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Sample records for age-related health problems

  1. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  2. Age-related preferences and age weighting health benefits.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the relevance of age in the paradigm of quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The first section outlines two rationales for incorporating age weights into QALYs. One of them is based on efficiency concerns; and the other on equity concerns. Both of these are theoretical constructs. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of published empirical support for such age weighting. The second section is a brief survey of nine empirical studies that elicited age-related preferences from the general public. Six of these quantified the strength of the preferences, and these are discussed in more detail in the third section. The analysis distinguishes three kinds of age-related preference: productivity ageism, utilitarian ageism and egalitarian ageism. The relationship between them and their relevance to the two different rationales for age weighting are then explored. It is concluded that, although there is strong prima facie evidence of public support for both types of age weighting, the empirical evidence to support any particular set of weights is at present weak. PMID:10048783

  3. Aging male bodies, health and the reproduction of age relations.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Ilkka; Ojala, Hanna; King, Neal; Calasanti, Toni

    2013-08-01

    This article explores the ways in which a group of male factory workers uses bodies as bases for hierarchical categorization of men by age in their talk of mundane aspects of their lives. Analysis of interviews about health (4 focus groups and 5 personal interviews) with Finnish working-class men under 40 years old shows that they portray age groups to which they do not belong as careless, even irresponsible toward health and its maintenance. As they categorize youth and old people by age, they leave themselves unmarked by it, providing no vocabulary to describe their own group. Despite their tendency to distance themselves particularly from old people, they also distinguish among older men by familiarity, providing relatively nuanced accounts of their fathers' aging. We discuss the marking of age groups in terms of social inequality and talk of fathers in terms of intergenerational relations. Even family ties among men of diverse ages involve ageism, which familiarity serves both to mitigate and to make less visible. This article documents the maintenance of age inequality in everyday, mundane behavior. PMID:23849422

  4. Goals and everyday problem solving: examining the link between age-related goals and problem-solving strategy use.

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2008-07-01

    Qualitative interviews on family and financial problems from 332 adolescents, young, middle-aged, and older adults, demonstrated that developmentally relevant goals predicted problem-solving strategy use over and above problem domain. Four focal goals concerned autonomy, generativity, maintaining good relationships with others, and changing another person. We examined both self- and other-focused problem-solving strategies. Autonomy goals were associated with self-focused instrumental problem solving and generative goals were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in family and financial problems. Goals of changing another person were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in the family domain only. The match between goals and strategies, an indicator of problem-solving adaptiveness, showed that young individuals displayed the greatest match between autonomy goals and self-focused problem solving, whereas older adults showed a greater match between generative goals and other-focused problem solving. Findings speak to the importance of considering goals in investigations of age-related differences in everyday problem solving. PMID:17899456

  5. Dynamical network model for age-related health deficits and mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taneja, Swadhin; Mitnitski, Arnold B.; Rockwood, Kenneth; Rutenberg, Andrew D.

    2016-02-01

    How long people live depends on their health, and how it changes with age. Individual health can be tracked by the accumulation of age-related health deficits. The fraction of age-related deficits is a simple quantitative measure of human aging. This quantitative frailty index (F ) is as good as chronological age in predicting mortality. In this paper, we use a dynamical network model of deficits to explore the effects of interactions between deficits, deficit damage and repair processes, and the connection between the F and mortality. With our model, we qualitatively reproduce Gompertz's law of increasing human mortality with age, the broadening of the F distribution with age, the characteristic nonlinear increase of the F with age, and the increased mortality of high-frailty individuals. No explicit time-dependence in damage or repair rates is needed in our model. Instead, implicit time-dependence arises through deficit interactions—so that the average deficit damage rates increase, and deficit repair rates decrease, with age. We use a simple mortality criterion, where mortality occurs when the most connected node is damaged.

  6. [Age-related macular degeneration – a challenge for public health care].

    PubMed

    Mantel, Irmela

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the predominant cause of legal blindness in the population over 50 years of age. The disorder shows exponentially increasing prevalence with age, and the late forms with their vision threatening evolution are found in approximately one third of cases. The late AMD may be purely atrophic and so far untreatable. Or it may be neovascular and exudative, for which medical treatment is available, consisting of repetitive intravitreous injections of Anti-VEGF molecules. The treatment is highly effective in blocking the growth of the pathological vessels and allowing resolution of the accompanying edema. Visual improvement is variable but often very meaningful for the patients. However, the final visual level depends mostly on early intervention. Thus, screening for the first signs of neovascular AMD is crucial for the endresult. However, the repetitive intraocular injections are an important burden for the patients. Due to the high patient numbers, the chronic care management with steadily adding new patients is a major challenge for treating institutions. Limited resources may put patients at risk of undertreatment with resulting visual loss. Various strategies have been developed to cope with the burden. In addition, the financial cost is high for the health care system. On the other hand, timely and ongoing treatment is the best investment to achieve meaningful visual improvement, which is extremely important for the quality of life and autonomy of the patients. Side effects of the treatment are limited and mostly procedure related. Systemic side effects are possible but despite the large studies not conclusive. However, care must be taken in cases of high cardiovascular risk, as thromboembolic risk increase may rarely happen. So far unsolved problems include the long term visual results, the degree of reversibility of neovascularization, and the missing treatment options of atrophic AMD. Basic and clinical research on various

  7. Age Related Differences of Executive Functioning Problems in Everyday Life of Children and Adolescents in the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bergh, Sanne F. W. M.; Scheeren, Anke M.; Begeer, Sander; Koot, Hans M.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies investigated executive functioning (EF) problems in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using laboratory EF tasks. As laboratory task performances often differ from real life observations, the current study focused on EF in everyday life of 118 children and adolescents with ASD (6-18 years). We investigated age-related and…

  8. VISION PROBLEMS IN THE U.S.-PREVALENCE OF ADULT VISION IMPAIRMENT AND AGE-RELATED EYE DISEASES IN AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leading causes of vision impairment and blindness in the United States. Diabetic retinopathy? Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)? Cataract? Glaucoma? The Vision Problems in the U.S. study was the result of a 2001 consensus meeting, convened by the National Eye Institute and ...

  9. GI problems in the elderly, Part I: Aging-related considerations.

    PubMed

    Levitan, R

    1989-09-01

    Gastrointestinal problems are very common in the elderly; they account for 20% of all geriatric deaths. The evaluation of gastrointestinal ailments is difficult in the aged due to variation in signs and symptoms, coexisting nutritional problems, lack of patient cooperation, presence of comorbidity, and effects of polypharmacy. Poor clinical histories are common and gastrointestinal ailments may be atypical. Non-compliance with therapy and testing is a common problem and unrealistic expectations from interventions are the rule rather than the exception. Iatrogenic disorders must be ruled out in all patients with gastrointestinal symptoms; an accurate drug and nutritional history is critical for achieving success in the management of the elderly. PMID:2767444

  10. Nutrition and age-related eye diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vision loss among the elderly is an important health problem. Approximately one person in three has some form of vision-reducing eye disease by the age of 65 [1]. Age-related cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma are the major diseases resulting in visu...

  11. Contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study to the Epidemiology of Cataract, Age-Related Macular Degeneration, and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Juan; Cho, Eunyoung; Ogata, Soshiro; Jacques, Paul; Taylor, Allen; Chiu, Chung-Jung; Wiggs, Janey L.; Seddon, Johanna M.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Pasquale, Louis R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) to understanding the genetic and lifestyle factors that influence the risk of cataract, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS between 1976 and 2016. Results. The NHS has helped to elucidate the roles of genetics, lifestyle factors (e.g., cigarette smoking associated with cataract extraction and age-related macular degeneration), medical conditions (e.g., diabetes associated with cataract extraction and glaucoma), and dietary factors (e.g., greater carotenoid intake and lower glycemic diet associated with lower risk of age-related macular degeneration) in the etiology of degree and progression of lens opacities, cataract extraction, age-related macular degeneration, primary open-angle glaucoma, and exfoliation glaucoma. Conclusions. The findings from the NHS, combined with those of other studies, have provided compelling evidence to support public health recommendations for helping to prevent age-related eye diseases: abstinence from cigarette smoking, maintenance of healthy weight and diabetes prevention, and a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables. PMID:27459452

  12. The Association Between Subretinal Drusenoid Deposits in Older Adults in Normal Macular Health and Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald; Neely, David; Zarubina, Anna; Clark, Mark; Zhang, Yuhua; Curcio, Christine A.; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) have been associated with the progression to late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To determine whether SDD in eyes in normal macular health increases risk for early AMD, this study examined the association between presence of SDD at baseline in a cohort of older adults in normal macular health and incident AMD 3 years later. Methods Subjects enrolled in the Alabama Study on Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ALSTAR) were assessed for the presence of SDD using color fundus photos, infrared reflectance and fundus autofluorescence images, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volumes. The study sample included 799 eyes from 455 participants in normal macular health per grading of color fundus photographs using the 9-step Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) classification system. Age-related macular degeneration was defined as eyes having an AREDS grade ≥2 at the 3-year follow-up. Results Twenty-five percent of participants had SDD in one or both eyes at baseline. At follow-up visit, 11.9% of eyes in the sample developed AMD. Compared to eyes without SDD, those with SDD were 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36–3.70) times more likely to have AMD at follow-up. After adjusting for age, C-reactive protein quartile, and family history of AMD, the association persisted. Conclusions Results suggest that SDD in older eyes with normal macular health as defined by the AREDS scale is a risk factor for the development of early AMD. Older adults in seemingly normal macular health yet having SDD may warrant closer clinical monitoring for the possible onset of early AMD. PMID:26906160

  13. Age-related differences in sequential modulations of problem-size and rule-violation effects during arithmetic problem verification tasks.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Patrick; Brun, Fleur

    2016-04-01

    Young and older adults were asked to verify true (e.g., 5 × 61 = 305) and false (5 × 61 = 315) arithmetic problems. Half the problems were small (e.g., 5 × 17 = 85) and half were large problems (e.g., 5 × 93 = 465). Half the false problems respected the five rule (i.e., the product of an operand multiplied by five ends with either 5 or 0), and half violated this rule (e.g., 21 × 5 = 115 vs. 21 × 5 = 113). Both young and older adults showed problem-size effects (i.e., they verified small problems more quickly than large problems) and five-rule violation effects (i.e., they verified problem violating five rule more quickly than problems respecting five rule). Moreover, we found sequential modulations of these problem-size and five-rule effects. Problem-size effects were larger on current problems following large problems than after small problems, and five-rule violation effects were larger after problems violating the five rule than after no-rule violation problems. Finally, sequential modulations of problem-size effects were larger in older adults than in young adults, and there were no age-related differences in sequential modulations of five-rule violation effects. These findings speak to the determiners of arithmetic performance, as to how well arithmetic calculation and non-calculation strategies are executed and selected on current problems depends on strategies used with preceding problems. PMID:26515986

  14. Associations between age-related nuclear cataract and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum and prevalence of age-related nuclear cataract in older women. Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study participants aged 50 y+, at 3 sites, who reported high (above the 78th percentile...

  15. Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a) review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research, with particular reference to gender, age and ethnicity; b) review the evidence on the effectiveness of strategies used to overcome these barriers. Method Studies published up to December 2008 were identified using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE using relevant mesh headings and keywords. Results Forty-nine papers were identified. There was evidence of a wide range of barriers including transportation difficulties, distrust and suspicion of researchers, and the stigma attached to mental illness. Strategies to overcome these barriers included the use of bilingual staff, assistance with travel, avoiding the use of stigmatising language in marketing material and a focus on education about the disorder under investigation. There were very few evaluations of such strategies, but there was evidence that ethnically matching recruiters to potential participants did not improve recruitment rates. Educational strategies were helpful and increased recruitment. Conclusion Mental health researchers should consider including caregivers in recruitment procedures where possible, provide clear descriptions of study aims and describe the representativeness of their sample when reporting study results. Studies that systematically investigate strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment are needed. PMID:21126334

  16. Vitamin D and Age-Related Health Outcomes: Movement, Mood, and Memory

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    It has long been recognized that vitamin D plays an important role in calcium homeostasis and musculoskeletal health. More recent evidence supports a role of vitamin D in physical and cognitive function and depressive symptoms through direct effects on skeletal muscle and the brain as well as indirectly through its reported roles in chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, conditions that frequently lead to declines in physical and cognitive function and depressed mood. The purpose of this review is to summarize the prospective cohort and randomized controlled trial evidence for vitamin D on physical and cognitive function and depressed mood in older adults. Results from both prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation are mixed. Thus, controversy remains over the optimal vitamin D concentration for physical and cognitive function and depressed mood and whether vitamin D supplementation is beneficial for these outcomes. PMID:26779391

  17. Drugs, nutrients, and phytoactive principles improving the health span of rodent models of human age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Michel; Picard, Frédéric; Ferland, Guylaine; Gaudreau, Pierrette

    2012-02-01

    Rodents are often the species of choice to examine the effect of drugs on survival and on the progression of specific diseased tissues. This statement is also true for research laboratories working in the field of nutrition and aging. In addition to diets that can reduce the life expectancy of rodents, such as diabetogenic or high-fat diets, genetically modified rodents exhibiting different accelerated age-associated diseases also provide important biologic tools to decipher the impact of drugs, nutrients, or phytoactive compounds on their health and life span. This review covers some of the chemicals believed to decelerate the appearance of age-related diseases in different rodent models. Such chemicals include antioxidants, anti-inflammatory molecules, modulators of metabolic sensors, calorie restriction mimetics, and vegetal polyphenolic compounds that affect mitochondrial functions, cellular proliferation or differentiation as well as cell functionality. PMID:21393422

  18. Age-related changes in the attentional control of visual cortex: A selective problem in the left visual hemifield

    PubMed Central

    Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Carolan, Patrick; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa Y.L.; Handy, Todd C.

    2012-01-01

    To what extent does our visual-spatial attention change with age? In this regard, it has been previously reported that relative to young controls, seniors show delays in attention-related sensory facilitation. Given this finding, our study was designed to examine two key questions regarding age-related changes in the effect of spatial attention on sensory-evoked responses in visual cortex –– are there visual field differences in the age-related impairments in sensory processing, and do these impairments co-occur with changes in the executive control signals associated with visual spatial orienting? Therefore, our study examined both attentional control and attentional facilitation in seniors (aged 66 to 74 years) and young adults (aged 18 to 25 years) using a canonical spatial orienting task. Participants responded to attended and unattended peripheral targets while we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to both targets and attention-directing spatial cues. We found that not only were sensory-evoked responses delayed in seniors specifically for unattended events in the left visual field as measured via latency shifts in the lateral occipital P1 elicited by visual targets, but seniors also showed amplitude reductions in the anterior directing attentional negativity (ADAN) component elicited by cues directing attention to the left visual field. At the same time, seniors also had significantly higher error rates for targets presented in the left vs. right visual field. Taken together, our data thus converge on the conclusion that age-related changes in visual spatial attention involve both sensory-level and executive attentional control processes, and that these effects appear to be strongly associated with the left visual field. PMID:21356222

  19. [Mental health problems].

    PubMed

    Momotani, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Haruyoshi

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes current issues in occupational mental health, occupational mental health activities currently underway, and priorities to improve the situation in Japan. A new tool to support these activities is then discussed. The incidence of employee mental health problems is rising, despite efforts to promote occupational mental health activities. The adoption of such activities is lagging behind in medium and small-sized enterprises. Priorities to improve occupational mental health include motivating business operators to address mental health issues, focusing more on prevention, and promoting mental health initiatives in medium and small-sized enterprises. Mental-Rosai, a web-based mental health check system, is a useful tool for the prevention of mental health problems and can provide support for medium and small-sized enterprises. PMID:24605529

  20. Hearing, Cognition, and Healthy Aging: Social and Public Health Implications of the Links between Age-Related Declines in Hearing and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Mick, Paul; Reed, Marilyn

    2015-08-01

    Sensory input provides the signals used by the brain when listeners understand speech and participate in social activities with other people in a range of everyday situations. When sensory inputs are diminished, there can be short-term consequences to brain functioning, and long-term deprivation can affect brain neuroplasticity. Indeed, the association between hearing loss and cognitive declines in older adults is supported by experimental and epidemiologic evidence, although the causal mechanisms remain unknown. These interactions of auditory and cognitive aging play out in the challenges confronted by people with age-related hearing problems when understanding speech and engaging in social interactions. In the present article, we use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the Selective Optimization with Compensation models to highlight the importance of adopting a healthy aging perspective that focuses on facilitating active social participation by older adults. First, we examine epidemiologic evidence linking ARHL to cognitive declines and other health issues. Next, we examine how social factors influence and are influenced by auditory and cognitive aging and if they may provide a possible explanation for the association between ARHL and cognitive decline. Finally, we outline how audiologists could reposition hearing health care within the broader context of healthy aging. PMID:27516713

  1. Hearing, Cognition, and Healthy Aging: Social and Public Health Implications of the Links between Age-Related Declines in Hearing and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Mick, Paul; Reed, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Sensory input provides the signals used by the brain when listeners understand speech and participate in social activities with other people in a range of everyday situations. When sensory inputs are diminished, there can be short-term consequences to brain functioning, and long-term deprivation can affect brain neuroplasticity. Indeed, the association between hearing loss and cognitive declines in older adults is supported by experimental and epidemiologic evidence, although the causal mechanisms remain unknown. These interactions of auditory and cognitive aging play out in the challenges confronted by people with age-related hearing problems when understanding speech and engaging in social interactions. In the present article, we use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the Selective Optimization with Compensation models to highlight the importance of adopting a healthy aging perspective that focuses on facilitating active social participation by older adults. First, we examine epidemiologic evidence linking ARHL to cognitive declines and other health issues. Next, we examine how social factors influence and are influenced by auditory and cognitive aging and if they may provide a possible explanation for the association between ARHL and cognitive decline. Finally, we outline how audiologists could reposition hearing health care within the broader context of healthy aging. PMID:27516713

  2. Age-Related Changes in the Cardiometabolic Profiles in Singapore Resident Adult Population: Findings from the National Health Survey 2010.

    PubMed

    Loh, Tze Ping; Ma, Stefan; Heng, Derrick; Khoo, Chin Meng

    2016-01-01

    We describe the centile trends of the blood pressure, glycemia and lipid profiles as well as renal function of a representative population who participated in the Singapore National Health Survey in 2010. Representative survey population was sampled in two phases, first using geographical/ residential dwelling type stratification, followed up ethnicity. 2,407 survey participants without any self-reported medical or medication history for diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia were included in this analysis. All biochemistry analyses were performed on Roche platforms. After excluding outliers using Tukey's criteria, the results of the remaining participants were subjected to lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) analysis. In men, systolic blood pressure increased linearly with age. By contrast, an upward inflection around late 40s was seen in women. The diastolic blood pressure was highest in men in the late 30s-50s age group, and in women in the late 50s-60s age group. All glycemia-related parameters, i.e. fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose and HbA1c concentrations increased with age, although the rate of increase differed between the tests. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased with age, which became attenuated between the early 30s and late 50s in men, and declined thereafter. In women, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations gradually increased with age until late 30s, when there is an upward inflection, plateauing after late 50s. Our findings indicate that diagnostic performance of laboratory tests for diabetes may be age-sensitive. Unfavourable age-related cardiovascular risk profiles suggest that the burden of cardiovascular disease in this population will increase with aging population. PMID:27570971

  3. Age-Related Changes in the Cardiometabolic Profiles in Singapore Resident Adult Population: Findings from the National Health Survey 2010

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Tze Ping; Ma, Stefan; Heng, Derrick; Khoo, Chin Meng

    2016-01-01

    We describe the centile trends of the blood pressure, glycemia and lipid profiles as well as renal function of a representative population who participated in the Singapore National Health Survey in 2010. Representative survey population was sampled in two phases, first using geographical/ residential dwelling type stratification, followed up ethnicity. 2,407 survey participants without any self-reported medical or medication history for diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia were included in this analysis. All biochemistry analyses were performed on Roche platforms. After excluding outliers using Tukey's criteria, the results of the remaining participants were subjected to lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) analysis. In men, systolic blood pressure increased linearly with age. By contrast, an upward inflection around late 40s was seen in women. The diastolic blood pressure was highest in men in the late 30s-50s age group, and in women in the late 50s-60s age group. All glycemia-related parameters, i.e. fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose and HbA1c concentrations increased with age, although the rate of increase differed between the tests. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased with age, which became attenuated between the early 30s and late 50s in men, and declined thereafter. In women, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations gradually increased with age until late 30s, when there is an upward inflection, plateauing after late 50s. Our findings indicate that diagnostic performance of laboratory tests for diabetes may be age-sensitive. Unfavourable age-related cardiovascular risk profiles suggest that the burden of cardiovascular disease in this population will increase with aging population. PMID:27570971

  4. Evaluation of new and established age-related macular degeneration susceptibility genes in the Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess whether established and newly reported genetic variants, independent of known lifestyle factors, are associated with the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Genetic Ancillary Study. This is a multice...

  5. Environmental Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Aimed at a society which is forced to make decisions relative to their total environment, this pamphlet discusses a few of the problems associated with restoring and maintaining an environmental relationship conducive to the health and well-being of man. The topics covered include: air pollution, noise, solid waste, the urban environment, drinking…

  6. Health Problems in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Every pregnancy has some risk of problems. The causes can be conditions you already have or conditions you develop. They also include being pregnant with ... health care provider about how to minimize your risk before you get pregnant. Once you are pregnant, ...

  7. Association between dietary fats and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative123

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Niyati; Voland, Rickie P.; Moeller, Suzen M.; Blodi, Barbara A.; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Chappell, Richard J.; Wallace, Robert B.; Mares, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Evaluating relationships of amount and type of dietary fat to intermediate AMD. Design Women, ages 50–79, from the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study, with high and low lutein intakes, were recruited into the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS). Fat intake in 1994–1998 was estimated using food frequency questionnaires. AMD was assessed in 2001–2004 from stereoscopic fundus photographs. Results Intakes of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fats (ω-6 and ω-3 PUFA), which were highly correlated (r=0.8), were associated with higher prevalence of intermediate AMD. Significant age-interactions were noted for associations with total fat, monounsaturated and saturated fat (p= 0.01–0.02). In women <75 years (n=1,325), diets high in total fat (% energy) were associated with increased prevalence of AMD (OR (95% CI) for quintile five vs. one = 1.73 (1.02–2.7; p-trend=0.10); the association was reversed in older women. Monounsaturated fat (MUFA) intakes in quintiles three through five vs. one were associated with lower prevalence of AMD in the whole population. Conclusions Overall associations of dietary fat to AMD differed by type of fat and, often, by age in this cohort. These findings contribute insights about sources of inconsistencies of fat to AMD in epidemiological studies. PMID:19901214

  8. Examining age-related shared variance between face cognition, vision, and self-reported physical health: a test of the common cause hypothesis for social cognition

    PubMed Central

    Olderbak, Sally; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The shared decline in cognitive abilities, sensory functions (e.g., vision and hearing), and physical health with increasing age is well documented with some research attributing this shared age-related decline to a single common cause (e.g., aging brain). We evaluate the extent to which the common cause hypothesis predicts associations between vision and physical health with social cognition abilities specifically face perception and face memory. Based on a sample of 443 adults (17–88 years old), we test a series of structural equation models, including Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models, and estimate the extent to which vision and self-reported physical health are related to face perception and face memory through a common factor, before and after controlling for their fluid cognitive component and the linear effects of age. Results suggest significant shared variance amongst these constructs, with a common factor explaining some, but not all, of the shared age-related variance. Also, we found that the relations of face perception, but not face memory, with vision and physical health could be completely explained by fluid cognition. Overall, results suggest that a single common cause explains most, but not all age-related shared variance with domain specific aging mechanisms evident. PMID:26321998

  9. Examining age-related shared variance between face cognition, vision, and self-reported physical health: a test of the common cause hypothesis for social cognition.

    PubMed

    Olderbak, Sally; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The shared decline in cognitive abilities, sensory functions (e.g., vision and hearing), and physical health with increasing age is well documented with some research attributing this shared age-related decline to a single common cause (e.g., aging brain). We evaluate the extent to which the common cause hypothesis predicts associations between vision and physical health with social cognition abilities specifically face perception and face memory. Based on a sample of 443 adults (17-88 years old), we test a series of structural equation models, including Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models, and estimate the extent to which vision and self-reported physical health are related to face perception and face memory through a common factor, before and after controlling for their fluid cognitive component and the linear effects of age. Results suggest significant shared variance amongst these constructs, with a common factor explaining some, but not all, of the shared age-related variance. Also, we found that the relations of face perception, but not face memory, with vision and physical health could be completely explained by fluid cognition. Overall, results suggest that a single common cause explains most, but not all age-related shared variance with domain specific aging mechanisms evident. PMID:26321998

  10. College Health: Health Services and Common Health Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health College Health: Health Services and Common Health Problems Posted under Health Guides . ... March 2015. +Related Content What are student health services? The student health services (sometimes called the student ...

  11. Dental Health and Orthodontic Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Dental Health and Orthodontic Problems Page Content Article Body Dental Health Twin ... color can be tinted to match the teeth. Orthodontic Problems Crooked teeth, overbites and underbites are best ...

  12. Health resource utilization and the economic burden of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Ruamviboonsuk, Paisan; Ratanasukon, Mansing; Ausayakhun, Somsanguan; Tungsomeroengwong, Akrapope; Pokawattana, Nattapol; Chanatittarat, Chalakorn

    2014-01-01

    AIM To determine healthcare resource utilization and the economic burden associated with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Thailand METHODS This study included patients diagnosed with wet AMD that were 60 years old or older, and had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measured at least two times during the follow-up period. We excluded patients having other eye diseases. Two separate sub-studies were conducted. The first sub-study was a retrospective cohort study; electronic medical charts were reviewed to estimate the direct medical costs. The second sub-study was a cross-sectional survey estimating the direct non-medical costs based on face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. For the first sub-study, direct medical costs, including the cost of drugs, laboratory, procedures, and other treatments were obtained. For the second sub-study, direct non-medical costs, e.g. transportation, food, accessories, home renovation, and caregiver costs, were obtained from face-to-face interviews with patients and/or caregivers. RESULTS For the first sub-study, sixty-four medical records were reviewed. The annual average number of medical visits was 11.1±6.0. The average direct medical costs were $3 604±4 530 per year. No statistically-significant differences of the average direct medical costs among the BCVA groups were detected (P=0.98). Drug costs accounted for 77% of total direct medical costs. For direct non-medical costs, 67 patients were included. Forty-eight patients (71.6%) required the accompaniment of a person during the out-patient visit. Seventeen patients (25.4%) required a caregiver at home. The average direct non-medical cost was $2 927±6 560 per year. There were no statistically-significant differences in the average costs among the BCVA groups (P=0.74). Care-giver cost accounted for 87% of direct non-medical costs. CONCLUSION Our study indicates that wet AMD is associated with a substantial economic burden, especially concerning

  13. Monitoring Bone Health after Spaceflight: Data Mining to Support an Epidemiological Analysis of Age-related Bone Loss in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, K. S,; Amin, S.; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2009-01-01

    Through the epidemiological analysis of bone data, HRP is seeking evidence as to whether the prolonged exposure to microgravity of low earth orbit predisposes crewmembers to an earlier onset of osteoporosis. While this collaborative Epidemiological Project may be currently limited by the number of ISS persons providing relevant spaceflight medical data, a positive note is that it compares medical data of astronauts to data of an age-matched (not elderly) population that is followed longitudinally with similar technologies. The inclusion of data from non-ISS and non-NASA crewmembers is also being pursued. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide critical information for NASA to understand the impact of low physical or minimal weight-bearing activity on the aging process as well as to direct its development of countermeasures and rehabilitation programs to influence skeletal recovery. However, in order to optimize these results NASA needs to better define the requirements for long term monitoring and encourage both active and retired astronauts to contribute to a legacy of data that will define human health risks in space.

  14. Current Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, John; And Others

    The basic premise of this text is that, in addition to the presentation of basic cognitive and affective information, health education should go one step further by assisting student in developing decision-making skills. The text begins by offering the student a basic foundation of what is meant by health and how this meaning applies to the world,…

  15. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Erin W.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Park, Sung Kyun

    2014-08-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age-related

  16. Health professionals’ and service users’ perspectives of shared care for monitoring wet age-related macular degeneration: a qualitative study alongside the ECHoES trial

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, D; Reeves, B C; Taylor, J; Chakravarthy, U; O'Reilly, D; Hogg, R E; Mills, N

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the views of eye health professionals and service users on shared community and hospital care for wet or neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Method Using maximum variation sampling, 5 focus groups and 10 interviews were conducted with 23 service users and 24 eye health professionals from across the UK (consisting of 8 optometrists, 6 ophthalmologists, 6 commissioners, 2 public health representatives and 2 clinical eye care advisors to local Clinical Commissioning Groups). Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using constant comparative techniques derived from grounded theory methodology. Results The needs and preferences of those with nAMD appear to be at odds with the current service being provided. There was enthusiasm among health professionals and service users about the possibility of shared care for nAMD as it was felt to have the potential to relieve hospital eye service burden and represent a more patient-centred option, but there were a number of perceived barriers to implementation. Some service users and ophthalmologists voiced concerns about optometrist competency and the potential for delays with referrals to secondary care if stable nAMD became active again. The health professionals were divided as to whether shared care was financially more efficient than the current model of care. Specialist training for optometrists, under the supervision of ophthalmologists, was deemed to be the most effective method of training and was perceived to have the potential to improve the communication and trust that shared care would require. Conclusions While shared care is perceived to represent a promising model of nAMD care, voiced concerns suggest that there would need to be greater collaboration between ophthalmology and optometry, in terms of interprofessional trust and communication. Trial registration number ISRCTN07479761. PMID:25900465

  17. Age-related macular degeneration and protective effect of HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors (statins): results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, D T Q; Mendes, T S; Cíntron-Colon, H R; Wang, S Y; Bhisitkul, R B; Singh, K; Lin, S C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the association of hydroxymethylglutarylcoenzyme A (HMG Co-A) reductase inhibitor (statin) use with the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods This cross-sectional study included 5604 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005 to 2008, ≥40 years of age, who were ascertained with regard to the diagnosis of AMD, the use of statins, and comorbidities and health-related behaviors such as smoking. Results The mean age of participants denying or confirming a history of AMD was 68 (SEM 0.90) and 55 (SEM 0.36) years, respectively. Individuals 68 years of age or older who were classified as long-term users of statins had statistically significant less self-reported AMD (odds ratio (OR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49–0.84; P=0.002), after adjusting for potential confounding variables. No significant association was found between the prevalence of AMD and statin consumption among subjects between 40 and 67 years of age (OR 1.61, 95% CI 0.85–3.03; P=0.137). Conclusions Our results suggest a possible beneficial effect of statin intake for the prevention of AMD in individuals 68 years of age or older. PMID:24503725

  18. Treatment Options for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Budget Impact Analysis from the Perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Flávia Tavares Silva; da Silva, Everton Nunes; Belfort, Rubens; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Atallah, Álvaro Nagib

    2015-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease that causes reduced visual acuity and blindness. The new treatment options for AMD are not provided by the Brazilian public health system. Objective To conduct a budget impact analysis of three scenarios for the introduction of AMD treatments: all the medications (verteporfin, ranibizumab, and bevacizumab–the reference scenario), ranibizumab alone, and bevacizumab alone. Methods The basic assumption was that the Brazilian public health system would treat the entire target population with AMD aged > 70 years between 2008 and 2011. The size of the population of interest was estimated from official population projections and the prevalence of the disease was obtained from a systematic review. Medication prices were estimated by weighting their market values with correction factors to take account of the public procurement policy. The possibility of aliquoting bevacizumab was also considered. A panel of experts was consulted to estimate the market share of the different medications for the reference scenario. The incremental costs of the ranibizumab-alone and bevacizumab-alone scenarios compared to the reference scenario were calculated. Univariate sensitivity analyses were run to check the robustness of the model. Results In four years, the Brazilian public health system would have treated 1,136,349 individuals with AMD. The annual costs of treating one patient would have been US$476.65 for bevacizumab, US$11,469.39 for ranibizumab, and US$4,376.28 for verteporfin. The incremental cost of the ranibizumab-alone scenario would have been US$1,878,318,056.00 in four years, while the incremental cost for the bevacizumab-alone scenario would have been a reduction of US$4,978,326,359.00 (i.e., a cost saving) in the same period. The bevacizumab-alone option was found to represent a cost saving across sensitivity analyses. Conclusion The introduction of bevacizumab for the treatment of AMD is recommended for the

  19. Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Age-related Macular Degeneration What is AMD? Click for more information Age-related macular degeneration, ... the macula allows you to see fine detail. AMD Blurs Central Vision AMD blurs the sharp central ...

  20. Occupational Health Problems of Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Chong, John; Lynden, Melody; Harvey, David; Peebles, Marie

    1989-01-01

    Musicians, as well as other performing artists, may have their careers interrupted by, interfered with, or terminated by occupational health problems involving the neuro-musculoskeletal system. Adverse working conditions, organization, and activity may affect the health of musicians in all age groups and at all levels of performing ability. Instrument-specific health problems are related to excessive force, static loading, repetitive movement, and duration of musical performance. Important risk factors are 1) change in technique or instrument; 2) intense preparation for a performance; 3) preparation of a new and difficult repertoire; and 4) prolonged periods of performance without rest. Treatment protocols and health promotion or disease prevention programs are being developed in collaboration with the performing arts community. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:21248930

  1. [Age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Garcia Layana, A

    1998-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the occidental world. Patients suffering this process have an important reduction on their quality of life being handicapped to read, to write, to recognise faces of their friends, or even to watch the television. One of the main problems of that disease is the absence of an effective treatment able to revert the process. Laser treatment is only useful in a limited number of patients, and even in these cases recurrent lesions are frequent. These facts and the progressive ageing of our society establish the ARMD as one of the biggest aim of medical investigations for the next century, and currently is focus of attention in the most industrialised countries. One of the most promising pieces of research is focused in the investigation of the risk factors associated with the age-related macular degeneration, in order to achieve a prophylactic treatment avoiding its appearance. Diet elements such as fat ingestion or reduced antioxidant intakes are being investigated as some of these factors, what open a new possibility for a prophylactic treatment. Finally, research is looking for new therapeutic modalities such as selective radiotherapy in order to improve or maintain the vision of these patients. PMID:10420956

  2. Is Body Mass Index Associated With the Development of Age-Related Hearing Impairment in Koreans? The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2012

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Da Jung; Jang, Jeong Hun; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate whether body mass index (BMI) is associated with age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in the Asian elderly population. Methods Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2012 were used for the analyses. The pure tones at 0.5 and 1 kHz of both ears of each subject were averaged to obtain the low-frequency, those at 2 and 3 kHz were averaged to obtain the mid-frequency, and those at 4 and 6 kHz were averaged to obtain the high-frequency. The average hearing threshold (AHT) was calculated as pure tone average at 4 frequencies in the better ear. ARHL was defined as the AHT >25 dB. Results Univariate analyses revealed an increase in the BMI tertile in men was associated with a decreased low-frequency threshold, while an increase in the BMI tertile in women was associated with decreased mid- and high-frequency thresholds. Multivariate analyses adjusted for confounders show no significant differences in low-, mid-, or high-frequency. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of ARHL by BMI tertiles. Linear regression analyses show no association between BMI and low-, mid-, and high-frequency or AHTs. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values for AHT was 0.515 in men and 0.522 in women. The logistic regression analyses showed no association between BMI and ARHL in either sex. Conclusion BMI is not advantageous for the prediction of ARHL. In future epidemiological studies, BMI as a covariate of obesity may be replaced by other active metabolic parameters that have better predictive ability of ARHL than BMI. PMID:27090278

  3. The Relationship Between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Nuclear Cataract in the Carotenoid Age-Related Eye Study (CAREDS), an Ancillary Study of the Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Prethy; Millen, Amy E.; Meyers, Kristin J.; Liu, Zhe; Voland, Rickie; Sondel, Sheri; Tinker, Lesley; Wallace, Robert B.; Blodi, Barbara A.; Binkley, Neil; Sarto, Gloria; Robinson, Jennifer; LeBlanc, Erin; Mares, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and nuclear cataract among participants of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study (OS). Methods. Nuclear cataract was assessed from slit lamp photographs (2001–2004) taken 6 years after collecting serum analyzed for 25(OH)D levels at WHI baseline (1994–1998) in 1278 CAREDS participants age 50 to 79 years. Multivariate (age, iris color, smoking, pulse pressure) odds ratios (ORs) for nuclear cataract (nuclear opacities > level 4 or cataract extraction) by quintiles of serum 25(OH)D were estimated using logistic regression. Results. No significant association was observed between serum 25(OH)D and nuclear cataract among women of all ages (age-adjusted OR [95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.97 [0.65–1.45]). However, there was a significant age interaction (P for interaction = 0.04). There were no significant associations in the women 70 years or older. In women younger than 70 years, we observed an inverse association between serum 25(OH)D and nuclear cataract (multivariate adjusted ORs [95% CI] 0.54 [0.29–0.99] and 0.66 [0.36–1.20] for quintiles 4 and 5 vs. 1, respectively; P = 0.03). Further adjustment for 25(OH)D determinants (body mass index, vitamin D intake, and UVB exposure) attenuated this association. Conclusions. Serum 25(OH)D levels were unrelated to nuclear opacities in this study sample. However, exploratory analyses suggest a protective association in women younger than 70 years. Further investigations of the relationship between vitamin D and nuclear lens opacities are warranted. PMID:26132781

  4. The Critical Need to Promote Research of Aging and Aging-related Diseases to Improve Health and Longevity of the Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kunlin; Simpkins, James W.; Ji, Xunming; Leis, Miriam; Stambler, Ilia

    2015-01-01

    Due to the aging of the global population and the derivative increase in aging-related non-communicable diseases and their economic burden, there is an urgent need to promote research on aging and aging-related diseases as a way to improve healthy and productive longevity for the elderly population. To accomplish this goal, we advocate the following policies: 1) Increasing funding for research and development specifically directed to ameliorate degenerative aging processes and to extend healthy and productive lifespan for the population; 2) Providing a set of incentives for commercial, academic, public and governmental organizations to foster engagement in such research and development; and 3) Establishing and expanding coordination and consultation structures, programs and institutions involved in aging-related research, development and education in academia, industry, public policy agencies and at governmental and supra-governmental levels. PMID:25657847

  5. [Ethical problems in health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Toffoletto, F; Briatico Vangosa, G; Panizza, C

    2000-01-01

    Surveillance of workers' health in the field of occupational medicine poses substantial ethical problems in view of occupational medicine's complex responsibilities towards workers and employers, preventive and protection services, workers' representatives, public healthcare and preventive medicine facilities, controlling agencies and judicial authorities. Potentially conflicting rights and duties often come into play in this sector. In the last few years various international and national bodies have drawn up codes of ethics or guidelines for the conduct of physicians in occupational medicine, three of which are of particular importance: 1) The International Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH, 1992); 2) The Code of Conduct of the National Association of Company Doctors (ANMA, 1997); 3) The Technical and Ethical Guidelines for workers' health (ILO, 1998). The chief purpose of all these documents is to safeguard the health of workers and to guarantee the safety of the workplace by defining programmes of health supervision to match specific risks. The methods should be non-invasive and should allow for a check or efficiency. The physician is expected to have a high degree of professionalism and up-to-date skills; to be independent and impartial; to be reserved and capable of inter-disciplinary co-operation. On the basis of the above documents, a number of problematic aspects may be appraised concerning the relationship between the occupational health physician responsible for the surveillance activities of the local health authority and the relative company physician. The documents stress the importance of keeping up to date and of quality, fields in which the dominant role played by Scientific Societies is underlined. Finally it is recommended that health supervision be arranged in such a manner as to foster the professionalism and responsibility of the physician in charge rather than the formal implementation of health

  6. Children's Health Problems and Maternal Work Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salkever, David S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper estimates the influence on working mothers' employment status of children's health problems. Effects are estimated for several different types of families, various groups of health problems, and differing degrees of problem severity. (CT)

  7. Health problems in cold work.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Tiina M; Hassi, Juhani

    2009-07-01

    Cold in- and outdoor work can result in different adverse effects on human health. Health problems decrease performance and work productivity and increase the occurrence of accidents and injuries. Serious health problems can also result in absence from work due to sick leave or hospitalization. At its worst, work in cold conditions could be associated with deaths due to cold-related accidents or a sudden health event. Musculoskeletal complaints, like pain, aches etc. are common in indoor cold work. Breathing cold air while working may lead to respiratory symptoms, which can decrease performance in cold. The symptoms are usually worsened by exercise and ageing, being more common in persons having a respiratory disease. Cardiovascular complaints and related performance decrements could be especially pronounced during work in cold weather and involving physical exercise, especially among those with an underlying cardiovascular disease. The article also reviews the current information related to diabetes, skin disorders and diseases, as well as cold injuries and accidents occurring in cold work. Increasing awareness and identifying workplace- and individual-related cold risks is the first step in proper cold risk management. Following this, the susceptible population groups need customized advice on proper prevention and protection in cold work. PMID:19531906

  8. Evaluation of New and Established Age-Related Macular Degeneration Susceptibility Genes in the Women’s Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Study

    PubMed Central

    PETER, INGA; HUGGINS, GORDON S.; ORDOVAS, JOSE M.; HAAN, MARY; SEDDON, JOHANNA M.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess whether established and newly reported genetic variants, independent of known lifestyle factors, are associated with the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among women participating in the Women’s Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Genetic Ancillary Study. DESIGN Multicenter case-control study. METHODS One hundred and forty-six women with intermediate and late stages of AMD and 1269 subjects without AMD underwent ocular examinations and fundus photography to determine stage of AMD. Fourteen polymorphisms at or near 11 genes, including previously confirmed genes CFH, ARMS2/HTRA1, C2, C3, and CFI; recently reported AMD genes in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) pathway LIPC, ABCA1, CETP, and LPL; TIMP3/SYN3, a known ocular gene recently linked with AMD; and APOE, were assessed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS After adjustment for demographic, behavioral, and other genetic factors, a protective effect was detected among TT carriers compared with non-carriers for the HDL pathway gene, LIPC rs493258, for intermediate and late AMD (OR [95% confidence interval]: 0.3 [0.2–-0.7], P = .003). Variants in CFH rs1410996, ARMS2/HTRA1 A69S, and C3 R102G were significantly associated with an increased risk of AMD. Individuals with the homozygous CFI rs10033900 TT genotype had a 2.9 [1.2–7.2]-fold increased risk, and those with the CFH Y402H GG genotype had a 2.2 [1.0–4.8]-fold higher risk of developing AMD compared with non-carriers. APOE4 carriers may have a reduced risk of intermediate/late AMD (OR = 0.5 [0.3–0.9], P = .015. Suggestive associations were seen between AMD and the HDL pathway genes CETP and LPL. CONCLUSION In this unique national cohort of women, we found associations with established AMD-related genetic factors and the recently reported LIPC gene in the HDL pathway. These findings may help develop novel therapeutic targets to treat or delay the onset of the disease. PMID:21906714

  9. Macular degeneration - age-related

    MedlinePlus

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD); AMD ... distorted and wavy. There may be a small dark spot in the center of your vision that ... leafy vegetables, may also decrease your risk of age-related macular degeneration. If you have wet AMD, ...

  10. Public health problems of urbanization.

    PubMed

    Mutatkar, R K

    1995-10-01

    Developing countries have been peasant societies. The cities in traditional societies have been pilgrimage centres, seats of administration and educational centres. These cities had homogeneous relationships with the villages. Industrialization has developed modern megacities whose way of life is heterogeneous with that in the villages. Rural poverty has pushed villagers to the cities, which were never planned to accommodate immigrants. Public health and social problems have arisen lowering the quality of life. Communicable diseases among the urban poor coexist with non-communicable diseases among the comparatively affluent. Problems of pollution, crime and chronic morbidity increase. The NGOs provide relief to the poor and needy but do nothing toward creating an infrastructure for balanced development. The election of women as a result of non-discriminatory legislation provides good ground for hope. PMID:8545672

  11. Insomnia: an ignored health problem.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Joan E

    2007-09-01

    Insomnia is common in all age groups and impairs quality of life. Untreated insomnia can lead to, or cause worsening of, other health problems. Effective treatment is available. Behavioral approaches should be tried first with chronic insomnia, because they are effective with few adverse effects. A number of medicines are effective for insomnia, but providers need to be cautious with their use because they are expensive, have a number of adverse side effects, and their long-term use has not been studied. PMID:17868765

  12. Problems in Allied Health Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parochka, Jacqueline

    Problems related to the delivery of continuing education programs in the allied health professions are examined, based on the viewpoints of allied health professional organizations, allied health faculty members, and continuing education administrative units. Problems as seen by professional organizations include: allied health continuing…

  13. Health problems of older persons.

    PubMed

    Poindexter, H A

    1980-03-01

    Health problems among elderly persons are both physical and mental. About 16 percent of the elderly have no easily identifiable gross local pathologies of the major organs or tissues. We refer to their decreased agility, mentation, and metabolic efficiencies as senescence and label their problems gerontologic. Their management requires sensitive professional care in terms of time, tolerance, and holistic metabolic evaluation. This gerontologic group is generally not sick, nor in grave need of specific drugs, surgery, or specialized therapies. Homeostasis and equanimity by diet, regular exercise, sound body care, and social adjustment should be maintained, preferably in their home instead of in an institution. For the 84 percent of the elderly who show gross pathologies, properly trained and oriented physicians in geriatrics are needed. Any tissue and/or organ of the body may show disequilibrium or gross pathology. Geriatric patients need sympathy and skill not only from members of the medical and nursing profession but from the community as well. Social attitudes should ensure them proper care at a price they can afford. PMID:7392071

  14. Age-Related Changes in 1/f Neural Electrophysiological Noise

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Mark A.; Case, John; Lepage, Kyle Q.; Tempesta, Zechari R.; Knight, Robert T.; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with performance decrements across multiple cognitive domains. The neural noise hypothesis, a dominant view of the basis of this decline, posits that aging is accompanied by an increase in spontaneous, noisy baseline neural activity. Here we analyze data from two different groups of human subjects: intracranial electrocorticography from 15 participants over a 38 year age range (15–53 years) and scalp EEG data from healthy younger (20–30 years) and older (60–70 years) adults to test the neural noise hypothesis from a 1/f noise perspective. Many natural phenomena, including electrophysiology, are characterized by 1/f noise. The defining characteristic of 1/f is that the power of the signal frequency content decreases rapidly as a function of the frequency (f) itself. The slope of this decay, the noise exponent (χ), is often <−1 for electrophysiological data and has been shown to approach white noise (defined as χ = 0) with increasing task difficulty. We observed, in both electrophysiological datasets, that aging is associated with a flatter (more noisy) 1/f power spectral density, even at rest, and that visual cortical 1/f noise statistically mediates age-related impairments in visual working memory. These results provide electrophysiological support for the neural noise hypothesis of aging. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the neurobiological origins of age-related cognitive decline is of critical scientific, medical, and public health importance, especially considering the rapid aging of the world's population. We find, in two separate human studies, that 1/f electrophysiological noise increases with aging. In addition, we observe that this age-related 1/f noise statistically mediates age-related working memory decline. These results significantly add to this understanding and contextualize a long-standing problem in cognition by encapsulating age-related cognitive decline within a neurocomputational model of 1/f noise

  15. [Age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Budzinskaia, M V

    2014-01-01

    The review provides an update on the pathogenesis and new treatment modalities for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The impact of polymorphism in particular genes, including complement factor H (CFH), age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2/LOC387715), and serine peptidase (HTRA1), on AMD development is discussed. Clinical presentations of different forms of exudative AMD, that is classic, occult, or more often mixed choroidal neovascularization, retinal angiomatous proliferation, and choroidal polypoidal vasculopathy, are described. Particular attention is paid to the results of recent clinical trials and safety issues around the therapy. PMID:25715554

  16. Age-related hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... is no known single cause of age-related hearing loss. Most commonly, it is caused by changes in the inner ear that occur as you grow older. Your genes and loud noise (from rock concerts or music headphones) may play a large role. The following ...

  17. Lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum and their relation to age-related maculopathy in the third national health and nutrition examination survey.

    PubMed

    Mares-Perlman, J A; Fisher, A I; Klein, R; Palta, M; Block, G; Millen, A E; Wright, J D

    2001-03-01

    Relations of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum to photographic evidence of early and late age-related maculopathy (ARM) among persons over age 40 years (n = 8,222) were examined. Inverse relations of these carotenoids in the diet or serum to any form of ARM were not observed overall. There was a direct relation of dietary levels to one type of early ARM (soft drusen). However, relations differed by age and race. In the youngest age groups who were at risk for developing early (ages 40-59 years) or late (ages 60-79 years) ARM, higher levels of lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet were related to lower odds for pigmentary abnormalities, one sign of early ARM (odds ratio among persons in high vs. low quintiles = 0.1, 95 percent confidence interval: 0.1, 0.3) and of late ARM (odds ratio = 0.1, 95 percent confidence interval: 0.0, 0.9) after adjustment for age, gender, alcohol use, hypertension, smoking, and body mass index. Relations of these carotenoids to ARM may be influenced by age and race and require further evaluation in separate populations and in prospective studies. PMID:11226974

  18. Health economics--concepts and conceptual problems.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, S K; Bansal, R D

    1982-01-01

    Awareness of the economic manifestation of health and diseases and the limited resources allocated to health care services has brought to the focus a new discipline - health economics. Cost accounting, cost benefit, cost effectiveness methods etc. are increasingly becoming an integral part of the health management and evaluation of health programmes. Various concepts and problems relating to health economics are discussed in the present paper. More efforts should be made to conduct health economic studies in hospitals and health centres by which the process of standardisation of the concepts, would be easier. Health economics should also find its due place in the medical curriculum. PMID:10310083

  19. [Presbycusis - Age Related Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Fischer, N; Weber, B; Riechelmann, H

    2016-07-01

    Presbycusis or age related hearing loss can be defined as a progressive, bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss due to age related degeneration of inner ear structures. It can be considered a multifactorial complex disorder with environmental and genetic factors. The molecular, electrophysiological and histological damage at different levels of the inner ear cause a progressive hearing loss, which usually affects the high frequencies of hearing. The resulting poor speech recognition has a negative impact on cognitive, emotional and social function in older adults. Recent investigations revealed an association between hearing impairment and social isolation, anxiety, depression and cognitive decline in elderly. These findings emphasize the importance of diagnosis and treating hearing loss in the elderly population. Hearing aids are the most commonly used devices for treating presbycusis. The technical progress of implantable hearing devices allows an effective hearing rehabilitation even in elderly with severe hearing loss. However, most people with hearing impairments are not treated adequately. PMID:27392191

  20. Problem solving in health services organizations.

    PubMed

    Rakich, J S; Krigline, A B

    1996-01-01

    Health services organization managers at all levels are constantly confronted with problems. Conditions encountered that initiate the need for problem solving are opportunity, threat, crisis, deviation, and improvement. A general problem-solving model presenting an orderly process by which managers can approach this important task is described. An example of the model applied to the current strategic climate is presented. PMID:10158720

  1. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  2. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  3. Infertility Patients' Mental Health Problems Often Unaddressed

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160382.html Infertility Patients' Mental Health Problems Often Unaddressed 'We're ... California, San Francisco. Many studies have found that infertility patients often feel distressed. And, Pasch said, professional ...

  4. The health problem of arachnidism

    PubMed Central

    Maretić, Z.; Stanić, M.

    1954-01-01

    The authors give data on arachnidism (the systemic poisoning caused by the bite of the spider Latrodectus) in general, on its distribution in the world and in Yugoslavia in particular, on the Latrodectus spider, and on the characteristic clinical syndrome of arachnidism. The bite of the Latrodectus causes great pain, disables the bitten person for a certain time, and may even cause death in a few instances. The results of the authors' own observations in the clinic and on experimental animals are given. Of all forms of therapy tried by them, the simultaneous application of calcium, antivenom, and sometimes procaine infiltration for the relief of local pains gave the best results. In view of the apparently increasing importance of arachnidism, the authors recommend the international exchange of experience on the problem. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:14364184

  5. Constructing violence as a public health problem.

    PubMed Central

    Winett, L B

    1998-01-01

    Once viewed primarily as a criminal justice problem, violence and its prevention are now often claimed by public health professionals as being within their purview. The author reviewed 282 articles published in public health and medical journals from 1985 through 1995 that discussed violence as a public health problem. She found that while authors tended to identify social and structural causes for violence, they suggested interventions that targeted individuals' attitudes or behaviors and improved public health practice. Her study illuminates the tension between public health professionals' vision of the social precursors of violence and their attempts to apply a traditional set of remedies. In targeting individuals to rid the nation of violence, the public health community is deemphasizing societal causes. Images p[498]-a p499-a p500-a p501-a p502-a p503-a p504-a p506-a PMID:9847921

  6. Problem-solving for better health.

    PubMed

    Smith, B; Barnett, S; Collado, D; Connor, M; DePasquale, J; Gross, L; McDermott, V; Sykes, A

    1994-01-01

    An outline is given of an approach to the health-for-all goals which involves optimizing resource use, prioritizing people's well-being, achieving excellence and a measurable impact at all levels of care, and solving health problems in a broad developmental context. PMID:8141991

  7. Violence against women: an emerging health problem.

    PubMed

    Jewkes, R

    2000-11-01

    As well as being a violation of human rights, violence against women can be regarded as an 'emerging health problem' of the late twentieth century not because it is new, but because its prevalence and role in the aetiology of ill health has only recently been widely recognized. In this paper we discuss the epidemiology and health impact of violence against women, drawing particularly on data from research in South Africa. Here the prevalence of abuse is between 20% and 30%, which is in keeping with estimates for other countries and research has shown that 1% of women are raped each year. Gender-based violence is an appreciable cause of mortality from homicide and suicide. It is also associated with a range of other health problems, particularly injuries, HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy complications and mental health problems. Available estimates suggest that it is associated with considerable costs to the health sector. Roles for the health sector in breaking cycles of abuse are increasingly being recognized and there is a need for appropriate interventions, based on screening, homicide and suicide risk assessment, documentation, information giving and referral to be implemented more widely in health facilities. PMID:11195267

  8. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. PMID:26370651

  9. Predicting mental health problems in general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Chambers, R; Belcher, J

    1994-09-01

    A total of 704 general practitioners completed questionnaires enquiring about mental health problems (response rate = 82.0%). Excessive anxiety was reported by 31.1%, troublesome depression by 13.4%, exhaustion or stress (on three or more weekdays) by 60.7%, and sleep difficulties by 47.6%. General practitioners aged 40-49 years old were most likely to report anxiety, exhaustion or stress, sexual and sleep difficulties. Retired doctors reported mental health problems markedly less often. Predictive factors for anxiety were depression, one or more nights on-call per week, and exhaustion or stress; predictive factors for depression were anxiety, and exhaustion or stress; predictive factors for exhaustion or stress were anxiety, depression, no hobbies, paperwork on three or more evenings per week, and sleep difficulties. Gender, country of origin, being single-handed, excessive alcohol consumption, and having no coping methods were not predictive factors for mental health problems. PMID:7949065

  10. Health Problems of Partner Violence Victims

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Denise A.; Douglas, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    Background National population-based studies show that 40%–50% of physical partner violence victims in a 1-year time period are men. However, studies assessing the health concerns related to partner violence victimization tend to focus on women, and none have assessed the health of male physical partner violence victims who sought help for their victimization. Purpose To understand men’s mental and physical health concerns that may be related to partner violence victimization. Methods In 2012–2013, two samples of men—611 physical partner violence victims who sought help and 1,601 men from a population-based sample – completed online questionnaires on their demographics, various types of partner violence victimization, physical health, mental health, and other risks. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, log binomial models, and robust Poisson models in 2013. Results In comparison to the population-based sample of men, male partner violence victims who sought help had significantly poorer health, particularly with regard to post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, high blood pressure, sexually transmitted diseases, and asthma. These differences remained after controlling for sample differences in demographics, substance use, previous traumatic exposure, and social support. Conclusions Practitioners should assess for health problems among partner violence victims and for partner violence victimization among men presenting with health problems. PMID:25442232

  11. [Health-related problems in adopted children].

    PubMed

    Laubjerg, Merete; Petersson, Birgit H

    2006-10-01

    International research shows that the standard of health among children adopted from abroad, especially those adopted by single parents, is not as good as that of other children. Danish studies indicate similar problems. The causes could be several, such as poor development in the embryonic and fetal stages, low birth weight, starvation, neglect, infections, and the lack of the natural bonds between mother and child. Surveys indicate that many adoptive parents, single parents in particular, receive children with health problems. There is no Danish research available, but it is important to be aware of these issues in order for both adoptees and adoptants to receive the most support. PMID:17059801

  12. Overcoming Age-Related Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agullo, Gloria Luque

    2006-01-01

    One of the most controversial issues in foreign language (FL) teaching is the age at which language learning should start. Nowadays it is recognized that in second language contexts maturational constraints make an early start advisable, but there is still disagreement regarding the problem of when to start or the best way to learn in foreign…

  13. Age-related macular degeneration: current treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hubschman, Jean Pierre; Reddy, Shantan; Schwartz, Steven D

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Although important progress has been made in understanding age-related macular degeneration (AMD), management of the disease continues to be a challenge. AMD research has led to a widening of available treatment options and improved prognostic perspectives. This essay reviews these treatment options. Design: Interpretative essay. Methods: Literature review and interpretation. Results: Current treatments to preserve vision in patients with non-exudative AMD include antioxidant vitamins and mineral supplementations. Exudative AMD is currently most often treated monthly with anti-VEGF intravitreal injections. However, investigators are beginning to experiment with combination therapy and surgical approaches in an attempt to limit the number of treatment and reduce the financial burden on the health care system. Conclusion: By better understanding the basis and pathogenesis of AMD, newer therapies will continue to be developed that target specific pathways in patients with AMD, with the hoped for outcome of better management of the disease and improved visual acuity. PMID:19668560

  14. Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    1999-01-01

    Radiation litigation, the cleanup and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, radon exposure, nuclear medicine, food irradiation, stricter regulatory climate--these are some of the reasons health physics and radiation protection professionals are increasingly called upon to upgrade their skills. Designed to prepare candidates for the American Board of Health Physics Comprehensive examination (Part I) and other certification examinations, Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions introduces professionals in the field to radiation protection principles and their practical application in routine and emergency situations. It features more than 650 worked examples illustrating concepts under discussion along with an in-depth coverage of sources of radiation, standards and regulations, biological effects of ionizing radiation, instrumentation, external and internal dosimetry, counting statistics, monitoring and interpretations, operational health physics, transportation and waste, nuclear emergencies, and more. Reflecting for the first time the true scope of health physics at an introductory level, Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions gives readers the tools to properly evaluate challenging situations in all areas of radiation protection, including the medical, university, power reactor, fuel cycle, research reactor, environmental, non-ionizing radiation, and accelerator health physics.

  15. Health problems and male firearm suicide.

    PubMed

    Hempstead, Katherine; Nguyen, Tuan; David-Rus, Richard; Jacquemin, Bretta

    2013-02-01

    Drawing on constructs of masculinity as it relates to both gun ownership and men's health, we use a rich data set, the New Jersey Violent Death Reporting System as well as hospital discharge data, to analyze 3,413 completed male suicides between the years of 2003 and 2009. We test the hypotheses that the use of firearms is more common when physical health problems are cited as suicide circumstances, and that suicide decedents who use firearms have poorer physical health than those who used other methods. Results show that firearms are disproportionately used in male suicides when physical health is listed as a circumstance. Additionally, among suicide decedents with a hospitalization during the 3 years prior to death, those who used firearms were in poorer health than those who used other methods. These findings have implications for prevention efforts, because restricting access to lethal means is an important aspect of suicide prevention. PMID:23126468

  16. Couple and Family Interventions in Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Cleveland G.; Finley, Michelle A.; Chawla, Neelu

    2012-01-01

    Intervention research for couples and families managing chronic health problems is in an early developmental stage. We reviewed randomized clinical trials of family interventions for common neurological diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, which is similar to the content of previous reviews discussed later. One overriding theme…

  17. Cutaneous Melanoma: A Population Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Warren, Hermine

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM), generally referred to as melanoma, has been identified as an overall population health problem. Examination of evidence-based research revealed a strong correlation between CM and tanning bed usage, specifically by young females. For these reasons, a preliminary research question/hypothesis was structured that proposed examining different geographical locations, and whether the relationship between melanoma and tanning bed exposure by young females would be affected. Epidemiologic principles will be utilized to provide guidelines and tools for comprehensively examining this health issue and how it might affect morbidity and mortality within the populations where occurrences are identified. Furthermore, to understand some of the contributing factors of this disease, melanoma was discussed in terms of person, place, time, and how tanning bed exposure may significantly heighten CM as a potentially fatal health problem. PMID:26605821

  18. Health Problems Can Plague Seniors After Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... as they prepare for surgery. Now that the prevalence of such events is known, treatment approaches that keep these age-related health concerns in mind may be better applied in the future to better assist these patients," lead author Dr. Hung-Jui Tan, a fellow in ...

  19. [Health problems of workers in the Americas].

    PubMed

    Villafaña, C

    1983-12-01

    Most of the problems concerning the health of the workers in developing countries exist in Latin America : rapid urbanisation, dearth of information on the risks the workers face, intensification of efforts to increase returns. The geographic situation of a country also has its importance: working conditions are more difficult in tropical climates. Over populated, poor districts increase the danger of transmission of infectious diseases. Loneliness, a change in the mode of life are an incentive to alcoholism. The vast majority of Latin American workers are employed in small workshops. In Puerto Rico, 90 per cent of them work in firms employing less than fifty people. It is precisely in these small workshops that health problems are the most serious. The publication of laws to protect health is not sufficient, education campaigns must be organized at all levels: government officials, trade-unions, entrepreneurs and the workers themselves. Education programmes to protect the health of the workers must include the prevention of new risks due to environmental conditions. Health education is essential to protect and improve the health of the workers in Latin America. PMID:6667932

  20. Age-Related Changes in Creative Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos-Ewoldsen, Beverly; Black, Sheila R.; Mccown, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related differences in cognitive processes were used to understand age-related declines in creativity. According to the Geneplore model (Finke, Ward, & Smith, 1992), there are two phases of creativity--generating an idea and exploring the implications of the idea--each with different underlying cognitive processes. These two phases are…

  1. Globalization causes a world of health problems.

    PubMed

    Abell, H

    1998-01-01

    Many countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean offer substantial tax breaks to foreign corporations that set up shops in free-trade zones and waive environmental regulations and repress trade unions to further induce this practice. Workers in these shops--mainly women--perform repetitive machine-based motions, are exposed to toxic chemicals and unsafe equipment, and face dangerously high production quotas. Health problems caused by these working conditions include headache and dizziness, fatigue, anemia, forgetfulness, stomach pains, respiratory problems, hypertension, heart disease, and allergies. Water and air pollution and dumping of hazardous waste affect the health of entire communities. Since free-trade zones are a permanent feature of the global economy, organizing to protect workers and communities assumes critical importance. Groups such as the Border Committee of Women Workers in Mexico are providing workers with skills and support to make demands such as better treatment of pregnant workers. International labor, environmental, and public health advocates can support such efforts by providing assistance to worker-controlled organizations and pressuring governments to enforce laws intended to protect workers and their communities. PMID:12348707

  2. Awareness, Knowledge, and Concern about Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Laban-Baker, Allie; Hamilton, Wanda S.; Stuen, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--a common eye disease causing vision loss--can be detected early through regular eye-health examinations, and measures can be taken to prevent visual decline. Getting eye examinations requires certain levels of awareness, knowledge, and concern related to AMD. However, little is known about AMD-related…

  3. [Chronic wounds as a public health problem].

    PubMed

    Situm, Mirna; Kolić, Maja; Redzepi, Gzim; Antolić, Slavko

    2014-10-01

    Chronic wounds represent a significant burden to patients, health care professionals and the entire health care system. Regarding the healing process, wounds can be classified as acute or chronic wounds. A wound is considered chronic if healing does not occur within the expected period according to the wound etiology and localization. Chronic wounds can be classified as typical and atypical. The majority of wounds (95 percent) are typical ones, which include ischemic, neurotrophic and hypostatic ulcers and two separate entities: diabetic foot and decubital ulcers. Eighty percent of chronic wounds localized on lower leg are the result of chronic venous insufficiency, in 5-10 percent the cause is of arterial etiology, whereas the rest are mostly neuropathic ulcers. Chronic wounds significantly decrease the quality of life of patients by requiring continuous topical treatment, causing immobility and pain in a high percentage of patients. Chronic wounds affect elderly population. Chronic leg ulcers affect 0.6-3 percent of those aged over 60, increasing to over 5 percent of those aged over 80. Emergence of chronic wounds is a substantial socioeconomic problem as 1-2 percent of western population will suffer from it. This estimate is expected to rise due to the increasing proportion of elderly population along with the diabetic and obesity epidemic. It has been proved that chronic wounds account for the large proportion of costs in the health care system, even in rich societies. Socioeconomically, the management of chronic wounds reaches a total of 2-4 percent of the health budget in western countries. Treatment costs for some other diseases are not irrelevant, nor are the method and materials used for treating these wounds. Considering etiologic factors, a chronic wound demands a multidisciplinary approach with great efforts of health care professionals to treat it more efficiently, more simply and more painlessly for the patient, as well as more inexpensively for

  4. [Occupational health problems in dental practice].

    PubMed

    Lewczuk, Ewa; Affelska-Jercha, Anna; Tomczyk, Jarosław

    2002-01-01

    The overload of the osteoarticular system resulting from standing and stooping position of the body is the main health problem of dentists. This may cause vertebral pain, symptoms of sciatica and foot valgo-planus. Symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome are induced by repeated carpus movements. Frequent numbness associated with the peripheral nerves changes result from using drills by dentists. Menstruation disturbances observed in dental assistants could be related to the increased levels of mercury in serum and urine. Allergy is also a frequent medical problem, particularly allergy to latex. manifested by contact eczema or allergic urticaria, asthma and shock. There also is an increased risk for infectious diseases through the contact with biological material, mostly saliva and blood. PMID:12116907

  5. Nut consumption and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Grosso, G; Estruch, R

    2016-02-01

    Current knowledge on the effects of nut consumption on human health has rapidly increased in recent years and it now appears that nuts may play a role in the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. Frequent nut consumption has been associated with better metabolic status, decreased body weight as well as lower body weight gain over time and thus reduce the risk of obesity. The effect of nuts on glucose metabolism, blood lipids, and blood pressure is still controversial. However, significant decreased cardiovascular risk has been reported in a number of observational and clinical intervention studies. Thus, findings from cohort studies show that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality (especially that due to cardiovascular-related causes). Similarly, nut consumption has been also associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, endometrial, and pancreatic neoplasms. Evidence regarding nut consumption and neurological or psychiatric disorders is scarce, but a number of studies suggest significant protective effects against depression, mild cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, particularly related to their mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as vitamin and polyphenol content). MUFA have been demonstrated to improve pancreatic beta-cell function and regulation of postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PUFA may act on the central nervous system protecting neuronal and cell-signaling function and maintenance. The fiber and mineral content of nuts may also confer health benefits. Nuts therefore show promise as useful adjuvants to prevent, delay or ameliorate a number of chronic conditions in older people. Their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments

  6. Toxoplasma oocysts as a public health problem.

    PubMed

    Torrey, E Fuller; Yolken, Robert H

    2013-08-01

    Waterborne outbreaks of Toxoplasma gondii have focused attention on the importance of oocysts shed in the feces of infected cats. Cat feces deposited annually into the environment in the United States total approximately 1.2 million metric tons. The annual oocyst burden measured in community surveys is 3 to 434 oocysts per square foot and is greater in areas where cats selectively defecate. Because a single oocyst can possibly cause infection, this oocyst burden represents a major potential public health problem. The proper disposal of cat litter, keeping cats indoors, reducing the feral cat population, and protecting the play areas of children might potentially reduce the oocyst burden. PMID:23849140

  7. X-82 to Treat Age-related Macular Degeneration

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-16

    Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD); Macular Degeneration; Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration; AMD; Macular Degeneration, Age-related, 10; Eye Diseases; Retinal Degeneration; Retinal Diseases

  8. Smoking and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Velilla, Sara; García-Medina, José Javier; García-Layana, Alfredo; Pons-Vázquez, Sheila; Pinazo-Durán, M. Dolores; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; Arévalo, J. Fernando; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main socioeconomical health issues worldwide. AMD has a multifactorial etiology with a variety of risk factors. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for AMD development and progression. The present review summarizes the epidemiological studies evaluating the association between smoking and AMD, the mechanisms through which smoking induces damage to the chorioretinal tissues, and the relevance of advising patients to quit smoking for their visual health. PMID:24368940

  9. When Your Baby Is Born with a Health Problem

    MedlinePlus

    ... When Your Baby Is Born With a Health Problem KidsHealth > For Parents > When Your Baby Is Born ... training (like fellows and residents). continue Common Newborn Problems It is very common for infants, particularly those ...

  10. Living with Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF Living With Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Living With Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF ...

  11. The Resolution of Health Problems in School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oda, Dorothy S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    School health services work towards promoting and maintaining health of school-age children. An additional aspect of an effective program is to identify problems and manage or follow these problems to resolution. Resolution rates of health problems identified in students by primary care, physical examination, or screenings are examined. (Author/DF)

  12. Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…

  13. Controlling alcohol-related global health problems.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies. PMID:20566555

  14. Epidemiology of primary health problems in Beirut.

    PubMed Central

    Armenian, H K; Halabi, S S; Khlat, M

    1989-01-01

    As a result of 12 years of civil war in Lebanon, it has been impossible to collect regular morbidity information at the primary level. This report is based on a case-control analysis of various health problems as identified from a population based health survey in Beirut in 1983-1984. Cases of headache, backpain and peptic ulcer, as identified from this survey of 2752 households, were matched for age, sex, and neighbourhood with controls from the same sample. Cases and controls were compared for the presence of various characteristics as collected in the household interview. Headaches were more prevalent in females and in the higher educational categories, and the odds ratio was 1.3 (95 per cent confidence interval 1.01-1.68) for the married compared to the non-married. In comparisons of backpain, the odds ratio for alcohol consumption was 2.40 (1.14-5.08), and for belonging to skilled and unskilled labour categories of occupation it was 2.33 (1.05-5.15) when the analysis was limited to the employed group only. Although the peptic ulcer cases were of lower educational background compared to their controls, no other findings were identified in this third case-control comparison. The methodological shortcomings of such studies and the various interpretations of the findings are presented in the discussion. PMID:2533238

  15. [Latex allergy - an emerging health care problem.].

    PubMed

    Gislason, D; Bjornsdottir, U S

    1996-08-01

    Since immediate hypersensitivity reaction to natural rubber was described 17 years ago, the incidence of latex allergy has been increasing rapidly. This is in part due to a growing awareness of the problem along with improved diagnostic methods. Additionally, in accordance with universal health care plans and the HIV epidemic, more rubber products such as latex gloves and condoms are in general use. Changes in methods of rubber production may also contribute to the increasing prevalence in latex allergy. Individuals at greatest risk for developing latex allergy are patients who have undergone multiple operations. These include children with myelomeningocele (spina bifida) and congenital defects of the urinary tract. Another high risk group includes health care providers and individuals working in rubber production. Latex containing products are in general use in the hospital setting as well as in the home environment. They can therefore pose a great risk to sensitized patients if prophylactic measures are not undertaken. Defining high risk patients and subsequent diagnosis with appropriate skin tests are important. Patients with latex allergy must then be provided with self-administered adrenalin (Epi-pen) and instructed in avoidance measures. In this article we describe 23 individuals who have been diagnosed allergic to latex in Iceland. PMID:20065424

  16. Age-Related White Matter Changes

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yun Yun; Mok, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Age-related white matter changes (WMC) are considered manifestation of arteriolosclerotic small vessel disease and are related to age and vascular risk factors. Most recent studies have shown that WMC are associated with a host of poor outcomes, including cognitive impairment, dementia, urinary incontinence, gait disturbances, depression, and increased risk of stroke and death. Although the clinical relevance of WMC has been extensively studied, to date, only very few clinical trials have evaluated potential symptomatic or preventive treatments for WMC. In this paper, we reviewed the current understanding in the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical importance, chemical biomarkers, and treatments of age-related WMC. PMID:21876810

  17. Pharmacogenetics and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Brantley, Milam A

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics seeks to explain interpatient variability in response to medications by investigating genotype-phenotype correlations. There is a small but growing body of data regarding the pharmacogenetics of both nonexudative and exudative age-related macular degeneration. Most reported data concern polymorphisms in the complement factor H and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 genes. At this time, the data are not consistent and no definite conclusions may be drawn. As clinical trials data continue to accumulate, these relationships may become more apparent. PMID:22046503

  18. [Induced abortion: a vulnerable public health problem].

    PubMed

    Requena, M

    1991-03-01

    Induced abortion is an urgent public health problem that can be controlled if it is approached in its true complexity and with a social and humanist perspective. Induced abortion has been discussed in Chile since the last century, but not always openly. Abortion is not just an individual and collective medical problem, it is also an ethical, religious, legal, demographic, political, and psychological problem. Above all it is a problem of human rights. In the past 60 years, more than 50 countries representing 76% of the world population have liberalized their abortion legislation. Around 980 million women have some degrees of access of legal abortion. The magnitude of illegal abortion is difficult to determine because of the desire of women to hide their experiences. Estimates of the incidence of abortion in Chile made some 25 years ago are no longer valid because of the numerous social changes in the intervening years. The number of abortions in Chile in 1987 was estimated using an indirect residual method at 195,441, of which 90%, or 175,897, were induced. By this estimate, 38.8% of pregnancies in Chile end in abortion. Data on hospitalizations for complications of induced abortion show an increase from 13.9/1000 fertile aged women in 1940 to 29.1 in 1965. By 1987, with increased contraceptive usage, the rate declined to 10.5 abortions per 1000 fertile aged women. The cost of hospitalization for abortion complications in 1987, despite the decline, was still estimated at US $4.3 million, a large sum in an era of declining health resources. The problem of induced abortion can be analyzed by placing it in the context of elements affecting the desire to control fertility. 4 complexes of variables are involved: those affecting the supply of contraceptive, the demand for contraceptives, the various costs of fertility control measure, and alternatives to fertility control for satisfying various needs. The analysis is further complicated when efforts are made to

  19. Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety,…

  20. Depression in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casten, Robin; Rovner, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of disability in the elderly, substantially degrades the quality of their lives, and is a risk factor for depression. Rates of depression in AMD are substantially greater than those found in the general population of older people, and are on par with those of other chronic and disabling…

  1. Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety, and considers directions for future research. PMID:20046818

  2. Neuromuscular contributions to age-related weakness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related physiological change of neuromuscular function is not a linear process and is likely influenced by various biological and behavioral factors (e.g., genetics, nutrition, physical activity level, comorbidities, etc.). These factors contribute to heterogeneity among older adults, which chal...

  3. The health problems of old workers*

    PubMed Central

    Amulree

    1955-01-01

    With the growing number of old people in many countries, the problem of the elderly worker becomes of increasing importance. Data from some countries, such as Great Britain and the USA, indicate a tendency for fewer old people to be employed than hitherto. Several studies have shown that the employment of old people may raise special problems, but that these can in most cases be solved without great difficulty. The provision of separate workshops for the elderly—a measure adopted by some firms—does not appear to be the best solution, since the workers themselves tend to resent such segregation, feeling that they are being singled out for special treatment. The ideal arrangement seems to be to place elderly workers in small groups on specific jobs, which are an integral part of the main flow of work in the factory, but are not subject to special pressures. The output of elderly workers seems on the whole to be satisfactory and comparable to that of the younger ones. In choosing suitable jobs for old workers, the heaviness of the job appears to be a less important consideration than that the effort required should not be continuous. Elderly workers seem to have a greater need than their younger workmates for good lighting at work. They may be prevented by their physical condition from doing many unskilled jobs where health and strength are essential, but they can easily be kept in productive employment in jobs which depend largely upon skill and experience. It is generally accepted that work is beneficial to old people and will help to keep up their health and morale; this has been borne out in many studies. When transferring an elderly worker to a new job, it is important to find a job with the same prestige as the former one. An annual medical examination by the industrial physician is a very useful guide when fitting the old worker to his job. The medical examination should be voluntary and must be carried out tactfully, since old workers are often suspicious

  4. Ragging: a public health problem in India.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rajesh

    2009-06-01

    Ragging is any disorderly conduct that has the effect of teasing or handling with rudeness any student, which causes or is likely to cause annoyance, harm or to raise fear in a junior so as to adversely affect the psyche of the junior. Ragging is practiced all over the world, with different nomenclature like hazing, fagging; bapteme in French; doop in Dutch; and Mopokaste in Finnish. The first recorded cases of ragging were in the 8th century BC during the Olympics in Greece. Ragging has been frequently associated with a broad spectrum of physical, behavioral, emotional and social problems among the victims. It independently increases suicide risks. Some of the reasons given by students for ragging are they were also ragged by their seniors; sense of superiority; and introduction. Other factors perpetuating ragging are use of alcohol in hostels and lack of implementation of serious anti-ragging measures by college authorities. Various practical steps to control ragging must include strict role of authorities, ban on alcohol within college and hostels, surprise raids in hostels at night, postings (with accommodation) of wardens in hostels, separate hostels for juniors, presence of college "disciplinary committee" and "cultural committee," strict punishments for those involved in ragging, actions by Medical Council of India (MCI) and University Grants Commission (UGC) against the erring colleges and universities and formulation of anti-ragging laws. Ragging should be declared a public health problem because it involves the physical, mental and social exploitation of not only an individual but also of his/her family and the society as a whole. PMID:19602763

  5. Children's Mental Health: Problems and Services. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This background paper on children's mental health indicates that less than one-third of the children who have mental health problems receive treatment. Types of mental health problems are discussed, including intellectual, developmental, behavior, emotional, psychophysiological, and adjustment disorders. Enviromental risk factors of poverty and…

  6. The Problem With Estimating Public Health Spending.

    PubMed

    Leider, Jonathon P

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on how much the United States spends on public health is critical. These estimates affect planning efforts; reflect the value society places on the public health enterprise; and allows for the demonstration of cost-effectiveness of programs, policies, and services aimed at increasing population health. Yet, at present, there are a limited number of sources of systematic public health finance data. Each of these sources is collected in different ways, for different reasons, and so yields strikingly different results. This article aims to compare and contrast all 4 current national public health finance data sets, including data compiled by Trust for America's Health, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), and the Census, which underlie the oft-cited National Health Expenditure Account estimates of public health activity. In FY2008, ASTHO estimates that state health agencies spent $24 billion ($94 per capita on average, median $79), while the Census estimated all state governmental agencies including state health agencies spent $60 billion on public health ($200 per capita on average, median $166). Census public health data suggest that local governments spent an average of $87 per capita (median $57), whereas NACCHO estimates that reporting LHDs spent $64 per capita on average (median $36) in FY2008. We conclude that these estimates differ because the various organizations collect data using different means, data definitions, and inclusion/exclusion criteria--most notably around whether to include spending by all agencies versus a state/local health department, and whether behavioral health, disability, and some clinical care spending are included in estimates. Alongside deeper analysis of presently underutilized Census administrative data, we see harmonization efforts and the creation of a standardized expenditure reporting system as a way to

  7. Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peggy B.; Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the frequency and nature of mental health problems and symptoms among a group of 51 inner city male adolescents attending a teen health clinic. Results indicated participants experienced significant mental health problems and symptoms, such as relationship problems, problems with time and money, and symptoms of anger, depression, and…

  8. Crime is a public health problem.

    PubMed

    Middleton, J

    1998-01-01

    Crime is a public health issue. It shares common causes with ill health, particularly poverty, and fear of violent crime is itself a major cause of anxiety. Community development in pre-school education, parental education, and among ethnic minorities, both reduces crime and promotes better health, for example in reducing the effects of alcohol and illicit drugs. Health workers should contribute in full to community development. PMID:9532958

  9. Statins for age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gehlbach, Peter; Li, Tianjing; Hatef, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive late onset disorder of the macula affecting central vision. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years in industrialized countries. Recent epidemiologic, genetic, and pathological evidence has shown AMD shares a number of risk factors with atherosclerosis, leading to the hypothesis that statins may exert protective effects in AMD. Objectives The objective of this review was to examine the effectiveness of statins compared with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in delaying the onset and progression of AMD. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 6), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2014), PubMed (January 1946 to June 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 June 2014. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared statins with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in participants who were either susceptible to or diagnosed as having early stages of AMD. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently evaluated the search results against the selection criteria, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We did not perform meta-analysis due to heterogeneity in the interventions and outcomes among the

  10. Health problems among menopausal women in Udupi district (Karnataka).

    PubMed

    Souza, Leena D; Rao, Anitha C

    2012-04-01

    Menopause among women, occurring in middle age, brings in its wake, a set of health problems that needs to be handled distinctly by the care givers. A study undertaken to determine the magnitude of health problems in Udupi district of Karnataka included 100 menopausal women in the age group 45-55 years, 50 each from urban and rural pockets. Using demographic proforma, modified socio-economic scale and structured interview schedule as tools, it was concluded that menopausal health problems were more common in women in rural areas than in their urban counterparts: they were also less articulate and less aware about managing or preventing menopausal health problems. PMID:23362740

  11. Veterans have less age-related cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    McLay, R N; Lyketsos, C G

    2000-08-01

    Military service involves exposure to a number of stresses, both psychological and physical. On the other hand, military personnel generally maintain excellent fitness, and veterans have increased access to education and health care. The overall effect on age-related cognitive decline, whether for good or ill, of having served in the armed forces has not been investigated previously. In this study, we examined a diverse population of 208 veterans and 1,216 civilians followed as part of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study in 1981, 1982, and 1993 to 1996. We examined change in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score after a median of 11.5 years. Veterans were found to have significantly less decrease in MMSE scores at follow-up even after sex, race, and education were taken into account. These results suggest an overall positive effect of military service on the rate of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:10957857

  12. Understanding Wicked Problems: A Key to Advancing Environmental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreuter, Marshall W.; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.

    2004-01-01

    Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have…

  13. The Moral Problem of Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Health disparities exist along lines of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic class in US society. I argue that we should work to eliminate these health disparities because their existence is a moral wrong that needs to be addressed. Health disparities are morally wrong because they exemplify historical injustices. Contractarian ethics, Kantian ethics, and utilitarian ethics all provide theoretical justification for viewing health disparities as a moral wrong, as do several ethical principles of primary importance in bioethics. The moral consequences of health disparities are also troubling and further support the claim that these disparities are a moral wrong. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides additional support that health disparities are a moral wrong, as does an analogy with the generally accepted duty to provide equal access to education. In this article, I also consider and respond to 3 objections to my thesis. PMID:20147677

  14. Student Health Insurance: Problems and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Student health insurance experiences the same inflationary trends as employee benefits, but is rarely viewed as a significant direct cost to an institution, nor is the bill as high as the costs associated with employee health plans. Several long-term solutions and strategies that could help colleges to contain the ever-escalating cost of providing…

  15. Mental Health Problems of Disaster Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Bruno R.; And Others

    The mental health needs of disaster victims remains a largely neglected area, possibly due to other pressing demands placed on available resources and to the difficulties in correctly detecting psychiatric cases by the general health worker. This study attempted to use a questionnaire suitable to primary care settings for the detection of probable…

  16. Student Mental Health: Reframing the "Problem"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author contends that to understand the concern over student mental health, one must first consider what students are reporting about themselves. Students with mental health issues are intellectually capable; rising numbers of accepted students with diagnosed psychological conditions confirm this. However, many conditions…

  17. Age-related eye disease and gender.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of moderate to severe visual impairment and blindness is 285 millions, with 65% of visually impaired and 82% of all blind people being 50 years and older. Meta-analyses have shown that two out of three blind people are women, a gender discrepancy that holds true for both developed and developing countries. Cataract accounts for more than half of all blindness globally and gender inequity in access to cataract surgery is the major cause of the higher prevalence of blindness in women. In addition to gender differences in cataract surgical coverage, population-based studies on the prevalence of lens opacities indicate that women have a higher risk of developing cataract. Laboratory as well as epidemiologic studies suggest that estrogen may confer antioxidative protection against cataractogenesis, but the withdrawal effect of estrogen in menopause leads to increased risk of cataract in women. For the other major age-related eye diseases; glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy, data are inconclusive. Due to anatomic factors, angle closure glaucoma is more common in women, whereas the dominating glaucoma type; primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is more prevalent in men. Diabetic retinopathy also has a male predominance and vascular/circulatory factors have been implied both in diabetic retinopathy and in POAG. For AMD, data on gender differences are conflicting although some studies indicate increased prevalence of drusen and neovascular AMD in women. To conclude, both biologic and socioeconomic factors must be considered when investigating causes of gender differences in the prevalence of age-related eye disease. PMID:26508081

  18. Occupational health problems among migrant and seasonal farm workers.

    PubMed Central

    Mobed, K; Gold, E B; Schenker, M B

    1992-01-01

    Migrant and seasonal farm workers are one of the most underserved and understudied populations in the United States. The total US population of such farm workers has been estimated at 5 million, of whom about 20% live or work in California. Farm workers perform strenuous tasks and are exposed to a wide variety of occupational risks and hazards. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to health care also contribute to existing health problems in this population. Potential farm work-related health problems include accidents, pesticide-related illnesses, musculoskeletal and soft-tissue disorders, dermatitis, noninfectious respiratory conditions, reproductive health problems, health problems of children of farm workers, climate-caused illnesses, communicable diseases, bladder and kidney disorders, and eye and ear problems. Few epidemiologic studies exist of these occupational health problems. No comprehensive epidemiologic studies have assessed the magnitude of occupational health problems among migrant and seasonal farm workers and their dependents. Although the migratory nature of this population makes long-term studies difficult, the development of standardized data collection instruments for health consequences and scientific assessment of farm work exposures and working conditions are vital to characterize and reduce the occupational health risks in farm workers. PMID:1413786

  19. BIOFUEL COMBUSTION: AN EMERGING HEALTH PROBLEM?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Petroleum diesel exhaust (DE) exposure has been linked to several health effects including lung cancer. The role of DE in the cardiopulmonary effects associated with particulate matter (PM) exposures is unclear; this uncertainty drives current research efforts to better underst...

  20. When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... Being Overweight Obesity is bad news for both body and mind. Not only can it make someone feel tired ...

  1. Health Problems in the Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivak, Howard R.

    1978-01-01

    Focuses on several of the more crucial health issues--immunization and screening; accident prevention; nutrition, obesity, and exercise; drugs; and growth and development--that can be effectively dealt with at the elementary school level. (Author/IRT)

  2. Soybean β-Conglycinin Prevents Age-Related Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tanigawa, Tohru; Shibata, Rei; Kondo, Kazuhisa; Katahira, Nobuyuki; Kambara, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoko; Nonoyama, Hiroshi; Horibe, Yuichiro; Ueda, Hiromi; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-related complications are associated with the development of age-related hearing impairment. β-Conglycinin (β-CG), one of the main storage proteins in soy, offers multiple health benefits, including anti-obesity and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Here, to elucidate the potential therapeutic application of β-CG, we investigated the effect of β-CG on age-related hearing impairment. Male wild-type mice (age 6 months) were randomly divided into β-CG-fed and control groups. Six months later, the body weight was significantly lower in β-CG-fed mice than in the controls. Consumption of β-CG rescued the hearing impairment observed in control mice. Cochlear blood flow also increased in β-CG-fed mice, as did the expression of eNOS in the stria vascularis (SV), which protects vasculature. β-CG consumption also ameliorated oxidative status as assessed by 4-HNE staining. In the SV, lipofuscin granules of marginal cells and vacuolar degeneration of microvascular pericytes were decreased in β-CG-fed mice, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. β-CG consumption prevented loss of spiral ganglion cells and reduced the frequencies of lipofuscin granules, nuclear invaginations, and myelin vacuolation. Our observations indicate that β-CG ameliorates age-related hearing impairment by preserving cochlear blood flow and suppressing oxidative stress. PMID:26348726

  3. What Health Problems Can Develop during Pregnancy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the developing fetus. These problems include 1 : Iron Deficiency Anemia Anemia occurs when your red blood cell count (hemoglobin or hematocrit) is low. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of ...

  4. Risk Factors for Age-Related Maculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Paul P.; Keane, Pearse A.; O'Neill, Evelyn C.; Altaie, Rasha W.; Loane, Edward; Neelam, Kumari; Nolan, John M.; Beatty, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition. PMID:20339564

  5. Age-Related Declines Evident Before 60

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Exercise for Seniors Healthy Aging Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise for Seniors Healthy Aging About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  6. Prospective study of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension– and Mediterranean-style dietary patterns and age-related cognitive change: the Cache County Study on Memory, Health and Aging123

    PubMed Central

    Munger, Ronald G; Cutler, Adele; Quach, Anna; Bowles, Austin; Corcoran, Christopher; Tschanz, JoAnn T; Norton, Maria C; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Healthy dietary patterns may protect against age-related cognitive decline, but results of studies have been inconsistent. Objective: We examined associations between Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)– and Mediterranean-style dietary patterns and age-related cognitive change in a prospective, population-based study. Design: Participants included 3831 men and women ≥65 y of age who were residents of Cache County, UT, in 1995. Cognitive function was assessed by using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) ≤4 times over 11 y. Diet-adherence scores were computed by summing across the energy-adjusted rank-order of individual food and nutrient components and categorizing participants into quintiles of the distribution of the diet accordance score. Mixed-effects repeated-measures models were used to examine 3MS scores over time across increasing quintiles of dietary accordance scores and individual food components that comprised each score. Results: The range of rank-order DASH and Mediterranean diet scores was 1661–25,596 and 2407–26,947, respectively. Higher DASH and Mediterranean diet scores were associated with higher average 3MS scores. People in quintile 5 of DASH averaged 0.97 points higher than those in quintile 1 (P = 0.001). The corresponding difference for Mediterranean quintiles was 0.94 (P = 0.001). These differences were consistent over 11 y. Higher intakes of whole grains and nuts and legumes were also associated with higher average 3MS scores [mean quintile 5 compared with 1 differences: 1.19 (P < 0.001), 1.22 (P < 0.001), respectively]. Conclusions: Higher levels of accordance with both the DASH and Mediterranean dietary patterns were associated with consistently higher levels of cognitive function in elderly men and women over an 11-y period. Whole grains and nuts and legumes were positively associated with higher cognitive functions and may be core neuroprotective foods common to various healthy plant

  7. Indoor moisture and mold-related health problems.

    PubMed

    Johanning, Eckardt

    2004-05-01

    Moisture, microbial and in particular mold related indoor exposure and health problems in homes, offices, and public buildings (Kindergartens, schools, library, and hospitals) have been gaining recognition as one of the most common indoor environmental health issues. Proper recognition of microbial related health problems and the differential diagnosis of sick building syndrome (SBS) or building related illness (BRI) are important for early and effective exposure intervention, treatment, referral and prevention of more serious illness. PMID:15206571

  8. Health Problems with the Use of Information Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunduz, Semseddin

    2007-01-01

    The rapid and correct performance of computers, when accompanied by human skills, will lead to greater gains in productivity. This study focuses on the possible risks of computer use in terms of human health, rather than on the countless beneficial effects of its use on the issue of health. Health problems caused by inappropriate or inadequate use…

  9. Emergent Approaches to Mental Health Problems. The Century Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Emory L., Ed.; And Others

    Innovative approaches to mental health problems are described. Conceptualizations about the following areas are outlined: psychiatry, the universe, and the community; theoretical malaise and community mental health; the relation of conceptual models to manpower needs; and mental health manpower and institutional change. Community programs and new…

  10. Animal health: Tackling a mitey problem.

    PubMed

    Bartley, Kathryn

    2015-07-11

    The poultry ectoparasite Dermanyssus gallinae, known to poultry farmers as 'red mite', has a negative impact on animal health and is a vector of viruses and bacteria. It also sometimes attacks poultry farm workers, and human infestations have been reported originating from pigeons' nests in urban areas. A European project is currently investigating synergistic and holistic approaches to improving the health, welfare and productivity of laying hens through more effective prevention and control of the red mite. Kathryn Bartley reports from a two-day conference held in Italy in May, which provided an update on progress with the project. PMID:26160787

  11. Potential Mental Health Problems of South East Asian Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Maryann

    1980-01-01

    Reports on the findings of a workshop conducted to study the mental health problems of Southeast Asian refugees and to project possible future problems. Findings show the refugees' preconceived notions of America, their inability to communicate, and their feelings of alienation and homesickness underlie most of the emotional problems. (PJM)

  12. Adolescent Mental Health, Behavior Problems, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro; Rohrman, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the association of mental health and behavior problems with academic achievement is limited because it does not consider multiple problems simultaneously, take co-occurring problems into account, and control for academic aptitude. We addressed these limitations using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health…

  13. Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and services

    PubMed Central

    THABET, ABDEL AZIZ; EL GAMMAL, HOSSAM; VOSTANIS, PANOS

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and their understanding of their causes; to determine Palestinian mothers' awareness of existing services and sources of help and support; to identify professionals in the community whom Palestinian mothers would consult if their child had mental health problems; and to establish their views on ways of increasing awareness of child mental health issues and services. Checklists exploring the above issues were completed by 249 Palestinian mothers living in refugee camps in the Gaza Strip. Palestinian mothers equally perceived emotional, behavioural and psychotic symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, parental psychiatric illness and social adversity. A substantial proportion (42.6%) had knowledge of local child mental health care services. Overall, mothers preferred Western over traditional types of treatment, and were keen to increase mental health awareness within their society. Despite a different cultural tradition, Palestinian mothers appear open to a range of services and interventions for child mental health problems. As in other non-Western societies, child mental health service provision should be integrated with existing primary health care, schools, and community structures. PMID:16946953

  14. Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and services.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Abdel Aziz; El Gammal, Hossam; Vostanis, Panos

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and their understanding of their causes; to determine Palestinian mothers' awareness of existing services and sources of help and support; to identify professionals in the community whom Palestinian mothers would consult if their child had mental health problems; and to establish their views on ways of increasing awareness of child mental health issues and services. Checklists exploring the above issues were completed by 249 Palestinian mothers living in refugee camps in the Gaza Strip. Palestinian mothers equally perceived emotional, behavioural and psychotic symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, parental psychiatric illness and social adversity. A substantial proportion (42.6%) had knowledge of local child mental health care services. Overall, mothers preferred Western over traditional types of treatment, and were keen to increase mental health awareness within their society. Despite a different cultural tradition, Palestinian mothers appear open to a range of services and interventions for child mental health problems. As in other non-Western societies, child mental health service provision should be integrated with existing primary health care, schools, and community structures. PMID:16946953

  15. Health Problems and Male Firearm Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hempstead, Katherine; Nguyen, Tuan; David-Rus, Richard; Jacquemin, Bretta

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on constructs of masculinity as it relates to both gun ownership and men's health, we use a rich data set, the New Jersey Violent Death Reporting System as well as hospital discharge data, to analyze 3,413 completed male suicides between the years of 2003 and 2009. We test the hypotheses that the use of firearms is more common when…

  16. Preventing and Treating Child Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Children's mental health covers a wide range of disorders. Some, such as ADHD and autism, tend to manifest themselves when children are young, while others, such as depression and addiction, are more likely to appear during the teenage years. Some respond readily to treatment or tend to improve as children grow older, while others, such as autism,…

  17. Health Update: Foot Problems of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses common foot problems of young children and ways parents, child caregivers, and physicians should deal with them. Particular attention is given to care and medical treatment for flat feet, peeling feet, and "w"-sitting in young children. (Author/BB)

  18. The role of mitochondria in age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hengchao; Tang, Jianguo

    2014-02-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), the hearing loss associated with aging, is a vital problem in present society. The severity of hearing loss is possibly associated with the degeneration of cochlear cells. Mitochondria play a key role in the energy supply, cellular redox homeostasis, signaling, and regulation of programmed cell death. In this review, we focus on the central role of mitochondria in ARHL. The mitochondrial redox imbalance and mitochondrial DNA mutation might collaboratively involve in the process of cochlear senescence in response to the aging stress. Subsequent responses, including alteration of mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy, apoptosis and paraptosis, participate in the aging process from different respects. PMID:24202185

  19. [Glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration intricacy].

    PubMed

    Valtot, F

    2008-07-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of legal blindness among the elderly in Western nations. Age is also a well-known and well-evidenced risk factor for glaucoma. With increasing longevity and the rising prevalence of older people around the world, more and more patients will have glaucoma and AMD. Clinical evaluation of these patients still poses problems for clinicians. It is very important to order the right tests at the right time to distinguish glaucomatous defects from those caused by retinal lesions, because appropriate therapy has a beneficial effect on slowing or halting damage. PMID:18957915

  20. Distraction can reduce age-related forgetting.

    PubMed

    Biss, Renée K; Ngo, K W Joan; Hasher, Lynn; Campbell, Karen L; Rowe, Gillian

    2013-04-01

    In three experiments, we assessed whether older adults' generally greater tendency to process distracting information can be used to minimize widely reported age-related differences in forgetting. Younger and older adults studied and recalled a list of words on an initial test and again on a surprise test after a 15-min delay. In the middle (Experiments 1a and 2) or at the end (Experiment 3) of the delay, participants completed a 1-back task in which half of the studied words appeared as distractors. Across all experiments, older adults reliably forgot unrepeated words; however, older adults rarely or never forgot the words that had appeared as distractors, whereas younger adults forgot words in both categories. Exposure to distraction may serve as a rehearsal episode for older adults, and thus as a method by which general distractibility may be co-opted to boost memory. PMID:23426890

  1. Consequences of Age-Related Cognitive Declines

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Adult age differences in a variety of cognitive abilities are well documented, and many of those abilities have been found to be related to success in the workplace and in everyday life. However, increased age is seldom associated with lower levels of real-world functioning, and the reasons for this lab-life discrepancy are not well understood. This article briefly reviews research concerned with relations of age to cognition, relations of cognition to successful functioning outside the laboratory, and relations of age to measures of work performance and achievement. The final section discusses several possible explanations for why there are often little or no consequences of age-related cognitive declines in everyday functioning. PMID:21740223

  2. [Age-related changes of sensory system].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Hanyu, Haruo; Umahara, Takahiko

    2013-10-01

    Pathological processes usually superimpose on physiological aging even in the sensory system including visual, hearing, olfactory, taste and somatosensory functions. Representative changes of age-related changes are presbyopia, cataracts, and presbyacusis. Reduced sense of smell is seen in normal aging, but the prominent reduction detected by the odor stick identification test is noticed especially in early stage of Alzheimer or Parkinson disease. Reduced sense of taste is well-known especially in salty sense, while the changes of sweet, bitter, and sour tastes are different among individuals. Finally, deep sensation of vibration and proprioception is decreased with age as well as superficial sensation (touch, temperature, pain). As a result, impaired sensory system could induce deterioration of the activities of daily living and quality of life in the elderly. PMID:24261198

  3. Macular carotenoids and age-related maculopathy.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Eamonn; Neelam, Kumari; Nolan, John; Au Eong, Kah-Guan; Beatty, Stephan

    2006-11-01

    Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are concentrated at the macula, where they are collectively known as macular pigment (MP), and where they are believed to play a major role in protecting retinal tissues against oxidative stress. Whilst the exact pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy (ARM) remains unknown, the disruption of cellular processes by oxidative stress may play an important role. Manipulation of dietary intake of L and Z has been shown to augment MP, thereby raising hopes that dietary supplementation with these carotenoids might prevent, delay, or modify the course of ARM. This article discusses the scientific rationale supporting the hypothesis that L and Z are protective against ARM, and presents the recent evidence germane to this theory. PMID:17160199

  4. Medical bioremediation of age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Jacques M; Schloendorn, John; Rittmann, Bruce E; Alvarez, Pedro JJ

    2009-01-01

    Catabolic insufficiency in humans leads to the gradual accumulation of a number of pathogenic compounds associated with age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and macular degeneration. Removal of these compounds is a widely researched therapeutic option, but the use of antibodies and endogenous human enzymes has failed to produce effective treatments, and may pose risks to cellular homeostasis. Another alternative is "medical bioremediation," the use of microbial enzymes to augment missing catabolic functions. The microbial genetic diversity in most natural environments provides a resource that can be mined for enzymes capable of degrading just about any energy-rich organic compound. This review discusses targets for biodegradation, the identification of candidate microbial enzymes, and enzyme-delivery methods. PMID:19358742

  5. [Epidemiology of age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Brandl, C; Stark, K J; Wintergerst, M; Heinemann, M; Heid, I M; Finger, R P

    2016-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main cause of blindness in industrialized societies. Population-based epidemiological investigations generate important data on prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and future trends. This review summarizes the most important epidemiological studies on AMD with a focus on their transferability to Germany including existing evidence for the main risk factors for AMD development and progression. Future tasks, such as the standardization of grading systems and the use of recent retinal imaging technology in epidemiological studies are discussed. In Germany, epidemiological data on AMD are scarce. However, the need for epidemiological research in ophthalmology is currently being addressed by several recently started population-based studies. PMID:27541733

  6. AGE-RELATED GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN HUMAN SKIN FIBROBLASTS INDUCED BY MMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Age-Related Gene Expression Changes In Human Skin Fibroblasts Induced By methyl methanesulfonate. Geremy W. Knapp, Alan H. Tennant, and Russell D. Owen. Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U. S. Environmental Prote...

  7. Setting mental health priorities: problems and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    1994-01-01

    A recent project at the Hastings Center examined the question of priority setting in the provision of mental health services. A central issue was whether those services should be prioritized independently of other health services. The answer to that question was no: they should have full parity. Even so, priority setting can be a complex venture. At the heart of any such effort will be the relationship between empirical evidence on treatment outcomes and efficacy and the political and ethical interests that legitimately bear on interpreting and using that evidence. An argument is made that a priority should be given those whose suffering and inability to function in ordinary life is most pronounced, even if the available treatment for them is comparatively less efficacious than for other conditions. PMID:7935242

  8. Preterm Births: A Global Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jane Greene; Dogbey, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    Globally, in 2012, there were 15 million babies born preterm. The majority of preterm births occur in resource-poor countries including India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and the Democratic Republic of Congo where many die due to lack of basic skilled nursing care. In September 2000, the United Nations signed the Millennium Development Declaration establishing eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). These MDGs provide specific, measurable targets that are designed to provide equitable health to all, particularly the most vulnerable including preterm babies. On May 2, 2014, the World Health Organization specifically targeted the nursing workforce as a key stakeholder in strategies to reduce global prematurity and end preventable preterm newborn deaths. Specific strategies include primary care, screening for risk factors, kangaroo mother care, and early initiation of breastfeeding with exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life. By sharing our knowledge and skills, nurses can contribute to global actions being taken to end preventable preterm newborn deaths. PMID:26295506

  9. International health program: preventing health problems associated with living abroad.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Carol A

    2004-02-01

    1. The components of the international health program consist of identifying health risks overseas, the availability of the medical resources, the assessment of the medical facility, primary care, as well as the pre-departure health evaluations. 2. The organization should develop and implement standards of care while working toward maintaining and improving those standards to achieve an innovative, effective international medical program. This should be linked by a top down commitment to insure success. 3. The implementation of the emergency response plan will help support employees and their family members while working abroad if a serious illness or injury should occur. PMID:14979618

  10. Optimistic explanatory style and the perception of health problems.

    PubMed

    Peterson, C; De Avila, M E

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-six adults completed questionnaires that measure explanatory style and perception of health problems. Subjects on the average saw themselves as below average in risk for a variety of health problems. Those subjects with an optimistic explanatory style, who explained bad events with external, unstable, and specific causes, in particular saw themselves as less at risk (r = .30, p < .01). They also believed that they were more able to prevent these health problems. Partialling out perceived preventability reduced to nonsignificance the correlation between explanatory style and perceived risk, which suggests that perceived preventability may mediate this link. PMID:7782467

  11. 8 Areas of Age-Related Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... PROSTATE GLAND surrounds the tube (URETHRA) that passes urine. This can be a source of problems as ... changes, or an infection, can cause problems passing urine. Sometimes men in their 30s and 40s may ...

  12. The experiences of nurses with mental health problems: colleagues' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Terry; Higgins, Isabel; Magin, Parker; Goode, Susan; Pond, Dimity; Stone, Teresa; Elsom, Stephen; O'Neill, Kerry

    2012-08-01

    A 3-stage qualitative study conducted in 2008 aimed to explore the issues to inform a mental health education program to deliver to nurses. This article presents the findings of Stage 1. Data were collected from semistructured interviews conducted with 14 Australian nurses. The interviews explored nurses' knowledge and understanding of mental health problems and their workplace experiences of working with nurses with mental health problems. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed for the main themes: textbook knowledge, day-to-day support, and workplace considerations. These nurses' narratives guided the implementation of a mental health education workshop targeting nurses (Stage 2). PMID:22835752

  13. Synthetic cathinones: a new public health problem.

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Megarbane, Bruno; Cottencin, Olivier; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) have completely modified the drug scene and the current landscape of addiction. Synthetic substances, such as substituted or synthetic cathinones, also known as « legal highs », are often produced and used to mimic the effects of controlled drugs such as cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), and methamphetamine. The overwhelming majority of synthetic cathinones are produced in China and South East Asian countries. The Internet has emerged as the new marketplace for NPS, playing a major role in providing information on acquisition, synthesis, extraction, identification, and substance use. All these compounds are intentionally mislabeled and sold on-line under slang terms such as bath salts, plant food, plant feeders and research chemicals. They are sometimes labeled « not for human use » or « not tested for hazards or toxicity ». The rapid spread of NPS forces member countries of the European Union to adapt their response to the potential new dangers that may cause. To date, not only health actors but also the general public need to be clearly informed and aware of dangers resulting from NPS spread and use. Here, we review the major clinical effects of synthetic cathinones to highlight their impact on public health. A literature search was conducted from 2009 to 2014 based on PubMed, Google Scholar, Erowid, and governmental websites, using the following keywords alone or in combination: "new psychoactive substances", "synthetic cathinones", "substituted cathinones", "mephedrone", "methylone", "MDPV", "4-MEC", "addiction", and "substance use disorder". PMID:26074740

  14. Synthetic Cathinones: A New Public Health Problem

    PubMed Central

    Karila, Laurent; Megarbane, Bruno; Cottencin, Olivier; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) have completely modified the drug scene and the current landscape of addiction. Synthetic substances, such as substituted or synthetic cathinones, also known as « legal highs », are often produced and used to mimic the effects of controlled drugs such as cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), and methamphetamine. The overwhelming majority of synthetic cathinones are produced in China and South East Asian countries. The Internet has emerged as the new marketplace for NPS, playing a major role in providing information on acquisition, synthesis, extraction, identification, and substance use. All these compounds are intentionally mislabeled and sold on-line under slang terms such as bath salts, plant food, plant feeders and research chemicals. They are sometimes labeled « not for human use » or « not tested for hazards or toxicity ». The rapid spread of NPS forces member countries of the European Union to adapt their response to the potential new dangers that may cause. To date, not only health actors but also the general public need to be clearly informed and aware of dangers resulting from NPS spread and use. Here, we review the major clinical effects of synthetic cathinones to highlight their impact on public health. A literature search was conducted from 2009 to 2014 based on PubMed, Google Scholar, Erowid, and governmental websites, using the following keywords alone or in combination: “new psychoactive substances”, “synthetic cathinones”, “substituted cathinones”, “mephedrone”, “methylone”, “MDPV”, “4-MEC”, “addiction”, and “substance use disorder”. PMID:26074740

  15. Health problems have come in wake of contact with chemicals.

    PubMed

    Davies, Tarnia

    2016-05-25

    As a result of working with the chemicals glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde as a theatre nurse some years ago, I believe that I have suffered numerous health problems that resulted in my retirement. PMID:27224623

  16. Relationship Between Hostility and Health Problems in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prueske, Eleonor C.

    1971-01-01

    This experimental study investigated several factors as they relate to hostility: health problems, displacement, life stress situations, participation in recreational activities, viewing of violence via movies and television, sex, major field of study, and year in school. (Author)

  17. Age-related macular degeneration: choroidal ischaemia?

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, D Jackson; Silverman, Ronald H; Rondeau, Mark J; Lloyd, Harriet O; Khanifar, Aziz A; Chan, R V Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aim Our aim is to use ultrasound to non-invasively detect differences in choroidal microarchitecture possibly related to ischaemia among normal eyes and those with wet and dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Prospective case series of subjects with dry AMD, wet AMD and age-matched controls. Methods Digitised 20 MHz B-scan radiofrequency ultrasound data of the region of the macula were segmented to extract the signal from the retina and choroid. This signal was processed by a wavelet transform, and statistical modelling was applied to the wavelet coefficients to examine differences among dry, wet and non-AMD eyes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate a multivariate classifier. Results In the 69 eyes of 52 patients, 18 did not have AMD, 23 had dry AMD and 28 had wet AMD. Multivariate models showed statistically significant differences between groups. Multiclass ROC analysis of the best model showed an excellent volume-under-curve of 0.892±0.17. The classifier is consistent with ischaemia in dry AMD. Conclusions Wavelet augmented ultrasound is sensitive to the organisational elements of choroidal microarchitecture relating to scatter and fluid tissue boundaries such as seen in ischaemia and inflammation, allowing statistically significant differentiation of dry, wet and non-AMD eyes. This study further supports the association of ischaemia with dry AMD and provides a rationale for treating dry AMD with pharmacological agents to increase choroidal perfusion. ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT00277784. PMID:23740965

  18. Statistical physics of age related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Family, Fereydoon; Mazzitello, K. I.; Arizmendi, C. M.; Grossniklaus, H. E.

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness beyond the age of 50 years. The most common pathogenic mechanism that leads to AMD is choroidal neovascularization (CNV). CNV is produced by accumulation of residual material caused by aging of retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE). The RPE is a phagocytic system that is essential for renewal of photoreceptors (rods and cones). With time, incompletely degraded membrane material builds up in the form of lipofuscin. Lipofuscin is made of free-radical-damaged protein and fat, which forms not only in AMD, but also Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. The study of lipofuscin formation and growth is important, because of their association with cellular aging. We introduce a model of non-equilibrium cluster growth and aggregation that we have developed for studying the formation and growth of lipofuscin in the aging RPE. Our results agree with a linear growth of the number of lipofuscin granules with age. We apply the dynamic scaling approach to our model and find excellent data collapse for the cluster size distribution. An unusual feature of our model is that while small particles are removed from the RPE the larger ones become fixed and grow by aggregation.

  19. Physics of Age Related Macular Degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Family, Fereydoon

    2009-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness beyond the age of 50 years. The most common pathogenic mechanism that leads to AMD is choroidal neovascularization (CNV). CNV is produced by accumulation of residual material caused by aging of retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE). The RPE is a phagocytic system that is essential for renewal of photoreceptors (rods and cones). With time, incompletely degraded membrane material builds up in the form of lipofuscin. Lipofuscin is made of free-radical-damaged protein and fat, which forms not only in AMD, but also Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. The study of lipofuscin formation and growth is important, because of their association with cellular aging. In this talk I will discuss a model of non-equilibrium cluster growth that we have developed for studying the formation and growth of lipofuscin in AMD [K.I. Mazzitello, C.M. Arizmendi, Fereydoon Family, H. E. Grossniklaus, Physical Review E (2009)]. I will also present an overview of our theoretical and computational efforts in modeling some other aspects of the physics of AMD, including CNV and the breakdown of Bruch's membrane [Ongoing collaboration with Abbas Shirinifard and James A. Glazier, Biocomplexity Institute and Department of Physics, Indiana University, Y. Jiang, Los Alamos, and Hans E. Grossniklaus, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University].

  20. Age-related crosslink in skin collagen

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, M.; Mechanic, G.

    1986-05-01

    A stable crosslinking amino acid was isolated from mature bovine skin collagen and its structure was identified as histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine (HHL) using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and /sup 1/H, /sup 13/C-NMR. This newly identified crosslink has a linkage between C-2 histidine and C-6 of lysine in the latter's portion of hydroxylysinonorleucine. Quantitative studies using various aged samples of cow and human skin collagen indicated that this acid-heat stable nonreducible compound was the major age-related crosslink. In case of cow skin collagen, for example, during early embryonic development (3 and 5 month old embryos) the content of HHL stayed less than 0.01 residue/mole of collagen, however from the middle of gestation period (7 month old embryo) through the maturation stage it showed rapid increase with age and reached approximately 0.5 residues/mole of collagen in the 3 year old animal. Small increments (up to 0.65 res/mole of collagen) were observed in the 9 year old cow. The amounts of the crosslink unlike pyridinoline do not decrease with aging. Similar patterns were observed in human skin collagen.

  1. Animal models of age related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pennesi, Mark E.; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the histological features of AMD and provided much insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease. In spite of the large number of models developed, no one model yet recapitulates all of the features of human AMD. However, these models have helped reveal the roles of chronic oxidative damage, inflammation and immune dysregulation, and lipid metabolism in the development of AMD. Models for induced choroidal neovascularization have served as the backbone for testing new therapies. This article will review the diversity of animal models that exist for AMD as well as their strengths and limitations. PMID:22705444

  2. [Carbon monoxide contamination: an environmental health problem].

    PubMed

    Téllez, Jairo; Rodríguez, Alba; Fajardo, Alvaro

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is considered to be a major factor contaminating earth's atmosphere. The main sources producing this contamination are cars using gasoline or diesel fuel and industrial processes using carbon compounds; these two are responsible for 80% of carbon monoxide being emitted to the atmosphere. This substance has a well-known toxic effect on human beings and its acute poisonous effects (including death) have been widely studied; however, its long-term chronic effects are still not known. During the last few years, experimental research on animals and studies of human epidemiology have established the relationship between chronic exposure to low and middle levels of carbon monoxide in breathable air and adverse effects on human health, especially on organs consuming large amounts of oxygen such as the heart and brain. Harmful cardiovascular and neuropsychological effects have been documented in carbon monoxide concentration in air of less than 25 ppm and in carboxyhaemoglobin levels in blood of less than 10%. The main cardiac damage described to date has been high blood pressure, cardiac arrhythm and electrocardiograph signs of ischemia. Lack of memory, attention, concentration and Parkinson-type altered movement are the neuropsychological changes most frequently associated with chronic exposure to low levels of carbon monoxide and carboxyhaemoglobin. PMID:16703967

  3. Problems with the electronic health record.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Hans-Peter; Liaschenko, Joan; Angus, Jan

    2016-01-01

    One of the most significant changes in modern healthcare delivery has been the evolution of the paper record to the electronic health record (EHR). In this paper we argue that the primary change has been a shift in the focus of documentation from monitoring individual patient progress to recording data pertinent to Institutional Priorities (IPs). The specific IPs to which we refer include: finance/reimbursement; risk management/legal considerations; quality improvement/safety initiatives; meeting regulatory and accreditation standards; and patient care delivery/evidence based practice. Following a brief history of the transition from the paper record to the EHR, the authors discuss unintended or contested consequences resulting from this change. These changes primarily reflect changes in the organization and amount of clinician work and clinician-patient relationships. The paper is not a research report but was informed by an institutional ethnography the aim of which was to understand how the EHR impacted clinicians and administrators in a large, urban hospital in the United States. The paper was also informed by other sources, including the philosophies of Jacques Ellul, Don Idhe, and Langdon Winner. PMID:26603947

  4. Adolescent Health Problems: Behavioral Perspectives. Advances in Pediatric Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…

  5. Problem-Based Learning: Outcomes Evidence from the Health Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Mark A.; Dast, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, problem-based learning (PBL) has become a major force in health professions education and even in the broader educational world. This article focuses on the outcomes that have been found from using PBL in the health professions based on at least 20 reviews done since 1990. The outcomes identified in these reviews are…

  6. Gambling as an Emerging Health Problem on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuhldreher, Wendy L.; Stuhldreher, Thomas J.; Forrest, Kimberly Y-Z

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors documented the prevalence of gambling and correlates to health among undergraduates. Methods: The authors analyzed data from a health-habit questionnaire (gambling questions included) given to students enrolled in a university-required course. Results: Gambling and problems with gambling were more frequent among men than…

  7. Age-related differences in arithmetic strategy sequential effects.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    In this article, I review a series of new findings concerning how age-related changes in strategic variations are modulated by sequential effects. Sequential effects refer to how strategy selection and strategy execution on current problems are influenced by which strategy is used on immediately preceding problems. Two sequential effects during strategy selection (i.e., strategy revisions and strategy perseverations) and during strategy execution (i.e., strategy switch costs and modulations of poorer strategy effects) are presented. I also discuss how these effects change with age during adulthood. These phenomena are important, as they shed light on arithmetic processes and how these processes change with age during adulthood. In particular, they speak to the role of executive control while participants select and execute arithmetic strategies. Finally, I discuss the implications of sequential effects for theories of strategies and of arithmetic. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26372058

  8. Screening for Childhood Mental Health Problems: Outcomes and Early Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Marilyn J.; Kraemer, Helena C.; Slattery, Marcia J.; Burk, Linnea R.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Woodward, Hermi R.; Kupfer, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many childhood psychiatric problems are transient. Consequently, screening procedures to accurately identify children with problems unlikely to remit and thus, in need of intervention, are of major public health concern. This study aimed to develop a universal school-based screening procedure based on the answers to three questions:…

  9. Experiences in Rural Mental Health. VIII: Programming and Administrative Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, William G.; And Others

    Based on a North Carolina Feasibility study (1967-73) which focused on development of a pattern for providing comprehensive mental health services to rural people, this guide deals with programming and administrative problems in Vance and Franklin counties. Describing those problems believed to be most likely to occur in rural areas, this booklet…

  10. Awareness and Incidence of Health Problems among Conservatoire Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamon, Aaron; Thompson, Sam

    2006-01-01

    A survey of conservatoire students is reported in which information was gathered regarding their awareness and incidence of physical and mental health problems resulting from performing music, as well as places and/or people they would turn to for advice in the event of a future problem. Pain and discomfort relating to posture and excessive…

  11. Social Problem Solving and Health Behaviors of Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of social problem solving to health behaviors as reported by 126 undergraduate students. Findings revealed significant relationships between elements of social problem solving and wellness and accident prevention behaviors, and traffic and substance risk taking. However, correlations revealed differences between men and…

  12. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study examines the…

  13. GENETICS OF HUMAN AGE RELATED DISORDERS.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, I; Thukral, N; Hasija, Y

    2015-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable biological phenomenon. The incidence of age related disorders (ARDs) such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, dementia, osteoporosis, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases increase rapidly with aging. ARDs are becoming a key social and economic trouble for the world's elderly population (above 60 years), which is expected to reach 2 billion by 2050. Advancement in understanding of genetic associations, particularly through genome wide association studies (GWAS), has revealed a substantial contribution of genes to human aging and ARDs. In this review, we have focused on the recent understanding of the extent to which genetic predisposition may influence the aging process. Further analysis of the genetic association studies through pathway analysis several genes associated with multiple ARDs have been highlighted such as apolipoprotein E (APOE), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cadherin 13 (CDH13), CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1 (CDKAL-1), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), indicating that these genes could play a pivotal role in ARD causation. These genes were found to be significantly enriched in Jak-STAT signalling pathway, asthma and allograft rejection. Further, interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin (INS), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), estrogen receptor1 (ESR1), transforming growth factor, beta 1(TGFB1) and calmodulin 1 (CALM1) were found to be highly interconnected in network analysis. We believe that extensive research on the presence of common genetic variants among various ARDs may facilitate scientists to understand the biology behind ARDs causation. PMID:26856084

  14. Why Are Reading Difficulties Associated with Mental Health Problems?

    PubMed

    Boyes, Mark E; Leitao, Suze; Claessen, Mary; Badcock, Nicholas A; Nayton, Mandy

    2016-08-01

    A growing literature indicates that children with reading difficulties are at elevated risk for mental health problems; however, little attention has been given to why this might be the case. Associations between reading difficulties and mental health differ substantially across studies, raising the possibility that these relationships may be ameliorated or exacerbated by risk or resilience-promoting factors. Using socio-ecological theory as a conceptual framework, we outline four potential lines of research that could shed light on why children with reading difficulties are at risk of mental health problems and identify potential targets for intervention. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27465209

  15. Differential Effects of Mental Health Problems Among Truant Youths.

    PubMed

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Winters, Ken C

    2016-07-01

    Research indicates at-risk youth are more likely to experience emotional and psychological problems. Young people who are often truant from school represent a group of at-risk youth, but one for which mental health issues are understudied. This study examined heterogeneity of mental health problems among a sample of 300 truant adolescents using latent class analysis (LCA). LCA indicated the sample of truants was best represented by four latent subgroups of youth with low mental health problems; high depression, low mania; high mania, low depression; and high depression and mania. These subgroups were examined in relation to sociodemographic and psychosocial measures at baseline and after truancy offenses. Results indicated general and unique differences in these covariates across the four latent classes. Service and practice implications of better understanding mental health issues of truant youth are discussed. PMID:25124652

  16. Differential Effects of Mental Health Problems among Truant Youths

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Winters, Ken C.

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates at-risk youth are more likely to experience emotional and psychological problems. Young people who are often truant from school represent a group of at-risk youth, but one for which mental health issues are understudied. This study examined heterogeneity of mental health problems among a sample of 300 truant adolescents using latent class analysis (LCA). LCA indicated the sample of truants was best represented by four latent subgroups of youth with: low mental health problems; high depression, low mania; high mania, low depression; and high depression and mania. These subgroups were examined in relation to socio-demographic and psychosocial measures at baseline and after truancy offenses. Results indicated general and unique differences in these covariates across the four latent classes. Service and practice implications of better understanding mental health issues of truant youth are discussed. PMID:25124652

  17. Association of Age Related Macular Degeneration and Age Related Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Hassan; Pourakbari, Malihe Shahidi; Entezari, Morteza; Yarmohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and sensory neural hearing impairment (SHI). Methods: In this case-control study, hearing status of 46 consecutive patients with ARMD were compared with 46 age-matched cases without clinical ARMD as a control group. In all patients, retinal involvements were confirmed by clinical examination, fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). All participants were examined with an otoscope and underwent audiological tests including pure tone audiometry (PTA), speech reception threshold (SRT), speech discrimination score (SDS), tympanometry, reflex tests and auditory brainstem response (ABR). Results: A significant (P = 0.009) association was present between ARMD, especially with exudative and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) components, and age-related hearing impairment primarily involving high frequencies. Patients had higher SRT and lower SDS against anticipated presbycusis than control subjects. Similar results were detected in exudative, CNV and scar patterns supporting an association between late ARMD with SRT and SDS abnormalities. ABR showed significantly prolonged wave I and IV latency times in ARMD (P = 0.034 and 0.022, respectively). Average latency periods for wave I in geographic atrophy (GA) and CNV, and that for wave IV in drusen patterns of ARMD were significantly higher than controls (P = 0.030, 0.007 and 0.050, respectively). Conclusion: The association between ARMD and age-related SHI may be attributed to common anatomical components such as melanin in these two sensory organs. PMID:27195086

  18. Psychosocial Intervention for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Hans-Werner; Kammerer, Annette; Holz, Frank; Miller, Daniel; Becker, Stefanie; Kaspar, Roman; Himmelsbach, Ines

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated an emotion-focused and a problem-focused intervention designed for patients with age-related macular degeneration. It found a limited decrease in depression in the emotion-focused group and an increase in active problem orientation and in adaptation to vision loss in the problem-focused group.

  19. 8 Areas of Age-Related Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... of 40, eyesight weakens, and at around 60, cataracts and macular degeneration may develop. Hearing also declines ... of presbyopia. Reading glasses usually fix the problem. Cataracts are cloudy areas in the eye's lens causing ...

  20. Age-Related Changes in the Misinformation Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Rachel; Hayne, Harlene

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments examined relation between age-related changes in retention and age-related changes in the misinformation effect. Found large age-related retention differences when participants were interviewed immediately and after 1 day, but after 6 weeks, differences were minimal. Exposure to misleading information increased commission errors.…

  1. Health problems of Nepalese migrants working in three Gulf countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nepal is one of the largest suppliers of labour to countries where there is a demand for cheap and low skilled workers. In the recent years the Gulf countries have collectively become the main destinations for international migration. This paper aims to explore the health problems and accidents experienced by a sample of Nepalese migrant in three Gulf countries. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 408 Nepalese migrants who had at least one period of work experience of at least six months in any of three Gulf countries: Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE). Face to face questionnaire interviews were conducted applying a convenience technique to select the study participants. Results Nepalese migrants in these Gulf countries were generally young men between 26-35 years of age. Unskilled construction jobs including labourer, scaffolder, plumber and carpenter were the most common jobs. Health problems were widespread and one quarter of study participants reported experiencing injuries or accidents at work within the last 12 months. The rates of health problems and accidents reported were very similar in the three countries. Only one third of the respondents were provided with insurance for health services by their employer. Lack of leave for illness, cost and fear of losing their job were the barriers to accessing health care services. The study found that construction and agricultural workers were more likely to experience accidents at their workplace and health problems than other workers. Conclusion The findings suggest important messages for the migration policy makers in Nepal. There is a lack of adequate information for the migrants making them aware of their health risks and rights in relation to health services in the destination countries and we suggest that the government of Nepal should be responsible for providing this information. Employers should provide orientation on possible health risks and appropriate

  2. Understanding the Experience of Age-Related Vestibular Loss in Older Individuals: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Carol; Bridges, John F. P.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Background Inner ear balance (or vestibular) function declines with age and is associated with decreased mobility and an increased risk of falls in older individuals. We sought to understand the lived experience of older adults with vestibular loss in order to improve care in this population. Methods Qualitative data were derived from semi-structured interviews of individuals aged 65 years or older presenting to the Balance and Falls Prevention Clinic from February 1, 2014 to March 30, 2015 for evaluation of age-related vestibular loss. Transcripts were analyzed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. We created a taxonomy of overarching superordinate themes based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Framework, and classified key dimensions within each of these themes. Results Sixteen interviews were conducted with individuals (mean age 76.0 years, 75 % female) with age-related vestibular loss. The three superordinate themes and associated key dimensions were (1) body impairment (including depression, fatigue, fear/anxiety, and problems with concentrating and memory); (2) activity limitation and participation restriction (isolation, needing to stop in the middle of activities, reduced participation relative to expectations, reduced ability to drive or travel, and problems with bending/looking up, standing, and walking); and (3) environmental influences (needing help with daily activities). All participants reported difficulty walking. Conclusions Older adults report that vestibular loss impacts their body functioning and restricts their participation in activities. The specific key dimensions uncovered by this qualitative study can be used to evaluate care from the patient's perspective. PMID:26739817

  3. Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Shirley N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…

  4. Radiation Therapy for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Kishan, Amar U.; Modjtahedi, Bobeck S.; Morse, Lawrence S.; Lee, Percy

    2013-03-01

    In the enormity of the public health burden imposed by age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), much effort has been directed toward identifying effective and efficient treatments. Currently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections have demonstrated considerably efficacy in treating neovascular ARMD, but patients require frequent treatment to fully benefit. Here, we review the rationale and evidence for radiation therapy of ARMD. The results of early photon external beam radiation therapy are included to provide a framework for the sequential discussion of evidence for the usage of stereotactic radiation therapy, proton therapy, and brachytherapy. The evidence suggests that these 3 modern modalities can provide a dose-dependent benefit in the treatment of ARMD. Most importantly, preliminary data suggest that all 3 can be used in conjunction with anti-VEGF therapeutics, thereby reducing the frequency of anti-VEGF injections required to maintain visual acuity.

  5. Health Services for Behavioral Problems in Pediatric Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Arwa; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; DiRenzo-Coffey, Gina

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to explore primary care pediatricians' experiences in delivering behavioral health services in their own practices within the Nebraska context. An online survey was sent to the 154 primary care pediatricians who are members of the Nebraska chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Questions explored their management of behavioral problems, attitudes, and perceived barriers to providing behavioral health services in their practices. Seventy pediatricians completed the survey (47%). The majority of pediatricians reported seeing substantial numbers of children with behavioral problems. Eighty-five percent believed that most emotional and behavioral complaints could be managed by the pediatrician. Eighty-eight percent believed that the parents would prefer to receive services for their children's behavioral problems in the primary care office. Most felt that their training in mental health issues was inadequate. Pediatricians in this survey feel that pediatric behavioral problems are best managed in the primary care office and perceive that parents also prefer this setting. Improving training in behavioral health in pediatrics is necessary to meet the delivery of much needed behavioral health care to children and families. PMID:25398258

  6. [Chagas disease: an emerging public health problem in Italy?].

    PubMed

    Guerri-Guttenberg, R A; Ciannameo, A; Di Girolamo, C; Milei, J J

    2009-03-01

    Chagas' disease is an endemic parasitic illness in the American continent, affecting around 16 to 18 million people. Given that 9.5% of immigrants to Italy are from Latin America and that the infection can be transmitted in non-endemic countries congenitally by organ donations and blood transfusions, Chagas disease should be regarded as an emerging public health problem in Italy. Clinical guidelines as well as health protocols are needed to deal with this rarely recognized disease. PMID:19359818

  7. Perceived organizational problems in health care: a pilot test of the structured problem and success inventory.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Monica E; Terris, Darcey D; Sparring, Vibeke; Tolf, Sara; Brown, Claire R

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to test whether the Structured Problem and Success Inventory (SPI) instrument could capture mental representations of organizational and work-related problems as described by individuals working in health care organizations and to test whether these representations varied according to organizational position. A convenience sample (n = 56) of middle managers (n = 20), lower-level managers (n = 20), and staff (n = 16) from health care organizations in Stockholm (Sweden) attending organizational development courses during 2003-2004 was recruited. Participants used the SPI to describe the 3 most pressing organizational and work-related problems. Data were systematically reviewed to identify problem categories and themes. One hundred sixty-four problems were described, clustered into 13 problem categories. Generally, middle managers focused on organizational factors and managerial responsibilities, whereas lower-level managers and staff focused on operational issues and what others did or ought to do. Furthermore, we observed similarities and variation in perceptions and their association with respondents' position within an organization. Our results support the need for further evaluation of the SPI as a promising tool for health care organizations. Collecting structured inventories of organizational and work-related problems from multiple perspectives may assist in the development of shared understandings of organizational challenges and lead to more effective and efficient processes of solution planning and implementation. PMID:22453820

  8. Methodological innovations in public health education: transdisciplinary problem solving.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Edward F; Kreuter, Matthew W; Sebert-Kuhlmann, Anne K; McBride, Timothy D

    2015-03-01

    In 2008, the faculty of the Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis designed a Master of Public Health program centered on transdisciplinary problem solving in public health. We have described the rationale for our approach, guiding principles and pedagogy for the program, and specific transdisciplinary competencies students acquire. We have explained how transdisciplinary content has been organized and delivered, how the program is being evaluated, and how we have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach for a Master of Public Health degree. PMID:25706031

  9. The life world of the adolescent with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Peens, T; Poggenpoel, M

    2001-03-01

    Adolescents are currently being more and more exposed to the expectations of parents, educators, health-workers/helpers and policy makers to meet the demands of society and conform to it. The perception arises that adults are not able to let the adolescent take responsibility for the HOW of his own life story, despite all the expectations and demands. Under the influence of the post-modernistic approach to science and the narrative therapy it appears that each person is an expert of his own life and that each person is responsible for the how and the writing and rewriting of his own life story. This means that even the adolescent with mental health problems is busy with the writing and rewriting of his life story till even unpleasant incidents and experiences gain new meaning. This demands from the adolescent with mental health problems to be actively involved with his treatment program while the therapist is a participating observer of the therapeutic events. A one-sided approach, where the therapist's objectives and ideas make the difference in the treatment of adolescents with mental health problems, becomes redundant. An alternative approach is suggested where the adolescent with mental health problems becomes co-author of his own life story and his treatment program. In this research the researcher aimed to explore and describe the HOW of the life world of the adolescent with mental health problems. The utilization of the case-study format as research method enabled an in-depth, holistic description of the life world of the adolescent with mental health problems. The implementation of the strategies to ensure trustworthiness, as described by Guba was applied to ensure the validity and reliability of this study. Focus was specifically placed on the application of the strategy of cross validation. This implies that multiple data-collection sources, different experts, theories and respondents were utilized in the exploration of the life world of the adolescent

  10. Improving physical health monitoring for patients with chronic mental health problems who receive antipsychotic medications

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Nihad; Conn, Rory; Latif Marini, Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Physical health monitoring is an integral part of caring for patients with mental health problems. It is proven that serious physical health problems are more common among patients with severe mental health illness (SMI), this monitoring can be challenging and there is a need for improvement. The project aimed at improving the physical health monitoring among patients with SMI who are receiving antipsychotic medications. The improvement process focused on ensuring there is a good communication with general practitioners (GPs) as well as patient's education and education of care home staff. GP letters requesting physical health monitoring were updated; care home staff and patients were given more information about the value of regular physical health monitoring. There was an improvement in patients' engagement with the monitoring and the monitoring done by GPs was more adherent to local and national guidelines and was communicated with the mental health service.

  11. Improving physical health monitoring for patients with chronic mental health problems who receive antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Nihad; Conn, Rory; Latif Marini, Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Physical health monitoring is an integral part of caring for patients with mental health problems. It is proven that serious physical health problems are more common among patients with severe mental health illness (SMI), this monitoring can be challenging and there is a need for improvement. The project aimed at improving the physical health monitoring among patients with SMI who are receiving antipsychotic medications. The improvement process focused on ensuring there is a good communication with general practitioners (GPs) as well as patient's education and education of care home staff. GP letters requesting physical health monitoring were updated; care home staff and patients were given more information about the value of regular physical health monitoring. There was an improvement in patients' engagement with the monitoring and the monitoring done by GPs was more adherent to local and national guidelines and was communicated with the mental health service. PMID:27559474

  12. Health problems in a city-county workhouse.

    PubMed Central

    Derro, R A

    1978-01-01

    This study was part of a continuing effort to define the health profile of a city-county workhouse inmate population. To supplement data previously obtained on the health status of inmates on admission, all subsequent encounters for medical problems were recorded and analyzed. Of 491 inmates examined on admission, 312 subsequently made 1,257 visit for medical care. The rate of clinic use was two to three times higher than rates reported in national surveys. Of 1,549 problem encounters, trauma, musculoskeletal complaints, skin disorders, and diseases of the eyes, ears, nose, and throat accounted for 52.3 percent. Dental disease, trauma, and other musculoskeletal disorders comprised 66.3 percent of problems that required referral of patients to the city-county hospital. A significant relationship was seen between depression as determined by a self-rating questionnaire and numbers of visits and problem encounters, as well as several frequently encountered problems. The results of this study have implications for health services in correctional institutions with similar inmate populations. The provision of limited but onsite dental services is advisable. Athletic activities and work details should be closely supervised. Physicians and nurses should be skilled in the evaluation and management of minor trauma and other musculoskeletal disorders. Algorithms are appropriate aids in the management of common but minor medical problems. These measures and proposals are designed also to deal with the problem of overuse of clinic services. However, the measures do not diminish and, in some instances, they increase access to care for medical and dental health needs. PMID:684150

  13. Older Women: A Population at Risk for Mental Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisniewski, Wendy; Cohen, Donna

    The expanding population of older women relative to older men or the "feminization of aging" is a significant demographic trend with important implications for the future. Older women are at risk for extended years of widowhood, living alone, institutionalization, poverty, and mental health problems. Although the dementias of late life appear to…

  14. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinton, Chris; Elison, Sarah; Howlin, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Although many researchers have investigated emotional and behavioral difficulties in individuals with Williams syndrome, few have used standardized diagnostic assessments. We examined mental health problems in 92 adults with Williams syndrome using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities--PAS-ADD (Moss,…

  15. Identifying Students with Chemical Health Problems: Background and Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Educational and Cultural Services, Augusta. Div. of Alcohol and Drug Education Services.

    This document discusses the role of school personnel in identifying and referring students with chemical health problems. It introduces the topic by stating that school personnel should be aware of how to deal with students who have violated school rules and those who are seeking help. It states that they should know how to draw the line…

  16. Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report finds that adolescent smoking, drinking, misusing prescription drugs and using illegal drugs is, by any measure, a public health problem of epidemic proportion, presenting clear and present danger to millions of America's teenagers and severe and expensive long-range consequences for the entire population. This report is a wake-up call…

  17. Prematurity: A Major Health Problem. Matrix No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Gordon B.

    Premature birth (defined as delivery before 37 weeks gestation) and low birthweight (below 2,500 grams) are major health problems in the United States. Infants in these categories account for 75 per cent of neonatal deaths and 50 per cent of deaths in the first year of life. Survivors contribute disproportionately to the pool of handicapped…

  18. The Management of NASA Employee Health Problem; Status 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldi, L. B.

    1971-01-01

    A system for assessing employee health problems is introduced. The automated billing system is based on an input format including cost of medical services by user and measures in dollars, that portion of resources spent on preventive techniques versus therapeutic techniques. The system is capable of printing long term medical histories of any employee.

  19. Health Problems of the Navajo Area and Suggested Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltenbach, Charles

    Analysis of morbidity, mortality, and demographic data on Navajo people was undertaken to identify leading health problems in the Navajo area and to suggest intervention activities. Comparisons with total U.S. population were made to provide perspective. Data on Navajo mortality showed: a ratio of male to female deaths of 2:1, more than 50 percent…

  20. Childhood constipation as an emerging public health problem.

    PubMed

    Rajindrajith, Shaman; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Crispus Perera, Bonaventure Jayasiri; Benninga, Marc Alexander

    2016-08-14

    Functional constipation (FC) is a significant health problem in children and contrary to common belief, has serious ramifications on the lives of children and their families. It is defined by the Rome criteria which encourage the use of multiple clinical features for diagnosis. FC in children has a high prevalence (0.7%-29%) worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. Biopsychosocial risk factors such as psychological stress, poor dietary habits, obesity and child maltreatment are commonly identified predisposing factors for FC. FC poses a significant healthcare burden on the already overstretched health budgets of many countries in terms of out-patient care, in-patient care, expenditure for investigations and prescriptions. Complications are common and range from minor psychological disturbances, to lower health-related quality of life. FC in children also has a significant impact on families. Many paediatric clinical trials have poor methodological quality, and drugs proved to be useful in adults, are not effective in relieving symptoms in children. A significant proportion of inadequately treated children have similar symptoms as adults. These factors show that constipation is an increasing public health problem across the world with a significant medical, social and economic impact. This article highlights the potential public health impact of FC and the possibility of overcoming this problem by concentrating on modifiable risk factors rather than expending resources on high cost investigations and therapeutic modalities. PMID:27570423

  1. Childhood constipation as an emerging public health problem

    PubMed Central

    Rajindrajith, Shaman; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Crispus Perera, Bonaventure Jayasiri; Benninga, Marc Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Functional constipation (FC) is a significant health problem in children and contrary to common belief, has serious ramifications on the lives of children and their families. It is defined by the Rome criteria which encourage the use of multiple clinical features for diagnosis. FC in children has a high prevalence (0.7%-29%) worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. Biopsychosocial risk factors such as psychological stress, poor dietary habits, obesity and child maltreatment are commonly identified predisposing factors for FC. FC poses a significant healthcare burden on the already overstretched health budgets of many countries in terms of out-patient care, in-patient care, expenditure for investigations and prescriptions. Complications are common and range from minor psychological disturbances, to lower health-related quality of life. FC in children also has a significant impact on families. Many paediatric clinical trials have poor methodological quality, and drugs proved to be useful in adults, are not effective in relieving symptoms in children. A significant proportion of inadequately treated children have similar symptoms as adults. These factors show that constipation is an increasing public health problem across the world with a significant medical, social and economic impact. This article highlights the potential public health impact of FC and the possibility of overcoming this problem by concentrating on modifiable risk factors rather than expending resources on high cost investigations and therapeutic modalities. PMID:27570423

  2. College Students: Mental Health Problems and Treatment Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Nyer, Maren; Yeung, Albert; Zulauf, Courtney; Wilens, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Attending college can be a stressful time for many students. In addition to coping with academic pressure, some students have to deal with the stressful tasks of separation and individuation from their family of origin while some may have to attend to numerous work and family responsibilities. In this context, many college students experience the first onset of mental health and substance use problems or an exacerbation of their symptoms. Given the uniqueness of college students, there is a need to outline critical issues to consider when working with this population. In this commentary, first, the prevalence of psychiatric and substance use problems in college students and the significance of assessing age of onset of current psychopathology are described. Then, the concerning persistent nature of mental health problems among college students and its implications are summarized. Finally, important aspects of treatment to consider when treating college students with mental health problems are outlined, such as the importance of including parents in the treatment, communicating with other providers, and employing of technology to increase adherence. It is concluded that, by becoming familiar with the unique problems characteristic of the developmental stage and environment college students are in, practitioners will be able to better serve them. PMID:25142250

  3. Age-related vascular stiffening: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Julie C.; Lampi, Marsha C.; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Arterial stiffening occurs with age and is closely associated with the progression of cardiovascular disease. Stiffening is most often studied at the level of the whole vessel because increased stiffness of the large arteries can impose increased strain on the heart leading to heart failure. Interestingly, however, recent evidence suggests that the impact of increased vessel stiffening extends beyond the tissue scale and can also have deleterious microscale effects on cellular function. Altered extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture has been recognized as a key component of the pre-atherogenic state. Here, the underlying causes of age-related vessel stiffening are discussed, focusing on age-related crosslinking of the ECM proteins as well as through increased matrix deposition. Methods to measure vessel stiffening at both the macro- and microscale are described, spanning from the pulse wave velocity measurements performed clinically to microscale measurements performed largely in research laboratories. Additionally, recent work investigating how arterial stiffness and the changes in the ECM associated with stiffening contributed to endothelial dysfunction will be reviewed. We will highlight how changes in ECM protein composition contribute to atherosclerosis in the vessel wall. Lastly, we will discuss very recent work that demonstrates endothelial cells (ECs) are mechano-sensitive to arterial stiffening, where changes in stiffness can directly impact EC health. Overall, recent studies suggest that stiffening is an important clinical target not only because of potential deleterious effects on the heart but also because it promotes cellular level dysfunction in the vessel wall, contributing to a pathological atherosclerotic state. PMID:25926844

  4. Health Problems Discovery from Motion-Capture Data of Elderly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelc, B.; Gams, M.

    Rapid aging of the population of the developed countries could exceed the society's capacity for taking care for them. In order to help solving this problem, we propose a system for automatic discovery of health problems from motion-capture data of gait of elderly. The gait of the user is captured with the motion capture system, which consists of tags attached to the body and sensors situated in the apartment. Position of the tags is acquired by the sensors and the resulting time series of position coordinates are analyzed with machine learning algorithms in order to identify the specific health problem. We propose novel features for training a machine learning classifier that classifies the user's gait into: i) normal, ii) with hemiplegia, iii) with Parkinson's disease, iv) with pain in the back and v) with pain in the leg. Results show that naive Bayes needs more tags and less noise to reach classification accuracy of 98 % than support vector machines for 99 %.

  5. Age-related macular degeneration: Evidence of a major gene

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, S.; Warren, C.; Yang, H.

    1994-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a major cause of blindness in developing countries. It remains a very poorly understood disorder. Although environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis, none have been firmly implicated. The purpose of this study was to use pedigree analysis to evaluate the possible role of a major gene as a determinant of familial aggregation. Information was collected regarding occupation, smoking, sun exposure, associated medical problems and family history. 50 probands with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and 39 age, race and sex-matched controls were included in the study. In the ARMD group 15/50 (30%) of probands reported a positive family history; 22 out of 222 first degree relatives over age 60 were reported to be affected. In the control groups, none of the 138 first degree relatives over age 50 had a history of ARMD. This difference is statistically significant (p = 0.0003), indicating that genetic factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ARMD. In the ARMD group more siblings as compared to parents (16/127 vs. 5/82) were affected. 5/50 (10%) of the ARMD probands also gave a history of a second degree relative affected with ARMD, compared to none known among the relatives of controls. Data from 50 pedigrees were analyzed by complex segregation analysis under a class A regressive logistic model using the REGD program implemented in the SAGE package. Preliminary results allow rejection of a polygenic model and suggest there is a major gene for ARMD in these families. The inheritance model most compatible with the observed familial aggregation is autosomal recessive. In conclusion, these results are suggestive of a major gene effect in the etiology of ARMD. Identification of a major gene effect is a first step to further pursue linkage analysis and to search for the gene(s) involved in the causation of ARMD.

  6. Age-related consequences of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Megan M; Zaepfel, Alysia; Bjornstad, Petter; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2014-01-01

    The severity and frequency of childhood obesity has increased significantly over the past three to four decades. The health effects of increased body mass index as a child may significantly impact obese youth as they age. However, many of the long-term outcomes of childhood obesity have yet to be studied. This article examines the currently available longitudinal data evaluating the effects of childhood obesity on adult outcomes. Consequences of obesity include an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and its associated retinal and renal complications, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, asthma, orthopedic complications, psychiatric disease, and increased rates of cancer, among others. These disorders can start as early as childhood, and such early onset increases the likelihood of early morbidity and mortality. Being obese as a child also increases the likelihood of being obese as an adult, and obesity in adulthood also leads to obesity-related complications. This review outlines the evidence for childhood obesity as a predictor of adult obesity and obesity-related disorders, thereby emphasizing the importance of early intervention to prevent the onset of obesity in childhood. PMID:24434909

  7. How to Tell If Your Teen Has a Mental Health Problem

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Tell If Your Teen Has a Mental Health Problem 1 in 5 kids develop a serious ... Teen Mental Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Teen Mental Health About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  8. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration among the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Rasoulinejad, Seyed Ahmad; Zarghami, Amin; Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Rajaee, Neda; Rasoulinejad, Seyed Elahe; Mikaniki, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in elderly population in the developing countries. Previous epidemiological studies revealed various potential modifiable risk factors for this disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of AMD among elderly living in Babol, North of Iran. Methods: The study population of this cross-sectional study came from the Amirkola Health and Ageing Project (AHAP), the first comprehensive cohort study of the health of people aged 60 years and over in Amirkola, North of Iran. The prevalence of AMD was estimated and its risk was determined using logistic regression analysis (LRA) with regard to variables such as smoking, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes. Results: Five hundred and five participants with mean age of 71.55±5.9 (ranged 60-89) years entered the study. The prevalence of AMD was 17.6%. There was a significant association between AMD and smoking (P<0.001) but no association was seen with AMD and age, level of education, history of hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes. Multiple LRAs revealed that smoking increased AMD by odds ratio of 5.03 (95% confidence interval 2.47-10.23 p<0.001) as compared to nonsmokers Conclusion: According to our findings, the prevalence of AMD was relatively high and smoking increased the risk of AMD in the elderly population. PMID:26644880

  9. Flavonoids and Age Related Disease: Risk, benefits and critical windows

    PubMed Central

    Prasain, JK; Carlson, SH; Wyss, JM

    2010-01-01

    Plant derived products are consumed by a large percentage of the population to prevent, delay and ameliorate disease burden; however, relatively little is known about the efficacy, safety and underlying mechanisms of these traditional health products, especially when taken in concert with pharmaceutical agents. The flavonoids are a group of plant metabolites that are common in the diet and appear to provide some health benefits. While flavonoids are primarily derived from soy, many are found in fruits, nuts and more exotic sources, e.g., kudzu. Perhaps the strongest evidence for the benefits of flavonoids in diseases of aging relates to their effect on components of the metabolic syndrome. Flavonoids from soy, grape seed, kudzu and other sources all lower arterial pressure in hypertensive animal models and in a limited number of tests in humans. They also decrease the plasma concentration of lipids and buffer plasma glucose. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant actions, central nervous system effects, gut transport alterations, fatty acid sequestration and processing, PPAR activation and increases in insulin sensitivity. In animal models of disease, dietary flavonoids also demonstrate a protective effect against cognitive decline, cancer and metabolic disease. However, research also indicates that the flavonoids can be detrimental in some settings and, therefore, are not universally safe. Thus, as the population ages, it is important to determine the impact of these agents on prevention/attenuation of disease, including optimal exposure (intake, timing/duration) and potential contraindications. PMID:20181448

  10. The aging of elite male athletes: age-related changes in performance and skeletal muscle structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, John A.; Davis, Carol S.; Mendias, Christopher L.; Brooks, Susan V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The paper addresses the degree to which the attainment of the status as an elite athlete in different sports ameliorates the known age-related losses in skeletal muscle structure and function. Design The retrospective design, based on comparisons of published data on former elite and masters athletes and data on control subjects, assessed the degree to which the attainment of ‘elite and masters athlete status’ ameliorated the known age-related changes in skeletal muscle structure and function. Setting Institutional. Participants Elite male athletes. Interventions Participation in selected individual and team sports. Main Outcome Measurements Strength, power, VO2 max and performance. Results For elite athletes in all sports, as for the general population, age-related muscle atrophy begins at about 50 years of age. Despite the loss of muscle mass, elite athletes who maintain an active life style age gracefully with few health problems. Conversely, those who lapse into inactivity regress toward general population norms for fitness, weight control, and health problems. Elite athletes in the dual and team sports have careers that rarely extend into the thirties. Conclusions Life long physical activity does not appear to have any impact on the loss in fiber number. The loss of fibers can be buffered to some degree by hypertrophy of fibers that remain. Surprisingly, the performance of elite athletes in all sports appears to be impaired before the onset of the fiber loss. Even with major losses in physical capacity and muscle mass, the performance of elite and masters athletes is remarkable. PMID:19001883

  11. [Brazil: the problem of human resources in the health district].

    PubMed

    de Campos, F E

    1989-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the reform of the Brazilian health care system had been proposed by social and political leaders, who wanted to democratize and decentralize it, and in 1986 a health care reform project was accepted at the 8th National Conference on Health. A commission created to this end suggested the formation of health districts, as local units of the health care system. Their objectives included universal care, and the assurance of equal access to health care. The remuneration of different categories of recruited human resources within the districts posed a major problem: how to set up a system that would consider different levels of professional skills and education as well as retain incentives for lower echelon workers. The work regime which included repetitive, tedious, and alienating forms of activity presented another obstacle. Appropriate equipment was needed for biomedical professionals, for dentists, psychologists, nutritionists, and physiotherapists. The concept of general practitioner emerged, although the Cuban practice of assigning 1 physician for every 60 families could not be replicated in Brazil because of the lack of physicians. The maintenance of specialized services (internal medicine, pediatrics, surgery, odontology) in urban districts of cities with 150,000-300,000 inhabitants also confronted proponents of the reorganization. Thus, a new model uniquely suited to local and national realities had to be devised that would effectively satisfy the health care needs of the Brazilian population. PMID:2721425

  12. [Health system in Afghanistan: problems and institutional perspectives].

    PubMed

    Lejars, M

    2008-10-01

    Afghanistan has been ravaged by years of conflict. To provide emergency services and restore access health services, the Public Health Ministry with the assistance of partners developed first a package of basic health services delivered by NGO contractors and second a package of essential hospital services. The Ministry's role consists of providing guidance. To reduce the many issues and problems affecting this role, reforms are now being undertaken and a new national health care strategy is being developed within the framework of the National Development Strategy. An institution-building project has been initiated with European Union funding to allow the Health Ministry to carry out its stewardship and management functions with greater effectiveness and transparency. This project is essential for the successful outcome of all future strategies and programs planned by the Health Ministry to enhance its institutional effectiveness. The objectives of this project are to strengthen planning and auditing activities, promote quality assurance, implement funding mechanisms for health-related activities, organize management of human resources, maintain ongoing efforts to reform the administration and fight against corruption, and lay the foundations for managing finances and procurement. The scope of this project underlines the importance of its outcome. However the institution-building process will be long and constantly threatened by political instability and insecurity. PMID:19068975

  13. Systems Biology: New Approaches to Old Environmental Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, William A.; Oehlke, Kristen P.

    2005-01-01

    The environment plays a pivotal role as a human health determinant and presence of hazardous pollutants in the environment is often implicated in human disease. That pollutants cause human diseases however is often controversial because data connecting exposure to environmental hazards and human diseases are not well defined, except for some cancers and syndromes such as asthma. Understanding the complex nature of human-environment interactions and the role they play in determining the state of human health is one of the more compelling problems in public health. We are becoming more aware that the reductionist approach promulgated by current methods has not, and will not yield answers to the broad questions of population health risk analysis. If substantive applications of environment-gene interactions are to be made, it is important to move to a systems level approach, to take advantage of epidemiology and molecular genomic advances. Systems biology is the integration of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics together with computer technology approaches to elucidate environmentally caused disease in humans. We discuss the applications of environmental systems biology as a route to solution of environmental health problems. PMID:16705795

  14. Multiple Brain Markers are Linked to Age-Related Variation in Cognition.

    PubMed

    Hedden, Trey; Schultz, Aaron P; Rieckmann, Anna; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Buckner, Randy L

    2016-04-01

    Age-related alterations in brain structure and function have been challenging to link to cognition due to potential overlapping influences of multiple neurobiological cascades. We examined multiple brain markers associated with age-related variation in cognition. Clinically normal older humans aged 65-90 from the Harvard Aging Brain Study (N = 186) were characterized on a priori magnetic resonance imaging markers of gray matter thickness and volume, white matter hyperintensities, fractional anisotropy (FA), resting-state functional connectivity, positron emission tomography markers of glucose metabolism and amyloid burden, and cognitive factors of processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Partial correlation and mediation analyses estimated age-related variance in cognition shared with individual brain markers and unique to each marker. The largest relationships linked FA and striatum volume to processing speed and executive function, and hippocampal volume to episodic memory. Of the age-related variance in cognition, 70-80% was accounted for by combining all brain markers (but only ∼20% of total variance). Age had significant indirect effects on cognition via brain markers, with significant markers varying across cognitive domains. These results suggest that most age-related variation in cognition is shared among multiple brain markers, but potential specificity between some brain markers and cognitive domains motivates additional study of age-related markers of neural health. PMID:25316342

  15. [Depression in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration].

    PubMed

    Narváez, Yamile Reveiz; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a cause for disability in the elderly since it greatly affects their quality of life and increases depression likelihood. This article discusses the negative effect depression has on patients with age-related macular degeneration and summarizes the interventions available for decreasing their depression index. PMID:26572116

  16. Health Service Inpatient Units for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour or Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Jim; Ritchie, Fiona; Dyer, Ricinda

    2010-01-01

    Background: As institutions for people with intellectual disabilities have been replaced with community services, health care provision has developed to provide assessment and treatment, low and medium secure units for people with challenging behaviour or mental health problems. These include both public and private sector provision. Little is…

  17. Promoting Health by Addressing Basic Needs: Effect of Problem Resolution on Contacting Health Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Members of vulnerable populations have heightened needs for health services. One advantage of integrating health risk assessment and referrals into social service assistance systems such as 2-1-1 is that such systems help callers resolve problems in other areas (e.g., housing). Callers to 2-1-1 in Missouri (N = 1,090) with at least one behavioral…

  18. Health expectancy and the problem of substitute morbidity.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Water, H P

    1997-01-01

    During the past century, the developed world has not only witnessed a dramatic increase in life expectancy (ageing), but also a concomitant rise in chronic disease and disability. Consequently, the tension between 'living longer' on the one hand and health-related 'quality of life' on the other has become an increasingly important health policy problem. The paper deals with two consequences of this so-called epidemiological transition in population health. The first one concerns the question of how--given the impressive changes--population health can be measured in an adequate and policy relevant present-day fashion. The second one is the so-called phenomenon of 'substitute morbidity and mortality': more and more acute fatal diseases are replaced by non-fatal delayed degenerative diseases like dementia and arthritis. How the phenomenon of substitute morbidity and mortality affects the development of population health is illustrated with the epidemiological transitions, worldwide shifts in the main causes of death, assumptions used in models, adverse consequences of medical technologies and some results from intervention trials. Substitute morbidity and mortality may thwart our disease-specific expectations of interventions and asks for a shift to a 'total population health' perspective when judging potential health gains of interventions. Better understanding of the dynamics that underly the changes in population health is necessary. Implications for data collections are more emphasis on morbidity data and their relation with mortality, more longitudinal studies, stricter requirements for intervention trials and more use of modelling as a tool. A final recommendation is the promotion of integrative measures of population health. For the latter several results are presented suggesting that, although the amount of morbidity and disability is growing with an increasing life expectancy, this is mild unhealthiness in particular. This finding supports the 'dynamic

  19. Problem based learning in mental health nursing: the students' experience.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Carol; Carver, Neil

    2012-04-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) is well established within the field of health-care education for professionals worldwide, although little has been done to explore the experiences of students undertaking a PBL course in mental health nursing. Without firm evidence of the benefits of PBL, educationalists in mental health might be reluctant to view it as an option in curricula design. This U.K. study examined the experiences of pre-registration post-graduate mental health student nurses undertaking a 2-year educational course in which all teaching and assessment followed a PBL philosophy. Focus groups were used throughout the course to elicit in-depth qualitative data that was analysed by applying a constant comparative method. The analysis of the data uncovered the following broad themes: 'moves to autonomy, 'surviving the groups' and 'the impact of PBL'. The findings show that participants had mainly positive experiences and gained a range of study and interpersonal skills central to mental health nursing. Participants described initial anxieties resulting from engagement in PBL. However, they increasingly gained confidence in this approach, exercising increasing control over the PBL process. Despite this increased autonomy, participants continued to value the input of skilled facilitators. A recurring issue centred on the potential for interpersonal conflict within the student group and its impact on their learning. It is suggested that more research is needed examining the use of PBL in mental health nursing. PMID:22313509

  20. Some observations on the communicable diseases as public health problems

    PubMed Central

    Cockburn, W. Chas.; Assaad, F.

    1973-01-01

    Notwithstanding the deficiencies in reporting, an attempt is made in the present study to provide some useful information on the importance of the communicable diseases in the world over the decade 1957-58 to 1967-68. In this period health authorities in the developing countries almost invariably reported communicable diseases as their main public health problems, whereas, in the developed countries, the only communicable diseases still considered as public health problems were tuberculosis, venereal diseases, and hepatitis. In the developing countries nearly half of the principal causes of death were communicable diseases, and in both the developing and developed countries respiratory infections ranked high on the list. Deaths from tuberculosis have come down markedly in the developed countries and to a lesser degree in the developing countries. Infectious diseases of childhood are no longer a problem in the developed countries but are still important in the developing countries. The communicable diseases of importance to the developing countries may be divided into two groups—those requiring long-term development for their solution (e.g., dysentery, typhoid fever, parasitic diseases, and respiratory infections) and those that would respond rapidly to control by such methods as immunization. PMID:4545151

  1. Health Problems Among the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, RP; Banerjee, A; Nikumb, VB

    2013-01-01

    Background: Estimates of health problems of the elderly in developing countries are required from time to time to predict trends in disease burden and plan health care for the elderly. Developing countries have a poor track record of equitable distribution of health care. Marginalized groups living in urban slums and rural villages have poor penetration of health services. Aims: To identify the geriatric health problems in samples drawn from a slum and a village, and also to explore any gender and urban–rural difference morbidity. Subject and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out by house to house survey of all people aged over 60 years in an urban slum and a village in the field practice area of a teaching hospital. The total elderly population in these two areas was 407, with an almost equal representation from urban slum and rural area. Information (most of them self-reported) was collected in a pre-tested instrument, which has been used earlier in a World Health Organization multicentric study in India. Categorical variables were summarized by percentages. Associations were explored with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Female elders outnumbered the male elders; widows outnumbered widowers. Tobacco use was very high at 58.97% (240/407). Visual impairment (including uncorrected presbyopia) was the most common handicap with prevalence of 83.29% (339/407), with males more affected than females (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.32-4.87). Uncorrected hearing impairment was also common. Urinary complaints were also more common in males (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 0.93-3.04). More rural elders were living alone than their urban counterpart (OR = 2.87, 95% CI 1.23-6.86). History of weight loss was higher in the rural areas, while tendency to obesity was higher in the urban areas. An appreciable number 29.2% (119/407) had unoperated cataract. Prevalence of hypertension was 30.7% (125/407); 12% (49/407) had diabetes; 7.6% (31

  2. Childhood Disadvantage and Health Problems in Middle and Later Life: Early Imprints on Physical Health?

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, we examine the relationship between childhood disadvantage and health problems in adulthood. Using two waves of data from Midlife Development in the United States, we investigate whether childhood disadvantage is associated with adult disadvantage, including fewer social resources, and the effect of lifelong disadvantage on health problems measured at the baseline survey and a 10-year follow-up. Findings reveal that childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse by parents are generally associated with fewer adult social resources and more lifestyle risks. Health problems, in turn, are affected by childhood disadvantage and by lifestyle risks, especially smoking and obesity. Not only was early disadvantage related to health problems at the baseline survey, but childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse also were related to the development of new health problems at the follow-up survey. These findings reveal the imprint of early disadvantage on health decades later and suggest greater attention to resources, even during midlife, can interrupt the chain of risks. PMID:27445413

  3. The impact of sleep on age-related sarcopenia: Possible connections and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Piovezan, Ronaldo D; Abucham, Julio; Dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli; Mello, Marco Tulio; Tufik, Sergio; Poyares, Dalva

    2015-09-01

    Sarcopenia is a geriatric condition that comprises declined skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, leading to the risk of multiple adverse outcomes, including death. Its pathophysiology involves neuroendocrine and inflammatory factors, unfavorable nutritional habits and low physical activity. Sleep may play a role in muscle protein metabolism, although this hypothesis has not been studied extensively. Reductions in duration and quality of sleep and increases in prevalence of circadian rhythm and sleep disorders with age favor proteolysis, modify body composition and increase the risk of insulin resistance, all of which have been associated with sarcopenia. Data on the effects of age-related slow-wave sleep decline, circadian rhythm disruptions and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG), somatotropic axes, and glucose metabolism indicate that sleep disorder interventions may affect muscle loss. Recent research associating OSA with the risk of conditions closely related to the sarcopenia process, such as frailty and sleep quality impairment, indirectly suggest that sleep can influence skeletal muscle decline in the elderly. Several protein synthesis and degradation pathways are mediated by growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), testosterone, cortisol and insulin, which act on the cellular and molecular levels to increase or reestablish muscle fiber, strength and function. Age-related sleep problems potentially interfere intracellularly by inhibiting anabolic hormone cascades and enhancing catabolic pathways in the skeletal muscle. Specific physical exercises combined or not with nutritional recommendations are the current treatment options for sarcopenia. Clinical studies testing exogenous administration of anabolic hormones have not yielded adequate safety profiles. Therapeutic approaches targeting sleep disturbances to normalize circadian rhythms and sleep homeostasis may

  4. Mental health problems in adolescents with cochlear implants: peer problems persist after controlling for additional handicaps

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Maria; Burger, Thorsten; Illg, Angelika; Kunze, Silke; Giourgas, Alexandros; Braun, Ludwig; Kröger, Stefanie; Nickisch, Andreas; Rasp, Gerhard; Becker, Andreas; Keilmann, Annerose

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present multi-center study were to investigate the extent of mental health problems in adolescents with a hearing loss and cochlear implants (CIs) in comparison to normal hearing (NH) peers and to investigate possible relations between the extent of mental health problems of young CI users and hearing variables, such as age at implantation, or functional gain of CI. The survey included 140 adolescents with CI (mean age = 14.7, SD = 1.5 years) and 140 NH adolescents (mean age = 14.8, SD = 1.4 years), their parents and teachers. Participants were matched by age, gender and social background. Within the CI group, 35 adolescents were identified as “risk cases” due to possible and manifest additional handicaps, and 11 adolescents were non-classifiable. Mental health problems were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the versions “Self,” “Parent,” and “Teacher.” The CI group showed significantly more “Peer Problems” than the NH group. When the CI group was split into a “risk-group” (35 “risk cases” and 11 non-classifiable persons) and a “non-risk group” (n = 94), increased peer problems were perceived in both CI subgroups by adolescents themselves. However, no further differences between the CI non-risk group and the NH group were observed in any rater. The CI risk-group showed significantly more hyperactivity compared to the NH group and more hyperactivity and conduct problems compared to the CI non-risk group. Cluster analyses confirmed that there were significantly more adolescents with high problems in the CI risk-group compared to the CI non-risk group and the NH group. Adolescents with CI, who were able to understand speech in noise had significantly less difficulties compared to constricted CI users. Parents, teachers, and clinicians should be aware that CI users with additionally special needs may have mental health problems. However, peer problems were also experienced by CI

  5. The relevance of aging-related changes in brain function to rehabilitation in aging-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Crosson, Bruce; McGregor, Keith M.; Nocera, Joe R.; Drucker, Jonathan H.; Tran, Stella M.; Butler, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging on rehabilitation of aging-related diseases are rarely a design consideration in rehabilitation research. In this brief review we present strong coincidental evidence from these two fields suggesting that deficits in aging-related disease or injury are compounded by the interaction between aging-related brain changes and disease-related brain changes. Specifically, we hypothesize that some aphasia, motor, and neglect treatments using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in stroke patients may address the aging side of this interaction. The importance of testing this hypothesis and addressing the larger aging by aging-related disease interaction is discussed. Underlying mechanisms in aging that most likely are relevant to rehabilitation of aging-related diseases also are covered. PMID:26074807

  6. Modifiable risk factors for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Guymer, Robyn H; Chong, Elaine Wei-Tinn

    2006-05-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in Australia and other Western countries. As there is no cure for AMD, and treatments to stop its progression have met with limited success, there is an interest in identifying modifiable risk factors to prevent or slow disease progression. To date, smoking is the only proven modifiable risk factor for AMD. Other factors under study include (i) cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, body mass index, and atherosclerosis; and (ii) dietary risk factors including fat and antioxidant intake, but so far these studies have produced conflicting results. Dietary fat in relation to AMD has recently attracted media attention. Despite very limited work supporting an association between vegetable fat and AMD, widespread publicity advocating margarine as a cause of AMD and encouraging use of butter instead has caused confusion and anxiety among sufferers of AMD and the general public, as well as concern among health professionals. The antioxidant carotenoids--lutein and zeaxanthin--found in dark green or yellow vegetables exist in high concentrations in the macula and are hypothesised to play a protective role. Of nine controlled trials of supplementation with carotenoids and other antioxidants, three suggested that various combinations of antioxidants and carotenoids were protective. While a low-fat diet rich in dark green and yellow vegetables is advocated in general, any specific recommendations regarding certain fats or antioxidant supplementation and AMD are not based on consistent findings at this stage. PMID:16646746

  7. Problem Gambling Among Ontario Students: Associations with Substance Abuse, Mental Health Problems, Suicide Attempts, and Delinquent Behaviours.

    PubMed

    Cook, Steven; Turner, Nigel E; Ballon, Bruce; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Murray, Robert; Adlaf, Edward M; Ilie, Gabriela; den Dunnen, Wendy; Mann, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes gambling problems among Ontario students in 2009 and examines the relationship between gambling problems and substance use problems, mental health problem indicators, and delinquent behaviors. Data were derived from the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12. Gambling problems were measured as 2 or more of 6 indicators of problem gambling. In total 2.8% of the students surveyed endorsed two or more of the problem gambling items. The odds of problem gamblers reporting mental distress was 4.2 times higher than the rest of the sample and the odds of problem gamblers reporting a suicide attempt were 17.8 times greater than the rest of the sample. In addition compared to the rest of the students, delinquent behaviors were also more common among problem gamblers, including theft (OR = 14.5), selling marijuana (OR = 19.6), gang fights (OR = 11.3) and carrying a handgun (OR = 11.2). In a multivariate analysis, substance-use problems, mental health problems, and the participation in a variety of delinquent behaviors remained significantly associated with youth problem gambling behavior. Students who report problem gambling behaviors show increased substance abuse, mental health, and delinquency/criminal problems that are similar to those seen among adult problem gamblers. The association between these problems suggests that these problems could be addressed in a unified manner. PMID:24981225

  8. Secondhand smoke exposure and mental health problems in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) and mental health problems among Korean adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey. From the total of 229,226 participants aged 19 years or above, we excluded 48,679 current smokers, 36,612 former smokers, 3,036 participants with a history of stroke, 2,264 participants with a history of myocardial infarction, 14,115 participants who experienced at least one day in bed per month due to disability, and 855 participants for whom information regarding SHSE or mental health problems was not available. The final analysis was performed with 22,818 men and 100,847 women. Participants were classified into four groups according to the duration of SHSE: none, <1 hr/d, 1-<3 hr/d, and ≥3 hr/d. The presence of depressive symptoms, diagnosed depression, and high stress were measured by questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjusting for demographic factors, lifestyle, and chronic disease, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of depressive symptoms with 1-<3 hr/d and ≥3 hr/d SHSE were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.82) and 1.59 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.74), respectively. However, SHSE ≥3 hr/d had a higher OR of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.58) for diagnosed depression. SHSE was also associated with high stress (1-<3 hr/d: OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.76; ≥3 hr/d: OR, 1.33 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.40). However, the association between SHSE and symptoms of depression and stress did not differ significantly by region. CONCLUSIONS: SHSE may be associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress in Korean adults. PMID:26988086

  9. [Obesity--a public health problem and challenge].

    PubMed

    Medanić, Darija; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a major health problem today that grows into a global epidemic. According to the World Health Organization report, 1.5 billion adults were overweight, over 500 million of them were obese, and the prevalence of obesity is expected to rise in the years to come. A similar situation is recorded in Croatia, where there are 25.3% of obese men and 34.1% of obese women. There are multiple factors that cause obesity. Accelerated lifestyle, fast food, unhealthy eating habits and sedentary lifestyle are considered as the major risk factors of overweight and obesity development. Accumulation of fat tissue, especially visceral fat tissue has been demonstrated to be associated with some chronic changes and diseases of different organ systems. Some anthropometric measurements, especially body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, have been used to diagnose obesity and estimate the health risk. Developing well-structured prevention programs that would encourage people to become aware of obesity as a disease and that imbalanced dietary habits and physical activity are important for obesity prevention and health, is a major public health challenge. PMID:23814963

  10. Shift Work and Health: Current Problems and Preventive Actions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the problems to be tackled nowadays by occupational health with regards to shift work as well as the main guidelines at organizational and medical levels on how to protect workers' health and well-being. Working time organization is becoming a key factor on account of new technologies, market globalization, economic competition, and extension of social services to general populations, all of which involve more and more people in continuous assistance and control of work processes over the 24 hours in a day. The large increase of epidemiological and clinical studies on this issue document the severity of this risk factor on human health and well being, at both social and psychophysical levels, starting from a disruption of biological circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycle and ending in several psychosomatic troubles and disorders, likely also including cancer, and extending to impairment of performance efficiency as well as family and social life. Appropriate interventions on the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria and careful health surveillance and social support for shift workers are important preventive and corrective measures that allow people to keep working without significant health impairment. PMID:22953171

  11. Shift work and health: current problems and preventive actions.

    PubMed

    Costa, Giovanni

    2010-12-01

    The paper gives an overview of the problems to be tackled nowadays by occupational health with regards to shift work as well as the main guidelines at organizational and medical levels on how to protect workers' health and well-being. Working time organization is becoming a key factor on account of new technologies, market globalization, economic competition, and extension of social services to general populations, all of which involve more and more people in continuous assistance and control of work processes over the 24 hours in a day. The large increase of epidemiological and clinical studies on this issue document the severity of this risk factor on human health and well being, at both social and psychophysical levels, starting from a disruption of biological circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycle and ending in several psychosomatic troubles and disorders, likely also including cancer, and extending to impairment of performance efficiency as well as family and social life. Appropriate interventions on the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria and careful health surveillance and social support for shift workers are important preventive and corrective measures that allow people to keep working without significant health impairment. PMID:22953171

  12. A Qualitative Analysis of Reading Rehabilitation of Persons with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feely, Mary; Vetere, Arlene; Myers, Lynn B.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most prevalent visual impairments of people aged 60 and older is age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which ranks third globally as a cause of visual impairment (World Health Organization, 2006). The purpose of this study was to conduct a tentative subjective assessment of eccentric viewing by persons with AMD. The authors recruited…

  13. Fruits, Nuts, and Brain Aging: Nutritional Interventions Targeting Age-Related Neuronal and Behavioral Deficits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By the year 2050, 30% of the total population of the US will be over 65 years of age. As the aged population expands, the economic burden of care and treatment of those with age-related health disorders also increases, necessitating the immediate implementation of therapeutics to prevent or even rev...

  14. Nutritional interventions protect against age-related deficits in behavior: from animals to humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on motor and cognitive tasks. Similar changes in behavior occur in humans with age, and the development of methods to retard or reverse these age-related neuronal and behavioral deficits could increase healthy aging and decrease health care costs. In the present s...

  15. Guidelines for the Evaluation of Dementia and Age-Related Cognitive Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Dementia in its many forms is a leading cause of functional limitation among older adults worldwide and will continue to ascend in global health importance as populations continue to age and effective cures remain elusive. The following guidelines were developed for psychologists who perform evaluations of dementia and age-related cognitive…

  16. INVESTIGATIONS INTO AGE-RELATED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ARSENIC CARCONOGENICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Issue. Arsenic compounds are ubiquitous throughout the environment and are a major health problem in many parts of the world. Human exposure to arsenic has been identified from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Most chronic exposure comes from drinking water, ...

  17. Environmental lead exposure: a public health problem of global dimensions.

    PubMed Central

    Tong, S.; von Schirnding, Y. E.; Prapamontol, T.

    2000-01-01

    Lead is the most abundant of the heavy metals in the Earth's crust. It has been used since prehistoric times, and has become widely distributed and mobilized in the environment. Exposure to and uptake of this non-essential element have consequently increased. Both occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a serious problem in many developing and industrializing countries, as well as in some developed countries. In most developed countries, however, introduction of lead into the human environment has decreased in recent years, largely due to public health campaigns and a decline in its commercial usage, particularly in petrol. Acute lead poisoning has become rare in such countries, but chronic exposure to low levels of the metal is still a public health issue, especially among some minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. In developing countries, awareness of the public health impact of exposure to lead is growing but relatively few of these countries have introduced policies and regulations for significantly combating the problem. This article reviews the nature and importance of environmental exposure to lead in developing and developed countries, outlining past actions, and indicating requirements for future policy responses and interventions. PMID:11019456

  18. Tackling 'wicked' health promotion problems: a New Zealand case study.

    PubMed

    Signal, Louise N; Walton, Mat D; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph; Bowers, Sharron G; Carter, Kristie N; Gorton, Delvina; Heta, Craig; Lanumata, Tolotea S; McKerchar, Christina W; O'Dea, Des; Pearce, Jamie

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on a complex environmental approach to addressing 'wicked' health promotion problems devised to inform policy for enhancing food security and physical activity among Māori, Pacific and low-income people in New Zealand. This multi-phase research utilized literature reviews, focus groups, stakeholder workshops and key informant interviews. Participants included members of affected communities, policy-makers and academics. Results suggest that food security and physical activity 'emerge' from complex systems. Key areas for intervention include availability of money within households; the cost of food; improvements in urban design and culturally specific physical activity programmes. Seventeen prioritized intervention areas were explored in-depth and recommendations for action identified. These include healthy food subsidies, increasing the statutory minimum wage rate and enhancing open space and connectivity in communities. This approach has moved away from seeking individual solutions to complex social problems. In doing so, it has enabled the mapping of the relevant systems and the identification of a range of interventions while taking account of the views of affected communities and the concerns of policy-makers. The complex environmental approach used in this research provides a method to identify how to intervene in complex systems that may be relevant to other 'wicked' health promotion problems. PMID:22419621

  19. Stigma as a barrier to seeking health care among military personnel with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Marie-Louise; Fear, Nicola T; Rona, Roberto J; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil; Jones, Norman; Goodwin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 60% of military personnel who experience mental health problems do not seek help, yet many of them could benefit from professional treatment. Across military studies, one of the most frequently reported barriers to help-seeking for mental health problems is concerns about stigma. It is, however, less clear how stigma influences mental health service utilization. This review will synthesize existing research on stigma, focusing on those in the military with mental health problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies between 2001 and 2014 to examine the prevalence of stigma for seeking help for a mental health problem and its association with help-seeking intentions/mental health service utilization. Twenty papers met the search criteria. Weighted prevalence estimates for the 2 most endorsed stigma concerns were 44.2% (95% confidence interval: 37.1, 51.4) for "My unit leadership might treat me differently" and 42.9% (95% confidence interval: 36.8, 49.0) for "I would be seen as weak." Nine studies found no association between anticipated stigma and help-seeking intentions/mental health service use and 4 studies found a positive association. One study found a negative association between self-stigma and intentions to seek help. Counterintuitively, those that endorsed high anticipated stigma still utilized mental health services or were interested in seeking help. We propose that these findings may be related to intention-behavior gaps or methodological issues in the measurement of stigma. Positive associations may be influenced by modified labeling theory. Additionally, other factors such as self-stigma and negative attitudes toward mental health care may be worth further attention in future investigation. PMID:25595168

  20. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Adolescent Offenders with Mental Health Problems in Custody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Paul; Smedley, Kirsty; Kenning, Cassandra; McKee, Amy; Woods, Debbie; Rennie, Charlotte E.; Bell, Rachel V.; Aryamanesh, Mitra; Dolan, Mairead

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have identified high levels of mental health problems among adolescents in custody and there is increasing evidence that mental health problems in this population are associated with further offending and mental health problems into adulthood. Despite recent improvements in mental health provision within custodial settings there is…

  1. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... project sponsored by the NIH's National Institute on Aging (NIA) to learn more about the effects of ...

  2. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer ... learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. This ...

  3. Perceived Risk of Mental Health Problems in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Paúl, Constança; Teixeira, Laetitia; Azevedo, Maria João; Alves, Sara; Duarte, Mafalda; O’Caoimh, Rónán; Molloy, William

    2015-01-01

    In the face of limited resources and an aging population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalization, hospitalization and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care (PC). We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders) from 1 (mild) to 3 (severe). The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (SD = 7.3) and 2645 (58.8%) were female. According to the PC team 1616 (35.9%) were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4%) were mild, 559 (34.6%) were moderate and 210 (13%) were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.83–2.69 for institutionalization; OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.41–1.94 for hospitalization; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.42–2.01 for death). These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes. PMID:26635600

  4. Electronic media, violence, and adolescents: an emerging public health problem.

    PubMed

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Hertz, Marci Feldman

    2007-12-01

    Adolescents' access to and use of new media technology (e.g., cell phone, personal data assistant, computer for Internet access) are on the rise, and this explosion of technology brings with it potential benefits and risks. Attention is growing about the risk of adolescents to become victims of aggression perpetrated by peers with new technology. In September 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a panel of experts in technology and youth aggression to examine this specific risk. This special issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health presents the data and recommendations for future directions discussed at the meeting. The articles in the Journal support the argument that electronic aggression is an emerging public health problem in need of additional prevalence and etiological research to support the development and evaluation of effective prevention programs. PMID:18047940

  5. Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists. PMID:22011425

  6. [Bacillus subtilis a legislative health problem in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kozajda, Anna; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to discuss the problems related to the classification of B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis bacteria to the 2nd risk group under the 2005 decree of the Ministry of Health on hazardous biological agents (Law Gazette No. 81, item 716 with later amendments). The decree is a Polish implementation of the Directive 2000/54/EC generally consistent with its recommendations, but in the case of certain microorganisms a separate decision has been taken and having in mind the health of workers, changes in the list of hazardous agents existing in Poland have been made. The paper presents in detail the legal situation in this field, as well as current knowledge about the biology of these microorganisms, their use in the biotechnology industry and related production of allergenic proteins, and their effect on the human health. Placement ofB. subtilis and B. thuringiensis in the 2nd risk group resulted in the interpretative difficulties encountered by employers who use products containing these bacteria, institutions involved in such products trade and inspectorates supervising working conditions. Based on the literature review it is suggested to initiate actions leading to the development of hygiene norms for certain enzymes/bioinsecticides present in the air, the more that the tests to assess air concentrations of some of them are available. This solution would permit to remove B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis bacteria from the 2nd risk group without the risk for the care of workers' health. PMID:22774467

  7. Age-related changes in the misinformation effect.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, R; Hayne, H

    2001-08-01

    In these experiments, we examined the relation between age-related changes in retention and age-related changes in the misinformation effect. Children (5- and 6- and 11- and 12-year-olds) and adults viewed a video, and their memory was assessed immediately, 1 day, or 6 weeks later (Experiment 1). There were large age-related differences in retention when participants were interviewed immediately and after 1 day, but after the 6-week delay, age-related differences in retention were minimal. In Experiment 2, 11- and 12-year-olds and adults were exposed to neutral, leading, and misleading postevent information 1 day or 6 weeks after they viewed the video. Exposure to misleading information increased the number of commission errors, particularly when participants were asked about peripheral aspects of the video. At both retention intervals, children were more likely than adults to incorporate the misleading postevent information into their subsequent verbal accounts. These findings indicate that age-related changes in the misinformation effect are not predicted by age-related changes in retention. PMID:11511130

  8. Firearm violence in america: a growing health problem.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Stephanie; Richmond, Therese S

    2006-09-01

    Firearm injury is a disease that afflicts many individuals in the United States, either directly or indirectly. Trauma and critical care nurses have direct experience with this life-threatening disease and recognize the high lethality. The magnitude of this health problem requires a focus on primary prevention. We recognize that any focus on firearm injury is often contentious and political; however, nurses bring a ready-made credibility and focus on evidence-based practice to the prevention of this disease. PMID:16962451

  9. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays*

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries - particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  10. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  11. Problems of Parliamentary accountability in Jamaica: consequences for health administration.

    PubMed

    Moncrieffe, J M

    2001-01-01

    The effective parliamentary democracy implements the policies, programmes, procedures and processes that encourage optimal constituency service, effective departmental performance, thoroughly considered and well-formulated government policies, public responsiveness and accountability. This paper uses a case study of health administration to highlight some of the problems presented in seeking to establish parliamentary accountability in Jamaica. It argues that the ineffectiveness and lack of accountability in and of Parliament have flourished in a context of poor economic growth and deep political and social divides. Accountability requires more than ad-hoc institutional interventions; it depends on social and political change. PMID:20027707

  12. Age-related deficit accumulation and the risk of late-life dementia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many age-related health problems have been associated with dementia, leading to the hypothesis that late-life dementia may be determined less by specific risk factors, and more by the operation of multiple health deficits in the aggregate. Our study addressed (a) how the predictive value of dementia risk varies by the number of deficits considered and (b) how traditional (for example. vascular risks) and nontraditional risk factors (for example, foot problems, nasal congestion) compare in their predictive effects. Methods Older adults in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging who were cognitively healthy at baseline were analyzed (men, 2,902; women, 4,337). Over a 10-year period, 44.8% of men and 33.4% of women died; 7.4% of men and 9.1% of women without baseline cognitive impairment developed dementia. Self-rated health problems, including, but not restricted to, dementia risk factors, were coded as deficit present/absent. Different numbers of randomly selected variables were used to calculate various iterations of the index (that is, the proportion of deficits present in an individual. Risks for 10-year mortality and dementia outcomes were evaluated separately for men and women by using logistic regression, adjusted for age. The prediction accuracy was evaluated by using C-statistics. Results Age-adjusted odds ratios per additional deficit were 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18 to 1.26) in men and 1.14 (1.11 to 1.16) in women in relation to death, and 1.18 (1.12 to 1.25) in men and 1.08 (1.04 to 1.11) in women in relation to dementia. The predictive value increased with the number (n) of deficits considered, regardless of whether they were known dementia risks, and stabilized at n > 25. The all-factor index best predicted dementia (C-statistics, 0.67 ± 0.03). Conclusions The variety of items associated with dementias suggests that some part of the risk might relate more to aberrant repair processes, than to specifically toxic results

  13. The promotion of mental health and the prevention of mental health problems in child and adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sun Mi

    2013-01-01

    Improving mental health and reducing the burden of mental illness are complementary strategies which, along with the treatment and rehabilitation of people with mental disorders, significantly improve population health and well-being. A Institute of Medicine report describes a range of interventions for mental disorders that included treatment and maintenance, reserving the term "prevention" for efforts that occur before onset of a diagnosable disorder. Mental health problems affect 10-20% of children and adolescents worldwide. Despite their relevance as a leading cause of health-related disability and their long lasting consequences, the mental health needs of children and adolescents are neglected. Early intervention can help reduce the significant impacts that children and adolescents with serious mental health problems may experience. Screening is the first step in early intervention, recognizing emotional and behavioral problems and providing help at an early stage. It is essential to implement early intervention in a sensitive and ethical manner to avoid any of the negative outcomes. PMID:24348657

  14. Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem?

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Cristina; Gonzalez, Lilliana

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide in all age groups, even in those residing in countries with low latitude, where it was generally assumed that UV radiation was adequate enough to prevent this deficiency, and in industrialized countries, where vitamin D fortification has been implemented now for years. However, most countries are still lacking data, particularly population representative data, with very limited information in infants, children, adolescents and pregnant women. Since the number of recent publications is escalating, with a broadening of the geographic diversity, the objective of the present report was to conduct a more recent systematic review of global vitamin D status, with particular emphasis in at risk groups. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed/Medline in April-June 2013 to identify articles on vitamin D status worldwide published in the last 10 years in apparently healthy individuals. Only studies with vitamin D status prevalence were included. If available, the first source selected was population-based or representative samples studies. Clinical trials, case-control studies, case reports or series, reviews, validation studies, letters, editorials, or qualitative studies were excluded. A total of 103 articles were eligible and included in the present report. Maps were created for each age group, providing an updated overview of global vitamin D status. In areas with available data, the prevalence of low vitamin D status is a global problem in all age groups, in particular in girls and women from the Middle East. These maps also evidenced the regions with missing data for each specific population groups. There is striking lack of data in infants, children and adolescents worldwide, and in most countries of South America and Africa. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem in all age groups, particularly in those from the Middle East. PMID:24239505

  15. [Sickness - disease - illness - health: Problems of global definitions and consequences].

    PubMed

    Schroeder-Kurth, Traute Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Globalization on the one side is highly wellcome as simplifying trade, communication or tourism. On the other side globalization seems to uniform cultural values, which causes anxieties and outrage in many countries. Since decades "western" medical knowledge is being transferred into the Third World. This paper begins with the problem of a worldwide understanding of terms like sickness, disease, illness and health. Results gained from investigations in the field of Medical Anthropology emphasize the importance to integrate any cultural values and symbols of the target population. Examples given to demonstrate difficulties and requirements for any transfer of western medicine into those countries. A close view into the health systems, concepts of health and disease, coping and treatment in England, France, Germany and the USA shows considerable divergences. "Western" medicine is not based on an uniform conception, but is modulated by traditional values of the nations. Any attempt to globalize "western" medicine must respect and integrate the inherited thinking pattern and medical system of a population in order to benefit the people. PMID:15641206

  16. [Chronic renal insufficiency. A permanent public health problem].

    PubMed

    Legrain, M; Jacobs, C

    1999-01-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency raises an ever-increasing public-health problem due to its permanent growth among the general population and the escalating cost of renal replacement therapies. By the end of 1995 there were close to 33,700 patients with end-stage renal failure maintained alive with renal replacement methods in France. About 11,200 had a functioning kidney graft, whereas 22,500 were treated with various dialysis techniques, in and out-of-center hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. An optimal health policy should contribute both to prevent renal insufficiency and offer each patient his/her best specific mode of treatment at the lowest cost for the community. Renal transplantation should be much more widely promoted and utilized through measures aiming at reducing the too high refusal rates of organ donation in subjects with brain-death. Promotion and extension of out-of-center dialysis techniques are also necessary. Design of reliable epidemiological studies dealing not only with end-stage renal failure patients but with the early stage and time-course of renal insufficiency is also mandatory. A deeper investigation in the area of renal-risk factors and a qualified follow-up of patients with mild/moderate renal insufficiency are essential to avoid or delay an evolution towards end-stage renal failure. Prevention of renal fibrosis has a central role in such a long-term public health-policy. PMID:10371761

  17. Can DRYAD explain age-related associative memory deficits?

    PubMed

    Smyth, Andrea C; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2016-02-01

    A recent interesting theoretical account of aging and memory judgments, the DRYAD (density of representations yields age-related deficits; Benjamin, 2010; Benjamin, Diaz, Matzen, & Johnson, 2012), attributes the extensive findings of disproportional age-related deficits in memory for source, context, and associations, to a global decline in memory fidelity. It is suggested that this global deficit, possibly due to a decline in attentional processes, is moderated by weak representation of contextual information to result in disproportional age-related declines. In the current article, we evaluate the DRYAD model, comparing it to specific age-related deficits theories, in particular, the ADH (associative deficit hypothesis, Naveh-Benjamin, 2000). We question some of the main assumptions/hypotheses of DRYAD in light of data reported in the literature, and we directly assess the role of attention in age-related deficits by manipulations of divided attention and of the instructions regarding what to pay attention to in 2 experiments (one from the literature and a new one). The results of these experiments fit the predictions of the ADH and do not support the main assumption/hypotheses of DRYAD. PMID:25961878

  18. Review: Axon pathology in age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Adalbert, R; Coleman, M P

    2013-02-01

    'Dying back' axon degeneration is a prominent feature of many age-related neurodegenerative disorders and is widespread in normal ageing. Although the mechanisms of disease- and age-related losses may differ, both contribute to symptoms. Here, we review recent advances in understanding axon pathology in age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and glaucoma. In particular, we highlight the importance of axonal transport, autophagy, traumatic brain injury and mitochondrial quality control. We then place these disease mechanisms in the context of changes to axons and dendrites that occur during normal ageing. We discuss what makes ageing such an important risk factor for many neurodegenerative disorders and conclude that the processes of normal ageing and disease combine at the molecular, cellular or systems levels in a range of disorders to produce symptoms. Pathology identical to disease also occurs at the cellular level in most elderly individuals. Thus, normal ageing and age-related disease are inextricably linked and the term 'healthy ageing' downplays the important contributions of cellular pathology. For a full understanding of normal ageing or age-related disease we must study both processes. PMID:23046254

  19. Parainflammation, chronic inflammation, and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei; Xu, Heping

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The retina is considered an immune-privileged tissue as a result of its unique anatomic and physiologic properties. During aging, the retina suffers from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age. As a result, the retinal innate-immune system, particularly microglia and the complement system, undergoes low levels of activation (parainflammation). In many cases, this parainflammatory response can maintain homeostasis in the healthy aging eye. However, in patients with age-related macular degeneration, this parainflammatory response becomes dysregulated and contributes to macular damage. Factors contributing to the dysregulation of age-related retinal parainflammation include genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors, and old age. Dysregulated parainflammation (chronic inflammation) in age-related macular degeneration damages the blood retina barrier, resulting in the breach of retinal-immune privilege, leading to the development of retinal lesions. This review discusses the basic principles of retinal innate-immune responses to endogenous chronic insults in normal aging and in age-related macular degeneration and explores the difference between beneficial parainflammation and the detrimental chronic inflammation in the context of age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26292978

  20. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ho Sik; Lee, Seung Bum; Jee, Donghyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between blood lead levels and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study included 4,933 subjects aged over 40 years who participated in the 2008–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and for whom fundus photographs were available. All participants underwent a standardized interview, evaluation of blood lead concentration, and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Digital fundus photographs (45°) were taken of both eyes under physiological mydriasis. All fundus photographs were graded using an international classification and grading system. Results Mean blood lead levels were 3.15 μg/dL in men and 2.27 μg/dL in women (P < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders including age, gender, smoking status, total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, heart problems and strokes, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) in women for any AMD was 1.86 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.03–3.36) and for early AMD was 1.92 (95% CI, 1.06–3.48), for those in the highest quintile of lead level compared with the lowest quintile. In men, however, blood lead level was not significantly associated with AMD. Conclusions Blood lead levels were higher in men, but were only associated with AMD in women. Increased levels of blood lead may be involved in the pathogenesis of AMD development in women. PMID:26252225

  1. Prevention of Age-Related Cognitive Decline: Which Strategies, When, and for Whom?

    PubMed

    Shatenstein, Bryna; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Brain aging is characterized by the progressive and gradual accumulation of detrimental changes in structure and function, which increase risk of age-related cognitive decline and dementia. This devastating chronic condition generates a huge social and economic burden and accounts for 11.2% of years of disability. The increase in lifespan has contributed to the increase in dementia prevalence; however, there is currently no curative treatment for most causes of dementias. This paper reviews evidence-based strategies to build, enhance, and preserve cognition over the lifespan by examining approaches that work best, proposing when in the life course they should be implemented, and in which population group(s). Recent work shows a tendency to decreased age-specific prevalence and incidence of cognitive problems and dementia among people born later in the first half of the 20th century, citing higher educational levels, improvements in lifestyle, and better handling of vascular risk factors. This implies that we can target modifiable environmental, lifestyle, and health risk factors to modify the trajectory of cognitive decline before the onset of irreversible dementia. Because building cognitive reserve and prevention of cognitive decline are of critical importance, interventions are needed at every stage of the life course to foster cognitive stimulation, and enable healthy eating habits and physical activity throughout the lifespan. Preventive interventions to decrease and delay cognitive decline and its consequences in old age will also require collaboration and action on the part of policy-makers at the political and social level. PMID:26401926

  2. Age-related changes of adaptive and neuropsychological features in persons with Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ghezzo, Alessandro; Salvioli, Stefano; Solimando, Maria Caterina; Palmieri, Alice; Chiostergi, Chiara; Scurti, Maria; Lomartire, Laura; Bedetti, Federica; Cocchi, Guido; Follo, Daniela; Pipitone, Emanuela; Rovatti, Paolo; Zamberletti, Jessica; Gomiero, Tiziano; Castellani, Gastone; Franceschi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years), from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the age-related adaptive and neuropsychological features, and to possibly identify early signs predictive of cognitive decline. The main finding of this study is that both neuropsychological functions and adaptive skills are lower in adult DS persons over 40 years old, compared to younger ones. In particular, language and short memory skills, frontal lobe functions, visuo-spatial abilities and adaptive behaviour appear to be the more affected domains. A growing deficit in verbal comprehension, along with social isolation, loss of interest and greater fatigue in daily tasks, are the main features found in older, non demented DS persons evaluated in our study. It is proposed that these signs can be alarm bells for incipient dementia, and that neuro-cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-pharmacological interventions must start as soon as the fourth decade (or even earlier) in DS persons, i.e. at an age where interventions can have the greatest efficacy. PMID:25419980

  3. Age-Related Changes of Adaptive and Neuropsychological Features in Persons with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzo, Alessandro; Salvioli, Stefano; Solimando, Maria Caterina; Palmieri, Alice; Chiostergi, Chiara; Scurti, Maria; Lomartire, Laura; Bedetti, Federica; Cocchi, Guido; Follo, Daniela; Pipitone, Emanuela; Rovatti, Paolo; Zamberletti, Jessica; Gomiero, Tiziano; Castellani, Gastone; Franceschi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years), from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the age-related adaptive and neuropsychological features, and to possibly identify early signs predictive of cognitive decline. The main finding of this study is that both neuropsychological functions and adaptive skills are lower in adult DS persons over 40 years old, compared to younger ones. In particular, language and short memory skills, frontal lobe functions, visuo-spatial abilities and adaptive behaviour appear to be the more affected domains. A growing deficit in verbal comprehension, along with social isolation, loss of interest and greater fatigue in daily tasks, are the main features found in older, non demented DS persons evaluated in our study. It is proposed that these signs can be alarm bells for incipient dementia, and that neuro-cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-pharmacological interventions must start as soon as the fourth decade (or even earlier) in DS persons, i.e. at an age where interventions can have the greatest efficacy. PMID:25419980

  4. Quantifying Age-Related Differences in Information Processing Behaviors When Viewing Prescription Drug Labels

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Raghav Prashant; Becker, Mark W.; Bello, Nora M.; Bix, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a significant problem in health care. While effective warnings have the potential to reduce the prevalence of ADEs, little is known about how patients access and use prescription labeling. We investigated the effectiveness of prescription warning labels (PWLs, small, colorful stickers applied at the pharmacy) in conveying warning information to two groups of patients (young adults and those 50+). We evaluated the early stages of information processing by tracking eye movements while participants interacted with prescription vials that had PWLs affixed to them. We later tested participants’ recognition memory for the PWLs. During viewing, participants often failed to attend to the PWLs; this effect was more pronounced for older than younger participants. Older participants also performed worse on the subsequent memory test. However, when memory performance was conditionalized on whether or not the participant had fixated the PWL, these age-related differences in memory were no longer significant, suggesting that the difference in memory performance between groups was attributable to differences in attention rather than differences in memory encoding or recall. This is important because older adults are recognized to be at greater risk for ADEs. These data provide a compelling case that understanding consumers’ attentive behavior is crucial to developing an effective labeling standard for prescription drugs. PMID:22719955

  5. Pathophysiology of ageing, longevity and age related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bürkle, Alexander; Caselli, Graziella; Franceschi, Claudio; Mariani, Erminia; Sansoni, Paolo; Santoni, Angela; Vecchio, Giancarlo; Witkowski, Jacek M; Caruso, Calogero

    2007-01-01

    On April 18, 2007 an international meeting on Pathophysiology of Ageing, Longevity and Age-Related Diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. Several interesting topics on Cancer, Immunosenescence, Age-related inflammatory diseases and longevity were discussed. In this report we summarize the most important issues. However, ageing must be considered an unavoidable end point of the life history of each individual, nevertheless the increasing knowledge on ageing mechanisms, allows envisaging many different strategies to cope with, and delay it. So, a better understanding of pathophysiology of ageing and age-related disease is essential for giving everybody a reasonable chance for living a long and enjoyable final part of the life. PMID:17683521

  6. Mental Health Problems in Children and Young People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    We all have mental health. Mental health relates to how we think, feel, behave and interact with other people. At its simplest, good mental health is the absence of a mental disorder or mental health problem. Adults, children and young people with good mental health are likely to have high levels of mental wellbeing. The World Health Organisation…

  7. Dizziness and Imbalance in the Elderly: Age-related Decline in the Vestibular System.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-02-01

    Dizziness and imbalance are amongst the most common complaints in older people, and are a growing public health concern since they put older people at a significantly higher risk of falling. Although the causes of dizziness in older people are multifactorial, peripheral vestibular dysfunction is one of the most frequent causes. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most frequent form of vestibular dysfunction in the elderly, followed by Meniere's disease. Every factor associated with the maintenance of postural stability deteriorates during aging. Age-related deterioration of peripheral vestibular function has been demonstrated through quantitative measurements of the vestibulo-ocular reflex with rotational testing and of the vestibulo-collic reflex with testing of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Age-related decline of vestibular function has been shown to correlate with the age-related decrease in the number of vestibular hair cells and neurons. The mechanism of age-related cellular loss in the vestibular endorgan is unclear, but it is thought that genetic predisposition and cumulative effect of oxidative stress may both play an important role. Since the causes of dizziness in older people are multi-factorial, management of this disease should be customized according to the etiologies of each individual. Vestibular rehabilitation is found to be effective in treating both unilateral and bilateral vestibular dysfunction. Various prosthetic devices have also been developed to improve postural balance in older people. Although there have been no medical treatments improving age-related vestibular dysfunction, new medical treatments such as mitochondrial antioxidants or caloric restriction, which have been effective in preventing age-related hearing loss, should be ienvestigated in the future. PMID:25657851

  8. Dizziness and Imbalance in the Elderly: Age-related Decline in the Vestibular System

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Dizziness and imbalance are amongst the most common complaints in older people, and are a growing public health concern since they put older people at a significantly higher risk of falling. Although the causes of dizziness in older people are multifactorial, peripheral vestibular dysfunction is one of the most frequent causes. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most frequent form of vestibular dysfunction in the elderly, followed by Meniere’s disease. Every factor associated with the maintenance of postural stability deteriorates during aging. Age-related deterioration of peripheral vestibular function has been demonstrated through quantitative measurements of the vestibulo-ocular reflex with rotational testing and of the vestibulo-collic reflex with testing of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Age-related decline of vestibular function has been shown to correlate with the age-related decrease in the number of vestibular hair cells and neurons. The mechanism of age-related cellular loss in the vestibular endorgan is unclear, but it is thought that genetic predisposition and cumulative effect of oxidative stress may both play an important role. Since the causes of dizziness in older people are multi-factorial, management of this disease should be customized according to the etiologies of each individual. Vestibular rehabilitation is found to be effective in treating both unilateral and bilateral vestibular dysfunction. Various prosthetic devices have also been developed to improve postural balance in older people. Although there have been no medical treatments improving age-related vestibular dysfunction, new medical treatments such as mitochondrial antioxidants or caloric restriction, which have been effective in preventing age-related hearing loss, should be ienvestigated in the future. PMID:25657851

  9. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Risk Factors for Age-Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The

  10. Quantifying risk over the life course - latency, age-related susceptibility, and other time-varying exposure metrics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Molin; Liao, Xiaomei; Laden, Francine; Spiegelman, Donna

    2016-06-15

    Identification of the latency period and age-related susceptibility, if any, is an important aspect of assessing risks of environmental, nutritional, and occupational exposures. We consider estimation and inference for latency and age-related susceptibility in relative risk and excess risk models. We focus on likelihood-based methods for point and interval estimation of the latency period and age-related windows of susceptibility coupled with several commonly considered exposure metrics. The method is illustrated in a study of the timing of the effects of constituents of air pollution on mortality in the Nurses' Health Study. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26750582

  11. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in Latin America. A public health problem?

    PubMed

    Calderón, Enrique J; de Armas, Yaxsier; Panizo, Maria Mercedes; Wissmann, Gustavo

    2013-06-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) is a well-recognized major opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. During the 1980s, the HIV pandemic turned PcP into a major worldwide medical and public health problem. With the introduction of Pneumocystis chemoprophylaxis and the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the treatment of HIV infection, there has been a decrease in PcP incidence in developed countries. However, the prevalence of AIDS-related PcP in developing countries remains high because a lot of people do not have access to ART or ignore their HIV infection status. This article discusses the information available about PcP among Latin American countries where there is a great regional heterogeneity in the prevalence of HIV infection and in ART coverage, as well as in the observed frequencies of PcP that range from 5.9 to 55% in this area. PMID:23750728

  12. [Aedes albopictus in Italy: an underestimated health problem].

    PubMed

    Romi, R

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, Ae. albopictus has spread in 9 regions and 30 provinces of the country. This species was introduced in Italy in shipments of scrap tires form the USA. In Italy, Ae. albopictus is the major biting pest throughout much of its range and, although there is no evidence that this mosquito is the vector of human disease in the country, the species might be involved in the transmission of some arboviruses which have been reported in the Mediterranean Basin. Aim of this paper is to provide an update on the distribution of Ae. albopictus in Italy and to renew the interest in a problem frequently underestimated. Public health implications after a ten-year presence of the species are also discussed. PMID:11758282

  13. Inherited haemoglobin disorders: an increasing global health problem.

    PubMed Central

    Weatherall, D. J.; Clegg, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    Despite major advances in our understanding of the molecular pathology, pathophysiology, and control and management of the inherited disorders of haemoglobin, thousands of infants and children with these diseases are dying through lack of appropriate medical care. This problem will undoubtedly increase over the next 20 years because, as the result of a reduction in childhood mortality due to infection and malnutrition, more babies with haemoglobin disorders will survive to present for treatment. Although WHO and various voluntary agencies have tried to disseminate information about these diseases, they are rarely mentioned as being sufficiently important to be included in setting health care priorities for the future. It takes considerable time to establish expertise in developing programmes for the control and management of these conditions, and the lessons learned in developed countries will need to be transmitted to those countries in which they occur at a high frequency. PMID:11545326

  14. Glutamatergic treatment strategies for age-related memory disorders.

    PubMed

    Müller, W E; Scheuer, K; Stoll, S

    1994-01-01

    Age-related changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have been found in cortical areas and in the hippocampus of many species. On the basis of a variety of experimental observations it has been suggested that the decrease of NMDA receptor density might be one of the causative factors of the cognitive decline with aging. Based on these findings several strategies have been developed to improve cognition by compensating the NMDA receptor deficits in aging. The most promising approaches are the indirect activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission by agonists of the glycine site or the restoration of the age-related deficit of receptor density by several nootropics. PMID:7997073

  15. Delivery strategies for treatment of age-related ocular diseases: From a biological understanding to biomaterial solutions.

    PubMed

    Delplace, Vianney; Payne, Samantha; Shoichet, Molly

    2015-12-10

    Age-related ocular diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, result in life-long functional deficits and enormous global health care costs. As the worldwide population ages, vision loss has become a major concern for both economic and human health reasons. Due to recent research into biomaterials and nanotechnology major advances have been gained in the field of ocular delivery. This review provides a summary and discussion of the most recent strategies employed for the delivery of both drugs and cells to the eye to treat a variety of age-related diseases. It emphasizes the current challenges and limitations to ocular delivery and how the use of innovative materials can overcome these issues and ultimately provide treatment for age-related degeneration and regeneration of lost tissues. This review also provides critical considerations and an outlook for future studies in the field of ophthalmic delivery. PMID:26435454

  16. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  17. Is DDT use a public health problem in Mexico?

    PubMed Central

    López-Carrillo, L; Torres-Arreola, L; Torres-Sánchez, L; Espinosa-Torres, F; Jiménez, C; Cebrián, M; Waliszewski, S; Saldate, O

    1996-01-01

    We review the potential impact of DDT on public health in Mexico. DDT production and consumption patterns in Mexico during the last 20 years are described and compared with those in the United States. In spite of the restrictions on DDT use in antimalaria campaigns in Mexico, use of DDT is still higher than in other Latin American countries. We analyzed information from published studies to determine accumulated levels of this insecticide in blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk samples from Mexican women. Current lipid-adjusted DDE levels from women living in Mexico City are 6.66 ppb in mammary adipose tissue and 0.594 ppm in total breast milk. Finally, the methodological limitations of existing epidemiological studies on DDT exposure and breast cancer are discussed. We conclude that DDT use in Mexico is a public health problem, and suggest two solutions: identification of alternatives for the control of malaria and educational intervention to reduce DDT exposure. We also recommend strengthening epidemiological studies to evaluate the association between accumulated DDT levels in adipose tissue and breast cancer incidence among Mexican women. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8793339

  18. Revelations from a meta database system on environmental health problems.

    PubMed

    Simon, P; Ménesi, L; Fekete, A; Varga, G

    1995-01-01

    workstation modules of experts and research institutions may be linked to the meta database. Information property created as a result of special analysis and annotation might create a knowledge basis for free access by participants. Thus not only would their scientific backgrounds be strengthened, but services would also be provided by the meta database which could be diversified continuously. The satellite systems, the sorting and retrieval functions of the database, and its graphical services would provide a loose but flexible micro-computer system that could be linked together by autonomous or networked workstations. Our system is written on FoxPro and uses FoxGraph. At a medium level of capacity, it requires 1 MB free RAM and 14-16 MB fixed memory. The system already shows a certain specialization: the 'PubHealth' system from general issues of environmental health care leans towards problems related to sub-toxic long term effects and correlations to health insurance risk assessment (cost-benefit, risk-benefit analysis). However, new issues are also emerging when experts wish foremost to utilize the philosophy of the system (e.g., epidemiological mental-hygienic surveys related to life style and social status). PMID:8591279

  19. Port Allegany Asbestos Health Program: a community response to a public health problem.

    PubMed Central

    Holstein, E C; Deuschle, K W; Bosch, S; Fischer, E; Rohl, A N; Selikoff, I J

    1984-01-01

    The Port Allegany Asbestos Health Program (PAAHP) is a unique, community-run program that resulted from the successful cooperative efforts of a labor union, a corporation, community health care providers, and a medical school. PAAHP's goal is to develop a permanent community health organization that will use the most advanced existing knowledge to mitigate the adverse health effects anticipated as a result of the use of amosite asbestos in a Port Allegany, Pa. factory. All 1,188 persons employed by the factory during the years 1964-72 and the 3,000-4,000 persons in household contact with them are eligible for the program. PAAHP's major services are intensive medical surveillance, smoking cessation assistance, health education for participants, and continuing education for area physicians about asbestos-related diseases. One of the program's policies is not to disturb the usual patterns of medical care. If further testing or treatment is needed, patients are referred to their usual personal physicians. PAAHP does not provide ordinary medical care or medical insurance. Across the nation, the number of workers estimated to have been exposed to asbestos is more than 20 million, and their household contacts are estimated to be about three to four times that number. Adverse health effects resulting from asbestos exposure include elevated risk of lung cancer, mesothelioma, gastrointestinal tumors, and asbestosis. The problem requires the development of public health solutions. PAAHP has demonstrated the feasibility of a community-based model as one useful approach. PMID:6424168

  20. Citizen participation and health care: problems of government induced participation.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, M; Lounds, M

    1976-01-01

    In this paper we trace the implications of some common contradictions in government-inspired efforts to increase citizen participation in health care delivery. We cover general problems of generating citizen participation, specific difficulties in community organization resulting when issues of health are the organizing focus, and the benefits that were thought to result from efforts to increase citizen participation in social programs in the 1960's. When programs focused on increased citizen participation were initiated program administrators attempted to maximize citizen involvement quickly by: projecting an image of maximal social impact; minimizing or ignoring questions of long-term fiscal uncertainty; projecting an image of maximal control by citizens; and projecting images of institutional solidarity and of experimentation and innovation. They tended to recruit to the staff social activists taken to be representative of the community (although they might not be), promising opportunities for upward mobility. They also tended to adopt conciliatory administrative styles in keeping with their experimental non-elitist orientations. These tendencies characteristic of the initiation phase of projects conflicted with the demands placed upon programs in later phases of program implementation. These demands resulted from later perceived needs to: evaluate programs; limit spending; counter internal organizational opposition; and respond to sponsors' shifting interests. Paraprofessionals recruited to the staff tended to lose their "community" orientation, and administrative style tended to focus considerably more on program accountability. These shifting program demands substantially account for what otherwise appears to be the failure of efforts to increase citizens' participation in health delivery programs, and, by extension, in other areas where the impetus for increased citizen participation comes from government initiatives. PMID:1022799

  1. The Experience of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Elaine Y. H.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Hassell, Jennifer B.; Keeffe, Jill E.

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative article describes the impact of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) among 15 participants: how a person makes sense of ARMD, the effect of ARMD on the person's quality of life, the psychological disturbances associated with the limitations of ARMD, and the influence of ARMD on social interactions. Such in-depth appreciation of…

  2. Neuroanatomical Substrates of Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    There are many reports of relations between age and cognitive variables and of relations between age and variables representing different aspects of brain structure and a few reports of relations between brain structure variables and cognitive variables. These findings have sometimes led to inferences that the age-related brain changes cause the…

  3. Age-Related Differences in Moral Identity across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Murua, Lourdes Andrea; Jia, Fanli

    2016-01-01

    In this study, age-related differences in adults' moral identity were investigated. Moral identity was conceptualized a context-dependent self-structure that becomes differentiated and (re)integrated in the course of development and that involves a broad range of value-orientations. Based on a cross-sectional sample of 252 participants aged 14 to…

  4. Neuroimaging explanations of age-related differences in task performance

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Barulli, Daniel; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Advancing age affects both cognitive performance and functional brain activity and interpretation of these effects has led to a variety of conceptual research models without always explicitly linking the two effects. However, to best understand the multifaceted effects of advancing age, age differences in functional brain activity need to be explicitly tied to the cognitive task performance. This work hypothesized that age-related differences in task performance are partially explained by age-related differences in functional brain activity and formally tested these causal relationships. Functional MRI data was from groups of young and old adults engaged in an executive task-switching experiment. Analyses were voxel-wise testing of moderated-mediation and simple mediation statistical path models to determine whether age group, brain activity and their interaction explained task performance in regions demonstrating an effect of age group. Results identified brain regions whose age-related differences in functional brain activity significantly explained age-related differences in task performance. In all identified locations, significant moderated-mediation relationships resulted from increasing brain activity predicting worse (slower) task performance in older but not younger adults. Findings suggest that advancing age links task performance to the level of brain activity. The overall message of this work is that in order to understand the role of functional brain activity on cognitive performance, analysis methods should respect theoretical relationships. Namely, that age affects brain activity and brain activity is related to task performance. PMID:24672481

  5. Glycosaminoglycans in the Human Cornea: Age-Related Changes

    PubMed Central

    Pacella, Elena; Pacella, Fernanda; De Paolis, Giulio; Parisella, Francesca Romana; Turchetti, Paolo; Anello, Giulia; Cavallotti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate possible age-related changes in glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the human cornea. The substances today called GAGs were previously referred to as mucopolysaccharides. METHODS Samples of human cornea were taken from 12 younger (age 21 ± 1.2) and 12 older (age 72 ± 1.6) male subjects. Samples were weighed, homogenized, and used for biochemical and molecular analyses. All the quantitative results were statistically analyzed. RESULTS The human cornea appears to undergo age-related changes, as evidenced by our biochemical and molecular results. The total GAG and hyaluronic acid counts were significantly higher in the younger subjects than in the older subjects. The sulfated heavy GAGs, such as chondroitin, dermatan, keratan, and heparan sulfate, were lower in the younger subjects than in the older subjects. DISCUSSION GAGs of the human cornea undergo numerous age-related changes. Their quantity is significantly altered in the elderly in comparison with younger subjects. GAGs play an important role in age-related diseases of the human cornea. PMID:25674020

  6. PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, ameliorates age-related renal injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Nim; Lim, Ji Hee; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Hyung Wook; Park, Cheol Whee; Chang, Yoon Sik; Choi, Bum Soon

    2016-08-01

    The kidney ages quickly compared with other organs. Expression of senescence markers reflects changes in the energy metabolism in the kidney. Two important issues in aging are mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a member of the ligand-activated nuclear receptor superfamily. PPARα plays a major role as a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in various processes. In this study, 18-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups, the control group (n=7) and the fenofibrate-treated group (n=7) was fed the normal chow plus fenofibrate for 6months. The PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, improved renal function, proteinuria, histological change (glomerulosclerosis and tubular interstitial fibrosis), inflammation, and apoptosis in aging mice. This protective effect against age-related renal injury occurred through the activation of AMPK and SIRT1 signaling. The activation of AMPK and SIRT1 allowed for the concurrent deacetylation and phosphorylation of their target molecules and decreased the kidney's susceptibility to age-related changes. Activation of the AMPK-FOXO3a and AMPK-PGC-1α signaling pathways ameliorated oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest that activation of PPARα and AMPK-SIRT1 signaling may have protective effects against age-related renal injury. Pharmacological targeting of PPARα and AMPK-SIRT1 signaling molecules may prevent or attenuate age-related pathological changes in the kidney. PMID:27130813

  7. Age-Related Differences in the Production of Textual Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Andrea; Boewe, Anke; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlomagno, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Narratives produced by 69 healthy Italian adults were analyzed for age-related changes of microlinguistic, macrolinguistic and informative aspects. The participants were divided into five age groups (20-24, 25-39, 40-59, 60-74, 75-84). One single-picture stimulus and two cartoon sequences were used to elicit three stories per subject. Age-related…

  8. APOLIPOPROTEIN E GENE AND EARLY AGE-RELATED MACULOPATHY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene and early age-related maculopathy (ARM) in middle-aged persons. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (n = 10139; age range, 49-73 ye...

  9. Nutritional antioxidants and age-related cataract and maculopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss of vision is the second greatest, next to death, fear among the elderly. Age-related cataract (ARC) and maculopathy (ARM) are two major causes of blindness worldwide. There are several important reasons to study relationships between risk for ARC/ARM and nutrition: (1) because it is likely that...

  10. Nutritional modulation of age-related macular degeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30-50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated wi...

  11. Age-Related Factors in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twyford, Charles William

    The convergence of several lines of psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic research suggests possible explanations for age-related influences on language acquisition. These factors, which include cognitive development, sociocultural context, affective factors, and language input, can be helpful to language educators. By being alert to the cognitive…

  12. Nutritional influences on epigenetics and age-related disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional epigenetics has emerged as a novel mechanism underlying gene–diet interactions, further elucidating the modulatory role of nutrition in aging and age-related disease development. Epigenetics is defined as a heritable modification to the DNA that regulates chromosome architecture and modu...

  13. Public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in South Africa: health care workers' attention to mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Pappin, Michele; Wouters, Edwin; Booysen, Frederik L R; Lund, Crick

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), many patients are not screened, diagnosed or referred for mental health problems. This study aims to determine whether public sector health care workers in South Africa observe, screen, diagnose and refer ART patients that show symptoms of common mental disorders. It also aims to ascertain the extent of mental health training received by public sector health care workers working in ART. The study was cross-sectional in design. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 40 nurses and structured interviews were conducted with 23 lay workers across the five districts in the Free State between July 2009 and October 2009. STATA version 12 was used to perform statistical data analysis. The health care workers reported observing a high frequency of symptoms of common mental disorders among public sector ART patients. While 70% of nurses screened and diagnosed, only 40% of lay workers screened and diagnosed patients on ART for a mental disorder. Health care workers who had received training in mental health were more likely to screen or diagnose a mental disorder, but only 14% of the workers had received such training. We recommend that health care workers should receive task-specific training to screen and/or diagnose patients on ART for common mental disorders using the guidelines of the South African HIV Clinicians Society. A positive diagnosis should be referred to a health care practitioner for appropriate evidence-based treatment in the form of medication or psychotherapy. PMID:25317991

  14. The Prevalence of Age-Related Eye Diseases and Visual Impairment in Aging: Current Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To examine prevalence of five age-related eye conditions (age-related cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy [DR], and visual impairment) in the United States. Methods. Review of published scientific articles and unpublished research findings. Results. Cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, DR, and visual impairment prevalences are high in four different studies of these conditions, especially in people over 75 years of age. There are disparities among racial/ethnic groups with higher age-specific prevalence of DR, open-angle glaucoma, and visual impairment in Hispanics and blacks compared with whites, higher prevalence of age-related cataract in whites compared with blacks, and higher prevalence of late AMD in whites compared with Hispanics and blacks. The estimates are based on old data and do not reflect recent changes in the distribution of age and race/ethnicity in the United States population. There are no epidemiologic estimates of prevalence for many visually-impairing conditions. Conclusions. Ongoing prevalence surveys designed to provide reliable estimates of visual impairment, AMD, age-related cataract, open-angle glaucoma, and DR are needed. It is important to collect objective data on these and other conditions that affect vision and quality of life in order to plan for health care needs and identify areas for further research. PMID:24335069

  15. The Soviet health care system: Glasnost, Perestroika, and health problems of the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Moody, L E

    1992-03-01

    Worsening economic conditions and political turmoil in the Soviet Union have led to significant health care problems in the 90s. The Soviet people are calling for reforms of education and the health care system that extend beyond the unsuccessful program of glasnost and perestroika. The purposes of this article are to (a) describe the health care system in the Soviet Union, (b) highlight health issues and concerns of the Soviet people, (c) describe the education of physicians and nurses, and (d) compare and contrast common and unique factors about Soviet health care with health care in the West. The data base for the article was collected from observational site visits, on-site focused interviews with key informants in Kiev and Moscow, and extensive computerized and manual literature searches. Data were also gathered from questionnaires distributed to a convenience sample of 17 nurses in Moscow. Study results include demographic information and the state of nursing education and research, including availability and access to resources to conduct nursing research in Moscow. PMID:1293203

  16. [Abortion: a public health or a family planning problem].

    PubMed

    Aguayo Hernandez, J R

    1991-01-01

    This work discusses various views of abortion and presents data on the legal aspects and incidence of abortion in Mexico as a contribution to a more productive dialogue on the problems of abortion. It is very difficult to deter women who have decided to seek an abortion, regardless of whether the procedure is legal or even safe. In the state of Sinaloa, Mexico, an abortion has not been punishable since 1939 if it caused by "imprudence", if the woman is a victim of rape, or if the woman's life is endangered by pregnancy. The penal codes of most Mexican states and the Federal District contain similar provisions. In October 1990, the state of Chiapas decriminalized abortion for most indications in the 1st 90 days of pregnancy on the basis that the fertility and growth rates were too high, many children were in situations of extreme poverty, and the widespread practice of illegal abortion led to high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality. The decree legalizing abortion in Chiapas was suspended in early 1991 by the Congress of Chiapas and is currently under further study by the National Commission on Human Rights. UNICEF estimates that in 1990, some 100,000 illegal abortions occurred daily in the world. 150,000-200,000 women may die each year as a result of illegal abortions. Today some 300 million couples throughout the world do not want more children but lack access to family planning. UNICEF estimates that the world rate of population growth would decline by 30% if all couples not desiring children practiced effective contraception. A large number of illegal abortions are believed to occur annually in Mexico. Abortions in Mexico are most common among married women of lower or lower middle class who already have children and who wish to avoid the economic hardships of a new baby. Perhaps because of their illegality, abortions represent a significant expense for a household. Unsafe abortions may cause serious health and fertility problems for women. The Mexican

  17. Managing Mental Health Problems Among Immigrant Women Attending Primary Health Care Services.

    PubMed

    Straiton, Melanie L; Powell, Kathryn; Reneflot, Anne; Diaz, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in Norway explore treatment options in primary care for immigrant women with mental health problems compared with nonimmigrant women. Three national registers were linked together for 2008. Immigrant women from Sweden, Poland, the Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, and Russia were selected for analysis and compared with Norwegian women. Using logistic regression, we investigated whether treatment type varied by country of origin. Rates of sickness leave and psychiatric referrals were similar across all groups. Conversational therapy and use of antidepressants and anxiolytics were lower among Filipina, Thai, Pakistani, and Russian women than among Norwegians. Using the broad term "immigrants" masks important differences in treatment and health service use. By closely examining mental health treatment differences by country of origin, gaps in service provision and treatment uptake may be identified and addressed with more success. PMID:26251953

  18. Lead Poisoning: An Alarming Public Health Problem in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Amal K.; Haque, Akhlaque; Islam, Manirul; Bashar, S.A.M. K.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the risk of lead poisoning among preschool and school-aged children in Bangladesh, 345 children were screened for blood lead levels (BLLs) from one rural and two urban areas in Bangladesh from September 2007 through January 2008. An urban industrial area at Tongi was identified as a disaster area, where 99% (104/105) of those tested had BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL. Industrial emissions and use of leaded gasoline by two-stroke engine vehicles were identified as possible sources of lead in that area. A rural nonindustrial area at Chirirbandar, Dinajpur was identified as another high-risk area, where 14% of the children screened had BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL. BLLs at the urban industrial area were significantly higher than those at the rural and urban nonindustrial areas (24.58 ± 10.32, 7.24 ± 6.31, and 2.47 ± 3.32 μg/dL, respectively; p <0.001). Weight-for-age z-scores of the urban children were significantly lower than that of the rural children (–1.41 ± 1.88 vs. 0.20 ± 1.16, p <0.001). Children with elevated BLLs had poorer nutritional status (p = 0.05) than those with normal BLLs. Over 90% of the parents did not know that lead causes health problems. In conclusion, the problem of lead poisoning in children was found to be high in both urban and rural Bangladesh. A universal lead screening for preschool and school-aged children and a lead education program for parents are recommended for implementation in Bangladesh. PMID:19440271

  19. Dietary compound score and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Because foods provide many nutrients, which may interact with each other to modify risk for multifactorial diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sought to develop a composite scoring system to summarize the combined effect of multiple dietary nutrients on AMD risk. Th...

  20. Dengue: an escalating public health problem in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Méndez-Galván, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Dengue infection is a significant and escalating public health problem in Latin America. Its re-emergence and subsequent rise in the region over the past 50 years has largely been caused by a combination of a lack of political will, the radical growth of urban populations, migration flow and insufficient financial resources. Its increased incidence has been compounded by climate change, poor sanitation and extreme poverty, which lead to more breeding sites of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. In order to control dengue effectively, an integrated approach incorporating vector management and environmental and social solutions is required. To achieve success, these programmes require commitment and responses at both national and community level. The development of a vaccine is a vital tool in the fight against dengue. For successful introduction, those implementing vaccination need to be educated on the value of such a strategy. Effective political leadership, innovative financial mechanisms and co-operation across all disciplines, sectors and national borders are essential to eradication of the disease. PMID:22668444

  1. Road Traffic Accident: An Emerging Public Health Problem in Assam

    PubMed Central

    Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Ahmed, Faruquddin

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the northern states, there is hardly any scientific study except road traffic accidents (RTAs) statistics obtained by the Ministry of Home whereas the main way of transportation is by road. There is the increasing load of motor vehicles on the already dilapidated roadways which has resulted in the increasing trend of RTAs in Assam. Objectives: To find out the prevalence, probable epidemiological factors and morbidity and mortality pattern due to RTAs in Dibrugarh district. Materials and Methods: Descriptive study was carried out in Dibrugarh district from September 1998 to August 1999 under the department of Community Medicine. The information was collected from Assam Medical College and Hospital and cross checked with the police report. A medical investigation including interview, clinical and radiological investigation was carried out; in case of fatality, post-mortem examination was examined in details. An on the spot investigation was carried out in accessible RTAs to collect the probable epidemiological factors. Results: RTAs affected mainly the people of productive age group which were predominantly male. Majority of the RTAs were single vehicle accidents and half of the victims were passengers. Accident rate was maximum in twilight and winter season demanding high morbidity and mortality. Head and neck, U.limb and L.limb were commonly involved. Conclusion: RTAs is a major public health problem in Assam which needs more scientific study. PMID:23878423

  2. [Allergies, an increasing public health problem: causes and consequences].

    PubMed

    de Weck, A

    2000-01-01

    Allergies due to IgE immunoglobulins and belonging to the atopic syndrome, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema have increased in prevalence three times during the past 20-30 years in most industrialized countries. The causes of that increase are still much debated but seem to be related to multiple changes in the environment. Our recent studies on dog atopy indicate that the interaction of a dominant gene responsible for high IgE production but with variable expression, according to several environmental factors acting during infancy, could explain observations made in man. Allergic diseases have become an important portion of public health costs, amounting to approximately 200 billions French Francs in the European Community. Early and adequate care for the about 20% of allergic patients which are severely affected, as well setting up a systematic prevention policy would have a moderating influence on the increasing costs, and would achieve improvements in the quality of life of allergic patients. Appropriate measures include fostering medical and political awareness about the problem's urgency, the formation of an appropriate body of specialists and an Allergological education at all levels, as well as the definition of a screening and care providing policy taking in account existing medical structures. PMID:10723529

  3. [The health policy as a problem of comprehension].

    PubMed

    Nechaev, V S

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the issues of health policy elaboration in the framework of scientific philosophic concept of comprehension. The validity of application of criterion of mode and criterion of compliance in assessment of health policy effectiveness is justified The key role of managerial blocks of commitments assumption and responsibilities performance in health policy strategic management is demonstrated. The importance of incorporation of component of moral appropriateness of health activities into health policy design is emphasized. PMID:24027837

  4. Glutamatergic regulation prevents hippocampal-dependent age-related cognitive decline through dendritic spine clustering

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana C.; Lambert, Hilary K.; Grossman, Yael S.; Dumitriu, Dani; Waldman, Rachel; Jannetty, Sophia K.; Calakos, Katina; Janssen, William G.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Morrison, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The dementia of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) results primarily from degeneration of neurons that furnish glutamatergic corticocortical connections that subserve cognition. Although neuron death is minimal in the absence of AD, age-related cognitive decline does occur in animals as well as humans, and it decreases quality of life for elderly people. Age-related cognitive decline has been linked to synapse loss and/or alterations of synaptic proteins that impair function in regions such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. These synaptic alterations are likely reversible, such that maintenance of synaptic health in the face of aging is a critically important therapeutic goal. Here, we show that riluzole can protect against some of the synaptic alterations in hippocampus that are linked to age-related memory loss in rats. Riluzole increases glutamate uptake through glial transporters and is thought to decrease glutamate spillover to extrasynaptic NMDA receptors while increasing synaptic glutamatergic activity. Treated aged rats were protected against age-related cognitive decline displayed in nontreated aged animals. Memory performance correlated with density of thin spines on apical dendrites in CA1, although not with mushroom spines. Furthermore, riluzole-treated rats had an increase in clustering of thin spines that correlated with memory performance and was specific to the apical, but not the basilar, dendrites of CA1. Clustering of synaptic inputs is thought to allow nonlinear summation of synaptic strength. These findings further elucidate neuroplastic changes in glutamatergic circuits with aging and advance therapeutic development to prevent and treat age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25512503

  5. Glutamatergic regulation prevents hippocampal-dependent age-related cognitive decline through dendritic spine clustering.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana C; Lambert, Hilary K; Grossman, Yael S; Dumitriu, Dani; Waldman, Rachel; Jannetty, Sophia K; Calakos, Katina; Janssen, William G; McEwen, Bruce S; Morrison, John H

    2014-12-30

    The dementia of Alzheimer's disease (AD) results primarily from degeneration of neurons that furnish glutamatergic corticocortical connections that subserve cognition. Although neuron death is minimal in the absence of AD, age-related cognitive decline does occur in animals as well as humans, and it decreases quality of life for elderly people. Age-related cognitive decline has been linked to synapse loss and/or alterations of synaptic proteins that impair function in regions such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. These synaptic alterations are likely reversible, such that maintenance of synaptic health in the face of aging is a critically important therapeutic goal. Here, we show that riluzole can protect against some of the synaptic alterations in hippocampus that are linked to age-related memory loss in rats. Riluzole increases glutamate uptake through glial transporters and is thought to decrease glutamate spillover to extrasynaptic NMDA receptors while increasing synaptic glutamatergic activity. Treated aged rats were protected against age-related cognitive decline displayed in nontreated aged animals. Memory performance correlated with density of thin spines on apical dendrites in CA1, although not with mushroom spines. Furthermore, riluzole-treated rats had an increase in clustering of thin spines that correlated with memory performance and was specific to the apical, but not the basilar, dendrites of CA1. Clustering of synaptic inputs is thought to allow nonlinear summation of synaptic strength. These findings further elucidate neuroplastic changes in glutamatergic circuits with aging and advance therapeutic development to prevent and treat age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25512503

  6. The suprachiasmatic nucleus: age-related decline in biological rhythms.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takahiro J; Takasu, Nana N; Nakamura, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with changes in sleep duration and quality, as well as increased rates of pathologic/disordered sleep. While several factors contribute to these changes, emerging research suggests that age-related changes in the mammalian central circadian clock within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) may be a key factor. Prior work from our group suggests that circadian output from the SCN declines because of aging. Furthermore, we have previously observed age-related infertility in female mice, caused by a mismatch between environmental light-dark cycles and the intrinsic, internal biological clocks. In this review, we address regulatory mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms in mammals and summarize recent literature describing the effects of aging on the circadian system. PMID:26915078

  7. Age-related percutaneous penetration part 1: skin factors.

    PubMed

    Konda, S; Meier-Davis, S R; Cayme, B; Shudo, J; Maibach, H I

    2012-05-01

    Changes in the skin that occur in the elderly may put them at increased risk for altered percutaneous penetration from pharmacotherapy along with potential adverse effects. Skin factors that may have a role in age-related percutaneous penetration include blood flow, pH, skin thickness, hair and pore density, and the content and structure of proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), water, and lipids. Each factor is examined as a function of increasing age along with its potential impact on percutaneous penetration. Additionally, topical drugs that successfully overcome the barrier function of the skin can still fall victim to cutaneous metabolism, thereby producing metabolites that may have increased or decreased activity. This overview discusses the current data and highlights the importance of further studies to evaluate the impact of skin factors in age-related percutaneous penetration. PMID:22622279

  8. Genetic and Environmental Underpinnings to Age-Related Ocular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, Johanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cataract, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy are common causes of visual loss. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of these diseases. The modifiable factors related to some of these age-related and visually threatening diseases are smoking, obesity, and dietary factors, and a cardiovascular risk profile. Many common and a few rare genetic factors are associated with AMD. The role of genetic variants for the other diseases are less clear. Interactions between environmental, therapeutic, and genetic factors are being explored. Knowledge of genetic risk and environmental factors, especially for AMD, has grown markedly over the past 2.5 decades and has led to some sight-saving approaches in preventive management. PMID:24335064

  9. Idiom understanding in adulthood: examining age-related differences.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pei-Fang; Nippold, Marilyn A

    2014-03-01

    Idioms are figurative expressions such as hold your horses, kick the bucket, and lend me a hand, which commonly occur in everyday spoken and written language. Hence, the understanding of these expressions is essential for daily communication. In this study, we examined idiom understanding in healthy adults in their 20s, 40s, 60s and 80s (n=30 per group) to determine if performance would show an age-related decline. Participants judged their own familiarity with a set of 20 idioms, explained the meaning of each, described a situation in which the idiom could be used, and selected the appropriate interpretation from a set of choices. There was no evidence of an age-related decline on any tasks. Rather, the 60s group reported greater familiarity and offered better explanations than did the 20s group. Moreover, greater familiarity with idioms was associated with better understanding in adults. PMID:24405225

  10. Screening Mental Health Problems in Schools. A Center Policy Issues Analysis Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Long-standing policy controversies have heated up as a result of increasing proposals for using schools to screen for mental health problems (e.g., depression screening). This brief highlights the following issues: (1) How appropriate is large-scale screening for mental health problems? (2) Will the costs of large-scale mental health screening…

  11. Age-Related Hyperkyphosis: Its Causes, Consequences, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Katzman, Wendy B.; Wanek, Linda; Shepherd, John A.; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.

    2010-01-01

    Age-related postural hyperkyphosis is an exaggerated anterior curvature of the thoracic spine, sometimes referred to as Dowager’s hump or gibbous deformity. This condition impairs mobility,2,31 and increases the risk of falls33 and fractures.26 The natural history of hyperkyphosis is not firmly established. Hyperkyphosis may develop from either muscle weakness and degenerative disc disease, leading to vertebral fractures and worsening hyperkyphosis, or from initial vertebral fractures that precipitate its development. PMID:20511692

  12. Dietary Approaches that Delay Age-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Everitt, Arthur V; Hilmer, Sarah N; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Jamieson, Hamish A; Truswell, A Stewart; Sharma, Anita P; Mason, Rebecca S; Morris, Brian J; Le Couteur, David G

    2006-01-01

    Reducing food intake in lower animals such as the rat decreases body weight, retards many aging processes, delays the onset of most diseases of old age, and prolongs life. A number of clinical trials of food restriction in healthy adult human subjects running over 2–15 years show significant reductions in body weight, blood cholesterol, blood glucose, and blood pressure, which are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Lifestyle interventions that lower energy balance by reducing body weight such as physical exercise can also delay the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In general, clinical trials are suggesting that diets high in calories or fat along with overweight are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and dementia. There is a growing literature indicating that specific dietary constituents are able to influence the development of age-related diseases, including certain fats (trans fatty acids, saturated, and polyunsaturated fats) and cholesterol for cardiovascular disease, glycemic index and fiber for diabetes, fruits and vegetables for cardiovascular disease, and calcium and vitamin D for osteoporosis and bone fracture. In addition, there are dietary compounds from different functional foods, herbs, and neutraceuticals such as ginseng, nuts, grains, and polyphenols that may affect the development of age-related diseases. Long-term prospective clinical trials will be needed to confirm these diet—disease relationships. On the basis of current research, the best diet to delay age-related disease onset is one low in calories and saturated fat and high in wholegrain cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables, and which maintains a lean body weight. Such a diet should become a key component of healthy aging, delaying age-related diseases and perhaps intervening in the aging process itself. Furthermore, there are studies suggesting that nutrition in childhood

  13. Dietary approaches that delay age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Everitt, Arthur V; Hilmer, Sarah N; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Jamieson, Hamish A; Truswell, A Stewart; Sharma, Anita P; Mason, Rebecca S; Morris, Brian J; Le Couteur, David G

    2006-01-01

    Reducing food intake in lower animals such as the rat decreases body weight, retards many aging processes, delays the onset of most diseases of old age, and prolongs life. A number of clinical trials of food restriction in healthy adult human subjects running over 2-15 years show significant reductions in body weight, blood cholesterol, blood glucose, and blood pressure, which are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Lifestyle interventions that lower energy balance by reducing body weight such as physical exercise can also delay the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In general, clinical trials are suggesting that diets high in calories or fat along with overweight are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and dementia. There is a growing literature indicating that specific dietary constituents are able to influence the development of age-related diseases, including certain fats (trans fatty acids, saturated, and polyunsaturated fats) and cholesterol for cardiovascular disease, glycemic index and fiber for diabetes, fruits and vegetables for cardiovascular disease, and calcium and vitamin D for osteoporosis and bone fracture. In addition, there are dietary compounds from different functional foods, herbs, and neutraceuticals such as ginseng, nuts, grains, and polyphenols that may affect the development of age-related diseases. Long-term prospective clinical trials will be needed to confirm these diet-disease relationships. On the basis of current research, the best diet to delay age-related disease onset is one low in calories and saturated fat and high in wholegrain cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables, and which maintains a lean body weight. Such a diet should become a key component of healthy aging, delaying age-related diseases and perhaps intervening in the aging process itself. Furthermore, there are studies suggesting that nutrition in childhood and

  14. Understanding College Students' Problems: Dysfunctional Thinking, Mental Health, and Maladaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandracchia, Jon T.; Pendleton, Shandrea

    2015-01-01

    Many college students experience mental health problems and engage in risky behavior. These problems perpetuate negative outcomes such as poor academic performance and health problems, which may ultimately result in dropping out of college. Maladaptive cognitions, such as criminogenic thinking, have been established as an important contributor to…

  15. Age-related changes in the adaptability of neuromuscular output.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Steven; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2009-05-01

    The aging process is associated with a general decline in biological function. One characteristic that researchers believe represents this diminished functioning of the aging neuromuscular system is increased physiological tremor. The present study is constructed to assess what age-related differences exist in the dynamics of tremor and forearm muscle activity under postural conditions in which the number of arm segments involved in the task was altered. The authors predicted that any alteration in the tremor or electromyographic (EMG) output of these two groups would provide a clearer understanding of the differential effects of aging or task dynamics on physiological function. Results reveal no age-related differences in finger tremor or forearm extensor muscle EMG activity under conditions in which participants were only required to extend their index finger against gravity. However, when participants had to hold their entire upper limb steady against gravity, the authors observed significant increases in forearm EMG activity, finger-tremor amplitude, power in the 8-12-Hz range, and signal regularity between the 2 age groups. The selective changes in signal regularity, EMG activity, and 8-12-Hz tremor amplitude under more challenging postural demands support the view that the age-related changes in neuromuscular dynamics are not fully elucidated when single task demands are utilized. PMID:19366659

  16. Topography of age-related changes in sleep spindles.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicolas; Lafortune, Marjolaine; Godbout, Jonathan; Barakat, Marc; Robillard, Rebecca; Poirier, Gaétan; Bastien, Célyne; Carrier, Julie

    2013-02-01

    Aging induces multiple changes to sleep spindles, which may hinder their alleged functional role in memory and sleep protection mechanisms. Brain aging in specific cortical regions could affect the neural networks underlying spindle generation, yet the topography of these age-related changes is currently unknown. In the present study, we analyzed spindle characteristics in 114 healthy volunteers aged between 20 and 73 years over 5 anteroposterior electroencephalography scalp derivations. Spindle density, amplitude, and duration were higher in young subjects than in middle-aged and elderly subjects in all derivations, but the topography of age effects differed drastically. Age-related decline in density and amplitude was more prominent in anterior derivations, whereas duration showed a posterior prominence. Age groups did not differ in all-night spindle frequency for any derivation. These results show that age-related changes in sleep spindles follow distinct topographical patterns that are specific to each spindle characteristic. This topographical specificity may provide a useful biomarker to localize age-sensitive changes in underlying neural systems during normal and pathological aging. PMID:22809452

  17. Hypermnesia: age-related differences between young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Widner, R L; Otani, H; Smith, A D

    2000-06-01

    Hypermnesia is a net improvement in memory performance that occurs across tests in a multitest paradigm with only one study session. Our goal was to identify possible age-related differences in hypermnesic recall. We observed hypermnesia for young adults using verbal (Experiment 1) as well as pictorial (Experiment 2) material, but no hypermnesia for older adults in either experiment. We found no age-related difference in reminiscence (Experiments 1 and 2), though there was a substantial difference in intertest forgetting (Experiments 1 and 2). Older, relative to young, adults produced more forgetting, most of which occurred between Tests 1 and 2 (Experiments 1 and 2). Furthermore, older, relative to young, adults produced more intrusions. We failed to identify a relationship between intrusions and intertest forgetting. We suggest that the age-related difference in intertest forgetting may be due to less efficient reinstatement of cues at test by older adults. The present findings reveal that intertest forgetting plays a critical role in hypermnesic recall, particularly for older adults. PMID:10946539

  18. Age-related differences in working memory updating components.

    PubMed

    Linares, Rocío; Bajo, M Teresa; Pelegrina, Santiago

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible age-related changes throughout childhood and adolescence in different component processes of working memory updating (WMU): retrieval, transformation, and substitution. A set of numerical WMU tasks was administered to four age groups (8-, 11-, 14-, and 21-year-olds). To isolate the effect of each of the WMU components, participants performed different versions of a task that included different combinations of the WMU components. The results showed an expected overall decrease in response times and an increase in accuracy performance with age. Most important, specific age-related changes in the retrieval component were found, demonstrating that the effect of retrieval on accuracy was larger in children than in adolescents or young adults. These findings indicate that the availability of representations from outside the focus of attention may change with age. Thus, the retrieval component of updating could contribute to the age-related changes observed in the performance of many updating tasks. PMID:26985577

  19. Hhip haploinsufficiency sensitizes mice to age-related emphysema.

    PubMed

    Lao, Taotao; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Yun, Jeong; Qiu, Weiliang; Guo, Feng; Huang, Chunfang; Mancini, John Dominic; Gupta, Kushagra; Laucho-Contreras, Maria E; Naing, Zun Zar Chi; Zhang, Li; Perrella, Mark A; Owen, Caroline A; Silverman, Edwin K; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    Genetic variants in Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) have consistently been associated with the susceptibility to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary function levels, including the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), in general population samples by genome-wide association studies. However, in vivo evidence connecting Hhip to age-related FEV1 decline and emphysema development is lacking. Herein, using Hhip heterozygous mice (Hhip(+/-)), we observed increased lung compliance and spontaneous emphysema in Hhip(+/-) mice starting at 10 mo of age. This increase was preceded by increases in oxidative stress levels in the lungs of Hhip(+/-) vs. Hhip(+/+) mice. To our knowledge, these results provide the first line of evidence that HHIP is involved in maintaining normal lung function and alveolar structures. Interestingly, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine treatment in mice starting at age of 5 mo improved lung function and prevented emphysema development in Hhip(+/-) mice, suggesting that N-acetyl cysteine treatment limits the progression of age-related emphysema in Hhip(+/-) mice. Therefore, reduced lung function and age-related spontaneous emphysema development in Hhip(+/-) mice may be caused by increased oxidative stress levels in murine lungs as a result of haploinsufficiency of Hhip. PMID:27444019

  20. Senescent cells: SASPected drivers of age-related pathologies.

    PubMed

    Ovadya, Yossi; Krizhanovsky, Valery

    2014-12-01

    The progression of physiological ageing is driven by intracellular aberrations including telomere attrition, genomic instability, epigenetic alterations and loss of proteostasis. These in turn damage cells and compromise their functionality. Cellular senescence, a stable irreversible cell-cycle arrest, is elicited in damaged cells and prevents their propagation in the organism. Under normal conditions, senescent cells recruit the immune system which facilitates their removal from tissues. Nevertheless, during ageing, tissue-residing senescent cells tend to accumulate, and might negatively impact their microenvironment via profound secretory phenotype with pro-inflammatory characteristics, termed senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Indeed, senescent cells are mostly abundant at sites of age-related pathologies, including degenerative disorders and malignancies. Interestingly, studies on progeroid mice indicate that selective elimination of senescent cells can delay age-related deterioration. This suggests that chronic inflammation induced by senescent cells might be a main driver of these pathologies. Importantly, senescent cells accumulate as a result of deficient immune surveillance, and their removal is increased upon the use of immune stimulatory agents. Insights into mechanisms of senescence surveillance could be combined with current approaches for cancer immunotherapy to propose new preventive and therapeutic strategies for age-related diseases. PMID:25217383

  1. Home care assistants’ perspectives on detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health among community-dwelling seniors with multimorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Grundberg, Åke; Hansson, Anna; Religa, Dorota; Hillerås, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elderly people with multiple chronic conditions, or multimorbidity, are at risk of developing poor mental health. These seniors often remain in their homes with support from home care assistants (HCAs). Mental health promotion by HCAs needs to be studied further because they may be among the first to observe changes in clients’ mental health status. Aim To describe HCAs’ perspectives on detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health among homebound seniors with multimorbidity. Methods We applied a descriptive qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews. Content analyses were performed on five focus group interviews conducted in 2014 with 26 HCAs. Results Most HCAs stated that they were experienced in caring for clients with mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, sleep problems, and high alcohol consumption. The HCAs mentioned as causes, or risk factors, multiple chronic conditions, feelings of loneliness, and social isolation. The findings reveal that continuity of care and seniors’ own thoughts and perceptions were essential to detecting mental health problems. Observation, collaboration, and social support emerged as important means of detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health. Conclusion The HCAs had knowledge of risk factors, but they seemed insecure about which health professionals had the primary responsibility for mental health. They also seemed to have detected early signs of mental health problems, even though good personal knowledge of the client and continuity in home visits were crucial to do so. When it came to mental health promotion, the suggestions related to the aim of ending social isolation, decreasing feelings of loneliness, and increasing physical activity. The results indicate that the HCAs seemed dependent on supervision by district nurses and on care managers’ decisions to support the needed care, to schedule assignments related to the detection of mental health

  2. When identifying health disparities as a problem is a problem: pedagogical strategies for examining racialized contexts.

    PubMed

    Browne, Teri; Pitner, Ronald; Freedman, Darcy A

    2013-01-01

    The current study presents a critical discussion on community responses to health disparity research and the need for utilizing pedagogical strategies to prepare students to understand and address health disparities in racialized contexts. Qualitative research methods were used to examine community responses to media stories on two health disparity research projects, and four themes emerged: naming health disparities is a tool for dividing, structural racism does not exist, naming of health disparities is a political act, and health disparities exist because of individual-level deficiencies. The implications for teaching students about racial health disparities are presented and discussed. PMID:24010559

  3. Climate change and health – what’s the problem?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The scientific consensus is that global warming is occurring and is largely the result of greenhouse gas emissions from human activity. This paper examines the health implications of global warming, the current socio-political attitudes towards action on climate change and highlight the health co-benefits of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, policy development for climate change and health should embrace health systems strengthening, commencing by incorporating climate change targets into Millennium Development Goal 7. PMID:23394373

  4. Stereotactic radiotherapy for wet age-related macular degeneration: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Neffendorf, James E; Jackson, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    Neovascular age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of blindness in the developed world. Currently, the treatment of choice is intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF medications. These require frequent dosing, up to monthly, and impose a substantial burden on patients and the health economy. Ionizing radiation was proposed as a possible treatment for age-related macular degeneration due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. Stereotactic radiotherapy is an outpatient-based radiotherapy platform that provides stereotactic application of low energy X-ray to the retina in three highly collimated beams that cross the inferior sclera to overlap at the macula. A randomized, double-masked, sham-controlled trial of 230 patients (INTREPID) showed that a single dose of stereotactic radiotherapy significantly reduces the number of intravitreal anti-VEGF injections needed over 2 years. A larger randomized controlled trial (STAR) is underway. PMID:26491243

  5. Preventing Age-Related Decline of Gut Compartmentalization Limits Microbiota Dysbiosis and Extends Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongjie; Qi, Yanyan; Jasper, Heinrich

    2016-02-10

    Compartmentalization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of metazoans is critical for health. GI compartments contain specific microbiota, and microbiota dysbiosis is associated with intestinal dysfunction. Dysbiosis develops in aging intestines, yet how this relates to changes in GI compartmentalization remains unclear. The Drosophila GI tract is an accessible model to address this question. Here we show that the stomach-like copper cell region (CCR) in the middle midgut controls distribution and composition of the microbiota. We find that chronic activation of JAK/Stat signaling in the aging gut induces a metaplasia of the gastric epithelium, CCR decline, and subsequent commensal dysbiosis and epithelial dysplasia along the GI tract. Accordingly, inhibition of JAK/Stat signaling in the CCR specifically prevents age-related metaplasia, commensal dysbiosis and functional decline in old guts, and extends lifespan. Our results establish a mechanism by which age-related chronic inflammation causes the decline of intestinal compartmentalization and microbiota dysbiosis, limiting lifespan. PMID:26867182

  6. Stereotactic radiotherapy for wet age-related macular degeneration: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Neffendorf, James E; Jackson, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    Neovascular age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of blindness in the developed world. Currently, the treatment of choice is intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF medications. These require frequent dosing, up to monthly, and impose a substantial burden on patients and the health economy. Ionizing radiation was proposed as a possible treatment for age-related macular degeneration due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. Stereotactic radiotherapy is an outpatient-based radiotherapy platform that provides stereotactic application of low energy X-ray to the retina in three highly collimated beams that cross the inferior sclera to overlap at the macula. A randomized, double-masked, sham-controlled trial of 230 patients (INTREPID) showed that a single dose of stereotactic radiotherapy significantly reduces the number of intravitreal anti-VEGF injections needed over 2 years. A larger randomized controlled trial (STAR) is underway. PMID:26491243

  7. Mental health problems of aging and the aged*

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Martin

    1959-01-01

    The rapid increase in admission rates to mental hospitals in many countries in recent decades threatens to create serious problems. These may be to some extent remediable in that social factors are important in deciding the chances of admission to hospital, as well as the frequency of suicide, which reaches a peak among the aged in most countries. All communities possess valuable assets in the form of existing links between the aged and their families which may be lost by indiscriminate community planning. Although some psychological decline is inevitable during senescence, it is becoming clear that much that once passed for the ineluctable effects of mental and physical aging is due to disease that may be ameliorated or cured. The relationship between mental and physical health is particularly close in old age, and the effective treatment of the aged person with a psychiatric disorder demands the full resources of general medicine as well as psychiatry. For successful rehabilitation a full community service for the aged and proper integration of the work of the family doctor with that of preventive and hospital services are essential. The possibilities of prevention can be enhanced by fostering physical well-being and healthy adjustment during earlier stages of life, as well as by ascertaining, and remedying as far as possible, the mental and physical disorders of the aged in the early stages of their development. There is great scope for biological, medical and sociological research to define reasons for the wide variations in mental and physical well-being in old age. PMID:14439413

  8. Emerging issues on comprehensive hemophilia care: preventing, identifying, and monitoring age-related comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Antonio; Santoro, Cristina; Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Caterina; Mogavero, Selene; Molinari, Angelo Claudio; Schinco, Piercarla; Tagliaferri, Annarita; Santoro, Rita Carlotta

    2013-10-01

    Life expectancy for persons with hemophilia (PWH) has considerably increased in the last decades as a direct result of the availability of modern therapies to control the clotting defect. Because their life expectancy now matches that of the general population, PWH are experiencing age-related comorbidities, such as, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, renal diseases, sexuality issues, malignancies, and neurologic problems, that until recently have been rarely seen in this group of patients. In this article, we present a summary of the current knowledge on the aging PWH along with the clinical approaches that may be integrated into the routine comprehensive care of these patients for preventing, diagnosing, and monitoring age-related comorbidities. In general, patients with and without hemophilia should receive similar care, with close collaboration between the physician treating PWH and the specialty expert treating the comorbid disease. PMID:24014070

  9. Gulliver meets Descartes: early modern concepts of age-related memory loss.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Age-related memory loss was a marginal issue in medical discussions during early modern times and until well into the second half of the 17th century. There are many possible explanations: the lack of similar traditions in antiquity and in the Middle Ages, insufficient physiological and morphological knowledge of the brain, and the underlying conflict between idealistic and materialistic perspectives on the functions of the soul and the conditions of these in old age. After these boundaries had been pushed back by the influence of Cartesianism and Iatromechanism, the problem of age-related memory loss was increasingly regarded as a physical illness and began to receive more attention. This trend first occurred in medicine, before spreading to the literary world, where the novel "Gulliver's Travels" is one clear and famous example. PMID:12785108

  10. A Classification Scheme for Client Problems in Community Health Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visiting Nurse Association of Omaha, NE.

    This manual describes a classification system for classifying and recording client problems requiring nursing intervention and offers a plan for its implementation. Part 1 discusses the development of the method, described as an orderly arrangement of a nonexhaustive list of client problems diagnosed by nurses. Problems are divided into four…

  11. [European health systems and the integration problem of modern societies].

    PubMed

    Lüschen, G

    2000-04-01

    With reference to the national health systems in Germany and the UK we must acknowledge that it was in particular Bismarck's Reform, originally directed toward a solidarity among the socially weak, which entailed in its development a marked redistribution via progressive health fees and standardized health services. In view of Alfred Marshall's original expectations this has resulted in a specific integration of the socially weak and with some difference for nationally tax-financed and social security financed health systems to a genuine contribution towards integration of modern society. An open research question is whether as a consequence of solidarity and integration through health systems there is a decline of social inequality for health. Equally open is the question as to the socio-structural and economic consequences the expansion of modern health systems has. PMID:10838787

  12. 4 Out of 5 Kids with Epilepsy Have Other Health Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160185.html 4 Out of 5 Kids With Epilepsy Have Other Health Problems: Study Digestive disorders, headaches, ... percent of children who have the seizure disorder epilepsy also have other health conditions, such as digestive ...

  13. Health behaviour and body mass index among problem gamblers: results from a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Algren, Maria H; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael; Larsen, Christina V L; Juel, Knud

    2015-06-01

    Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16 years or older. Data were derived from the Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010. Past year problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between past year problem gambling and health behaviour and BMI. Problem gambling was associated with unhealthy behaviour and obesity. The odds of smoking was significantly higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. Further, the odds of high-risk alcohol drinking and illicit drug use were significantly higher among problem gamblers. The prevalence of sedentary leisure activity, unhealthy diet pattern and obesity was higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. The associations found in this study remained significant after adjustment for sex, age, educational and cohabiting status as well as other risk factors. Our findings highlight the presence of a potential, public health challenge and elucidate the need for health promotion initiatives targeted at problem gamblers. Furthermore, more research is needed in order to understand the underlying social mechanism of the association between problem gamblers and unhealthy behaviour. PMID:24390713

  14. Problems in Comprehensive Ambulatory Health Care for High-Risk Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Jon E., Ed.

    This volume contains 21 articles on aspects held to be important for delivering comprehensive health care to young adults who are at higher than average risk levels for a number of health and health-related problems; choice of topics for the articles is based on experience gained in directing the health program for the Job Corps. Most of the…

  15. Health Problems in the Classroom 6-12: An A-Z Reference Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Dolores M.; Fontaine, Karen Lee; Price, Bernadette K.

    This guide provides a resource for middle and high school teachers, teacher aides, administrators, and educators, covering health problems that affect students in grades 6-12. The handbook alphabetically lists the most current health concerns for this age group. Part 1, "Health Issues in the Classroom," includes (1) "Health, Illness, and…

  16. [Problems and ethical challenges in public health communication].

    PubMed

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2009-05-01

    Health communication, e.g., mass media campaigns, patient information leaflets or websites, plays an important role in public health. It contributes to citizen empowerment and helps them make informed decisions in health matters. However, public health communication can lead to adverse effects on both individual and societal level, e.g., by inaccurate or partial information, discriminatory messages, scandalizing coverage or inadequate tailoring to relevant target groups. It seems important to suggest ethical criteria for health information, e.g., (1) accuracy, completeness and balance, (2) transparency, (3) participation of the target group, (4) respect for human dignity, (5) social justice and equity, (6) appropriateness. Thoughtfulness is important in order not to stigmatize population subgroups. In addition, it is laborious to comprehensively and correctly present benefits and risks of a certain health behavior. Marketing principles guide how to 'sell' a certain health behavior, but health campaigns should not manipulate target persons for the sake of a population health aim. It remains unclear, however, how the different providers of health information can be held ethically responsible. PMID:19357817

  17. Age-related changes in mouse bone permeability.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Florez, Naiara; Oyen, Michelle L; Shefelbine, Sandra J

    2014-03-21

    The determination of lacunar-canalicular permeability is essential for understanding local fluid flow in bone, which may indicate how bone senses changes in the mechanical environment to regulate mechano-adaptation. The estimates of lacunar-canalicular permeability found in the literature vary by up to eight orders of magnitude, and age-related permeability changes have not been measured in non-osteonal mouse bone. The objective of this study is to use a poroelastic approach based on nanoindentation data to characterize lacunar-canalicular permeability in murine bone as a function of age. Nine wild type C57BL/6 mice of different ages (2, 7 and 12 months) were used. Three tibiae from each age group were embedded in epoxy resin, cut in half and indented in the longitudinal direction in the mid-cortex using two spherical fluid indenter tips (R=238 μm and 500 μm). Results suggest that the lacunar-canalicular intrinsic permeability of mouse bone decreases from 2 to 7 months, with no significant changes from 7 to 12 months. The large indenter tip imposed larger contact sizes and sampled larger ranges of permeabilities, particularly for the old bone. This age-related difference in the distribution was not seen for indents with the smaller radius tip. We conclude that the small tip effectively measured lacunar-canalicular permeability, while larger tip indents were influenced by vascular permeability. Exploring the age-related changes in permeability of bone measured by nanoindentation will lead to a better understanding of the role of fluid flow in mechano-transduction. This understanding may help indicate alterations in bone adaptation and remodeling. PMID:24433671

  18. Pathogenesis of Age-Related Bone Loss in Humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Although data from rodent systems are extremely useful in providing insights into possible mechanisms of age-related bone loss, concepts evolving from animal models need to ultimately be tested in humans. Methods. This review provides an update on mechanisms of age-related bone loss in humans based on the author’s knowledge of the field and focused literature reviews. Results. Novel imaging, experimental models, biomarkers, and analytic techniques applied directly to human studies are providing new insights into the patterns of bone mass acquisition and loss as well as the role of sex steroids, in particular estrogen, on bone metabolism and bone loss with aging in women and men. These studies have identified the onset of trabecular bone loss at multiple sites that begins in young adulthood and remains unexplained, at least based on current paradigms of the mechanisms of bone loss. In addition, estrogen appears to be a major regulator of bone metabolism not only in women but also in men. Studies assessing mechanisms of estrogen action on bone in humans have identified effects of estrogen on RANKL expression by several different cell types in the bone microenvironment, a role for TNF-α and IL-1β in mediating effects of estrogen deficiency on bone, and possible regulation of the Wnt inhibitor, sclerostin, by estrogen. Conclusions. There have been considerable advances in our understanding of age-related bone loss in humans. However, there are also significant gaps in knowledge, particularly in defining cell autonomous changes in bone in human studies to test or validate concepts emerging from studies in rodents. Decision Editor: Luigi Ferrucci, MD, PhD PMID:22923429

  19. Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Muscle of Cattle.

    PubMed

    Costagliola, A; Wojcik, S; Pagano, T B; De Biase, D; Russo, V; Iovane, V; Grieco, E; Papparella, S; Paciello, O

    2016-03-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is a multifactorial condition that represents a major healthcare concern for the elderly population. Although its morphologic features have been extensively studied in humans, animal models, and domestic and wild animals, only a few reports about spontaneous sarcopenia exist in other long-lived animals. In this work, muscle samples from 60 healthy Podolica-breed old cows (aged 15-23 years) were examined and compared with muscle samples from 10 young cows (3-6 years old). Frozen sections were studied through standard histologic and histoenzymatic procedures, as well as by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis. The most prominent age-related myopathic features seen in the studied material included angular fiber atrophy (90% of cases), mitochondrial alterations (ragged red fibers, 70%; COX-negative fibers, 60%), presence of vacuolated fibers (75%), lymphocytic (predominantly CD8+) inflammation (40%), and type II selective fiber atrophy (40%). Immunohistochemistry revealed increased expression of major histocompatibility complex I in 36 cases (60%) and sarcoplasmic accumulations of β-amyloid precursor protein-positive material in 18 cases (30%). In aged cows, muscle atrophy was associated with accumulation of myostatin. Western blot analysis indicated increased amount of both proteins-myostatin and β-amyloid precursor protein-in muscles of aged animals compared with controls. These findings confirm the presence of age-related morphologic changes in cows similar to human sarcopenia and underline the possible role of amyloid deposition and subsequent inflammation in muscle senescence. PMID:26869152

  20. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Advances in Management and Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Miller, Joan W; Kim, Ivana K

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in older populations in industrialized nations. AMD is a late-onset deterioration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in the central retina caused by various environmental and genetic factors. Great strides in our understanding of AMD pathogenesis have been made in the past several decades, which have translated into revolutionary therapeutic agents in recent years. In this review, we describe the clinical and pathologic features of AMD and present an overview of current diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:26239130

  1. Age-related macular degeneration: Complement in action.

    PubMed

    van Lookeren Campagne, Menno; Strauss, Erich C; Yaspan, Brian L

    2016-06-01

    The complement system plays a key role in host-defense against common pathogens but must be tightly controlled to avoid inflammation and tissue damage. Polymorphisms in genes encoding two important negative regulators of the alternative complement pathway, complement factor H (CFH) and complement factor I (CFI), are associated with the risk for Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of vision impairment in the ageing population. In this review, we will discuss the genetic basis of AMD and the potential impact of complement de-regulation on disease pathogenesis. Finally, we will highlight recent therapeutic approaches aimed at controlling complement activation in patients with AMD. PMID:26742632

  2. Effects of Vitreomacular Adhesion on Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eui Chun; Koh, Hyoung Jun

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we review the association between vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Meta-analyses have shown that eyes with neovascular AMD are twice as likely to have VMA as normal eyes. VMA in neovascular AMD may induce inflammation, macular traction, decrease in oxygenation, sequestering of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and other cytokines or may directly stimulate VEGF production. VMA may also interfere with the treatment effects of anti-VEGF therapy, which is the standard treatment for neovascular AMD, and releasing VMA can improve the treatment response to anti-VEGF treatment in neovascular AMD. We also reviewed currently available methods of relieving VMA. PMID:26425354

  3. Present and Possible Therapies for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness in the elderly population worldwide and is defined as a chronic, progressive disorder characterized by changes occurring within the macula reflective of the ageing process. At present, the prevalence of AMD is currently rising and is estimated to increase by a third by 2020. Although our understanding of the several components underpinning the pathogenesis of this condition has increased significantly, the treatment options for this condition remain substantially limited. In this review, we outline the existing arsenal of therapies available for AMD and discuss the additional role of further novel therapies currently under investigation for this debilitating disease. PMID:25097787

  4. [Diagnostic Criteria for Atrophic Age-related Macular Degeneration].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kanji; Shiraga, Fumio; Ishida, Susumu; Kamei, Motohiro; Yanagi, Yasuo; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-10-01

    Diagnostic criteria for dry age-related macular degeneration is described. Criteria include visual acuity, fundscopic findings, diagnostic image findings, exclusion criteria and classification of severity grades. Essential findings to make diagnosis as "geographic atrophy" are, 1) at least 250 μm in diameter, 2) round/oval/cluster-like or geographic in shape, 3) sharp delineation, 4) hypopigmentation or depigmentation in retinal pigment epithelium, 5) choroidal vessels are more visible than in surrounding area. Severity grades were classified as mild, medium and severe by relation of geographic atrophy to the fovea and attendant findings. PMID:26571627

  5. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Advances in Management and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Miller, Joan W.; Kim, Ivana K.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in older populations in industrialized nations. AMD is a late-onset deterioration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in the central retina caused by various environmental and genetic factors. Great strides in our understanding of AMD pathogenesis have been made in the past several decades, which have translated into revolutionary therapeutic agents in recent years. In this review, we describe the clinical and pathologic features of AMD and present an overview of current diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:26239130

  6. Squalamine lactate for exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Brian; Desai, Avinash; Garcia, Charles A; Thomas, Edgar; Gast, Michael J

    2006-09-01

    Squalamine lactate inhibits angiogenesis by a long-lived, intracellular mechanism of action. The drug is taken up into activated endothelial cells through caveolae, small invaginations in the cellular membrane. Subsequently, the drug binds to and "chaperones" calmodulin to an intracellular membrane compartment and blocks angiogenesis at several levels. A series of basic investigations, preclinical studies, and human clinical trials have begun to establish the proof of concept, efficacy, and safety parameters for use of squalamine lactate as a therapeutic agent for exudative age-related macular degeneration and several types of malignancies. PMID:16935213

  7. Infertility: from a personal to a public health problem.

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, A T; Bernstein, J

    1999-01-01

    The inability to conceive a child is most often viewed as a private matter, but public health perspectives and skills can contribute greatly to our knowledge about infertility, and the development of effective and rational public policy for prevention, access to health care, and regulation of new technologies. We offer a primer of public health aspects of infertility in an effort to encourage the broad spectrum of public health professionals to become more knowledgeable about these topics and join in the national debate about preventive strategies, cost-benefit assessment, resource allocation, and ethics. Images p494-a p495-a p499-a p506-a PMID:10670617

  8. Perceived school safety is strongly associated with adolescent mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Nijs, Miesje M; Bun, Clothilde J E; Tempelaar, Wanda M; de Wit, Niek J; Burger, Huibert; Plevier, Carolien M; Boks, Marco P M

    2014-02-01

    School environment is an important determinant of psychosocial function and may also be related to mental health. We therefore investigated whether perceived school safety, a simple measure of this environment, is related to mental health problems. In a population-based sample of 11,130 secondary school students, we analysed the relationship of perceived school safety with mental health problems using multiple logistic regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Mental health problems were defined using the clinical cut-off of the self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. School safety showed an exposure-response relationship with mental health problems after adjustment for confounders. Odds ratios increased from 2.48 ("sometimes unsafe") to 8.05 ("very often unsafe"). The association was strongest in girls and young and middle-aged adolescents. Irrespective of the causal background of this association, school safety deserves attention either as a risk factor or as an indicator of mental health problems. PMID:23354812

  9. Solving a Health Information Management Problem. An international success story.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    The management of health care delivery requires the availability of effective 'information management' tools based on e-technologies [eHealth]. In developed economies many of these 'tools' are readily available whereas in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) there is limited access to eHealth technologies and this has been defined as the "digital divide". This paper provides a short introduction to the fundamental understanding of what is meant by information management in health care and how it applies to all social economies. The core of the paper describes the successful implementation of appropriate information management tools in a resource poor environment to manage the HIV/AIDS epidemic and other disease states, in sub-Saharan Africa and how the system has evolved to become the largest open source eHealth project in the world and become the health information infrastructure for several national eHealth economies. The system is known as Open MRS [www.openmrs.org). The continuing successful evolution of the OpenMRS project has permitted its key implementers to define core factors that are the foundations for successful eHealth projects. PMID:26521384

  10. Out of Harmony: Health Problems and Young Native American Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Jennie R.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the health of young Native American males using data from a survey of existing literature, noting that studies of the current health status of healthy young Native American men are rare. The article presents information on accidents, suicide, homicide, cancer, heart disease, and alcohol use and abuse among young Native American males. (SM)

  11. Farmers' perceptions of pesticides, and resultant health problems from exposures.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Misa

    2002-01-01

    As part of an evaluation study of the impacts of the Indonesian integrated pest management (IPM) Farmer Field Schools on farmers' health, focus group discussions were conducted with rice farmers who grew shallots in rotation. Farmers who had previously participated in IPM rice field schools and who were at the time participating in IPM shallot field schools were compared with farmers who had had no experience with IPM methods. The study found that farmers' knowledge concerning the health dangers of pesticides is not sufficient to change their behaviors. Their overriding concern is crop damage that leads to economic loss, not health. IPM field-school training offers farmers a viable alternative by concretely demonstrating the health, agricultural, environmental, and economic advantages of eliminating unnecessary pesticide use. If public health professionals aim to change behaviors through interventions, they must employ appropriate methods, meet the community's priorities and values, and offer feasible alternatives. PMID:12358073

  12. Younger siblings, C-reactive protein, and risk of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Amy C; Busija, Lucy; Robman, Liubov D; Dimitrov, Peter N; Varsamidis, Mary; Lim, Lyndell L; Baird, Paul N; Guymer, Robyn H

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between exposure to siblings and 1) the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and 2) C-reactive protein levels. We retrospectively analyzed pooled cross-sectional data from 2 studies: the Cardiovascular Health and Age-Related Maculopathy Study (2001-2002) and the Age-Related Maculopathy Statin Study (2004-2006). Associations between number of siblings and AMD were assessed by using multinomial logistic regression. Associations between number of siblings and C-reactive protein levels were examined by using a generalized linear model for γ distribution. A higher number of younger siblings was associated with significantly lower odds of early AMD in those with a family history of AMD (odds ratio = 0.2, 95% confidence interval: 0.1, 0.8) (P = 0.022) but was unrelated to AMD for those who had no family history of the disease (odds ratio = 1.0, 95% confidence interval: 0.9, 1.2) (P = 0.874). A higher number of younger siblings correlated with lower C-reactive protein levels (β = -0.19, 95% confidence interval: -0.38, -0.01) (P = 0.036). This supports the theory that immune modulation contributes to AMD pathogenesis and suggests that exposure to younger siblings might be protective when there is a family history of AMD. PMID:23548752

  13. Age-related decline of precision and binding in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Peich, Muy-Cheng; Husain, Masud; Bays, Paul M

    2013-09-01

    Working memory declines with normal aging, but the nature of this impairment is debated. Studies based on detecting changes to arrays of visual objects have identified two possible components to age-related decline: a reduction in the number of items that can be stored, or a deficit in maintaining the associations (bindings) between individual object features. However, some investigations have reported intact binding with aging, and specific deficits arising only in Alzheimer's disease. Here, using a recently developed continuous measure of recall fidelity, we tested the precision with which adults of different ages could reproduce from memory the orientation and color of a probed array item. The results reveal a further component of cognitive decline: an age-related decrease in the resolution with which visual information can be maintained in working memory. This increase in recall variability with age was strongest under conditions of greater memory load. Moreover, analysis of the distribution of errors revealed that older participants were more likely to incorrectly report one of the unprobed items in memory, consistent with an age-related increase in misbinding. These results indicate a systematic decline with age in working memory resources that can be recruited to store visual information. The paradigm presented here provides a sensitive index of both memory resolution and feature binding, with the potential for assessing their modulation by interventions. The findings have implications for understanding the mechanisms underpinning working memory deficits in both health and disease. PMID:23978008

  14. Parainflammation, chronic inflammation and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei; Xu, Heping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The retina is considered an immune privileged tissue due to its unique anatomical and physiological properties. During aging, the retina suffers from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age. As a result, the retinal innate immune system, particularly microglia and the complement system, undergo low levels of activation (para-inflammation). In many cases, this para-inflammatory response can maintain homeostasis in the healthy aging eye. However, in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), this para-inflammatory response becomes dysregulated and contributes to macular damage. Factors contributing to the dysregulation of age-related retinal para-inflammation include genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors and old age. Dysregulated para-inflammation (chronic inflammation) in AMD damages the blood retina barrier (BRB), resulting in the breach of retinal immune privilege leading to the development of retinal lesions. This review discusses the basic principles of retinal innate immune responses to endogenous chronic insults in normal aging and in AMD, and explores the difference between beneficial para-inflammation and the detrimental chronic inflammation in the context of AMD. PMID:26292978

  15. Oxidative stress and age-related neuronal deficits.

    PubMed

    Joseph, J A; Denisova, N; Villalobos-Molina, R; Erat, S; Strain, J

    1996-01-01

    Research from our laboratory has indicated that the loss of sensitivity that occurs in several receptor systems as a function of age may be an index of an increasing inability to respond to oxidative stress (OS). This loss occurs partially as a result of altered signal transduction (ST). Assessments have involved determining the nature of age-related reductions in oxotremorine enhancement of K(+)-evoked dopamine release (K(+)-ERDA) from superfused striatal slices. Using this model, we have found that 1. Reductions can be restored with in vivo administration of the free-radical trapping agent, N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN); 2. Decrements in DA release induced by NO or H2O2 from striatal slices from both young and old animals could be restored with alpha-tocopherol or PBN; 3. ST decrements, such as those seen in aging, could be induced with radiation exposure; and 4. Pre-incubation of the striatal slices with cholesterol decreased subsequent deleterious effects of NO or OH. on DA release. Thus, cholesterol, which increases in neuronal membranes as a function of age, may function as a potent antioxidant and protectant against neuronal damage. These results suggest that therapeutic efforts to restore cognitive deficits in aging and age-related disease might begin with antioxidant reversal of ST decrements. PMID:8871939

  16. Fertility preservation for age-related fertility decline.

    PubMed

    Stoop, Dominic; Cobo, Ana; Silber, Sherman

    2014-10-01

    Cryopreservation of eggs or ovarian tissue to preserve fertility for patients with cancer has been studied since 1994 with R G Gosden's paper describing restoration of fertility in oophorectomised sheep, and for decades previously by others in smaller mammals. Clinically this approach has shown great success. Many healthy children have been born from eggs cryopreserved with the Kuwayama egg vitrification technique for non-medical (social) indications, but until now very few patients with cancer have achieved pregnancy with cryopreserved eggs. Often, oncologists do not wish to delay cancer treatment while the patient goes through multiple ovarian stimulation cycles to retrieve eggs, and the patient can only start using the oocytes after full recovery from cancer. Ovarian stimulation and egg retrieval is not a barrier for patients without cancer who wish to delay childbearing, which makes oocyte cryopreservation increasingly popular to overcome an age-related decline in fertility. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is an option if egg cryopreservation is ruled out. More than 35 babies have been born so far with cryopreserved ovarian tissue in patients with cancer who have had a complete return of hormonal function, and fertility to baseline. Both egg and ovarian tissue cryopreservation might be ready for application to the preservation of fertility not only in patients with cancer but also in countering the increasing incidence of age-related decline in female fertility. PMID:25283572

  17. Age-related mutations and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mason, C C; Khorashad, J S; Tantravahi, S K; Kelley, T W; Zabriskie, M S; Yan, D; Pomicter, A D; Reynolds, K R; Eiring, A M; Kronenberg, Z; Sherman, R L; Tyner, J W; Dalley, B K; Dao, K-H; Yandell, M; Druker, B J; Gotlib, J; O'Hare, T; Deininger, M W

    2016-04-01

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a hematologic malignancy nearly confined to the elderly. Previous studies to determine incidence and prognostic significance of somatic mutations in CMML have relied on candidate gene sequencing, although an unbiased mutational search has not been conducted. As many of the genes commonly mutated in CMML were recently associated with age-related clonal hematopoiesis (ARCH) and aged hematopoiesis is characterized by a myelomonocytic differentiation bias, we hypothesized that CMML and aged hematopoiesis may be closely related. We initially established the somatic mutation landscape of CMML by whole exome sequencing followed by gene-targeted validation. Genes mutated in ⩾10% of patients were SRSF2, TET2, ASXL1, RUNX1, SETBP1, KRAS, EZH2, CBL and NRAS, as well as the novel CMML genes FAT4, ARIH1, DNAH2 and CSMD1. Most CMML patients (71%) had mutations in ⩾2 ARCH genes and 52% had ⩾7 mutations overall. Higher mutation burden was associated with shorter survival. Age-adjusted population incidence and reported ARCH mutation rates are consistent with a model in which clinical CMML ensues when a sufficient number of stochastically acquired age-related mutations has accumulated, suggesting that CMML represents the leukemic conversion of the myelomonocytic-lineage-biased aged hematopoietic system. PMID:26648538

  18. Current therapeutic developments in atrophic age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Jakub; Zhao, Fangkun; Wang, Shusheng

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a degenerative disorder of the central retina, is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly. The underlying mechanism of the advanced form of dry AMD, also named geographic atrophy (GA) or atrophic AMD, remains unclear. Consequently, no cure is available for dry AMD or GA. The only prevention option currently available is the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation, which has been demonstrated to slow down the progression of dry AMD. This review summarises recent advances in therapy for dry AMD and GA. Building on the new understanding of the disease and recent technological breakthroughs, numerous ongoing clinical trials have the goal of meeting the need to cure AMD. Therapeutic agents are being developed to target the key features of the disease, including inhibiting the complement pathway and other inflammatory pathways, reducing oxidative stress and protecting retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, inhibiting lipofuscin and visual cycle, regenerating RPE cells from stem cells and restoring choroidal blood flow. Some of these therapeutic options, especially the stem cell-based therapy, hold great promise, which brings great hope for this devastating blinding disease. PMID:26553922

  19. Age-related Cardiac Disease Model of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ocorr, Karen; Akasaka, Takeshi; Bodmer, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    We have begun to study the genetic basis of deterioration of cardiac function in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as an age-related cardiac disease model. For this purpose we have developed heart function assays in Drosophila and found that the fly's cardiac performance, as that of the human heart, deteriorates with age: aging fruit flies exhibit a progressive increase in electrical pacing-induced heart failure as well as in arrhythmias. The insulin receptor and associated pathways have a dramatic and heart-autonomous influence on age-related cardiac performance in flies, suggestive of potentially similar mechanisms in regulating cardiac aging in vertebrates. Compromised KCNQ and KATP ion channel functions also seem to contribute to the decline in heart performance in aging flies, suggesting that the corresponding vertebrate gene functions may similarly decline with age, in addition to their conserved role in protecting against arrhythmias and hypoxia/ischemia, respectively. The fly heart is thus emerging as a promising genetic model for studying the age-dependent decline in organ function. PMID:17125816

  20. Long noncoding RNAs in aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Kour, Sukhleen; Rath, Pramod C

    2016-03-01

    Aging is the universal, intrinsic, genetically-controlled, evolutionarily-conserved and time-dependent intricate biological process characterised by the cumulative decline in the physiological functions and their coordination in an organism after the attainment of adulthood resulting in the imbalance of neurological, immunological and metabolic functions of the body. Various biological processes and mechanisms along with altered levels of mRNAs and proteins have been reported to be involved in the progression of aging. It is one of the major risk factors in the patho-physiology of various diseases and disorders. Recently, the discovery of pervasive transcription of a vast pool of heterogeneous regulatory noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including small ncRNAs (sncRNAs) and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), in the mammalian genome have provided an alternative way to study and explore the missing links in the aging process, its mechanism(s) and related diseases in a whole new dimension. The involvement of small noncoding RNAs in aging and age-related diseases have been extensively studied and recently reviewed. However, lncRNAs, whose function is far less explored in relation to aging, have emerged as a class of major regulators of genomic functions. Here, we have described some examples of known as well as novel lncRNAs that have been implicated in the progression of the aging process and age-related diseases. This may further stimulate research on noncoding RNAs and the aging process. PMID:26655093

  1. Age-related differences in electroencephalogram connectivity and network topology.

    PubMed

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Volf, Nina V; Belousova, Ludmila V

    2015-05-01

    To better understand age-related differences in brain function and behavior, connectivity between brain regions was estimated from electroencephalogram source time series in eyes closed versus eyes open resting condition. In beta band, decrease of connectivity upon eyes opening was more pronounced in younger than in older participants. The extent of this decrease was associated with reaction time in attention tasks, and this relationship was fully mediated by participants' age, implying that physiological processes, which lead to age-related slowing, include changes in beta reactivity. Graph-theoretical analysis showed a decrease of modularity and clustering in beta and gamma band networks in older adults, implying that age makes brain networks more random. The overall number of nodes identified as hubs in posterior cortical regions decreased in older participants. At the same time, increase of connectedness of anterior nodes, probably reflecting compensatory activation of the anterior attentional system, was observed in beta-band network of older adults. These findings show that normal aging mostly affects interactions in beta band, which are probably involved in attentional processes. PMID:25766772

  2. Age-related changes to the production of linguistic prosody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Daniel R.

    The production of speech prosody (the rhythm, pausing, and intonation associated with natural speech) is critical to effective communication. The current study investigated the impact of age-related changes to physiology and cognition in relation to the production of two types of linguistic prosody: lexical stress and the disambiguation of syntactically ambiguous utterances. Analyses of the acoustic correlates of stress: speech intensity (or sound-pressure level; SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), key word/phrase duration, and pause duration revealed that both young and older adults effectively use these acoustic features to signal linguistic prosody, although the relative weighting of cues differed by group. Differences in F0 were attributed to age-related physiological changes in the laryngeal subsystem, while group differences in duration measures were attributed to relative task complexity and the cognitive-linguistic load of these respective tasks. The current study provides normative acoustic data for older adults which informs interpretation of clinical findings as well as research pertaining to dysprosody as the result of disease processes.

  3. Current Therapeutic Development for Atrophic Age-related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hanus, Jakub; Zhao, Fangkun; Wang, Shusheng

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a degenerative disorder of the central retina, is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly. The underlying mechanism of the advanced form of dry AMD, also named geographic atrophy (GA) or atrophic AMD, remains unclear. Consequently, no cure is available for dry AMD or GA. The only prevention option currently available is the Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation which has been demonstrated to slow down the progression of dry AMD. This review summarizes recent advances in therapy for dry AMD and GA. Building on the new understanding of the disease and recent technological breakthroughs, numerous ongoing clinical trials have the goal of meeting the need to cure AMD. Therapeutic agents are being developed to target the key features of the disease, including inhibiting the complement pathway and other inflammatory pathways, reducing oxidative stress and protecting retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, inhibiting lipofuscin and visual cycle, regenerating RPE cells from stem cells and restoring choroidal blood flow. Some of these therapeutic options, especially the stem-cell based therapy, hold great promise, which brings great hope for this devastating blinding disease. PMID:26553922

  4. Age-related differences in moral identity across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Murua, Lourdes Andrea; Jia, Fanli

    2016-06-01

    In this study, age-related differences in adults' moral identity were investigated. Moral identity was conceptualized a context-dependent self-structure that becomes differentiated and (re)integrated in the course of development and that involves a broad range of value-orientations. Based on a cross-sectional sample of 252 participants aged 14 to 65 years (148 women, M = 33.5 years, SD = 16.9) and a modification of the Good Self-Assessment, it was demonstrated that mean-level of moral identity (averaged across the contexts of family, school/work, and community) significantly increased in the adult years, whereas cross-context differentiation showed a nonlinear trend peaking at the age of 25 years. Value-orientations that define individuals' moral identity shifted so that self-direction and rule-conformity became more important with age. Age-related differences in moral identity were associated with, but not fully attributable to changes in personality traits. Overall, findings suggest that moral identity development is a lifelong process that starts in adolescence but expands well into middle age. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27124654

  5. Developmental improvement and age-related decline in unfamiliar face matching.

    PubMed

    Megreya, Ahmed M; Bindemann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes have been documented widely in studies of face recognition and eyewitness identification. However, it is not clear whether these changes arise from general developmental differences in memory or occur specifically during the perceptual processing of faces. We report two experiments to track such perceptual changes using a 1-in- 10 (experiment 1) and 1-in-1 (experiment 2) matching task for unfamiliar faces. Both experiments showed improvements in face matching during childhood and adult-like accuracy levels by adolescence. In addition, face-matching performance declined in adults of the age of 65 years. These findings indicate that developmental improvements and aging-related differences in face processing arise from changes in the perceptual encoding of faces. A clear face inversion effect was also present in all age groups. This indicates that those age-related changes in face matching reflect a quantitative effect, whereby typical face processes are engaged but do not operate at the best-possible level. These data suggest that part of the problem of eyewitness identification in children and elderly persons might reflect impairments in the perceptual processing of unfamiliar faces. PMID:26489213

  6. What determines age-related disease: do we know all the right questions?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The average human lifespan has increased throughout the last century due to the mitigation of many infectious diseases. More people now die of age-related diseases than ever before, but these diseases have been resistant to elimination. Progress has been made in treatments and preventative measures to delay the onsets of these diseases, but most cancers and vascular diseases are still with us and they kill about the same fraction of the population year after year. For example, US Caucasian female deaths from breast plus genital cancers have remained a fairly constant ~7% of the age-related disease deaths from 1938 to 1998 and have been consistently ~2-fold greater than female colon plus rectal cancer deaths over that span. This type of stability pattern pervades the age-related diseases and suggests that intrinsic properties within populations determine these fractions. Recognizing this pattern and deciphering its origin will be necessary for the complete understanding of these major causes of death. It would appear that more than the random processes of aging drive this effect. The question is how to meaningfully approach this problem. This commentary discusses the epidemiological and aging perspectives and their current limitations in providing an explanation. The age of bioinformatics offers hope, but only if creative systems approaches are forthcoming. PMID:19904627

  7. What determines age-related disease: do we know all the right questions?

    PubMed

    Juckett, David A

    2010-06-01

    The average human lifespan has increased throughout the last century due to the mitigation of many infectious diseases. More people now die of age-related diseases than ever before, but these diseases have been resistant to elimination. Progress has been made in treatments and preventative measures to delay the onsets of these diseases, but most cancers and vascular diseases are still with us and they kill about the same fraction of the population year after year. For example, US Caucasian female deaths from breast plus genital cancers have remained a fairly constant approximately 7% of the age-related disease deaths from 1938 to 1998 and have been consistently approximately 2-fold greater than female colon plus rectal cancer deaths over that span. This type of stability pattern pervades the age-related diseases and suggests that intrinsic properties within populations determine these fractions. Recognizing this pattern and deciphering its origin will be necessary for the complete understanding of these major causes of death. It would appear that more than the random processes of aging drive this effect. The question is how to meaningfully approach this problem. This commentary discusses the epidemiological and aging perspectives and their current limitations in providing an explanation. The age of bioinformatics offers hope, but only if creative systems approaches are forthcoming. PMID:19904627

  8. Adverse Health Problems Among Municipality Workers in Alexandria (Egypt)

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W.; Eassa, Safaa M.; Lotfi, Sameh E.; El Masry, Sanaa A.; Shatat, Hanan Z.; Kotkat, Amira M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Solid waste management has emerged as an important human and environmental health issue. Municipal solid waste workers (MSWWs) are potentially exposed to a variety of occupational biohazards and safety risks. The aim of this study was to describe health practices and safety measures adopted by workers in the main municipal company in Alexandria (Egypt) as well as the pattern of the encountered work related ill health. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2013. We interviewed and evaluated 346 workers serving in about 15 different solid waste management activities regarding personal hygiene, the practice of security and health care measures and the impact of solid waste management. Results: Poor personal hygiene and self-care, inadequate protective and safety measures for potentially hazardous exposure were described. Impact of solid waste management on health of MSWWs entailed high prevalence of gastrointestinal, respiratory, skin and musculoskeletal morbidities. Occurrence of accidents and needle stick injuries amounted to 46.5% and 32.7% respectively. The risk of work related health disorders was notably higher among workers directly exposed to solid waste when compared by a group of low exposure potential particularly for diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-3.8), vomiting (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-6.6), abdominal colic (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.2), dysentery (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.3-10), dyspepsia (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-3), low back/sciatic pain (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.8-7), tinnitus (OR = 6.2, 95% CI = 0.3-122) and needle stick injury (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.1-5.5). Conclusions: Workers exposed to solid waste exhibit significant increase in risk of ill health. Physician role and health education could be the key to assure the MSWWs health safety. PMID:24932385

  9. In vivo MR evaluation of age-related increases in brain iron

    SciTech Connect

    Bartzokis, G.; Mintz, J.; Sultzer, D.; Marx, P.; Herzberg, J.S.; Phelan, C.K.

    1994-06-01

    To assess the validity of an MR method of evaluating tissue iron. The difference between the transverse relaxation rate (R{sub 2}) measured with a high-field MR instrument and the R{sub 2} measured with a lower field instrument defines a measure termed the field-dependent R{sub 2} increase (FDRI). Previous in vivo and in vitro studies indicated that FDRI is a specific measure of tissue iron stores (ferritin). T2 relaxation times were obtained using two clinical MR instruments operating at 0.5 T and 1.5 T. T2 relaxation times were measured in the frontal white matter, caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus of 20 health adult male volunteers with an age range of 20 to 81 years. R{sub 2} was calculated as the reciprocal of T2 relaxation time. These in vivo MR results were correlated with previously published postmortem data on age-related increases of nonheme iron levels. The FDRI was very highly correlated with published brain iron levels for the four regions examined. In the age range examined, robust and highly significant age-related increases in FDRI were observed in the caudate and putamen. The correlations of age and FDRI in the globus pallidus and white matter were significantly lower and did not have statistical significance. The data provide additional evidence that FDRI is a specific measure of tissue iron stores. The data also show that age-related increases in tissue iron stores can be quantified in vivo despite significant age-related processes that oppose the increase in R{sub 2} caused by iron. These results are relevant to the investigation of neurodegenerative processes in which iron may catalyze toxic free-radical reactions. 63 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Genome-wide age-related changes in DNA methylation and gene expression in human PBMCs.

    PubMed

    Steegenga, Wilma T; Boekschoten, Mark V; Lute, Carolien; Hooiveld, Guido J; de Groot, Philip J; Morris, Tiffany J; Teschendorff, Andrew E; Butcher, Lee M; Beck, Stephan; Müller, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Aging is a progressive process that results in the accumulation of intra- and extracellular alterations that in turn contribute to a reduction in health. Age-related changes in DNA methylation have been reported before and may be responsible for aging-induced changes in gene expression, although a causal relationship has yet to be shown. Using genome-wide assays, we analyzed age-induced changes in DNA methylation and their effect on gene expression with and without transient induction with the synthetic transcription modulating agent WY14,643. To demonstrate feasibility of the approach, we isolated peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) from five young and five old healthy male volunteers and cultured them with or without WY14,643. Infinium 450K BeadChip and Affymetrix Human Gene 1.1 ST expression array analysis revealed significant differential methylation of at least 5 % (ΔYO > 5 %) at 10,625 CpG sites between young and old subjects, but only a subset of the associated genes were also differentially expressed. Age-related differential methylation of previously reported epigenetic biomarkers of aging including ELOVL2, FHL2, PENK, and KLF14 was confirmed in our study, but these genes did not display an age-related change in gene expression in PBMCs. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that differentially methylated genes that lack an age-related expression change predominantly represent genes involved in carcinogenesis and developmental processes, and expression of most of these genes were silenced in PBMCs. No changes in DNA methylation were found in genes displaying transiently induced changes in gene expression. In conclusion, aging-induced differential methylation often targets developmental genes and occurs mostly without change in gene expression. PMID:24789080

  11. Philosophical problems with social research on health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, S P; Forbes, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper offers a realist critique of social research on health inequalities. A conspectus of the field of health inequalities research identifies two main research approaches: the positivist quantitative survey and the interpretivist qualitative 'case study'. We argue that both approaches suffer from serious philosophical limitations. We suggest that a turn to realism offers a productive 'third way' both for the development of health inequality research in particular and for the social scientific understanding of the complexities of the social world in general. PMID:11186025

  12. Serious Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Mental Health Contacts in American and British Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojtabai, Ramin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare prevalence of serious emotional and behavioral problems and mental health contacts for these problems among American and British children and adolescents. Method: Data on children and adolescents ages 5 to 16 years were drawn from the 2004 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (response rate = 79.4%) and the 2004 survey of…

  13. Assessing Students with Serious Mental Health and Behavioral Problems: Clinical Assessment for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Conlon, Amy L.

    The current intervention trend for many of the mental health and behavioral problems faced by today's youth is an integrative approach that involves the community, families, and schools. Clinical assessment for serious mental health and behavioral problems can be an important component in the development of school-based screening programs. The…

  14. Families of Individuals with Intellectual Disability and Comorbid Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Anna J.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the families of individuals dually diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID) and comorbid mental health problems. The review examines the impact of caring for individuals with ID and comorbid mental health problems on family well-being, the impact of the family on these individuals, and intervention and support needs of…

  15. Perceptions of Neighborhood Problems and Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Erin M.; Shepherd, Daniel; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim N.; McBride, David

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the association between perceptions of neighborhood problems and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of New Zealand residents (n = 692). A modified version of the Neighborhood Problems Scale (originally developed by Steptoe and Feldman, 2001) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) were…

  16. Coping with Health Problems: Developing a Reliable and Valid Multidimensional Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endler, Norman S.; Parker, James D. A.; Summerfeldt, Laura J.

    1998-01-01

    A self-report measure, the Coping with Health Injuries and Problems Scale (CHIP), was developed to identify basic coping dimensions for responding to health problems. The CHIP factor structure, established with samples of 532 adults and 598 adults in Canada, is cross-validated with 390 general medical patients and 286 chronic back pain patients.…

  17. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  18. An Annotated Bibliography of Identifying and Meeting the Needs of the Student with Chronic Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Karen M.

    A 56-citation review is presented of literature on chronic illness or chronic health problems in school-aged children, as well as policies connected with the medication a child may be taking for management of a physical condition. The initial section discusses the prevalence of chronic health problems, the psychological manifestations, the…

  19. Early Childhood Aetiology of Mental Health Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Jordana K.; Hiscock, Harriet; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Price, Anna; Wake, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems comprise an international public health issue affecting up to 20% of children and show considerable stability. We aimed to identify child, parenting, and family predictors from infancy in the development of externalising and internalising behaviour problems by age 3 years. Methods: "Design" Longitudinal,…

  20. Community Colleges, Health-Related Social Problems, and the Community Services Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Donald Dean

    The major objective of the persent research was to determine the degree of commitment to community service in the area of health related social problems on the part of public community colleges. Specifically, the study sought to determine if these institutions have a responsibility for assisting in the amelioration of health-related problems. The…

  1. Health Problems in Children and Adolescents before and after a Man-Made Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkzwager, Anja J. E.; Kerssens, Jan J.; Yzermans, C. Joris

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to examine health problems of children (4-12 years old at the time of the disaster) and adolescents (13-18 years old at the time of the disaster) before and after exposure to a fireworks disaster in the Netherlands (May 2000), to compare these health problems with a control group, and to identify risk factors…

  2. Mental Health Problems and Coping Styles of Urban and Rural High School Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hongjing; Chang, Kyle; Zhang, Fan; Greenberger, Ellen; Chen, Chuansheng

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have compared urban and rural adolescents' mental health problems, especially in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mental health problems and coping styles of adolescents in urban and rural areas in China. A total of 927 urban and rural high school students in Shandong Province of China were…

  3. Trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Strohmeier, Hannah; Scholte, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Working in humanitarian crisis situations is dangerous. National humanitarian staff in particular face the risk of primary and secondary trauma exposure which can lead to mental health problems. Despite this, research on the mental health of national staff is scarce, and a systematic analysis of up-to-date findings has not been undertaken yet. Objective This article reviews the available literature on trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff. It focuses on the prevalence of selected mental health problems in relation to reference groups; sex and/or gender as predictive factors of mental health problems; and the influence of organization types on mental health problems. Method Three databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published in the English language in peer-reviewed journals. Results Fourteen articles matched the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that national staff experience mental health problems and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among this occupation group is mostly similar to or higher than among reference groups. Research on both substance use disorder and suicidal behavior among national staff is particularly scarce. The relation between sex and/or gender and mental health problems among national staff appears to be complex, and organizational staff support seems to be an important determinant for mental health. Conclusion All findings call for increased attention from the humanitarian community and further research on the topic. PMID:26589256

  4. Resurgent vector-borne diseases as a global health problem.

    PubMed Central

    Gubler, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Vector-borne infectious diseases are emerging or resurging as a result of changes in public health policy, insecticide and drug resistance, shift in emphasis from prevention to emergency response, demographic and societal changes, and genetic changes in pathogens. Effective prevention strategies can reverse this trend. Research on vaccines, environmentally safe insecticides, alternative approaches to vector control, and training programs for health-care workers are needed. PMID:9716967

  5. Mental health problems in children with neuromotor disabilities.

    PubMed

    Klein, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    Mental health in children with neuromotor disorders is part of a dynamic system, including medical and developmental domains, family, school and community. Presentations are often complex and multifactorial, requiring a broad, individualized approach. A narrative overview of mental health symptoms in children with neuromotor disabilities is provided, along with recommendations for their assessment and management using the WHO's International Classification of Functioning framework. PMID:27095886

  6. Developing confidence in mental health students to recognise and manage physical health problems using a learning intervention.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Angelina Lilja; Withnell, Neil

    2016-07-01

    Globally, there is increased recognition of a higher prevalence of physical ill health and mortality in individuals with mental health problems. A review of the literature highlighted the need to address deterioration in physical health of those with mental health problems through better recognition and management on the part of mental health nurses. However, mental health nurses have been found to lack confidence and be unsure of their role within this area. The aim of the project was to develop pre-registration mental health students' confidence to be able to recognise and manage physical health deterioration through the use of high fidelity human patient simulation, the development of contextualised clinical scenarios and additional theory around the A to E mnemonic structured assessment. The project involved 95 third year mental health student nurses, using a self-rating pre and post intervention questionnaire to measure their perceived confidence levels and to evaluate the effectiveness of the learning intervention. Findings demonstrate improved overall confidence levels in recognising and managing physical health deterioration in human patient simulators displaying mental health problems. PMID:27428688

  7. Inflammatory networks in ageing, age-related diseases and longevity.

    PubMed

    Vasto, Sonya; Candore, Giuseppina; Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Caruso, Marco; Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina; Grimaldi, Maria Paola; Listi, Florinda; Nuzzo, Domenico; Lio, Domenico; Caruso, Calogero

    2007-01-01

    Inflammation is considered a response set by the tissues in response to injury elicited by trauma or infection. It is a complex network of molecular and cellular interactions that facilitates a return to physiological homeostasis and tissue repair. The individual response against infection and trauma is also determined by gene variability. Ageing is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation state clearly showed by 2-4-fold increase in serum levels of inflammatory mediators. A wide range of factors has been claimed to contribute to this state; however, the most important role seems to be played by the chronic antigenic stress, which affects immune system thorough out life with a progressive activation of macrophages and related cells. This pro-inflammatory status, interacting with the genetic background, potentially triggers the onset of age-related inflammatory diseases as atherosclerosis. Thus, the analysis of polymorphisms of the genes that are key nodes of the natural immunity response might clarify the patho-physiology of age-related inflammatory diseases as atherosclerosis. On the other hand, centenarians are characterized by marked delay or escape from age-associated diseases that, on average, cause mortality at earlier ages. In addition, centenarian offspring have increased likelihood of surviving to 100 years and show a reduced prevalence of age-associated diseases, as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and less prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. So, genes involved in CVD may play an opposite role in human longevity. Thus, the model of centenarians can be used to understand the role of these genes in successful and unsuccessful ageing. Accordingly, we report the results of several studies in which the frequencies of pro-inflammatory alleles were significantly higher in patients affected by infarction and lower in centenarians whereas age-related controls displayed intermediate values. These findings point to a strong relationship between the genetics

  8. The braking force in walking: age-related differences and improvement in older adults with exergame training.

    PubMed

    Maillot, Pauline; Perrot, Alexandra; Hartley, Alan; Do, Manh-Cuong

    2014-10-01

    The purposes of this present research were, in the first study, to determine whether age impacts a measure of postural control (the braking force in walking) and, in a second study, to determine whether exergame training in physically-simulated sport activity would show transfer, increasing the braking force in walking and also improving balance assessed by clinical measures, functional fitness, and health-related quality of life in older adults. For the second study, the authors developed an active video game training program (using the Wii system) with a pretest-training-posttest design comparing an experimental group (24 1-hr sessions of training) with a control group. Participants completed a battery comprising balance (braking force in short and normal step conditions), functional fitness (Senior Fitness Test), and health-related quality of life (SF-36). Results show that 12 weeks of video game-based exercise program training improved the braking force in the normal step condition, along with the functional fitness of lower limb strength, cardiovascular endurance, and motor agility, as measured by the Senior Fitness Test. Only the global mental dimension of the SF-36 was sensitive to exergame practice. Exergames appear to be an effective way to train postural control in older adults. Because of the multimodal nature of the activity, exergames provide an effective tool for remediation of age-related problems. PMID:24231655

  9. Progressive Age-Related Changes Similar to Age-Related Macular Degeneration in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Rakoczy, Piroska Elizabeth; Zhang, Dan; Robertson, Terry; Barnett, Nigel L.; Papadimitriou, John; Constable, Ian Jeffrey; Lai, Chooi-May

    2002-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the major cause of blindness in the developed world. Its pathomechanism is unknown and its late onset, complex genetics and strong environmental components have all hampered investigations. Here we demonstrate the development of an animal model for AMD that reproduces features associated with geographic atrophy; a transgenic mouse line (mcd/mcd) expressing a mutated form of cathepsin D that is enzymatically inactive thus impairing processing of phagocytosed photoreceptor outer segments in the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Pigmentary changes indicating RPE cell atrophy and a decreased response to flash electroretinograms were observed in 11- to 12-month-old mcd/mcd mice. Histological studies showed RPE cell proliferation, photoreceptor degeneration, shortening of photoreceptor outer segments, and accumulation of immunoreactive photoreceptor breakdown products in the RPE cells. An accelerated photoreceptor cell death was detected in 12-month-old mcd/mcd mice. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated presence of basal laminar and linear deposits that are considered to be the hallmarks of AMD. Small hard drusen associated with human age-related maculopathy were absent in the mcd/mcd mouse model at the ages analyzed. In summary, this model presents several features of AMD, thus providing a valuable tool for investigating the underlying biological processes and pathomechanism of AMD. PMID:12368224

  10. The Stealth Gerontology [TM] Program: Training Teachers to Infuse Aging and Age-Related Content into Public School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruski, Linda A.; Plaetke, Rosemarie; Cheryl L.; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Lichtenstein, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Preparing youngsters for an aging society requires teachers who keep pace with health science research. The Stealth Gerontology [TM] program educates teachers regarding aging-related issues. The design and assessment of the program are reported in this paper. Teachers attended sessions including direct instruction and hands-on participation (e.g.,…

  11. The Stealth Gerontologytm Program[TM]: Training Teachers to Infuse Aging and Age-Related Content into Public School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruski, Linda A.; Plaetke, Rosemarie; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Lichtenstein, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Preparing youngsters for an aging society requires teachers who keep pace with health science research. The Stealth Gerontology[TM] program educates teachers regarding aging-related issues. The design and assessment of the program are reported in this paper. Teachers attended sessions including direct instruction and hands-on participation (e.g.,…

  12. Age-related differences in pulmonary effects of acute and subchronic episodic ozone exposures in Brown Norway rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (O3) is known to induce adverse pulmonary and systemic health effects. Importantly, children and older persons are considered at-risk populations for O3-induced dysfunction, yet the mechanisms accounting for the age-related pulmonary responses to O3 are uncertain. In this s...

  13. Age-related priming effects in social judgments.

    PubMed

    Hess, T M; McGee, K A; Woodburn, S M; Bolstad, C A

    1998-03-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in the impact of previously activated (and thus easily accessible) trait-related information on judgments about people. The authors hypothesized that age-related declines in the efficiency of controlled processing mechanisms during adulthood would be associated with increased susceptibility to judgment biases associated with such information. In each study, different-aged adults made impression judgments about a target, and assimilation of these judgments to trait constructs activated in a previous, unrelated task were examined. Consistent with the authors' hypotheses, older adults were likely to form impressions that were biased toward the primed trait constructs. In contrast, younger adults exhibited greater awareness of the primed information and were more likely to correct for its perceived influence, especially when distinctive contextual cues regarding the source of the primes were available. PMID:9533195

  14. Modulation of cell death in age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Tezil, Tugsan; Basaga, Huveyda

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a stage of life of all living organisms. According to the free-radical theory, aging cells gradually become unable to maintain cellular homeostasis due to the adverse effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS can cause irreversible DNA mutations, protein and lipid damage which are increasingly accumulated in the course of time if cells could not overcome these effects by the antioxidant defence system. Accrued damaged molecules in cells may either induce cellular death or contribute to develop various pathologies. Hence, programmed cell death mechanisms, apoptosis and autophagy, play a vital role in the aging process. Although they are strictly controlled by various interconnected signalling pathways, alterations in their regulations may contribute to severe pathologies including cancer, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In this review, we summarized our current understanding and hypotheses regarding oxidative stress and age-related dysregulation of cell death signalling pathways. PMID:24079770

  15. Molecular pathology of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaoyan; Patel, Mrinali; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2009-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of AMD remain largely unclear, a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors is thought to exist. AMD pathology is characterized by degeneration involving the retinal photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch’s membrane, as well as, in some cases, alterations in choroidal capillaries. Recent research on the genetic and molecular underpinnings of AMD brings to light several basic molecular pathways and pathophysiological processes that might mediate AMD risk, progression, and/or response to therapy. This review summarizes, in detail, the molecular pathological findings in both humans and animal models, including genetic variations in CFH, CX3CR1, and ARMS2/HtrA1, as well as the role of numerous molecules implicated in inflammation, apoptosis, cholesterol trafficking, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress. PMID:19026761

  16. Complement Factor H Polymorphism in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Robert J.; Zeiss, Caroline; Chew, Emily Y.; Tsai, Jen-Yue; Sackler, Richard S.; Haynes, Chad; Henning, Alice K.; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Mane, Shrikant M.; Mayne, Susan T.; Bracken, Michael B.; Ferris, Frederick L.; Ott, Jurg; Barnstable, Colin; Hoh., Josephine

    2006-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in the elderly. We report a genome-wide screen of 96 cases and 50 controls for polymorphisms associated with AMD. Among 116,204 single-nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped, an intronic and common variant in the complement factor H gene (CFH) is strongly associated with AMD (nominal P value <10−7). In individuals homozygous for the risk allele, the likelihood of AMD is increased by a factor of 7.4 (95% confidence interval 2.9 to 19). Resequencing revealed a polymorphism in linkage disequilibrium with the risk allele representing a tyrosine-histidine change at amino acid 402. This polymorphism is in a region of CFH that binds heparin and C-reactive protein. The CFH gene is located on chromosome 1 in a region repeatedly linked to AMD in family-based studies. PMID:15761122

  17. Translational strategies in aging and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Armanios, Mary; de Cabo, Rafael; Mannick, Joan; Partridge, Linda; van Deursen, Jan; Villeda, Saul

    2015-12-01

    Aging is a risk factor for several of the world's most prevalent diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease. Although our understanding of the molecular pathways that contribute to the aging process and age-related disease is progressing through the use of model organisms, how to apply this knowledge in the clinic is less clear. In September, Nature Medicine, in collaboration with the Volkswagen Foundation, hosted a conference at the beautiful Herrenhausen Palace in Hannover, Germany with the goal of broadening our understanding of the aging process and its meaning as a 'risk factor' in disease. Here, several of the speakers at that conference answer questions posed by Nature Medicine. PMID:26646495

  18. Retinal phagocytes in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Young

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in industrial countries. Vision loss caused by AMD results from geographic atrophy (dry AMD) and/or choroidal neovascularization (wet AMD). Presently, the etiology and pathogenesis of AMD is not fully understood and there is no effective treatment. Oxidative stress in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is considered to be one of the major factors contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD. Also retinal glia, as scavengers, are deeply related with diseases and could play a role. Therefore, therapeutic approaches for microglia and Müller glia, as well as RPE, may lead to new strategies for AMD treatment. This review summarizes the pathological findings observed in RPE cells, microglia and Müller glia of AMD murine models. PMID:26052551

  19. Treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: Current therapies

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Albert J; Scholl, Stefan; Kirchhof, Janna

    2009-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is now the leading cause of blindness and severe vision loss among people over the age of 40 in the Western world. Its prevalence is certain to increase substantially as the population ages. Treatments currently available for the disease include laser photocoagulation, verteporfin photodynamic therapy, and intravitreal injections of corticosteroids and anti-angiogenic agents. Many studies have reported the benefits of each of these treatments, although none is without its risks. No intervention actually cures AMD, nor the neovascularization associated with it. However, its symptoms are treated with varying degrees of success. Some treatments stabilize or arrest the progress of the disease. Others have been shown to reverse some of the damage that has already been done. These treatments can even lead to visual improvement. This paper will review the major classes of drugs and therapies designed to treat this condition. PMID:19668562

  20. Targeting MAPK Signaling in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kyosseva, Svetlana V.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible blindness affecting elderly people in the world. AMD is a complex multifactorial disease associated with demographic, genetics, and environmental risk factors. It is well established that oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis play critical roles in the pathogenesis of AMD. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are activated by diverse extracellular stimuli, including growth factors, mitogens, hormones, cytokines, and different cellular stressors such as oxidative stress. They regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. This review addresses the novel findings from human and animal studies on the relationship of MAPK signaling with AMD. The use of specific MAPK inhibitors may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of this debilitating eye disease. PMID:27385915

  1. A Revised Hemodynamic Theory of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Bradley D; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2016-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) afflicts one out of every 40 individuals worldwide, causing irreversible central blindness in millions. The transformation of various tissue layers within the macula in the retina has led to competing conceptual models of the molecular pathways, cell types, and tissues responsible for the onset and progression of AMD. A model that has persisted for over 6 decades is the hemodynamic, or vascular theory of AMD progression, which states that vascular dysfunction of the choroid underlies AMD pathogenesis. Here, we re-evaluate this hypothesis in light of recent advances on molecular, anatomic, and hemodynamic changes underlying choroidal dysfunction in AMD. We propose an updated, detailed model of hemodynamic dysfunction as a mechanism of AMD development and progression. PMID:27423265

  2. Complement factor H polymorphism and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Albert O; Ritter, Robert; Abel, Kenneth J; Manning, Alisa; Panhuysen, Carolien; Farrer, Lindsay A

    2005-04-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common, late-onset, and complex trait with multiple risk factors. Concentrating on a region harboring a locus for AMD on 1q25-31, the ARMD1 locus, we tested single-nucleotide polymorphisms for association with AMD in two independent case-control populations. Significant association (P = 4.95 x 10(-10)) was identified within the regulation of complement activation locus and was centered over a tyrosine-402 --> histidine-402 protein polymorphism in the gene encoding complement factor H. Possession of at least one histidine at amino acid position 402 increased the risk of AMD 2.7-fold and may account for 50% of the attributable risk of AMD. PMID:15761121

  3. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Insights into Inflammatory Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ragazzo, Michele; Missiroli, Filippo; Borgiani, Paola; Angelucci, Francesco; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Cusumano, Andrea; Novelli, Giuseppe; Ricci, Federico; Giardina, Emiliano

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects approximately 8.7% of elderly people worldwide (>55 years old). AMD is characterized by a multifactorial aetiology that involves several genetic and environmental risk factors (genes, ageing, smoking, family history, dietary habits, oxidative stress, and hypertension). In particular, ageing and cigarette smoking (including oxidative compounds and reactive oxygen species) have been shown to significantly increase susceptibility to the disease. Furthermore, different genes (CFH, CFI, C2, C3, IL-6, IL-8, and ARMS2) that play a crucial role in the inflammatory pathway have been associated with AMD risk. Several genetic and molecular studies have indicated the participation of inflammatory molecules (cytokines and chemokines), immune cells (macrophages), and complement proteins in the development and progression of the disease. Taking into consideration the genetic and molecular background, this review highlights the genetic role of inflammatory genes involved in AMD pathogenesis and progression. PMID:25478207

  4. Gene Therapies for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Pechan, Peter; Wadsworth, Samuel; Scaria, Abraham

    2015-07-01

    Pathological neovascularization is a key component of the neovascular form (also known as the wet form) of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Several preclinical studies have shown that antiangiogenesis strategies are effective for treating neovascular AMD in animal models. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the main inducers of ocular neovascularization, and several clinical trials have shown the benefits of neutralizing VEGF in patients with neovascular AMD or diabetic macular edema. In this review, we summarize several preclinical and early-stage clinical trials with intraocular gene therapies, which have the potential to reduce or eliminate the repeated intravitreal injections that are currently required for the treatment of neovascular AMD. PMID:25524721

  5. The Neural Consequences of Age-Related Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-07-01

    During hearing, acoustic signals travel up the ascending auditory pathway from the cochlea to auditory cortex; efferent connections provide descending feedback. In human listeners, although auditory and cognitive processing have sometimes been viewed as separate domains, a growing body of work suggests they are intimately coupled. Here, we review the effects of hearing loss on neural systems supporting spoken language comprehension, beginning with age-related physiological decline. We suggest that listeners recruit domain general executive systems to maintain successful communication when the auditory signal is degraded, but that this compensatory processing has behavioral consequences: even relatively mild levels of hearing loss can lead to cascading cognitive effects that impact perception, comprehension, and memory, leading to increased listening effort during speech comprehension. PMID:27262177

  6. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age. PMID:25215609

  7. Public health problems and global warming faced by developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    Climatic change potentially causes direct and indirect impacts on human health, resulting in a net increase in morbidity and associated mortality. Impacts would be greater in communities with higher exposure and with fewer technical and social resources. Age, skin pigmentation, hygiene level, socio-economic and health status, are determinants of the net effects. Climatic change will have indirect health effects by changing natural ecosystems, affecting such aspects as food production, patterns of vector-borne diseases, a number of non-infectious diseases, and unknown infections. The health effects, occurring largely as a result of increases in biologically effective UVR, are expected to consist of: increase in malignant and nonmalignant skin cancer; several eye diseases (primarily cataract); and possible alterations in the immune response. Some of the largest public health issues will be respiratory diseases brought about by increased air pollution, exacerbation of allergic disorders, and deaths and injuries from extreme weather events. Additionally, vaccination programs may be ineffective and nutritional requirements may be different in heavily sun-exposed populations.

  8. Human health problems associated with current agricultural food production.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramesh V

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technological developments in the agricultural sectors in the recent past has resulted in increased food production and at the same time led to certain public health concerns. Unseasonal rains at the time of harvest and improper post harvest technology often results in agricultural commodities being contaminated with certain fungi and results in the production of mycotoxins. Consumption of such commodities has resulted in human disease outbreaks. Naturally occurring toxins, inherently present in foods and either consumed as such or mixed up with grains, had been responsible for disease outbreaks. Other possible causes of health concern include the application of various agrochemicals such as pesticides and the use of antibiotics in aquaculture and veterinary practices. Foodborne pathogens entering the food chain during both traditional and organic agriculture pose a challenge to public health. Modern biotechnology, producing genetically modified foods, if not regulated appropriately could pose dangers to human health. Use of various integrated food management systems like the Hazard Analysis and critical control system approach for risk prevention, monitoring and control of food hazards are being emphasized with globalization to minimise the danger posed to human health from improper agricultural practices. PMID:18296310

  9. Health Anxiety in Preadolescence - Associated Health Problems, Healthcare Expenditure, and Continuity in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Munkholm, Anja; Clemmensen, Lars; Rimvall, Martin K; Ørnbøl, Eva; Jeppesen, Pia; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiological data on the distribution, persistence, and clinical correlates of health anxiety (HA) in childhood are scarce. We investigated continuity of HA symptoms and associated health problems and medical costs in primary health services in a general population birth cohort. HA symptoms were assessed in 1886 Danish 11-12 year old children (48 % boys) from the Copenhagen Child Cohort using the Childhood Illness Attitude Scales (CIAS) together with information on socio-demographics and the child's somatic and mental status and healthcare expenditure. Non-parametric statistics and regression analysis were used to compare groups with low (n = 184), intermediate (n = 1539), and high (n = 161) HA symptom scores. The association between HA symptoms assessed at age 5-7 years and HA symptoms at ages 11-12 years was examined by Stuart-Maxwell test. HA symptoms were significantly associated with emotional disorders and unspecific somatic complaints, but not with chronic physical conditions. In regression analyses controlling for gender and physical comorbidity, healthcare expenditure peaked in children with the highest HA symptom score, that is these children used on average approximately 150 Euro more than children with the lowest score during the 2-year period preceding inclusion. HA symptoms at age 5-7 years were significantly associated with HA symptoms at age 11-12 years. We conclude that HA symptoms, including hypochondriacal fears and beliefs, were non-trivial in preadolescents; they showed continuity from early childhood and association with emotional disorders, unspecific somatic complaints, and increased healthcare expenditure. Further research in the clinical significance of childhood HA is required. PMID:26311618

  10. Genetic risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Maryam; Armstrong, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in individuals older than 65 years of age. It is a multifactorial disorder and identification of risk factors enables individuals to make lifestyle choices that may reduce the risk of disease. Collaboration between geneticists, ophthalmologists, and optometrists suggests that genetic risk factors play a more significant role in AMD than previously thought. The most important genes are associated with immune system modulation and the complement system, e.g., complement factor H (CFH), factor B (CFB), factor C3, and serpin peptidase inhibitor (SERPING1). Genes associated with membrane transport, e.g., ATP-binding cassette protein (ABCR) and voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma 3 (CACNG3), the vascular system, e.g., fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), fibulin-5, lysyl oxidase-like gene (LOXL1) and selectin-P (SELP), and with lipid metabolism, e.g., apolipoprotein E (APOE) and hepatic lipase (LIPC) have also been implicated. In addition, several other genes exhibit some statistical association with AMD, e.g., age-related maculopathy susceptibility protein 2 (ARMS2) and DNA excision repair protein gene (ERCC6) but more research is needed to establish their significance. Modifiable risk factors for AMD should be discussed with patients whose lifestyle and/or family history place them in an increased risk category. Furthermore, calculation of AMD risk using current models should be recommended as a tool for patient education. It is likely that AMD management in future will be increasingly influenced by assessment of genetic risk as such screening methods become more widely available.

  11. Inflammation and its role in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Anu; Paterno, Jussi J; Blasiak, Janusz; Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation is a cellular response to factors that challenge the homeostasis of cells and tissues. Cell-associated and soluble pattern-recognition receptors, e.g. Toll-like receptors, inflammasome receptors, and complement components initiate complex cellular cascades by recognizing or sensing different pathogen and damage-associated molecular patterns, respectively. Cytokines and chemokines represent alarm messages for leukocytes and once activated, these cells travel long distances to targeted inflamed tissues. Although it is a crucial survival mechanism, prolonged inflammation is detrimental and participates in numerous chronic age-related diseases. This article will review the onset of inflammation and link its functions to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is the leading cause of severe vision loss in aged individuals in the developed countries. In this progressive disease, degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) results in the death of photoreceptors, leading to a loss of central vision. The RPE is prone to oxidative stress, a factor that together with deteriorating functionality, e.g. decreased intracellular recycling and degradation due to attenuated heterophagy/autophagy, induces inflammation. In the early phases, accumulation of intracellular lipofuscin in the RPE and extracellular drusen between RPE cells and Bruch's membrane can be clinically detected. Subsequently, in dry (atrophic) AMD there is geographic atrophy with discrete areas of RPE loss whereas in the wet (exudative) form there is neovascularization penetrating from the choroid to retinal layers. Elevations in levels of local and systemic biomarkers indicate that chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of both disease forms. PMID:26852158

  12. Age-related oxidative modifications of transthyretin modulate its amyloidogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Buxbaum, Joel N; Reixach, Natàlia

    2013-01-01

    The transthyretin amyloidoses are diseases of protein misfolding characterized by the extracellular deposition of fibrils and other aggregates of the homotetrameric protein transthyretin (TTR) in peripheral nerves, heart and other tissues. Age is the major risk factor for the development of these diseases. We hypothesized that an age-associated increase in protein oxidation could be involved in the onset of the senile forms of the TTR amyloidoses. To test this hypothesis we have produced and characterized relevant age-related oxidative modifications of wild type (WT) and the Val122Ile (V122I) TTR variant, both involved in cardiac TTR deposition in the elderly. Our studies show that methionine/cysteine oxidized TTR and carbonylated TTR either from WT or the V122I variant, are thermodynamically less stable than their non-oxidized counterparts. Moreover, carbonylated WT and carbonylated V122I TTR have a greater propensity to form aggregates and fibrils than WT and V122I TTR, respectively, at physiologically attainable pH. It is well known that TTR tetramer dissociation, the limiting step for aggregation and amyloid fibril formation, can be prevented by small molecules that bind the TTR tetramer interface. Here, we report that carbonylated WT TTR is less amenable to resveratrol-mediated tetramer stabilization than WT TTR. All the oxidized forms of TTR tested are cytotoxic to a human cardiomyocyte cell line known to be a target for cardiac-specific TTR variants. Overall these studies demonstrate that age-related oxidative modifications of TTR can contribute to the onset of the senile forms of the TTR amyloidoses. PMID:23414091

  13. Age-related oxidative modifications of transthyretin modulate its amyloidogenicity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Buxbaum, Joel N; Reixach, Natàlia

    2013-03-19

    The transthyretin amyloidoses are diseases of protein misfolding characterized by the extracellular deposition of fibrils and other aggregates of the homotetrameric protein transthyretin (TTR) in peripheral nerves, heart, and other tissues. Age is the major risk factor for the development of these diseases. We hypothesized that an age-associated increase in the level of protein oxidation could be involved in the onset of the senile forms of the TTR amyloidoses. To test this hypothesis, we have produced and characterized relevant age-related oxidative modifications of the wild type (WT) and the Val122Ile (V122I) TTR variant, both involved in cardiac TTR deposition in the elderly. Our studies show that methionine/cysteine-oxidized TTR and carbonylated TTR from either the WT or the V122I variant are thermodynamically less stable than their nonoxidized counterparts. Moreover, carbonylated WT and carbonylated V122I TTR have a stronger propensity to form aggregates and fibrils than WT and V122I TTR, respectively, at physiologically attainable pH values. It is well-known that TTR tetramer dissociation, the limiting step for aggregation and amyloid fibril formation, can be prevented by small molecules that bind the TTR tetramer interface. Here, we report that carbonylated WT TTR is less amenable to resveratrol-mediated tetramer stabilization than WT TTR. All the oxidized forms of TTR tested are cytotoxic to a human cardiomyocyte cell line known to be a target for cardiac-specific TTR variants. Overall, these studies demonstrate that age-related oxidative modifications of TTR can contribute to the onset of the senile forms of the TTR amyloidoses. PMID:23414091

  14. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa’s ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC), it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarizes and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics. PMID:26973593

  15. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa's ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC), it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarizes and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics. PMID:26973593

  16. Age-related changes in the tiger salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Townes-Anderson, E; Colantonio, A; St Jules, R S

    1998-05-01

    Tiger salamanders have been used in visual science because of the large size of their cells and the ease of preparation and maintenance of in vitro retinal preparations. We have found that salamanders over 27 cm in length show a variety of visual abnormalities. Compared to smaller animals (15-23 cm), large animals exhibited a decrease in visual responses determined by tests of the optomotor reflex. Small animals responded correctly an average of 84.5% of the time in visual testing at three light levels compared to an average of 68.4% for the large animals with the poorest visual performance at the lowest level of illumination. In addition, large animals contained (i) histological degeneration of the outer retina, in particular, loss and disruption of outer segments and abnormalities of the retinal pigmented epithelium, (ii) loss of cells, including photoreceptors, by apoptosis as evaluated with the TUNEL technique, and (iii) an increase in the number of macrophages and lymphocytes within the retina as determined by morphological examination. These histological changes were present in all large animals and all quadrants of their retinas. In contrast, small animals showed virtually no retinal degeneration, no TUNEL-positive cells, and few immune-like cells in the retina. Since large animals are also older animals. the visual changes are age-related. Loss of visual function and histological degeneration in the outer retina also typify aged human eyes. Thus, we propose that large salamanders serve as an animal model for age-related retinal degeneration. In addition to providing a source of aging retina that is readily accessible to experimental manipulation, the salamander provides a pigmented retina with a mixed (2:1, rod:cone) population of photoreceptors, similar to the degeneration-prone parafoveal region of the human eye. PMID:9631666

  17. Age-Related Tissue Stiffening: Cause and Effect

    PubMed Central

    Sherratt, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Tissue elasticity is severely compromised in aging skin, lungs, and blood vessels. In the vascular and pulmonary systems, respectively, loss of mechanical function is linked to hypertension, which in turn is a risk factor for heart and renal failure, stroke, and aortic aneurysms, and to an increased risk of mortality as a result of acute lung infections. Recent Advances Although cellular mechanisms were thought to play an important role in mediating tissue aging, the reason for the apparent sensitivity of elastic fibers to age-related degradation remained unclear. We have recently demonstrated that compared with type I collagen, a key component of the elastic fiber system, the cysteine-rich fibrillin microfibril is highly susceptible to direct UV exposure in a cell-free environment. We hypothesized therefore that, as a consequence of both their remarkable longevity and cysteine-rich composition, many elastic fiber-associated components will be susceptible to the accumulation of damage by both direct UV radiation and reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidation. Critical Issues Although elastic fiber remodeling is a common feature of aging dynamic tissues, the inaccessibility of most human tissues has hampered attempts to define the molecular causes. Clinical Care Relevance Although, currently, the localized repair of damaged elastic fibers may be effected by the topical application of retinoids and some cosmetic products, future studies may extend the application of systemic transforming growth factor β antagonists, which can prevent cardiovascular remodeling in murine Marfan syndrome, to aging humans. Acellular mechanisms may be key mediators of elastic fiber remodeling and hence age-related tissue stiffening. PMID:24527318

  18. Association between Psychopathology and Physical Health Problems among Youth in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Timothy D.; Smith, Tori R.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Epstein, Michael H.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Tonniges, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Youth in residential treatment settings often present with a complex combination of mental and physical health problems. Despite an emerging literature documenting significant associations between mental health and physical health, the relationship between these two areas of functioning has not been systematically examined in youth presenting to…

  19. School Social Work with Students with Mental Health Problems: Examining Different Practice Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManama O'Brien, Kimberly H.; Berzin, Stephanie C.; Kelly, Michael S.; Frey, Andy J.; Alvarez, Michelle E.; Shaffer, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    School social workers frequently serve as the primary mental health providers to youths with mental health problems. Although school social workers play a primary role in care, many students also receive outside counseling services. Previous research has not examined whether practice approaches differ when considering mental health practice with…

  20. Reporting of Health Problems and Pain by Adults with an Intellectual Disability and by Their Carers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Vicky; Khattran, Sukhjinder; Kerry, Sally; Corney, Roslyn; Painter, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    Background: Information about the health of people with ID is usually obtained from professionals and carers. Little is known about what health problems people with ID report they experience, and whether this differs from their carers' reports. Method: A secondary analysis of health information provided by participants with ID and/or their matched…

  1. Children's Mental Health Problems and Early School: Research, Service, and Policy Issues Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    Four brief papers in this symposium examine clinical research, community mental health services, and policy issues of young children's mental health problems. First, "Risk Factors for Poor Mental Health Outcomes in Young Children Entering School" (Lynne C. Huffman, Sarah L. Mehlinger, and Amy S. Kerivan Marks) reviews the research and identifies…

  2. Students Seeking Help for Mental Health Problems: Do Australian University Websites Provide Clear Pathways?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Thomas A.; Fiedler, Brenton A.

    2013-01-01

    Mental health problems in young Australians continue to be a major public health issue. Studying at university can generate social pressures particularly for youth, which have been associated with the onset of a mental illness or a worsening of an existing condition. Many universities provide health services to support students with health…

  3. Determining health insurance coverage of technology: problems and options.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, B; Derzon, R A

    1981-10-01

    By deciding which medical procedures are eligible for reimbursement, health insurance programs possess the potential to affect significantly technology use and health care spending. Traditionally, insurers have adopted a passive stance and made relatively few negative coverage determinations. However, resistance to rapidly rising costs has created a powerful inducement for third-party payors to become more prudent purchasers of health care services. Consequently, both Medicare and Blue Cross--Blue Shield are considering the implementation of changes that may ultimately result in more restrictive coverage decisions. This article examines the coverage process of Medicare and Blue Cross--Blue Shield and the policy changes that both programs are considering. In addition, it discusses the strengths and drawbacks of four coverage policy options: restricting insurance coverage of unproven procedures, introducing cost-effectiveness criteria, educating physicians and educating consumers. PMID:6796788

  4. RESEARCH ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONS: ETHICAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    PubMed Central

    RESNIK, DAVID B.; ZELDIN, DARRYL C.; SHARP, RICHARD R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a variety of ethical issues one must consider when conducting research on environmental health interventions on human subjects. The paper uses the Kennedy Krieger Institute lead abatement study as well as a hypothetical asthma study to discuss questions concerning benefits and risks, risk minimization, safety monitoring, the duty to warn, the duty to report, the use of control groups, informed consent, equitable subject selection, privacy, conflicts of interest, and community consultation. Research on environmental health interventions can make an important contribution to our understanding of human health and disease prevention, provided it is conducted in a manner that meets prevailing scientific, ethical, and legal standards for research on human subjects. PMID:16220621

  5. Mental health providers confronting organizational change: process, problems, and strategies.

    PubMed

    Gabel, S; Oster, G D

    1998-01-01

    Under the influence of managed care and diminished funding, the mental health field is undergoing a major transformation. Existing mental health programs, departments, and agencies are downsizing and restructuring to develop new types of service delivery systems. Organizations must change to survive; yet necessary and adaptive change may be resisted in numerous ways by providers whose reactions and behaviors may reduce the viability of their own programs and agencies. This paper explores various characteristics and reactions of mental health care professionals as they face great stress, professional devaluation, and necessary organizational change and restructuring. Adaptive and maladaptive patterns in response to potential organizational change are explored. The role of the leader in guiding and implementing programmatic changes and in dealing with denial and resistance is highlighted. Strategies to enhance the prospects for adaptive organizational change are offered. PMID:9919625

  6. Identification of the problems: proceedings of the WHO Expert Consultation on Some Veterinary Public Health Problems.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D

    1978-01-01

    The growing development of intensive large-scale animal production units has become an essential and unavoidable trend in both the socialist and non-socialist agro-industries. This in turn has led to an increase in the risks to human and animal health because of the unique characteristics of these units. From the public health point of view surveillance should focus on four major areas: 1) the zoonoses; 2) chemical residues; 3) environmental pollution; 4) occupational diseases. The paper elaborates on these points and discusses practical action to be taken at the planning level to minimize the health risks. PMID:756150

  7. [Problems of formal organizational structure of industrial health care complexes].

    PubMed

    Włodarczyk, C

    1978-01-01

    The author formulates the thesis that the description of organizational structure of industrial health care complex calls for isolation of the following aspects:--structure of territorial links--systemof organizational units and divisions--organization of basic functions--structure of management--structure of supervision of middle and lowe-level personnel--composition of health care complex council--system of accessibility ranges. Each of the above aspects has been considered on the basis of operative rules of law, using organizational analysis methods. PMID:745544

  8. Factors Associated with Acceptance of Peers with Mental Health Problems in Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swords, Lorraine; Heary, Caroline; Hennessy, Eilis

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research suggests that children's reactions to peers with mental health problems are related to the maintenance and outcomes of these problems. However, children's perceptions of such peers, particularly those with internalising problems, are neither well researched nor understood. The present study aimed to test a series of models…

  9. Mental Health Problems of Dutch Youth with Hearing Loss as Shown on the Youth Self Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Eldik, Theo

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems among youth with hearing loss was assessed with an adjusted version of the Dutch rendition of the Youth Self Report, or YSR (Achenbach, 1991). The sample totaled 202 youth, aged 11?18 years, with auditory disabilities. The prevalence rates of externalizing problems, internalizing problems, and moderate to…

  10. Does the Association with Psychosomatic Health Problems Differ between Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt; Hellstrom, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample…

  11. Assault as a public health problem: discussion paper.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, J P; Farrington, D P

    1993-01-01

    Formal collaboration between epidemiologists, A & E doctors, family practitioners, criminologists and the police is necessary so that criminal justice and public health approaches to the causes and prevention of interpersonal violence can be co-ordinated. Computerized record keeping in A & E departments, incorporating programmes dedicated to assaultive and accidental injury, is an important starting point and this needs to be organized in a systematic way so that comparisons with data collected by police and in national crime surveys can be made. Research is necessary to identify risk groups and to draw causal inferences. Criminal injury is an increasing cause of temporary and permanent handicap and death in many countries and it merits formal epidemiological research, funded by national and international health agencies. This should include the evaluation of primary and secondary prevention programmes in A & E departments and in the community. On the 10th anniversary of the publication of the Black report on inequalities in health, it is apposite to consider that high rates of intentional injury as well as illness are closely linked to poverty and that violence leaves permanent physical and psychological scars. A deprived young urban male may suffer 60 years of incapacity as a result of injury and subsequent further reductions in quality of life and self-esteem. In comparison with child abuse, the causes, identification, prevention and management of assault involving adults are not yet established as a community health issue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8433314

  12. Health Problems in Pregnancy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mẹ tương lai - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) PDF Stanford University, Asian Liver Center Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  13. [Medical problems of the automated control of astronauts' health].

    PubMed

    Baevskiĭ, R M

    1991-01-01

    A typical structure of an automatic complex for dynamic medical monitoring of the health status of crewmembers in space is described. Algorithms of medical data processing and data imaging are discussed. Approaches to automatic diagnosis of functional states are presented. Advanced automatic systems related to medical support of future flights to Mars are described. PMID:1870312

  14. Proceedings, AMA Congress on Environmental Health Problems. Population Environment and Health (2nd, Chicago, Illinois, April 26-27, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL.

    Included are 20 papers presented at the second AMA Congress on Environmental Health Problems. The papers have been grouped into these broad subject categories. One group relates to physical and chemical changes, living cells, mental health, and human physiology. The second category relates to tuberculosis, venereal disease, respiratory disease,…

  15. Socioeconomic Position and Health: The Differential Effects of Education versus Income on the Onset versus Progression of Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herd, Pamela; Goesling, Brian; House, James S.

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to elucidate the relationship between socioeconomic position and health by showing how different facets of socioeconomic position (education and income) affect different stages (onset vs. progression) of health problems. The biomedical literature has generally treated socioeconomic position as a unitary construct. Likewise, the…

  16. Dog Feces: A Public Health and Environmental Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marron, J. A.; Senn, Charles L.

    1974-01-01

    This article reports that dog feces are a problem because they are capable of transmitting diseases, as well as acting as a breeding place for for fly larvae and food for rats. Studies included in the article indicate the need for public education and for an effective control program. Bibliography included. (MA)

  17. Medical Problems. Child Health and Safety Series (Module IV).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides guidelines and information on the detection, treatment, and control of medical problems of children. Introductory materials focus on signs of illness which carepersons can recognize. Section II concentrates on insect, animal and human bites. Section III discusses skin…

  18. Emotional/Behavioral Difficulties and Mental Health Service Contacts of Students in Special Education for Non-Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastor, Patricia N.; Reuben, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Emotional/behavioral difficulties and mental health (MH) service contacts of 3 groups of youth were compared: students in special education for non-MH problems, students in special education for MH problems, and youth not in special education. Methods: Parents reported the characteristics, special education placement,…

  19. The Public Stigma of Problem Gambling: Its Nature and Relative Intensity Compared to Other Health Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Nuske, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling attracts considerable public stigma, with deleterious effects on mental health and use of healthcare services amongst those affected. However, no research has examined the extent of stigma towards problem gambling within the general population. This study aimed to examine the stigma-related dimensions of problem gambling as perceived by the general public compared to other health conditions, and determine whether the publicly perceived dimensions of problem gambling predict its stigmatisation. A sample of 2000 Australian adults was surveyed, weighted to be representative of the state population by gender, age and location. Based on vignettes, the online survey measured perceived origin, peril, concealability, course and disruptiveness of problem gambling and four other health conditions, and desired social distance from each. Problem gambling was perceived as caused mainly by stressful life circumstances, and highly disruptive, recoverable and noticeable, but not particularly perilous. Respondents stigmatised problem gambling more than sub-clinical distress and recreational gambling, but less than alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia. Predictors of stronger stigma towards problem gambling were perceptions it is caused by bad character, is perilous, non-recoverable, disruptive and noticeable, but not due to stressful life circumstances, genetic/inherited problem, or chemical imbalance in the brain. This new foundational knowledge can advance understanding and reduction of problem gambling stigma through countering inaccurate perceptions that problem gambling is caused by bad character, that people with gambling problems are likely to be violent to other people, and that people cannot recover from problem gambling. PMID:26487344

  20. Exposure to child abuse and risk for mental health problems in women.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Renee; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Risk for adult mental health problems associated with child sexual, physical, or emotional abuse and multiple types of child abuse was examined. Logistic regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses in a population-based sample of women (N = 3,936). As expected, child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were independently associated with increased risk for mental health problems. History of multiple types of child abuse was also associated with elevated risk for mental health problems. In particular, exposure to all three types of child abuse was linked to a 23-fold increase in risk for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings underscore relations between child emotional abuse and adult mental health problems and highlight the need for mental health services for survivors of multiple types of child abuse. PMID:18064973

  1. Beliefs about treatment of mental health problems among Cambodian American children and parents.

    PubMed

    Daley, Tamara C

    2005-12-01

    Beliefs about treatment of mental health problems are a critical area for examination among immigrant and refugee populations. Data on treatment of child problems have been conspicuously absent from the literature. This study examines explanatory models of treatment among 40 second-generation Cambodian children aged 8-18 and their parents in the US. Comparisons of perceptions of intervention for an externalizing problem (gang-related behavior) and an internalizing problem (depression) are made in a group of children who have received mental health services, their parents, and a matched community sample. A significant interaction between respondent and group membership was present in the perception that these problems could be helped, and contrary to past findings among Asian Americans, both children and parents generally endorsed the use of mental health services. Data about actual experiences with mental health services are used to help explain the findings and suggest implications for treatment of Cambodian-American youth. PMID:15996805

  2. Latex allergy: an emerging problem in health care.

    PubMed

    Kinnaird, S W; McClure, N; Wilham, S

    1995-10-01

    Allergy to latex has been increasing as the use of latex products has grown. The increase is disproportionately occurring in those people with myelodysplasias, those who have undergone multiple surgical procedures, and health care providers. Within those groups, the most susceptible to latex allergy are people with other allergies. Early identification of high-risk individuals and their avoidance of products containing latex can minimize the occurrence of this allergic response. Heightened awareness among health care providers is needed because latex is very common in hospitals and clinics. Inadvertent exposure places latex-sensitive individuals in danger of anaphylaxis. Nurses caring for infants and children are able to modify the environment of those at risk for latex allergy, reducing exposure to this potentially dangerous substance. Teaching families of children at risk will help them avoid latex in the home; many common household substances contain latex and are likely to trigger allergic responses. PMID:7565525

  3. [Problems in the development of the emergency health care system].

    PubMed

    Hasić, Z; Sisić, I

    2000-01-01

    Since February 1994, during and after 4-years supervision of American specialists, Emergency department of Zenica hospital has been trying to implement Anglo-American working system within the hospital framework (video). Principles of quality functioning of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) are based on: Population that depends on different demographic factors and prevention programme (education of population, quality functioning of health legislation). Pre-hospital treatment depends on good quality communication and transport. Hospital treatment based on good functioning of Emergency department and Intensive care unit as well as proper coordination with other specialties. Proper implementation of items stated above depends on top-class teaching and compulsory periodical screening of attained knowledge and skills, properly organized communication, transport and technical equipment. Emergency medicine is not only a sum of urgencies from the existing conditions but a special medical discipline and it has special and unique approach to diagnosis and therapy of acute health disorders. Therefore, a main weakness in the development of emergency medicine is: no recognition of emergency medicine as a unique specialty in the most European countries, non-existing departments of emergency medicine at medical faculties, no unification of BiH emergency medicine system, undeveloped monitoring and development evaluation of emergency medicine etc. The World Association of Emergency Medicine should have an important role for emergency medicine recognition, and in its future development through links with health legislation and educational associations (ACLS, ATLS, APLS). PMID:11117025

  4. Co-occurring mental health and substance use problems in offenders: implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Mark A; Douglas, Kevin S; Edens, John F; Nikolova, Natalia L; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2012-03-01

    We undertook a secondary data analysis to study issues relevant to co-occurring mental health and substance disorder in a combined sample of offenders (N = 3,197). Using the Personality Assessment Inventory, we compared the frequency of depressive, traumatic stress, and personality disorder symptom elevations across offenders with and without substance problems, identified the extent to which co-occurring problems were accompanied by risk factors for suicide and aggression, and tested for gender differences. Offenders with substance problems were more likely than others to have increased mental health problems and risk factors for suicide or aggression. Women with substance problems, compared with men, had higher depression, traumatic stress, and borderline features, in addition to lower antisocial features. The frequency with which suicide and aggression risk factors were associated with mental health problems was generally similar across men and women. Measurement issues relevant to co-occurring disorder and risk assessment are discussed. PMID:21787090

  5. [Notes for understanding the problem of "public" health in the health sector].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Cristian Fabiano; da Silva, Rosane Azevedo Neves

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a theoretical review of how the public health concept has been perceived in health practices, based on the problematic field introduced in Italian and Brazilian health reforms, in order to understand the construction of public health and the meanings that this term acquires in the health arena. The main goal is to understand how public health appears in the context of health movements in Italy and Brazil, as well as its movement of variation. In this sense, an attempt is made to identify elements that contribute to the composition of a genealogy of public health. From the investigation of public health practices, the tensions produced by this concept are analyzed, giving visibility to those practices that demonstrate the public health experience as a force in the world of health. PMID:25760131

  6. Young and Older Adults’ Beliefs about Effective Ways to Mitigate Age-Related Memory Decline

    PubMed Central

    Horhota, Michelle; Lineweaver, Tara; Ositelu, Monique; Summers, Kristi; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether young and older adults vary in their beliefs about the impact of various mitigating factors on age-related memory decline. Eighty young (ages 18–23) and eighty older (ages 60–82) participants reported their beliefs about their own memory abilities and the strategies that they use in their everyday lives to attempt to control their memory. Participants also reported their beliefs about memory change with age for hypothetical target individuals who were described as using (or not using) various means to mitigate memory decline. There were no age differences in personal beliefs about control over current or future memory ability. However, the two age groups differed in the types of strategies they used in their everyday life to control their memory. Young adults were more likely to use internal memory strategies, whereas older adults were more likely to focus on cognitive exercise and maintaining physical health as ways to optimize their memory ability. There were no age differences in rated memory change across the life span in hypothetical individuals. Both young and older adults perceived strategies related to improving physical and cognitive health as effective means of mitigating memory loss with age, whereas internal memory strategies were perceived as less effective means for controlling age-related memory decline. PMID:22082012

  7. Nutrient-rich meat proteins in offsetting age-related muscle loss.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Stuart M

    2012-11-01

    From a health perspective, an underappreciated consequence of the normal aging process is the impacts that the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass, termed sarcopenia, has on health beyond an effect on locomotion. Sarcopenia, refers to the loss of muscle mass, and associated muscle weakness, which occurs in aging and is thought to proceed at a rate of approximately 1% loss per year. However, periods of inactivity due to illness or recovery from orthopedic procedures such as hip or knee replacement are times of accelerated sarcopenic muscle loss from which it may be more difficult for older persons to recover. Some of the consequences of age-related sarcopenia are easy to appreciate such as weakness and, eventually, reduced mobility; however, other lesser recognized consequences include, due to the metabolic role the skeletal muscle plays, an increased risk for poor glucose control and a predisposition toward weight gain. What we currently know is that two stimuli can counter this age related muscle loss and these are physical activity, specifically resistance exercise (weightlifting), and nutrition. The focus of this paper is on the types of dietary protein that people might reasonably consume to offset sarcopenic muscle loss. PMID:22632883

  8. Pediatric Health Mobility: Is it Only an Italian Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Paolella, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Intra-regional, extra-regional and international health mobility are important phenomena for regional and national healthcare planning. Pediatric data on this topic are scarce. We therefore conducted a systematic literature search on the PubMed database. Because of the insufficiency of published data we also resorted to conference proceedings and publications retrieved by Google Scholar and Google search engines. Thirty-one articles were identified. Main components of patients mobility were looking for better quality and timely treatment, advanced technology, expertise, and major organization. Our analysis highlights that pediatric mobility causes relevant medical, sociological and financial consequences. PMID:23905063

  9. Automatic age-related macular degeneration detection and staging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Lechanteur, Yara T. E.; van de Ven, Johannes P. H.; van Ginneken, Bram; Theelen, Thomas; Sánchez, Clara I.

    2013-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disorder of the central part of the retina, which mainly affects older people and leads to permanent loss of vision in advanced stages of the disease. AMD grading of non-advanced AMD patients allows risk assessment for the development of advanced AMD and enables timely treatment of patients, to prevent vision loss. AMD grading is currently performed manually on color fundus images, which is time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we propose a supervised classification method to distinguish patients at high risk to develop advanced AMD from low risk patients and provide an exact AMD stage determination. The method is based on the analysis of the number and size of drusen on color fundus images, as drusen are the early characteristics of AMD. An automatic drusen detection algorithm is used to detect all drusen. A weighted histogram of the detected drusen is constructed to summarize the drusen extension and size and fed into a random forest classifier in order to separate low risk from high risk patients and to allow exact AMD stage determination. Experiments showed that the proposed method achieved similar performance as human observers in distinguishing low risk from high risk AMD patients, obtaining areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.929 and 0.934. A weighted kappa agreement of 0.641 and 0.622 versus two observers were obtained for AMD stage evaluation. Our method allows for quick and reliable AMD staging at low costs.

  10. Age-related thermal response: the cellular resilience of juveniles.

    PubMed

    Clark, M S; Thorne, M A S; Burns, G; Peck, L S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding species' responses to environmental challenges is key to predicting future biodiversity. However, there is currently little data on how developmental stages affect responses and also whether universal gene biomarkers to environmental stress can be identified both within and between species. Using the Antarctic clam, Laternula elliptica, as a model species, we examined both the tissue-specific and age-related (juvenile versus mature adult) gene expression response to acute non-lethal warming (12 h at 3 °C). In general, there was a relatively muted response to this sub-lethal thermal challenge when the expression profiles of treated animals, of either age, were compared with those of 0 °C controls, with none of the "classical" stress response genes up-regulated. The expression profiles were very variable between the tissues of all animals, irrespective of age with no single transcript emerging as a universal biomarker of thermal stress. However, when the expression profiles of treated animals of the different age groups were directly compared, a very different pattern emerged. The profiles of the younger animals showed significant up-regulation of chaperone and antioxidant transcripts when compared with those of the older animals. Thus, the younger animals showed evidence of a more robust cellular response to warming. These data substantiate previous physiological analyses showing a more resilient juvenile population. PMID:26364303

  11. Ocular Surface Temperature in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sodi, Andrea; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Corvi, Andrea; Menchini, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320). The ocular surface temperature (OST) of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272). OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:25436140

  12. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Scientometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ramin, Shahrokh; Soheilian, Masoud; Habibi, Gholamreza; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Gharebaghi, Reza; Heidary, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a major cause of central blindness among working aged adults across the world. Systematic research planning on any subject, including ARMD is in need of solid data regarding previous efforts in this field and to identify the gaps in the research. This study aimed to elucidate the most important trends, directions, and gap in this subject. The data extracted from the Institute for Scientific Information were used to perform a bibliometric analysis of the scientific productions (1993–2013) about ARMD. Specific parameters related to ARMD were analyzed to obtain a view of the topic’s structure, history, and document relationships. Additionally, the trends and authors in the most influential publications were analyzed. The number of articles in this field was found constantly increasing. Most highly cited articles addressed genetic epidemiology and clinical research topics in this field. During the past 3 years, there has been a trend toward biomarker research. Through performing the first scientometric survey on ARMD research, we analyzed the characteristics of papers and the trends in scientific production. We also identified some of the critical gaps in the current research efforts that would help in large-scale research strategic planning. PMID:26060829

  13. Cellular models and therapies for age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Forest, David L.; Johnson, Lincoln V.; Clegg, Dennis O.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex neurodegenerative visual disorder that causes profound physical and psychosocial effects. Visual impairment in AMD is caused by the loss of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells and the light-sensitive photoreceptor cells that they support. There is currently no effective treatment for the most common form of this disease (dry AMD). A new approach to treating AMD involves the transplantation of RPE cells derived from either human embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. Multiple clinical trials are being initiated using a variety of cell therapies. Although many animal models are available for AMD research, most do not recapitulate all aspects of the disease, hampering progress. However, the use of cultured RPE cells in AMD research is well established and, indeed, some of the more recently described RPE-based models show promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms of AMD and for screening drug candidates. Here, we discuss innovative cell-culture models of AMD and emerging stem-cell-based therapies for the treatment of this vision-robbing disease. PMID:26035859

  14. Proinflammatory cytokines, aging, and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Martin; Balardy, Laurent; Moulis, Guillaume; Gaudin, Clement; Peyrot, Caroline; Vellas, Bruno; Cesari, Matteo; Nourhashemi, Fati

    2013-12-01

    Inflammation is a physiological process that repairs tissues in response to endogenous or exogenous aggressions. Nevertheless, a chronic state of inflammation may have detrimental consequences. Aging is associated with increased levels of circulating cytokines and proinflammatory markers. Aged-related changes in the immune system, known as immunosenescence, and increased secretion of cytokines by adipose tissue, represent the major causes of chronic inflammation. This phenomenon is known as "inflamm-aging." High levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and C-reactive protein are associated in the older subject with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In particular, cohort studies have indicated TNF-α and IL-6 levels as markers of frailty. The low-grade inflammation characterizing the aging process notably concurs at the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying sarcopenia. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines (through a variety of mechanisms, such as platelet activation and endothelial activation) may play a major role in the risk of cardiovascular events. Dysregulation of the inflammatory pathway may also affect the central nervous system and be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders (eg, Alzheimer disease).The aim of the present review was to summarize different targets of the activity of proinflammatory cytokines implicated in the risk of pathological aging. PMID:23792036

  15. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R.; Costagliola, Ciro; Semeraro, Francesco; Incorvaia, Carlo; D'Angelo, Sergio; Perri, Paolo; De Palma, Paolo; De Nadai, Katia; Sebastiani, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease. PMID:23209345

  16. Mathematical morphologic analysis of aging-related epidermal changes.

    PubMed

    Moragas, A; Castells, C; Sans, M

    1993-04-01

    Fractographic techniques based on mathematical morphology were used to study aging-related epidermal changes in abdominal skin samples obtained from 96 autopsy cases. Three linear roughness indices were evaluated for the rete peg profile and the shrinkage effect on the basal layer and interface between the granular and horny layers. Elderly subjects had a 36.3% decrease in rete peg-related roughness index when compared with younger subjects. This roughness index has been corrected, with shrinkage due to skin elasticity taken into account. For females, fitting of a logistic decay function yielded a curve with right and left asymptotes and a steeper descent between 40 and 60 years. Half value time--i.e., the time when half rete peg profile flattening occurred--was 46.8 years. In contrast, males showed almost monotonical decay. Epidermal thickness measured between rete pegs showed the same exponential decline for both sexes, with values from 22.6 to 11.4 microns. Skin shrinkage in elderly subjects decreased 22% in superficial layers and only 6% in the lower epidermis. In both cases shrinkage had a linear relation with age, and no sex differences were found. PMID:8318130

  17. Seven New Loci Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of blindness in older individuals. To accelerate understanding of AMD biology and help design new therapies, we executed a collaborative genomewide association study, examining >17,100 advanced AMD cases and >60,000 controls of European and Asian ancestry. We identified 19 genomic loci associated with AMD with p<5×10−8 and enriched for genes involved in regulation of complement activity, lipid metabolism, extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis. Our results include 7 loci reaching p<5×10−8 for the first time, near the genes COL8A1/FILIP1L, IER3/DDR1, SLC16A8, TGFBR1, RAD51B, ADAMTS9/MIR548A2, and B3GALTL. A genetic risk score combining SNPs from all loci displayed similar good ability to distinguish cases and controls in all samples examined. Our findings provide new directions for biological, genetic and therapeutic studies of AMD. PMID:23455636

  18. Pachychoroid neovasculopathy and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Masahiro; Ooto, Sotaro; Yamashiro, Kenji; Takahashi, Ayako; Yoshikawa, Munemitsu; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Ueda-Arakawa, Naoko; Oishi, Akio; Nakanishi, Hideo; Tamura, Hiroshi; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-01-01

    Pachychoroid neovasculopathy is a recently proposed clinical entity of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). As it often masquerades as neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), it is currently controversial whether pachychoroid neovasculopathy should be distinguished from neovascular AMD. This is because its characteristics have yet to be well described. To estimate the relative prevalence of pachychoroid neovasculopathy in comparison with neovascular AMD and to investigate the phenotypic/genetic differences of the two diseases, we evaluated 200 consecutive Japanese patients who agreed to participate in the genetic study and diagnosed with pachychoroid neovasculopathy or neovascular AMD. Pachychoroid neovasculopathy was observed in 39 individuals (19.5%), which corresponds to one fourth of neovascular AMD. Patients with pachychoroid neovasculopathy were significantly younger (p = 5.1 × 10−5) and showed a greater subfoveal choroidal thickness (p = 3.4 × 10−14). Their genetic susceptibility to AMD was significantly lower than that of neovascular AMD; ARMS2 rs10490924 (p = 0.029), CFH rs800292 (p = 0.013) and genetic risk score calculated from 11 AMD susceptibility genes (p = 3.8 × 10−3). Current results implicate that the etiologies of the two conditions must be different. Thus, it will be necessary to distinguish these two conditions in future studies. PMID:26542071

  19. Angiofluorographic aspects in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tomi, A; Marin, I

    2014-01-01

    Although AMD (age-related macular degeneration) has been described for over 100 years, there is neither a standard agreement on the definition of specific lesions nor a generally accepted classification system. For example, the age limits for AMD varied widely in different clinical studies; the methods used for examination also vary (visual acuity, perimetry, contrast sensitivity, slit lamp examination of the fundus, retinal photography, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography). We described the multitude of angiofluorographic aspects in patients with AMD and conceived a classification to be easily used in clinical practice. Although a detailed ophthalmoscopy can often identify the characteristic lesions of AMD, a complete picture is obtained by fluorescein angiography. The angiographic classification of AMD is structured similarly to the clinical one. It has two main patterns, non-exudative and exudative lesions, but it provides more information about the nature of the lesions. In the last three decades, an impressive amount of information regarding the prevalence, progression and risk factors for AMD has been published. The source of this information is mainly represented by the large population studies that are often multicenter studies. Recognizing the clinical signs of AMD and classifying them into different stages is important for the prognosis and the therapeutical decision, but also for conceiving study protocols. PMID:27057244

  20. Age-Related Changes in Demand-Withdraw Communication Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Holley, Sarah R; Haase, Claudia M; Levenson, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    Demand-withdraw communication is a set of conflict-related behaviors in which one partner blames or pressures while the other partner withdraws or avoids. The present study examined age-related changes in these behaviors longitudinally over the course of later life stages. One hundred twenty-seven middle-aged and older long-term married couples were observed at 3 time points across 13 years as they engaged in a conversation about an area of relationship conflict. Husbands' and wives' demand-withdraw behaviors (i.e., blame, pressure, withdrawal, avoidance) were objectively rated by trained coders at each time point. Data were analyzed using dyad-level latent growth curve models in a structural equation modeling framework. For both husbands and wives, the results showed a longitudinal pattern of increasing avoidance behavior over time and stability in all other demand and withdraw behaviors. This study supports the notion that there is an important developmental shift in the way that conflict is handled in later life. PMID:23913982

  1. Age-related somatic mutations in the cancer genome

    PubMed Central

    Milholland, Brandon; Auton, Adam; Suh, Yousin; Vijg, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increased risk of cancer, possibly in part because of an age-related increase in mutations in normal tissues. Due to their extremely low abundance, somatic mutations in normal tissues frequently escape detection. Tumors, as clonal expansions of single cells, can provide information about the somatic mutations present in these cells prior to tumorigenesis. Here, we used data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), to systematically study the frequency and spectrum of somatic mutations in a total of 6,969 patients and 34 different tumor types as a function of the age of the patient. After using linear modeling to control for the age structure of different tumor types, we found that the number of identified somatic mutations increases exponentially with age. Using additional data from the literature, we found that accumulation of somatic mutations is associated with cell division rate, cancer risk and cigarette smoking, with the latter also associated with a distinct spectrum of mutations. Our results confirm that aging is associated with the accumulation of somatic mutations, and strongly suggest that the level of genome instability of normal cells, modified by both endogenous and environmental factors, is the main risk factor for cancer. PMID:26384365

  2. Reversal of age-related neural timing delays with training.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Samira; White-Schwoch, Travis; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Kraus, Nina

    2013-03-12

    Neural slowing is commonly noted in older adults, with consequences for sensory, motor, and cognitive domains. One of the deleterious effects of neural slowing is impairment of temporal resolution; older adults, therefore, have reduced ability to process the rapid events that characterize speech, especially in noisy environments. Although hearing aids provide increased audibility, they cannot compensate for deficits in auditory temporal processing. Auditory training may provide a strategy to address these deficits. To that end, we evaluated the effects of auditory-based cognitive training on the temporal precision of subcortical processing of speech in noise. After training, older adults exhibited faster neural timing and experienced gains in memory, speed of processing, and speech-in-noise perception, whereas a matched control group showed no changes. Training was also associated with decreased variability of brainstem response peaks, suggesting a decrease in temporal jitter in response to a speech signal. These results demonstrate that auditory-based cognitive training can partially restore age-related deficits in temporal processing in the brain; this plasticity in turn promotes better cognitive and perceptual skills. PMID:23401541

  3. Functional Visual Acuity in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Yohei; Nagai, Norihiro; Suzuki, Misa; Shinoda, Hajime; Uchida, Atsuro; Mochimaru, Hiroshi; Izumi-Nagai, Kanako; Sasaki, Mariko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Ozawa, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose We evaluated whether a functional visual acuity (FVA) system can detect subtle changes in central visual acuity that reflect pathological findings associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Twenty-eight patients with unilateral AMD and logMAR monocular best corrected VA better than 0 in both eyes, as measured by conventional chart examination, were analyzed between November 2012 and April 2013. After measuring conventional VA, FVA, and contrast VA with best correction, routine eye examinations including spectral domain–optical coherence tomography were performed. Standard Schirmer test was performed, and corneal and lens densities were measured. Results The FVA score (p < 0.001) and visual maintenance ratio (p < 0.001) measured by the FVA system, contrast VA (p < 0. 01), and conventional VA (p < 0.01) were significantly worse in the AMD-affected eyes than in the fellow eyes. No significant differences were observed in the anterior segment conditions. Forward stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that the length of interdigitation zone disruption, as visualized by optical coherence tomography imaging, correlated with the FVA score (p < 0.01) but not with any other parameters investigated. Conclusions The FVA system detects subtle changes in best corrected VA in AMD-affected eyes and reflects interdigitation zone disruption, an anatomical change in the retina recorded by optical coherence tomography. Further studies are required to understand the value of the FVA system in detecting subtle changes in AMD. PMID:26583795

  4. Reversal of age-related neural timing delays with training

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Samira; White-Schwoch, Travis; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Neural slowing is commonly noted in older adults, with consequences for sensory, motor, and cognitive domains. One of the deleterious effects of neural slowing is impairment of temporal resolution; older adults, therefore, have reduced ability to process the rapid events that characterize speech, especially in noisy environments. Although hearing aids provide increased audibility, they cannot compensate for deficits in auditory temporal processing. Auditory training may provide a strategy to address these deficits. To that end, we evaluated the effects of auditory-based cognitive training on the temporal precision of subcortical processing of speech in noise. After training, older adults exhibited faster neural timing and experienced gains in memory, speed of processing, and speech-in-noise perception, whereas a matched control group showed no changes. Training was also associated with decreased variability of brainstem response peaks, suggesting a decrease in temporal jitter in response to a speech signal. These results demonstrate that auditory-based cognitive training can partially restore age-related deficits in temporal processing in the brain; this plasticity in turn promotes better cognitive and perceptual skills. PMID:23401541

  5. Ocular surface temperature in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Sodi, Andrea; Matteoli, Sara; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Finocchio, Lucia; Corvi, Andrea; Menchini, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320). The ocular surface temperature (OST) of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272). OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:25436140

  6. Age related susceptibility of pigs to Cryptosporidium scrofarum infection.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Němejc, Karel; Kestřánová, Michaela; Květoňová, Dana; Wagnerová, Pavla; Kotková, Michaela; Rost, Michael; Samková, Eva; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2014-05-28

    Piglets from 4 to 8 weeks of age originated from a Cryptosporidium-free research breed were orally inoculated with 1 × 10(6) infectious oocysts of Cryptosporidium scrofarum. The number of shed oocysts per gram of faeces served to describe the infection intensity and prepatent period. In addition, faecal samples collected daily and tissue samples of the small and large intestine collected at 30 days post-inoculation were examined for the C. scrofarum small subunit ribosomal RNA gene using PCR. The piglets inoculated at 4-weeks of age remained uninfected, whereas 5-week-old and older animals were fully susceptible with a prepatent period ranging from 4 to 8 days. Susceptible pigs shed oocysts intermittently, and shedding intensity, reaching a mean maximum of 6000 oocysts per gram, did not differ significantly among infected animals. This study demonstrates that pigs become susceptible to C. scrofarum infection as late as 5-weeks of age. The mechanisms of age related susceptibility remain unknown. PMID:24630710

  7. Parabiosis for the study of age-related chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Eggel, Alexander; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Summary Modern medicine wields the power to treat large numbers of diseases and injuries most of us would have died from just a hundred years ago. In view of this tremendous achievement, it can seem as if progress has slowed, and we have been unable to impact the most devastating diseases of our time. Chronic diseases of age such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, or Alzheimer’s disease turn out to be of a complexity that may require transformative ideas and paradigms to understand and treat them. Parabiosis, which mimics aspects of the naturally occurring shared blood supply in conjoined twins in humans and certain animals, may just have the power to be such a transformative experimental paradigm. Forgotten and now shunned in many countries, it has contributed to major breakthroughs in tumor biology, endocrinology, and transplantation research in the past century, and a set of new studies in the US and Britain report stunning advances in stem cell biology and tissue regeneration using parabiosis between young and old mice. We review here briefly the history of parabiosis and discuss its utility to study physiological and pathophysiological processes. We argue that parabiosis is a technique that should enjoy wider acceptance and application, and that policies should be revisited especially if one is to study complex age-related, chronic disorders. PMID:24496774

  8. Eye Conditions in Older Adults: Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Iroku-Malize, Tochi; Kirsch, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes a progressive loss of photoreceptors in the macula. It is the most common cause of legal blindness in the United States, and some form of AMD is thought to affect more than 9 million individuals. Risk factors include older age, smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity, white race, female sex, and a family history of AMD. There are two types of advanced AMD: nonexudative (dry or geographic atrophy) and exudative (wet or neovascular). Both cause progressive central vision loss with intact peripheral vision. Nonexudative AMD accounts for 80% to 90% of all advanced cases, and more than 90% of patients with severe vision loss have exudative AMD. On ophthalmoscopic examination, early findings include drusen (ie, yellow deposits in the retina). Prominent choroidal vessels, subretinal edema, and/or hemorrhage are seen in wet AMD. Regular eye examinations, visual field testing, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography are used for diagnosis and to guide management. There is no specific therapy for dry AMD, but antioxidant supplementation may be helpful. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor is the treatment of choice for wet AMD. Optical aids and devices can help to maximize function for patients with AMD. PMID:27348529

  9. Seven new loci associated with age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Lars G; Chen, Wei; Schu, Matthew; Yaspan, Brian L; Yu, Yi; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zack, Donald J; Arakawa, Satoshi; Cipriani, Valentina; Ripke, Stephan; Igo, Robert P; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Sim, Xueling; Weeks, Daniel E; Guymer, Robyn H; Merriam, Joanna E; Francis, Peter J; Hannum, Gregory; Agarwal, Anita; Armbrecht, Ana Maria; Audo, Isabelle; Aung, Tin; Barile, Gaetano R; Benchaboune, Mustapha; Bird, Alan C; Bishop, Paul N; Branham, Kari E; Brooks, Matthew; Brucker, Alexander J; Cade, William H; Cain, Melinda S; Campochiaro, Peter A; Chan, Chi-Chao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chew, Emily Y; Chin, Kimberly A; Chowers, Itay; Clayton, David G; Cojocaru, Radu; Conley, Yvette P; Cornes, Belinda K; Daly, Mark J; Dhillon, Baljean; Edwards, Albert O; Evangelou, Evangelos; Fagerness, Jesen; Ferreyra, Henry A; Friedman, James S; Geirsdottir, Asbjorg; George, Ronnie J; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Neel; Hagstrom, Stephanie A; Harding, Simon P; Haritoglou, Christos; Heckenlively, John R; Holz, Frank G; Hughes, Guy; Ioannidis, John P A; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Joseph, Peronne; Jun, Gyungah; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Katsanis, Nicholas; N Keilhauer, Claudia; Khan, Jane C; Kim, Ivana K; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Kovach, Jaclyn L; Kozak, Igor; Lee, Clara J; Lee, Kristine E; Lichtner, Peter; Lotery, Andrew J; Meitinger, Thomas; Mitchell, Paul; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Moore, Anthony T; Morgan, Denise J; Morrison, Margaux A; Myers, Chelsea E; Naj, Adam C; Nakamura, Yusuke; Okada, Yukinori; Orlin, Anton; Ortube, M Carolina; Othman, Mohammad I; Pappas, Chris; Park, Kyu Hyung; Pauer, Gayle J T; Peachey, Neal S; Poch, Olivier; Priya, Rinki Ratna; Reynolds, Robyn; Richardson, Andrea J; Ripp, Raymond; Rudolph, Guenther; Ryu, Euijung; Sahel, José-Alain; Schaumberg, Debra A; Scholl, Hendrik P N; Schwartz, Stephen G; Scott, William K; Shahid, Humma; Sigurdsson, Haraldur; Silvestri, Giuliana; Sivakumaran, Theru A; Smith, R Theodore; Sobrin, Lucia; Souied, Eric H; Stambolian, Dwight E; Stefansson, Hreinn; Sturgill-Short, Gwen M; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Truitt, Barbara J; Tsironi, Evangelia E; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vijaya, Lingam; Vingerling, Johannes R; Vithana, Eranga N; Webster, Andrew R; Wichmann, H-Erich; Winkler, Thomas W; Wong, Tien Y; Wright, Alan F; Zelenika, Diana; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Ling; Zhang, Kang; Klein, Michael L; Hageman, Gregory S; Lathrop, G Mark; Stefansson, Kari; Allikmets, Rando; Baird, Paul N; Gorin, Michael B; Wang, Jie Jin; Klaver, Caroline C W; Seddon, Johanna M; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Iyengar, Sudha K; Yates, John R W; Swaroop, Anand; Weber, Bernhard H F; Kubo, Michiaki; Deangelis, Margaret M; Léveillard, Thierry; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Haines, Jonathan L; Farrer, Lindsay A; Heid, Iris M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R

    2013-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of blindness in older individuals. To accelerate the understanding of AMD biology and help design new therapies, we executed a collaborative genome-wide association study, including >17,100 advanced AMD cases and >60,000 controls of European and Asian ancestry. We identified 19 loci associated at P < 5 × 10(-8). These loci show enrichment for genes involved in the regulation of complement activity, lipid metabolism, extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis. Our results include seven loci with associations reaching P < 5 × 10(-8) for the first time, near the genes COL8A1-FILIP1L, IER3-DDR1, SLC16A8, TGFBR1, RAD51B, ADAMTS9 and B3GALTL. A genetic risk score combining SNP genotypes from all loci showed similar ability to distinguish cases and controls in all samples examined. Our findings provide new directions for biological, genetic and therapeutic studies of AMD. PMID:23455636

  10. Epigenetic modification of PKMζ rescues aging-related cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Xue, Yan-Xue; Han, Ying; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Deng, Jia-Hui; Chen, Na; Bao, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Fei-Long; Cao, Lin-Lin; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Shi, Jie; Song, Wei-Hong; Lu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Cognition is impacted by aging. However, the mechanisms that underlie aging-associated cognitive impairment are unclear. Here we showed that cognitive decline in aged rats was associated with changes in DNA methylation of protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ) in the prelimbic cortex (PrL). PKMζ is a crucial molecule involved in the maintenance of long-term memory. Using different behavioral models, we confirmed that aged rats exhibited cognitive impairment in memory retention test 24 h after training, and overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL rescued cognitive impairment in aged rats. After fear conditioning, the protein levels of PKMζ and the membrane expression of GluR2 increased in the PrL in young and adult rats but not in aged rats, and the levels of methylated PKMζ DNA in the PrL decreased in all age groups, whereas the levels of unmethylated PKMζ DNA increased only in young and adult rats. We also found that environmentally enriched housing reversed the hypermethylation of PKMζ and restored cognitive performance in aged rats. Inactivation of PKMζ prevented the potentiating effects of environmental enrichment on memory retention in aged rats. These results indicated that PKMζ might be a potential target for the treatment of aging-related cognitive impairment, suggesting a potential therapeutic avenue. PMID:26926225

  11. Nutritional Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Lebriz; Lechanteur, Yara T.; Hoyng, Carel B.; Kirchhof, Bernd; den Hollander, Anneke I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the role of nutritional factors, serum lipids, and lipoproteins in late age-related macular degeneration (late AMD). Methods. Intake of red meat, fruit, fish, vegetables, and alcohol, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) were ascertained questionnaire-based in 1147 late AMD cases and 1773 controls from the European Genetic Database. Serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins were determined. The relationship between nutritional factors and late AMD was assessed using logistic regression. Based on multivariate analysis, area-under-the-curve (AUC) was calculated by receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC). Results. In a multivariate analysis, besides age and smoking, obesity (odds ratio (OR): 1.44, P = 0.014) and red meat intake (daily: OR: 2.34, P = 8.22 × 10−6; 2–6x/week: OR: 1.67, P = 7.98 × 10−5) were identified as risk factors for developing late AMD. Fruit intake showed a protective effect (daily: OR: 0.52, P = 0.005; 2–6x/week: OR: 0.58, P = 0.035). Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels showed no significant association with late AMD. ROC for nutritional factors, smoking, age, and BMI revealed an AUC of 0.781. Conclusion. Red meat intake and obesity were independently associated with increased risk for late AMD, whereas fruit intake was protective. A better understanding of nutritional risk factors is necessary for the prevention of AMD. PMID:25101280

  12. Radiation therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Petrarca, Robert; Jackson, Timothy L

    2011-01-01

    Antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapies represent the standard of care for most patients presenting with neovascular (wet) age-related macular degeneration (neovascular AMD). Anti-VEGF drugs require repeated injections and impose a considerable burden of care, and not all patients respond. Radiation targets the proliferating cells that cause neovascular AMD, including fibroblastic, inflammatory, and endothelial cells. Two new neovascular AMD radiation treatments are being investigated: epimacular brachytherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery. Epimacular brachytherapy uses beta radiation, delivered to the lesion via a pars plana vitrectomy. Stereotactic radiosurgery uses low voltage X-rays in overlapping beams, directed onto the lesion. Feasibility data for epimacular brachytherapy show a greatly reduced need for anti-VEGF therapy, with a mean vision gain of 8.9 ETDRS letters at 12 months. Pivotal trials are underway (MERLOT, CABERNET). Preliminary stereotactic radiosurgery data suggest a mean vision gain of 8 to 10 ETDRS letters at 12 months. A large randomized sham controlled stereotactic radiosurgery feasibility study is underway (CLH002), with pivotal trials to follow. While it is too early to conclude on the safety and efficacy of epimacular brachytherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, preliminary results are positive, and these suggest that radiation offers a more durable therapeutic effect than intraocular injections. PMID:21311657

  13. Age-related changes in angiogenesis in human dermis.

    PubMed

    Gunin, Andrei G; Petrov, Vadim V; Golubtzova, Natalia N; Vasilieva, Olga V; Kornilova, Natalia K

    2014-07-01

    Present research is aimed to examine the number of dermal blood vessels, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), delta-like ligand 4(Dll4) and Jagged-1 (Jag-1) in dermal blood vessels of human from 20weeks of pregnancy to 85years old. Numbers and proliferative activity of dermal fibroblast-like cells were also examined. Blood vessels were viewed with immunohistochemical staining for von Willebrand factor or CD31. VEGF, Dll4, Jag-1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were detected immunohistochemically. Results showed that the numbers of fibroblast-like cells, PCNA positive fibroblast-like cells, von Willebrand factor positive or CD31 positive blood vessels in dermis are dramatically decreased with age. The intensity of immunohistochemical staining for VEGF or Jag-1 in blood vessels of dermis is increased from antenatal to deep old period. The degree of immunohistochemical staining of dermal blood vessels for Dll4 has gone up from 20-40weeks of pregnancy to early life period (0-20years), and further decreased below antenatal values. Age-related decrease in the number of dermal blood vessels is suggested to be due to an impairment of VEGF signaling and to be mediated by Dll4 and Jag-1. It may be supposed that diminishing in blood supply of dermis occurring with age is a cause of a decrease in the number and proliferative pool of dermal fibroblasts. PMID:24768823

  14. Age-Related Changes in Demand–Withdraw Communication Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Sarah R.; Haase, Claudia M.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Demand–withdraw communication is a set of conflict-related behaviors in which one partner blames or pressures while the other partner withdraws or avoids. The present study examined age-related changes in these behaviors longitudinally over the course of later life stages. One hundred twenty-seven middle-aged and older long-term married couples were observed at 3 time points across 13 years as they engaged in a conversation about an area of relationship conflict. Husbands’ and wives’ demand–withdraw behaviors (i.e., blame, pressure, withdrawal, avoidance) were objectively rated by trained coders at each time point. Data were analyzed using dyad-level latent growth curve models in a structural equation modeling framework. For both husbands and wives, the results showed a longitudinal pattern of increasing avoidance behavior over time and stability in all other demand and withdraw behaviors. This study supports the notion that there is an important developmental shift in the way that conflict is handled in later life. PMID:23913982

  15. The Theory Behind the Age-Related Positivity Effect

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Andrew E.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    The “positivity effect” refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather and Carstensen, 2005) scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people. PMID:23060825

  16. Age-related changes in serological susceptibility patterns to measles

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yongzhen; Wang, Dong; Lin, Weiyan; Tang, Hao; Chen, Shaoli; Ni, Jindong

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of IgG measles antibodies in Dongguan residents (irrespective of vaccination status), to analyze the changes in age-related serological susceptibility patterns. A total of 1960 residents aged 0–60 years and 315 mother–infant pairs were studied. Serum IgG antibodies against measles virus were measured by ELISA. The overall seroprevalence was 93.4% in the general population in Dongguan, China. In subgroups aged 1–29 years who were likely vaccinated, there was a declining trend of seropositivity with age from 98.6% at 1–4 years to 85.7% at 20–29 years (P < 0.0001). Seroprevalence were near or >95% in the older population (30–39 years and ≥40 years) who had not been immunized against measles. Age and sex were independent factors associated with seropositivity. Seroprevalence in pregnant women and their newborns was 87.0% and 84.1%, respectively. Our results suggest that the waning vaccine-induced immunity may be the main cause of increased serological susceptibility in young adults and young infants. An additional vaccination strategy that targets young adults is important for elimination of measles. PMID:24448194

  17. Caspase-2 Deficiency Enhances Aging-Related Traits in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingpei; Padalecki, Susan S; Chaudhuri, Asish R; Waal, Eric De; Goins, Beth A; Grubbs, Barry; Ikeno, Yuji; Richardson, Arlan; Mundy, Gregory R; Herman, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Alteration of apoptotic activity has been observed in a number of tissues in aging mammals, but it remains unclear whether and/or how apoptosis may affect aging. Caspase-2 is a member of the cysteine protease family that plays a critical role in apoptosis. To understand the impact of compromised apoptosis function on mammalian aging, we conducted a comparative study on caspase-2 deficient mice and their wild-type littermates with a specific focus on the aging-related traits at advanced ages. We found that caspase-2 deficiency enhanced a number of traits commonly seen in premature aging animals. Loss of caspase-2 was associated with shortened maximum lifespan, impaired hair growth, increased bone loss, and reduced body fat content. In addition, we found that the livers of caspase-2 deficient mice had higher levels of oxidized proteins than those of age-matched wild-type mice, suggesting that caspase-2 deficiency compromised the animal's ability to clear oxidatively damaged cells. Collectively, these results suggest that caspase-2 deficiency affects aging in the mice. This study thus demonstrates for the first time that disruption of a key apoptotic gene has a significant impact on aging. PMID:17188333

  18. eNOS-uncoupling in age-related erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, JM; Bivalacqua, TJ; Lagoda, GA; Burnett, AL; Musicki, B

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with ED. Although age-related ED is attributed largely to increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the penis, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not fully defined. We evaluated whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the aged rat penis is a contributing mechanism. Correlatively, we evaluated the effect of replacement with eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on erectile function in the aged rats. Male Fischer 344 ‘young’ (4-month-old) and ‘aged’ (19-month-old) rats were treated with a BH4 precursor sepiapterin (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle for 4 days. After 1-day washout, erectile function was assessed in response to electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. Endothelial dysfunction (eNOS uncoupling) and oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) were measured by conducting western blot in penes samples. Erectile response was significantly reduced in aged rats, whereas eNOS uncoupling and TBARS production were significantly increased in the aged rat penis compared with young rats. Sepiapterin significantly improved erectile response in aged rats and prevented increase in TBARS production, but did not affect eNOS uncoupling in the penis of aged rats. These findings suggest that aging induces eNOS uncoupling in the penis, resulting in increased oxidative stress and ED. PMID:21289638

  19. Melanization and phagocytosis: implications for age related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Sarangarajan, Rangaprasad; Apte, Shireesh P

    2005-01-01

    Signaling pathways that upregulate melanization in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) may also be implicated in the downregulation of rod outer segment (ROS) phagocytosis by the RPE. Melanization activating pathways may also modulate oxygen consumption by the photoreceptors, apolipoprotein E4 levels, and the rate of photoisomerization events such that the net effect may be a reduction in drusen and/or lipofuscin accumulation. An increase in melanin at the apical microvilli of the RPE may shield ROS from light thereby contributing in part to the decrease in the rate of ROS phagocytosis. This decrease in ROS phagocytosis by the RPE may serve to maintain a balance between ingestion and degradation/recycling thereby avoiding an increase to its already substantial metabolic load. Several experimental drugs for age related macular degeneration (ARMD) coincidentally are also capable of decreasing the rate of ROS phagocytosis. This review attempts to identify the signaling pathways that may link the upregulation of melanization to the downregulation of ROS phagocytosis. Phagocytic pathways that are modulated by melanization need to be studied in isolation to determine what role, if any, they possess in ameliorating the onset and progression of ARMD. Many more empirical studies are needed to unravel specific pathways and mechanisms that seem to link melanization with ARMD. PMID:16030499

  20. Effect of NCAM on aged-related deterioration in vision.

    PubMed

    Luke, Margaret Po-Shan; LeVatte, Terry L; O'Reilly, Amanda M; Smith, Benjamin J; Tremblay, François; Brown, Richard E; Clarke, David B

    2016-05-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is involved in developmental processes and age-associated cognitive decline; however, little is known concerning the effects of NCAM in the visual system during aging. Using anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays, we analyzed age-related changes in visual function of NCAM deficient (-/-) and wild-type mice. Anatomical analyses indicated that aging NCAM -/- mice had fewer retinal ganglion cells, thinner retinas, and fewer photoreceptor cell layers than age-matched controls. Electroretinogram testing of retinal function in young adult NCAM -/- mice showed a 2-fold increase in a- and b-wave amplitude compared with wild-type mice, but the retinal activity dropped dramatically to control levels when the animals reached 10 months. In behavioral tasks, NCAM -/- mice had no visual pattern discrimination ability and showed premature loss of vision as they aged. Together, these findings demonstrate that NCAM plays significant roles in the adult visual system in establishing normal retinal anatomy, physiology and function, and in maintaining vision during aging. PMID:27103522

  1. Age related changes in steroid receptors on cultured lung fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Barile, F.A.; Bienkowski, R.S.

    1986-03-05

    The number of high affinity glucocorticoid receptors (Ro) on human fetal lung fibroblasts decreases as the cells age in vitro, and it has been suggested that these cell systems may be useful models of age-related changes in vivo. They examined the relation between change in Ro with in vitro aging and donor age. Confluent monolayers of lung fibroblasts at various population doubling levels (PDL), were incubated with (/sup 3/H)-dexamethasone ((/sup 3/H)Dex) either alone or with excess (.01 mM) Dex. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between radioactivity in cells incubated with and without unlabeled Dex; Scatchard plots were used to analyze the data. Ro, measured as fmol (/sup 3/H)Dex/10/sup 6/ cells, for two lines of human fetal cells (HFL-1 and MRC-5) decreased with increasing age in vitro. However, human newborn (CRL-1485) and adult (CCL-201) cells and fetal rabbit cells (FAB-290), showed increases in Ro with continuous passage. For each cell line, the affinity constant (K/sub d/) did not change significantly with passage. They conclude that the direction of changes in steroid receptor levels on cells aging in vitro is influenced by donor age and species. Caution should be used in applying results obtained from model systems to aging organisms.

  2. Promising new treatments for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Michels, Stephan; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Rosenfeld, Philip J

    2006-07-01

    Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from existing blood vessels, is responsible for vision loss in a variety of ophthalmic diseases. In neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause for legal blindness in many industrialised countries, abnormal blood vessels grow in the macula and cause blindness. There are a number of factors important in the angiogenic cascade but VEGF-A has been implicated in recent years as the major factor responsible for neovascular and exudative diseases of the eye. Numerous antiangiogenic drugs are in development but anti-VEGF drugs have shown great promise in treating neovascular AMD and other ocular diseases, and many of these drugs have been adopted from oncology where antiangiogenic therapy is gaining wide acceptance. For the first time in neovascular AMD, anti-VEGF drugs have brought the hope of vision improvement to a significant proportion of patients. This review provides an overview on angiogenic mechanisms, potential antiangiogenic treatment strategies and different antiangiogenic drugs with special focus on neovascular AMD. PMID:16787141

  3. Age-related macular degeneration: experimental and emerging treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hubschman, Jean Pierre; Reddy, Shantan; Schwartz, Steven D

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This essay reviews the experimental treatments and new imaging modalities that are currently being explored by investigators to help treat patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design: Interpretative essay. Methods: Literature review and interpretation. Results: Experimental treatments to preserve vision in patients with exudative AMD include blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), binding VEGF, and modulating the VEGF receptors. Investigators are also attempting to block signal transduction with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Experimental treatments for non-exudative AMD include agents that target inflammation, oxidative stress, and implement immune-modulation. The effectiveness of these newer pharmacologic agents has the potential to grow exponentially when used in combination with new and improved imaging modalities that can help identify disease earlier and follow treatment response more precisely. Conclusion: With a better understanding, at the genetic and molecular level, of AMD and the development of superior imaging modalities, investigators are able to offer treatment options that may offer unprecedented visual gains while reducing the need for repetitive treatments. PMID:19668561

  4. Nitroxide pharmaceutical development for age-related degeneration and disease

    PubMed Central

    Zarling, Jacob A.; Brunt, Vienna E.; Vallerga, Anne K.; Li, Weixing; Tao, Albert; Zarling, David A.; Minson, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Nitroxide small molecule agents are in development as preventative or therapeutic pharmaceutical drugs for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cardiovascular disease, which are two major diseases of aging. These aging diseases are associated with patient genetics, smoking, diet, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation. Nitroxide drugs preventing aging-, smoking-, high sugar or high fat diet-, or radiation- and other environmental-induced pathophysiological conditions in aging disease are reviewed. Tempol (TP), Tempol Hydroxylamine (TP-H), and TP-H prodrug (OT-551) are evaluated in (1) non-smokers versus smokers with cutaneous microvascular dysfunction, rapidly reversed by cutaneous TP; (2) elderly cancer patients at risk for radiation-induced skin burns or hair loss, prevented by topical TP; and (3) elderly smoker or non-smoker AMD patients at risk for vision loss, prevented by daily eye drops of OT-551. The human data indicates safety and efficacy for these nitroxide drugs. Both TP and TP-H topically penetrate and function in skin or mucosa, protecting and treating radiation burns and hair loss or smoking-induced cutaneous vascular dysfunction. TP and TP-H do not penetrate the cornea, while OT-551 does effectively penetrate and travels to the back of the eye, preserving visual acuity and preserving normal and low light luminance in dry AMD smokers and non-smoker patients. Topical, oral, or injectable drug formulations are discussed. PMID:26594225

  5. [The oral health problems of Sun King Louis XIV].

    PubMed

    Eijkman, M A J

    2012-01-01

    King Louis XIV (1638-1715) of France was a man plagued by a variety of chronic diseases, such as rheumatism, intestinal infections, fistula, headaches, chronic fever, malaria, urinary infections, gout, and chronic oral problems. At his birth, 2 deciduous teeth were already erupted, and at a very young age he already suffered from caries. In 1685, when he revoked the Edict of Nantes, a clumsy extraction of all maxillary teeth gave rise to a large maxillary bone defect and an oroantral communication. PMID:22897036

  6. THE BURDEN OF AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION: A VALUE-BASED MEDICINE ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gary C; Brown, Melissa M; Sharma, Sanjay; Stein, Joshua D; Roth, Zachary; Campanella, Joseph; Beauchamp, George R

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To assess the quality-of-life loss and the macroeconomic financial consequences associated with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Methods Time tradeoff utility analysis was performed to assess the quality-of-life diminution caused by ARMD (both dry and neovascular) in cohorts consisting of (1) patients with ARMD, (2) ophthalmologists asked to assume they had various degrees of severity of ARMD, (3) healthcare providers asked to assume they had various degrees of severity of ARMD, and (4) participants from the general community asked to assume they had various degrees of severity of ARMD. ARMD was classified according to vision in the better-seeing eye as (1) mild: 20/20 to 20/40, (2) moderate: 20/50 to 20/100, (3) severe: ≤ 20/200, or (4) very severe: ≤ 20/800. Results Mild ARMD caused a 17% decrement in the quality of life of the average patient, similar to that encountered with moderate cardiac angina or symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus syndrome. Moderate ARMD caused a 32% decrease in the average patient’s quality of life, similar to that associated with severe cardiac angina or a fractured hip. Severe ARMD caused a 53% decrease in quality, more than that of dialysis, and very severe ARMD caused a 60% decrease in the average ARMD patient’s quality of life, similar to that encountered with end-stage prostate cancer or a catastrophic stroke that leaves a person bedridden, incontinent, and requiring constant nursing care. Patients with varying degrees of severity of ARMD were found to have quality-of-life impairment ranging from 96% to 750% greater than that estimated by treating ophthalmologists for the same condition. An economic analysis based upon losses to the gross domestic product suggests that ARMD has approximately a $30 billion annual negative impact. The return on investment is therefore potentially high for both treatment with current ARMD therapies and the research costs invested in the development of new ARMD treatment

  7. Age-Related Alteration of Arginase Activity Impacts on Severity of Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Ingrid; Hailu, Asrat; Choi, Beak-San; Abebe, Tamrat; Fuentes, Jose M.; Munder, Markus; Modolell, Manuel; Kropf, Pascale

    2008-01-01

    Background The leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne parasitic diseases that represent a major international public health problem; they belong to the most neglected tropical diseases and have one of the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. The clinical outcome of infection with Leishmania parasites depends on a variety of factors such as parasite species, vector-derived products, genetics, behaviour, and nutrition. The age of the infected individuals also appears to be critical, as a significant proportion of clinical cases occur in children; this age-related higher prevalence of disease is most remarkable in visceral leishmaniasis. The mechanisms resulting in this higher incidence of clinical disease in children are poorly understood. We have recently revealed that sustained arginase activity promotes uncontrolled parasite growth and pathology in vivo. Here, we tested the hypothesis that arginase-mediated L-arginine metabolism differs with age. Methodology The age distribution of patients with visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis was determined in cohorts of patients in our clinics in endemic areas in Ethiopia. To exclude factors that are difficult to control in patients, we assessed the impact of ageing on the manifestations of experimental leishmaniasis. We determined parasite burden, T cell responses, and macrophage effector functions in young and aged mice during the course of infection. Results Our results show that younger mice develop exacerbated lesion pathology and higher parasite burdens than aged mice. This aggravated disease development in younger individuals does not correlate with a change in T helper cytokine profile. To address the underlying mechanisms responsible for the more severe infections in younger mice, we investigated macrophage effector functions. Our results show that macrophages from younger mice do not have an impaired capacity to kill parasites; however, they express significantly higher levels of arginase 1 than aged mice

  8. Regression analysis for solving diagnosis problem of children's health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkashina, Yu A.; Gerget, O. M.

    2016-04-01

    The paper includes results of scientific researches. These researches are devoted to the application of statistical techniques, namely, regression analysis, to assess the health status of children in the neonatal period based on medical data (hemostatic parameters, parameters of blood tests, the gestational age, vascular-endothelial growth factor) measured at 3-5 days of children's life. In this paper a detailed description of the studied medical data is given. A binary logistic regression procedure is discussed in the paper. Basic results of the research are presented. A classification table of predicted values and factual observed values is shown, the overall percentage of correct recognition is determined. Regression equation coefficients are calculated, the general regression equation is written based on them. Based on the results of logistic regression, ROC analysis was performed, sensitivity and specificity of the model are calculated and ROC curves are constructed. These mathematical techniques allow carrying out diagnostics of health of children providing a high quality of recognition. The results make a significant contribution to the development of evidence-based medicine and have a high practical importance in the professional activity of the author.

  9. Causal accounts as a consequential device in categorizing mental health and substance abuse problems.

    PubMed

    Raitakari, Suvi; Günther, Kirsi; Juhila, Kirsi; Saario, Sirpa

    2013-01-01

    Professionals in human service work are at the centre of complicated client cases. The ways client cases are constructed and the problems explained form the basis for professionals' assessments, decisions, actions and interventions. In this article the ways professionals make sense of dual-diagnosis client cases are examined. Applying the concept of causal accounting, it is argued that 'theories of cause' are embedded in professional discourse and profoundly shape professionals' understandings of social and health problems, as well as of their own roles and responsibilities and of what interventions and outcomes are possible. The data consist of 48 tape-recorded weekly team meetings among professionals in a supported housing unit targeted for clients with both mental health and substance abuse problems. It was found that professionals reason about the relationship between these two problems in four different ways: (1) substance abuse causes or makes mental health problems worse; (2) substance abuse eases mental health problems; (3) mental health problems cause or make substance abuse worse; or (4) good mental health reduces substance abuse. Causal account research makes visible the ways professionals do institutional work by categorizing clients, accounting for responsibilities as well as assessing their work and clients' achievements according to moral expectations of a 'good'professional and a worthy client. PMID:25233561

  10. The status of botulism as a world health problem

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, K. F.

    1956-01-01

    The author reviews the international literature and brings up to date the published statistical data on botulism—a disease which, owing to its spectacular nature and high case-fatality rate, appears to occupy a place out of proportion to its frequency as a cause of death in some regions. Without exception, botulism is caused by carelessness in the preparation and preservation of vegetable and animal foods. Local customs of eating such food uncooked, in the form of salads, watery conserves, poorly cured or inadequately smoked pork and salted fish products create the botulism problem. The risk of botulism exists wherever the telluric incidence of Type A, B, and E spores is high. Surveys to appraise the extent of Clostridium botulinum in the soils of Asia and Africa are urgently needed so that the magnitude of the potential problem in these areas can be properly evaluated. Food processors must not relax in the use of properly calculated thermal processes now available for every food commodity. Agencies that promote or give instruction in preservation of food in the home should be thoroughly familiar with the most effective, practical, and inexpensive methods of preventing botulism. PMID:13383365

  11. Health problems in rural elderly at Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Singh, M; Singh, D S

    1996-08-01

    Present study comprised of 1070 elderly patients coming to P.H.C. Bhopauli, Varanasi during January 1991-December 1992. Males were 578 and females were 492. Male predominance was present in younger elderly whereas female predominance was seen among those over 75 years of age. Socio-economic status-wise 265 cases belonged to upper, 394 middle and 411 to lower income group. Arthritis (615) was the commonest disease in elderly followed by hypertension (510), visual problems (400), ischaemic heart disease (IHD) (350), hearing impairement (300), diabetes mellitus (DM) (280), protozoal and worm infestations (240), chronic bronchitis, asthma, emphysema (238), tuberculosis (220), peptic ulcer syndrome (210), varicose vein (200), haemorrhoids (180), urinary problems (154). Two hundred and forty seven cases had 2 diseases followed by 3 diseases (239), 4 diseases (165), 5 diseases (127) and more than 5 diseases (81). Multiple diseases were more frequent among those above 75 years of age. Atypical presentations and complications of different diseases were more frequent among older elderly. PMID:9251427

  12. Job dissatisfaction as a contributor to stress-related mental health problems among Japanese civil servants.

    PubMed

    Tatsuse, Takashi; Sekine, Michikazu

    2013-01-01

    Although studies on the association of job dissatisfaction with mental health have been conducted in the past, few studies have dealt with the complicated links connecting job stress, job dissatisfaction, and stress-related illness. This study seeks to determine how job dissatisfaction is linked to common mental health issues. This study surveyed 3,172 civil servants (2,233 men and 939 women) in 1998, taking poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance as stress-related mental health problems. We examine how psychosocial risk factors at work and job dissatisfaction are associated independently with poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance after adjustment for other known risk factors, and how job dissatisfaction contributes to change in the degree of association between psychosocial risk factors at work and mental health problems. In general, psychosocial risk factors were independently associated with mental health problems. When adjusted for job dissatisfaction, not only was job satisfaction independently associated with mental health problems but it was also found that the association of psychosocial risk factors with mental health problems declined. Our results suggest that, although longitudinal research is necessary, attitudes toward satisfaction at work can potentially decrease the negative effects of psychosocial risk factors at work on mental health. PMID:23385430

  13. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Expanding Global Health Problem

    PubMed Central

    M’Koma, Amosy E.

    2013-01-01

    This review provides a summary of the global epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). It is now clear that IBD is increasing worldwide and has become a global emergence disease. IBD, which includes Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), has been considered a problem in industrial-urbanized societies and attributed largely to a Westernized lifestyle and other associated environmental factors. Its incidence and prevalence in developing countries is steadily rising and has been attributed to the rapid modernization and Westernization of the population. There is a need to reconcile the most appropriate treatment for these patient populations from the perspectives of both disease presentation and cost. In the West, biological agents are the fastest-growing segment of the prescription drug market. These agents cost thousands of dollars per patient per year. The healthcare systems, and certainly the patients, in developing countries will struggle to afford such expensive treatments. The need for biological therapy will inevitably increase dramatically, and the pharmaceutical industry, healthcare providers, patient advocate groups, governments and non-governmental organizations should come to a consensus on how to handle this problem. The evidence that IBD is now affecting a much younger population presents an additional concern. Meta-analyses conducted in patients acquiring IBD at a young age also reveals a trend for their increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), since the cumulative incidence rates of CRC in IBD-patients diagnosed in childhood are higher than those observed in adults. In addition, IBD-associated CRC has a worse prognosis than sporadic CRC, even when the stage at diagnosis is taken into account. This is consistent with additional evidence that IBD negatively impacts CRC survival. A continuing increase in IBD incidence worldwide associated with childhood-onset of IBD coupled with the diseases’ longevity and an increase

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease: an expanding global health problem.

    PubMed

    M'Koma, Amosy E

    2013-01-01

    This review provides a summary of the global epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). It is now clear that IBD is increasing worldwide and has become a global emergence disease. IBD, which includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), has been considered a problem in industrial-urbanized societies and attributed largely to a Westernized lifestyle and other associated environmental factors. Its incidence and prevalence in developing countries is steadily rising and has been attributed to the rapid modernization and Westernization of the population. There is a need to reconcile the most appropriate treatment for these patient populations from the perspectives of both disease presentation and cost. In the West, biological agents are the fastest-growing segment of the prescription drug market. These agents cost thousands of dollars per patient per year. The healthcare systems, and certainly the patients, in developing countries will struggle to afford such expensive treatments. The need for biological therapy will inevitably increase dramatically, and the pharmaceutical industry, healthcare providers, patient advocate groups, governments and non-governmental organizations should come to a consensus on how to handle this problem. The evidence that IBD is now affecting a much younger population presents an additional concern. Meta-analyses conducted in patients acquiring IBD at a young age also reveals a trend for their increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), since the cumulative incidence rates of CRC in IBD-patients diagnosed in childhood are higher than those observed in adults. In addition, IBD-associated CRC has a worse prognosis than sporadic CRC, even when the stage at diagnosis is taken into account. This is consistent with additional evidence that IBD negatively impacts CRC survival. A continuing increase in IBD incidence worldwide associated with childhood-onset of IBD coupled with the diseases' longevity and an increase in

  15. Childhood Abuse and Current Health Problems among Older Adults: The Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Medley, Amanda N.; Kendall – Tackett, Kathleen; Taylor, John

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Child abuse has negative consequences on health functioning and the self-concept. Prior studies have garnered support for these relationships in younger adults; yet few studies have looked at the effects of abuse on health in older adults and the psychosocial variables, specifically self-efficacy, that may influence the abuse-health relationship. Methods Data obtained from the Physical Health and Disability Study were used to explore the impact of child abuse on current medical problems among older adults who were screened on physical disability status (N=1396, Mean age = 67, SD = 10.2). The study was conducted in South Florida and employed a multiethnic sample that is representative of the general population in this area. Results Child abuse was associated with the number of current medical problems and disability. Child abuse was also related to lower self-efficacy, and self-efficacy explained the relationship between abuse and the number of health problems. Conclusions There are far reaching effects of child abuse on older adults' health and self-concept. Health care providers and gerontologists need to be aware that child abuse is a life-long risk factor for increased disability and specific health problems, especially among the elderly. Future research should examine treatments designed to increase self-efficacy, especially among those who experienced child abuse, and observe any positive effects on health functioning. PMID:21922052

  16. The effect of public controversy on occupational health problems: byssinosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bronstein, J M

    1984-01-01

    The effect of the byssinosis controversy on surveillance programs in the cotton textile industry is reviewed. The federally regulated format for industry medical surveillance guarantees neither automatic reduction of cotton dust exposure for high-risk workers nor wage rate retention for workers who are transferred to less dusty job sites. The absence of universal guidelines for worker management, combined with doubt over the severity and prevalence of byssinosis, encourages employers to evaluate medical surveillance programs primarily on the basis of their economic impact. When employers use the programs to control their losses, the potential costs of worker participation are increased. Comparisons with medical surveillance programs in the coal industry suggest that health benefits to workers can be guaranteed in the context of disputes over occupational diseases if industry, labor, and government agencies all participate in program design and operation. PMID:6236698

  17. [Intestinal parasitic diseases as a global health problem].

    PubMed

    Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor

    2013-03-01

    In today's world, parasitic disease agents are not restricted by geography or economy, and have become a significant global threat. The increasing globalization of the fresh produce market and greater international trade and travels, have contributed to the spread of these organisms in the industrialized world. Parasitic protozoa cause waterborne and foodborne outbreaks of diarrhea. The unprecedented flow of people introduces cultural and behavior patterns around the world; the increasing tendency to eat raw or undercooked meat and seafood, favors the dissemination of several parasitic pathogens. Climate changes are predicted to cause a global increase in soil-transmitted helminthiases. The multidisciplinary study of these agents, and the interaction among scientists, global health organizations and governments are imperative to reduce the burden of these diseases and improve the life of a large segment of the world population. PMID:23781708

  18. Occupational health problems of bridge and tunnel officers.

    PubMed

    Herbert, R; Szeinuk, J; O'Brien, S

    2001-01-01

    Bridge and tunnel officers (BTOs) sustain potential exposure to a number of physical, chemical, and work-organizational factors. They are at risk for both fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries due to moving vehicles, workplace violence, vehicular fires, and physical hazards, such as slippery walking surfaces due to oil or ice on roadways. This chapter describes the spectrum of occupational injuries and illnesses which may be seen in BTOs, focusing on: 1) vehicular exhaust and air pollution, 2) ergonomic hazards, 3) job strain, 4) noise, 5) blood-borne pathogens, 6) chemicals used in road work and maintenance (e.g., lead-based paint), and 7) with the recent advent of electronic traffic sensors, microwave radiation. Special emphasis is given to respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease. Finally, some recommendations for focused health surveillance and preventive efforts in this population are made. PMID:11107224

  19. An E-Health Solution for People With Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, David H.; Boyle, Michael G.; Shaw, Bret R.; Isham, Andrew; McTavish, Fiona; Richards, Stephanie; Schubert, Christopher; Levy, Michael; Johnson, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Self-management of chronic diseases has been a research focus for years. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have played a significant role in aiding patients and their families with that management task. The recent dramatic increase in smartphone capabilities has expanded the potential of these technologies by facilitating the integration of features specific to cell phones with advanced capabilities that extend the reach of what type of information can be assessed and which services can be provided. A recent review of the literature covering the use of ICTs in managing chronic diseases, including addiction, has examined the effectiveness of ICTs, with an emphasis on technologies tested in randomized controlled trials. One example of an addiction-relapse prevention system currently being tested is the Alcohol Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (A-CHESS) Program. PMID:23293549

  20. Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Longstreth, J.

    1993-06-01

    Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches.