understanding the molecular mechanism of known diseases in relation to observed molecular events. PMID:27212841

  18. Epigenetic dysregulation in cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Gräff, Johannes; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2009-07-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are not only essential for biological functions requiring stable molecular changes such as the establishment of cell identity and tissue formation, they also constitute dynamic intracellular processes for translating environmental stimuli into modifications in gene expression. Over the past decade it has become increasingly clear that both aspects of epigenetic mechanisms play a pivotal role in complex brain functions. Evidence from patients with neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Rett syndrome indicated that epigenetic mechanisms and chromatin remodeling need to be tightly controlled for proper cognitive functions, and their dysregulation can have devastating consequences. However, because they are dynamic, epigenetic mechanisms are also potentially reversible and may provide powerful means for pharmacological intervention. This review outlines major cognitive disorders known to be associated with epigenetic dysregulation, and discusses the potential of 'epigenetic medicine' as a promising cure. PMID:19508697

  19. Age-related changes in brain activity are specific for high order cognitive processes during successful encoding of information in working memory

    PubMed Central

    Pinal, Diego; Zurrón, Montserrat; Díaz, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Memory capacity suffers an age-related decline, which is supposed to be due to a generalized slowing of processing speed and to a reduced availability of processing resources. Information encoding in memory has been demonstrated to be very sensitive to age-related changes, especially when carried out through self-initiated strategies or under high cognitive demands. However, most event-related potentials (ERP) research on age-related changes in working memory (WM) has used tasks that preclude distinction between age-related changes in encoding and retrieval processes. Here, we used ERP recording and a delayed match to sample (DMS) task with two levels of memory load to assess age-related changes in electrical brain activity in young and old adults during successful information encoding in WM. Age-related decline was reflected in lower accuracy rates and longer reaction times in the DMS task. Beside, only old adults presented lower accuracy rates under high than low memory load conditions. However, effects of memory load on brain activity were independent of age and may indicate an increased need of processing after stimulus classification as reflected in larger mean voltages in high than low load conditions between 550 and 1000 ms post-stimulus for young and old adults. Regarding age-related effects on brain activity, results also revealed smaller P2 and P300 amplitudes that may signal the existence of an age dependent reduction in the processing resources available for stimulus evaluation and categorization. Additionally, P2 and N2 latencies were longer in old than in young participants. Furthermore, longer N2 latencies were related to greater accuracy rates on the DMS task, especially in old adults. These results suggest that age-related slowing of processing speed may be specific for target stimulus analysis and evaluation processes. Thus, old adults seem to improve their performance the longer they take to evaluate the stimulus they encode in visual WM. PMID

  20. Age-related changes in brain activity are specific for high order cognitive processes during successful encoding of information in working memory.

    PubMed

    Pinal, Diego; Zurrón, Montserrat; Díaz, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Memory capacity suffers an age-related decline, which is supposed to be due to a generalized slowing of processing speed and to a reduced availability of processing resources. Information encoding in memory has been demonstrated to be very sensitive to age-related changes, especially when carried out through self-initiated strategies or under high cognitive demands. However, most event-related potentials (ERP) research on age-related changes in working memory (WM) has used tasks that preclude distinction between age-related changes in encoding and retrieval processes. Here, we used ERP recording and a delayed match to sample (DMS) task with two levels of memory load to assess age-related changes in electrical brain activity in young and old adults during successful information encoding in WM. Age-related decline was reflected in lower accuracy rates and longer reaction times in the DMS task. Beside, only old adults presented lower accuracy rates under high than low memory load conditions. However, effects of memory load on brain activity were independent of age and may indicate an increased need of processing after stimulus classification as reflected in larger mean voltages in high than low load conditions between 550 and 1000 ms post-stimulus for young and old adults. Regarding age-related effects on brain activity, results also revealed smaller P2 and P300 amplitudes that may signal the existence of an age dependent reduction in the processing resources available for stimulus evaluation and categorization. Additionally, P2 and N2 latencies were longer in old than in young participants. Furthermore, longer N2 latencies were related to greater accuracy rates on the DMS task, especially in old adults. These results suggest that age-related slowing of processing speed may be specific for target stimulus analysis and evaluation processes. Thus, old adults seem to improve their performance the longer they take to evaluate the stimulus they encode in visual WM. PMID

  1. Temperature affects longevity and age-related locomotor and cognitive decay in the short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri.

    PubMed

    Valenzano, Dario R; Terzibasi, Eva; Cattaneo, Antonino; Domenici, Luciano; Cellerino, Alessandro

    2006-06-01

    Temperature variations are known to modulate aging and life-history traits in poikilotherms as different as worms, flies and fish. In invertebrates, temperature affects lifespan by modulating the slope of age-dependent acceleration in death rate, which is thought to reflect the rate of age-related damage accumulation. Here, we studied the effects of temperature on aging kinetics, aging-related behavioural deficits, and age-associated histological markers of senescence in the short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri. This species shows a maximum captive lifespan of only 3 months, which is tied with acceleration in growth and expression of aging biomarkers. These biological peculiarities make it a very convenient animal model for testing the effects of experimental manipulations on life-history traits in vertebrates. Here, we show that (i) lowering temperature from 25 degrees C to 22 degrees C increases both median and maximum lifespan; (ii) life extension is due to reduction in the slope of the age-dependent acceleration in death rate; (iii) lowering temperature from 25 degrees C to 22 degrees C retards the onset of age-related locomotor and learning deficits; and (iv) lowering temperature from 25 degrees C to 22 degrees C reduces the accumulation of the age-related marker lipofuscin. We conclude that lowering water temperature is a simple experimental manipulation which retards the rate of age-related damage accumulation in this short-lived species. PMID:16842500

  2. Age-related Epstein-Barr Virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorders of the orbit and maxillary sinus : a case report.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Takeki; Mawatari, Momoko; Koiso, Hiromi; Yokohama, Akihiko; Uchiumi, Hideki; Saitoh, Takayuki; Handa, Hiroshi; Hirato, Junko; Karasawa, Masamitsu; Murakami, Hirokazu; Kojima, Masaru; Nakamura, Shigeo; Nojima, Yoshihisa; Tsukamoto, Norifumi

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare case of age-related Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (aEBVBLPD) primarily involving the orbit and maxillary sinus. Lesions in the left orbit and maxillary sinus were observed in a 59-year-old man presenting with pain in the left orbit and maxilla. Owing to the presence of Reed-Sternberg-like cells, the initial diagnosis was nodular sclerosis-type Hodgkin's lymphoma. Clinical stage was IIAE, and response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy was favorable. Further immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analyses of the Reed-Sternberg-like giant cells revealed CD30, CD15, CD20, Bob-1, Oct-2, EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs) and latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) expression. The characteristics of the present case, which included immunohistochemical findings, sites of primary lesions, absence of other lymph node lesions and relatively old age, suggested aEBVBLPD. Owing to the similarity in morphology, higher frequency at extranodal sites and poor prognosis, aEBVBLPD represents a differential diagnostic issue from classical Hodgkin's lymphoma when Reed-Sternberg cells are positive for EBV. PMID:23269081

  3. Long-term moderate alcohol consumption does not exacerbate age-related cognitive decline in healthy, community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Malaak N.; Simpson, Sean L.; Mayhugh, Rhiannon E.; Grata, Michelle E.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Porrino, Linda J.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent census data has found that roughly 40% of adults 65 years and older not only consume alcohol but also drink more of it than previous generations. Older drinkers are more vulnerable than younger counterparts to the psychoactive effects of alcohol due to natural biological changes that occur with aging. This study was specifically designed to measure the effect of long-term moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive health in older adult drinkers. An extensive battery of validated tests commonly used in aging and substance use literature was used to measure performance in specific cognitive domains, including working memory and attention. An age (young, old) * alcohol consumption (light, moderate) factorial study design was used to evaluate the main effects of age and alcohol consumption on cognitive performance. The focus of the study was then limited to light and moderate older drinkers, and whether or not long-term moderate alcohol consumption exacerbated age-related cognitive decline. No evidence was found to support the idea that long-term moderate alcohol consumption in older adults exacerbates age-related cognitive decline. Findings were specific to healthy community dwelling social drinkers in older age and they should not be generalized to individuals with other consumption patterns, like heavy drinkers, binge drinkers or ex-drinkers. PMID:25601835

  4. Age-Related Cognitive Impairments in Mice with a Conditional Ablation of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisaz, Reto; Boadas-Vaello, Pere; Genoux, David; Sandi, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Most of the mechanisms involved in neural plasticity support cognition, and aging has a considerable effect on some of these processes. The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) of the immunoglobulin superfamily plays a pivotal role in structural and functional plasticity and is required to modulate cognitive and emotional behaviors. However,…

  5. Touchscreen-Based Cognitive Tasks Reveal Age-Related Impairment in a Primate Aging Model, the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mouse lemurs are suggested to represent promising novel non-human primate models for aging research. However, standardized and cross-taxa cognitive testing methods are still lacking. Touchscreen-based testing procedures have proven high stimulus control and reliability in humans and rodents. The aim of this study was to adapt these procedures to mouse lemurs, thereby exploring the effect of age. We measured appetitive learning and cognitive flexibility of two age groups by applying pairwise visual discrimination (PD) and reversal learning (PDR) tasks. On average, mouse lemurs needed 24 days of training before starting with the PD task. Individual performances in PD and PDR tasks correlate significantly, suggesting that individual learning performance is unrelated to the respective task. Compared to the young, aged mouse lemurs showed impairments in both PD and PDR tasks. They needed significantly more trials to reach the task criteria. A much higher inter-individual variation in old than in young adults was revealed. Furthermore, in the PDR task, we found a significantly higher perseverance in aged compared to young adults, indicating an age-related deficit in cognitive flexibility. This study presents the first touchscreen-based data on the cognitive skills and age-related dysfunction in mouse lemurs and provides a unique basis to study mechanisms of inter-individual variation. It furthermore opens exciting perspectives for comparative approaches in aging, personality, and evolutionary research. PMID:25299046

  6. Cognitive disorders in pediatric epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jambaqué, I; Pinabiaux, C; Lassonde, M

    2013-01-01

    Childhood epilepsy may cause cognitive disorders and the intellectual quotient is indeed not normally distributed in epileptic children, a fair proportion of whom show an IQ in the deficient range. Some epileptic syndromes happen during vulnerability periods of brain maturation and interfere with the development of specific cognitive functions. This is the case for the Landau-Kleffner syndrome, which generally appears during speech development and affects language. Similarly, West syndrome - or infantile spasms - is an epileptogenic encephalopathy appearing during the first years of life and induces a major delay in social and oculo-motor development. Specific impairments can also be identified in partial childhood epilepsies in relation with seizure focus localization. For instance, left temporal and frontal epilepsies are frequently associated with verbal impairments. Moreover, episodic memory disorders have been described in children suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy whereas executive deficits (planning, self-control, problem solving) have been reported in frontal lobe epilepsy. In most cases, including its mildest forms, childhood epilepsy induces attention deficits, which may affect academic achievement. These observations militate in favor of individual neuropsychological assessments as well as early interventions in order to provide the child with an optimal individualized treatment program. PMID:23622216

  7. Age-related decline in verbal learning is moderated by demographic factors, working memory capacity, and presence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Constantinidou, Fofi; Zaganas, Ioannis; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Nidos, Andreas; Simos, Panagiotis G

    2014-09-01

    Age-related memory changes are highly varied and heterogeneous. The study examined the rate of decline in verbal episodic memory as a function of education level, auditory attention span and verbal working memory capacity, and diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Data were available on a community sample of 653 adults aged 17-86 years and 70 patients with a-MCI recruited from eight broad geographic areas in Greece and Cyprus. Measures of auditory attention span and working memory capacity (digits forward and backward) and verbal episodic memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test [AVLT]) were used. Moderated mediation regressions on data from the community sample did not reveal significant effects of education level on the rate of age-related decline in AVLT indices. The presence of a-MCI was a significant moderator of the direct effect of Age on both immediate and delayed episodic memory indices. The rate of age-related decline in verbal episodic memory is normally mediated by working memory capacity. Moreover, in persons who display poor episodic memory capacity (a-MCI group), age-related memory decline is expected to advance more rapidly for those who also display relatively poor verbal working memory capacity. PMID:25156204

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Theories of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eating disorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…

  9. Sex-dependent modulation of age-related cognitive decline by the L-type calcium channel gene Cacna1c (Cav 1.2).

    PubMed

    Zanos, Panos; Bhat, Shambhu; Terrillion, Chantelle E; Smith, Robert J; Tonelli, Leonardo H; Gould, Todd D

    2015-10-01

    Increased calcium influx through L-type voltage-gated calcium channels has been implicated in the neuronal dysfunction underlying age-related memory declines. The present study aimed to test the specific role of Cacna1c (which encodes Cav 1.2) in modulating age-related memory dysfunction. Short-term, spatial and contextual/emotional memory was evaluated in young and aged, wild-type as well as mice with one functional copy of Cacna1c (haploinsufficient), using the novel object recognition, Y-maze and passive avoidance tasks, respectively. Hippocampal expression of Cacna1c mRNA was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Ageing was associated with object recognition and contextual/emotional memory deficits, and a significant increase in hippocampal Cacna1c mRNA expression. Cacna1c haploinsufficiency was associated with decreased Cacna1c mRNA expression in both young and old animals. However, haploinsufficient mice did not manifest an age-related increase in expression of this gene. Behaviourally, Cacna1c haploinsufficiency prevented object recognition deficits during ageing in both male and female mice. A significant correlation between higher Cacna1c levels and decreased object recognition performance was observed in both sexes. Also, a sex-dependent protective role of decreased Cacna1c levels in contextual/emotional memory loss has been observed, specifically in male mice. These data provide evidence for an association between increased hippocampal Cacna1c expression and age-related cognitive decline. Additionally, they indicate an interaction between the Cacna1c gene and sex in the modulation of age-related contextual memory declines. PMID:25989111

  10. Age-related Changes in Respiratory Function and Daily Living. A Tentative Model Including Psychosocial Variables, Respiratory Diseases and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Facal, David; González-Barcala, Francisco-Javier

    2016-01-01

    Changes in respiratory function are common in older populations and affect quality of life, social relationships, cognitive function and functional capacity. This paper reviews evidence reported in medical and psychological journals between 2000 and 2014 concerning the impact of changes in respiratory function on daily living in older adults. A tentative model establishes relationships involving respiratory function, cognitive function and functional capacities. The conclusion stresses the need for both longitudinal studies, to establish causal pathways between respiratory function and psychosocial aspects in aging, and intervention studies. PMID:26593253

  11. Age-related cognitive decline and electroencephalogram slowing in Down's syndrome as a model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Soininen, H; Partanen, J; Jousmäki, V; Helkala, E L; Vanhanen, M; Majuri, S; Kaski, M; Hartikainen, P; Riekkinen, P

    1993-03-01

    We studied quantitative electroencephalogram and neuropsychological performance in an aging series of 31 patients with Down's syndrome and compared the findings with those of 36 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and age-matched controls. We found an age-related decline of cortical functions and slowing of the electroencephalogram in Down's syndrome patients aged from 20 to 60 years. Slowing of the electroencephalogram, i.e. the decrease of the peak frequency, was significantly related to Mini-Mental status scores, and visual, praxic and speech functions, as well as memory in the Down patients, similar to the Alzheimer patients. Similar correlations were not demonstrated for young or elderly controls. This study provides neuropsychological and electrophysiological data to suggest that studying Down's syndrome patients of different ages can serve as a model for progression of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:8469312

  12. Age-Related Changes in Electrophysiological and Neuropsychological Indices of Working Memory, Attention Control, and Cognitive Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Peltz, Carrie Brumback; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Older adults exhibit great variability in their cognitive abilities, with some maintaining high levels of performance on executive control tasks and others showing significant deficits. Previous event-related potential (ERP) work has shown that some of these performance differences are correlated with persistence of the novelty/frontal P3 in older adults elicited by task-relevant events, presumably reflecting variability in the capacity to suppress orienting to unexpected but no longer novel events. In recent ERP work in young adults, we showed that the operation-span (OSPAN) task (a measure of attention control) is predictive of the ability of individuals to keep track of stimulus sequencing and to maintain running mental representations of task stimuli, as indexed by the parietally distributed P300 (or P3b). Both of these phenomena reflect aspects of frontal function (cognitive flexibility and attention control, respectively). To investigate these phenomena we sorted both younger and older adults into low- and high-working memory spans and low- and high-cognitive flexibility subgroups, and examined ERPs during an equal-probability choice reaction time task. For both age groups (a) participants with high OSPAN scores were better able to keep track of stimulus sequencing, as indicated by their smaller P3b to sequential changes; and (b) participants with lower cognitive flexibility had larger P3a than their high-scoring counterparts. However, these two phenomena did not interact suggesting that they manifest dissociable control mechanisms. Further, the fact that both effects are already visible in younger adults suggests that at least some of the brain mechanisms underlying individual differences in cognitive aging may already operate early in life. PMID:21887150

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents with Fragile X Syndrome: Within-Syndrome Differences and Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Andrea; Abbeduto, Leonard; Lewis, Pamela; Kover, Sara; Kim, Jee-Seon; Weber, Ann; Brown, W. Ted

    2010-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) was used to examine diagnostic profiles and age-related changes in autism symptoms for a group of verbal children and adolescents who had fragile X syndrome, with and without autism. After controlling for nonverbal IQ, we found statistically significant between-group differences for lifetime and…

  14. Age-Related Cognitive Impairment as a Sign of Geriatric Neurocardiovascular Interactions: May Polyphenols Play a Protective Role?

    PubMed Central

    Jagla, Fedor; Pechanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    It is known that endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases implicated also in cognitive decline. Experimental studies pointed to the fact that the modification of NO levels via NOS activity may affect the blood pressure level as well as several higher nervous functions—for example, learning and memory. There are emerging evidences from in vitro and animal studies suggesting that polyphenols may potentially have a protective effect on the development of neurodegenerative diseases and may improve cognitive function as well as positively affecting the blood pressure regulatory mechanisms. This review accentuates the need for precisely defined clinically controlled studies as well as for use of adequate experimental procedures discriminating between the human higher brain functions and the only overall activation of the brain cortex. The physiological neurocardiovascular interactions are implicated in the increased healthy life span as well. PMID:26180593

  15. Operationalizing diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related cognitive impairment—Part 2*

    PubMed Central

    Seshadri, Sudha; Beiser, Alexa; Au, Rhoda; Wolf, Philip A.; Evans, Denis A.; Wilson, Robert S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Knopman, David S.; Rocca, Walter A.; Kawas, Claudia H.; Corrada, Maria M.; Plassman, Brenda L.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Chui, Helena C.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of operational differences in case ascertainment on estimates of prevalence and incidence of cognitive impairment/dementia of the Alzheimer type. Experience and insights are discussed by investigators from the Framingham Heart Study, the East Boston Senior Health Project, the Chicago Health and Aging Project, the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, and the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study. There is a general consensus that the single most important factor regulating prevalence estimates of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the severity of cognitive impairment used for case ascertainment. Studies that require a level of cognitive impairment in which persons are unable to provide self-care will have much lower estimates than studies aimed at identifying persons in the earliest stages of AD. There is limited autopsy data from the above-mentioned epidemiologic studies to address accuracy in the diagnosis of etiologic subtype, namely the specification of AD alone or in combination with other types of pathology. However, other community-based cohort studies show that many persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) meet pathologic criteria for AD, and a large minority of persons without dementia or MCI also meets pathologic criteria for AD, thereby suggesting that the number of persons who would benefit from an effective secondary prevention intervention is probably higher than the highest published prevalence estimates. Improved accuracy in the clinical diagnosis of AD is anticipated with the addition of molecular and structural biomarkers in the next generation of epidemiologic studies. PMID:21255742

  16. Age-related changes in brain metabolites and cognitive function in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang-qing; Cai, Qing; Shen, Yu-ying; Wang, Pei-jun; Teng, Gao-jun; Zhang, Wei; Zang, Feng-chao

    2012-11-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) and the Morris water maze (MWM) have played an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. The aim of this study was to determine whether (1)H-MRS and the MWM can detect for early AD in APP/PS1 transgenic (tg) mice. (1)H-MRS was performed in 20 tg mice and 15 wild-type mice at 3, 5 and 8 months of age. The concentration of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), myo-inositol (mI), choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr) in the hippocampus were measured, and the NAA/Cr, Glu/Cr, mI/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios were quantified. Additionally, the spatial learning and memory of the mice were evaluated by MWM. The (1)H-MRS revealed that mI levels in tg mice were significantly higher at 3 months of age compared to wt mice, while the NAA and Glu levels in 5- and 8-month-old tg mice were significantly decreased (p<0.05). Additionally, significant cognitive changes only occurred at 8 months of age in APP/PS1 tg mice. These results indicated that metabolic changes preceded overt cognitive dysfunctions in early-stage AD, suggesting that (1)H-MRS is a more sensitive biomarker for assessing early AD. PMID:22828014

  17. Age-related differences in neural recruitment during the use of cognitive reappraisal and selective attention as emotion regulation strategies

    PubMed Central

    Allard, Eric S.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined age differences in the timing and neural recruitment within lateral and medial PFC while younger and older adults hedonically regulated their responses to unpleasant film clips. When analyses focused on activity during the emotional peak of the film clip (the most emotionally salient portion of the film), several age differences emerged. When comparing regulation to passive viewing (combined effects of selective attention and reappraisal) younger adults showed greater regulation related activity in lateral PFC (DLPFC, VLPFC, OFC) and medial PFC (ACC) while older adults showed greater activation within a region DLPFC. When assessing distinct effects of the regulation conditions, an ANOVA revealed a significant Age × Regulation Condition interaction within bilateral DLPFC and ACC; older adults but not young adults showed greater recruitment within these regions for reappraisal than selective attention. When examining activity at the onset of the film clip and at its emotional peak, the timing of reappraisal-related activity within VLPFC differed between age groups: younger adults showed greater activity at film onset while older adults showed heightened activity during the peak. Our results suggest that older adults rely more heavily on PFC recruitment when engaging cognitively demanding reappraisal strategies while PFC-mediated regulation might not be as task-specific for younger adults. Older adults' greater reliance on cognitive control processing during emotion regulation may also be reflected in the time needed to implement these strategies. PMID:24782800

  18. Corpus callosum atrophy as a predictor of age-related cognitive and motor impairment: a 3-year follow-up of the LADIS study cohort.

    PubMed

    Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Paulson, O B; Barkhof, F; Scheltens, P; van Straaten, E C W; van der Flier, W M; Fazekas, F; Schmidt, R; Ferro, J M; Baezner, H; Erkinjuntti, T; Jokinen, H; Wahlund, L-O; Poggesi, A; Pantoni, L; Inzitari, D; Waldemar, G

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this 3-year follow-up study was to investigate whether corpus callosum (CC) atrophy may predict future motor and cognitive impairment in an elderly population. On baseline MRI from 563 subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study, the CC was segmented and subdivided into five anterior-posterior regions (CC1-CC5). Associations between the CC areas and decline in motor performance and cognitive functions over a 3-year period were analyzed. CC atrophy at baseline was significantly associated with impaired cognitive performance (p<0.01 for CC1, p<0.05 for CC5), motor function (p<0.05 for CC2 and CC5), and walking speed (p<0.01 for CC2 and CC5, p<0.05 for CC3 and total CC), and with development of dementia at 3 years (p<0.05 for CC1) after correction for appropriate confounders (ARWMC volume, atrophy, age, gender and handedness). In conclusion, CC atrophy, an indicator of reduced functional connectivity between cortical areas, seems to contribute, independently of ARWMC load, to future cognitive and motor decline in the elderly. PMID:21621224

  19. Functional Cognitive Disorder: A Common Cause of Subjective Cognitive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Catherine; Hayre, Amrit; Newson, Margaret; Coulthard, Elizabeth

    2015-09-24

    Patients frequently present to the memory clinic with self-reported cognitive symptoms that cannot be attributed to structural, toxic, or metabolic causes, and are out of keeping with their performance on neuropsychological assessment. This can be considered to be Functional (psychosomatic) Cognitive Disorder, which results in significant patient distress and often has a major impact on social functioning and employment. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Bristol ReMemBr group cognitive clinic database to ascertain the prevalence of Functional Cognitive Disorder, review the patient characteristics, and develop new guidelines for diagnosis and management. 196 patients were screened of whom 23 were diagnosed with Functional Cognitive Disorder; the oldest patient with this diagnosis was aged 60 years at symptom onset. When considering only those presenting below the age of 60 years (total no. held on database = 69), a third were diagnosed with Functional Cognitive Disorder. On neuropsychological testing, 47% had an atypical (invalid) pattern of results, or failed tests of performance validity. Of those with valid neuropsychological results, 80% scored in the normal range. Depression and anxiety were common but did not appear to be the primary cause of cognitive symptoms. Particular characteristics seen were excessively low self-rating of memory ability, and discrepancies between perceived and actual cognitive performance. The rate of unemployment was high, often due to the cognitive symptomatology. This is an important disorder to address, being common in working adults, and carrying a risk of misdiagnosis as early neurodegeneration, with subsequent inappropriate treatment and inclusion in clinical trials. PMID:26402086

  20. [Cognitive behavior therapy in eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Tölgyes, Tamás; Unoka, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Author's aim is to give a comprehensive review of the behavioural and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapeutic development in the treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, on the base of the literature as well as on own clinical experiences. Behavioural therapies, currently applied as part of integrative therapies mainly, will be shown, and theoretical background and techniques of classical cognitive behavioural therapy of anorexia and bulimia nervosa will be shortly summarized. Theory and therapeutic techniques of the schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, applied in the treatment of eating disorders more frequently in the last few years, will be made acquainted in details. Indications and contraindications of classic cognitive behavioural therapy and schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy in eating disorders will be discussed. Stress will be laid on the fact, that schema-focused cognitive behaviour therapy is to be chosen mostly in the cases where comorbid dissociation, personality disorder, very low self-esteem or traumatic history diminishes the applicability of traditional cognitive behavioural therapy. Authors emphasize the importance of further controlled efficacy studies in the field of schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, to define the indication fields regarding different subgroups of eating disorders. PMID:20450144

  1. [Cognitive behavior therapy in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Tölgyes, Tamás; Unoka, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Author's aim is to give a comprehensive review of the behavioural and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapeutic development in the treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, on the base of the literature as well as on own clinical experiences. Behavioural therapies, currently applied as part of integrative therapies mainly, will be shown, and theoretical background and techniques of classical cognitive behavioural therapy of anorexia and bulimia nervosa will be shortly summarized. Theory and therapeutic techniques of the schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, applied in the treatment of eating disorders more frequently in the last few years, will be made acquainted in details. Indications and contraindications of classic cognitive behavioural therapy and schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy in eating disorders will be discussed. Stress will be laid on the fact, that schema-focused cognitive behaviour therapy is to be chosen mostly in the cases where comorbid dissociation, personality disorder, very low self-esteem or traumatic history diminishes the applicability of traditional cognitive behavioural therapy. Authors emphasize the importance of further controlled efficacy studies in the field of schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, to define the indication fields regarding different subgroups of eating disorders. PMID:20057003

  2. Bipolar Disorder and Cognitive Therapy: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riskind, John H.

    2005-01-01

    This article comments on the three articles (Leahy, 2005; Newman, 2005; and Reilly-Harrington & Knauz, 2005) that deal with the applications of cognitive therapy to treatment of bipolar disorder. They focus on the uses of cognitive therapy in treating three important facets of the special problems of bipolar patients: rapid cycling, severe…

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents with Fragile X Syndrome: Within-Syndrome Differences and Age-Related Changes

    PubMed Central

    McDuffie, Andrea; Abbeduto, Leonard; Lewis, Pamela; Kim, Jee-Seon; Kover, Sara T.; Weber, Ann; Brown, W. Ted

    2010-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised was used to examine diagnostic profiles and age-related changes in autism symptoms for a group of verbal children and adolescents with FXS, with and without autism. After controlling for nonverbal IQ, statistically significant between-group differences for lifetime and current autism symptoms were found for the Communication and Restricted Interests/Repetitive Behaviors domains, but not the Reciprocal Social Interaction domain. Effect sizes for differences in Reciprocal Social Interaction also were smaller than effect sizes for the other domains with one exception. Overall, severity of autism symptoms improved with age for all participants, with the least improvement noted for Restricted Interests and Repetitive Behaviors. FMRP did not account for unique variance in autism symptoms over and above nonverbal IQ. PMID:20567604

  4. Cognitive Coping in Anxiety-Disordered Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Garnefski, Nadia; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious adolescents. In addition, the interaction effect with gender as well as differences between specific anxiety diagnoses was examined. A clinical sample of 159 anxiety-disordered adolescents and a general community sample of 370…

  5. Cognitive Dysfunction in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Benzina, Nabil; Mallet, Luc; Burguière, Eric; N'Diaye, Karim; Pelissolo, Antoine

    2016-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder featuring obsessions (intrusive thoughts) and compulsions (repetitive behaviors performed in the context of rigid rituals). There is strong evidence for a neurobiological basis of this disorder, involving limbic cortical regions and related basal ganglion areas. However, more research is needed to lift the veil on the precise nature of that involvement and the way it drives the clinical expression of OCD. Altered cognitive functions may underlie the symptoms and thus draw a link between the clinical expression of the disorder and its neurobiological etiology. Our extensive review demonstrates that OCD patients do present a broad range of neuropsychological dysfunctions across all cognitive domains (memory, attention, flexibility, inhibition, verbal fluency, planning, decision-making), but some methodological issues temper this observation. Thus, future research should have a more integrative approach to cognitive functioning, gathering contributions of both experimental psychology and more fundamental neurosciences. PMID:27423459

  6. Age-Related Changes in Creative Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos-Ewoldsen, Beverly; Black, Sheila R.; Mccown, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related differences in cognitive processes were used to understand age-related declines in creativity. According to the Geneplore model (Finke, Ward, & Smith, 1992), there are two phases of creativity--generating an idea and exploring the implications of the idea--each with different underlying cognitive processes. These two phases are…

  7. [Cognition - the core of major depressive disorder].

    PubMed

    Polosan, M; Lemogne, C; Jardri, R; Fossati, P

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive deficits have been only recently recognized as a major phenotype determinant of major depressive disorder, although they are an integral part of the definition of the depressive state. Congruent evidence suggest that these cognitive deficits persist beyond the acute phase and may be identified at all ages. The aim of the current study was to review the main meta-analyses on cognition and depression, which encompasses a large range of cognitive domains. Therefore, we discuss the "cold" (attention, memory, executive functions) and "hot" (emotional bias) cognitive impairments in MDD, as well as those of social cognition domains (empathy, theory of mind). Several factors interfere with cognition in MDD such as clinical (melancholic, psychotic...) features, age, age of onset, illness severity, medication and comorbid condition. As still debated in the literature, the type of relationship between the severity of cognitive symptoms and functioning in depression is detailed, thus highlighting their predictive value of functional outcome, independently of the affective symptoms. A better identification of the cognitive deficits in MDD and a monitoring of the effects of different treatments require appropriate instruments, which may be developed by taking advantage of the increasing success of computing tools. Overall, current data suggest a core role for different cognitive deficits in MDD, therefore opening new perspectives for optimizing the treatment of depression. PMID:26879254

  8. Age-Related Differences in Response to Music-Evoked Emotion Among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, K G; Quintin, E M; South, M

    2016-04-01

    While research regarding emotion recognition in ASD has focused primarily on social cues, musical stimuli also elicit strong emotional responses. This study extends and expands the few previous studies of response to music in ASD, measuring both psychophysiological and behavioral responses in younger children (ages 8-11) as well as older adolescents (ages 16-18). Compared to controls, the ASD group demonstrated reduced skin conductance response to music-evoked emotion. Younger groups, regardless of diagnosis, showed greater physiological reactivity to scary stimuli than to other emotions. There was a significant interaction of age group and diagnostic group in identifying scary music stimuli, possibly evidencing disrupted developmental trajectories in ASD for integrating physiological and cognitive cues that may underlie symptoms of anxiety. PMID:26520146

  9. The role of CREB signaling in Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Saura, Carlos A; Valero, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression changes in the brain affect cognition during normal and pathological aging. Progress in understanding the cellular processes regulating gene expression networks in cognition is relevant to develop therapeutic interventions for age-related cognitive disorders. Synaptic efficacy mediating memory storage requires the activation of specific gene expression programs regulated, among others, by the transcription factor cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB). CREB signaling is essential for long-lasting changes in synaptic plasticity that mediates the conversion of short-term memory to long-term memory. CREB signaling has been recently involved in several brain pathological conditions including cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders. The β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, alters hippocampal-dependent synaptic plasticity and memory and mediates synapse loss through the CREB signaling pathway. The fact that altered CREB signaling has been implicated in other cognitive disorders including Huntington's disease and Rubinstein-Taybi and Coffin-Lowry syndromes suggests a crucial role of CREB signaling in cognitive dysfunction. In this review paper, we summarize recent findings indicating a role of CREB and its coactivators CREB binding protein and CREB-regulated transcription coactivator in cognition during normal and pathological aging. We also discuss the development of novel therapeutic strategies based on CREB targeting to ameliorate cognitive decline in aging and cognitive disorders. PMID:21476939

  10. Oxytocin and Social Cognition in Affective and Psychotic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Rodriguez, M. Mercedes; Mahon, Katie; Russo, Manuela; Ungar, Allison K.; Burdick, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Impairments in social cognition are now recognized as core illness features in psychotic and affective disorders. Despite the significant disability caused by social cognitive abnormalities, treatments for this symptom dimension are lacking. Here, we describe the evidence demonstrating abnormalities in social cognition in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder, as well as the neurobiology of social cognition including the role of oxytocin. We then review clinical trials of oxytocin administration in psychotic and affective disorders and the impact of this agent on social cognition. To date, several studies have demonstrated that oxytocin may improve social cognition in schizophrenia; too few studies have been conducted in affective disorders to determine the effect of oxytocin on social cognition in these disorders. Future work is needed to clarify which aspects of social cognition may be improved with oxytocin treatment in psychotic and affective disorders. PMID:25153535

  11. Age-related changes in prefrontal norepinephrine transporter density: The basis for improved cognitive flexibility after low doses of atomoxetine in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Sarah E; Agster, Kara L; Waterhouse, Barry D; McGaughy, Jill A

    2016-06-15

    Adolescence is a period of major behavioral and brain reorganization. As diagnoses and treatment of disorders like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often occur during adolescence, it is important to understand how the prefrontal cortices change and how these changes may influence the response to drugs during development. The current study uses an adolescent rat model to study the effect of standard ADHD treatments, atomoxetine and methylphenidate on attentional set shifting and reversal learning. While both of these drugs act as norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, higher doses of atomoxetine and all doses of methylphenidate also block dopamine transporters (DAT). Low doses of atomoxetine, were effective at remediating cognitive rigidity found in adolescents. In contrast, methylphenidate improved performance in rats unable to form an attentional set due to distractibility but was without effect in normal subjects. We also assessed the effects of GBR 12909, a selective DAT inhibitor, but found no effect of any dose on behavior. A second study in adolescent rats investigated changes in norepinephrine transporter (NET) and dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) density in five functionally distinct sub-regions of the prefrontal cortex: infralimbic, prelimbic, anterior cingulate, medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices. These regions are implicated in impulsivity and distractibility. We found that NET, but not DBH, changed across adolescence in a regionally selective manner. The prelimbic cortex, which is critical to cognitive rigidity, and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, critical to reversal learning and some forms of response inhibition, showed higher levels of NET at early than mid- to late adolescence. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26774596

  12. The senescence-accelerated prone mouse (SAMP8): a model of age-related cognitive decline with relevance to alterations of the gene expression and protein abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, D Allan; Poon, H Fai

    2005-10-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) is an accelerated aging model that was established through phenotypic selection from a common genetic pool of AKR/J strain of mice. The SAM model was established in 1981, including nine major senescence-accelerated mouse prone (SAMP) substrains and three major senescence-accelerated mouse resistant (SAMR) substrains, each of which exhibits characteristic disorders. Recently, SAMP8 have drawn attention in gerontological research due to its characteristic learning and memory deficits at old age. Many recent reports provide insight into mechanisms of the cognitive impairment and pathological changes in SAMP8. Therefore, this mini review examines the recent findings of SAMP8 mice abnormalities at the gene and protein levels. The genes and proteins described in this review are functionally categorized into neuroprotection, signal transduction, protein folding/degradation, cytoskeleton/transport, immune response and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. All of these processes are involved in learning and memory. Although these studies provide insight into the mechanisms that contribute to the learning and memory decline in aged SAMP8 mice, higher throughput techniques of proteomics and genomics are necessary to study the alterations of gene expression and protein abnormalities in SAMP8 mice brain in order to more completely understand the central nervous system dysfunction in this mouse model. The SAMP8 is a good animal model to investigate the fundamental mechanisms of age-related learning and memory deficits at the gene and protein levels. PMID:16026957

  13. Autologous transplantation of genetically modified iris pigment epithelial cells: A promising concept for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration and other disorders of the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkova, Irina; Kreppel, Florian; Welsandt, Gerhard; Luther, Thomas; Kozlowski, Jolanta; Janicki, Hanna; Kochanek, Stefan; Schraermeyer, Ulrich

    2002-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause for visual impairment and blindness in the elder population. Laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy and excision of neovascular membranes have met with limited success. Submacular transplantation of autologous iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cells has been proposed to replace the damaged retinal pigment epithelium following surgical removal of the membranes. We tested our hypothesis that the subretinal transplantation of genetically modified autologous IPE cells expressing biological therapeutics might be a promising strategy for the treatment of ARMD and other retinal disorders. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has strong antiangiogenic and neuroprotective activities in the eye. Subretinal transplantation of PEDF expressing IPE cells inhibited pathological choroidal neovascularization in rat models of laser-induced rupture of Bruch's membrane and of oxygen induced ischemic retinopathy. PEDF expressing IPE transplants also increased the survival and preserved rhodopsin expression of photoreceptor cells in the RCS rat, a model of retinal degeneration. These findings suggest a promising concept for the treatment of ARMD and other retinal disorders.

  14. Social cognition in "pure" delusional disorder.

    PubMed

    Bömmer, Isabel; Brüne, Martin

    2006-09-01

    Introduction. Delusional disorders are characterised by monothematic, "encapsulated" and incorrigible false beliefs and misinterpretations of social signals. Due to the rarity of cases with "pure" delusional disorder (DD) in clinical settings most studies of social cognition in delusional patients have focused on patients with paranoid schizophrenia. In the present study we sought to examine emotion recognition, theory of mind abilities, and pragmatic language comprehension in patients with delusional disorder. Methods. Social cognition was assessed in 21 patients recruited over a 3-year period who were diagnosed with delusional disorder, paranoid, erotomanic, or jealous type. In addition to an emotion recognition and theory of mind test battery, we included a novel German Proverb Test, which has been found indicative of subtle theory of mind deficits in schizophrenic patients. Executive functioning was assessed using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Psychopathology was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS). Patients' task performance was compared to a group of 22 healthy control persons paralleled for verbal intelligence, education, and age. Results. Patients with DD made significantly more perseverative errors in the WCST, they performed more poorly on the theory of mind tasks and the proverb test, but were unimpaired in basic emotion recognition abilities relative to controls. When executive functioning was co-varied out, the group differences in theory of mind disappeared, whereas the greater propensity of patients with DD to interpret proverbs literally remained significant. Conclusions. In "pure" DD the basic social cognitive abilities appear to be preserved. Difficulties in metaphorical speech comprehension and executive functioning could, however, indicate more subtle social cognitive deficits in these patients. PMID:17354084

  15. Associations of Mortality With Ocular Disorders and an Intervention of High-Dose Antioxidants and Zinc in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of ocular disorders and high doses of antioxidants or zinc with mortality in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). Methods Baseline fundus and lens photographs were used to grade the macular and lens status of AREDS participants. Participants were randomly assigned to receive oral supplements of high-dose antioxidants, zinc, antioxidants plus zinc, or placebo. Risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality was assessed using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Results During median follow-up of 6.5 years, 534 (11%) of 4753 AREDS participants died. In fully adjusted models, participants with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) compared with participants with few, if any, drusen had increased mortality (relative risk [RR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08–1.86). Advanced AMD was associated with cardiovascular deaths. Compared with participants having good acuity in both eyes, those with visual acuity worse than 20/40 in 1 eye had increased mortality (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.12–1.65). Nuclear opacity (RR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.12–1.75) and cataract surgery (RR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.18–2.05) were associated with increased all-cause mortality and with cancer deaths. Participants randomly assigned to receive zinc had lower mortality than those not taking zinc (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61–0.89). Conclusions The decreased survival of AREDS participants with AMD and cataract suggests that these conditions may reflect systemic rather than only local processes. The improved survival in individuals randomly assigned to receive zinc requires further study. PMID:15136320

  16. Clinical advances in geriatric psychiatry: a focus on prevention of mood and cognitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, Harris; Baune, Bernhard; Lavretsky, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The world’s population is ageing in the 21st century at a rate unprecedented in human history, and this will place substantial pressure on health systems across the world along with concurrent rises in chronic diseases. In particular, rates of cognitive disorders and late-life affective disorders are expected to rise. In correlation with ageing, there are robust predictions suggesting rates of age-related cognitive decline and dementia, and geriatric depression, will rise with serious consequences. Clearly innovative prevention and treatment strategies are needed. Here we reviewed the latest promising clinical advances which hold promise for assisting the prevention and treatment of depression and cognitive decline and dementia. PMID:26300035

  17. Social cognition in borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Roepke, Stefan; Vater, Aline; Preißler, Sandra; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Dziobek, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Many typical symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) occur within interpersonal contexts, suggesting that BPD is characterized by aberrant social cognition. While research consistently shows that BPD patients have biases in mental state attribution (e.g., evaluate others as malevolent), the research focusing on accuracy in inferring mental states (i.e., cognitive empathy) is less consistent. For complex and ecologically valid tasks in particular, emerging evidence suggests that individuals with BPD have impairments in the attribution of emotions, thoughts, and intentions of others (e.g., Preißler et al., 2010). A history of childhood trauma and co-morbid PTSD seem to be strong additional predictors for cognitive empathy deficits. Together with reduced emotional empathy and aberrant sending of social signals (e.g., expression of mixed and hard-to-read emotions), the deficits in mental state attribution might contribute to behavioral problems in BPD. Given the importance of social cognition on the part of both the sender and the recipient in maintaining interpersonal relationships and therapeutic alliance, these impairments deserve more attention. PMID:23335877

  18. [Empathy, social cognition and autism spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, Victor L

    2013-02-22

    From their earliest reports, Kanner and Asperger included the hierarchy of difficulties in socialisation as one of the key axes in persons affected with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), associated to development delay or language disorders and restricted interests. This deficiency in social cognition has been related with a deficit in empathy. The theory of deficit in empathising and hypersystematisation provides a coherent, comprehensible explanation with which to partially understand the genesis of these disorders. Empathy is an essential component for emotional experiencing and social interaction, and denotes an affective response to mental states that are either perceived directly or imagined or are feelings inferred by another person. It enables us to understand, feel and respond appropriately to social stimuli, thereby giving rise to an adequate socialisation. Empathy has been considered a synonym of emotional contagion, mimicry, sympathy, compassion and empathic interest. Although these are concepts that are related and necessary for the development of adequate social cognition, they are not the same; nonetheless, they are all essential for the development of empathy or its consequences. Empathy allows individuals to 'feel with', whereas sympathy, compassion and empathic interest are related with 'feeling for' or feeling what is appropriate. Studies conducted in persons with ASD have shown them to have a low empathy quotient. In this work, different aspects of empathy, its components, its neurobiological foundations, the manifestations related with its deficit and its relation with the development of ASDs are all analysed. PMID:23446714

  19. [Cannabis-induced cognitive and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Alain; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Laqueille, Xavier

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have shown that Δ-9-THC the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, can impair cognitive functions, especially attention, episodic memory, working memory and executive functions. These impairments have been related to the duration, frequency, dose and age at onset of cannabis use. Cognitive deficits may disappear with abstinence, but abnormalities may be long-lasting in subjects who began smoking cannabis before age 15. The lifetime prevalence of cannabis use disorders is about 1% in the general population. The main characteristics of cannabis use disorders are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use, and persistent avoidance of familial, social occupational or recreational activities because of cannabis use. Nine prospective longitudinal studies in the generalpopulation have shown that cannabis use is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia, compared to controls. The risk of psychosis increases in a dose-related fashion. A higher risk of schizophrenia is predicted by earlier onset of cannabis use. The effects of cannabis are exerted primarily through THC interaction with cannabinoid (CB) 1 receptors in the brain. Cannabis exposure may disrupt the last steps of brain maturation, through the endocannabinoid system, thereby increasing the risk of psychosis during adolescence. PMID:26427297

  20. Disorder-specific cognitive profiles in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This investigation examines differences in cognitive profiles in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods Data were used from subjects with current MDD (n = 655), GAD (n = 107) and comorbid MDD/GAD (n = 266) diagnosis from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument was used to diagnose MDD and GAD. Cognitive profiles were measured using the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index, and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Results Results showed that differences in cognitive profiles between single MDD and single GAD subjects were present: scores on hopelessness/suicidality and rumination were significantly higher in MDD than GAD, whereas anxiety sensitivity for physical concerns and pathological worry were higher in GAD than MDD. The cognitive profile of comorbid MDD/GAD showed more extreme depression cognitions compared to single disorders, and a similar anxiety profile compared to single GAD subjects. Conclusions Despite the commonalities in cognitive profiles in MDD and GAD, there are differences suggesting that MDD and GAD have disorder-specific cognitive profiles. Findings of this investigation give support for models like the cognitive content-specificity model and the tripartite model and could provide useful handles for treatment focus. PMID:24690413

  1. Alzheimer's disease and age-related memory decline (preclinical).

    PubMed

    Terry, Alvin V; Callahan, Patrick M; Hall, Brandon; Webster, Scott J

    2011-08-01

    An unfortunate result of the rapid rise in geriatric populations worldwide is the increasing prevalence of age-related cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a devastating neurodegenerative illness that is characterized by a profound impairment of cognitive function, marked physical disability, and an enormous economic burden on the afflicted individual, caregivers, and society in general. The rise in elderly populations is also resulting in an increase in individuals with related (potentially treatable) conditions such as "Mild Cognitive Impairment" (MCI) which is characterized by a less severe (but abnormal) level of cognitive impairment and a high-risk for developing dementia. Even in the absence of a diagnosable disorder of cognition (e.g., AD and MCI), the perception of increased forgetfulness and declining mental function is a clear source of apprehension in the elderly. This is a valid concern given that even a modest impairment of cognitive function is likely to be associated with significant disability in a rapidly evolving, technology-based society. Unfortunately, the currently available therapies designed to improve cognition (i.e., for AD and other forms of dementia) are limited by modest efficacy and adverse side effects, and their effects on cognitive function are not sustained over time. Accordingly, it is incumbent on the scientific community to develop safer and more effective therapies that improve and/or sustain cognitive function in the elderly allowing them to remain mentally active and productive for as long as possible. As diagnostic criteria for memory disorders evolve, the demand for pro-cognitive therapeutic agents is likely to surpass AD and dementia to include MCI and potentially even less severe forms of memory decline. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the contemporary therapeutic targets and preclinical pharmacologic approaches (with representative drug examples) designed to enhance memory

  2. Age-Related Differences and Cognitive Correlates of Self-Reported and Direct Navigation Performance: The Effect of Real and Virtual Test Conditions Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Taillade, Mathieu; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Sauzéon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of aging on direct navigation measures and self-reported ones according to the real-virtual test manipulation. Navigation (wayfinding tasks) and spatial memory (paper-pencil tasks) performances, obtained either in real-world or in virtual-laboratory test conditions, were compared between young (n = 32) and older (n = 32) adults who had self-rated their everyday navigation behavior (SBSOD scale). Real age-related differences were observed in navigation tasks as well as in paper-pencil tasks, which investigated spatial learning relative to the distinction between survey-route knowledge. The manipulation of test conditions (real vs. virtual) did not change these age-related differences, which are mostly explained by age-related decline in both spatial abilities and executive functioning (measured with neuropsychological tests). In contrast, elderly adults did not differ from young adults in their self-reporting relative to everyday navigation, suggesting some underestimation of navigation difficulties by elderly adults. Also, spatial abilities in young participants had a mediating effect on the relations between actual and self-reported navigation performance, but not for older participants. So, it is assumed that the older adults carried out the navigation task with fewer available spatial abilities compared to young adults, resulting in inaccurate self-estimates. PMID:26834666

  3. The Cycle of Schizoaffective Disorder, Cognitive Ability, Alcoholism, and Suicidality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Gerald; Haas, Gretchen L.; Pakrashi, Manish; Novero, Ada M.; Luther, James F.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated the putative role of cognitive dysfunction, diagnosis (schizoaffective versus schizophrenia disorder), and alcoholism as risk factors for suicidal behavior among individuals with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. Subjects received cognitive tests and medical records were reviewed for evidence of a…

  4. Explicit versus Implicit Social Cognition Testing in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents…

  5. Cognitive Flexibility in Children with and without Speech Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosbie, Sharon; Holm, Alison; Dodd, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Most children's speech difficulties are "functional" (i.e. no known sensory, motor or intellectual deficits). Speech disorder may, however, be associated with cognitive deficits considered core abilities in executive function: rule abstraction and cognitive flexibility. The study compares the rule abstraction and cognitive flexibility of children…

  6. [Mild cognitive impairment: could it be a sleep disorder?].

    PubMed

    Bayard, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    The mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is described as an intermediate state of cognitive impairment whereby individuals present with mild clinical symptoms but with nearly normal daily living activities. These subjects do not meet the clinical criteria for dementia, yet their cognitive functioning is below what we would expect for age and education in healthy people. In the other hand, older adults are at risk for sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, REM sleep behavioral disorder and chronic insomnia, which could have an impact on cognitive functioning and are exclusion criteria for the MCI diagnosis. Moreover, REM sleep behavioral disorder represents a risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In subjects more 65 years of age the association between chronic insomnia and cognitive changes is still debated. The main aim of this paper is to focus on identification of sleep disorders in the context of cognitive disturbances among professionals working with the elderly. PMID:26395305

  7. [Cognitive disorders in patients with chronic mercury intoxication].

    PubMed

    Katamanova, E V; Shevchenko, O I; Lakhman, O L; Denisova, I A

    2014-01-01

    To assess severity of cognitive disorders in chronic mercury intoxication, the authors performed claster and discrimination analysis of neuropsychologic and neurophysiologic research data from workers exposed to mercury during long length of service, from patients with early and marked stages of chronic mercurial intoxication. Cognitive disorders in chronic mercurial intoxication have three severity degrees, in the light degree disorders patients demonstrate lower amplitude of cognitive evoked potentials, poor long-term memory and associative thinking. Moderate cognitive disorders are characterized by decreased visual, long-term memory, concentration of attention, poor optic and spatial gnosis. Marked cognitive disorders with chronic mercurial intoxication present with more decreased long-term, short-term, picturesque memory, poor intellect, optic and spatial gnosis and associative thinking. PMID:25051667

  8. Explicit versus implicit social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 carefully matched typically developing controls completed the Dewey Story Test. 'Explicit' (multiple-choice answering format) and 'implicit' (free interview) measures of social cognition were obtained. Autism spectrum disorder participants did not differ from controls regarding explicit social cognition performance. However, the autism spectrum disorder group performed more poorly than controls on implicit social cognition performance in terms of spontaneous perspective taking and social awareness. Findings suggest that social cognition alterations in autism spectrum disorder are primarily implicit in nature and that an apparent absence of social cognition difficulties on certain tests using rather explicit testing formats does not necessarily mean social cognition typicality in autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24104519

  9. Explicit versus implicit social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 carefully matched typically developing controls completed the Dewey Story Test. ‘Explicit’ (multiple-choice answering format) and ‘implicit’ (free interview) measures of social cognition were obtained. Autism spectrum disorder participants did not differ from controls regarding explicit social cognition performance. However, the autism spectrum disorder group performed more poorly than controls on implicit social cognition performance in terms of spontaneous perspective taking and social awareness. Findings suggest that social cognition alterations in autism spectrum disorder are primarily implicit in nature and that an apparent absence of social cognition difficulties on certain tests using rather explicit testing formats does not necessarily mean social cognition typicality in autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24104519

  10. Flavonoid Chrysin prevents age-related cognitive decline via attenuation of oxidative stress and modulation of BDNF levels in aged mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Souza, Leandro Cattelan; Antunes, Michelle Silva; Filho, Carlos Borges; Del Fabbro, Lucian; de Gomes, Marcelo Gomes; Goes, André Tiago Rossito; Donato, Franciele; Prigol, Marina; Boeira, Silvana Peterini; Jesse, Cristiano R

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effect of Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), an important member of the flavonoid family, on memory impairment, oxidative stress and BDNF reduction generated by aging in mice were investigated. Young and aged mice were treated daily per 60days with Chrysin (1 and 10mg/kg; per oral, p.o.) or veichle (10ml/kg; p.o.). Mice were trained and tested in Morris Water Maze task. After the behavioural test, the levels of reactive species (RS), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), as well as the activity of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HC) of mice. Results demonstrated that the age-related memory decline was partially protected by Chrysin at a dose of 1mg/kg, and normalized at the dose of 10mg/kg (p<0.001). Treatment with Chrysin significantly attenuated the increase of RS levels and the inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activities of aged mice. Inhibition of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in PFC and HP of aged mice was also attenuated by Chrysin treatment. Moreover, Chrysin marked mitigated the decrease of BDNF levels in the PFC and HC of aged mice. These results demonstrated that flavonoid Chrysin, an antioxidant compound, was able to prevent age-associated memory probably by their free radical scavenger action and modulation of BDNF production. Thus, this study indicates that Chrysin may represent a new pharmacological approach to alleviate the age-related declines during normal age, acting as an anti-aging agent. PMID:25931267

  11. Nut consumption and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Grosso, G; Estruch, R

    2016-02-01

    Current knowledge on the effects of nut consumption on human health has rapidly increased in recent years and it now appears that nuts may play a role in the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. Frequent nut consumption has been associated with better metabolic status, decreased body weight as well as lower body weight gain over time and thus reduce the risk of obesity. The effect of nuts on glucose metabolism, blood lipids, and blood pressure is still controversial. However, significant decreased cardiovascular risk has been reported in a number of observational and clinical intervention studies. Thus, findings from cohort studies show that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality (especially that due to cardiovascular-related causes). Similarly, nut consumption has been also associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, endometrial, and pancreatic neoplasms. Evidence regarding nut consumption and neurological or psychiatric disorders is scarce, but a number of studies suggest significant protective effects against depression, mild cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, particularly related to their mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as vitamin and polyphenol content). MUFA have been demonstrated to improve pancreatic beta-cell function and regulation of postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PUFA may act on the central nervous system protecting neuronal and cell-signaling function and maintenance. The fiber and mineral content of nuts may also confer health benefits. Nuts therefore show promise as useful adjuvants to prevent, delay or ameliorate a number of chronic conditions in older people. Their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments

  12. Diagnostic criteria for vascular cognitive disorders: a VASCOG statement

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Perminder; Kalaria, Raj; O’Brien, John; Skoog, Ingmar; Alladi, Suvarna; Black, Sandra E; Blacker, Deborah; Blazer, Dan; Chen, Christopher; Chui, Helena; Ganguli, Mary; Jellinger, Kurt; Jeste, Dilip V.; Pasquier, Florence; Paulsen, Jane; Prins, Niels; Rockwood, Kenneth; Roman, Gustavo; Scheltens, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Background Several sets of diagnostic criteria have been published for vascular dementia (VaD) since the 1960s. The continuing ambiguity in VaD definition warrants a critical re-examination. Methods Participants at a special symposium of the International Society for Vascular Behavioral and Cognitive Disorders (VASCOG) in 2009 critiqued the current criteria. They drafted a proposal for a new set of criteria, later reviewed through multiple drafts by the group, including additional experts and the members of the Neurocognitive Disorders Work Group of the DSM-5 Task Force. Results Cognitive disorders of vascular etiology are a heterogeneous group of disorders with diverse pathologies and clinical manifestations, discussed broadly under the rubric of vascular cognitive disorders (VCD). The continuum of vascular cognitive impairment is recognized by the categories of Mild Vascular Cognitive Disorder, and Vascular Dementia or Major Vascular Cognitive Disorder. Diagnostic thresholds are defined. Clinical and neuroimaging criteria are proposed for establishing vascular etiology. Subtypes of VCD are described, and the frequent co-occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease pathology emphasized. Conclusions The proposed criteria for VCD provide a coherent approach to the diagnosis of this diverse group of disorders, with a view to stimulating clinical and pathological validation studies. These criteria can be harmonized with the DSM-5 criteria such that an international consensus on the criteria for VCD may be achieved. PMID:24632990

  13. Cognitive behavior therapy of binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Varsha

    2006-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of uncontrollable eating, even when not hungry, until uncomfortably full, occurring at least twice a week for a 6-month period. This is differentiated from bulimia nervosa (BN) by the lack of compensatory mechanisms such as purging/laxative abuse. There are significantly higher levels of psychiatric symptoms in patients with BED as compared to those without BED. Furthermore, depressive symptomatology may increase the patient's vulnerability to binge eating as well as to relapse after treatment. Grazing is defined as eating small amounts of food continuously. BED in the pre-bariatric patient can manifest as 'grazing' about 2 years post-bariatric surgery. Treatment should be directed at eating behavior, associated psychopathology, weight and psychiatric symptoms. Cognitive behavior therapy is based on changing the patient's erroneous ways of thinking about themselves, the world and how others perceive them. This includes a focus on normalizing food intake as well as challenging dysfunctional thinking, identifying feelings, and developing non-food coping skills. It increases a sense of control and therefore helps the patient adhere to behavior change strategy, as well as improving mood and reducing associated psychopathology. Interpersonal therapy is based on the relationship between negative mood low self-esteem traumatic life events, interpersonal functioning and the patient's eating behavior. The rationale being that eating represents maladaptive coping with underlying difficulties. While psychotherapy either CBT or IPT leads to decrease in disordered eating behaviors and improved psychiatric symptoms, it has little effect on weight hence; its benefit is optimal when used in conjunction with bariatric surgery. PMID:16418545

  14. Cholesterol synthesis is the trigger and isoprenoid dependent interleukin-6 mediated inflammation is the common causative factor and therapeutic target for atherosclerotic vascular disease and age-related disorders including osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Omoigui, Sota

    2005-01-01

    This is a unifying theory that cholesterol metabolites (isoprenoids) are an integral component of the signaling pathway for interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated inflammation. IL-6 inflammation is the common causative origin for atherosclerosis, peripheral vascular disease, coronary artery disease, and age-related disorders including osteoporosis, dementia, Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes. Therapeutic effects of bisphosphonates and statins are mediated by isoprenoid depletion. Statins and bisphosphonates act in the cholesterol pathway to deplete isoprenoids. Anti-inflammatory properties of statins and bisphosphonates are due to isoprenoid depletion with subsequent inhibition of IL-6 mediated inflammation. Therapeutic targets for the prevention and control of all the above diseases should focus on cholesterol metabolites and IL-6 mediated inflammation. Prevention of atherosclerotic vascular disease and age-related disorders will be by utilization of cholesterol lowering agents or techniques and/or treatment with statins and/or bisphosphonates to inhibit IL-6 inflammation through regulation of cholesterol metabolism. PMID:15935563

  15. Functional (Psychogenic) Cognitive Disorders: A Perspective from the Neurology Clinic.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jon; Pal, Suvankar; Blackburn, Daniel; Reuber, Markus; Thekkumpurath, Parvez; Carson, Alan

    2015-09-24

    Cognitive symptoms such as poor memory and concentration represent a common cause of morbidity among patients presenting to general practitioners and may result in referral for a neurological opinion. In many cases, these symptoms do not relate to an underlying neurological disease or dementia. In this article we present a personal perspective on the differential diagnosis of cognitive symptoms in the neurology clinic, especially as this applies to patients who seek advice about memory problems but have no neurological disease process. These overlapping categories include the following 'functional' categories: 1) cognitive symptoms as part of anxiety or depression; 2) "normal" cognitive symptoms that become the focus of attention; 3) isolated functional cognitive disorder in which symptoms are outwith 'normal' but not explained by anxiety; 4) health anxiety about dementia; 5) cognitive symptoms as part of another functional disorder; and 6) retrograde dissociative (psychogenic) amnesia. Other 'non-dementia' diagnoses to consider in addition are 1) cognitive symptoms secondary to prescribed medication or substance misuse; 2) diseases other than dementia causing cognitive disorders; 3) patients who appear to have functional cognitive symptoms but then go on to develop dementia/another neurological disease; and finally 4) exaggeration/malingering. We discuss previous attempts to classify the problem of functional cognitive symptoms, the importance of making a positive diagnosis for the patient, and the need for large cohort studies to better define and manage this large group of patients. PMID:26445274

  16. A Method for Investigating Age-related Differences in the Functional Connectivity of Cognitive Control Networks Associated with Dimensional Change Card Sort Performance

    PubMed Central

    DeBenedictis, Bianca; Morton, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The ability to adjust behavior to sudden changes in the environment develops gradually in childhood and adolescence. For example, in the Dimensional Change Card Sort task, participants switch from sorting cards one way, such as shape, to sorting them a different way, such as color. Adjusting behavior in this way exacts a small performance cost, or switch cost, such that responses are typically slower and more error-prone on switch trials in which the sorting rule changes as compared to repeat trials in which the sorting rule remains the same. The ability to flexibly adjust behavior is often said to develop gradually, in part because behavioral costs such as switch costs typically decrease with increasing age. Why aspects of higher-order cognition, such as behavioral flexibility, develop so gradually remains an open question. One hypothesis is that these changes occur in association with functional changes in broad-scale cognitive control networks. On this view, complex mental operations, such as switching, involve rapid interactions between several distributed brain regions, including those that update and maintain task rules, re-orient attention, and select behaviors. With development, functional connections between these regions strengthen, leading to faster and more efficient switching operations. The current video describes a method of testing this hypothesis through the collection and multivariate analysis of fMRI data from participants of different ages. PMID:24837515

  17. Cognitive Discernible Factors between Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stip, Emmanuel; Sepehry, Amir Ali; Prouteau, Antoniette; Briand, Catherine; Nicole, Luc; Lalonde, Pierre; Lesage, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia (SZ) and schizoaffective disorders (SA) are associated with cognitive deficits. Generally, a schizoaffective diagnosis is associated with better prognosis on the level of social integration. It is also well established that cognition is an important factor for good social outcome in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that,…

  18. A Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Approach for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Buhlmann, Ulrike; Hayward, Laura C.; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Dimaite, Ruta

    2010-01-01

    Although body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) has been described in the literature for more than a century, there has been only a limited focus on the development of cognitive behavioral treatments for BDD. Our case report provides a detailed description of a course of cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for an individual with BDD. The patient was…

  19. Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Child Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Piacentini, John C.; Southam-Gerow, Michael; Chu, Brian C.; Sigman, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study compared family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT: the Building Confidence Program) with traditional child-focused CBT with minimal family involvement for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Forty clinically anxious youth (6-13 years old) were randomly assigned to a family- or child-focused cognitive-behavioral…

  20. Cognitive Appraisals in Young People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libby, Sarah; Reynolds, Shirley; Derisley, Jo; Clark, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Background: A number of cognitive appraisals have been identified as important in the manifestation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in adults. There have, however, been few attempts to explore these cognitive appraisals in clinical groups of young people. Method: This study compared young people aged between 11 and 18 years with OCD (N =…

  1. Cognitive Styles in Mood Disorders: Discriminative Ability of Unipolar and Bipolar Cognitive Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Goldstein, Kim E.; Black, Chelsea L.; Molz, Ashleigh R.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Black, Shimrit K.; Boccia, Angelo S.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has identified cognitive styles that distinguish individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD), and individuals without mood disorders from one another, findings have been inconsistent. The current study included 381 participants classified into a BD group, a MDD group, and a no mood disorder group. To differentiate between these groups, this study evaluated cognitive styles with a battery of traditional and more recently-developed measures. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses were used to determine the discriminate ability of variables with significant between group differences. Results supported that BD and MDD may be characterized by distinct cognitive styles. Given work showing that interventions for MDD may not be effective at treating BD, it is important to directly compare individuals with these disorders. By clarifying the overlapping and divergent cognitive styles characterizing BD and MDD, research can not only improve diagnostic validity, but also provide more efficacious and effective interventions. PMID:25893033

  2. Correlations among central serotonergic parameters and age-related emotional and cognitive changes assessed through the elevated T-maze and the Morris water maze

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Luciana; Graeff, Frederico G.; Pereira, Silvia R. C.; Oliveira-Silva, Ieda F.; Franco, Glaura C.

    2010-01-01

    Emotion and spatial cognitive aspects were assessed in adult and middle-aged rats using the elevated T-maze (ETM) and the Morris water maze (MWM) tasks. Both adult and middle-aged rats were able to acquire inhibitory avoidance behaviour, though the middle-aged subjects showed larger latencies along the trials, including the baseline, which was significantly longer than that showed by adult rats. Further, compared to adult rats, middle-aged rats had longer escape latency. In spite of the worse performance in the second session of the spatial cognitive task, the middle-aged rats were able to learn the task and remember the information along the whole probe trial test. Both thalamic serotonin (5-HT) concentration and amygdala serotonergic activity (5-HIAA/5-HT) are significantly correlated, respectively, to escape latency and behavioural extinction in the MWM only for middle-aged rats. A significant correlation between the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in the amygdala and behavioural extinction for middle-aged, but not for adult, rats was observed. This result suggests that serotonergic activity in the amygdala may regulate behavioural flexibility in aged animals. In addition, a significant negative correlation was found between hippocampal 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio and the path length at the second training session of the MWM task, although only for adult subjects. This was the only session where a significant difference between the performance of middle-aged and adult rats has occurred. Although the involvement of the hippocampus in learning and memory is well established, the present work shows, for the first time, a correlation between a serotonergic hippocampal parameter and performance of a spatial task, which is lost with ageing. PMID:20431986

  3. Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Age-related Macular Degeneration What is AMD? Click for more information Age-related macular degeneration, ... the macula allows you to see fine detail. AMD Blurs Central Vision AMD blurs the sharp central ...

  4. Cognitive process-based subtypes of developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    PubMed

    Asonitou, Katerina; Koutsouki, Dimitra

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the cognitive subtypes demonstrated by children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) using the Planning-Attention-Simultaneous-Successive Processing (PASS) theory and the Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS). Participants were 108 children aged 5- and 6-years old, 54 with DCD and 54 without DCD, all attending typical kindergartens. They were examined on 31 cognitive-motor variables. Hierarchical-agglomerative and iterative partitioning cluster analyses including 9 motor and 7 cognitive variables revealed the following six subtypes: It is well known that DCD is a heterogeneous condition. However, whenever cognitive processes were lower than average, cognitive-motor relationship was evident in subgroups C1, C4, C5 and C6. Early identification of task-specific cognitive-motor difficulties may be essential for early educational intervention practices in order to anticipate and improve learning, academic and performing difficulties. PMID:26991728

  5. Age-Related White Matter Changes

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yun Yun; Mok, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Age-related white matter changes (WMC) are considered manifestation of arteriolosclerotic small vessel disease and are related to age and vascular risk factors. Most recent studies have shown that WMC are associated with a host of poor outcomes, including cognitive impairment, dementia, urinary incontinence, gait disturbances, depression, and increased risk of stroke and death. Although the clinical relevance of WMC has been extensively studied, to date, only very few clinical trials have evaluated potential symptomatic or preventive treatments for WMC. In this paper, we reviewed the current understanding in the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical importance, chemical biomarkers, and treatments of age-related WMC. PMID:21876810

  6. Prospective study of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension– and Mediterranean-style dietary patterns and age-related cognitive change: the Cache County Study on Memory, Health and Aging123

    PubMed Central

    Munger, Ronald G; Cutler, Adele; Quach, Anna; Bowles, Austin; Corcoran, Christopher; Tschanz, JoAnn T; Norton, Maria C; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Healthy dietary patterns may protect against age-related cognitive decline, but results of studies have been inconsistent. Objective: We examined associations between Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)– and Mediterranean-style dietary patterns and age-related cognitive change in a prospective, population-based study. Design: Participants included 3831 men and women ≥65 y of age who were residents of Cache County, UT, in 1995. Cognitive function was assessed by using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) ≤4 times over 11 y. Diet-adherence scores were computed by summing across the energy-adjusted rank-order of individual food and nutrient components and categorizing participants into quintiles of the distribution of the diet accordance score. Mixed-effects repeated-measures models were used to examine 3MS scores over time across increasing quintiles of dietary accordance scores and individual food components that comprised each score. Results: The range of rank-order DASH and Mediterranean diet scores was 1661–25,596 and 2407–26,947, respectively. Higher DASH and Mediterranean diet scores were associated with higher average 3MS scores. People in quintile 5 of DASH averaged 0.97 points higher than those in quintile 1 (P = 0.001). The corresponding difference for Mediterranean quintiles was 0.94 (P = 0.001). These differences were consistent over 11 y. Higher intakes of whole grains and nuts and legumes were also associated with higher average 3MS scores [mean quintile 5 compared with 1 differences: 1.19 (P < 0.001), 1.22 (P < 0.001), respectively]. Conclusions: Higher levels of accordance with both the DASH and Mediterranean dietary patterns were associated with consistently higher levels of cognitive function in elderly men and women over an 11-y period. Whole grains and nuts and legumes were positively associated with higher cognitive functions and may be core neuroprotective foods common to various healthy plant

  7. Optimizing Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piacentini, John

    2008-01-01

    Reports that expand the understanding of the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder by using exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy in the age group of 5 to 8-year-olds are presented. A model for collecting the common core elements of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for childhood disorders is also presented.

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Body Image Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, James C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Randomly assigned 54 body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) subjects to cognitive behavior therapy or no treatment. BDD symptoms were significantly decreased in therapy subjects and the disorder was eliminated in 82 percent of cases at posttreatment and 77 percent at follow-up. Subjects' overall psychological symptoms and self-esteem also improved. (RJM)

  9. The molecular basis of cognitive deficits in pervasive developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Aditi; Klann, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Persons with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) exhibit a range of cognitive deficits that hamper their quality of life, including difficulties involving communication, sociability, and perspective-taking. In recent years, a variety of studies in mice that model genetic syndromes with a high risk of PDD have provided insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with these disorders. What is less appreciated is how the molecular anomalies affect neuronal and circuit function to give rise to the cognitive deficits associated with PDD. In this review, we describe genetic mutations that cause PDD and discuss how they alter fundamental social and cognitive processes. We then describe efforts to correct cognitive impairments associated with these disorders and identify areas of further inquiry in the search for molecular targets for therapeutics for PDD. PMID:22904374

  10. Effectiveness of cognitive analytic therapy for personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Roger; Chanen, Andrew M

    2013-02-01

    Personality disorders affect up to 50% of psychiatric out-patients. Most treatment studies have been performed in patients with borderline personality disorder. Structured psychosocial interventions for people with borderline personality disorders appear to have similar efficacy. There is some evidence that non-structured, non-specialised treatments offered by psychiatric general services might be ineffective and possibly harmful in patients with personality disorders. Cognitive analytic therapy is a time-limited, integrative psychotherapy, which appears to be effective for a range of personality disorders and superior to treatment as usual. Its practical nature and relatively short time limit may make it suitable for front-line clinical services. PMID:23377206

  11. Extreme Cognitions in Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Associations with Personality Disorder Characteristics and Risk for Episode Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Adams, Ashleigh Molz; O'Garro-Moore, Jared K.; Weiss, Rachel B.; Ong, Mian-Li; Walshaw, Patricia D.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) are often characterized by cognitive inflexibility and affective extremities, including “extreme” or polarized thoughts and beliefs, which have been shown to predict a more severe course of illness. However, little research has evaluated factors that may be associated with extreme cognitions, such as personality disorders, which are often characterized by extreme, inflexible beliefs and also are associated with poor illness course in BSDs. The present study evaluated associations between BSDs, personality disorder characteristics, and extreme cognitions (polarized responses made on measures of attributional style and dysfunctional attitudes), as well as links between extreme cognitions and the occurrence of mood episodes, among euthymic young adults with BSDs (n = 83) and demographically-matched healthy controls (n = 89) followed prospectively for three years. The relationship between personality disorder characteristics and negative and positive extreme cognitions was stronger among BSD participants than among healthy controls, even after statistically accounting for general cognitive styles. Furthermore, extreme negative cognitions predicted the prospective onset of major depressive and hypomanic episodes. These results suggest that extreme cognitive styles are most common in individuals with BSDs and personality disorder characteristics, and they provide further evidence that extreme negative cognitions may confer risk for mood dysregulation. PMID:25645172

  12. Cognition about Cognition: Metacognitive Therapy and Change in Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Metacognitive theory and therapy views the persistence of negative beliefs and thoughts as a result of metacognitions controlling cognition. This paper describes, with reference to the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social phobia, how metacognition contributes to cognitive stability and to change. Metacognitive therapy offers…

  13. Preliminary Evidence for Cognitive Mediation during Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy of Panic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Rosenfield, David; Suvak, Michael K.; Barlow, David H.; Gorman, Jack M.; Shear, M. Katherine; Woods, Scott W.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy are similarly effective for treating panic disorder with mild or no agoraphobia, but little is known about the mechanism through which these treatments work. The present study examined some of the criteria for cognitive mediation of treatment change in CBT alone, imipramine alone, CBT plus…

  14. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrecque, Joane; Marchand, Andre; Dugas, Michel J.; Letarte, Andree

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by combining treatment strategies for both disorders. A single-case, multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Three participants with primary PDA and secondary…

  15. Conduct disorder and cognitive functioning: testing three causal hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, I S; Shaffer, D; O'Connor, P; Portnoy, S

    1988-08-01

    The sample consisted of black adolescents who were members of the Columbia-Presbyterian chapter of the Collaborative Perinatal Project from birth to age 7. At age 17, subjects and their parents were administered a battery of instruments that included standardized psychiatric diagnostic interviews as part of a call-back study. Results from least-squares and logistic regression analyses were compatible with the hypothesis that deficiencies in cognitive functioning are causally related to adolescent conduct disorder as defined by DSM III. The results suggested that the relation of cognitive functioning to psychiatric status appears to be specific to conduct disorders. The results were incompatible with a "third" variable hypothesis (third factors included neurological status and environmental disadvantage) and the hypothesis that conduct problems lead to deficits in cognitive functioning. The 3 most (and equally) important factors in accounting for age-17 conduct disorder were cognitive functioning, parent psychopathology, and early aggression. A closer look at the data tentatively suggested that a broad deficiency in acculturational learning, rather than narrowly focused social cognitive differences or native endowment, constitutes a key element in the link between cognitive functioning and conduct disorder. Test bias was ruled out as a possible explanation for the results. PMID:3168633

  16. Clinical assessment of social cognitive function in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Henry, Julie D; von Hippel, William; Molenberghs, Pascal; Lee, Teresa; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-01-01

    Social cognition broadly refers to the processing of social information in the brain that underlies abilities such as the detection of others' emotions and responding appropriately to these emotions. Social cognitive skills are critical for successful communication and, consequently, mental health and wellbeing. Disturbances of social cognition are early and salient features of many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, and often occur after acute brain injury. Its assessment in the clinic is, therefore, of paramount importance. Indeed, the most recent edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduced social cognition as one of six core components of neurocognitive function, alongside memory and executive control. Failures of social cognition most often present as poor theory of mind, reduced affective empathy, impaired social perception or abnormal social behaviour. Standard neuropsychological assessments lack the precision and sensitivity needed to adequately inform treatment of these failures. In this Review, we present appropriate methods of assessment for each of the four domains, using an example disorder to illustrate the value of these approaches. We discuss the clinical applications of testing for social cognitive function, and finally suggest a five-step algorithm for the evaluation and treatment of impairments, providing quantitative evidence to guide the selection of social cognitive measures in clinical practice. PMID:26670297

  17. Inflammatory mediators of cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Isabelle E.; Pascoe, Michaela C.; Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Kapczinski, Flavio; Soares, Jair C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recent studies have pointed to neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and neurotrophic factors as key mediators in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Little is however known about the cascade of biological episodes underlying the cognitive deficits observed during the acute and euthymic phases of bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this review is to assess the potential association between cognitive impairment and biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and neurotrophic activity in BD. Methods Scopus (all databases), Pubmed and Ovid Medline were systematically searched with no language or year restrictions, up to November 2013, for human studies that collected both inflammatory markers and cognitive data in BD. Selected search terms were bipolar disorder, depression, mania, psychosis, inflammatory, cognitive and neurotrophic. Results Ten human studies satisfied the criteria for consideration. The findings showed that high levels of peripheral inflammatory-cytokine, oxidative stress and reduced brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were associated with poor cognitive performance. The BDNF val66met polymorphism is a potential vulnerability factor for cognitive impairment in BD. Conclusions Current data provide preliminary evidence of a link between the cognitive decline observed in BD and mechanisms of neuroinflammation and neuroprotection. The identification of BD specific inflammatory markers and polymorphisms in inflammatory response genes may be of assistance for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24862657

  18. The role of insulin in the vascular contributions to age-related dementia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Timothy M; Craft, Suzanne

    2016-05-01

    In addition to its well-known role in energy metabolism in the body, insulin is a vasoactive hormone that regulates peripheral and cerebral blood flow and neuronal function. Vascular and metabolic dysfunctions are emerging risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related dementias, and recent evidence suggests that the two pathways are constitutive and interrelated. As a result, an emphasis on correcting metabolic disorders is emerging as an important strategy in the treatment and prevention of age-related cognitive impairment and AD. We review the evidence regarding the unique and interactive effects of vascular and metabolic disorders in pathological brain aging, with special consideration of the role of insulin dysregulation in promoting AD pathologic processes and vascular brain injury. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26657615

  19. RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients' functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient's goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters' mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders. PMID

  20. RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients’ functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient’s goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters’ mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders

  1. Decision making in bipolar disorder: a cognitive modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Yechiam, Eldad; Hayden, Elizabeth P; Bodkins, Misty; O'Donnell, Brian F; Hetrick, William P

    2008-11-30

    A formal modeling approach was used to characterize decision-making processes in bipolar disorder. Decision making was examined in 28 bipolar patients (14 acute and 14 remitted) and 25 controls using the Iowa Gambling Task (Bechara et al., 1994), a decision-making task used for assessing cognitive impulsivity. To disentangle motivational and cognitive aspects of decision-making processes, we applied a formal cognitive model to the performance on the Iowa Gambling Task. The model has three parameters: The relative impact of rewards and punishments on evaluations, the impact of recent and past payoffs, and the degree of choice consistency. The results indicated that acute bipolar patients were characterized by low choice consistency, or a tendency to make erratic choices. Low choice consistency improved the prediction of acute bipolar disorder beyond that provided by cognitive functioning and self-report measures of personality and temperament. PMID:18848361

  2. Lifelong Reading Disorder and Mild Cognitive Impairment: Implications for Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lebowitz, Brian K.; Weinstein, Cheryl; Beiser, Alexa; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Auerbach, Sandford; Au, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    Although neuropsychological tests are commonly used in the evaluation of possible mild cognitive impairment (MCI), poor test scores may be indicative of factors other than neurological compromise. The current study assessed the role of lifelong reading disorder on MCI classification. Community dwelling older adults with a suspected developmental reading disorder were identified by inference based on reading test performance. Individuals with a suspected reading disorder were significantly more likely to perform at a level consistent with MCI on several commonly used neuropsychological tests. The findings suggest a relationship between a history of reading disorder and MCI classification. PMID:26639959

  3. Cognitive Hypnotherapy as a Transdiagnostic Protocol for Emotional Disorders.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen; Amundson, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article describes cognitive hypnotherapy (CH), an integrative treatment that provides an evidence-based framework for synthesizing clinical practice and research. CH combines hypnotherapy with cognitive-behavior therapy in the management of emotional disorders. This blended version of clinical practice meets criteria for an assimilative model of integrative psychotherapy, which incorporates both theory and empirical findings. Issues related to (a) additive effect of hypnosis in treatment, (b) transdiagnostic consideration, and PMID:26894420

  4. Macular degeneration - age-related

    MedlinePlus

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD); AMD ... distorted and wavy. There may be a small dark spot in the center of your vision that ... leafy vegetables, may also decrease your risk of age-related macular degeneration. If you have wet AMD, ...

  5. CAN NONINVASIVE BRAIN STIMULATION ENHANCE COGNITION IN NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS?

    PubMed Central

    Demirtas-Tatlidede, Asli; Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Andrew M.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a core symptom of many neuropsychiatric diseases and a key contributor to the patient’s quality of life. However, an effective therapeutic strategy has yet to be developed. Noninvasive brain stimulation techniques, namely transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), are promising techniques that are under investigation for a variety of otherwise treatment-resistant neuropsychiatric diseases. Notably, these tools can induce alterations in neural networks subserving cognitive operations and thus may provide a means for cognitive restoration. The purpose of this article is to review the available evidence concerning cognitive enhancing properties of noninvasive brain stimulation in neuropsychiatry. We specifically focus on major depression, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), where cognitive dysfunction is a major symptom and some studies have been completed with promising results. We provide a critical assessment of the available research and suggestions to guide future efforts. PMID:22749945

  6. Self-Instructional Cognitive Training to Reduce Impulsive Cognitive Style in Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Flores, Gladys Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Children with attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an impulsive, rigid and field-dependent cognitive style. This study examines whether self-instructional cognitive training reduces impulsive cognitive style in children diagnosed with this disorder. Method: The subjects were 10 children between the ages of 6 and…

  7. [Neuroprogression and cognition in Bipolar Disorders: A systematic review of cognitive performance in euthymic patients].

    PubMed

    Lolich, María; Holtzman, Jessica N; Rago, Carlo M; Vázquez, Gustavo H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, investigators have begun to consider the possibility of explaining the physiopathology of bipolar disorder from a neuroprogressive perspective. The evidence that supports the feasibility of such an approach is varied, and arises from neuroimaging studies, batteries of neurocognitive evaluations, and tests to identify the specific biomarkers of the disorder. The present article seeks to perform a review of the research that investigates the cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder. A bibliographic revision was performed of articles published between 1990 and 2015. Levels of cognitive performance were explored in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. The compiled studies signal the presence of altered cognitive function, even during periods of euthymia. However, there are contradictory results as to whether bipolar disorder presents a degenerative course. New lines of investigation suggest that only a percentage of individuals with bipolar disorder are affected in a progressive manner. It is of paramount importance to perform new longitudinal studies in high-risk populations, so as to validate or refute a neuroprogressive model of cognitive deficits in patients with bipolar disorder. PMID:26672503

  8. Brief Report: Cognitive Control Helps Explain Comorbidity Between Alcohol Use Disorder and Internalizing Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Jarrod M; Richmond-Rakerd, Leah S; Slutske, Wendy S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol use and internalizing problems frequently co-occur. Cognitive control has been implicated in their etiology, but no studies have tested whether this construct helps explain the co-occurrence of these disorders. Method: A total of 1,313 undergraduate students completed assessments of cognitive control, negative emotionality, and symptoms of alcohol use disorder (AUD), depression, and generalized anxiety disorder. Structural equation models examined the extent to which overlap between AUD and internalizing problems was explained by variance specific to cognitive control and negative emotionality, as well as variance shared by both constructs. Results: Symptoms of AUD and internalizing disorders were modestly correlated (depression: r = .16; anxiety: r = .14). Variance specific to cognitive control explained a significant proportion of the correlation between AUD and both depression and generalized anxiety (depression: 19%; generalized anxiety: 18%), as did variance common to cognitive control and negative emotionality (depression: 24%; generalized anxiety: 31%). Consistent with previous work, variance specific to negative emotionality also explained a large and statistically significant proportion of the correlation between AUD and internalizing disorder symptoms. Of note, the residualized correlation for AUD symptom endorsement with both depression and generalized anxiety problems was not statistically significant after accounting for both cognitive control and negative emotionality. Conclusions: This study provides new evidence that cognitive control may help explain the overlap between AUD and internalizing disorders while further supporting the contribution of negative emotionality to this overlap. Results have implications for intervention efforts aimed at reducing comorbid alcohol use disorder and internalizing disorders, as well as general psychopathology. PMID:25486397

  9. Cognitive impairments in psychotic disorders: common mechanisms and measurement

    PubMed Central

    Barch, Deanna M; Sheffield, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    Decades of research have provided robust evidence of cognitive impairments in psychotic disorders. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired on the majority of neuropsychological tasks, leading some researchers to argue for a “generalized deficit”, in which the multitude of cognitive impairments are the result of a common neurobiological source. One such common mechanism may be an inability to actively represent goal information in working memory as a means to guide behavior, with the associated neurobiological impairment being a disturbance in the function of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Here, we provide a discussion of the evidence for such impairment in schizophrenia, and how it manifests in domains typically referred to as cognitive control, working memory and episodic memory. We also briefly discuss cognitive impairment in affective psychoses, reporting that the degree of impairment is worse in schizophrenia than in bipolar disorder and psychotic major depression, but the profile of impairment is similar, possibly reflecting common mechanisms at the neural level. Given the recent release of the DSM-5, we end with a brief discussion on assessing cognition in the context of diagnosis and treatment planning in psychotic disorders. PMID:25273286

  10. Genes, Cognition, and Communication: Insights from Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, DVM

    2009-01-01

    Twin and family studies have demonstrated that most cognitive traits are moderately to highly heritable. Neurodevelopmental disorders such as dyslexia, autism, and specific language impairment (SLI) also show strong genetic influence. Nevertheless, it has proved difficult for researchers to identify genes that would explain substantial amounts of variance in cognitive traits or disorders. Although this observation may seem paradoxical, it fits with a multifactorial model of how complex human traits are influenced by numerous genes that interact with one another, and with the environment, to produce a specific phenotype. Such a model can also explain why genetic influences on cognition have not vanished in the course of human evolution. Recent linkage and association studies of SLI and dyslexia are reviewed to illustrate these points. The role of nonheritable genetic mutations (sporadic copy number variants) in causing autism is also discussed. Finally, research on phenotypic correlates of allelic variation in the genes ASPM and microcephalin is considered; initial interest in these as genes for brain size or intelligence has been dampened by a failure to find phenotypic differences in people with different versions of these genes. There is a current vogue for investigators to include measures of allelic variants in studies of cognition and cognitive disorders. It is important to be aware that the effect sizes associated with these variants are typically small and hard to detect without extremely large sample sizes. PMID:19338500

  11. Motor, Emotional, and Cognitive Empathy in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bons, Danielle; van den Broek, Egon; Scheepers, Floor; Herpers, Pierre; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear which aspects of empathy are shared and which are uniquely affected in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD) as are the neurobiological correlates of these empathy impairments. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the overlap and specificity of motor, emotional, and cognitive aspects of empathy in…

  12. The Relationship between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo, Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirbekk, Benedicte; Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Oerbeck, Beate; Kristensen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT), subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and anxiety disorders (AnxDs). One hundred and forty-one children (90 males, 51 females) aged 7-13 years were assigned to four groups, i.e., referred children with comorbid AnxDs…

  13. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrecque, Joane; Dugas, Michel J.; Marchand, Andre; Letarte, Andree

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral treatment package for comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA). A single-case, multiple-baseline, across-subjects design was used with 3 primary GAD patients with secondary PDA. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated with…

  14. Development of Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and Cognitive and Behavioural Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Burgess, Paul W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2008-01-01

    Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put forward in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders. Rostral PFC is larger and has a lower cell density in…

  15. Borderline Personality Disorder: Too Complex for Cognitive Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretzer, James L.

    Historically, the literature on psychotherapy with borderline personality disorder has been based on object-relations theory or psychoanalytical approaches, rather than cognitive and behavioral approaches. In clinical assessment, the term borderline has been used to refer to patients with both neurotic and psychotic symptoms, a particular type of…

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Markowitz, Sarah; Petronko, Michael R.; Taylor, Caitlin E.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    The onset of appearance-related concerns associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) typically occurs in adolescence, and these concerns are often severe enough to interfere with normal development and psychosocial functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for adults with BDD. However, no treatment studies…

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; MacMullen, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a continuum of cognitive and social problems that vary considerably in both impact and presentation for each child affected. Although successful interventions have been developed that target specific skill deficits often exhibited by children with autism, many of those interventions are exclusively…

  18. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…

  19. Cognitive Flexibility in Phenotypes of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickstein, Daniel P.; Nelson, Eric E.; McClure, Erin B.; Grimley, Mary E.; Knopf, Lisa; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rich, Brendan A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Clinicians and researchers debate whether children with chronic, nonepisodic irritability should receive the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD). To address this debate, we evaluated cognitive flexibility, or the ability to adapt to changing contingencies, in three groups of children: narrow-phenotype BD (NP-BD; full-duration manic…

  20. The Cognitive Interview for Eyewitnesses with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, Katie L.; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive interview (CI) is one of the most widely accepted forms of interviewing techniques for eliciting the most detailed, yet accurate reports from witnesses. No research, however, has examined its effectiveness with witnesses with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-six adults with ASD and 26 matched typical adults viewed a video of an…

  1. Cognitive Flexibility in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Explaining the Inconsistencies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Eylen, Lien; Boets, Bart; Steyaert, Jean; Evers, Kris; Wagemans, Johan; Noens, Ilse

    2011-01-01

    The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) is the only cognitive flexibility task that has consistently shown deficits in individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). As this is the only task characterized by limited explicit task instructions and a high degree of disengagement required to perform the switch, we hypothesized that cognitive…

  2. Modular Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Phillips, Katharine A.; Fama, Jeanne M.; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Steketee, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This study pilot tested a newly developed modular cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment manual for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome in a sample of 12 adults with primary BDD. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 18 or 22 weeks. Standardized clinician ratings…

  3. Affective Cognition and its Disruption in Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Rebecca; Zahn, Roland; Deakin, J F William; Anderson, Ian M

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we consider affective cognition, responses to emotional stimuli occurring in the context of cognitive evaluation. In particular, we discuss emotion categorization, biasing of memory and attention, as well as social/moral emotion. We discuss limited neuropsychological evidence suggesting that affective cognition depends critically on the amygdala, ventromedial frontal cortex, and the connections between them. We then consider neuroimaging studies of affective cognition in healthy volunteers, which have led to the development of more sophisticated neural models of these processes. Disturbances of affective cognition are a core and specific feature of mood disorders, and we discuss the evidence supporting this claim, both from behavioral and neuroimaging perspectives. Serotonin is considered to be a key neurotransmitter involved in depression, and there is a considerable body of research exploring whether serotonin may mediate disturbances of affective cognition. The final section presents an overview of this literature and considers implications for understanding the pathophysiology of mood disorder as well as developing and evaluating new treatment strategies. PMID:20571485

  4. [Cognitive behavioral treatments of bipolar disorder: current knowledge and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Khazaal, Y; Pomini, V

    2006-09-20

    A significant proportion of patients with bipolar disorder experience relapse, psychosocial impairment and persistent symptoms despite available pharmacotherapy. Prognosis is frequently worsened by poor adhesion to mood stabilizing agents. Cognitive and behavioural therapy (CBT) tends to diminish depressive symptoms, improve treatment adherence and reduce the risk of depressive and manic relapses. CBT effect appears to diminish in patients with a history of over twelve episodes. Most studies exclude patients with comorbid psychiatric disorder, rapid cycling, schizoaffective disorder or patients lacking adherence to mood stabilizing agents. Patients would benefit from development of CBT techniques focusing on the mentioned problems. PMID:17073177

  5. Cognitive behavioral therapy for sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Babson, Kimberly A; Feldner, Matthew T; Badour, Christal L

    2010-09-01

    More than 70 million people in the United States experience primary insomnia (PI) at some point in their life, resulting in an estimated $65 billion in health care costs and lost productivity. PI is therefore one of the most common health care problems in the United States. To mollify the negative effects of PI, scholars have sought to evaluate and improve treatments of this costly health care problem. A breadth of research has demonstrated that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective intervention for PI. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of CBT for PI, including evidence regarding treatment efficacy, effectiveness, and practitioner considerations. PMID:20599137

  6. Cognitive Training in Mental Disorders: Update and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Rumsey, Judith; Sherrill, Joel; Wagner, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this paper, we review the conceptual basis, definitions, and evolution of cognitive training (CT) approaches for the treatment of mental disorders. Method We review the current state of the knowledge on CT in psychiatric illnesses, and its neural and behavioral targets, and summarize the factors that appear to relate to a successful response to CT, including learner characteristics that influence clinical outcome. We also discuss methodological issues relevant to the development and testing of CT approaches, with the goal of creating maximally efficient and effective approaches to training. Finally, we identify gaps in existing knowledge, and outline key research directions for the future. Results While much of the early work has been conducted in schizophrenia, CT has more recently been applied to a widening range of neuropsychiatric illnesses, including attention deficit disorder, mood disorders, and substance use disorders. CT harnesses the inherent neuroplastic capacities of the brain, targeting neural system function across psychiatric disorders, and thus improving cognitive processes that play a role in emotion regulation, clinical symptoms, and adaptive community functioning. Conclusions CT offers considerable promise, especially given the limited efficacy of pharmacological interventions in ameliorating cognitive deficits. However, more work is needed to understand mechanisms underlying CT, predictors of response, generalization and real-world applicability, and approaches to dissemination in practice settings. PMID:24700194

  7. Positive affective and cognitive states in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Reed, Lawrence Ian; Zanarini, Mary C

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to compliment previous studies identifying negative states present in borderline personality disorder (BPD) by investigating the presence of positive affective and cognitive states. Ninety-six patients with criteria-defined borderline personality disorder and 24 axis II comparison participants completed the Positive Affect Scale, a 50-item self-report measure designed to assess positive states thought to be characteristic of and discriminating for BPD. Seventeen positive states (4 affective, 10 cognitive, and 3 mixed) were found to be significantly more common among axis II comparison participants than borderline patients. Twelve of these states were common to both borderline patients and axis II comparison participants. Furthermore, four positive states, when co-occurring together, were particularly strongly associated with borderline personality disorder (three negatively and one positively): (a) Fond of myself, (b) That things around me are real, (c) That I've forgiven others, and (d) Assertive. Finally, the overall mean score on the PAS significantly distinguished patients with borderline personality disorder from axis II comparison participants. Taken together, these results suggest that borderline patients are far less likely to report experiencing positive states of an affective, cognitive, and mixed nature than axis II comparison participants. They also suggest that being assertive is a positive state particularly discriminating for borderline personality disorder. PMID:22217230

  8. Developmental language disorders: cognitive processes, semantics, pragmatics, phonology, and syntax.

    PubMed

    Cromer, R F

    1981-03-01

    Five areas of research concerned with language acquisition--cognitive processes, semantics, pragmatics, phonology, and syntax--are reviewed in terms of their contribution to understanding language disorders. Two views of cognitive processes are discussed. One of these, emphasizing cognitive mechanisms such as short-term memory, is seen as providing possible explanations for some types of language deficits. The other, a concern with conceptual knowledge, is subjected to a critical analysis questioning how complete an explanation it is able to offer for some aspects of language acquisition. Problems of definition are also discussed when semantic aspects of language are considered. Problems in the pragmatic component of language are seen as providing an explanation for particular aspects of language disorder in some autistic children. The importance of focusing on phonology as a central grammatical process is discussed and linked to dyslexia and to spelling disorders. Finally, it is argued that the acquisition of syntactic structure is not yet understood. Impairments such as a hierarchical planning order deficit may affect syntactic ability and lead to disordered language, as found in some types of developmentally aphasic children. It is concluded that it is important to study all five areas of the title, and their interrelationships, if various language disorders are to be adequately understood. PMID:6927699

  9. Antidepressants and their effect on cognition in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Papakostas, George I

    2015-08-01

    Cognitive functioning is a symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD) that deserves particular attention by clinicians and researchers. Despite the fact that cognitive dysfunction represents a symptom of MDD as well as a functional outcome measure, cognition has been insufficiently investigated in antidepressant trials. While, until recently, few placebo-controlled trials have measured cognition in MDD, those examples which did have consisted of older adults. Of agents tested thus far in placebo-controlled trials (citalopram, duloxetine, vortioxetine), only the latter has been studied in patients aged 18-65, and only the latter has been shown to be superior to placebo in improving measures of executive functioning and to do so across adult age groups. Both duloxetine and vortioxetine appear to result in greater improvements than placebo in immediate and delayed memory. Clinicians who wish to improve the psychosocial recovery of patients with MDD should be familiar with studies of new options for treatment. PMID:26335095

  10. Progressive Bidirectional Age-Related Changes in Default Mode Network Effective Connectivity across Six Decades.

    PubMed

    Li, Karl; Laird, Angela R; Price, Larry R; McKay, D Reese; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C; Fox, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a set of regions that is tonically engaged during the resting state and exhibits task-related deactivation that is readily reproducible across a wide range of paradigms and modalities. The DMN has been implicated in numerous disorders of cognition and, in particular, in disorders exhibiting age-related cognitive decline. Despite these observations, investigations of the DMN in normal aging are scant. Here, we used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquired during rest to investigate age-related changes in functional connectivity of the DMN in 120 healthy normal volunteers comprising six, 20-subject, decade cohorts (from 20-29 to 70-79). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess age-related changes in inter-regional connectivity within the DMN. SEM was applied both using a previously published, meta-analytically derived, node-and-edge model, and using exploratory modeling searching for connections that optimized model fit improvement. Although the two models were highly similar (only 3 of 13 paths differed), the sample demonstrated significantly better fit with the exploratory model. For this reason, the exploratory model was used to assess age-related changes across the decade cohorts. Progressive, highly significant changes in path weights were found in 8 (of 13) paths: four rising, and four falling (most changes were significant by the third or fourth decade). In all cases, rising paths and falling paths projected in pairs onto the same nodes, suggesting compensatory increases associated with age-related decreases. This study demonstrates that age-related changes in DMN physiology (inter-regional connectivity) are bidirectional, progressive, of early onset and part of normal aging. PMID:27378909

  11. Progressive Bidirectional Age-Related Changes in Default Mode Network Effective Connectivity across Six Decades

    PubMed Central

    Li, Karl; Laird, Angela R.; Price, Larry R.; McKay, D. Reese; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C.; Fox, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a set of regions that is tonically engaged during the resting state and exhibits task-related deactivation that is readily reproducible across a wide range of paradigms and modalities. The DMN has been implicated in numerous disorders of cognition and, in particular, in disorders exhibiting age-related cognitive decline. Despite these observations, investigations of the DMN in normal aging are scant. Here, we used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquired during rest to investigate age-related changes in functional connectivity of the DMN in 120 healthy normal volunteers comprising six, 20-subject, decade cohorts (from 20–29 to 70–79). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess age-related changes in inter-regional connectivity within the DMN. SEM was applied both using a previously published, meta-analytically derived, node-and-edge model, and using exploratory modeling searching for connections that optimized model fit improvement. Although the two models were highly similar (only 3 of 13 paths differed), the sample demonstrated significantly better fit with the exploratory model. For this reason, the exploratory model was used to assess age-related changes across the decade cohorts. Progressive, highly significant changes in path weights were found in 8 (of 13) paths: four rising, and four falling (most changes were significant by the third or fourth decade). In all cases, rising paths and falling paths projected in pairs onto the same nodes, suggesting compensatory increases associated with age-related decreases. This study demonstrates that age-related changes in DMN physiology (inter-regional connectivity) are bidirectional, progressive, of early onset and part of normal aging. PMID:27378909

  12. Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Fang, Angela; Gutner, Cassidy A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional treatments for anxiety disorders include cognitive-behavioral therapy and anxiolytic medications. Although these treatments are more effective than placebo, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Unfortunately, combining these different modalities is generally not substantially better than monotherapies. Recently, researchers have turned their attention toward translating preclinical research on the neural circuitry underlying fear extinction to clinical applications for the treatment of anxiety disorders with the goal to augment the learning process during exposure-based procedures with cognitive enhancers. This review examines d-cycloserine, cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine, oxytocin, modafinil, as well as nutrients and botanicals as agents to augment treatment for anxiety disorders. D-cycloserine shows the most empirical support. Other promising agents include cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine, and possibly oxytocin. Less support comes from studies that examined nutrients and botanicals, such as caffeine, nicotine, and omega-3 fatty acid. Limitations of the exiting literature and future research directions are discussed. PMID:23542909

  13. Cognition and daytime functioning in sleep-related breathing disorders.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Melinda L; Howard, Mark E; Barnes, Maree

    2011-01-01

    Sleep-related breathing disorders encompass a range of disorders in which abnormal ventilation occurs during sleep as a result of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, altered respiratory drive, abnormal chest wall movement, or respiratory muscle function. The most common of these is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in both adults and children, and causing significant cognitive and daytime dysfunction and reduced quality of life. OSA patients experience repetitive brief cessation of breathing throughout the night, which causes intermittent hypoxemia (reductions in hemoglobin oxygen levels) and fragmented sleep patterns. These nocturnal events result in excessive daytime sleepiness, and changes in mood and cognition. Chronic excessive sleepiness during the day is a common symptom of sleep-related breathing disorders, which is assessed in sleep clinics both subjectively (questionnaire) and objectively (sleep latency tests). Mood changes are often reported by patients, including irritability, fatigue, depression, and anxiety. A wide range of cognitive deficits have been identified in untreated OSA patients, from attentional and vigilance, to memory and executive functions, and more complex tasks such as simulated driving. These changes are reflected in patient reports of difficulty in concentrating, increased forgetfulness, an inability to make decisions, and falling asleep at the wheel of a motor vehicle. These cognitive changes can also have significant downstream effects on daily functioning. Moderate to severe cases of the disorder are at a higher risk of having a motor vehicle accident, and may also have difficulties at work or school. A number of comorbidities may also influence the cognitive changes in OSA patients, including hypertension, diabetes, and stroke. These diseases can cause changes to neural vasculature and result in neural damage, leading to cognitive impairments. Examination of OSA patients using neuroimaging techniques such

  14. Cognitive control in alcohol use disorder: deficits and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Dekonenko, Charlene J.; Mayer, Andrew R.; Bogenschutz, Michael P.; Turner, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive control refers to the internal representation, maintenance, and updating of context information in the service of exerting control over thoughts and behavior. Deficits in cognitive control likely contribute to difficulty in maintaining abstinence in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD). In this article, we define three cognitive control processes in detail (response inhibition, distractor interference control, and working memory), review the tasks measuring performance in these areas, and summarize the brain networks involved in carrying out these processes. Next, we review evidence of deficits in these processes in AUD, including both metrics of task performance and functional neuroimaging. Finally, we explore the clinical relevance of these deficits by identifying predictors of clinical outcome and markers that appear to change (improve) with treatment. We observe that individuals with AUD experience deficits in some, but not all, metrics of cognitive control. Deficits in cognitive control may predict clinical outcome in AUD, but more work is necessary to replicate findings. It is likely that performance on tasks requiring cognitive control improves with abstinence, and with some psychosocial and medication treatments. Future work should clarify which aspects of cognitive control are most important to target during treatment of AUD. PMID:24361772

  15. Common Questions About Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Scott F; Banducci, Anne N; Vinci, Christine

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a time-limited, goal-oriented psychotherapy that has been extensively researched and has benefits in a number of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, and insomnia. CBT uses targeted strategies to help patients adopt more adaptive patterns of thinking and behaving, which leads to positive changes in emotions and decreased functional impairments. Strategies include identifying and challenging problematic thoughts and beliefs, scheduling pleasant activities to increase environmental reinforcement, and extended exposure to unpleasant thoughts, situations, or physiologic sensations to decrease avoidance and arousal associated with anxiety-eliciting stimuli. CBT can be helpful in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by emphasizing safety, trust, control, esteem, and intimacy. Prolonged exposure therapy is a CBT technique that includes a variety of strategies, such as repeated recounting of the trauma and exposure to feared real-world situations. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, CBT focuses on establishing structures and routines, and clear rules and expectations within the home and classroom. Early intensive behavioral interventions should be initiated in children with autism before three years of age; therapy consists of 12 to 40 hours of intensive treatment per week, for at least one year. In many disorders, CBT can be used alone or in combination with medications. However, CBT requires a significant commitment from patients. Family physicians are well suited to provide collaborative care for patients with psychiatric disorders, in concert with cognitive behavior therapists. PMID:26554473

  16. Testing a cognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder in the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Konstantellou, Anna; Campbell, Mari; Eisler, Ivan; Simic, Mima; Treasure, Janet

    2011-10-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common comorbid disorders found in individuals with eating disorders. Despite this, little is known of shared vulnerability factors between the two disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the four main components of a cognitive model for GAD in the eating disorders. One hundred and sixty-two females took part. Three groups were formed comprising of 19 participants with an eating disorder and GAD, 70 with an eating disorder without GAD and 73 healthy controls. All completed self-report questionnaires that measured eating attitudes, levels of GAD, intolerance of uncertainty, positive beliefs about worry, negative problem orientation, and cognitive avoidance. Participants with an eating disorder and GAD scored the highest on all four components when compared to healthy individuals and on most components when compared to those with an eating disorder. Participants with an eating disorder without GAD scored higher on all components compared to healthy controls. Findings extend our understanding of shared vulnerability factors between the eating disorders and GAD. PMID:21632204

  17. Mindfulness Moderates the Relationship Between Disordered Eating Cognitions and Disordered Eating Behaviors in a Non-Clinical College Sample

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Latzman, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates completed a web-based survey. Of 278 participants (nfemale=208; nmale=70) aged 18–24 years old, disordered eating cognitions, mindfulness, and psychological flexibility were related to psychological distress after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and body mass index. Disordered eating cognitions and mindfulness accounted for unique variance in disordered eating behaviors. Finally, mindfulness was found to moderate the association between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:22888181

  18. Cognitive Change Predicts Symptom Reduction with Cognitive Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleim, Birgit; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W.; Stott, Richard; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.; Ehlers, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There is a growing body of evidence for the effectiveness of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies to date have investigated the mechanisms by which TF-CBT leads to therapeutic change. Models of PTSD suggest that a core treatment mechanism is the change in…

  19. Predicting Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Subtypes Using Cognitive Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani, Zahra; Mohammadi, Nourollah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have emphasized the important role of cognitive beliefs in etiology and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD has different subtypes, but the specific role of cognitive beliefs in OCD symptomatology is not clear. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the cognitive factors proposed by Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group (OCCWG) could specifically predict subtypes of OCD. Method: The question was investigated in a sample of 208 university students (mean age = 21, SD = 1.6). The target population was selected by cluster sampling. All participants completed two questionnaires including Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-44) and Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Results: Regression analysis demonstrated that “responsibility/ threat over estimation” was a significant predictor of obsessive and compulsive behaviors and predicted washing, checking, obsessing, hoarding, and neutralizing subtypes of OCD. Furthermore, “perfectionism and intolerance of uncertainty” was the most significant predictor of ordering and hoarding while “importance/ control of thought” predicted ordering only. Conclusion: This study found evidence in support of Salkovskis’ cognitive theory about the central role of inflated responsibility beliefs in developing different subtypes of OCD. Besides, the results revealed those other cognitive beliefs had less important role in the development of OCD symptoms. PMID:27437003

  20. [Age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Budzinskaia, M V

    2014-01-01

    The review provides an update on the pathogenesis and new treatment modalities for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The impact of polymorphism in particular genes, including complement factor H (CFH), age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2/LOC387715), and serine peptidase (HTRA1), on AMD development is discussed. Clinical presentations of different forms of exudative AMD, that is classic, occult, or more often mixed choroidal neovascularization, retinal angiomatous proliferation, and choroidal polypoidal vasculopathy, are described. Particular attention is paid to the results of recent clinical trials and safety issues around the therapy. PMID:25715554

  1. Cognitive Risk Factors for Specific Learning Disorder: Processing Speed, Temporal Processing, and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Kristina; Göbel, Silke M.; Gooch, Debbie; Landerl, Karin; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    High comorbidity rates between reading disorder (RD) and mathematics disorder (MD) indicate that, although the cognitive core deficits underlying these disorders are distinct, additional domain-general risk factors might be shared between the disorders. Three domain-general cognitive abilities were investigated in children with RD and MD:…

  2. Advances in the cognitive behavioural treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Shafran, Roz; Radomsky, Adam S; Coughtrey, A E; Rachman, S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight key advances in the cognitive-behavioural treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder over the course of Professor Lars Göran Öst's illustrious career. The paper will focus on three specific areas of interest: the treatment of obsessions, compulsive checking, and the fear of contamination. It will also highlight recent advances concerning the broader need to ensure that treatment is acceptable. An increase in acceptability could result in improvements in completion rates so that more patients benefit from the recent improvements in the science and therapy for this disabling disorder. PMID:23758093

  3. Cognitive constructs and social anxiety disorder: beyond fearing negative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Teale Sapach, Michelle J N; Carleton, R Nicholas; Mulvogue, Myriah K; Weeks, Justin W; Heimberg, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Pioneering models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) underscored fear of negative evaluation (FNE) as central in the disorder's development. Additional cognitive predictors have since been identified, including fear of positive evaluation (FPE), anxiety sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty (IU), but rarely have these constructs been examined together. The present study concurrently examined the variance accounted for in SAD symptoms by these constructs. Participants meeting criteria for SAD (n = 197; 65% women) completed self-report measures online. FNE, FPE, anxiety sensitivity, and IU all accounted for unique variance in SAD symptoms. FPE accounted for variance comparable to FNE, and the cognitive dimension of anxiety sensitivity and the prospective dimension of IU accounted for comparable variance, though slightly less than that accounted for by FNE and FPE. The results support the theorized roles that these constructs play in the etiology of SAD and highlight both FNE and FPE as central foci in SAD treatment. PMID:25277488

  4. Cognitive disorders in children associated with urban vehicular emissions.

    PubMed

    Annavarapu, Ramesh Naidu; Kathi, Srujana

    2016-01-01

    This review introduces recent advances in an emerging research area that is focussed on studying the effect of exposure to vehicular emissions on cognition, with specific attention to children from urban environments. Today, air pollution is a global environmental issue, especially in urban environments, emitting particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the surroundings. The association of exposure to urban air pollution and cognitive disorders in children is a major cause of concern. We review recent findings associated with exposure to air pollutants and explained the potential mechanisms driving oxidative stress in living systems. An attempt has been made to investigate the cognitive effects of air pollutants leading to neurodegeneration, neurodysfunction, attention deficit/hypersensitivity deficiencies and autism in children. Accumulating evidence suggests that urban air pollution may have significant impact on central nervous system (CNS) of the developing brain. PMID:26476694

  5. Age-related hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... is no known single cause of age-related hearing loss. Most commonly, it is caused by changes in the inner ear that occur as you grow older. Your genes and loud noise (from rock concerts or music headphones) may play a large role. The following ...

  6. Mnesic imbalance: a cognitive theory about autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Munguía, Miguel Ángel

    2008-01-01

    Autism is characterized by impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity and behavioral flexibility. Some cognitive theories can be useful for finding a relationship between these irregularities and the biological mechanisms that may give rise to this disorder. Among such theories are mentalizing deficit, weak central coherence and executive dysfunction, but none of them has been able to explain all three diagnostic symptoms of autism. These cognitive disorders may be related among themselves by faulty learning, since several research studies have shown that the brains of autistic individuals have abnormalities in the cerebellum, which plays a role in procedural learning. In keeping with this view, one may postulate the possibility that declarative memory replaces faulty procedural memory in some of its functions, which implies making conscious efforts in order to perform actions that are normally automatic. This may disturb cognitive development, resulting in autism symptoms. Furthermore, this mnesic imbalance is probably involved in all autism spectrum disorders. In the present work, this theory is expounded, including preliminary supporting evidence. PMID:18925971

  7. The world is random: a cognitive perspective on perceived disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kotabe, Hiroki P.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the consequences of perceiving disorder is largely sociological and concerns broken windows theory, which states that signs of social disorder cause further social disorder. The predominant psychological explanations for this phenomenon are primarily social. In contrast, I propose a parsimonious cognitive model (“world-is-random” model; WIR) that may partly account for these effects. Basically, WIR proposes that perceiving disorder primes randomness-related concepts, which results in a reduction to one’s sense of personal control, which has diverse affective, judgmental, and behavioral consequences. I review recent developments on the psychological consequences of perceiving disorder and argue that WIR can explain all of these findings. I also cover select correlational findings from the sociological literature and explain how WIR can at least partly explain them. In a general discussion, I consider possible alternative psychological models and argue that they do not adequately explain the most recent psychological research on disorder. I then propose future directions which include determining whether perceiving disorder causes a “unique psychology” and delimiting boundary conditions. PMID:24982648

  8. Alzheimer’s Disease and Age-Related Memory Decline (Preclinical)

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Alvin V.; Callahan, Patrick M.; Hall, Brandon; Webster, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    An unfortunate result of the rapid rise in geriatric populations worldwide is the increasing prevalence of age-related cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD is a devastating neurodegenerative illness that is characterized by a profound impairment of cognitive function, marked physical disability, and an enormous economic burden on the afflicted individual, caregivers, and society in general. The rise in elderly populations is also resulting in an increase in individuals with related (potentially treatable) conditions such as “Mild Cognitive Impairment” (MCI) which is characterized by a less severe (but abnormal) level of cognitive impairment and a high-risk for developing dementia. Even in the absence of a diagnosable disorder of cognition (e.g., AD, MCI), the perception of increased forgetfulness and declining mental function is a clear source of apprehension in the elderly. This is a valid concern given that even a modest impairment of cognitive function is likely to be associated with significant disability in a rapidly evolving, technology-based society. Unfortunately, the currently available therapies designed to improve cognition (i.e., for AD and other forms of dementia) are limited by modest efficacy, adverse side effects, and their effects on cognitive function are not sustained over time. Accordingly, it is incumbent on the scientific community to develop safer and more effective therapies that improve and/or sustain cognitive function in the elderly allowing them to remain mentally active and productive for as long as possible. As diagnostic criteria for memory disorders evolve, the demand for pro-cognitive therapeutic agents is likely to surpass AD and dementia to include MCI and potentially even less severe forms of memory decline. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the contemporary therapeutic targets and preclinical pharmacologic approaches (with representative drug examples) designed to enhance memory

  9. The effect of erythropoietin on cognition in affective disorders - Associations with baseline deficits and change in subjective cognitive complaints.

    PubMed

    Ott, Caroline Vintergaard; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V; Miskowiak, Kamilla W

    2016-08-01

    This is a secondary data analysis from our erythropoietin (EPO) trials. We examine (I) whether EPO improves speed of complex cognitive processing across bipolar and unipolar disorder, (II) if objective and subjective baseline cognitive impairment increases patients׳ chances of treatment-efficacy and (III) if cognitive improvement correlates with better subjective cognitive function, quality of life and socio-occupational capacity. Patients with unipolar or bipolar disorder were randomized to eight weekly EPO (N=40) or saline (N=39) infusions. Cognition, mood, quality of life and socio-occupational capacity were assessed at baseline (week 1), after treatment completion (week 9) and at follow-up (week 14). We used repeated measures analysis of covariance to investigate the effect of EPO on speed of complex cognitive processing. With logistic regression, we examined whether baseline cognitive impairment predicted treatment-efficacy. Pearson correlations were used to assess associations between objective and subjective cognition, quality of life and socio-occupational capacity. EPO improved speed of complex cognitive processing across affective disorders at weeks 9 and 14 (p≤0.05). In EPO-treated patients, baseline cognitive impairment increased the odds of treatment-efficacy on cognition at weeks 9 and 14 by a factor 9.7 (95% CI:1.2-81.1) and 9.9 (95% CI:1.1-88.4), respectively (p≤0.04). Subjective cognitive complaints did not affect chances of treatment-efficacy (p≥0.45). EPO-associated cognitive improvement correlated with reduced cognitive complaints but not with quality of life or socio-occupational function. As the analyses were performed post-hoc, findings are only hypothesis-generating. In conclusion, pro-cognitive effects of EPO occurred across affective disorders. Neuropsychological screening for cognitive dysfunction may be warranted in future cognition trials. PMID:27349944

  10. Sleep Quality Improvement During Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramsawh, Holly J; Bomyea, Jessica; Stein, Murray B; Cissell, Shadha H; Lang, Ariel J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of sleep complaints among individuals with anxiety disorders, few prior studies have examined whether sleep quality improves during anxiety treatment. The current study examined pre- to posttreatment sleep quality improvement during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder (PD; n = 26) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 24). Among sleep quality indices, only global sleep quality and sleep latency improved significantly (but modestly) during CBT. Sleep quality improvement was greater for treatment responders, but did not vary by diagnosis. Additionally, poor baseline sleep quality was independently associated with worse anxiety treatment outcome, as measured by higher intolerance of uncertainty. Additional intervention targeting sleep prior to or during CBT for anxiety may be beneficial for poor sleepers. PMID:26244485

  11. Implicit Cognitions and Eating Disorders: Their Application in Research and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartanian, Lenny R.; Polivy, Janet; Herman, C. Peter

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive theory has had a prominent role in understanding and treating eating disorders in recent years. The increasing emphasis on implicit cognitions in many areas of psychology raises the question of whether research on implicit cognitions could contribute to our understanding and treatment of eating disorders. In the present article, we…

  12. Cognitive Rehabilitation of Episodic Memory Disorders: From Theory to Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ptak, Radek; der Linden, Martial Van; Schnider, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Memory disorders are among the most frequent and most debilitating cognitive impairments following acquired brain damage. Cognitive remediation strategies attempt to restore lost memory capacity, provide compensatory techniques or teach the use of external memory aids. Memory rehabilitation has strongly been influenced by memory theory, and the interaction between both has stimulated the development of techniques such as spaced retrieval, vanishing cues or errorless learning. These techniques partly rely on implicit memory and therefore enable even patients with dense amnesia to acquire new information. However, knowledge acquired in this way is often strongly domain-specific and inflexible. In addition, individual patients with amnesia respond differently to distinct interventions. The factors underlying these differences have not yet been identified. Behavioral management of memory failures therefore often relies on a careful description of environmental factors and measurement of associated behavioral disorders such as unawareness of memory failures. The current evidence suggests that patients with less severe disorders benefit from self-management techniques and mnemonics whereas rehabilitation of severely amnesic patients should focus on behavior management, the transmission of domain-specific knowledge through implicit memory processes and the compensation for memory deficits with memory aids. PMID:20700383

  13. Cognitive control of gaze in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Katharine N.; Schall, Jeffrey D.; Logan, Gordon D.; Park, Sohee

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare two components of executive functioning, response monitoring and inhibition in bipolar disorder (BP) and schizophrenia (SZ). The saccadic countermanding task is a translational paradigm optimized for detecting subtle abnormalities in response monitoring and response inhibition. We have previously reported countermanding performance abnormalities in SZ, but the degree to which these impairments are shared by other psychotic disorders is unknown. 18 BP, 17 SZ, and 16 demographically-matched healthy controls (HC) participated in a saccadic countermanding task. Performance on the countermanding task is approximated as a race between movement generation and inhibition processes; this model provides an estimate of the time needed to cancel a planned movement. Response monitoring was assessed by the reaction time (RT) adjustments based on trial history. Like SZ patients, BP patients needed more time to cancel a planned movement. The two patient groups had equivalent inhibition efficiency. On trial history-based RT adjustments, however, we found a trend towards exaggerated trial history-based slowing in SZ compared to BP. Findings have implications for understanding the neurobiology of cognitive control, for defining the etiological overlap between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and for developing pharmacological treatments of cognitive impairments. PMID:25601802

  14. [Rethinking addictions: the cognitive paradigm and substance dependence disorder].

    PubMed

    Capece, José

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this task is to review some psychotherapeutic strategies used for the treatment of Substance Dependence Disorder. Different distorted beliefs, from the cognitive paradigm, which are usually assumed in our society, are studied here. These beliefs reveal difficulty in facing the drug problem, from the scientific knowledge based on evidence. Different problems are set up, such us the illness pattern, therapeutic alliance, treatment aims, unlawful acts, medication, ideologies and implications for the social interventions. Different strategies that have proved effectiveness are reviewed. Motivational Interview, Contingencies Management, Standard Cognitive Therapy and Harm Reduction have been pointed out. We come to an end with the recommendation to use the scientific knowledge for the treatment programs and preventive policies. PMID:18443667

  15. Out of my real body: cognitive neuroscience meets eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Clinical psychology is starting to explain eating disorders (ED) as the outcome of the interaction among cognitive, socio-emotional and interpersonal elements. In particular two influential models—the revised cognitive-interpersonal maintenance model and the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral theory—identified possible key predisposing and maintaining factors. These models, even if very influential and able to provide clear suggestions for therapy, still are not able to provide answers to several critical questions: why do not all the individuals with obsessive compulsive features, anxious avoidance or with a dysfunctional scheme for self-evaluation develop an ED? What is the role of the body experience in the etiology of these disorders? In this paper we suggest that the path to a meaningful answer requires the integration of these models with the recent outcomes of cognitive neuroscience. First, our bodily representations are not just a way to map an external space but the main tool we use to generate meaning, organize our experience, and shape our social identity. In particular, we will argue that our bodily experience evolves over time by integrating six different representations of the body characterized by specific pathologies—body schema (phantom limb), spatial body (unilateral hemi-neglect), active body (alien hand syndrome), personal body (autoscopic phenomena), objectified body (xenomelia) and body image (body dysmorphia). Second, these representations include either schematic (allocentric) or perceptual (egocentric) contents that interact within the working memory of the individual through the alignment between the retrieved contents from long-term memory and the ongoing egocentric contents from perception. In this view EDs may be the outcome of an impairment in the ability of updating a negative body representation stored in autobiographical memory (allocentric) with real-time sensorimotor and proprioceptive data (egocentric). PMID:24834042

  16. Out of my real body: cognitive neuroscience meets eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Clinical psychology is starting to explain eating disorders (ED) as the outcome of the interaction among cognitive, socio-emotional and interpersonal elements. In particular two influential models-the revised cognitive-interpersonal maintenance model and the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral theory-identified possible key predisposing and maintaining factors. These models, even if very influential and able to provide clear suggestions for therapy, still are not able to provide answers to several critical questions: why do not all the individuals with obsessive compulsive features, anxious avoidance or with a dysfunctional scheme for self-evaluation develop an ED? What is the role of the body experience in the etiology of these disorders? In this paper we suggest that the path to a meaningful answer requires the integration of these models with the recent outcomes of cognitive neuroscience. First, our bodily representations are not just a way to map an external space but the main tool we use to generate meaning, organize our experience, and shape our social identity. In particular, we will argue that our bodily experience evolves over time by integrating six different representations of the body characterized by specific pathologies-body schema (phantom limb), spatial body (unilateral hemi-neglect), active body (alien hand syndrome), personal body (autoscopic phenomena), objectified body (xenomelia) and body image (body dysmorphia). Second, these representations include either schematic (allocentric) or perceptual (egocentric) contents that interact within the working memory of the individual through the alignment between the retrieved contents from long-term memory and the ongoing egocentric contents from perception. In this view EDs may be the outcome of an impairment in the ability of updating a negative body representation stored in autobiographical memory (allocentric) with real-time sensorimotor and proprioceptive data (egocentric). PMID:24834042

  17. Cognitive Change Predicts Symptom Reduction With Cognitive Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kleim, Birgit; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W.; Stott, Richard; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.; Ehlers, Anke

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There is a growing body of evidence for the effectiveness of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies to date have investigated the mechanisms by which TF-CBT leads to therapeutic change. Models of PTSD suggest that a core treatment mechanism is the change in dysfunctional appraisals of the trauma and its aftermath. If this is the case, then changes in appraisals should predict a change in symptoms. The present study investigated whether cognitive change precedes symptom change in Cognitive Therapy for PTSD, a version of TF-CBT. Method: The study analyzed weekly cognitive and symptom measures from 268 PTSD patients who received a course of Cognitive Therapy for PTSD, using bivariate latent growth modeling. Results: Results showed that (a) dysfunctional trauma-related appraisals and PTSD symptoms both decreased significantly over the course of treatment, (b) changes in appraisals and symptoms were correlated, and (c) weekly change in appraisals significantly predicted subsequent reduction in symptom scores (both corrected for the general decrease over the course of therapy). Changes in PTSD symptom severity did not predict subsequent changes in appraisals. Conclusions: The study provided preliminary evidence for the temporal precedence of a reduction in negative trauma-related appraisals in symptom reduction during trauma-focused CBT for PTSD. This supports the role of change in appraisals as an active therapeutic mechanism. PMID:23276122

  18. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for panic disorder: current status.

    PubMed

    Landon, Terri M; Barlow, David H

    2004-07-01

    Is cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) appropriate for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PDA) in children, adolescents, and adults? Are its effects durable? In this review, we survey various psychological approaches to the treatment of PDA and examine the relative efficacy and clinical utility of each. A growing body of research demonstrates that CBT is well-tolerated, cost-effective, and produces substantial treatment gains for individuals with PDA over the short- and long-term. Nevertheless, not everyone benefits and there is room for improvement among those who do. We address these shortcomings and consider recent developments. PMID:15552543

  19. [Age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Garcia Layana, A

    1998-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the occidental world. Patients suffering this process have an important reduction on their quality of life being handicapped to read, to write, to recognise faces of their friends, or even to watch the television. One of the main problems of that disease is the absence of an effective treatment able to revert the process. Laser treatment is only useful in a limited number of patients, and even in these cases recurrent lesions are frequent. These facts and the progressive ageing of our society establish the ARMD as one of the biggest aim of medical investigations for the next century, and currently is focus of attention in the most industrialised countries. One of the most promising pieces of research is focused in the investigation of the risk factors associated with the age-related macular degeneration, in order to achieve a prophylactic treatment avoiding its appearance. Diet elements such as fat ingestion or reduced antioxidant intakes are being investigated as some of these factors, what open a new possibility for a prophylactic treatment. Finally, research is looking for new therapeutic modalities such as selective radiotherapy in order to improve or maintain the vision of these patients. PMID:10420956

  20. Cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder: from acute episode to remission.

    PubMed

    Volkert, J; Schiele, M A; Kazmaier, Julia; Glaser, Friederike; Zierhut, K C; Kopf, J; Kittel-Schneider, S; Reif, A

    2016-04-01

    Considerable evidence demonstrates that neuropsychological deficits are prevalent in bipolar disorder during both acute episodes and euthymia. However, it is less clear whether these cognitive disturbances are state- or trait-related. We here present the first longitudinal study employing a within-subject pre- and post-testing examining acutely admitted bipolar patients (BP) in depression or mania and during euthymia, aiming to identify cognitive performance from acute illness to remission. Cognitive performance was measured during acute episodes and repeated after at least 3 months of remission. To do so, 55 BP (35 depressed, 20 hypo-/manic) and 55 healthy controls (HC) were tested with a neuropsychological test battery (attention, working memory, verbal memory, executive functioning). The results showed global impairments in acutely ill BP compared to HC: depressed patients showed a characteristic psychomotor slowing, while manic patients had severe deficits in executive functioning. Twenty-nine remitted BP could be measured in the follow-up (dropout rate 48 %), whose cognitive functions partially recovered, whereas working memory and verbal memory were still impaired. However, we found that subthreshold depressive symptoms and persisting sleep disturbances in euthymic BP were associated with reduced speed, deficits in attention and verbal memory, while working memory was correlated with psychotic symptoms (lifetime). This result indicates working memory as trait related for a subgroup of BP with psychotic symptoms. In contrast, attention and verbal memory are negatively influenced by state factors like residual symptoms, which should be more considered as possible confounders in the search of cognitive endophenotypes in remitted BP. PMID:26611783

  1. Self-focused Cognitive Styles and Bipolar Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Flynn, Megan; Liu, Richard T.; Grant, David A.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Whitehouse, Wayne G.

    2009-01-01

    We examined concurrent and prospective associations of self-focused cognitive styles with bipolar spectrum disorders. Controlling for depressive and hypomanic/manic symptoms, 125 individuals with bipolar spectrum disorders scored higher than 149 demographically similar normal controls on the rumination scale of the Response Styles Questionnaire (RSQ) and the private self-consciousness subscale of the Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS). The two groups did not differ on the distraction scale of the RSQ or the public self-consciousness and social anxiety subscales of the SCS. In addition, among the bipolar individuals, controlling for initial depressive and hypomanic/manic symptoms, rumination predicted the number, but not the likelihood of onset, of depressive episodes, whereas private self-consciousness predicted the likelihood of onset, but not the number, of hypomanic/manic episodes over a 3.5-year follow-up. PMID:20161631

  2. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and cognitive functions of young children.

    PubMed

    Bakoyiannis, Ioannis; Gkioka, Eleana; Pergialiotis, Vasileios; Mastroleon, Ioanna; Prodromidou, Anastasia; Vlachos, Georgios D; Perrea, Despina

    2014-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is one of the main causes of mental retardation worldwide. Nearly 1% of children in North America are affected from antenatal exposure to ethanol. Its economic burden in industrialized countries is increasing. It is estimated that, in the United States, 4.0 billion dollars are annually expended in the treatment and rehabilitation of these patients. As a pathologic entity, they present with a broad symptomatology. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most readily recognized clinical manifestation of these disorders. Various factors seem to contribute in the pathogenesis of FASD-related cognitive disorders. During the last 20 years, several potential pretranslational and posttranslational factors have been extensively studied in various experimental animal models. Research has specifically focused on several neurotransmitters, insulin resistance, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, abnormal glycosylation of several proteins, oxidative stress, nutritional antioxidants, and various epigenetic factors. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the clinical manifestations of this disorder during childhood and adolescence and to summarize the possible pathophysiologic and epigenetic pathways that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of FASD. PMID:24978898

  3. Course and cognitive outcome in major affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of the course and outcome of major affective illness has clinical as well as theoretical implications. In understanding the pathophysiology of the major affective disorders, an essential question in the interplay between biological, psychological and social factors is whether the individual is changed biologically by experiencing an affective episode or not. A biological change may be reflected in a changed risk of experiencing new episodes and changed chances of recovery from these episodes for the individual, and may possibly also be reflected in persisting altered cognitive function as an expression of brain function affected during a longer period. Previous studies of the course of affective episodes are flawed by a number of drawbacks such as various definitions of recovery and recurrence, various kinds of bias and confounders, low statistical power, and statistical analyses conducted without survival models and without paying attention to diagnostic instability or the individual heterogeneity of the course of episodes. Totally, these drawbacks and pitfalls affect the results of previous studies in unpredictable ways and make it hazardous to draw conclusions about the effect of prior affective episodes on the subsequent course of unipolar and bipolar disorder. The present thesis avoided most of these pitfalls or adjusted for them in analyses of hospital data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, collected nationwide from 1971 to 1993. Hospitalisation was used as an expression of an affective episode. On average, a progressive course with increasing risk of recurrence with every new episode was found for unipolar and bipolar affective disorders. Initially, the two types of disorders followed markedly different courses, but later in the course of the illness the risk of recurrence was the same for the two disorders. However, analyses with frailty models revealed that for unipolar men, this progressive course was due to a subgroup of patients

  4. Mouse models of cognitive disorders in trisomy 21: a review.

    PubMed

    Sérégaza, Zohra; Roubertoux, Pierre L; Jamon, Marc; Soumireu-Mourat, Bernard

    2006-05-01

    Trisomy 21 (TRS21) is the most frequent genetic cause of mental retardation. Although the presence of an extra copy of HSA21 is known to be at the origin of the syndrome, we do not know which 225 HSA21 genes have an effect on cognitive processes. Mouse models of TRS21 have been developed using syntenies between HSA21 and MMU16, MMU10 and MMU17. Available mouse models carry extra fragments of MMU16 or of HSA21 that cover all of HSA21 (chimeric HSA21) or MMU16 (Ts16); some carry large parts of MMU16 (Ts65Dn, Ts1Cje, Ms1Cje), while others have reduced contiguous fragments covering the D21S17-ETS2 region or single transfected genes. This offers a nest design strategy for deciphering cognitive (learning, memory and exploration) and associated brain abnormalities involving each of these chromosomal regions. This review confirms the crucial but not exclusive contribution of the D21S17-ETS2 region encompassing 16 genes to cognitive disorders. PMID:16523244

  5. Social Cognition in a Clinical Sample of Personality Disorder Patients.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Tagle, Amparo; Costanzo, Elsa; De Achával, Delfina; Guinjoan, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition was assessed in a clinical sample of personality disorder (PD) stable patients receiving ambulatory treatment (N = 17) and healthy matched controls (N = 17) using tests of recognition of emotions in faces and eyes, in a test of social faux pas and in theory of mind (ToM) stories. Results indicated that when compared with healthy controls, individuals with PD showed a clear tendency to obtain lower scoring in tasks assessing recognition of emotion in faces (T = -2.602, p = 0.014), eyes (T = -3.593, p = 0.001), ToM stories (T = -4.706, p = 0.000), and Faux pas (T = -2.227, p = 0.035). In the present pilot study, PD individuals with a normal cognitive efficiency showed an impaired performance at social cognition assessment including emotion recognition and ToM. PMID:26074824

  6. Social Cognition in a Clinical Sample of Personality Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Tagle, Amparo; Costanzo, Elsa; De Achával, Delfina; Guinjoan, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition was assessed in a clinical sample of personality disorder (PD) stable patients receiving ambulatory treatment (N = 17) and healthy matched controls (N = 17) using tests of recognition of emotions in faces and eyes, in a test of social faux pas and in theory of mind (ToM) stories. Results indicated that when compared with healthy controls, individuals with PD showed a clear tendency to obtain lower scoring in tasks assessing recognition of emotion in faces (T = −2.602, p = 0.014), eyes (T = −3.593, p = 0.001), ToM stories (T = −4.706, p = 0.000), and Faux pas (T = −2.227, p = 0.035). In the present pilot study, PD individuals with a normal cognitive efficiency showed an impaired performance at social cognition assessment including emotion recognition and ToM. PMID:26074824

  7. Cognitive Processes in ADHD and Asperger's Disorder: Overlaps and Differences in PASS Profiles.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Stefano; Contena, Bastianina

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Many studies report on the usefulness of the evaluation of Executive Functions (EF) in the assessment of participants with ADHD, while others underline how deficits of EF in these participants are not consistent and that the same executive deficits are present in many other disorders, particularly in Asperger's disorder. Using the Planning Attention Simultaneous Successive (PASS) theory, the present study explores the cognitive profiles of participants with ADHD or Asperger's disorder and compares the cognitive functioning of these two diagnostic groups. Method: Forty-four children, 24 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 20 with a diagnosis of Asperger's disorder, participated and their cognitive processes were evaluated with the Cognitive Assessment System. Results: Results underline specific cognitive profiles in ADHD and Asperger's disorder characterized by weaknesses in planning and attention, but with a diverse level of severity. Conclusion: Implications of the different cognitive profiles of these diagnostic groups are discussed. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:24196344

  8. Guanfacine for the treatment of cognitive disorders: a century of discoveries at Yale.

    PubMed

    Arnsten, Amy F T; Jin, Lu E

    2012-03-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is among the most evolved brain regions, contributing to our highest order cognitive abilities. It regulates behavior, thought, and emotion using working memory. Many cognitive disorders involve impairments of the PFC. A century of discoveries at Yale Medical School has revealed the neurobiology of PFC cognitive functions, as well as the molecular needs of these circuits. This work has led to the identification of therapeutic targets to treat cognitive disorders. Recent research has found that the noradrenergic α2A agonist guanfacine can improve PFC function by strengthening PFC network connections via inhibition of cAMP-potassium channel signaling in postsynaptic spines. Guanfacine is now being used to treat a variety of PFC cognitive disorders, including Tourette's Syndrome and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This article reviews the history of Yale discoveries on the neurobiology of PFC working memory function and the identification of guanfacine for treating cognitive disorders. PMID:22461743

  9. Emotional, behavioral, and cognitive factors that differentiate obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders in youth.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Marni L; Morelen, Diana; Suveg, Cynthia; Brown Jacobsen, Amy M; Whiteside, Stephen P

    2012-03-01

    Abstract The current study examined specific emotional, behavioral, and cognitive variables that may distinguish obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SoP), and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in youth. Youth with OCD (n=26) and other anxiety disorders (ADs; n=31), aged 7-12 years (56.1% males), and their parents participated. The study compared the two anxious groups on levels of emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning, as well as impairment associated with the disorder. Results indicated that in comparison to youth with GAD, SoP, or SAD, youth with OCD were found to have poorer emotion regulation skills, as well as greater oppositionality, cognitive problems/inattention, and parent impairment associated with the disorder. The findings suggest that there are unique characteristics of OCD that may differentiate this disorder from other ADs in youth. Potential clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21512917

  10. Micro-RNAs in cognition and cognitive disorders: Potential for novel biomarkers and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Woldemichael, Bisrat T; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2016-03-15

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of many biological functions. In the brain, they have distinct expression patterns depending on region, cell-type and developmental stage. Their expression profile is altered by neuronal activation in response to behavioral training or chemical/electrical stimulation. The dynamic changes in miRNA level regulate the expression of genes required for cognitive processes such as learning and memory. In addition, in cognitive dysfunctions such as dementias, expression levels of many miRNAs are perturbed, not only in brain areas affected by the pathology, but also in peripheral body fluids such as serum and cerebrospinal fluid. This presents an opportunity to utilize miRNAs as biomarkers for early detection and assessment of cognitive dysfunctions. Further, since miRNAs target many genes and pathways, they may represent key molecular signatures that can help understand the mechanisms of cognitive disorders and the development of potential therapeutic agents. PMID:26626188

  11. Shared dimensions of performance and activation dysfunction in cognitive control in females with mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Erica L.; Kassel, Michelle T.; Weldon, Anne L.; Marshall, David F.; Meyers, Kortni K.; Gabriel, Laura B.; Vederman, Aaron C.; Weisenbach, Sara L.; McInnis, Melvin G.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Langenecker, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder share symptoms that may reflect core mood disorder features. This has led to the pursuit of intermediate phenotypes and a dimensional approach to understand neurobiological disruptions in mood disorders. Executive dysfunction, including cognitive control, may represent a promising intermediate phenotype across major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. This study examined dimensions of cognitive control in women with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder in comparison to healthy control subjects using two separate, consecutive experiments. For Experiment 1, participants completed a behavioural cognitive control task (healthy controls = 150, major depressive disorder = 260, bipolar disorder = 202; age range 17–84 years). A sample of those participants (healthy controls = 17, major depressive disorder = 19, and bipolar disorder = 16) completed a similar cognitive control task in an event-related design functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol for Experiment 2. Results for Experiment 1 showed greater impairments on the cognitive control task in patients with mood disorders relative to healthy controls (P < 0.001), with more of those in the mood disorder group falling into the ‘impaired’ range when using clinical cut-offs (<5th percentile). Experiment 2 revealed only a few areas of shared activation differences in mood disorder greater than healthy controls. Activation analyses using performance as a regressor, irrespective of diagnosis, revealed within and extra-network areas that were more active in poor performers. In summary, performance and activation during cognitive control tasks may represent an intermediate phenotype for mood disorders. However, cognitive control dysfunction is not uniform across women with mood disorders, and activation is linked to performance more so than disease. These findings support subtype and dimensional approaches to understanding risk and expression of mood

  12. Cognitive Vulnerability in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Dysthymic Disorder and Normal Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghorabaie, Fateme Moin; Noferesti, Azam; Fadaee, Mahdi; Ganji, Nima

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess cognitive vulnerability and response style in clinical and normal individuals. Method: A sample of 90 individuals was selected for each of the 3 groups of Generalized Anxiety disorder, Dysthymic disorder and normal individuals. They completed MCQ and RSQ. Results: Results analyzed by MANOVA and post hoc showed significant differences among groups. Dysthymic group and GAD reported higher scores on cognitive confidence compared to the normal group. Individuals with GAD showed highly negative beliefs about need to control thought, compared to the other groups, but in cognitive self-consciousness they have no differences with the normal group. In regard to uncontrollability, danger and positive beliefs, GAD group had higher levels than the other groups. Although normal and GAD group didn’t show any significant differences in response style, there was a significant difference between Dysthymic group and other groups in all response styles. Discussion: Beliefs and meta-cognitive strategies can be distinguished between clinical and non clinical individuals. Also, findings support the Self-Regulatory Executive Function model. PMID:27045393

  13. Interrater Reliability of the Revised Cognitive Performance Test (CPT): Assessing Cognition in People With Neurocognitive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Schaber, Patricia; Stallings, Emily; Brogan, Collette; Ali, Fouzia

    2016-01-01

    The rigor of occupation-based standardized assessments that rely on observational scoring procedures depends on proven reliability among test administrators. This study measured interrater reliability of the Cognitive Performance Test (CPT), a standardized, occupation-based assessment that measures cognitive-functional capacity in older adults with neurocognitive disorders. To capture a range of experience among test administrators, two sets of raters-four expert and three novice-scored video recordings of 10 patients administered the CPT. Interrater reliability results were strong among all raters (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = .93), with expert raters (ICC = .97) yielding higher coefficients than novice raters (ICC = .93). Spearman's ρ correlation coefficients were high among all raters (rs = .92-1.00). Practitioners can be confident that results of the CPT give accurate and consistent information to the health care team, family members, and patients when administered with fidelity using standardized protocols. PMID:27548871

  14. The specificity of cognitive vulnerabilities to emotional disorders: anxiety sensitivity, looming vulnerability and explanatory style.

    PubMed

    Reardon, John M; Williams, Nathan L

    2007-01-01

    Mood and anxiety disorders share considerable phenomenological and diagnostic overlap. Several models have advanced the understanding of the phenomenological overlap of anxiety and depression; however, identification of disorder-specific etiological mechanisms remains elusive. Recently, research has advanced several cognitive vulnerability-stress models proposing that one's characteristic way of attending to, interpreting, and remembering negative events contributes vulnerability to psychopathology. These cognitive vulnerabilities may elucidate specific etiological mechanisms that distinguish mood and anxiety pathology. The present study examines the specificity of three cognitive vulnerability constructs, the looming cognitive style, anxiety sensitivity, and explanatory style, in the prediction of latent anxiety disorder symptoms and latent depression symptoms. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that the looming cognitive style demonstrated specificity predicting only anxiety disorder symptoms whereas anxiety sensitivity and a pessimistic explanatory style predicted both anxiety disorder and mood disorder symptoms. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:17070666

  15. Cognitive Changes During Prolonged Exposure versus Prolonged Exposure Plus Cognitive Restructuring in Female Assault Survivors with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foa, Edna B.; Rauch, Sheila A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors report on changes in cognitions related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 54 female survivors of sexual and nonsexual assault with chronic PTSD who completed either prolonged exposure alone or in combination with cognitive restructuring. Treatment included 9-12 weekly sessions, and assessment was conducted at pretreatment,…

  16. Cognitive Reappraisal Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of Individual Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Werner, Kelly; Kraemer, Helena; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether changes in cognitive reappraisal self-efficacy (CR-SE) mediate the effects of individually administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (I-CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on severity of social anxiety symptoms. Method: A randomized controlled trial in which 75 adult patients (21-55 years of age; 53% male; 57%…

  17. Physical, Mental, and Social Catastrophic Cognitions as Prognostic Factors in Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatments for Panic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Thomas V.; Leitenberg, Harold; Barlow, David H.; Gorman, Jack M.; Shear, Katherine M.; Woods, Scott W.

    2005-01-01

    The authors explored the prognostic value of 3 different types of catastrophic cognitions in the treatment of panic disorder with and without mild-to-moderate agoraphobia using a sample of 143 participants who received either cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or imipramine in a randomized controlled trial. Stronger fears of social catastrophes…

  18. Risk Factors for Age-Related Maculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Paul P.; Keane, Pearse A.; O'Neill, Evelyn C.; Altaie, Rasha W.; Loane, Edward; Neelam, Kumari; Nolan, John M.; Beatty, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition. PMID:20339564

  19. The association between family history of mental disorders and general cognitive ability

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, J J; Wray, N R; Pedersen, C B; Mortensen, P B; Greve, A N; Petersen, L

    2014-01-01

    There is an emerging literature linking cognitive ability with a wide range of psychiatric disorders. These findings have led to the hypothesis that diminished ‘cognitive reserve' is a causal risk factor for psychiatric disorders. However, it is also feasible that a family history of mental disorders may confound this relationship, by contributing to both a slight impairment in cognitive ability, and an increased risk of psychiatric disorder. On the basis of a large, population-based sample of young adult male conscripts (n=160 608), we examined whether the presence of a family history of a range of mental disorders was associated with cognitive ability, as tested by the Børge Priens Prøve. In those with no individual-level history of mental disorder, a family-level history of a mental disorder was associated with a slight reduction in cognitive ability. In general, this pattern was found regardless of the nature of the psychiatric disorder in the family. Our study suggests that shared familial factors may underpin both cognitive ability and the risk of a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Convergent evidence from epidemiology and genetics suggests that shared genetic factors underpin an unexpectedly diverse range of psychiatric disorders. On the basis of the findings of the current study, we speculate that these same shared genetic factors also contribute to general cognitive ability. PMID:25050992

  20. Age-Related Factors in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twyford, Charles William

    The convergence of several lines of psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic research suggests possible explanations for age-related influences on language acquisition. These factors, which include cognitive development, sociocultural context, affective factors, and language input, can be helpful to language educators. By being alert to the cognitive…

  1. Disordered Eating-Related Cognition and Psychological Flexibility as Predictors of Psychological Health among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.; Wendell, Johanna W.

    2010-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated the relation among disordered eating-related cognition, psychological flexibility, and poor psychological outcomes among a nonclinical college sample. As predicted, conviction of disordered eating-related cognitions was positively associated with general psychological ill-health and emotional distress…

  2. Developing cognitive-emotional training exercises as interventions for mood and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Iacoviello, B M; Charney, D S

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for more effective treatments for mood and anxiety disorders. As our understanding of the cognitive and affective neuroscience underlying psychiatric disorders expands, so do opportunities to develop novel interventions that capitalize on the capacity for brain plasticity. Cognitive training is one such strategy. This paper provides the background and rationale for developing cognitive-emotional training exercises as an intervention strategy, and proposes guidelines for the development and evaluation of cognitive training interventions with a specific focus on major depressive disorder as an example. PMID:25451246

  3. Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status and Working Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Chandan J.; Stollstorff, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience studies of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) suggest multiple loci of pathology with respect to both cognitive domains and neural circuitry. Cognitive deficits extend beyond executive functioning to include spatial, temporal, and lower-level "nonexecutive" functions. Atypical functional anatomy extends beyond…

  4. Cognitive behavioral therapy in pharmacoresistant obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vyskocilova, Jana; Prasko, Jan; Sipek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine whether patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) resistant to drug therapy may improve their condition using intensive, systematic cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) lasting for 6 weeks, and whether it is possible to predict the therapeutic effect using demographic, clinical, and selected psychological characteristics at baseline. Methods Sixty-six OCD patients were included in the study, of which 57 completed the program. The diagnosis was confirmed using the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Patients were rated using the objective and subjective forms of the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, objective and subjective forms of the Clinical Global Impression, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Dissociative Experiences Scale, 20-item Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire, and the Sheehan Disability Scale before their treatment, and with subjective Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory at the end of the treatment. Patients were treated with antidepressants and daily intensive group CBT for the 6-week period. Results During the 6-week intensive CBT program in combination with pharmacotherapy, there was a significant improvement in patients suffering from OCD resistant to drug treatment. There were statistically significantly decrease in the scores assessing the severity of OCD symptoms, anxiety, and depressive feelings. A lower treatment effect was achieved specifically in patients who 1) showed fewer OCD themes in symptomatology, 2) showed a higher level of somatoform dissociation, 3) had poor insight, and 4) had a higher initial level of overall severity of the disorder. Remission of the disorder was more likely in patients who had 1) good insight, 2) a lower initial level of anxiety, and 3) no comorbid depressive disorder. PMID:27042074

  5. Cognitive behavior therapy for eating disorders: progress and problems.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G T

    1999-07-01

    Beginning with the application of operant conditioning principles as part of inpatient treatment, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anorexia nervosa (AN) has been insufficiently studied. Its efficacy remains in question. By contrast, manual-based CBT is the first-line treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa (BN) although its effects are limited. More effective methods are needed for non-responders to current therapy. Despite its well-established efficacy, CBT for BN is relatively rarely used in the US. Research on dissemination is a priority. Modified CBT and behavioral weight control programs seem comparably effective in reducing binge eating in Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Long-term maintenance of weight loss in these obese patients, however, remains a challenge. Self-help and other brief, cost-effective methods work for subsets of both BN and BED patients, demonstrating that treatment be administered within a stepped-care framework. PMID:10402697

  6. Cognitive processing in bipolar disorder conceptualized using the Interactive Cognitive Subsystems (ICS) model

    PubMed Central

    Lomax, C. L.; Barnard, P. J.; Lam, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background There are few theoretical proposals that attempt to account for the variation in affective processing across different affective states of bipolar disorder (BD). The Interacting Cognitive Subsystems (ICS) framework has been recently extended to account for manic states. Within the framework, positive mood state is hypothesized to tap into an implicational level of processing, which is proposed to be more extreme in states of mania. Method Thirty individuals with BD and 30 individuals with no history of affective disorder were tested in euthymic mood state and then in induced positive mood state using the Question–Answer task to examine the mode of processing of schemas. The task was designed to test whether individuals would detect discrepancies within the prevailing schemas of the sentences. Results Although the present study did not support the hypothesis that the groups differ in their ability to detect discrepancies within schemas, we did find that the BD group was significantly more likely than the control group to answer questions that were consistent with the prevailing schemas, both before and after mood induction. Conclusions These results may reflect a general cognitive bias, that individuals with BD have a tendency to operate at a more abstract level of representation. This may leave an individual prone to affective disturbance, although further research is required to replicate this finding. PMID:18796173

  7. Cognitive Load Undermines Thought Suppression in Acute Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Reginald D V; Rackebrandt, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Thought suppression studies demonstrate that attempts to suppress can be undermined by cognitive load. We report the first instance in which this has been tested experimentally in a sample of recently traumatized individuals. Individuals with and without acute stress disorder (ASD) were recruited following recent trauma and randomized to load or no load conditions (N=56). They monitored intrusive memories during baseline, suppression, and think anything phases. The impact of suppression and load on self-reported intrusions, attention bias (dot-probe), and memory priming (word-stem task) was assessed. The ASD load group were less able to suppress memories (d=0.32, CI95 [-0.15, 0.83], p=.088) than the ASD no load group (d=0.63, CI95 [0.08, 1.24], p<.001). In the think anything phase, the ASD load group reported more intrusions than the ASD no load or non-ASD groups (with and without load). No consistent findings were observed in relation to attentional bias. ASD load individuals exhibited stronger priming responses for motor vehicle accident and assault words than all other groups (ds between 0.35-0.73). Working memory did not moderate any outcomes of interest. The findings indicate that cognitive load interferes with suppression and may enhance access to trauma memories and associated material. The study extends previous research by demonstrating these effects for the first time in a clinical sample of recent survivors of trauma. PMID:27157032

  8. Brief cognitive therapy for panic disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Clark, D M; Salkovskis, P M; Hackmann, A; Wells, A; Ludgate, J; Gelder, M

    1999-08-01

    Cognitive therapy (CT) is a specific and highly effective treatment for panic disorder (PD). Treatment normally involves 12-15 1-hr sessions. In an attempt to produce a more cost-effective version, a briefer treatment that made extensive use of between-sessions patient self-study modules was created. Forty-three PD patients were randomly allocated to full CT (FCT), brief CT (BCT), or a 3-month wait list. FCT and BCT were superior to wait list on all measures, and the gains obtained in treatment were maintained at 12-month follow-up. There were no significant differences between FCT and BCT. Both treatments had large (approximately 3.0) and essentially identical effect sizes. BCT required 6.5 hr of therapist time, including booster sessions. Patients' initial expectation of therapy success was negatively correlated with posttreatment panic-anxiety. Cognitive measures at the end of treatment predicted panic-anxiety at 12-month follow-up. PMID:10450630

  9. Disorders of regulation of cognitive activity in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Adrien, J L; Martineau, J; Barthélémy, C; Bruneau, N; Garreau, B; Sauvage, D

    1995-06-01

    Infantile autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by disturbances concerning not only the areas of socialization and communication ("aloneness") but also the ability to modify and change behavior ("need for sameness"). In most recent studies, various abnormal and deviant cognitive activities, such as the ability to regulate one's behavior, were considered as accounting for these signs. In this report, we examined the regulation of cognitive activity, from a developmental perspective in comparing autistic with mentally retarded children matched in a pairwise manner by global, verbal, and nonverbal developmental ages. All children were tested with tasks adapted from the Object Permanence Test which corresponds to Piaget's sensorimotor development Stages IV to VI. Results showed that autistic children had a pervasive difficulty in maintenance set, made more perseverative errors when the abstraction degree of task was higher, and were more variable in their behavioral strategies. Discussion is focused on the interests and limits of these tasks for the examination of regulation activity from diagnostic and developmental perspectives. Finally, interpretations about recent neuropsychological and neurophysiological works, and additional interdisciplinary studies are suggested. PMID:7559291

  10. Cognitive-analytical therapy for a patient with functional neurological symptom disorder-conversion disorder (psychogenic myopia): A case study

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Hamid; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Zahed, Arash; Arab, Mostafa; Samouei, Rahele

    2015-01-01

    Functional neurological symptom disorder commonly presents with symptoms and defects of sensory and motor functions. Therefore, it is often mistaken for a medical condition. It is well known that functional neurological symptom disorder more often caused by psychological factors. There are three main approaches namely analytical, cognitive and biological to manage conversion disorder. Any of such approaches can be applied through short-term treatment programs. In this case, study a 12-year-old boy with the diagnosed functional neurological symptom disorder (psychogenic myopia) was put under a cognitive-analytical treatment. The outcome of this treatment modality was proved successful. PMID:26487881

  11. Deep sequencing reveals 50 novel genes for recessive cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Najmabadi, Hossein; Hu, Hao; Garshasbi, Masoud; Zemojtel, Tomasz; Abedini, Seyedeh Sedigheh; Chen, Wei; Hosseini, Masoumeh; Behjati, Farkhondeh; Haas, Stefan; Jamali, Payman; Zecha, Agnes; Mohseni, Marzieh; Püttmann, Lucia; Vahid, Leyla Nouri; Jensen, Corinna; Moheb, Lia Abbasi; Bienek, Melanie; Larti, Farzaneh; Mueller, Ines; Weissmann, Robert; Darvish, Hossein; Wrogemann, Klaus; Hadavi, Valeh; Lipkowitz, Bettina; Esmaeeli-Nieh, Sahar; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Kariminejad, Roxana; Firouzabadi, Saghar Ghasemi; Cohen, Monika; Fattahi, Zohreh; Rost, Imma; Mojahedi, Faezeh; Hertzberg, Christoph; Dehghan, Atefeh; Rajab, Anna; Banavandi, Mohammad Javad Soltani; Hoffer, Julia; Falah, Masoumeh; Musante, Luciana; Kalscheuer, Vera; Ullmann, Reinhard; Kuss, Andreas Walter; Tzschach, Andreas; Kahrizi, Kimia; Ropers, H Hilger

    2011-10-01

    Common diseases are often complex because they are genetically heterogeneous, with many different genetic defects giving rise to clinically indistinguishable phenotypes. This has been amply documented for early-onset cognitive impairment, or intellectual disability, one of the most complex disorders known and a very important health care problem worldwide. More than 90 different gene defects have been identified for X-chromosome-linked intellectual disability alone, but research into the more frequent autosomal forms of intellectual disability is still in its infancy. To expedite the molecular elucidation of autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, we have now performed homozygosity mapping, exon enrichment and next-generation sequencing in 136 consanguineous families with autosomal-recessive intellectual disability from Iran and elsewhere. This study, the largest published so far, has revealed additional mutations in 23 genes previously implicated in intellectual disability or related neurological disorders, as well as single, probably disease-causing variants in 50 novel candidate genes. Proteins encoded by several of these genes interact directly with products of known intellectual disability genes, and many are involved in fundamental cellular processes such as transcription and translation, cell-cycle control, energy metabolism and fatty-acid synthesis, which seem to be pivotal for normal brain development and function. PMID:21937992

  12. Neuroimaging explanations of age-related differences in task performance

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Barulli, Daniel; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Advancing age affects both cognitive performance and functional brain activity and interpretation of these effects has led to a variety of conceptual research models without always explicitly linking the two effects. However, to best understand the multifaceted effects of advancing age, age differences in functional brain activity need to be explicitly tied to the cognitive task performance. This work hypothesized that age-related differences in task performance are partially explained by age-related differences in functional brain activity and formally tested these causal relationships. Functional MRI data was from groups of young and old adults engaged in an executive task-switching experiment. Analyses were voxel-wise testing of moderated-mediation and simple mediation statistical path models to determine whether age group, brain activity and their interaction explained task performance in regions demonstrating an effect of age group. Results identified brain regions whose age-related differences in functional brain activity significantly explained age-related differences in task performance. In all identified locations, significant moderated-mediation relationships resulted from increasing brain activity predicting worse (slower) task performance in older but not younger adults. Findings suggest that advancing age links task performance to the level of brain activity. The overall message of this work is that in order to understand the role of functional brain activity on cognitive performance, analysis methods should respect theoretical relationships. Namely, that age affects brain activity and brain activity is related to task performance. PMID:24672481

  13. Electrophysiological evidence of a typical cognitive distortion in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Juliane; Volkert, Julia; Heidler, Sarah; Dresler, Thomas; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Gessner, Alexandra; Herrmann, Martin J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Reif, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Patients suffering from bipolar disorder often report negative thoughts and a bias towards negative environmental stimuli. Previous studies show that this mood-congruent attentional bias could mediated by dysfunctions in anterior limbic regions. The Error-Related Negativity (ERN), which originates in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), has been used to research this negativity bias in depressed patients, and could also help to better understand the underlying mechanisms causing the negativity bias in bipolar patients. In this study we investigated error processing in patients with bipolar disorder. Acute depressive bipolar patients (n = 20) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 20) underwent a modified Eriksen Flanker Task to assess test performance and two error-related event-related potentials (ERPs), i.e., the ERN and Error Positivity (Pe) were measured by EEG. Half of the patients were measured again in a euthymic state. We found similar ERN amplitudes in bipolar patients as compared to healthy controls, but significantly reduced Pe amplitudes. Moreover, acutely depressed bipolar patients displayed an ERN and Pe even if they responded accurately or too slow, which indicates that correct responses are processed in a way similar to wrong responses. This can be interpreted as a psychophysiological correlate of typical cognitive distortions in depression, i.e., an erroneous perception of personal failures. This biased error perception partially remained when patients were in a euthymic state. Together, our data indicate that aberrant error processing of bipolar patients may be regarded a trait marker possibly reflecting a risk factor for depressive relapses in bipolar disorder. PMID:25824981

  14. Age-Related Changes in 1/f Neural Electrophysiological Noise

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Mark A.; Case, John; Lepage, Kyle Q.; Tempesta, Zechari R.; Knight, Robert T.; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with performance decrements across multiple cognitive domains. The neural noise hypothesis, a dominant view of the basis of this decline, posits that aging is accompanied by an increase in spontaneous, noisy baseline neural activity. Here we analyze data from two different groups of human subjects: intracranial electrocorticography from 15 participants over a 38 year age range (15–53 years) and scalp EEG data from healthy younger (20–30 years) and older (60–70 years) adults to test the neural noise hypothesis from a 1/f noise perspective. Many natural phenomena, including electrophysiology, are characterized by 1/f noise. The defining characteristic of 1/f is that the power of the signal frequency content decreases rapidly as a function of the frequency (f) itself. The slope of this decay, the noise exponent (χ), is often <−1 for electrophysiological data and has been shown to approach white noise (defined as χ = 0) with increasing task difficulty. We observed, in both electrophysiological datasets, that aging is associated with a flatter (more noisy) 1/f power spectral density, even at rest, and that visual cortical 1/f noise statistically mediates age-related impairments in visual working memory. These results provide electrophysiological support for the neural noise hypothesis of aging. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the neurobiological origins of age-related cognitive decline is of critical scientific, medical, and public health importance, especially considering the rapid aging of the world's population. We find, in two separate human studies, that 1/f electrophysiological noise increases with aging. In addition, we observe that this age-related 1/f noise statistically mediates age-related working memory decline. These results significantly add to this understanding and contextualize a long-standing problem in cognition by encapsulating age-related cognitive decline within a neurocomputational model of 1/f noise

  15. A feasibility study of conducting the Montreal Cognitive Assessment remotely in individuals with movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Abdolahi, Amir; Bull, Michael T; Darwin, Kristin C; Venkataraman, Venayak; Grana, Matthew J; Dorsey, E Ray; Biglan, Kevin M

    2016-06-01

    Remote assessments of individuals with a neurological disease via telemedicine have the potential to reduce some of the burdens associated with clinical care and research participation. We aim to evaluate the feasibility of conducting the Montreal Cognitive Assessment remotely in individuals with movement disorders. A pilot study derived from two telemedicine trials was conducted. In total, 17 individuals with movement disorders (8 with Parkinson disease and 9 with Huntington disease) had Montreal Cognitive Assessment examinations evaluated in-person and remotely via web-based video conferencing to primarily determine feasibility and potential barriers in its remote administration. Administering the Montreal Cognitive Assessment remotely in a sample of movement disorder patients with mild cognitive impairment is feasible, with only minor common complications associated with technology, including delayed sound and corrupted imaging for participants with low connection speeds. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment has the potential to be used in remote assessments of patients and research participants with movement disorders. PMID:25391849

  16. Omega 3 Fatty Acids: Novel Neurotherapeutic Targets for Cognitive Dysfunction in Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia?

    PubMed Central

    Knöchel, Christian; Voss, Martin; Grter, Florian; Alves, Gilberto S.; Matura, Silke; Sepanski, Beate; Stäblein, Michael; Wenzler, Sofia; Prvulovic, David; Carvalho, André F.; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of evidences from preclinical as well as epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a potential beneficial role of dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids for cognitive functioning. In this narrative review, we will summarize and discuss recent findings from epidemiological, interventional and experimental studies linking dietary consumption of omega-3 fatty acids to cognitive function in healthy adults. Furthermore, affective disorders and schizophrenia (SZ) are characterized by cognitive dysfunction encompassing several domains. Cognitive dysfunction is closely related to impaired functioning and quality of life across these conditions. Therefore, the current review focues on the potential influence of omega-3 fatty acids on cognition in SZ and affective disorders. In sum, current data predominantly from mechanistic models and animal studies suggest that adjunctive omega-3 fatty acid supplementation could lead to improved cognitive functioning in SZ and affective disorders. However, besides its translational promise, evidence for clinical benefits in humans has been mixed. Notwithstanding evidences indicate that adjunctive omega-3 fatty acids may have benefit for affective symptoms in both unipolar and bipolar depression, to date no randomized controlled trial had evaluated omega-3 as cognitive enhancer for mood disorders, while a single published controlled trial suggested no therapeutic benefit for cognitive improvement in SZ. Considering the pleiotropic mechanisms of action of omega-3 fatty acids, the design of well-designed controlled trials of omega-3 supplementation as a novel, domain-specific, target for cognitive impairment in SZ and affective disorders is warranted. PMID:26467414

  17. Cognitive and Psychiatric Phenotypes of Movement Disorders in Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Jaworowski, Solomon; Shalev, Ruth S

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The cognitive and psychiatric aspects of adult movement disorders are well established, but specific behavioural profiles for paediatric movement disorders have not been delineated. Knowledge of non-motor phenotypes may guide treatment and determine which symptoms are suggestive of a specific movement disorder and which indicate medication…

  18. Gains in cognition through combined cognitive and physical training: the role of training dosage and severity of neurocognitive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D.; Fissler, Patrick; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G.; Zilidou, Vasiliki; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos I.; Billis, Antonis S.; Romanopoulou, Evangelia; Karagianni, Maria; Beratis, Ion; Tsapanou, Angeliki; Tsilikopoulou, Georgia; Grigoriadou, Eirini; Ladas, Aristea; Kyrillidou, Athina; Tsolaki, Anthoula; Frantzidis, Christos; Sidiropoulos, Efstathios; Siountas, Anastasios; Matsi, Stavroula; Papatriantafyllou, John; Margioti, Eleni; Nika, Aspasia; Schlee, Winfried; Elbert, Thomas; Tsolaki, Magda; Vivas, Ana B.; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Physical as well as cognitive training interventions improve specific cognitive functions but effects barely generalize on global cognition. Combined physical and cognitive training may overcome this shortcoming as physical training may facilitate the neuroplastic potential which, in turn, may be guided by cognitive training. This study aimed at investigating the benefits of combined training on global cognition while assessing the effect of training dosage and exploring the role of several potential effect modifiers. In this multi-center study, 322 older adults with or without neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) were allocated to a computerized, game-based, combined physical and cognitive training group (n = 237) or a passive control group (n = 85). Training group participants were allocated to different training dosages ranging from 24 to 110 potential sessions. In a pre-post-test design, global cognition was assessed by averaging standardized performance in working memory, episodic memory and executive function tests. The intervention group increased in global cognition compared to the control group, p = 0.002, Cohen’s d = 0.31. Exploratory analysis revealed a trend for less benefits in participants with more severe NCD, p = 0.08 (cognitively healthy: d = 0.54; mild cognitive impairment: d = 0.19; dementia: d = 0.04). In participants without dementia, we found a dose-response effect of the potential number and of the completed number of training sessions on global cognition, p = 0.008 and p = 0.04, respectively. The results indicate that combined physical and cognitive training improves global cognition in a dose-responsive manner but these benefits may be less pronounced in older adults with more severe NCD. The long-lasting impact of combined training on the incidence and trajectory of NCDs in relation to its severity should be assessed in future long-term trials. PMID:26300772

  19. Gains in cognition through combined cognitive and physical training: the role of training dosage and severity of neurocognitive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Fissler, Patrick; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G; Zilidou, Vasiliki; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos I; Billis, Antonis S; Romanopoulou, Evangelia; Karagianni, Maria; Beratis, Ion; Tsapanou, Angeliki; Tsilikopoulou, Georgia; Grigoriadou, Eirini; Ladas, Aristea; Kyrillidou, Athina; Tsolaki, Anthoula; Frantzidis, Christos; Sidiropoulos, Efstathios; Siountas, Anastasios; Matsi, Stavroula; Papatriantafyllou, John; Margioti, Eleni; Nika, Aspasia; Schlee, Winfried; Elbert, Thomas; Tsolaki, Magda; Vivas, Ana B; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Physical as well as cognitive training interventions improve specific cognitive functions but effects barely generalize on global cognition. Combined physical and cognitive training may overcome this shortcoming as physical training may facilitate the neuroplastic potential which, in turn, may be guided by cognitive training. This study aimed at investigating the benefits of combined training on global cognition while assessing the effect of training dosage and exploring the role of several potential effect modifiers. In this multi-center study, 322 older adults with or without neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) were allocated to a computerized, game-based, combined physical and cognitive training group (n = 237) or a passive control group (n = 85). Training group participants were allocated to different training dosages ranging from 24 to 110 potential sessions. In a pre-post-test design, global cognition was assessed by averaging standardized performance in working memory, episodic memory and executive function tests. The intervention group increased in global cognition compared to the control group, p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.31. Exploratory analysis revealed a trend for less benefits in participants with more severe NCD, p = 0.08 (cognitively healthy: d = 0.54; mild cognitive impairment: d = 0.19; dementia: d = 0.04). In participants without dementia, we found a dose-response effect of the potential number and of the completed number of training sessions on global cognition, p = 0.008 and p = 0.04, respectively. The results indicate that combined physical and cognitive training improves global cognition in a dose-responsive manner but these benefits may be less pronounced in older adults with more severe NCD. The long-lasting impact of combined training on the incidence and trajectory of NCDs in relation to its severity should be assessed in future long-term trials. PMID:26300772

  20. Cognitive Function as a Transdiagnostic Treatment Target in Stimulant Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; DeVito, Elise E; Waters, Andrew J; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    Stimulant use disorder is an important public health problem, with an estimated 2.1 million current users in the United States alone. No pharmacological treatments are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for stimulant use disorder and behavioral treatments have variable efficacy and limited availability. Most individuals with stimulant use disorder have other comorbidities, most with overlapping symptoms and cognitive impairments. The goal of this article is to present a rationale for cognition as a treatment target in stimulant use disorder and to outline potential treatment approaches. Rates of lifetime comorbid psychiatric disorders among people with stimulant use disorders are estimated at 65% to 73%, with the most common being mood disorders (13% to 64%) and anxiety disorders (21% to 50%), as well as non-substance-induced psychotic disorders (<10%). There are several models of addictive behavior, but the dual process model particularly highlights the relevance of cognitive impairments and biases to the development and maintenance of addiction. This model explains addictive behavior as a balance between automatic processes and executive control, which in turn are related to individual (genetics, comorbid disorders, psychosocial factors) and other (craving, triggers, drug use) factors. Certain cognitive impairments, such as attentional bias and approach bias, are most relevant to automatic processes, while sustained attention, response inhibition, and working memory are primarily related to executive control. These cognitive impairments and biases are also common in disorders frequently comorbid with stimulant use disorder and predict poor treatment retention and clinical outcomes. As such, they may serve as feasible transdiagnostic treatment targets. There are promising pharmacological, cognitive, and behavioral approaches that aim to enhance cognitive function. Pharmacotherapies target cognitive impairments associated with executive control and

  1. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: an update on the empirical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kaczkurkin, Antonia N.; Foa, Edna B.

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of research has accumulated on the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. The purpose of the current article is to provide an overview of two of the most commonly used CBT methods used to treat anxiety disorders (exposure and cognitive therapy) and to summarize and discuss the current empirical research regarding the usefulness of these techniques for each anxiety disorder. Additionally, we discuss the difficulties that arise when comparing active CBT treatments, and we suggest directions for future research. Overall, CBT appears to be both efficacious and effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, but dismantling studies are needed to determine which specific treatment components lead to beneficial outcomes and which patients are most likely to benefit from these treatment components. PMID:26487814

  2. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: an update on the empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Foa, Edna B

    2015-09-01

    A large amount of research has accumulated on the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. The purpose of the current article is to provide an overview of two of the most commonly used CBT methods used to treat anxiety disorders (exposure and cognitive therapy) and to summarize and discuss the current empirical research regarding the usefulness of these techniques for each anxiety disorder. Additionally, we discuss the difficulties that arise when comparing active CBT treatments, and we suggest directions for future research. Overall, CBT appears to be both efficacious and effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, but dismantling studies are needed to determine which specific treatment components lead to beneficial outcomes and which patients are most likely to benefit from these treatment components. PMID:26487814

  3. Cognitive remediation therapy for mood disorders: rationale, early evidence, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bowie, Christopher R; Gupta, Maya; Holshausen, Katherine

    2013-06-01

    People with mood disorders experience cognitive impairments that are predictive of functional disability. Cognitive remediation (CR) is an empirically validated intervention that is designed to remediate neurocognitive deficits and improve functioning. Although much of the focus of this treatment during the last decade has centred on attention deficit disorders, brain injury, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, emerging evidence suggests that CR is an effective intervention for mood disorders and that these treatment effects translate into improvements in cognitive performance and possibly functioning. Our review aims to examine the profile and magnitude of cognitive impairments in mood disorders, review the evidence in support of CR for this population, and discuss future research directions in CR. PMID:23768259

  4. New hope for a disabling condition. Cognitive-behavioral approaches to panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, M; Pallister, R

    1997-03-01

    1. Panic disorder, which encompasses both biological and psychological dimensions, is a common anxiety-related problem that can result in significant disability. 2. Cognitive-behavioral approaches to panic disorder are effective in 70% to 80% of patients treated, and generally involve a combination of patient education, relaxation training, exposure, and cognitive restructuring. 3. Mental health nurses can benefit their panic disorder patients by becoming aware of cognitive-behavioral treatment options, and should consider adding these methods to their repertoire of therapeutic skills. PMID:9076704

  5. The Behavioral and Cognitive Executive Disorders of Stroke: The GREFEX Study

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Martine; Martinaud, Olivier; Hénon, Hilde; Vercelletto, Martine; Bindschadler, Claire; Joseph, Pierre-Alain; Robert, Philippe; Labauge, Pierre; Godefroy, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Background Many studies have highlighted the high prevalence of executive disorders in stroke. However, major uncertainties remain due to use of variable and non-validated methods. The objectives of this study were: 1) to characterize the executive disorder profile in stroke using a standardized battery, validated diagnosis criteria of executive disorders and validated framework for the interpretation of neuropsychological data and 2) examine the sensitivity of the harmonization standards protocol proposed by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) for the diagnosis of Vascular Cognitive Impairment. Methods 237 patients (infarct: 57; cerebral hemorrhage: 54; ruptured aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery (ACoA): 80; cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT): 46) were examined by using the GREFEX battery. The patients’ test results were interpreted with a validated framework derived from normative data from 780 controls. Results Dysexecutive syndrome was observed in 88 (55.7%; 95%CI: 48–63.4) out of the 156 patients with full cognitive and behavioral data: 40 (45.5%) had combined behavioral and cognitive syndromes, 29 (33%) had a behavioral disorder alone and 19 (21.6%) had a cognitive syndrome alone. The dysexecutive profile was characterized by prominent impairments of initiation and generation in the cognitive domain and by hypoactivity with disinterest and anticipation loss in the behavioral domain. Cognitive impairment was more frequent (p = 0.014) in hemorrhage and behavioral disorders were more frequent (p = 0.004) in infarct and hemorrhage. The harmonization standards protocol underestimated (p = 0.007) executive disorders in CVT or ACoA. Conclusions This profile of executive disorders implies that the assessment should include both cognitive tests and a validated inventory for behavioral dysexecutive syndrome. Initial assessment may be performed with a short cognitive battery, such as the

  6. Cognitive Remediation: Potential Novel Brain-Based Treatment for Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dickstein, Daniel P.; Cushman, Grace K.; Kim, Kerri L.; Weissman, Alexandra B.; Wegbreit, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is among the most impairing psychiatric disorders affecting children and adolescents, despite our best psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments. Cognitive remediation, defined as a behavioral intervention designed to improve cognitive functions so as to reduce psychiatric illness, is an emerging brain-based treatment approach that has thus far not been studied in pediatric BD. The present article reviews the basic principles of cognitive remediation, describes what is known about cognitive remediation in psychiatric disorders, and delineates potential brain/behavior alterations implicated in pediatric BD that might be targets for cognitive remediation. Emerging data shows that cognitive remediation may be useful in children and adults with schizophrenia, ADHD, and anxiety disorders, and in adults with BD. Potential targets for cognitive remediation in pediatric BD include face processing, response inhibition, frustration, and cognitive flexibility. Further study is warranted to determine if cognitive remediation for these targets, or others, may serve as a novel, brain-based treatment for pediatric BD. PMID:26135596

  7. Modelling cognitive affective biases in major depressive disorder using rodents.

    PubMed

    Hales, Claire A; Stuart, Sarah A; Anderson, Michael H; Robinson, Emma S J

    2014-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects more than 10% of the population, although our understanding of the underlying aetiology of the disease and how antidepressant drugs act to remediate symptoms is limited. Major obstacles include the lack of availability of good animal models that replicate aspects of the phenotype and tests to assay depression-like behaviour in non-human species. To date, research in rodents has been dominated by two types of assays designed to test for depression-like behaviour: behavioural despair tests, such as the forced swim test, and measures of anhedonia, such as the sucrose preference test. These tests have shown relatively good predictive validity in terms of antidepressant efficacy, but have limited translational validity. Recent developments in clinical research have revealed that cognitive affective biases (CABs) are a key feature of MDD. Through the development of neuropsychological tests to provide objective measures of CAB in humans, we have the opportunity to use 'reverse translation' to develop and evaluate whether similar methods are suitable for research into MDD using animals. The first example of this approach was reported in 2004 where rodents in a putative negative affective state were shown to exhibit pessimistic choices in a judgement bias task. Subsequent work in both judgement bias tests and a novel affective bias task suggest that these types of assay may provide translational methods for studying MDD using animals. This review considers recent work in this area and the pharmacological and translational validity of these new animal models of CABs. PMID:24467454

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder by Proxy.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jennifer L; Mothi, Suraj Sarvode; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2016-07-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a distressing or impairing preoccupation with a perceived defect in physical appearance. BDD by proxy (BDDBP) is a significant but understudied variant of BDD in which the primary preoccupation involves perceived imperfections of another person. Like BDD, individuals with BDDBP engage in time-consuming rituals to "fix" the other person's appearance or alleviate distress. Avoidance is common and the impact of BDDBP on social functioning is profound. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best-studied and most promising psychological treatment for BDD, but no studies have examined its generalizability to the BDDBP variant. We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome of CBT modified for BDDBP in a sample of 6 adults with primary BDDBP. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 12-20weeks. Mean symptom severity (BDDBP-YBOCS) dropped from the moderately severe range at pretreatment to the subclinical range at posttreatment, t(6)=10.7, p<.001, d=3.3. One hundred percent of treatment completers were responders (≥30% reduction in BDDBP-YBOCS). Insight also improved. Treatment gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. To our knowledge, this represents the first treatment study for BDDBP. PMID:27423167

  9. The impact of neuroscience on society: cognitive enhancement in neuropsychiatric disorders and in healthy people.

    PubMed

    Sahakian, Barbara J; Bruhl, Annette B; Cook, Jennifer; Killikelly, Clare; Savulich, George; Piercy, Thomas; Hafizi, Sepehr; Perez, Jesus; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Suckling, John; Jones, Peter B

    2015-09-19

    In addition to causing distress and disability to the individual, neuropsychiatric disorders are also extremely expensive to society and governments. These disorders are both common and debilitating and impact on cognition, functionality and wellbeing. Cognitive enhancing drugs, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and methylphenidate, are used to treat cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, respectively. Other cognitive enhancers include specific computerized cognitive training and devices. An example of a novel form of cognitive enhancement using the technological advancement of a game on an iPad that also acts to increase motivation is presented. Cognitive enhancing drugs, such as methylphenidate and modafinil, which were developed as treatments, are increasingly being used by healthy people. Modafinil not only affects 'cold' cognition, but also improves 'hot' cognition, such as emotion recognition and task-related motivation. The lifestyle use of 'smart drugs' raises both safety concerns as well as ethical issues, including coercion and increasing disparity in society. As a society, we need to consider which forms of cognitive enhancement (e.g. pharmacological, exercise, lifelong learning) are acceptable and for which groups (e.g. military, doctors) under what conditions (e.g. war, shift work) and by what methods we would wish to improve and flourish. PMID:26240429

  10. The impact of neuroscience on society: cognitive enhancement in neuropsychiatric disorders and in healthy people

    PubMed Central

    Sahakian, Barbara J.; Bruhl, Annette B.; Cook, Jennifer; Killikelly, Clare; Savulich, George; Piercy, Thomas; Hafizi, Sepehr; Perez, Jesus; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Suckling, John; Jones, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to causing distress and disability to the individual, neuropsychiatric disorders are also extremely expensive to society and governments. These disorders are both common and debilitating and impact on cognition, functionality and wellbeing. Cognitive enhancing drugs, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and methylphenidate, are used to treat cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, respectively. Other cognitive enhancers include specific computerized cognitive training and devices. An example of a novel form of cognitive enhancement using the technological advancement of a game on an iPad that also acts to increase motivation is presented. Cognitive enhancing drugs, such as methylphenidate and modafinil, which were developed as treatments, are increasingly being used by healthy people. Modafinil not only affects ‘cold’ cognition, but also improves ‘hot’ cognition, such as emotion recognition and task-related motivation. The lifestyle use of ‘smart drugs' raises both safety concerns as well as ethical issues, including coercion and increasing disparity in society. As a society, we need to consider which forms of cognitive enhancement (e.g. pharmacological, exercise, lifelong learning) are acceptable and for which groups (e.g. military, doctors) under what conditions (e.g. war, shift work) and by what methods we would wish to improve and flourish. PMID:26240429

  11. Behavioral, Cognitive, and Pharmacological Treatments of Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia: Critique and Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, Larry K.; Marchione, Karen

    1991-01-01

    Examines theoretical, methodologic, and research issues as well as strengths, limitations, and possible interactions pertaining to behavioral, cognitive, and pharmacological treatments of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Compares attrition, outcome, and maintenance effects and presents composite indices of significant improvement, endstate…

  12. Cognitive disruptions in stress-related psychiatric disorders: A role for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF).

    PubMed

    Bangasser, Debra A; Kawasumi, Yushi

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Stress is a potential etiology contributor to both post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and major depression. One stress-related neuropeptide that is hypersecreted in these disorders is corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). Dysregulation of CRF has long been linked to the emotion and mood symptoms that characterize PTSD and depression. However, the idea that CRF also mediates the cognitive disruptions observed in patients with these disorders has received less attention. Here we review literature indicating that CRF can alter cognitive functions. Detailed are anatomical studies revealing that CRF is poised to modulate regions required for learning and memory. We also describe preclinical behavioral studies that demonstrate CRF's ability to alter fear conditioning, impair memory consolidation, and alter a number of executive functions, including attention and cognitive flexibility. The implications of these findings for the etiology and treatment of the cognitive impairments observed in stress-related psychiatric disorders are described. PMID:25888454

  13. [Mild cognitive disorders in railway locomotive crew workers (review of literature)].

    PubMed

    Ozhogina, O A; Zakrevskaya, A A; Serikov, V V

    2016-01-01

    Functional reliability of engine operator and engine operator's assistant is one of the most important factors in railway safety. Ability to railway locomotive operation is determined via suitability criteria of occupationally important qualities of operator and operator's assistant, and of nervous system functional state. Lower reliability manifested in worse functional state of engine operator or in lost occupationally important qualities can be connected with various diseases of which most prevalent are cardiovascular disorders. Transitory brain circulatory disorders can cause cognitive disturbances varying in severity. When mild cognitive disorders, precise diagnosis leads to effective prevention of the diseases development and preserved occupationally important qualities in engine operators. Neuropsychologic methods for mild cognitive disorders help not only to diagnose presence and intensity of cognitive defect, but to suggest a mechanism of its development, that eventually increases efficiency of correction. PMID:27396149

  14. Cognitive Function in Adolescent Patients with Anorexia Nervosa and Unipolar Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sarrar, Lea; Holzhausen, Martin; Warschburger, Petra; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Schneider, Nora

    2016-05-01

    Studies have shown impairments in cognitive function among adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and affective disorders (AD). The association between cognitive dysfunctions, AN and AD as well as the specificity for these psychiatric diagnoses remains unclear. Therefore, we examined cognitive flexibility and processing speed in 47 female adolescent patients with AN, 21 female adolescent patients with unipolar affective disorders and 48 female healthy adolescents. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery. There were no significant group differences regarding cognitive function, except for psychomotor processing speed with poorer performance in patients with AN. A further analysis revealed that all groups performed with the normal range, although patients with AN were over represented in the poorest performing quartile. We found no severe cognitive impairments in either patient group. Nevertheless, belonging to the AN group contributed significantly to poor performances in neuropsychological tasks. Therefore, we conclude that the risk for cognitive impairments is slightly higher for patients with AN. PMID:26695683

  15. Reduced Efficiency and Capacity of Cognitive Control in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Melissa-Ann; Fan, Jin

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive control constrains mental operations to prioritize information that reaches conscious awareness and is essential to flexible, adaptive behavior under conditions of uncertainty. Cognitive control can be compromised by neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is characterized by the presence of social and communicative deficits, and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. Although prior investigations have attempted to elucidate the nature of cognitive control in ASD, whether there is an underlying information processing deficit associated with cognitive control remains unclear. This study challenged cognitive control in 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 typically developing (TD) controls using three novel tasks designed to systematically manipulate uncertainty. We aimed to investigate the efficiency of cognitive control in sequential information processing, cognitive control of nonsequential information processing across a range of cognitive loads and cognitive control capacity under time constraint. Results demonstrated that the ASD group performed less efficiently on sequential and nonsequential information processing, and had reduced cognitive control capacity under time constraint relative to the TD group. These findings suggest that inefficient cognitive control of information processing may be a fundamental deficit in ASD. PMID:26171787

  16. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism

  17. Should Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms Be Included in the Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Richard D.; Rasmussen, Erik R.; Wood, Catherine; Levy, Florence; Hay, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of including sluggish cognitive tempo items on the factor and latent class structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes in boys and girls. Method: Parent report of two sluggish cognitive tempo items on a population-based sample of 1,430 female twins and 1,414 male twins were analyzed…

  18. The Uses of Cognitive Training Technologies in the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wass, Sam V.; Porayska-Pomsta, Kaska

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we focus on research that has used technology to provide cognitive training--i.e. to improve performance on some measurable aspect of behaviour--in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. We review technology-enhanced interventions that target three different cognitive domains: (a) emotion and face recognition, (b) language and…

  19. Can the Components of a Cognitive Model Predict the Severity of Generalized Anxiety Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugas, Michel J.; Savard, Pierre; Gaudet, Adrienne; Turcotte, Julie; Laugesen, Nina; Robichaud, Melisa; Francis, Kylie; Koerner, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, a number of well-controlled studies have supported the validity of a cognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) that has four main components: intolerance of uncertainty, positive beliefs about worry, negative problem orientation, and cognitive avoidance. Although these studies have shown that the model components…

  20. Comparison of Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy in the Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Gillian; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Assigned 57 subjects meeting criteria for generalized anxiety disorder to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior therapy (BT), or a waiting-list control group. Made assessments before treatment, after treatment, and six months later. Results showed a consistent pattern of change favoring CBT in measures of anxiety, depression, and cognition.…

  1. Brief Report: Cognitive Flexibility in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Quantitative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Rachel C.; Zakzanis, Konstantine K.

    2014-01-01

    Impairments in cognitive flexibility have been used to characterize the neuropsychological presentation of persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Previous studies have yielded mixed results. Our objective was to systematically review the sensitivity of cognitive flexibility measures in ASD using quantitative methods employed by…

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Anxiety and Phobic Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Neville J.; Heyne, David; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of cognitive-behavioural strategies used in the treatment of child-anxiety problems, emphasizing the need for exposure and caregiver involvement. Most of the paper focuses on developments in empirically supported cognitive-behavioral intervention protocols for generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety…

  3. Gender Differences in the Maintenance of Response to Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felmingham, Kim L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential differential responses in men and women to cognitive behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Fifty-two men and 56 women diagnosed with PTSD participated in randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavior therapy for PTSD. Participants were randomly allocated to either (a) exposure-only…

  4. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Where Counseling and Neuroscience Meet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinson, Ryan A.; Young, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to support the biological basis of mental disorders. Subsequently, understanding the neurobiological context from which mental distress arises can help counselors appropriately apply cognitive behavioral therapy and other well-researched cognitive interventions. The purpose of this article is to describe the…

  5. Implications of Neuroscientific Evidence for the Cognitive Models of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruwys, Tegan; O'Kearney, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Brewin's dual representation theory, Ehlers and Clark's cognitive appraisal model, and Dalgleish's schematic, propositional, analogue and associative representational systems model are considered in the light of recent evidence on the neural substrates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The models' proposals about the cognitive mechanism of…

  6. Cognitive Inflexibility and Frontal-Cortical Activation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Jennifer C.; Rauch, Scott L.; Rosso, Isabelle M.; Killgore, William D. S.; Price, Lauren M.; Ragan, Jennifer; Chosak, Anne; Hezel, Dianne M.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pauls, David L.; Jenike, Michael A.; Stewart, S. Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Deficits in cognitive flexibility and response inhibition have been linked to perturbations in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although similar cognitive deficits have been identified in pediatric OCD, few neuroimaging studies have been conducted to examine its neural correlates in the…

  7. Mediated Moderation in Combined Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Component Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michelle G.; Fisher, Aaron J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined (a) duration of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as a moderator of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus its components (cognitive therapy and self-control desensitization) and (b) increases in dynamic flexibility of anxious symptoms during the course of psychotherapy as a mediator of this moderation. Degree of…

  8. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results of an 18-Month Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Bahorik, Amber L.; Litschge, Maralee Y.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with autism experience significant impairments in social and non-social information processing for which few treatments have been developed. This study conducted an 18-month uncontrolled trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET), a comprehensive cognitive rehabilitation intervention, in 14 verbal adults with autism spectrum disorder to…

  9. Difference of perceptions and evaluation of cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder patients across psychiatrists internationally

    PubMed Central

    Hammi, Emna El; Samp, Jennifer; Rémuzat, Cécile; Auray, Jean-Paul; Lamure, Michel; Aballéa, Samuel; Kooli, Amna; Akhras, Kasem

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many studies have suggested that major depressive disorder (MDD) is often associated with cognitive dysfunction. Despite this, guidance addressing assessment of cognitive dysfunction in MDD is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine psychiatrists’ perceptions and evaluation of cognitive dysfunction in routine practice in MDD patients across different countries. Method: A total of 61 psychiatrists in the US, Germany, France, Spain, Hong Kong, and Australia participated in an online survey about perceptions of cognitive dysfunction in MDD patients, evaluation of cognition and instruments used in cognitive evaluation. Results: Most psychiatrists reportedly relied on patient history interviews for cognitive evaluation (83% in France and approximately 60% in the USA, Germany, Australia and Hong Kong). The remainder used a cognitive instrument or a combination of cognitive instrument and patient history interview for assessment. Of those using instruments for cognitive assessment, only nine named instruments that were appropriate for cognitive evaluation. The remainder reported other clinical measures not intended for cognitive evaluation. Conclusions: Overall, psychiatrists in routine clinical practice value the assessment of cognitive in MDD. However, there is a lack of standardization in these assessments and misconceptions regarding proper assessment. PMID:24490027

  10. Nutrition and age-related eye diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vision loss among the elderly is an important health problem. Approximately one person in three has some form of vision-reducing eye disease by the age of 65 [1]. Age-related cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma are the major diseases resulting in visu...

  11. Cognitive Hypnotherapy for Accessing and Healing Emotional Injuries for Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen

    2016-07-01

    Although anxiety disorders on the surface may appear simple, they often represent complex problems that are compounded by underlying factors. For these reasons, treatment of anxiety disorders should be individualized. This article describes cognitive hypnotherapy, an individual comprehensive treatment protocol that integrates cognitive, behavioral, mindfulness, psychodynamic, and hypnotic strategies in the management of anxiety disorders. The treatment approach is based on the self-wounds model of anxiety disorders, which provides the rationale for integrating diverse strategies in the psychotherapy for anxiety disorders. Due to its evidence-based and integrated nature, the psychotherapy described here provides accuracy, efficacy, and sophistication in the formulation and treatment of anxiety disorders. This model can be easily adapted to the understanding and treatment of other emotional disorders. PMID:27196009

  12. Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder: a state-of-the-art clinical review.

    PubMed

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Carvalho, Andre F; McIntyre, Roger S

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and recurring mental disorder often associated with high rates of non-recovery and substantial consequences on psychosocial outcome. Cognitive impairment is one of the most frequent residual symptoms of MDD. The persistence of cognitive impairment even in remitted phases of the disorder, notably in the domains of executive function and attention, suggests that it may serve as a mediational nexus between MDD and poor functional outcome, accounting for occupational and relational difficulties regardless of clinical improvement on depressive symptoms. The critical impact of cognitive deficits on psychosocial dysfunction invites clinicians to regularly screen and assess cognition across multiple domains, taking into account also clinical correlates of cognitive dysfunction in MDD. Despite the availability of several instruments for the screening and assessment of cognitive dysfunction, the lack of consensus guiding the choice of appropriate instruments increases the likelihood to underestimate cognitive dysfunction in MDD in clinical settings. On the other hand, the unsatisfactory effect of most antidepressant treatments on cognitive deficits for many individuals with MDD calls for the development of genuinely novel therapeutic agents with potential to target cognitive dysfunction. Notwithstanding the necessity of further investigations, this review indicates that neuropsychological deficits (e.g., impaired executive functions) are stable markers of MDD and underscores the need for the development of integrative and multi-modal strategies for the prevention and treatment of neuropsychological impairments in MDD. PMID:25470396

  13. What Cognitive Behavioral Techniques Do Therapists Report Using when Delivering Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for the Eating Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Glenn; Stringer, Hannah; Meyer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Clinicians commonly "drift" away from using proven therapeutic techniques. This study examined the degree to which such drift occurs among cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) clinicians working with a specific clinical population--adults with eating disorders. Method: The study used a correlational design. The participants were 80…

  14. Altered Functional Connectivity between Emotional and Cognitive Resting State Networks in Euthymic Bipolar I Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lois, Giannis; Linke, Julia; Wessa, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by a functional imbalance between hyperactive ventral/limbic areas and hypoactive dorsal/cognitive brain regions potentially contributing to affective and cognitive symptoms. Resting-state studies in bipolar disorder have identified abnormal functional connectivity between these brain regions. However, most of these studies used a seed-based approach, thus restricting the number of regions that were analyzed. Using data-driven approaches, researchers identified resting state networks whose spatial maps overlap with frontolimbic areas such as the default mode network, the frontoparietal networks, the salient network, and the meso/paralimbic network. These networks are specifically engaged during affective and cognitive tasks and preliminary evidence suggests that functional connectivity within and between some of these networks is impaired in bipolar disorder. The present study used independent component analysis and functional network connectivity approaches to investigate functional connectivity within and between these resting state networks in bipolar disorder. We compared 30 euthymic bipolar I disorder patients and 35 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Inter-network connectivity analysis revealed increased functional connectivity between the meso/paralimbic and the right frontoparietal network in bipolar disorder. This abnormal connectivity pattern did not correlate with variables related to the clinical course of the disease. The present finding may reflect abnormal integration of affective and cognitive information in ventral-emotional and dorsal-cognitive networks in euthymic bipolar patients. Furthermore, the results provide novel insights into the role of the meso/paralimbic network in bipolar disorder. PMID:25343370

  15. Association of obesity and treated hypertension and diabetes with cognitive ability in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Depp, Colin A; Strassnig, Martin; Mausbach, Brent T; Bowie, Christopher R; Wolyniec, Paula; Thornquist, Mary H; Luke, James R; McGrath, John A; Pulver, Ann E; Patterson, Thomas L; Harvey, Philip D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives People with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia are at greater risk for obesity and other cardio-metabolic risks, and several prior studies have linked these risks to poorer cognitive ability. In a large ethnically homogenous outpatient sample, we examined associations among variables related to obesity, treated hypertension and/or diabetes, and cognitive abilities in these two patient populations. Methods In a study cohort of outpatients with either bipolar disorder (n = 341) or schizophrenia (n = 417), we investigated the association of self-reported body mass index and current use of medications for hypertension or diabetes with performance on a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. We examined sociodemographic and clinical factors as potential covariates. Results Patients with bipolar disorder were less likely to be overweight or obese than patients with schizophrenia, and also less likely to be prescribed medication for hypertension or diabetes. However, obesity and treated hypertension were associated with worse global cognitive ability in bipolar disorder (as well as with poorer performance on individual tests of processing speed, reasoning/problem-solving, and sustained attention), with no such relationships observed in schizophrenia. Obesity was not associated with symptom severity in either group. Conclusions Although less prevalent in bipolar disorder compared to schizophrenia, obesity was associated with substantially worse cognitive performance in bipolar disorder. This association was independent of symptom severity and not present in schizophrenia. Better understanding of the mechanisms and management of obesity may aid in efforts to preserve cognitive health in bipolar disorder. PMID:24725166

  16. Aging-associated formaldehyde-induced norepinephrine deficiency contributes to age-related memory decline.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yufei; Jiang, Chun; Wan, You; Lv, Jihui; Jia, Jianping; Wang, Xiaomin; Yang, Xu; Tong, Zhiqian

    2015-08-01

    A norepinephrine (NE) deficiency has been observed in aged rats and in patients with Alzheimer's disease and is thought to cause cognitive disorder. Which endogenous factor induces NE depletion, however, is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of aging-associated formaldehyde (FA) on the inactivation of NE in vitro and in vivo, and on memory behaviors in rodents. The results showed that age-related DNA demethylation led to hippocampal FA accumulation, and when this occurred, the hippocampal NE content was reduced in healthy male rats of different ages. Furthermore, biochemical analysis revealed that FA rapidly inactivated NE in vitro and that an intrahippocampal injection of FA markedly reduced hippocampal NE levels in healthy adult rats. Unexpectedly, an injection of FA (at a pathological level) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, a NE depletor) can mimic age-related NE deficiency, long-term potentiation (LTP) impairments, and spatial memory deficits in healthy adult rats. Conversely, an injection of NE reversed age-related deficits in both LTP and memory in aged rats. In agreement with the above results, the senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice also exhibited a severe deficit in LTP and memory associated with a more severe NE deficiency and FA accumulation, when compared with the age-matched, senescence-resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice. Injection of resveratrol (a natural FA scavenger) or NE into SAMP8 mice reversed FA accumulation and NE deficiency and restored the magnitude of LTP and memory. Collectively, these findings suggest that accumulated FA is a critical endogenous factor for aging-associated NE depletion and cognitive decline. PMID:25866202

  17. Aging-associated formaldehyde-induced norepinephrine deficiency contributes to age-related memory decline

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Yufei; Jiang, Chun; Wan, You; Lv, Jihui; Jia, Jianping; Wang, Xiaomin; Yang, Xu; Tong, Zhiqian

    2015-01-01

    A norepinephrine (NE) deficiency has been observed in aged rats and in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and is thought to cause cognitive disorder. Which endogenous factor induces NE depletion, however, is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of aging-associated formaldehyde (FA) on the inactivation of NE in vitro and in vivo, and on memory behaviors in rodents. The results showed that age-related DNA demethylation led to hippocampal FA accumulation, and when this occurred, the hippocampal NE content was reduced in healthy male rats of different ages. Furthermore, biochemical analysis revealed that FA rapidly inactivated NE in vitro and that an intrahippocampal injection of FA markedly reduced hippocampal NE levels in healthy adult rats. Unexpectedly, an injection of FA (at a pathological level) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, a NE depletor) can mimic age-related NE deficiency, long-term potentiation (LTP) impairments, and spatial memory deficits in healthy adult rats. Conversely, an injection of NE reversed age-related deficits in both LTP and memory in aged rats. In agreement with the above results, the senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice also exhibited a severe deficit in LTP and memory associated with a more severe NE deficiency and FA accumulation, when compared with the age-matched, senescence-resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice. Injection of resveratrol (a natural FA scavenger) or NE into SAMP8 mice reversed FA accumulation and NE deficiency and restored the magnitude of LTP and memory. Collectively, these findings suggest that accumulated FA is a critical endogenous factor for aging-associated NE depletion and cognitive decline. PMID:25866202

  18. Emotional power of music in patients with memory disorders: clinical implications of cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Samson, Séverine; Dellacherie, Delphine; Platel, Hervé

    2009-07-01

    By adapting methods of cognitive psychology to neuropsychology, we examined memory and familiarity abilities in music in relation to emotion. First we present data illustrating how the emotional content of stimuli influences memory for music. Second, we discuss recent findings obtained in patients with two different brain disorders (medically intractable epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease) that show relatively spared memory performance for music, despite severe verbal memory disorders. Studies on musical memory and its relation to emotion open up paths for new strategies in cognitive rehabilitation and reinstate the importance of examining interactions between cognitive and clinical neurosciences. PMID:19673788

  19. Adverse drug reactions in elderly patients with cognitive disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kanagaratnam, Lukshe; Dramé, Moustapha; Trenque, Thierry; Oubaya, Nadia; Nazeyrollas, Pierre; Novella, Jean-Luc; Jolly, Damien; Mahmoudi, Rachid

    2016-03-01

    Elderly subjects with cognitive disorders are at particularly high risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The objectives of our systematic review were to describe the prevalence of ADRs in elderly patients with cognitive disorders, the different types of ADRs and the medications suspected of involvement; to describe whether the ADRs were preventable or not, and to identify risk factors for occurrence of ADRs in this population. A bibliographic search was performed in the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Opengrey and Scopus. The search included all publications up to and including 4th February 2015, with no specific start date specified. Studies concerning ADRs in elderly patients with cognitive disorders or dementia were included. Two senior authors identified eligible studies and extracted data independently. In total, 113 studies were identified by the bibliographic search, of which six full-text articles were retained and analyzed. Prevalence of ADRs ranged from 4.8 to 37%. The main ADRs reported were neurological and psychological disorders, gastro-intestinal disorders, dermatological and allergic disorders, falls, renal and urinary disorders, cardiovascular disorders, metabolic disorders and electrolyte imbalance, and hemorrhagic events. The medications most commonly suspected of involvement in the ADRs were drugs affecting the nervous system, cardiovascular drugs, anticoagulants, and painkillers. Medical prescriptions should take into account the presence of Alzheimer's disease and related syndromes. Compliance should systematically be evaluated, and cognitive disorders need to be better recognized. Therapeutic education of patients and/or their caregiver is key to management of elderly patients with cognitive disorders. PMID:26857880

  20. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Acute Stress Disorder Resulting from an Anti-Gay Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaysen, Debra; Lostutter, Ty W.; Goines, Marie A.

    2005-01-01

    This case study describes Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with a 30-year-old gay man with symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) following a recent homophobic assault. Treatment addressed assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Also addressed were low self-esteem, helplessness, and high degrees of…

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Har, Kim; Chiu, Angela; Langer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children with autism spectrum disorders often present with comorbid anxiety disorders that cause significant functional impairment. This study tested a modular cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program for children with this profile. A standard CBT program was augmented with multiple treatment components designed to accommodate or…

  2. Sleep Disruption as a Correlate to Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been well documented, but less is known about the effects of sleep problems on day-time cognitive and adaptive performance in this population. Children diagnosed with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (N = 335) from 1 to 10 years of age…

  3. Children with Anxiety Disorders: Use of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Model within a Social Milieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearny, Regina; Pawlukewicz, Justine; Guardino, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Because anxiety is the most common mental health disorder diagnosed in children, early intervention is crucial for fundamental coping. Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the preferred treatment method for this affective disorder, instruction for children needs to be specific for them to successfully acquire and implement essential CBT…

  4. Counseling College Women Experiencing Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: A Cognitive Behavior Therapy Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura H.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is, by far, the most common eating disorder that college counseling professionals encounter among their female clients. Empirical evidence and best practice guidelines support use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with women experiencing EDNOS. This article…

  5. Neurobiological Circuits Regulating Attention, Cognitive Control, Motivation, and Emotion: Disruptions in Neurodevelopmental Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnsten, Amy F. T.; Rubia, Katya

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article aims to review basic and clinical studies outlining the roles of prefrontal cortical (PFC) networks in the behavior and cognitive functions that are compromised in childhood neurodevelopmental disorders and how these map into the neuroimaging evidence of circuit abnormalities in these disorders. Method: Studies of animals,…

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Modification Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moree, Brittany N.; Davis, Thompson E., III

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders have been found to be highly comorbid with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Even so, the identification and dissemination of empirically supported treatments for anxiety in adults or children who have ASD has lagged behind the larger evidence-based trend. This review examines the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a…

  7. Cognitive Dysfunction Is Worse among Pediatric Patients with Bipolar Disorder Type I than Type II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenkel, Lindsay S.; West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impaired profiles of neurocognitive function have been consistently demonstrated among pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and may aid in the identification of endophenotypes across subtypes of the disorder. This study aims to determine phenotypic cognitive profiles of patients with BD Type I and II. Methods: Subjects (N =…

  8. Specificity of Treatment Effects: Cognitive Therapy and Relaxation for Generalized Anxiety and Panic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siev, Jedidiah; Chambless, Dianne L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to address claims that among bona fide treatments no one is more efficacious than another by comparing the relative efficacy of cognitive therapy (CT) and relaxation therapy (RT) in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder without agoraphobia (PD). Two fixed-effects meta-analyses were…

  9. Attachment and social cognition in borderline personality disorder: Specificity in relation to antisocial and avoidant personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Beeney, Joseph E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Hallquist, Michael N; Scott, Lori N; Wright, Aidan G C; Ellison, William D; Nolf, Kimberly A; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    Theory and research point to the role of attachment difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Attachment insecurity is believed to lead to chronic problems in social relationships, attributable, in part, to impairments in social cognition, which comprise maladaptive mental representations of self, others, and self in relation to others. However, few studies have attempted to identify social-cognitive mechanisms that link attachment insecurity to BPD and to assess whether such mechanisms are specific to the disorder. For the present study, empirically derived indices of mentalization, self-other boundaries, and identity diffusion were tested as mediators between attachment style and personality disorder symptoms. In a cross-sectional structural equation model, mentalization and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and BPD. Mentalization partially mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and antisocial personality disorder (PD) symptoms, and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety. PMID:25705979

  10. Cognitive phenotype and psychiatric disorder in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A review.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Asit B; Furniss, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    The behavioural phenotype of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome syndrome (22q11DS), one of the most common human multiple anomaly syndromes, frequently includes intellectual disability (ID) together with high risk of diagnosis of psychotic disorders including schizophrenia. Candidate cognitive endophenotypes include problems with retrieval of contextual information from memory and in executive control and focussing of attention. 22q11DS may offer a model of the relationship between ID and risk of psychiatric disorder. This paper reviews research on the relationship between the cognitive phenotype and the development of psychiatric disorders in 22q11DS. Aspects of cognitive function including verbal I.Q., visual memory, and executive function, are associated with mental health outcome in people with 22q11DS. This relationship may result from a common neurobiological basis for the cognitive difficulties and psychiatric disorders. Some of the cognitive difficulties experienced by people with 22q11DS, especially in attention, memory retrieval, and face processing, may, however, in themselves constitute risk factors for development of hallucinations and paranoid delusions. Future research into factors leading to psychiatric disorder in people with 22q11DS should include assessment of social and psychological factors including life events, symptoms associated with trauma, attachment, and self-esteem, which together with cognitive risk factors may mediate mental health outcome. PMID:26942704

  11. CSF neuroinflammatory biomarkers in bipolar disorder are associated with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Rolstad, Sindre; Jakobsson, Joel; Sellgren, Carl; Isgren, Anniella; Ekman, Carl Johan; Bjerke, Maria; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Pålsson, Erik; Landén, Mikael

    2015-08-01

    Persistent cognitive impairment in the euthymic state of bipolar disorder is increasingly recognized. Mounting evidence also suggests an association between neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to test if cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of neuroinflammation could account for cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder. Hierarchical linear regression models were applied to account for performance in five cognitive domains using CSF neuroinflammatory biomarkers as predictors in patients with bipolar disorder type I and II (N=78). The associations between these biomarkers and cognition were further tested in healthy age- and sex-matched controls (N=86). In patients with bipolar disorder, the CSF biomarkers accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in executive functions (42.8%, p=<.0005) independently of age, medication, disease status, and bipolar subtype. The microglial marker YKL-40 had a high impact (beta=-.99), and was the only biomarker that contributed individually. CSF biomarkers were not associated with cognitive performance in healthy controls. The CSF neuroinflammation biomarker YKL-40 is associated with executive performance in euthymic bipolar disorder, but not in healthy controls. PMID:26024928

  12. Targeting Prefrontal Cortical Systems for Drug Development: Potential Therapies for Cognitive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Arnsten, Amy F T; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Medications to treat cognitive disorders are increasingly needed, yet researchers have had few successes in this challenging arena. Cognitive abilities in primates arise from highly evolved N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor circuits in layer III of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These circuits have unique modulatory needs that can differ from the layer V neurons that predominate in rodents, but they offer multiple therapeutic targets. Cognitive improvement often requires low doses that enhance the pattern of information held in working memory, whereas higher doses can produce nonspecific changes that obscure information. Identifying appropriate doses for clinical trials may be helped by assessments in monkeys and by flexible, individualized dose designs. The use of guanfacine (Intuniv) for prefrontal cortical disorders was based on research in monkeys, supporting this approach. Coupling our knowledge of higher primate circuits with the powerful methods now available in drug design will help create effective treatments for cognitive disorders. PMID:26738476

  13. Targeting Prefrontal Cortical Systems for Drug Development: Potential Therapies for Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Arnsten, Amy F.T.; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Medications to treat cognitive disorders are increasingly needed, yet researchers have had few successes in this challenging arena. Cognitive abilities in primates arise from highly evolved N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor circuits in layer III of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These circuits have unique modulatory needs that can differ from the layer V neurons that predominate in rodents, but they offer multiple therapeutic targets. Cognitive improvement often requires low doses that enhance the pattern of information held in working memory, whereas higher doses can produce nonspecific changes that obscure information. Identifying appropriate doses for clinical trials may be helped by assessments in monkeys and by flexible, individualized dose designs. The use of guanfacine (Intuniv) for prefrontal cortical disorders was based on research in monkeys, supporting this approach. Coupling our knowledge of higher primate circuits with the powerful methods now available in drug design will help create effective treatments for cognitive disorders. PMID:26738476

  14. The prevalence, measurement, and treatment of the cognitive dimension/domain in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Roger S; Xiao, Holly X; Syeda, Kahlood; Vinberg, Maj; Carvalho, Andre F; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Maruschak, Nadia; Cha, Danielle S

    2015-07-01

    Insufficient outcomes amongst adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) provide the impetus to identify and refine therapeutic targets that are most critical to outcome from patient, provider, and societal perspectives. Towards this aim, a pivotal shift towards the transnosological domain, cognition, is occurring in the study of MDD and other brain disorders. This paper aims to provide a framework for conceptualizing and prioritizing cognitive function amongst adults with MDD with a particular view to provide a conceptual framework for research and clinical priorities. We also summarize extant data pertaining to psychotropic effects, notably antidepressants, on the cognitive dimension/domain. This narrative review was based on articles identified through a PubMed/MEDLINE search of all English-language articles published between January 1966 and October 2014. The search words were major depressive disorder, depression, unipolar depression, cognition, cognitive dysfunction, cognitive deficit, and cognitive function. The search was supplemented with a manual review of relevant references. The selection of articles for inclusion in this review was based on overall methodological quality as well as on their pertinence to informing the framework described herein. Cognitive dysfunction in MDD is a discrete domain subserved by discrete yet overlapping substrates. There is a need to provide a glossary of terms commonly employed in the cognition literature for consensus as to the appropriate screening, measurement, and monitoring tools. The guiding principle of measurement-based care should include systematic assessment and measurement of cognition in subpopulations with MDD, as a tactic to improve outcome. Relatively few treatment strategies have demonstrated efficacy specifically for the cognitive domain in MDD. The antidepressant vortioxetine has replicated evidence of specific pro-cognitive effects in adults with MDD across multiple subdomains of cognitive function

  15. [Asthenic disorders and cognitive dysfunction in patients with tension headache].

    PubMed

    Chutko, L S; Surushkina, S Iu; Rozhkova, A V; Iakovenko, E A; Bykova, Iu L; Nikishina, I S

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of cognitive dysfunction in patients suffering from tension headaches. Patients had attention and memory dysfunction, higher levels of anxiety, asthenia and subclinical symptoms of depression. The high efficacy of cerebrolysin in the restoration of cognitive dysfunction confirmed by the data of clinical, psychological and neuropsychological studies was shown. PMID:23739500

  16. Cognitive Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chosak, Anne; Marques, Luana; Fama, Jeanne; Renaud, Stefanie; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive therapy for OCD is an empirically validated alternative to the more widely used and validated behavioral therapy for OCD. The cognitive approach is based on the premise that belief systems contribute importantly to the development and maintenance of all types of OCD. By identifying and challenging maladaptive thoughts, beliefs, and core…

  17. Behavioral Response Inhibition in Psychotic Disorders: Diagnostic Specificity, Familiality and Relation to Generalized Cognitive Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Ethridge, Lauren E.; Soilleux, Melanie; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Reilly, James L.; Hill, S. Kristian; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Gershon, Elliot S.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Sweeney, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Difficulty inhibiting context-inappropriate behavior is a common deficit in psychotic disorders. The diagnostic specificity of this impairment, its familiality, and its degree of independence from the generalized cognitive deficit associated with psychotic disorders remain to be clarified. Schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar patients with history of psychosis (n=523), their available first-degree biological relatives (n=656), and healthy participants (n=223) from the multi-site B-SNIP study completed a manual Stop Signal task. A nonlinear mixed model was used to fit logistic curves to success rates on Stop trials as a function of parametrically varied Stop Signal Delay. While schizophrenia patients had greater generalized cognitive deficit than bipolar patients, their deficits were similar on the Stop Signal task. Further, only bipolar patients showed impaired inhibitory control relative to healthy individuals after controlling for generalized cognitive deficit. Deficits accounted for by the generalized deficit were seen in relatives of schizophrenia and schizoaffective patients, but not in relatives of bipolar patients. In clinically stable patients with psychotic bipolar disorder, impaired inhibitory behavioral control was a specific cognitive impairment, distinct from the generalized neuropsychological impairment associated with psychotic disorders. Thus, in bipolar disorder with psychosis, a deficit in inhibitory control may contribute to risk for impulsive behavior. Because the deficit was not familial in bipolar families and showed a lack of independence from the generalized cognitive deficit in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, it appears to be a trait related to illness processes rather than one tracking familial risk factors. PMID:25261042

  18. A Review of the Role of Social Cognition in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Weightman, Michael James; Air, Tracy Michele; Baune, Bernhard Theodor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social cognition – the ability to identify, perceive, and interpret socially relevant information – is an important skill that plays a significant role in successful interpersonal functioning. Social cognitive performance is recognized to be impaired in several psychiatric conditions, but the relationship with major depressive disorder is less well understood. The aim of this review is to characterize the current understanding of: (i) the different domains of social cognition and a possible relationship with major depressive disorder, (ii) the clinical presentation of social cognition in acute and remitted depressive states, and (iii) the effect of severity of depression on social cognitive performance. Methods: Electronic databases were searched to identify clinical studies investigating social cognition in a major depressive disorder population, yielding 31 studies for this review. Results: Patients with major depressive disorder appear to interpret social cognitive stimuli differently to healthy controls: depressed individuals may interpret emotion through a mood-congruent bias and have difficulty with cognitive theory of mind tasks requiring interpretation of complex mental states. Social cognitive performance appears to be inversely associated with severity of depression, whilst the bias toward negative emotions persists even in remission. Some deficits may normalize following effective pharmacotherapy. Conclusions: The difficulties with social interaction observed in major depressive disorder may, at least in part, be due to an altered ability to correctly interpret emotional stimuli and mental states. These features seem to persist even in remission, although some may respond to intervention. Further research is required in this area to better understand the functional impact of these findings and the way in which targeted therapy could aid depressed individuals with social interactions. PMID:25566100

  19. [Post-surgery cognitive disorders: prevention, diagnosis and treatment strategies].

    PubMed

    Krolak-Salmon, P; Mouchoux, C

    2011-10-01

    Hip fracture is an important step in the autonomy evolution in elderly. As gait is particularly jeopardised after such a traumatism, cognition may also be acutely impaired. Elderly post-surgery delirium is frequent, but chronic progression of cognitive impairment and dementia may occur. The concept of cognitive reserve is crucial for understanding risk factors of post-surgery delirium in elderly. The more the cognitive reserve is decreased before such a traumatism, the higher the delirium and dementia progression risk is. A neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease may be clinically silent prior the traumatic event, and may decompensate soon after as the cognitive reserve is not sufficient anymore. Dementia may then lead to progressive autonomy loss. A systematic interdisciplinary approach is needed to prevent frail patients from delirium, and to early cure it to decrease the risk of long-term autonomy loss. PMID:21821381

  20. Healthcare utilization following cognitive-behavioral treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Pasquale; Marchand, André; Reinharz, Daniel; Cloutier, Karine; Mainguy, Nicole; Miller, Jean-Marc; Bégin, Jean; Turcotte, Julie

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the overall changes in healthcare services utilization after providing an empirically supported cognitive-behavioral treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia. Data on healthcare utilization were collected for a total of 84 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria. Participants were completers of a cognitive-behavioral treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia. Data on utilization of healthcare services and medication were obtained from semi-structured interviews from baseline to 1-year after treatment. Results of the Friedman non-parametric analysis reveal a significant decrease in overall and mental health-related costs following treatment. This study shows a significant reduction in healthcare costs following cognitive behavior therapy for panic disorder with agoraphobia. More studies are needed to examine the potential long-term cost-offset effect of empirically supported treatments for panic disorder. PMID:15986784

  1. X-82 to Treat Age-related Macular Degeneration

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-16

    Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD); Macular Degeneration; Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration; AMD; Macular Degeneration, Age-related, 10; Eye Diseases; Retinal Degeneration; Retinal Diseases

  2. Cognitive Deficits as a Mediator of Poor Occupational Function in Remitted Major Depressive Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Young Sup; Rosenblat, Joshua D.; Kakar, Ron; Bahk, Won-Myong; McIntyre, Roger S.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients have been described in numerous studies. However, few reports have aimed to describe cognitive deficits in the remitted state of MDD and the mediational effect of cognitive deficits on occupational outcome. The aim of the current review is to synthesize the literature on the mediating and moderating effects of specific domains of cognition on occupational impairment among people with remitted MDD. In addition, predictors of cognitive deficits found to be vocationally important will be examined. Upon examination of the extant literature, attention, executive function and verbal memory are areas of consistent impairment in remitted MDD patients. Cognitive domains shown to have considerable impact on vocational functioning include deficits in memory, attention, learning and executive function. Factors that adversely affect cognitive function related to occupational accommodation include higher age, late age at onset, residual depressive symptoms, history of melancholic/psychotic depression, and physical/psychiatric comorbidity, whereas higher levels of education showed a protective effect against cognitive deficit. Cognitive deficits are a principal mediator of occupational impairment in remitted MDD patients. Therapeutic interventions specifically targeting cognitive deficits in MDD are needed, even in the remitted state, to improve functional recovery, especially in patients who have a higher risk of cognitive deficit. PMID:26792035

  3. One-carbon metabolism in neurodevelopmental disorders: using broad-based nutraceutics to treat cognitive deficits in complex spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Schaevitz, Laura; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne; Ricceri, Laura

    2014-10-01

    Folate and choline, two nutrients involved in the one-carbon metabolic cycle, are intimately involved in regulating DNA integrity, synthesis, biogenic amine synthesis, and methylation. In this review, we discuss evidence that folate and choline play an important role in normal cognitive development, and that altered levels of these nutrients during periods of high neuronal proliferation and synaptogenesis can result in diminished cognitive function. We also discuss the use of these nutrients as therapeutic agents in a spectrum of developmental disorders in which intellectual disability is a prominent feature, such as in Fragile-X, Rett syndrome, Down syndrome, and Autism spectrum disorders. A survey of recent literature suggests that nutritional supplements have mild, but generally consistent, effects on improving cognition. Intervening with supplements earlier rather than later during development is more effective in improving cognitive outcomes. Given the mild improvements seen after treatments using nutrients alone, and the importance of the genetic profile of parents and offspring, we suggest that using nutraceutics early in development and in combination with other therapeutics are likely to have positive impacts on cognitive outcomes in a broad spectrum of complex neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24769289

  4. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Long-Term Effects on Anxiety and Secondary Disorders in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Lissette M.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Kurtines, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study's aim was to examine the long-term effects (8 to 13 years post-treatment; M = 9.83 years; SD = 1.71) of the most widely used treatment approaches of exposure-based cognitive behavioral treatment for phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (i.e., group treatment and two variants of individual…

  5. Correlates of cognitive flexibility in veterans seeking treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Keith, Jessica; Velezmoro, Rodrigo; O'Brien, Carol

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between cognitive flexibility and variables that may be associated with treatment outcome for 579 veterans seeking Veterans Health Administration treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) secondary to combat or sexual trauma. Factors associated with severity of PTSD (level of PTSD symptoms and guilt cognitions) and with PTSD prognosis (posttraumatic growth and optimistic expectations for the future) were examined. Regression analyses revealed that cognitive flexibility was associated with lower levels of PTSD symptoms and fewer guilt cognitions. Cognitive flexibility was positively associated with posttraumatic growth and optimistic expectations for the future, even when controlling for PTSD severity. These results suggest that interventions designed to increase cognitive flexibility in veterans may be a worthwhile adjunct to treatment for PTSD as we continue efforts to improve treatment outcomes. PMID:25784306

  6. A Role for Cognitive Rehabilitation in Increasing the Effectiveness of Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Marsha E.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Nguyen, Tam T.

    2013-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairments are prevalent in persons seeking treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). These impairments and their physical, social, psychological and occupational consequences vary in severity across persons, much like those resulting from traumatic brain injury; however, due to their slower course of onset, alcohol-related cognitive impairments are often overlooked both within and outside of the treatment setting. Evidence suggests that cognitive impairments can impede treatment goals through their effects on treatment processes. Although some recovery of alcohol-related cognitive impairments often occurs after cessation of drinking (time-dependent recovery), the rate and extent of recovery is variable across cognitive domains and individuals. Following a long hiatus in scientific interest, a new generation of research aims to facilitate treatment process and improve AUD treatment outcomes by directly promoting cognitive recovery (experience-dependent recovery). This review updates knowledge about the nature and course of cognitive and brain impairments associated with AUD, including cognitive effects of adolescent AUD. We summarize current evidence for indirect and moderating relationships of cognitive impairment to treatment outcome, and discuss how advances in conceptual frameworks of brain-behavior relationships are fueling the development of novel AUD interventions that include techniques for cognitive remediation. Emerging evidence suggests that such interventions can be effective in promoting cognitive recovery in persons with AUD and other substance use disorders, and potentially increasing the efficacy of AUD treatments. Finally, translational approaches based on cognitive science, neurophysiology, and neuroscience research are considered as promising future directions for effective treatment development that includes cognitive rehabilitation. PMID:23412885

  7. Dietary Vitamin D Deficiency in Rats from Middle- to Old-age Leads to Elevated Tyrosine Nitration and Proteomics Changes in Levels of Key Proteins in Brain: Implications for Low Vitamin D-dependent Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Keeney, Jeriel T. R.; Förster, Sarah; Sultana, Rukhsana; Brewer, Lawrence D.; Latimer, Caitlin S.; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B.; Porter, Nada M.; Butterfield, D. Allan

    2013-01-01

    status. Together, these results suggest that dietary VitD deficiency contributes to significant nitrosative stress in brain and may promote cognitive decline in middle-aged and elderly adults. PMID:23872023

  8. Dietary vitamin D deficiency in rats from middle to old age leads to elevated tyrosine nitration and proteomics changes in levels of key proteins in brain: implications for low vitamin D-dependent age-related cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Keeney, Jeriel T R; Förster, Sarah; Sultana, Rukhsana; Brewer, Lawrence D; Latimer, Caitlin S; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Porter, Nada M; Butterfield, D Allan

    2013-12-01

    results suggest that dietary VitD deficiency contributes to significant nitrosative stress in brain and may promote cognitive decline in middle-aged and elderly adults. PMID:23872023

  9. Olfactory dysfunction and cognitive impairment in age-related neurodegeneration: prevalence related to patient selection, diagnostic criteria and therapeutic treatment of aged clients receiving clinical neurology and community-based care.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2011-11-01

    A decrease in olfactory function with age has been attributed to a variety of factors including normal anatomical and physiological changes in aging, surgery, trauma, environmental factors, medications and disease. Olfactory impairment has also been associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease. Deficits in these chemical senses cannot only reduce the pleasure and comfort from food, but represent risk factors for nutritional and immune deficiencies as well as adherence to specific dietary regimens. Therapy is limited, but one should be aware of the existing medical and surgical treatment modalities. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, copper and zinc ions, glycating agents and reactive aldehydes, protein cross-linking and proteolytic dysfunction may all contribute to neurodegeneration, olfactory dysfunction, AD. Carnosine (beta-alanyl- L-histidine) is a naturally-occurring, pluripotent, homeostatic transglycating agent. The olfactory lobe is normally enriched in carnosine and zinc. Loss of olfactory function and oxidative damage to olfactory tissue are early symptoms of AD. Protein and lipid oxidation and glycation are integral components of the AD pathophysiology. Carnosine can suppress amyloidbeta peptide toxicity, inhibit production of oxygen free-radicals, scavenge hydroxyl radicals and reactive aldehydes, and suppresses protein glycation. The observations suggest that patented non-hydrolyzed carnosine lubricant drug delivery or perfume toilet water formulations combined with related moiety amino acid structures, such as beta-alanine, should be explored for therapeutic potential towards olfactory dysfunction, AD and other neurodegenerative disorders. "The olfactory system, anatomically, is right in the middle of the part of the brain that's very important for memory. There are strong neural connections between the two." ~ Donald Wilson. PMID:22082323

  10. Causes and consequences of age-related steroid hormone changes: insights gained from nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Sorwell, K G; Urbanski, H F

    2013-11-01

    Similar to humans, rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are large, long-lived diurnal primates, and show similar age-related changes in the secretion of many steroid hormones, including oestradiol, testosterone, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Consequently, they represent a pragmatic animal model in which to examine the mechanisms by which these steroidal changes contribute to perturbed sleep-wake cycles and cognitive decline in the elderly. Using remote serial blood sampling, we have found the circulating levels of DHEA sulphate, as well as oestradiol and testosterone, decline markedly in old monkeys. Furthermore, using the real-time polymerase chain reaction, we have shown that the genes for the enzymes associated with the conversion of DHEA to oestradiol and testosterone (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase) are highly expressed in brain areas associated with cognition and behaviour, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Taken together, these findings suggest that the administration of supplementary DHEA in the elderly may have therapeutic potential for cognitive and behavioural disorders, although with fewer negative side effects outside of the central nervous system. To test this, we have developed a novel steroid supplementation paradigm for use in old animals; this involves the oral administration of DHEA and testosterone at physiologically relevant times of the day to mimic the circadian hormone patterns observed in young adults. We are currently evaluating the efficacy of this steroid supplementation paradigm with respect to reversing age-associated disorders, including perturbed sleep-wake cycles and cognitive decline, as well as an impaired immune response. PMID:23796387

  11. Cognitive Profiles of Adults with Asperger's Disorder, High-Functioning Autism, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Based on the WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanai, Chieko; Tani, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Yamada, Takashi; Ota, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the cognitive profiles of high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in adults based on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). We examined cognitive profiles of adults with no intellectual disability (IQ greater than 70), and in adults with Asperger's disorder (AS; n = 47), high-functioning autism (HFA;…

  12. D-Cycloserine as an augmentation strategy for cognitive behavioral therapy of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Wu, Jade Q; Boettcher, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this review is to examine the clinical studies on d-cycloserine, a partial glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist, as an augmentation strategy for exposure procedures during cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and anxiolytic medications are more effective than placebo for treating anxiety disorders, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Traditional combination strategies typically yield disappointing results. However, recent studies based on translational research have shown promise to augment the neural circuitry underlying fear extinction with pharmacological means. We discuss the current state of the literature, including inconsistencies of findings and issues concerning the drug mechanism, dosing, and dose timing. D-cycloserine is a promising combination strategy for cognitive behavioral therapy of anxiety disorders by augmenting extinction learning. However, there is also evidence to suggest that d-cycloserine can facilitate reconsolidation of fear memory when exposure procedures are unsuccessful. PMID:23768232

  13. D-Cycloserine as an augmentation strategy for cognitive behavioral therapy of anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this review is to examine the clinical studies on d-cycloserine, a partial glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist, as an augmentation strategy for exposure procedures during cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and anxiolytic medications are more effective than placebo for treating anxiety disorders, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Traditional combination strategies typically yield disappointing results. However, recent studies based on translational research have shown promise to augment the neural circuitry underlying fear extinction with pharmacological means. We discuss the current state of the literature, including inconsistencies of findings and issues concerning the drug mechanism, dosing, and dose timing. D-cycloserine is a promising combination strategy for cognitive behavioral therapy of anxiety disorders by augmenting extinction learning. However, there is also evidence to suggest that d-cycloserine can facilitate reconsolidation of fear memory when exposure procedures are unsuccessful. PMID:23768232

  14. Age-related hypoxia in CNS pathology.

    PubMed

    Bădescu, George Mihai; Fîlfan, Mădălina; Ciobanu, Ovidiu; Dumbravă, DănuŢ Adrian; Popa-Wagner, Aurel

    2016-01-01

    Although neuropathological conditions differ in the etiology of the inflammatory response, cellular and molecular mechanisms of neuroinflammation are probably similar in aging, hypertension, depression and cognitive impairment. Moreover, a number of common risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerosis are increasingly understood to act as "silent contributors" to neuroinflammation and can underlie the development of disorders such as cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) and subsequent dementia. On the other hand, acute neuroinflammation, such as in response to traumatic or cerebral ischemia, aggravates the acute damage and can lead to a number of pathological such as depression, post-stroke dementia and potentially neurodegeneration. All of those sequelae impair recovery and most of them provide the ground for further cerebrovascular events and a vicious cycle develops. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms associated with vascular dementia, stroke and related complications is of paramount importance in improving current preventive and therapeutic interventions. Likewise, understanding of molecular factors and pathways associated with neuroinflammation will eventually enable the discovery and implementation of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies indicated in a wide range of neurological conditions. PMID:27151686

  15. Computational Neuropsychiatry – Schizophrenia as a Cognitive Brain Network Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Dauvermann, Maria R.; Whalley, Heather C.; Schmidt, André; Lee, Graham L.; Romaniuk, Liana; Roberts, Neil; Johnstone, Eve C.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Moorhead, Thomas W. J.

    2014-01-01

    Computational modeling of functional brain networks in fMRI data has advanced the understanding of higher cognitive function. It is hypothesized that functional networks mediating higher cognitive processes are disrupted in people with schizophrenia. In this article, we review studies that applied measures of functional and effective connectivity to fMRI data during cognitive tasks, in particular working memory fMRI studies. We provide a conceptual summary of the main findings in fMRI data and their relationship with neurotransmitter systems, which are known to be altered in individuals with schizophrenia. We consider possible developments in computational neuropsychiatry, which are likely to further our understanding of how key functional networks are altered in schizophrenia. PMID:24723894

  16. Childhood IQ and Adult Mental Disorders: A Test of the Cognitive Reserve Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Roberts, Andrea L.; Martin, Laurie T.; Kubzansky, Laura; Harrington, HonaLee; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2009-01-01

    Objective Cognitive reserve has been proposed as important in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, tests of the association between premorbid IQ and adult mental disorders other than schizophrenia have been limited and inconclusive. The authors tested the hypothesis that low childhood IQ is associated with increased risk and severity of adult mental disorders. Method Participants were members of a representative 1972-1973 birth cohort of 1,037 males and females in Dunedin, New Zealand, who were followed up to age 32 with 96% retention. WISC-R IQ was assessed at ages 7, 9, and 11. Research diagnoses of DSM mental disorders were made at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32. Results Lower childhood IQ was associated with increased risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorder, adult depression, and adult anxiety. Lower childhood IQ was also associated with greater comorbidity and with persistence of depression; the association with persistence of generalized anxiety disorder was nearly significant. Higher childhood IQ predicted increased risk of adult mania. Conclusions Lower cognitive reserve, as reflected by childhood IQ, is an antecedent of several common psychiatric disorders and also predicts persistence and comorbidity. Thus, many patients who seek mental health treatment may have lower cognitive ability; this should be considered in prevention and treatment planning. PMID:19047325

  17. Experiential cognitive therapy in the treatment of panic disorders with agoraphobia: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Vincelli, F; Anolli, L; Bouchard, S; Wiederhold, B K; Zurloni, V; Riva, G

    2003-06-01

    The use of a multicomponent cognitive-behavioral treatment strategy for panic disorder with agoraphobia is actually one of the preferred therapeutic approaches for this disturbance. This method involves a mixture of cognitive and behavioral techniques that are intended to help patients identify and modify their dysfunctional anxiety-related thoughts, beliefs and behavior. The paper presents a new treatment protocol for Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia, named Experiential-Cognitive Therapy (ECT) that integrates the use of virtual reality (VR) in a multicomponent cognitive-behavioral treatment strategy. The VR software used for the trial is freely downloadable: www.cyberpsychology.info/try.htm. Moreover, the paper presents the result of a controlled study involving 12 consecutive patients aged 35-53. The selected subjects were randomly divided in three groups: ECT group, that experienced the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Virtual Reality assisted treatment (eight sessions), a CBT group that experienced the traditional Cognitive Behavioral approach (12 sessions) and a waiting list control group. The data showed that both CBT and ECT could significantly reduce the number of panic attacks, the level of depression and both state and trait anxiety. However, ECT procured these results using 33% fewer sessions than CBT. This datum suggests that ECT could be better than CBT in relation to the "cost of administration," justifying the added use of VR equipment in the treatment of panic disorders. PMID:12855090

  18. Relationship of cognitive function and adjustment difficulties among children and adolescents with dissociative disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Mehta, Manju; Sagar, Rajesh; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Although it has been suggested that children and adolescents with dissociative disorder have some cognitive deficits, the association of these cognitive impairments with adjustment difficulties has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between cognitive functioning and adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents with dissociative disorder. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive assessment was carried out in the outpatient setting of child and adolescent psychiatric service in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty newly diagnosed children and adolescents with dissociative disorder were included. The cognitive functions were assessed by varied neuropsychological tests, and Bell's adjustment inventory was used for assessing various domains of adjustment. Results: The mean age of the sample which comprised 40% males was 13.0 (±2.4) years. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ) of the sample was 90.6. Impairment in cognitive test was maximum for verbal working memory followed by sustained attention, visual learning and memory, and verbal retention and recall. Adjustment difficulties were greatest in the domains of self, followed by domains of health, school, and family. Significant association was found between the IQ and adjustment in school; visual learning and memory and adjustments in school and overall adjustment; and sustained attention and adjustment of health. Conclusions: Dissociative children have poor cognitive ability which may be related to poor adjustment scores. PMID:27114655

  19. Cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: a systematic review of meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A; Vieta, Eduard; Carvalho, André F

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). A neurocognitive profile characterized by widespread cognitive deficits across multiple domains in the context of substantial intellectual impairment, which appears to antedate illness onset, is a replicated finding in SZ. There is no specific neuropsychological signature that can facilitate the diagnostic differentiation of SZ and BD, notwithstanding, neuropsychological deficits appear more severe in SZ. The literature in this field has provided contradictory results due to methodological differences across studies. Meta-analytic techniques may offer an opportunity to synthesize findings and to control for potential sources of heterogeneity. Here, we performed a systematic review of meta-analyses of neuropsychological findings in SZ and BD. While there is no conclusive evidence for progressive cognitive deterioration in either SZ or BD, some findings point to more severe cognitive deficits in patients with early illness onset across both disorders. A compromised pattern of cognitive functioning in individuals at familiar and/or clinical risk to psychosis as well as in first-degree relatives of BD patients suggests that early neurodevelopmental factors may play a role in the emergence of cognitive deficits in both disorders. Premorbid intellectual impairment in SZ and at least in a subgroup of patients with BD may be related to a shared genetically determined influence on neurodevelopment. PMID:26719696

  20. Assessing Cognitive Function in Bipolar Disorder: Challenges and Recommendations for Clinical Trial Design

    PubMed Central

    Burdick, Katherine E.; Ketter, Terence A.; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Calabrese, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia has been recognized for more than a century. In contrast, only recently have significant neurocognitive deficits been recognized in bipolar disorder. Converging data suggest the importance of cognitive problems in relation to quality of life in bipolar disorder, highlighting the need for treatment and prevention efforts targeting cognition in bipolar patients. Future treatment trials targeting cognitive deficits will be met with methodological challenges due to the inherent complexity and heterogeneity of the disorder, including significant diagnostic comorbidities, the episodic nature of the illness, frequent use of polypharmacy, cognitive heterogeneity, and a lack of consensus regarding measurement of cognition and outcome in bipolar patients. Guidelines for use in designing future trials are needed. PARTICIPANTS The members of the consensus panel (each of the bylined authors) were selected based upon their expertise in bipolar disorder. Dr. Burdick is a neuropsychologist who has studied cognition in this illness for 15 years; Drs. Ketter, Calabrese, and Goldberg each bring considerable expertise in the treatment of bipolar disorder both within and outside of controlled clinical trials. This consensus statement was derived from work together at scientific meetings (e.g. symposium presention at the 2014 Annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology, among others) and ongoing discussions by conference call. With the exception of the public presentations on this topic, these meetings were closed to outside participants. EVIDENCE A literature review was undertaken by the authors to identify illness-specific challenges relevant to the design and conduct of treatment trials targeting neurocognition in bipolar disorder. Expert opinion from each of the authors guided the consensus recommendations. CONSENSUS PROCESS Consensus recommendations, reached by unanimous opinion of the authors, are

  1. Socio-cultural and cognitive predictors of eating disorder symptoms in young girls.

    PubMed

    Bell, C; Cooper, M J

    2005-12-01

    There is some evidence for a relationship between socio-cultural variables and the development of disordered eating or concerns. However, the role of individual cognition in adding to this relationship has not yet been investigated. The current study therefore had two main questions. Firstly, which of the socio-cultural factors investigated (parental, peers and the media) predict girls' eating disorder related symptoms? Secondly, do individuals' cognitions add to this prediction? Thirty-eight girls participated in the study. They completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), Eating Disorder Belief Questionnaire (EDBQ), measures of parental, peer and media influence, and a measure of their awareness and internalisation of societal standards of attractiveness. The results indicated that several of the socio-cultural factors were related to girls' EAT score. The belief that being thinner would make boys like them more was the most significant predictor in the whole sample (and in younger girls). Individual cognitions added significantly to this prediction in the whole sample but not in the younger girls. For older girls, the importance of magazines as a source of information about beauty and ideals was the strongest predictor of EAT score, and their cognitions added significantly to this prediction. It is concluded that peer and media influences are important determinants of girls' eating disorder related symptoms. However, individual cognitions add to this relationship, particularly in older girls. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:16682869

  2. A lipid storage–like disorder contributes to cognitive decline in HIV-infected subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Mielke, Michelle M.; Sacktor, Ned; McArthur, Justin C.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Chang, Linda; Wojna, Valerie; Pardo, Carlos; Calabresi, Peter; Munsaka, Sody

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this multicenter cohort study, we sought to identify prognostic and associative metabolic indicators for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Methods: A quantitative lipidomic analysis was conducted on 524 longitudinal CSF samples collected from 7 different performance sites across the mainland United States, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Subjects included HIV-infected individuals with longitudinal clinical and cognitive testing data and cognitively normal HIV-negative healthy controls. Results: At baseline, HIV+ subjects could be differentiated from HIV− controls by reductions in a single ceramide species and increases in multiple forms of cholesterol. Perturbations in cholesterol metabolism and ceramide were influenced by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) use. There were no cross-sectional baseline differences in any lipid metabolite when HIV+ subjects were grouped according to cognitive status. However, a single sphingolipid metabolite and reduced levels of esterified cholesterols were prognostic indicators of incident cognitive decline. Longitudinal patterns of these disturbances in sphingolipid and sterol metabolism suggest that a progressive disorder of lipid metabolism that is similar to disorders of lipid storage may contribute to the pathogenesis of HAND. Conclusions: These findings suggest that HIV infection and cART are independently associated with a CNS metabolic disturbance, identify surrogate markers that are prognostic for cognitive decline, and implicate a lipid storage–like disorder in the progression of HAND. PMID:24027056

  3. Pharmacogenetics and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Brantley, Milam A

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics seeks to explain interpatient variability in response to medications by investigating genotype-phenotype correlations. There is a small but growing body of data regarding the pharmacogenetics of both nonexudative and exudative age-related macular degeneration. Most reported data concern polymorphisms in the complement factor H and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 genes. At this time, the data are not consistent and no definite conclusions may be drawn. As clinical trials data continue to accumulate, these relationships may become more apparent. PMID:22046503

  4. Differences in age-related effects on brain volume in Down syndrome as compared to Williams syndrome and typical development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) are reported to experience early onset of brain aging. However, it is not well understood how pre-existing neurodevelopmental effects versus neurodegenerative processes might be contributing to the observed pattern of brain atrophy in younger adults with DS. The aims of the current study were to: (1) to confirm previous findings of age-related changes in DS compared to adults with typical development (TD), (2) to test for an effect of these age-related changes in a second neurodevelopmental disorder, Williams syndrome (WS), and (3) to identify a pattern of regional age-related effects that are unique to DS. Methods High-resolution T1-weighted MRI of the brains of subjects with DS, WS, and TD controls were segmented, and estimates of regional brain volume were derived using FreeSurfer. A general linear model was employed to test for age-related effects on volume between groups. Secondary analyses in the DS group explored the relationship between brain volume and neuropsychological tests and APOE. Results Consistent with previous findings, the DS group showed significantly greater age-related effects relative to TD controls in total gray matter and in regions of the orbitofrontal cortex and the parietal cortex. Individuals with DS also showed significantly greater age-related effects on volume of the left and right inferior lateral ventricles (LILV and RILV, respectively). There were no significant differences in age-related effects on volume when comparing the WS and TD groups. In the DS group, cognitive tests scores measuring signs of dementia and APOE ϵ4 carrier status were associated with LILV and RILV volume. Conclusions Individuals with DS demonstrated a unique pattern of age-related effects on gray matter and ventricular volume, the latter of which was associated with dementia rating scores in the DS group. Results may indicate that early onset of brain aging in DS is primarily due to DS

  5. Cognitive Dysfunction in Major Depressive Disorder. A Translational Review in Animal Models of the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Darcet, Flavie; Gardier, Alain M.; Gaillard, Raphael; David, Denis J.; Guilloux, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. In addition to the well-defined depressive symptoms, patients suffering from MDD consistently complain about cognitive disturbances, significantly exacerbating the burden of this illness. Among cognitive symptoms, impairments in attention, working memory, learning and memory or executive functions are often reported. However, available data about the heterogeneity of MDD patients and magnitude of cognitive symptoms through the different phases of MDD remain difficult to summarize. Thus, the first part of this review briefly overviewed clinical studies, focusing on the cognitive dysfunctions depending on the MDD type. As animal models are essential translational tools for underpinning the mechanisms of cognitive deficits in MDD, the second part of this review synthetized preclinical studies observing cognitive deficits in different rodent models of anxiety/depression. For each cognitive domain, we determined whether deficits could be shared across models. Particularly, we established whether specific stress-related procedures or unspecific criteria (such as species, sex or age) could segregate common cognitive alteration across models. Finally, the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents in cognitive dysfunctions during MDD state was also discussed. PMID:26901205

  6. Developmental trajectories of aggression, prosocial behavior, and social-cognitive problem solving in emerging adolescents with clinically elevated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Michael J; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E; Tolan, Patrick H

    2015-11-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given their childhood social difficulties. Relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior and social-cognitive problem solving beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (6th grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD-combined symptoms were compared longitudinally across 6th through 8th grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d = -0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d = 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group after accounting for co-occurring ODD symptoms and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in 6th grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was highly similar for the ADHD and non-ADHD groups. PMID:26595479

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Late-Life Anxiety Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorenstein, Ethan E.; Papp, Lazlo A.

    In the absence of data, pharmacotherapy with benzodiazepines has become the mainstay of anxiety management in the elderly population. However, the use of benzodiazepines in the elderly has many problems. Elderly persons are more sensitive to anti-anxiety medications and are subject to a variety of increased risks, including cognitive impairment,…

  8. Dyslexia and Dyscalculia: Two Learning Disorders with Different Cognitive Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landerl, Karin; Fussenegger, Barbara; Moll, Kristina; Willburger, Edith

    2009-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that dyslexia and dyscalculia are associated with two largely independent cognitive deficits, namely a phonological deficit in the case of dyslexia and a deficit in the number module in the case of dyscalculia. In four groups of 8- to 10-year-olds (42 control, 21 dyslexic, 20 dyscalculic, and 26…

  9. Measurement of Psychological Disorders Using Cognitive Diagnosis Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templin, Jonathan L.; Henson, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive diagnosis models are constrained (multiple classification) latent class models that characterize the relationship of questionnaire responses to a set of dichotomous latent variables. Having emanated from educational measurement, several aspects of such models seem well suited to use in psychological assessment and diagnosis. This article…

  10. Involvement of Neuroinflammation during Brain Development in Social Cognitive Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yutaka; Chiba, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Development of social cognition, a unique and high-order function, depends on brain maturation from childhood to adulthood in humans. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia have similar social cognitive deficits, although age of onset in each disorder is different. Pathogenesis of these disorders is complex and contains several features, including genetic risk factors, environmental risk factors, and sites of abnormalities in the brain. Although several hypotheses have been postulated, they seem to be insufficient to explain how brain alterations associated with symptoms in these disorders develop at distinct developmental stages. Development of ASD appears to be related to cerebellar dysfunction and subsequent thalamic hyperactivation in early childhood. By contrast, schizophrenia seems to be triggered by thalamic hyperactivation in late adolescence, whereas hippocampal aberration has been possibly initiated in childhood. One of the possible culprits is metal homeostasis disturbances that can induce dysfunction of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Thalamic hyperactivation is thought to be induced by microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and abnormalities of intracerebral environment. Consequently, it is likely that the thalamic hyperactivation triggers dysregulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for lower brain regions related to social cognition. In this review, we summarize the brain aberration in ASD and schizophrenia and provide a possible mechanism underlying social cognitive deficits in these disorders based on their distinct ages of onset. PMID:27384073

  11. Negative cognitive styles synergistically predict suicidal ideation in bipolar spectrum disorders: a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L; Burke, Taylor A; Kleiman, Evan M; O'Garro-Moore, Jared K; Seligman, Nicole D; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-03-30

    Rates of suicidal ideation and behavior are extremely high in bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). However, relatively little work has evaluated potentially synergistic relationships between cognitive and emotion-regulatory processes proposed by theoretical models of suicidality in BSDs. The present study evaluated whether negative cognitive style and subtypes of rumination would exacerbate the impact of self-criticism on suicidal ideation in a prospective study of individuals with BSDs. Seventy-two young adults with BSDs (bipolar II, bipolar NOS, or cyclothymia) completed diagnostic interviews and trait measures of self-criticism, negative cognitive style, and brooding and reflective rumination at a baseline assessment. The occurrence of suicidal ideation was assessed as part of diagnostic interviews completed every 4 months for an average of 3 years of follow-up. Negative cognitive style and reflective rumination strengthened the association between self-criticism and the prospective occurrence of suicidal ideation across follow-up. Individuals with high levels of self-criticism in conjunction with negative cognitive style or reflective rumination were most likely to experience the onset of suicidal ideation. Self-criticism may work synergistically with negative cognitive style and rumination to confer risk for suicidal ideation in bipolar spectrum disorders. These results support theoretical models of suicidality in BSDs and indicate that evaluating and understanding negative cognitive styles may help to identify individuals who are at risk of suicide. PMID:25660736

  12. The suprachiasmatic nucleus: age-related decline in biological rhythms.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takahiro J; Takasu, Nana N; Nakamura, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with changes in sleep duration and quality, as well as increased rates of pathologic/disordered sleep. While several factors contribute to these changes, emerging research suggests that age-related changes in the mammalian central circadian clock within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) may be a key factor. Prior work from our group suggests that circadian output from the SCN declines because of aging. Furthermore, we have previously observed age-related infertility in female mice, caused by a mismatch between environmental light-dark cycles and the intrinsic, internal biological clocks. In this review, we address regulatory mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms in mammals and summarize recent literature describing the effects of aging on the circadian system. PMID:26915078

  13. Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety,…

  14. Depression in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casten, Robin; Rovner, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of disability in the elderly, substantially degrades the quality of their lives, and is a risk factor for depression. Rates of depression in AMD are substantially greater than those found in the general population of older people, and are on par with those of other chronic and disabling…

  15. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  16. Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety, and considers directions for future research. PMID:20046818

  17. Neuromuscular contributions to age-related weakness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related physiological change of neuromuscular function is not a linear process and is likely influenced by various biological and behavioral factors (e.g., genetics, nutrition, physical activity level, comorbidities, etc.). These factors contribute to heterogeneity among older adults, which chal...

  18. Social cognition in developmental language disorders and high-level autism.

    PubMed

    Shields, J; Varley, R; Broks, P; Simpson, A

    1996-06-01

    Two groups of children with contrasting types of developmental language disorder (phonologic-syntactic and semantic-pragmatic) were compared with a group of children with high-level autism and with a control group of normal children on tests of social cognition (theory of mind; social comprehension; and detection of eye direction). The similarly poor performances of the semantic-pragmatic group and the autistic group suggest that semantic-pragmatic language disorder lies on the autistic spectrum. PMID:8647328

  19. The Neural Consequences of Age-Related Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-07-01

    During hearing, acoustic signals travel up the ascending auditory pathway from the cochlea to auditory cortex; efferent connections provide descending feedback. In human listeners, although auditory and cognitive processing have sometimes been viewed as separate domains, a growing body of work suggests they are intimately coupled. Here, we review the effects of hearing loss on neural systems supporting spoken language comprehension, beginning with age-related physiological decline. We suggest that listeners recruit domain general executive systems to maintain successful communication when the auditory signal is degraded, but that this compensatory processing has behavioral consequences: even relatively mild levels of hearing loss can lead to cascading cognitive effects that impact perception, comprehension, and memory, leading to increased listening effort during speech comprehension. PMID:27262177

  20. Does the Vigilance-Avoidance Gazing Behavior of Children with Separation Anxiety Disorder Change after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive biases are of interest in understanding the development of anxiety disorders. They also play a significant role during psychotherapy, where cognitive biases are modified in order to break the vicious cycle responsible for maintaining anxiety disorders. In a previous study, the vigilance-avoidance pattern was shown in children with…

  1. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Youth with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selles, Robert R.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Phares, Vicky; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in youth with an autism spectrum disorder appears efficacious; however, maintenance of treatment gains has not yet been studied. Using a sample of 32 youth who had benefited at least minimally from a past trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in autism spectrum disorder, this study assessed…

  2. Cognitive and Neural Aspects of Information Processing in Major Depressive Disorder: An Integrative Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Foland-Ross, Lara C.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers using experimental paradigms to examine cognitive processes have demonstrated that Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated not with a general deficit in cognitive functioning, but instead with more specific anomalies in the processing of negatively valenced material. Indeed, cognitive theories of depression posit that negative biases in the processing of information play a critical role in influencing the onset, maintenance, and recurrence of depressive episodes. In this paper we review findings from behavioral studies documenting that MDD is associated with specific difficulties in attentional disengagement from negatively valenced material, with tendencies to interpret information in a negative manner, with deficits in cognitive control in the processing of negative material, and with enhanced memory for negative material. To gain a better understanding of the neurobiological basis of these abnormalities, we also examine findings from functional neuroimaging studies of depression and show that dysfunction in neural systems that subserve emotion processing, inhibition, and attention may underlie and contribute to the deficits in cognition that have been documented in depressed individuals. Finally, we briefly review evidence from studies of children who are at high familial risk for depression that indicates that abnormalities in cognition and neural function are observable before the onset of MDD and, consequently, may represent a risk factor for the development of this disorder. By integrating research from cognitive and neural investigations of depression, we can gain a more comprehensive understanding not only of how cognitive and biological factors interact to affect the onset, maintenance, and course of MDD, but also of how such research can aid in the development of targeted strategies for the prevention and treatment of this debilitating disorder. PMID:23162521

  3. Common Cognitive Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism: Working Memory and Visual-Motor Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Julia A.; Decker, Scott L.; Allen, Ryan A.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, few studies have investigated cognitive deficits using a wide range of cognitive measures. We compared children with ADHD ("n" = 49) and autism ("n" = 33) with a demographically matched…

  4. Candidate gene associations with mood disorder, cognitive vulnerability, and fronto-limbic volumes

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Thomas W; Youngstrom, Eric A; Frankel, Brian A; Zunta-Soares, Giovana B; Sanches, Marsal; Escamilla, Michael; Nielsen, David A; Soares, Jair C

    2014-01-01

    Background Four of the most consistently replicated variants associated with mood disorder occur in genes important for synaptic function: ANK3 (rs10994336), BDNF (rs6265), CACNA1C (rs1006737), and DGKH (rs1170191). Aims The present study examined associations between these candidates, mood disorder diagnoses, cognition, and fronto-limbic regions implicated in affect regulation. Methods and materials Participants included 128 individuals with bipolar disorder (33% male, Mean age = 38.5), 48 with major depressive disorder (29% male, Mean age = 40.4), and 149 healthy controls (35% male, Mean age = 36.5). Genotypes were determined by 5′-fluorogenic exonuclease assays (TaqMan®). Fronto-limbic volumes were obtained from high resolution brain images using Freesurfer. Chi-square analyses, bivariate correlations, and mediational models examined relationships between genetic variants, mood diagnoses, cognitive measures, and brain volumes. Results Carriers of the minor BDNF and ANK3 alleles showed nonsignificant trends toward protective association in controls relative to mood disorder patients (P = 0.047). CACNA1C minor allele carriers had larger bilateral caudate, insula, globus pallidus, frontal pole, and nucleus accumbens volumes (smallest r = 0.13, P = 0.043), and increased IQ (r = 0.18, P < 0.001). CACNA1C associations with brain volumes and IQ were independent; larger fronto-limbic volumes did not mediate increased IQ. Other candidate variants were not significantly associated with diagnoses, cognition, or fronto-limbic volumes. Discussion and conclusions CACNA1C may be associated with biological systems altered in mood disorder. Increases in fronto-limbic volumes and cognitive ability associated with CACNA1C minor allele genotypes are congruent with findings in healthy samples and may be a marker for increased risk for neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Even larger multimodal studies are needed to quantify the magnitude and specificity of genetic-imaging-cognition

  5. Effects of cortisol on cognition in major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder - 2014 Curt Richter Award Winner.

    PubMed

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-01-01

    Stress hormones influence a wide range of cognitive functions, including memory performance and executive function. It is well established that glucocorticoids enhance memory consolidation but impair memory retrieval. While most of the effects have been attributed to glucocorticoid receptors (GR), the importance of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) has been also emphasized. Dysfunctions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been reported for several mental disorders. While major depressive disorder (MDD) as well as borderline personality disorder (BPD) seem to be characterized by enhanced cortisol release in concert with a reduced feedback sensitivity of the HPA axis, in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) a contrary picture has been reported. Despite the fact that altered GR function has been discussed for these disorders only very few studies have investigated the effects of glucocorticoids on cognitive performance in these patients so far. In a series of studies, we investigated the effects of glucocorticoids on cognition (i.e. declarative memory, working memory and response inhibition) in different mental disorders such as MDD, PTSD and BPD. While in patients with MDD cortisol administration failed to effect memory retrieval, patients with PTSD and BPD showed enhanced rather than impaired memory retrieval after cortisol administration. These results indicate an altered sensitivity to cortisol in these disorders. Results from one of our recent studies in the field of social cognition underline the importance of the MR. We found that emotional empathy was enhanced through stimulation of the MR via fludrocortisone in healthy participants and women with BPD. This review aims to integrate these findings and discuss potential mechanisms and implications. PMID:25462901

  6. Statins for age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gehlbach, Peter; Li, Tianjing; Hatef, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive late onset disorder of the macula affecting central vision. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years in industrialized countries. Recent epidemiologic, genetic, and pathological evidence has shown AMD shares a number of risk factors with atherosclerosis, leading to the hypothesis that statins may exert protective effects in AMD. Objectives The objective of this review was to examine the effectiveness of statins compared with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in delaying the onset and progression of AMD. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 6), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2014), PubMed (January 1946 to June 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 June 2014. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared statins with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in participants who were either susceptible to or diagnosed as having early stages of AMD. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently evaluated the search results against the selection criteria, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We did not perform meta-analysis due to heterogeneity in the interventions and outcomes among the

  7. A new computerized cognitive and social cognition training specifically designed for patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder in early stages of illness: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sol; Turon, Marc; Jodar, Merce; Pousa, Esther; Hernandez Rambla, Carla; García, Rebeca; Palao, Diego

    2015-08-30

    People with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorders at early stages of the illness present cognitive and social cognition deficits that have a great impact in functional outcomes. Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT) has demonstrated consistent effect in cognitive performance, symptoms and psychosocial functioning. However, any CRT intervention or social cognition training have been specifically designed for patients in the early stages of psychosis. The aim of this pilot study is to assess the efficacy of a new computerized cognitive and social cognition program for patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder with recent diagnosis. A comprehensive assessment of clinical, social and non-social cognitive and functional measures was carried out in 53 randomized participants before and after the 4-months treatment. Significant results were observed in Spatial Span Forwards, Immediate Logical Memory and Pictures of Facial Affect (POFA) total score. None of these results were explained by medication, premorbid social functioning or psychopathological symptoms. No impact of the intervention was observed in other cognitive and social cognition outcome neither in clinical and functional outcomes. This new computerized intervention may result effective ameliorating visual attention, logical memory and emotional processing in patients in the early stages of schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. PMID:26163731

  8. Relationship between maladaptive cognitions about sleep and recovery in patients with borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Plante, David T.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with maladaptive cognitive processes including dysfunctional attitudes and a negative attribution style. Comorbid insomnia affects the course of multiple psychiatric disorders, and has been associated with absence of recovery from BPD. Because dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes are common among patients with insomnia, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between maladaptive sleep-related cognitions and recovery status (symptomatic remission plus good concurrent psychosocial functioning) in patients with BPD. 223 BPD patients participating in the McLean Study of Adult Development (MSAD) were administered the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep questionnaire (DBAS-16) as part of the 16-year follow-up wave. Maladaptive sleep cognitions were compared between recovered (n=105) and non-recovered (n=118) BPD participants, in analyses that adjusted for age, sex, depression, anxiety, and primary sleep disorders. Results demonstrated non-recovered BPD patients had significantly more severe maladaptive sleep-related cognitions as measured by the overall DBAS-16 score. These results demonstrate an association between dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep and recovery status among BPD patients. Further research is warranted to evaluate treatments targeted towards maladaptive sleep-related cognitions, and their subsequent effects on the course of BPD. PMID:23972789

  9. Pharmacological cognitive enhancement: treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and lifestyle use by healthy people.

    PubMed

    Sahakian, Barbara J; Morein-Zamir, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders typically manifest as problems with attentional biases, aberrant learning, dysfunctional reward systems, and an absence of top-down cognitive control by the prefrontal cortex. In view of the cost of common mental health disorders, in terms of distress to the individual and family in addition to the financial cost to society and governments, new developments for treatments that address cognitive dysfunction should be a priority so that all members of society can flourish. Cognitive enhancing drugs, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and methylphenidate, are used as treatments for the cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, these drugs and others, including modafinil, are being increasingly used by healthy people for enhancement purposes. Importantly for ethical and safety reasons, the drivers for this increasing lifestyle use of so-called smart drugs by healthy people should be considered and discussions must occur about how to ensure present and future pharmacological cognitive enhancers are used for the benefit of society. PMID:26360089

  10. Age-related changes to the production of linguistic prosody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Daniel R.

    The production of speech prosody (the rhythm, pausing, and intonation associated with natural speech) is critical to effective communication. The current study investigated the impact of age-related changes to physiology and cognition in relation to the production of two types of linguistic prosody: lexical stress and the disambiguation of syntactically ambiguous utterances. Analyses of the acoustic correlates of stress: speech intensity (or sound-pressure level; SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), key word/phrase duration, and pause duration revealed that both young and older adults effectively use these acoustic features to signal linguistic prosody, although the relative weighting of cues differed by group. Differences in F0 were attributed to age-related physiological changes in the laryngeal subsystem, while group differences in duration measures were attributed to relative task complexity and the cognitive-linguistic load of these respective tasks. The current study provides normative acoustic data for older adults which informs interpretation of clinical findings as well as research pertaining to dysprosody as the result of disease processes.

  11. Cognitive deficits in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder – electroencephalography correlates

    PubMed Central

    Kamaradova, Dana; Hajda, Miroslav; Prasko, Jan; Taborsky, Jiri; Grambal, Ales; Latalova, Klara; Ociskova, Marie; Brunovsky, Martin; Hlustik, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with cognitive dysfunction. Although there are several studies focused on the neurobiology of OCD, little is known about the biological correlates of the cognitive deficit linked to this disorder. The aim of our study was to examine the association between cognitive impairment and current source density markers in patients with OCD. Methods Resting-state eyes-closed electroencephalography (EEG) data were recorded in 20 patients with OCD and 15 healthy controls who were involved in the study. Cortical EEG sources were estimated by standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography in seven frequency bands: delta (1.5–6 Hz), theta (6.5–8 Hz), alpha-1 (8.5–10 Hz), alpha-2 (10.5–12 Hz), beta-1 (12.5–18 Hz), beta-2 (18.5–21 Hz), and beta-3 (21.5–30 Hz). Cognitive performance was measured by the Trail-Making Test (versions A and B), Stroop CW Test, and D2 Test. Results Frontal delta and theta EEG sources showed significantly higher activity in the whole group of patients with OCD (N=20) than in control subjects (N=15). Subsequent analysis revealed that this excess of low-frequency activity was present only in the subgroup of eleven patients with cognitive impairment (based on the performance in the Trail-Making Test – A). The subgroup of patients with normal cognitive functions (N=9) did not differ in cortical EEG sources from healthy controls. Conclusion The present results suggest that frontal low-frequency cortical sources of resting-state EEG rhythms can distinguish groups of cognitively impaired and cognitively intact patients with OCD. Based on our results, future studies should consider whether the present methodological approach provides clinically useful information for the revelation of cognitive impairment in patients with OCD. PMID:27226716

  12. Cognitive effects of deep brain stimulation in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mantione, Mariska; Nieman, Dorien; Figee, Martijn; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Schuurman, Rick; Denys, Damiaan

    2015-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising treatment for treatment-refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the effects of DBS on cognitive functioning remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to assess cognitive safety of DBS for treatment-refractory OCD and the association between clinical changes and cognitive functioning. Methods Patients with treatment-refractory OCD treated with DBS targeted at the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) were compared with a control group of 14 patients with treatment-refractory OCD treated with care as usual. We assessed cognitive functioning at baseline, 3 weeks postoperatively and following 8 months of DBS. We compared change in clinical symptoms with cognitive changes. Results There were 16 patients in the DBS group and 14 patients in the control group. Three weeks postoperatively, the DBS group showed a significantly reduced performance on measures of visual organization and verbal fluency and a trend toward reduced performance on measures of visual memory and abstract reasoning. Cognitive functioning was found to be stable on all other measures. After 8 months of DBS, reduced performances persisted, except for a significant improvement in verbal fluency. Cognitive functioning in all other domains remained unaffected. We found no correlation between improvement of clinical symptoms and cognitive changes. Limitations A limitation of this study was its relatively small sample size. Conclusion Deep brain stimulation targeted at the NAcc may be considered a safe method in terms of cognition because cognitive functioning was unaffected on most neuropsychological measures. Nevertheless, we observed some minor reduced performance on specific measures of executive functioning that were possibly associated with surgical intervention. Our results suggest that severity of OCD symptoms is independent of cognitive functioning. PMID:26107159

  13. Effects of Computer-Based Cognitive Mapping on Reading Comprehension for Students with Emotional Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Tracy L.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Langone, John

    2005-01-01

    Three students with behavior disorders who exhibited difficulty with reading in content area courses learned to use a computer program to create cognitive maps of the reading material required for class. Using a modified multiple-probe design across behaviors or stimulus sets, replicated across students, allowed for the evaluation of student…

  14. Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Youth with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Asarnow, Joan R.; Langley, Audra; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, M age = 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range…

  15. Impact of Comorbidity on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Larson, Michael J.; Geffken, Gary R.; Lehmkuh, Heather D.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2008-01-01

    A chronic psychiatric condition among children and adolescents of concern is obsessive-compulsive disorder, which involves comorbid conditions. The impact of a range of comorbid illnesses on cognitive-behavioral therapy response and remission rates was conducted, with results revealing a negative impact on treatment response.

  16. Clinical Considerations when Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Young Children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Przeworski, Amy; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and in particular, exposure with response prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), has only been systematically evaluated in children and adolescents ages 7-17. These treatments do not address the unique characteristics of young children with OCD. This paper discusses…

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Exposure Therapy and Cognitive Restructuring for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Dang, Suzanne T.; Mastrodomenico, Julie; Nixon, Reginald D. V.; Felmingham, Kim L.; Hopwood, Sally; Creamer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that adding cognitive restructuring (CR) to exposure therapy does not enhance treatment gains in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study investigated the extent to which CR would augment treatment response when provided with exposure therapy. The authors randomly allocated 118 civilian trauma survivors with…

  18. Meta-Analysis of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Comparison with Pharmacotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitte, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of (cognitive) behavioral therapy ([C]BT) for generalized anxiety disorder was investigated and compared with the efficacy of pharmacological therapy using meta-analytic techniques. A total of 65 (C)BT studies and pharmacological studies were included. (C)BT was more effective than control conditions. The results of the comparison…

  19. Motor and Cognitive Performance Differences between Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asonitou, Katerina; Koutsouki, Dimitra; Kourtessis, Thomas; Charitou, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    The current study adopts the PASS theory of information processing to investigate the probable differences in specific motor and cognitive abilities between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Participants were 108 5- and 6-year-old preschoolers (54 children with DCD and 54 children without DCD). The Movement…

  20. Cognitive Set Shifting Deficits and Their Relationship to Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Haylie L.; Ragozzino, Michael E.; Cook, Edwin H.; Sweeney, John A.; Mosconi, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive impairments associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not yet clear. Prior studies indicate that individuals with ASD show reduced cognitive flexibility, which could reflect difficulty shifting from a previously learned response pattern or a failure to maintain a new…

  1. Child-Therapist Alliance and Clinical Outcomes in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Child Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Angela W.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Har, Kim; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the link between child-therapist alliance and outcome in manual-guided cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children diagnosed with anxiety disorders. This study sought to clarify the nature and strength of this relation. Methods: The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child…

  2. The Impact of Motivational Interviewing on Client Experiences of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertes, Angela; Westra, Henny A.; Angus, Lynne; Marcus, Madalyn

    2011-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) has recently been applied to the treatment of anxiety disorders in an effort to bolster engagement with and response rates to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). In a recent randomized control trial, the addition of MI as a pretreatment compared to no pretreatment was found to significantly improve response to CBT…

  3. Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders on Quality of Life: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Wu, Jade Q.; Boettcher, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective for treating anxiety disorders, little is known about its effect on quality of life. To conduct a meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders on quality of life, we searched for relevant studies in PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library, and conducted manual searches. METHOD The search identified 44 studies that included 59 CBT trials, totaling 3,326 participants receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. We estimated the controlled and within-group random effects of the treatment changes on quality of life. RESULTS The pre-post within-group and controlled effect sizes were moderately strong, Hedges’ g = 0.54 and Hedges’ g = 0.56, respectively. Improvements were greater for physical and psychological domains of quality of life than for environmental and social domains. The overall effect sizes decreased with publication year and increased with treatment duration. Face-to-face treatments delivered individually and in groups produced significantly higher effect sizes than internet-delivered treatments. CONCLUSION Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders is moderately effective for improving quality of life, especially in physical and psychological domains. Internet-delivered treatments are less effective in improving quality of life than face-to-face treatments. PMID:24447006

  4. Pretreatment and Process Predictors of Outcome in Interpersonal and Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Anja; Saelens, Brian E.; Stein, Richard I.; Mockus, Danyte S.; Welch, R. Robinson; Matt, Georg E.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined pretreatment and process predictors of individual nonresponse to psychological group treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized trial, 162 overweight patients with BED were treated with either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group interpersonal psychotherapy. Treatment nonresponse, which was defined…

  5. Sex Differences in Cognitive Domains and Their Clinical Correlates in Higher-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven; Duketis, Eftichia; Poustka, Fritz; Holtmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Despite the skewed sex ratio, few studies have addressed possible cognitive sex differences in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study compared visual attention to detail (ATTD) and selected executive functions (EF) in 35 males and 21 females with higher-functioning ASD and unaffected sibling controls. Females with ASD outperformed males on…

  6. Social Skills Training Augments the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, James D.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Myers, Valerie H.; Dalrymple, Kristy; Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) is the most widely researched intervention program for social anxiety disorder (SAD, also known as social phobia), with a number of studies demonstrating its effectiveness. Another common treatment, social skills training (SST), has also been shown to be efficacious for SAD. The present study compared the…

  7. Are cognitive "insomnia" processes involved in the development and maintenance of delayed sleep wake phase disorder?

    PubMed

    Richardson, Cele E; Gradisar, Michael; Barbero, Sebastian C

    2016-04-01

    Although individuals with delayed sleep wake phase disorder (DSWPD) and chronic insomnia disorder (CID) share many of the same phenomenological experiences, theories relating to the development and maintenance of these disorders are distinct in focus. Unlike CID, theory relating to DSWPD is primarily physiologically based and assumes almost no cognitive pathway. However, recent research findings suggest that individuals with DSWPD also display many of the sleep-disordered cognitive processes that were previously assumed to be unique to the insomnia experience. As such, this review aims to summarise current research findings to address the question "Could cognitive processes be involved in the development and maintenance of DSWPD?" In particular, the presence of cognitive and physiological pre-sleep arousal, sleep-related attentional bias, distorted perception of sleep and daytime functioning, dysfunctional beliefs and safety behaviours will be investigated. As this emerging area of research requires a stronger evidence base, we highlight suggestions for future investigation and provide preliminary practice points for clinicians assessing and treating "insomnia" in patients with DSWPD. PMID:26140864

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Relapse in Pediatric Responders to Pharmacotherapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jones, Jessica M.; Tao, Rongrong; Stewart, Sunita M.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2008-01-01

    The outcome of a sequential treatment strategy that included cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the prevention of major depressive disorder relapse among 46 youths is examined. Results show that youths under the antidepressant medication management plus relapse prevention CBT treatment was at lower risk for relapse than those under the…

  9. Impact of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment on Quality of Life in Panic Disorder Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telch, Michael J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Patients (n=156) meeting criteria for panic disorder with agoraphobia were randomly assigned to group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) or a delayed-treatment control. Compared with the control group, CBT-treated patients showed significant reductions in impairment that were maintained at follow-up. Anxiety and phobic avoidance were…

  10. Two-Day, Intensive Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a highly effective treatment for panic disorder. However, few patients have access to this treatment, particularly those living in rural areas. In a pilot study, the author previously described the efficacy of a 2-day, intensive, exposure-based CBT intervention that was developed for the purpose of delivering…

  11. Patterns of Nonverbal Cognitive Functioning in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuschner, Emily S.; Bennetto, Loisa; Yost, Kelley

    2007-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates an uneven pattern of cognitive abilities in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study examined whether this uneven pattern exists within the nonverbal domain in young children. We hypothesized relative strengths in perceptual abilities and weaknesses in nonverbal conceptual abilities in preschoolers…

  12. Revisiting Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Nicole L.; Pollard, Elena; Ober-Reynolds, Sharman; Kirwan, Janet; Malligo, Amanda; Smith, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Profiles of performance on the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scales (SB5) and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were examined in 73 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. SB5 cognitive profiles were observed to be similar between participants with and without early language delay, but different between participants with and…

  13. The Additive Benefit of Hypnosis and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treating Acute Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2005-01-01

    This research represents the first controlled treatment study of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) of acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma survivors (N = 87) who met criteria for ASD were randomly allocated to 6 sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis (CBT-hypnosis), or supportive counseling (SC). CBT comprised exposure,…

  14. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Intermittent Explosive Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Michael S.; Noblett, Kurtis L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Gollan, Jackie K.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2008-01-01

    No randomized clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of psychotherapy for intermittent explosive disorder (IED). In the present study, the authors tested the efficacy of 12-week group and individual cognitive-behavioral therapies (adapted from J. L. Deffenbacher & M. McKay, 2000) by comparing them with a wait-list control in a randomized…

  15. Oculomotor Performance Identifies Underlying Cognitive Deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loe, Irene M.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Yasui, Enami; Luna, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the cognitive control in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder through the use of oculomotor tests reveal that this group showed susceptibility to peripheral distractors and deficits in response inhibition. All subjects were found to have intact sensorimotor function and working memory.

  16. Cognitive Ability Is Associated with Different Outcome Trajectories in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Itzchak, Esther; Watson, Linda R.; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in clinical expression and in intervention outcome has been described in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study examined progress after 1 and 2 years of intervention and compared the impact of baseline cognitive ability on outcome trajectories in 46 children (m = 25.5 months) with ASD. The entire group showed a gradual decrease in…

  17. Stability and Change in the Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour Scores of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Helen E.; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups…

  18. Is Talent in Autism Spectrum Disorders Associated with a Specific Cognitive and Behavioural Phenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Emily; Heaton, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Parents of 125 children, adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders completed a newly developed questionnaire aimed at identifying cognitive and behavioural characteristics associated with savant skills in this group. Factors distinguishing skilled individuals were then further investigated in case studies of three individuals…

  19. Nonverbal and Verbal Cognitive Discrepancy Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ greater than verbal IQ [NVIQ greater than VIQ], verbal IQ greater than nonverbal IQ [VIQ greater…

  20. Sudden Gains in Cognitive Therapy and Interpersonal Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Christiane; Aderka, Idan M.; Schreiber, Franziska; Stangier, Ulrich; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the effects of sudden gains on treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial including individual cognitive therapy (CT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Method: Participants were 67 individuals with SAD who received 16 treatment sessions. Symptom severity at each session…

  1. 12-Month Follow-Up of Fluoxetine and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…

  2. Changes in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depressive Symptoms during Cognitive Processing Therapy: Evidence for Concurrent Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liverant, Gabrielle I.; Suvak, Michael K.; Pineles, Suzanne L.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Trauma-focused psychotherapies reduce both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and co-occurring depression. However, little is known about the relationship between changes in PTSD and depression during treatment. This study examined the association between changes in PTSD and depression during the course of cognitive processing therapy…

  3. Mood-Dependent Cognitive Change in a Man with Bipolar Disorder Who Cycles Every 24 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Dominic; Mansell, Warren

    2008-01-01

    A case study of a bipolar patient whose mood changes every 24 hours is described to illustrate the changes in cognitive processing and content during different phases of bipolar disorder. The participant completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks on 4 separate occasions: twice when depressed and twice when manic. Depression tended to be…

  4. Social cognition in children at familial high-risk of developing an eating disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Radha; Barona, Manuela; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED) has been associated with differences in social cognition. To date research investigating social cognition and ED has mainly employed patient and recovered samples. It is therefore unclear whether differences in social cognition are present prior to onset of ED, potentially contributing to development, or whether differences observed are a consequence of the disorder. We aimed to further explore whether individuals at high-risk for ED present social cognition characteristics previously found in ED groups. Methods: Our sample was drawn from a population-based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Data on maternal ED behaviors over the lifetime were collected through in-depth clinical interviews (n = 1128) conducted using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders (SCID), and were used to categorize mothers according to ED behaviors over the lifetime: Restricting and Excessive Exercising (n = 58), Purging (n = 70), Binge-eating (n = 72), Binging and Purging (n = 66), no ED (n = 862). High-risk status of children was determined using these maternal lifetime behavioral phenotypes. Children at high-risk (maternal ED exposure) were compared to children at low-risk (born to mothers with no ED) on three measures of social cognition: the Social Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC) (n = 922), the faces subtest of the Diagnostic Analysis of Non-Verbal Accuracy (DANVA) (n = 722), and the Emotional Triangles Task (n = 750). Results: Children at high-risk for ED showed poorer performance on measures of social cognition compared to children at low-risk. Maternal lifetime binge-eating, and maternal lifetime binging and purging were associated with poorer social communication in children (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.0, 5.7, p = 0.05; and OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 6.5, p = 0.03 respectively). Maternal binging and purging was also found to be associated with differential facial emotion processing and

  5. Cognitive Rehabilitation for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Promises and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Tajik-Parvinchi, Diana; Wright, Leah; Schachar, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive training entails the repeated exercise of a specific cognitive process over a period of time to improve performance on the trained task as well as on tasks that were not specifically trained (transfer effect). Cognitive training shows promise in remediating deficits in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – a disorder believed to stem from deficient cognitive processes – where the focus has been primarily on training working memory and attention. We discuss evidence from studies that have produced broad, limited, or no transfer effects with the goal of identifying factors that may be responsible for this heterogeneity. Results: There are several implicit assumptions that appear to drive researchers’ decisions regarding both the selection of cognitive abilities to train as well as the training tasks chosen to target those abilities. We identify these implicit assumptions and their weaknesses. We also draw attention to design limitations that may be contributing to lack of transfer. Conclusion: Although the overall pattern of findings from these studies is promising, the methodological and theoretical limitations associated with the literature limit conclusions about the efficacy of cognitive training as a rehabilitation method for ADHD. We hypothesize several suggestions that may improve training effects and summarize the evidence which led to our hypotheses. PMID:25320614

  6. Efficacy and specificity of Social Cognitive Skills Training for outpatients with psychotic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Horan, William P.; Kern, Robert S.; Tripp, Cory; Hellemann, Gerhard; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Bell, Morris; Marder, Stephen R.; Green, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions that target social cognition show promise for enhancing the functional outcomes of people with psychotic disorders. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and treatment-outcome specificity of a 24-session Social Cognitive Skills Training (SCST) that targets emotional processing, social perception, attributional bias, and mentalizing (or Theory of Mind). Sixty-eight stable outpatients with primary psychotic disorders were randomly assigned to one of four time- and group format-matched treatment conditions: (1) SCST, (2) computerized neurocognitive remediation, (3) standard illness management skills training, or (4) a Hybrid treatment that combined elements of SCST and neurocognitive remediation. The SCST group demonstrated greater improvements over time than comparison groups in the social cognitive domain of emotional processing, including improvement on measures of facial affect perception and emotion management. There were no differential benefits among treatment conditions on neurocognitive or clinical symptom changes over time. Results indicate that a targeted social cognitive intervention led to improvements in social cognition among outpatients with psychosis. Findings provide guidance for continued efforts to maximize the benefits of social cognitive interventions. PMID:21377168

  7. Genomic Copy Number Variation in Disorders of Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To highlight recent discoveries in the area of genomic copy number variation in neuropsychiatric disorders including intellectual disability, autism, and schizophrenia. To emphasize new principles emerging from this area, involving the genetic architecture of disease, pathophysiology, and diagnosis. Method: Review of studies published…

  8. Illness anxiety and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: Cognitive-behavioral conceptualization and treatment.

    PubMed

    King, Lauren A; Urbach, John R; Stewart, Karen E

    2015-12-01

    Eating difficulties are commonly present in medical and psychiatric settings. Some eating problems are resultant from fears about food consumption and can be conceptualized as anxiety disorders conditioned by perception of feared outcomes associated with eating and maintained by avoidance. The authors present a case in which a female patient with limited food intake is successfully treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy. Illness anxiety disorder and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, both newly included in DSM-V, are applied in this case. PMID:26276708

  9. Reversal of age-related neural timing delays with training.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Samira; White-Schwoch, Travis; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Kraus, Nina

    2013-03-12

    Neural slowing is commonly noted in older adults, with consequences for sensory, motor, and cognitive domains. One of the deleterious effects of neural slowing is impairment of temporal resolution; older adults, therefore, have reduced ability to process the rapid events that characterize speech, especially in noisy environments. Although hearing aids provide increased audibility, they cannot compensate for deficits in auditory temporal processing. Auditory training may provide a strategy to address these deficits. To that end, we evaluated the effects of auditory-based cognitive training on the temporal precision of subcortical processing of speech in noise. After training, older adults exhibited faster neural timing and experienced gains in memory, speed of processing, and speech-in-noise perception, whereas a matched control group showed no changes. Training was also associated with decreased variability of brainstem response peaks, suggesting a decrease in temporal jitter in response to a speech signal. These results demonstrate that auditory-based cognitive training can partially restore age-related deficits in temporal processing in the brain; this plasticity in turn promotes better cognitive and perceptual skills. PMID:23401541

  10. Reversal of age-related neural timing delays with training

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Samira; White-Schwoch, Travis; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Neural slowing is commonly noted in older adults, with consequences for sensory, motor, and cognitive domains. One of the deleterious effects of neural slowing is impairment of temporal resolution; older adults, therefore, have reduced ability to process the rapid events that characterize speech, especially in noisy environments. Although hearing aids provide increased audibility, they cannot compensate for deficits in auditory temporal processing. Auditory training may provide a strategy to address these deficits. To that end, we evaluated the effects of auditory-based cognitive training on the temporal precision of subcortical processing of speech in noise. After training, older adults exhibited faster neural timing and experienced gains in memory, speed of processing, and speech-in-noise perception, whereas a matched control group showed no changes. Training was also associated with decreased variability of brainstem response peaks, suggesting a decrease in temporal jitter in response to a speech signal. These results demonstrate that auditory-based cognitive training can partially restore age-related deficits in temporal processing in the brain; this plasticity in turn promotes better cognitive and perceptual skills. PMID:23401541

  11. Present and Possible Therapies for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness in the elderly population worldwide and is defined as a chronic, progressive disorder characterized by changes occurring within the macula reflective of the ageing process. At present, the prevalence of AMD is currently rising and is estimated to increase by a third by 2020. Although our understanding of the several components underpinning the pathogenesis of this condition has increased significantly, the treatment options for this condition remain substantially limited. In this review, we outline the existing arsenal of therapies available for AMD and discuss the additional role of further novel therapies currently under investigation for this debilitating disease. PMID:25097787

  12. DNA methylation and cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiangru

    2015-01-01

    With ever-increasing elder population, the high incidence of age-related diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders has turned out to be a huge public concern. Especially the elders and their families dreadfully suffer from the learning, behavioral and cognitive impairments. The lack of effective therapies for such a horrible symptom makes a great demanding for biological mechanism study for cognitive aging. Epigenetics is an emerging field that broadens the dimensions of mammalian genome blueprint. It is, unlike genetics, not only inheritable but also reversible. Recent studies suggest that DNA methylation, one of major epigenetic mechanisms, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerations and cognitive defects. In this review, the evolving knowledge of age-related cognitive functions and the potential DNA methylation mechanism of cognitive aging are discussed. That indicates the impairment of DNA methylation may be a crucial but reversible mechanism of behavioral and cognitive related neurodegeneration. The methods to examine the dynamics of DNA methylation patterns at tissue and single cell level and at the representative scale as well as the whole genome single base resolution are also briefly discussed. Importantly, the challenges of DNA methylation mechanism of cognitive aging research are brought up, and the possible solutions to tackle these difficulties are put forward. PMID:26015403

  13. Cognitive Risk Factors for Specific Learning Disorder: Processing Speed, Temporal Processing, and Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Moll, Kristina; Göbel, Silke M; Gooch, Debbie; Landerl, Karin; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-05-01

    High comorbidity rates between reading disorder (RD) and mathematics disorder (MD) indicate that, although the cognitive core deficits underlying these disorders are distinct, additional domain-general risk factors might be shared between the disorders. Three domain-general cognitive abilities were investigated in children with RD and MD: processing speed, temporal processing, and working memory. Since attention problems frequently co-occur with learning disorders, the study examined whether these three factors, which are known to be associated with attention problems, account for the comorbidity between these disorders. The sample comprised 99 primary school children in four groups: children with RD, children with MD, children with both disorders (RD+MD), and typically developing children (TD controls). Measures of processing speed, temporal processing, and memory were analyzed in a series of ANCOVAs including attention ratings as covariate. All three risk factors were associated with poor attention. After controlling for attention, associations with RD and MD differed: Although deficits in verbal memory were associated with both RD and MD, reduced processing speed was related to RD, but not MD; and the association with RD was restricted to processing speed for familiar nameable symbols. In contrast, impairments in temporal processing and visuospatial memory were associated with MD, but not RD. PMID:25124507

  14. Sleep disturbance and cognitive disorder: epidemiological analysis in a cohort of 263 patients.

    PubMed

    Pistacchi, Michele; Gioulis, Manuela; Contin, Franco; Sanson, Flavio; Marsala, Sandro Zambito

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and describe frequency and characteristics of sleep disorders in a large cohort of community dwelling persons with several degrees and typologies of cognitive disorders. 236 patients (78 men and 158 women) were enrolled with different subtypes of dementia: Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), mixed dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), respectively. The sleep disturbances evaluated were: insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), REM behavior disorder (RBD), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and nightmares. Every type of sleep disorder was present in each type of dementia but with significant differences. Insomnia is found to be more present and specific for AD; EDS was associated with the presence of dementia in the elderly with LBD or PDD; RLS and nightmares that were recognized mainly in FTD, LBD, and PDD patients scores; patients with MCI had a frequency of sleep disturbances of any type equal to that of patients with AD presenting mostly insomnia, nightmares or RLS more frequently; nightmares were more frequent among LBD and PDD patients. Frequency of RDB was more frequent in FTD, AD, and VaD. Our findings demonstrate that sleep disturbance was related to dementia. A careful clinical evaluation of sleep disorders should be performed routinely in the clinical setting of persons with cognitive decline. PMID:25034185

  15. Senescent cells: SASPected drivers of age-related pathologies.

    PubMed

    Ovadya, Yossi; Krizhanovsky, Valery

    2014-12-01

    The progression of physiological ageing is driven by intracellular aberrations including telomere attrition, genomic instability, epigenetic alterations and loss of proteostasis. These in turn damage cells and compromise their functionality. Cellular senescence, a stable irreversible cell-cycle arrest, is elicited in damaged cells and prevents their propagation in the organism. Under normal conditions, senescent cells recruit the immune system which facilitates their removal from tissues. Nevertheless, during ageing, tissue-residing senescent cells tend to accumulate, and might negatively impact their microenvironment via profound secretory phenotype with pro-inflammatory characteristics, termed senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Indeed, senescent cells are mostly abundant at sites of age-related pathologies, including degenerative disorders and malignancies. Interestingly, studies on progeroid mice indicate that selective elimination of senescent cells can delay age-related deterioration. This suggests that chronic inflammation induced by senescent cells might be a main driver of these pathologies. Importantly, senescent cells accumulate as a result of deficient immune surveillance, and their removal is increased upon the use of immune stimulatory agents. Insights into mechanisms of senescence surveillance could be combined with current approaches for cancer immunotherapy to propose new preventive and therapeutic strategies for age-related diseases. PMID:25217383

  16. A Randomized Trial of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and Cognitive Therapy for Children with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder following Single-Incident Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Reginald David Vandervord; Sterk, Jisca; Pearce, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared the efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with trauma-focused cognitive therapy (without exposure; CT) for children and youth with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Children and youth who had experienced single-incident trauma (N = 33; 7-17 years old) were randomly assigned to receive 9 weeks of…

  17. The Evolution of "Enhanced" Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Eating Disorders: Learning From Treatment Nonresponse.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2011-08-01

    In recent years there has been widespread acceptance that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa. The cognitive behavioral treatment of bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) was first described in 1981. Over the past decades the theory and treatment have evolved in response to a variety of challenges. The treatment has been adapted to make it suitable for all forms of eating disorder-thereby making it "transdiagnostic" in its scope- and treatment procedures have been refined to improve outcome. The new version of the treatment, termed enhanced CBT (CBT-E) also addresses psychopathological processes "external" to the eating disorder, which, in certain subgroups of patients, interact with the disorder itself. In this paper we discuss how the development of this broader theory and treatment arose from focusing on those patients who did not respond well to earlier versions of the treatment. PMID:23814455

  18. Insights into synaptic function from mouse models of human cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Banko, Jessica L; Trotter, Justin; Weeber, Edwin J

    2011-01-01

    Modern approaches to the investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying human cognitive disease often include multidisciplinary examination of animal models engineered with specific mutations that spatially and temporally restrict expression of a gene of interest. This approach not only makes possible the development of animal models that demonstrate phenotypic similarities to their respective human disorders, but has also allowed for significant progress towards understanding the processes that mediate synaptic function and memory formation in the nondiseased state. Examples of successful mouse models where genetic manipulation of the mouse resulted in recapitulation of the symptomatology of the human disorder and was used to significantly expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying normal synaptic plasticity and memory formation are discussed in this article. These studies have broadened our knowledge of several signal transduction cascades that function throughout life to mediate synaptic physiology. Defining these events is key for developing therapies to address disorders of cognitive ability. PMID:25083141

  19. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure Diabetes Thyroid disease Infection in the uterus PCOS Antiphospholipid syndrome, an autoimmune disorder caused when immune ... male fertility, NIH study suggests Some women with PCOS may have adrenal disorder, NIH researchers suggest Weight ...

  20. Altered Hippocampal Transcript Profile Accompanies an Age-Related Spatial Memory Deficit in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbitsky, Miguel; Yonan, Amanda L.; Malleret, Gael; Kandel, Eric R.; Gilliam, T. Conrad; Pavlidis, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out a global survey of age-related changes in mRNA levels in the 57BL/6NIA mouse hippocampus and found a difference in the hippocampal gene expression profile between 2-month-old young mice and 15-month-old middle-aged mice correlated with an age-related cognitive deficit in hippocampal-based explicit memory formation. Middle-aged…

  1. Controlled processes account for age-related decrease in episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Vanderaspoilden, Valérie; Adam, Stéphane; der Linden, Martial Van; Morais, José

    2007-05-01

    A decrease in controlled processes has been proposed to be responsible for age-related episodic memory decline. We used the Process Dissociation Procedure, a method that attempts to estimate the contribution of controlled and automatic processes to cognitive performance, and entered both estimates in regression analyses. Results indicate that only controlled processes explained a great part of the age-related variance in a word recall task, especially when little environmental support was offered. PMID:16860766

  2. Distinguishing between autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by using behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and neuropsychological test battery.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Naomi; Ishitobi, Makoto; Arai, Sumiyoshi; Kawamura, Kaori; Asano, Mizuki; Inohara, Keisuke; Narimoto, Tadamasa; Wada, Yuji; Hiratani, Michio; Kosaka, Hirotaka

    2014-12-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share many common symptoms, including attention deficit, behavioral problems, and difficulties with social skills. The aim of this study was to distinguish between ASD and ADHD by identifying the characteristic features of both the disorders, by using multidimensional assessments, including screening behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and comprehensive neurological battery. After screening for comorbid disorders, we carefully selected age-, sex-, IQ-, and socio-economic status-matched children with typical development (TD). In the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, a lower score was observed for the ASD group than for the TD group in Picture concept, which is a subscale of perceptual reasoning. A lower score was shown by the ADHD group than by the TD group in the spatial working memory test in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB(®)). Although ASD and ADHD have many similar symptoms, they can be differentiated by focusing on the behavioral and cognitive characteristics of executive function. PMID:25440561

  3. Delirium in older adults: a chronic cognitive disorder?

    PubMed

    Cole, Martin G; Mccusker, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Delirium is defined as a neurocognitive disorder characterized by sudden onset, fluctuating course, and disturbances in level of consciousness, attention, orientation, memory, thought, perception, and behavior (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). It occurs in hyperactive, hypoactive, or mixed forms in up to 50% of older hospital patients (Inouye et al., 2014) and 70% of older long-term care residents (McCusker et al., 2011), many with pre-existing dementia (Fick et al., 2002). PMID:27246118

  4. Examining Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Externalizing and Internalizing Disorders in Urban Schools.

    PubMed

    Eiraldi, Ricardo; Power, Thomas J; Schwartz, Billie S; Keiffer, Jackie N; McCurdy, Barry L; Mathen, Manju; Jawad, Abbas F

    2016-07-01

    This article presents outcome data of the implementation of three group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) interventions for children with externalizing behavior problems, anxiety, and depression. School counselors and graduate students co-led the groups in two low-income urban schools. Data were analyzed to assess pre-treatment to post-treatment changes in diagnostic severity level. Results of the exploratory study indicated that all three GCBT protocols were effective at reducing diagnostic severity level for children who had a primary diagnosis of an externalizing disorder, anxiety disorder, or depressive disorder at the clinical or intermediate (at-risk) level. All three GCBT protocols were implemented with relatively high levels of fidelity. Data on the effectiveness of the interventions for reducing diagnostic severity level for externalizing and internalizing spectrum disorders and for specific disorders are presented. A discussion of implementation of mental health evidence-based interventions in urban schools is provided. PMID:26872957

  5. Cognitive correlates of frontoparietal network connectivity 'at rest' in individuals with differential risk for psychotic disorder.

    PubMed

    Peeters, S C T; van Bronswijk, S; van de Ven, V; Gronenschild, E H B M; Goebel, R; van Os, J; Marcelis, M

    2015-11-01

    Altered frontoparietal network functional connectivity (FPN-fc) has been associated with neurocognitive dysfunction in individuals with (risk for) psychotic disorder. Cannabis use is associated with cognitive and FPN-fc alterations in healthy individuals, but it is not known whether cannabis exposure moderates the FPN-fc-cognition association. We studied FPN-fc in relation to psychosis risk, as well as the moderating effects of psychosis risk and cannabis use on the association between FPN-fc and (social) cognition. This was done by collecting resting-state fMRI scans and (social) cognitive test results from 63 patients with psychotic disorder, 73 unaffected siblings and 59 controls. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seed-based correlation analyses were used to estimate FPN-fc group differences. Additionally, group×FPN-fc and cannabis×FPN-fc interactions in models of cognition were assessed with regression models. Results showed that DLPFC-fc with the left precuneus, right inferior parietal lobule, right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) regions and right insula was decreased in patients compared to controls. Siblings had reduced DLPFC-fc with the right MTG, left middle frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, IFG regions, and right insula compared to controls, with an intermediate position between patients and controls for DLPFC-IFG/MTG and insula-fc. There were no significant FPN-fc×group or FPN-fc×cannabis interactions in models of cognition. Reduced DLPFC-insula-fc was associated with worse social cognition in the total sample. In conclusion, besides patient- and sibling-specific FPN-fc alterations, there was evidence for trait-related alterations. FPN-fc-cognition associations were not conditional on familial liability or cannabis use. Lower FPN-fc was associated with lower emotion processing in the total group. PMID:26411531

  6. Network dysfunction of emotional and cognitive processes in those at genetic risk of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Breakspear, Michael; Roberts, Gloria; Green, Melissa J; Nguyen, Vinh T; Frankland, Andrew; Levy, Florence; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Mitchell, Philip B

    2015-11-01

    The emotional and cognitive vulnerabilities that precede the development of bipolar disorder are poorly understood. The inferior frontal gyrus-a key cortical hub for the integration of cognitive and emotional processes-exhibits both structural and functional changes in bipolar disorder, and is also functionally impaired in unaffected first-degree relatives, showing diminished engagement during inhibition of threat-related emotional stimuli. We hypothesized that this functional impairment of the inferior frontal gyrus in those at genetic risk of bipolar disorder reflects the dysfunction of broader network dynamics underlying the coordination of emotion perception and cognitive control. To test this, we studied effective connectivity in functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired from 41 first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder, 45 matched healthy controls and 55 participants with established bipolar disorder. Dynamic causal modelling was used to model the neuronal interaction between key regions associated with fear perception (the anterior cingulate), inhibition (the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) and the region upon which these influences converge, namely the inferior frontal gyrus. Network models that embodied non-linear, hierarchical relationships were the most strongly supported by data from our healthy control and bipolar participants. We observed a marked difference in the hierarchical influence of the anterior cingulate on the effective connectivity from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the inferior frontal gyrus that is unique to the at-risk cohort. Non-specific, non-hierarchical mechanisms appear to compensate for this network disturbance. We thus establish a specific network disturbance suggesting dysfunction in the processes that support hierarchical relationships between emotion and cognitive control in those at high genetic risk for bipolar disorder. PMID:26373604

  7. Individual differences in resting heart rate variability and cognitive control in posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gillie, Brandon L.; Thayer, Julian F.

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by deficits in cognitive functioning, particularly cognitive control. Moreover, these deficits are thought to play a critical role in the etiology and maintenance of core PTSD symptoms such as intrusive thoughts and memories. However, the psychophysiological concomitants of cognitive control remain largely unexamined. In this article, we suggest that individual differences in heart rate variability (HRV), a physiological index of self-regulatory capacity, may underlie the association between cognitive control ability and intrusive cognitions in PTSD. We review evidence showing that individual differences in HRV at rest are related to prefrontal cortical activity and performance on a broad range of cognitive control tasks. We highlight the importance of inhibition as a mechanism by which HRV promotes successful cognitive control. In addition, we summarize recent research linking individual differences in HRV to performance on laboratory tasks that assess the ability to control unwanted memories and intrusive thoughts. We conclude by suggesting that future studies should examine the role of low HRV as a risk factor for developing PTSD. PMID:25076929

  8. Individual differences in resting heart rate variability and cognitive control in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Gillie, Brandon L; Thayer, Julian F

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by deficits in cognitive functioning, particularly cognitive control. Moreover, these deficits are thought to play a critical role in the etiology and maintenance of core PTSD symptoms such as intrusive thoughts and memories. However, the psychophysiological concomitants of cognitive control remain largely unexamined. In this article, we suggest that individual differences in heart rate variability (HRV), a physiological index of self-regulatory capacity, may underlie the association between cognitive control ability and intrusive cognitions in PTSD. We review evidence showing that individual differences in HRV at rest are related to prefrontal cortical activity and performance on a broad range of cognitive control tasks. We highlight the importance of inhibition as a mechanism by which HRV promotes successful cognitive control. In addition, we summarize recent research linking individual differences in HRV to performance on laboratory tasks that assess the ability to control unwanted memories and intrusive thoughts. We conclude by suggesting that future studies should examine the role of low HRV as a risk factor for developing PTSD. PMID:25076929

  9. Impaired cognitive reappraisal in panic disorder revealed by the late positive potential.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Wei; Xu, Jing; Chang, Yi; Wang, He; Yao, Hong; Tang, Di

    2016-01-20

    According to the cognitive model of panic disorder (PD), panic attacks are triggered and maintained by catastrophic misappraisals of bodily sensations. Clinically, PD is associated with impaired cognitive emotion regulation strategies involving cognitive reappraisal. To investigate the neural correlates and time course of cognitive reappraisal in patients with PD, event-related potentials were recorded from patients with PD and demographically matched control group during passive viewing of affective images under three conditions: (a) neutral pictures preceded by neutral descriptions, (b) unpleasant pictures preceded by negative descriptions, and (c) unpleasant pictures preceded by neutral descriptions. The late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential component sensitive to cognitive change strategies, was examined as an index of cognitive reappraisal. Consistent with previous results, the unpleasant pictures preceded by negative descriptions had decreased valence ratings, increased arousal ratings, and increased LPP amplitudes compared with the unpleasant pictures preceded by neutral descriptions in the control group. In contrast, no reliable effect of description condition was observed for valence ratings in the PD group. The patients demonstrated differing response patterns from the control participants, with higher arousal ratings and larger LPPs during the 1000-2000 ms window when unpleasant pictures were preceded by a neutral description than when unpleasant pictures were preceded by a negative description. The present study suggests that emotion regulation is impaired in patients with PD. These findings describe the first electrophysiological correlates of abnormal cognitive reappraisal in patients with PD. PMID:26656936

  10. Social cognition and metacognition in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an explorative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Bethge, Mareike; Luksnat, Stefanie; Nalato, Fabio; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe psychiatric condition that is, among other features, characterized by marked impairment in social functioning. Although theoretically plausible with regard to neurobiological underpinnings of OCD, there is little research about possible impairments in social cognitive and meta-cognitive abilities and their connections with social functioning in patients with OCD. Accordingly, we sought to examine social cognitive skills and metacognition in OCD. Twenty OCD patients and age-, sex-, and education-matched 20 healthy controls were assessed using neurocognitive and diverse social cognitive skills including the Ekman 60 Faces test, the Hinting Task, the faux pas test, and a proverb test. In addition, the Metacognition Questionnaire-30 was administered to both the OCD and the control groups. Social functioning was measured using the Personal and Social Performance Scale. Symptom severity in patients was determined by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory. No group differences emerged in basic social cognitive abilities. In contrast, compared to controls, OCD patients scored higher on all MCQ dimensions, particularly negative beliefs about worry, uncontrollability, and danger; beliefs about need to control thoughts; and cognitive self-consciousness. There were no significant correlations between social or metacognitive parameters and OCD symptom severity. However, in the patient group, depression and metacognition predicted social functioning. OCD patients show normal basal social cognitive abilities, but dysfunctional metacognitive profiles, which may contribute to their psychosocial impairment. PMID:26810438

  11. The effect of serotonin 1A receptor polymorphism on the cognitive function of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    PubMed

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Tu, Hung-Pin; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Long, Cheng-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2014-12-01

    Estrogen and serotonin play vital roles in the mechanism of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Cognitive deficit in the premenstrual phase contributes to impaired life function among women with PMDD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties in cognitive control and working memory (WM) in PMDD and to explore the effects of gonadotropic hormone and polymorphism of serotonin 1A receptor (HTR1A; rs6295) on cognitive deficit in PMDD. Women with PMDD completed diagnostic interviewing, questionnaire assessment, the Go/Nogo task, 2-back and 3-back tasks, and gonadotropic hormone analysis in the premenstrual and follicular phases. Further, they were followed up for two menstrual cycles to confirm two consecutive symptomatic cycles. A total of 59 subjects with PMDD and 74 controls completed all evaluation, fulfilled the criteria, and entered into the final analysis. The results demonstrated cognitive control and WM decline in the premenstrual among women with PMDD. The G/G genotype of HTR1A (rs6295) was found to be associated with impaired WM in the premenstrual phase and premenstrual decline of cognitive function. It also contributed to the vulnerability of cognitive function to the menstrual cycle effect and PMDD effect. As the G/G genotype of HTR1A (rs6295) involves in reducing serotonin neurotransmission, our results provide insight into the serotonin mechanism of cognitive function among women with PMDD. PMID:24158751

  12. Clinical, Functional, and Biological Correlates of Cognitive Dimensions in Major Depressive Disorder - Rationale, Design, and Characteristics of the Cognitive Function and Mood Study (CoFaM-Study).

    PubMed

    Baune, Bernhard T; Air, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies exploring clinical, functional, and biological correlates of major depressive disorder are frequent. In this type of research, depression is most commonly defined as a categorical diagnosis based on studies using diagnostic instruments. Given the phenotypic and biological heterogeneity of depression, we chose to focus the phenotypic assessments on three cognitive dimensions of depression including (a) cognitive performance, (b) emotion processing, and (c) social cognitive functioning. Hence, the overall aim of the study is to investigate the long-term clinical course of these cognitive dimensions in depression and its functional (psychosocial) correlates. We also aim to identify biological "genomic" correlates of these three cognitive dimensions of depression. To address the above overall aim, we created the Cognition and Mood Study (CoFaMS) with the key objective to investigate the clinical, functional, and biological correlates of cognitive dimensions of depression by employing a prospective study design and including a healthy control group. The study commenced in April 2015, including patients with a primary diagnosis of a major depressive episode of major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. The assessments cover the three cognitive dimensions of depression (cognitive performance, emotion processing, and social cognition), cognitive function screening instrument, plus functional scales to assess general, work place, and psychosocial function, depression symptom scales, and clinical course of illness. Blood is collected for comprehensive genomic discovery analyses of biological correlates of cognitive dimensions of depression. The CoFaM-Study represents an innovative approach focusing on cognitive dimensions of depression and its functional and biological "genomic" correlates. The CoFaMS team welcomes collaborations with both national and international researchers. PMID:27616997

  13. Are There Differences in Neurocognition and Social Cognition Among Adolescents with Schizophrenia, a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, and Both Disorders?

    PubMed

    Waris, Petra; Tani, Pekka; Lindberg, Nina; Lipsanen, Jari; Kettunen, Kirsi; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Saarimaa, Leena-Kaisa; Reinvall, Outi; Voutilainen, Arja; Hokkanen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCH) and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) belong to different diagnostic categories. There is, however, overlap between these 2 diagnostic groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate some aspects of neurocognitions and social cognitions in adolescents with SCH (n = 10, 2 boys and 8 girls; age range = 13.3-17.7 years), a PDD (n = 15, 7 boys and 8 girls; age range = 13.3-18.0 years), or both disorders (n = 8, 5 boys and 3 girls; age range = 13.5-18 years). Eight subtests (Information, Similarities, Arithmetic, Comprehension, Picture Completion, Coding B, Block Design, and Object Assembly) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Version and 2 subtests (Theory of Mind [ToM] and Affect Recognition) of the NEPSY-II were administered. Adolescents with both disorders and those with a PDD only performed better on visual processing tasks than did adolescents with SCH only. On the other hand, adolescents with both disorders as well as those with SCH only experienced more problems with processing speed than did adolescents with a PDD only. Adolescents with SCH only performed significantly more poorly with verbal ToM tasks compared with those with a PDD only. Adolescents with both disorders performed as well as those with SCH only. All in all, our preliminary findings support the current idea that SCH and PDDs are separate disorders. PMID:27015370

  14. Are Improvements in Cognitive Content and Depressive Symptoms Correlates or Mediators during Acute-Phase Cognitive Therapy for Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive model of depression posits that cognitive therapy’s (CT) effect on depressive symptoms is mediated by changes in cognitive content (e.g., automatic negative thoughts dysfunctional attitudes, failure attributions). We tested improvement and normalization of cognitive content among outpatients (N = 523) with recurrent major depressive disorder treated with acute-phase CT (Jarrett & Thase, 2010; Jarrett et al., 2013). We also tested whether improvement in cognitive content accounted for subsequent changes in depressive symptoms and vice versa. Five measures of content improved substantively from pre- to post-CT (median d = 0.96), and the proportions of patients scoring in “healthy” ranges increased (median 45% to 82%). Evidence for cognitive mediation of symptom reduction was limited (median r = .06), as was evidence for symptom mediation of cognitive content improvement (median r = .07). We discuss measurement and design issues relevant to detection of mediators and consider alternative theories of change. PMID:26401194

  15. Quality of life, functioning and cognition in bipolar disorder and major depression: A latent profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Cotrena, Charles; Branco, Laura Damiani; Kochhann, Renata; Shansis, Flávio Milman; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2016-07-30

    This study aimed to identify profiles of functioning and quality of life (QOL) in depression (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy adults, as well as the clinical, demographic and cognitive variables associated with each of these profiles. Participants completed the WHODAS 2.0 and WHOQOL-BREF, which were submitted to latent profile analysis. The four cluster solution provided the best fit for our data. Cluster 1 consisted mostly of healthy adults, and had the highest functioning and QOL. Clusters 2 contained older patients with subclinical depressive symptoms and psychiatric comorbidities, whose impairments in QOL and functioning were associated with mood symptoms and several cognitive abilities. Patients with MDD, BDI or BDII with mild to moderate depression, such as those in cluster 3, may benefit more significantly from interventions in cognitive flexibility, inhibition, planning, and sustained attention. Lastly, patients with mood disorders and clinically significant levels of depression, as well as a history of suicide attempts, like those in cluster 4, may benefit from interventions aimed at working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility; that is, the three core executive functions. These findings should be further investigated, and used to guide treatments for patients with mood disorders and different patterns of functional impairment. PMID:27209359

  16. Emotional, cognitive and physiological correlates of abuse-related stress in borderline and antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud

    2010-02-01

    Childhood abuse is an important precursor of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). The current study compared the emotional reactivity to abuse-related stress of these patients on a direct and an indirect level. Changes in self-reported affect and schema modes, psychophysiology and reaction time based cognitive associations were assessed following confrontation with an abuse-related film fragment in patients with BPD (n=45), ASPD (n=21), Cluster C personality disorder (n=46) and non-patient controls (n=36). Results indicated a hyperresponsivity of BPD-patients on self-reported negative affect and schema modes, on some psychophysiological indices and on implicit cognitive associations. The ASPD-group was comparable to the BPD group on implicit cognitions but did not show self-reported and physiological hyper-reactivity. These findings suggest that BPD and ASPD-patients are alike in their implicit cognitive abuse-related stress reactivity, but can be differentiated in their self-reported and physiological response patterns. PMID:19854433

  17. The Interplay between Emotion and Cognition in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Developmental Theory

    PubMed Central

    Gaigg, Sebastian B.

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is clinically defined by abnormalities in reciprocal social and communicative behaviors and an inflexible adherence to routinised patterns of thought and behavior. Laboratory studies repeatedly demonstrate that autistic individuals experience difficulties in recognizing and understanding the emotional expressions of others and naturalistic observations show that they use such expressions infrequently and inappropriately to regulate social exchanges. Dominant theories attribute this facet of the ASD phenotype to abnormalities in a social brain network that mediates social-motivational and social-cognitive processes such as face processing, mental state understanding, and empathy. Such theories imply that only emotion related processes relevant to social cognition are compromised in ASD but accumulating evidence suggests that the disorder may be characterized by more widespread anomalies in the domain of emotions. In this review I summarize the relevant literature and argue that the social-emotional characteristics of ASD may be better understood in terms of a disruption in the domain-general interplay between emotion and cognition. More specifically I will suggest that ASD is the developmental consequence of early emerging anomalies in how emotional responses to the environment modulate a wide range of cognitive processes including those that are relevant to navigating the social world. PMID:23316143

  18. An Efficacy/effectiveness Study of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Adolescents with Comorbid Major Depression and Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Clarke, Gregory N.; Mace, David E.; Jorgensen, Jenel S.; Seeley, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effectiveness of the Adolescent Coping With Depression (CWD-A) course, a cognitive-behavioral group intervention for depressed adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder. Method: Between 1998 and 2001, 93 nonincarcerated adolescents (ages 13-17 years) meeting criteria for major depressive disorder and conduct disorder were…

  19. Compromised Prefrontal Cognitive Control Over Emotional Interference in Adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghan; Lee, Seojung; Chun, Ji Won; Cho, Hyun; Kim, Dai-jin; Jung, Young-Chul

    2015-11-01

    Increased reports of impulsivity and aggression in male adolescents with Internet gaming might reflect their dysfunction in emotion regulation, particularly in suppression of negative emotions, which should affect the various stages of Internet gaming disorder. This study tested the hypothesis that adolescents with Internet gaming disorder would be more disturbed by the emotional interference and demonstrate compromised dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activation during a Stroop Match-to-Sample task. In addition, functional connectivity analysis was conducted to examine the interplays between neural correlates involved in emotional processing and how they were altered in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder. The Internet gaming disorder group demonstrated weaker dACC activation and stronger insular activations to interfering angry facial stimuli compared with the healthy control group. Negative functional connectivity between stronger insular activation and weaker dorsolateral prefrontal activation correlated with higher cognitive impulsivity in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder. These findings provide evidence of the compromised prefrontal cognitive control over emotional interference in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder. PMID:26430731

  20. Effects of discontinuing anticholinergic treatment on movement disorders, cognition and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Beauclair, Linda; Annable, Lawrence; Bélanger, Marie-Claire; Kolivakis, Theodore T.; Margolese, Howard C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physicians have prescribed anticholinergic agents such as benztropine, procyclidine, biperiden and trihexyphenidyl for treatment and prophylaxis of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) for decades. Anticholinergic agents can however worsen tardive dyskinesia and cause many adverse effects, including cognitive impairment. Previous studies of anticholinergic discontinuation in patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics have yielded a wide range of EPS relapse rates. Improvement in cognition after anticholinergic withdrawal was observed in some studies. Objective: This study evaluated the effect of anticholinergic discontinuation on movement disorders, cognition and general psychopathology after a 4-week taper in 20 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated with antipsychotics. Results: Eighteen of twenty patients successfully discontinued their anticholinergic medication; two did not because of akathisia. Repeated measures analysis of variance did not show a significant effect of anticholinergic discontinuation on total Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale score or on the Parkinsonism, Akathisia, Dystonia or Tardive Dyskinesia subscales. However, significant improvement was found on the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia composite z score at weeks 6, 8 and 12 compared with baseline. Significant improvements were seen on the motor and the symbol-coding tasks. No significant effects were observed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression – Severity and Clinical Global Impression – Improvement scales. Conclusion: In this 12-week study of anticholinergic discontinuation in 20 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, gradual decrease and discontinuation of anticholinergics led to a positive effect on cognition. There were no adverse consequences on general psychopathology and no significant differences for 18 of 20 subjects on movement disorders

  1. Screening for DSM-IV-TR Cognitive Disorder NOS in Parkinson’s disease using the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Pontone, Gregory M.; Palanci, Justin; Williams, James R.; Bassett, Susan Spear

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study explores the utility of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS) as a screening tool for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis Cognitive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Parkinson’s disease(PD). Methods 125 individuals with PD were diagnosed using DSM-IV-TR criteria for Cognitive Disorder NOS and dementia. Receiver operating characteristics tested the discriminant validity of the MDRS, with the clinician’s diagnosis serving as the gold standard. Results The MDRS ROC curve to discriminate subjects with Cognitive Disorder NOS from non-demented subjects had an AUC of 0.59 (std. err.= 0.08, 95% CI: 0.43–0.74). Conclusions The MDRS is not effective for identifying PD patients with Cognitive Disorder NOS without dementia. PMID:22628158

  2. Effect of Treating Anxiety Disorders on Cognitive Deficits and Behaviors Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Denis, Isabelle; Guay, Marie-Claude; Foldes-Busque, Guillaume; BenAmor, Leila

    2016-06-01

    Twenty-five percent of children with ADHD also have an anxiety disorder (AD). As per Quay and in light of Barkley's model, anxiety may have a protective effect on cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of treating AD on cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD in children with both disorders. Twenty-four children with ADHD and AD were divided into two groups: treatment for AD, and wait list. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up with the ADIS-C, the CBCL, and neuropsychological measures. The results revealed a significant improvement in automatic response inhibition and flexibility, and a decrease in inattention/hyperactivity behaviors following the treatment for AD. No significant differences were observed in motor response inhibition, working memory, or attention deficits. The results do not seem to support Quay's hypothesis: treating AD did not exacerbate cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD in our sample. PMID:26323585

  3. Age-related eye disease and gender.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of moderate to severe visual impairment and blindness is 285 millions, with 65% of visually impaired and 82% of all blind people being 50 years and older. Meta-analyses have shown that two out of three blind people are women, a gender discrepancy that holds true for both developed and developing countries. Cataract accounts for more than half of all blindness globally and gender inequity in access to cataract surgery is the major cause of the higher prevalence of blindness in women. In addition to gender differences in cataract surgical coverage, population-based studies on the prevalence of lens opacities indicate that women have a higher risk of developing cataract. Laboratory as well as epidemiologic studies suggest that estrogen may confer antioxidative protection against cataractogenesis, but the withdrawal effect of estrogen in menopause leads to increased risk of cataract in women. For the other major age-related eye diseases; glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy, data are inconclusive. Due to anatomic factors, angle closure glaucoma is more common in women, whereas the dominating glaucoma type; primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is more prevalent in men. Diabetic retinopathy also has a male predominance and vascular/circulatory factors have been implied both in diabetic retinopathy and in POAG. For AMD, data on gender differences are conflicting although some studies indicate increased prevalence of drusen and neovascular AMD in women. To conclude, both biologic and socioeconomic factors must be considered when investigating causes of gender differences in the prevalence of age-related eye disease. PMID:26508081

  4. Cognitive risk profiles for anxiety disorders in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Bardeen, Joseph R; Stevens, Erin N; Clark, Charles Brendan; Lahti, Adrienne C; Cropsey, Karen L

    2015-09-30

    The purpose of the present study was to identify subgroups of participants who may be at particularly high risk for anxiety pathology based on specific combinations of demographic characteristics and higher-order cognitive abilities in a population at disproportionate risk for deficits in cognitive abilities (i.e., smokers within the criminal justice system). Participants (N=495) provided demographic information, were administered a semi-structured diagnostic interview, and completed a number of measures assessing cognitive abilities. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) model using signal detection theory indicated that the strongest predictor of anxiety disorder diagnosis was race, with White participants having a 30.6% likelihood of diagnosis and participants in the non-White category (97% of which identified as Black/African American) having a 18.9% likelihood of diagnosis. Interestingly, the individual risk profile associated with the highest probability of having a current anxiety disorder was characterized by White participants with impaired response inhibition (58.6%), and the lowest probability of having a current anxiety disorder was among non-White males (13.9%). The findings, which indicated that White individuals with impaired response inhibition are at a disproportionately high risk for anxiety disorders, suggest a potential target for prevention and intervention. PMID:26089016

  5. Familial liability to schizophrenia and mood disorders and cognitive impairment in psychosis.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Manuel J; Zarzuela, Amalia; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Lorente-Omeñaca, Ruth; Moreno-Izco, Lucía; Sanjuán, Julio; Peralta, Victor

    2015-06-30

    Schizophrenia and other psychoses are complex disorders with high rates of cognitive impairment and a considerable degree of genetic and environmental influence on its etiology. Whether cognitive impairment is related to dimensional scores of familial liability is still matter of debate. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 169 patients with psychotic disorders and 26 healthy controls. Attention, memory and executive functions were assessed, and familial loading scores for schizophrenia and mood disorders were calculated. The relationships between familial liability and neuropsychological performance were examined with Spearman׳s correlation coefficients. In addition, patients were classified into three groups by family loading tertiles, and comparisons were performed between the patients in the top and bottom tertiles. Low familial loading scores for schizophrenia showed a significant association with poor executive functioning and delayed visual memory. And these results were also achieved when the subset of psychotic patients in the two extreme tertiles of family loadings of schizophrenia and mood disorders were compared. Low familial liability to schizophrenia seems to be a contributing factor for the severity of cognitive impairment in patients with a broad putative schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis. PMID:25908262

  6. Mechanisms of change in cognitive therapy for panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    PubMed

    Hoffart, Asle; Sexton, Harold; Hedley, Liv M; Martinsen, Egil W

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the predictions of an integrated cognitive and behavioral model of agoraphobic avoidance in patients with chronic panic disorder and agoraphobia during the process of observed therapeutic change. Treatment was residential with the majority (n=165, 88%) receiving cognitive therapy, while the remaining 23 (12%) received guided mastery therapy. The results of latent variable path modeling of the changes occurring over the course of this treatment suggested that the anxiety elicited by bodily sensations influenced catastrophic beliefs, which, in turn, increased avoidance. Avoidance increased the anxiety elicited by bodily sensations. PMID:17727812

  7. Cognitive control network function in alcohol use disorder before and during treatment with lorazepam.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Mayer, Andrew R; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Ling, Josef; Dekonenko, Charlene; Cumbo, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have deficits in cognitive control, but how they change with treatment is unclear. Seven patients with AUD and anxiety from an open-label trial of disulfiram plus lorazepam performed a multisensory Stroop task during fMRI (both pre and post initiation of treatment), and were compared to nine healthy controls (HCs) (n = 16; Albuquerque, NM; years 2009-2012). Evoked BOLD signal and resting state functional connectivity were compared (HC vs. AUD; Scan 1 vs. Scan 2). AUD demonstrated hyperactivity and altered connectivity in the cognitive control network compared to HC, but treatment did not normalize function. PMID:25290463

  8. A cognitive-behavioral model of Internet gaming disorder: Theoretical underpinnings and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Guangheng; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive contributions to the behaviors observed in substance and non-substance addictions have been investigated and characterized. Based on models of drug addictions and the extant literature on Internet gaming disorder (IGD), we propose a cognitive-behavioral model for conceptualizing IGD. The model focuses on three domains and their roles in addictive behaviors. The three domains include motivational drives related to reward-seeking and stress-reduction, behavioral control relating to executive inhibition, and decision-making that involves weighing the pros and cons of engaging in motivated behaviors. Based on this model, we propose how behavioral therapies might target these domains in the treatment of IGD. PMID:25062755

  9. A cognitive-behavioral model of Internet gaming disorder: theoretical underpinnings and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guangheng; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive contributions to the behaviors observed in substance and non-substance addictions have been investigated and characterized. Based on models of drug addictions and the extant literature on Internet gaming disorder (IGD), we propose a cognitive-behavioral model for conceptualizing IGD. The model focuses on three domains and their roles in addictive behaviors. The three domains include motivational drives related to reward-seeking and stress-reduction, behavioral control relating to executive inhibition, and decision-making that involves weighing the pros and cons of engaging in motivated behaviors. Based on this model, we propose how behavioral therapies might target these domains in the treatment of IGD. PMID:25062755

  10. Preliminary Evidence for Cognitive Mediation During Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy of Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Suvak, Michael K.; Barlow, David H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Meuret, Alicia E.; Rosenfield, David; Gorman, Jack M.; Woods, Scott W.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy are similarly effective for treating panic disorder with mild or no agoraphobia, but little is known about the mechanism through which these treatments work. The present study examined some of the criteria for cognitive mediation of treatment change in CBT alone, imipramine alone, CBT plus imipramine, and CBT plus placebo. Ninety-one individuals who received 1 of these interventions were assessed before and after acute treatment, and after a 6-month maintenance period. Multilevel moderated mediation analyses provided preliminary support for the notion that changes in panic-related cognitions mediate changes in panic severity only in treatments that include CBT. PMID:17563154

  11. Cognitive Control Network Function in Alcohol Use Disorder Before and During Treatment With Lorazepam

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Mayer, Andrew R.; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Ling, Josef; Dekonenko, Charlene; Cumbo, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have deficits in cognitive control, but how they change with treatment is unclear. Seven patients with AUD and anxiety from an open-label trial of disulfiram plus lorazepam performed a multisensory Stroop task during fMRI (both pre and post initiation of treatment), and were compared to nine healthy controls (HCs) (n = 16; Albuquerque, NM; years 2009–2012). Evoked BOLD signal and resting state functional connectivity were compared (HC vs. AUD; Scan 1 vs. Scan 2). AUD demonstrated hyperactivity and altered connectivity in the cognitive control network compared to HC, but treatment did not normalize function. PMID:25290463

  12. Mediators of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety-disordered children and adolescents: cognition, perceived control, and coping.

    PubMed

    Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Prins, Pier J M; Boer, Frits; Vervoort, Leentje; Wolters, Lidewij H; Moorlag, Harma; Nauta, Maaike H; Garst, Harry; Hartman, Catharina A; de Haan, Else

    2014-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate whether a change in putative mediators (negative and positive thoughts, coping strategies, and perceived control over anxious situations) precedes a change in anxiety symptoms in anxiety-disordered children and adolescents receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Participants were 145 Dutch children (8-18 years old, M = 12.5 years, 57% girls) with a primary anxiety disorder. Assessments were completed pretreatment, in-treatment, posttreatment, and at 3-month follow-up. Sequential temporal dependencies between putative mediators and parent- and child-reported anxiety symptoms were investigated in AMOS using longitudinal Latent Difference Score Modeling. During treatment an increase of positive thoughts preceded a decrease in child-reported anxiety symptoms. An increase in three coping strategies (direct problem solving, positive cognitive restructuring, and seeking distraction) preceded a decrease in parent-reported anxiety symptoms. A reciprocal effect was found for perceived control: A decrease in parent-reported anxiety symptoms both preceded and followed an increase in perceived control. Using a longitudinal design, a temporal relationship between several putative mediators and CBT-outcome for anxious children was explored. The results suggest that a change in positive thoughts, but not negative thoughts, and several coping strategies precedes a change in symptom reduction and, therefore, at least partly support theoretical models of anxiety upon which the anxiety intervention is based. PMID:23795885

  13. The relationship between sleep-wake cycle and cognitive functioning in young people with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16-30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18-30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a 'long sleep' cluster, a 'disrupted sleep' cluster, and a 'delayed and disrupted sleep' cluster. Circadian clusters included a 'strong circadian' cluster, a 'weak circadian' cluster, and a 'delayed circadian' cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The 'long sleep' cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the 'disrupted sleep' cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in

  14. The Relationship between Sleep-Wake Cycle and Cognitive Functioning in Young People with Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Joanne S.; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S. C.; Hermens, Daniel F.; Naismith, Sharon L.; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16–30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18–30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a ‘long sleep’ cluster, a ‘disrupted sleep’ cluster, and a ‘delayed and disrupted sleep’ cluster. Circadian clusters included a ‘strong circadian’ cluster, a ‘weak circadian’ cluster, and a ‘delayed circadian’ cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The ‘long sleep’ cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the ‘disrupted sleep’ cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments

  15. Emotional bias of cognitive control in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Kurt P; Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Fan, Jin; Clerkin, Suzanne M; Dima, Danai; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Affect recognition deficits found in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan may bias the development of cognitive control processes implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This study aimed to determine the mechanism through which facial expressions influence cognitive control in young adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Fourteen probands with childhood ADHD and 14 comparison subjects with no history of ADHD were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task. Event-related analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity for cognitive control collapsed over face valence and tested for variations in activation for response execution and inhibition as a function of face valence. Probands with childhood ADHD made fewer correct responses and inhibitions overall than comparison subjects, but demonstrated comparable effects of face emotion on response execution and inhibition. The two groups showed similar frontotemporal activation for cognitive control collapsed across face valence, but differed in the functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with fewer interactions with the subgenual cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and putamen in probands than in comparison subjects. Further, valence-dependent activation for response execution was seen in the amygdala, ventral striatum, subgenual cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex in comparison subjects but not in probands. The findings point to functional anomalies in limbic networks for both the valence-dependent biasing of cognitive control and the valence-independent cognitive control of face emotion processing in probands with childhood ADHD. This limbic dysfunction could impact cognitive control in emotional contexts and may contribute to the social and emotional problems associated with ADHD. PMID:24918067

  16. Association of sleep-disordered breathing with decreased cognitive function among patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kiyoaki; Matsuo, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masahiro; Murakami, Junichi; Aoki, Yasusuke; Aoki, Naosuke; Mizumoto, Hirotaka; Namikawa, Ayako; Hara, Hiroko; Miyagawa, Masaharu; Kadotani, Hiroshi; Yamada, Naoto

    2014-10-01

    Sleep is known to be essential for proper cognitive functioning. Sleep disturbance, especially respiratory disturbance during sleep, is a risk factor for the development of dementia. However, it is not known whether hypopnoea during sleep is related to severity of cognitive function in patients already diagnosed with dementia. Considering the high prevalence of sleep problems in aged people, it is important to determine if hypopnoea during sleep contributes to dementia. In addition, it would be desirable to develop a feasible method for objectively evaluating sleep in patients with dementia. For this purpose, a simple sleep recorder that employs single or dual bioparameter recording, which is defined as a type-4 portable monitor, is suitable. In this study, a type-4 sleep recorder was used to evaluate respiratory function during sleep in 111 patients with dementia, and data suggesting a possible relationship with cognitive function levels were examined. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the association of severity of dementia with sleep-disordered breathing, age, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. It was found that the respiratory disturbance index was associated with severity of cognitive dysfunction in our subjects. Furthermore, patients younger than 80 years were more susceptible to lower cognitive function associated with sleep-disordered breathing than patients 80 years old or over, because an increase in the respiratory disturbance index was associated with deteriorated cognitive function only in the former age group. These results suggest that proper treatment of sleep apnea is important for the preservation of cognitive function, especially in patients with early-stage dementia. PMID:24975686

  17. Perinatal epigenetic determinants of cognitive and metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Lupu, Daniel S; Tint, Diana; Niculescu, Mihai D

    2012-12-01

    Multiple cues from the environment of our indirect and immediate ancestors, which often persist throughout the prenatal period and adulthood, are shaping our phenotypes through either direct, parent-to-child influences, or transgenerational inheritance. These effects are due to gene-environment interactions, which are intended to be a predictive tool and a mechanism of quick adaptation to the environment, as compared with genetic variations that are inherited over many generations. In certain circumstances the influences induced by the gene-environment interactions can have deleterious effects upon the health status, in the context of a radical change in the environment that does not fit with the predicted conditions, via epigenetic alterations. Conversely the best fit to the expected environment might have a delayed aging process and a longer life span. This review will touch upon the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DoHAD) concept, while discussing recent advances in the understanding of metabolic and cognitive disruptions, with a focus on epigenetic factors, their transgenerational effects, and the consequences they might have upon the onset of chronic disease and premature exitus. PMID:23251850

  18. The Theory Behind the Age-Related Positivity Effect

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Andrew E.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    The “positivity effect” refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather and Carstensen, 2005) scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people. PMID:23060825

  19. Association between Binge Eating Disorder and Changes in Cognitive Functioning Following Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lavender, Jason M.; Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Paul, Robert; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Gunstad, John

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that both obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) may be associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a lifetime history of BED would be associated with changes in several domains of cognitive functioning (attention, executive function, language, and memory) following bariatric surgery. Participants were 68 bariatric surgery patients who completed a computerized battery of cognitive tests within 30 days prior to undergoing surgery and again at a 12-month postoperative follow-up. Results revealed that on the whole, participants displayed improvements from baseline to follow-up in attention, executive function, and memory, even after controlling for diagnostic history of depression; no changes were observed for language. However, individuals with and without a history of BED did not differ in changes in body mass index or in the degree of improvement in cognitive functioning from baseline to follow-up. Such results suggest that a history of BED does not influence changes in cognitive functioning following bariatric surgery. Future research will be needed to further clarify the role of BED in predicting cognitive function over time. PMID:25201638

  20. Structural and Functional Brain Correlates of Cognitive Impairment in Euthymic Patients with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goikolea, José M.; Bonnin, Caterina M.; Sarró, Salvador; Segura, Barbara; Amann, Benedikt L.; Monté, Gemma C.; Moro, Noemi; Fernandez-Corcuera, Paloma; Maristany, Teresa; Salvador, Raymond; Vieta, Eduard; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; McKenna, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase is a well-established finding in bipolar disorder. However, its brain structural and/or functional correlates are uncertain. Methods Thirty-three euthymic bipolar patients with preserved memory and executive function and 28 euthymic bipolar patients with significant memory and/or executive impairment, as defined using two test batteries, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) and the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS), plus 28 healthy controls underwent structural MRI using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Twenty-seven of the cognitively preserved patients, 23 of the cognitively impaired patients and 28 controls also underwent fMRI during performance of the n-back working memory task. Results No clusters of grey or white matter volume difference were found between the two patient groups. During n-back performance, the cognitively impaired patients showed hypoactivation compared to the cognitively preserved patients in a circumscribed region in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Both patient groups showed failure of de-activation in the medial frontal cortex compared to the healthy controls. Conclusions Cognitive impairment in euthymic bipolar patients appears from this study to be unrelated to structural brain abnormality, but there was some evidence for an association with altered prefrontal function. PMID:27448153