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Sample records for age-related hearing loss

  1. [Presbycusis - Age Related Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Fischer, N; Weber, B; Riechelmann, H

    2016-07-01

    Presbycusis or age related hearing loss can be defined as a progressive, bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss due to age related degeneration of inner ear structures. It can be considered a multifactorial complex disorder with environmental and genetic factors. The molecular, electrophysiological and histological damage at different levels of the inner ear cause a progressive hearing loss, which usually affects the high frequencies of hearing. The resulting poor speech recognition has a negative impact on cognitive, emotional and social function in older adults. Recent investigations revealed an association between hearing impairment and social isolation, anxiety, depression and cognitive decline in elderly. These findings emphasize the importance of diagnosis and treating hearing loss in the elderly population. Hearing aids are the most commonly used devices for treating presbycusis. The technical progress of implantable hearing devices allows an effective hearing rehabilitation even in elderly with severe hearing loss. However, most people with hearing impairments are not treated adequately. PMID:27392191

  2. Age-Related Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... hearing loss. Here are the most common ones: Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Hearing aids ... list of organizations, contact: NIDCD Information Clearinghouse 1 Communication Avenue Bethesda, MD 20892-3456 Toll-free Voice: ( ...

  3. Mouse models of age-related mitochondrial neurosensory hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Han, Chul; Someya, Shinichi

    2013-07-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory disorder in the elderly population. Overall, 10% of the population has a hearing loss in the US, and this age-related hearing disorder is projected to afflict more than 28 million Americans by 2030. Age-related hearing loss is associated with loss of sensory hair cells (sensory hearing loss) and/or spiral ganglion neurons (neuronal hearing loss) in the cochlea of the inner ear. Many lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress and associated mitochondrial dysfunction play a central role in age-related neurodegenerative diseases and are a cause of age-related neurosensory hearing loss. Yet, the molecular mechanisms of how oxidative stress and/or mitochondrial dysfunction lead to hearing loss during aging remain unclear, and currently there is no treatment for this age-dependent disorder. Several mouse models of aging and age-related diseases have been linked to age-related mitochondrial neurosensory hearing loss. Evaluation of these animal models has offered basic knowledge of the mechanism underlying hearing loss associated with oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and aging. Here we review the evidence that specific mutations in the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that affect mitochondrial function result in increased oxidative damage and associated loss of sensory hair cells and/or spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea during aging, thereby causing hearing loss in these mouse models. Future studies comparing these models will provide further insight into fundamental knowledge about the disordered process of hearing and treatments to improve the lives of individuals with communication disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Mitochondrial function and dysfunction in neurodegeneration'.

  4. New Clues to Age-Related Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161359.html New Clues to Age-Related Hearing Loss Older people's brains have a ... the brain's ability to process speech declines with age. For the study, Alessandro Presacco and colleagues divided ...

  5. Age-related hearing loss increases cross-modal distractibility.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Sandmann, Pascale; Bendixen, Alexandra; Thiel, Christiane M

    2014-10-01

    Recent electrophysiological studies have provided evidence that changes in multisensory processing in auditory cortex cannot only be observed following extensive hearing loss, but also in moderately hearing-impaired subjects. How the reduced auditory input affects audio-visual interactions is however largely unknown. Here we used a cross-modal distraction paradigm to investigate multisensory processing in elderly participants with an age-related high-frequency hearing loss as compared to young and elderly subjects with normal hearing. During the experiment, participants were simultaneously presented with independent streams of auditory and visual input and were asked to categorize either the auditory or visual information while ignoring the other modality. Unisensory sequences without any cross-modal input served as control conditions to assure that all participants were able to perform the task. While all groups performed similarly in these unisensory conditions, hearing-impaired participants showed significantly increased error rates when confronted with distracting cross-modal stimulation. This effect could be observed in both the auditory and the visual task. Supporting these findings, an additional regression analysis indicted that the degree of high-frequency hearing loss significantly modulates cross-modal visual distractibility in the auditory task. These findings provide new evidence that already a moderate sub-clinical hearing loss, a common phenomenon in the elderly population, affects the processing of audio-visual information.

  6. The Neural Consequences of Age-Related Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-07-01

    During hearing, acoustic signals travel up the ascending auditory pathway from the cochlea to auditory cortex; efferent connections provide descending feedback. In human listeners, although auditory and cognitive processing have sometimes been viewed as separate domains, a growing body of work suggests they are intimately coupled. Here, we review the effects of hearing loss on neural systems supporting spoken language comprehension, beginning with age-related physiological decline. We suggest that listeners recruit domain general executive systems to maintain successful communication when the auditory signal is degraded, but that this compensatory processing has behavioral consequences: even relatively mild levels of hearing loss can lead to cascading cognitive effects that impact perception, comprehension, and memory, leading to increased listening effort during speech comprehension. PMID:27262177

  7. The Neural Consequences of Age-Related Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-07-01

    During hearing, acoustic signals travel up the ascending auditory pathway from the cochlea to auditory cortex; efferent connections provide descending feedback. In human listeners, although auditory and cognitive processing have sometimes been viewed as separate domains, a growing body of work suggests they are intimately coupled. Here, we review the effects of hearing loss on neural systems supporting spoken language comprehension, beginning with age-related physiological decline. We suggest that listeners recruit domain general executive systems to maintain successful communication when the auditory signal is degraded, but that this compensatory processing has behavioral consequences: even relatively mild levels of hearing loss can lead to cascading cognitive effects that impact perception, comprehension, and memory, leading to increased listening effort during speech comprehension.

  8. Age-related hearing impairment and the triad of acquired hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao-Hui; Schrepfer, Thomas; Schacht, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding underlying pathological mechanisms is prerequisite for a sensible design of protective therapies against hearing loss. The triad of age-related, noise-generated, and drug-induced hearing loss displays intriguing similarities in some cellular responses of cochlear sensory cells such as a potential involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic and necrotic cell death. On the other hand, detailed studies have revealed that molecular pathways are considerably complex and, importantly, it has become clear that pharmacological protection successful against one form of hearing loss will not necessarily protect against another. This review will summarize pathological and pathophysiological features of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) in human and animal models and address selected aspects of the commonality (or lack thereof) of cellular responses in ARHI to drugs and noise. PMID:26283913

  9. Neural Alterations in Acquired Age-Related Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Mudar, Raksha A.; Husain, Fatima T.

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent chronic health conditions in older adults. Growing evidence suggests that hearing loss is associated with reduced cognitive functioning and incident dementia. In this mini-review, we briefly examine literature on anatomical and functional alterations in the brains of adults with acquired age-associated hearing loss, which may underlie the cognitive consequences observed in this population, focusing on studies that have used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and event-related electroencephalography. We discuss structural and functional alterations observed in the temporal and frontal cortices and the limbic system. These neural alterations are discussed in the context of common cause, information-degradation, and sensory-deprivation hypotheses, and we suggest possible rehabilitation strategies. Although, we are beginning to learn more about changes in neural architecture and functionality related to age-associated hearing loss, much work remains to be done. Understanding the neural alterations will provide objective markers for early identification of neural consequences of age-associated hearing loss and for evaluating benefits of intervention approaches. PMID:27313556

  10. Serum homocysteine and folate concentrations are associated with prevalent age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Rochtchina, Elena; McMahon, Catherine M; Mitchell, Paul

    2010-08-01

    Elevated total serum homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations associated with vitamin B-12 or folate deficiencies may adversely affect blood flow to the cochlea, leading to age-related hearing loss (presbycusis). However, only 2 small cross-sectional studies have assessed the link between folate, vitamin B-12, or tHcy and presbycusis. We aimed to determine both the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B-12, or tHcy and risk of age-related hearing loss. The Blue Mountains Hearing Study is a population-based survey of age-related hearing loss (1997-1999 to 2002-2004). Presbycusis was measured in 2956 participants (aged >or=50 y) and was defined as the pure-tone average of frequencies 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 kHz >25 dB hearing level (HL). Serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B-12, and tHcy were determined from blood samples. Participants with elevated tHcy (>20 micromol/L) concentrations had a 64% increased likelihood of prevalent hearing loss (>25 dB HL) [multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.64; 95% CI, 1.06-2.53]. Low serum folate levels (<11 nmol/L) increased the odds of prevalent mild hearing loss (>25-40 dB HL), multivariate-adjusted [OR 1.37 (CI 1.04-1.81)]. Serum vitamin B-12, however, was not significantly associated with prevalent hearing loss. Serum folate, vitamin B-12, and tHcy concentrations were also not significantly associated with an increased risk of incident hearing loss. Serum concentrations of tHcy and folate were associated with age-related hearing loss cross-sectionally, but no temporal links were observed, which could be due to insufficient study power. Further, large prospective studies will be required in the future to assess these associations.

  11. Age-related hearing loss: ear and brain mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Frisina, Robert D

    2009-07-01

    Loss of sensory function in the aged has serious consequences for economic productivity, quality of life, and healthcare costs in the billions each year. Understanding the neural and molecular bases will pave the way for biomedical interventions to prevent, slow, or reverse these conditions. This chapter summarizes new information regarding age changes in the auditory system involving both the ear (peripheral) and brain (central). A goal is to provide findings that have implications for understanding some common biological underpinnings that affect sensory systems, providing a basis for eventual interventions to improve overall sensory functioning, including the chemical senses.

  12. Age-Related Hearing Loss: Quality of Care for Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Korotky, Ha-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), known as presbycusis, is characterized by progressive deterioration of auditory sensitivity, loss of the auditory sensory cells, and central processing functions associated with the aging process. ARHL is the third most prevalent chronic condition in older Americans, after hypertension and arthritis, and is a…

  13. Age-related hearing loss in sea lions and their scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon; Kastak, David; Reichmuth Kastak, Colleen

    2002-05-01

    Interest in the hearing capabilities of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) was first stimulated by the echolocation hypothesis and more recently by rising concern about coastal noise pollution. During a series of audiometric tests, we measured the absolute hearing sensitivity of two sea lions and two of their human investigators. Aerial hearing curves for each subject were obtained with a go/no-go procedure and standard psychophysics. Additionally, underwater hearing curves were obtained for the sea lions using the same procedures. Underwater, the older sea lion (22-25 years of age) showed hearing losses relative to the younger sea lion (13-16 years) that ranged from 10 dB at lower frequencies to 50 dB near the upper frequency limit. The older sea lions' hearing losses in air were consistent with those measured underwater. The older human (69 years) tested also showed losses relative to the younger human (22 years). These differences ranged from 15 dB at lower frequencies up to 35 dB at the highest frequency tested. The results obtained in this study document age-related hearing losses in sea lions and humans. The findings are consistent with data on presbycusis in other mammalian species, showing that maximum hearing loss occurs at the highest frequencies.

  14. Antioxidant-enriched diet does not delay the progression of age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Sha, Su-Hua; Kanicki, Ariane; Halsey, Karin; Wearne, Kimberly Anne; Schacht, Jochen

    2012-05-01

    Oxidative stress has been linked to noise- and drug-induced as well as age-related hearing loss. Antioxidants can attenuate the decline of cochlear structure and function after exposure to noise or drugs, but it is debated as to whether they can protect from age-related hearing loss. In a long-term longitudinal study, 10-month-old female CBA/J mice were placed on either a control or antioxidant-enriched diet and monitored through 24 months of age. Supplementation with vitamins A, C, and E, L-carnitine, and α-lipoic acid significantly increased the antioxidant capacity of inner ear tissues. However, by 24 months of age, the magnitude of hearing loss was equal between the two groups. Likewise, there were no significant differences in hair cell loss or degeneration of spiral ganglion cells. We conclude that dietary manipulations can alter cochlear antioxidant capacity but do not ameliorate age-related sensorineural hearing loss in the CBA/J mouse. PMID:22154190

  15. Impulse noise exposure in early adulthood accelerates age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Min; Yang, Chuanhong; Lai, Huangwen; Wang, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of impulse noise on age-related hearing loss. The study consisted of two groups. Each group contained 109 men. Group I comprised veterans with normal hearing at the end of 1979 sino-vietnamese war. All these veterans were randomly selected from Guangzhou Military Command. Group II were men with no military experience randomly chosen from the health examination center of Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command. Pure-tone thresholds of these two groups were measured and compared. The pure-tone thresholds of Group I were poorer than those of Group II at the frequencies of 4, 6 and 8 kHz. Thus, impulse noise accelerates age-related hearing loss.

  16. Communicating with Assistive Listening Devices and Age-Related Hearing Loss: Perceptions of Older Australians.

    PubMed

    Aberdeen, Lucinda; Fereiro, David

    2014-01-31

    Abstract Age-related hearing loss can impact adversely on the delivery of primary care and cannot necessarily be remedied by hearing aid technology. A study of 20 older Australians living in a Queensland retirement village and residential hostel complex was undertaken to investigate how communication might be advanced through an assistive listening device (ALD). Most participants were women aged over 85 years; almost all had hearing loss and wore hearing aids. Tests with an ALD found very high levels of satisfaction with understanding speech and sound quality amongst participants. However, few had heard previously of ALDs, all required individualised assistance to fit and use the device and rated ease of use less highly. The findings affirm those of previous studies that ALD technology has a role in communication for older hearing-impaired people and for hearing rehabilitation. Its potential to enhance quality of life can be facilitated and promoted through nursing practice, but requires professional and consumer education so that it is not overlooked as a communication option. PMID:24484316

  17. Communicating with assistive listening devices and age-related hearing loss: Perceptions of older Australians.

    PubMed

    Aberdeen, Lucinda; Fereiro, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Age-related hearing loss can impact adversely on the delivery of primary care and cannot necessarily be remedied by hearing aid technology. A study of 20 older Australians living in a Queensland retirement village and residential hostel complex was undertaken to investigate how communication might be advanced through an assistive listening device (ALD). Most participants were women aged over 85 years; almost all had hearing loss and wore hearing aids. Tests with an ALD found very high levels of satisfaction with understanding speech and sound quality amongst participants. However, few had heard previously of ALDs, all required individualised assistance to fit and use the device and rated ease of use less highly. The findings affirm those of previous studies that ALD technology has a role in communication for older hearing impaired people and for hearing rehabilitation. Its potential to enhance quality of life can be facilitated and promoted through nursing practice, but requires professional and consumer education so that it is not overlooked as a communication option. PMID:25267134

  18. Long-term treatment with aldosterone slows the progression of age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Halonen, Joshua; Hinton, Ashley S; Frisina, Robert D; Ding, Bo; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P

    2016-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), clinically referred to as presbycusis, is one of the three most prevalent chronic medical conditions of our elderly, with the majority of persons over the age of 60 suffering from some degree of ARHL. The progressive loss of auditory sensitivity and perceptual capability results in significant declines in workplace productivity, quality of life, cognition and abilities to communicate effectively. Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone produced in the adrenal glands and plays a role in the maintenance of key ion pumps, including the Na-K(+)-Cl co-transporter 1 or NKCC1, which is involved in homeostatic maintenance of the endocochlear potential. Previously we reported that aldosterone (1 μM) increases NKCC1 protein expression in vitro and that this up-regulation of NKCC1 was not dose-dependent (dosing range from 1 nM to 100 μM). In the current study we measured behavioral and electrophysiological hearing function in middle-aged mice following long-term systemic treatment with aldosterone. We also confirmed that blood pressure remained stable during treatment and that NKCC1 protein expression was upregulated. Pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response was used as a functional measure of hearing, and the auditory brainstem response was used as an objective measure of peripheral sensitivity. Long-term treatment with aldosterone improved both behavioral and physiological measures of hearing (ABR thresholds). These results are the first to demonstrate a protective effect of aldosterone on age-related hearing loss and pave the way for translational drug development, using aldosterone as a key component to prevent or slow down the progression of ARHL. PMID:27157488

  19. Long-term treatment with aldosterone slows the progression of age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Halonen, Joshua; Hinton, Ashley S; Frisina, Robert D; Ding, Bo; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P

    2016-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), clinically referred to as presbycusis, is one of the three most prevalent chronic medical conditions of our elderly, with the majority of persons over the age of 60 suffering from some degree of ARHL. The progressive loss of auditory sensitivity and perceptual capability results in significant declines in workplace productivity, quality of life, cognition and abilities to communicate effectively. Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone produced in the adrenal glands and plays a role in the maintenance of key ion pumps, including the Na-K(+)-Cl co-transporter 1 or NKCC1, which is involved in homeostatic maintenance of the endocochlear potential. Previously we reported that aldosterone (1 μM) increases NKCC1 protein expression in vitro and that this up-regulation of NKCC1 was not dose-dependent (dosing range from 1 nM to 100 μM). In the current study we measured behavioral and electrophysiological hearing function in middle-aged mice following long-term systemic treatment with aldosterone. We also confirmed that blood pressure remained stable during treatment and that NKCC1 protein expression was upregulated. Pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response was used as a functional measure of hearing, and the auditory brainstem response was used as an objective measure of peripheral sensitivity. Long-term treatment with aldosterone improved both behavioral and physiological measures of hearing (ABR thresholds). These results are the first to demonstrate a protective effect of aldosterone on age-related hearing loss and pave the way for translational drug development, using aldosterone as a key component to prevent or slow down the progression of ARHL.

  20. GRM7 variants associated with age-related hearing loss based on auditory perception

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Dina L.; Fisher, Laurel M.; Ohmen, Jeffrey; Parody, Robert; Fong, Chin-To; Frisina, Susan T.; Mapes, Frances; Eddins, David A.; Frisina, D. Robert; Frisina, Robert D.; Friedman, Rick A.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), or presbycusis, is a common condition of the elderly that results in significant communication difficulties in daily life. Clinically, it has been defined as a progressive loss of sensitivity to sound, starting at the high frequencies, inability to understand speech, lengthening of the minimum discernable temporal gap in sounds, and a decrease in the ability to filter out background noise. The causes of presbycusis are likely a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Previous research into the genetics of presbycusis has focused solely on hearing as measured by pure-tone thresholds. A few loci have been identified, based on a best ear pure-tone average phenotype, as having a likely role in susceptibility to this type of hearing loss; and GRM7 is the only gene that has achieved genome-wide significance. We examined the association of GRM7 variants identified from the previous study, which used an European cohort with Z-scores based on pure-tone thresholds, in a European–American population from Rochester, NY (N = 687), and used novel phenotypes of presbycusis. In the present study mixed modeling analyses were used to explore the relationship of GRM7 haplotype and SNP genotypes with various measures of auditory perception. Here we show that GRM7 alleles are associated primarily with peripheral measures of hearing loss, and particularly with speech detection in older adults. PMID:23102807

  1. GRM7 variants associated with age-related hearing loss based on auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Newman, Dina L; Fisher, Laurel M; Ohmen, Jeffrey; Parody, Robert; Fong, Chin-To; Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Eddins, David A; Robert Frisina, D; Frisina, Robert D; Friedman, Rick A

    2012-12-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), or presbycusis, is a common condition of the elderly that results in significant communication difficulties in daily life. Clinically, it has been defined as a progressive loss of sensitivity to sound, starting at the high frequencies, inability to understand speech, lengthening of the minimum discernable temporal gap in sounds, and a decrease in the ability to filter out background noise. The causes of presbycusis are likely a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Previous research into the genetics of presbycusis has focused solely on hearing as measured by pure-tone thresholds. A few loci have been identified, based on a best ear pure-tone average phenotype, as having a likely role in susceptibility to this type of hearing loss; and GRM7 is the only gene that has achieved genome-wide significance. We examined the association of GRM7 variants identified from the previous study, which used an European cohort with Z-scores based on pure-tone thresholds, in a European-American population from Rochester, NY (N = 687), and used novel phenotypes of presbycusis. In the present study mixed modeling analyses were used to explore the relationship of GRM7 haplotype and SNP genotypes with various measures of auditory perception. Here we show that GRM7 alleles are associated primarily with peripheral measures of hearing loss, and particularly with speech detection in older adults.

  2. Loss of peripheral right-ear advantage in age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Sherif F; Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Kim, SungHee; Frisina, D Robert; Frisina, Robert D

    2005-01-01

    In young adults with normal hearing, the right ear is more sensitive than the left to simple sounds (peripheral right-ear advantage) and to processing complex sounds such as speech (central right-ear advantage). In the present investigation, the effects of hearing loss and aging on this auditory asymmetry were examined at both peripheral and central levels. Audiograms and transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitudes were used to assess cochlear function. The contralateral suppression of TEOAEs was measured to assess the medial olivocochlear efferent system. The Hearing in Noise Test (HINT; binaural speech) was conducted to assess higher central auditory function. A group of aged subjects with normal hearing (flat audiograms) were compared to a group of aged subjects with sloping audiograms (presbycusis). At the cochlear (peripheral) level, the normal hearing group showed significantly higher otoacoustic emission amplitudes for the right ear compared to the left ear, which is consistent with the right-ear dominance normally seen in young adults. However, this finding was reversed in the presbycusic group that showed higher left-ear emission amplitudes. At the brainstem level, the amplitudes of TEOAE contralateral suppression were small and no significant difference was found between the right and left ears in both groups. On the contrary, HINT results showed a continuous dominance of the right ear (left hemisphere) in both groups, which was consistent with previous reports showing that the right hemisphere is more affected by age than the left hemisphere.

  3. Managing age-related hearing loss: how to use hearing aids efficiently - a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Williger, Bettina; Lang, Frieder R

    2014-01-01

    Using hearing aids may contribute to better functioning in the everyday lives of hearing-impaired older individuals. We introduce an integrative concept for the efficient use of hearing aids that involves both satisfaction with, and behaviour towards, hearing aids. We review theoretical and empirical work on the predictors of the efficient use of hearing aids in everyday life. Furthermore, we contend that the use of hearing aids requires improved understanding of the variability of hearing demands within specific contexts of everyday life (e.g. conversation with family members, listening to music). The efficiency of hearing aid use thus depends on the fit of situational demands, personal resources, and the specific configuration of the hearing aid device. We propose an integrative person-environment-fit model that advances concepts of selection, optimisation, and compensation to hearing aid efficiency. We discuss the implications of this model for research and for practitioners in the field of gerontology. PMID:24751499

  4. Auditory sensitivity and the outer hair cell system in the CBA mouse model of age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Frisina, Robert D; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2010-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss is a highly prevalent sensory disorder, from both the clinical and animal model perspectives. Understanding of the neurophysiologic, structural, and molecular biologic bases of age-related hearing loss will facilitate development of biomedical therapeutic interventions to prevent, slow, or reverse its progression. Thus, increased understanding of relationships between aging of the cochlear (auditory portion of the inner ear) hair cell system and decline in overall hearing ability is necessary. The goal of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that there would be correlations between physiologic measures of outer hair cell function (otoacoustic emission levels) and hearing sensitivity (auditory brainstem response thresholds), starting in middle age. For the CBA mouse, a useful animal model of age-related hearing loss, it was found that correlations between these two hearing measures occurred only for high sound frequencies in middle age. However, in old age, a correlation was observed across the entire mouse range of hearing. These findings have implications for improved early detection of progression of age-related hearing loss in middle-aged mammals, including mice and humans, and distinguishing peripheral etiologies from central auditory system decline.

  5. Likely Age-Related Hearing Loss (Presbycusis) in a Stranded Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Matthias; Fernando, Nimal; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Lin, Wenzhi; Chen, Jialin; Ng, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The hearing of a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Zhuhai, China, was measured. The age of this animal was estimated to be ~40 years. The animal's hearing was measured using a noninvasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) method. The results showed that the high-frequency hearing cutoff frequency of the studied dolphin was ~30-40 kHz lower than that of a conspecific younger individual ~13 year old. The lower high-frequency hearing range in the older dolphin was explained as a likely result of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis).

  6. Likely Age-Related Hearing Loss (Presbycusis) in a Stranded Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Matthias; Fernando, Nimal; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Lin, Wenzhi; Chen, Jialin; Ng, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The hearing of a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Zhuhai, China, was measured. The age of this animal was estimated to be ~40 years. The animal's hearing was measured using a noninvasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) method. The results showed that the high-frequency hearing cutoff frequency of the studied dolphin was ~30-40 kHz lower than that of a conspecific younger individual ~13 year old. The lower high-frequency hearing range in the older dolphin was explained as a likely result of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis). PMID:26611012

  7. Current concepts in age-related hearing loss: Epidemiology and mechanistic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Lin, Frank R.; Someya, Shinichi; Kashio, Akinori; Sakamoto, Takashi; Kondo, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (AHL), also known as presbycusis, is a universal feature of mammalian aging and is characterized by a decline of auditory function, such as increased hearing thresholds and poor frequency resolution. The primary pathology of AHL includes the hair cells, stria vascularis, and afferent spiral ganglion neurons as well as the central auditory pathways. A growing body of evidence in animal studies has suggested that cumulative effect of oxidative stress could induce damage to macromolecules such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and that the resulting accumulation of mtDNA mutations/deletions and decline of mitochondrial function play an important role in inducing apoptosis of the cochlear cells, thereby the development of AHL. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated four categories of risk factors of AHL in humans: cochlear aging, environment such as noise exposure, genetic predisposition, and health co-morbidities such as cigarette smoking and atherosclerosis. Genetic investigation has identified several putative associating genes, including those related to antioxidant defense and atherosclerosis. Exposure to noise is known to induce excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cochlea, and cumulative oxidative stress can be enhanced by relatively hypoxic situations resulting from the impaired homeostasis of cochlear blood supply due to atherosclerosis, which could be accelerated by genetic and co-morbidity factors. Antioxidant defense system may also be influenced by genetic backgrounds. These may explain the large variations of the onset and extent of AHL among elderly subjects. PMID:23422312

  8. Glycinergic synaptic transmission in the cochlear nucleus of mice with normal hearing and age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ruili; Manis, Paul B

    2013-10-01

    The principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian cochlear nucleus (CN) is glycine. During age-related hearing loss (AHL), glycinergic inhibition becomes weaker in CN. However, it is unclear what aspects of glycinergic transmission are responsible for weaker inhibition with AHL. We examined glycinergic transmission onto bushy cells of the anteroventral CN in normal-hearing CBA/CaJ mice and in DBA/2J mice, a strain that exhibits an early onset AHL. Glycinergic synaptic transmission was examined in brain slices of mice at 10-15 postnatal days old, 20-35 days old, and at 6-7 mo old. Spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC) event frequency and amplitude were the same among all three ages in both strains of mice. However, the amplitudes of IPSCs evoked (eIPSC) from stimulating the dorsal CN were smaller, and the failure rate was higher, with increasing age due to decreased quantal content in both mouse strains, independent of hearing status. The coefficient of variation of the eIPSC amplitude also increased with age. The decay time constant (τ) of sIPSCs and eIPSCs were constant in CBA/CaJ mice at all ages, but were significantly slower in DBA/2J mice at postnatal days 20-35, following the onset of AHL, and not at earlier or later ages. Our results suggest that glycinergic inhibition at the synapses onto bushy cells becomes weaker and less reliable with age through changes in release. However, the hearing loss in DBA/2J mice is accompanied by a transiently enhanced inhibition, which could disrupt the balance of excitation and inhibition.

  9. Age-related hearing loss: prevention of threshold declines, cell loss and apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) -presbycusis - is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and number one communication disorder of our aged population; and affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Its prevalence is close to that of cardiovascular disease and arthritis, and can be a precursor to dementia. The auditory perceptual dysfunction is well understood, but knowledge of the biological bases of ARHL is still somewhat lacking. Surprisingly, there are no FDA-approved drugs for treatment. Based on our previous studies of human subjects, where we discovered relations between serum aldosterone levels and the severity of ARHL, we treated middle age mice with aldosterone, which normally declines with age in all mammals. We found that hearing thresholds and suprathreshold responses significantly improved in the aldosterone-treated mice compared to the non-treatment group. In terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect, additional experiments revealed that spiral ganglion cell survival was significantly improved, mineralocorticoid receptors were upregulated via post-translational protein modifications, and age-related intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were blocked by the aldosterone therapy. Taken together, these novel findings pave the way for translational drug development towards the first medication to prevent the progression of ARHL. PMID:27667674

  10. Effects of Age and Age-Related Hearing Loss on the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Kelly; Ross, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    It is well documented that aging adversely affects the ability to perceive time-varying acoustic cues. Here we review how physiological measures are being used to explore the effects of aging (and concomitant hearing loss) on the neural representation of temporal cues. Also addressed are the implications of current research findings on the…

  11. Deterioration of the Medial Olivocochlear Efferent System Accelerates Age-Related Hearing Loss in Pax2-Isl1 Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Chumak, Tetyana; Bohuslavova, Romana; Macova, Iva; Dodd, Nicole; Buckiova, Daniela; Fritzsch, Bernd; Syka, Josef; Pavlinkova, Gabriela

    2016-05-01

    The development, maturation, and maintenance of the inner ear are governed by temporal and spatial expression cascades of transcription factors that form a gene regulatory network. ISLET1 (ISL1) may be one of the major players in this cascade, and in order to study its role in the regulation of inner ear development, we produced a transgenic mouse overexpressing Isl1 under the Pax2 promoter. Pax2-regulated ISL1 overexpression increases the embryonic ISL1(+) domain and induces accelerated nerve fiber extension and branching in E12.5 embryos. Despite these gains in early development, the overexpression of ISL1 impairs the maintenance and function of hair cells of the organ of Corti. Mutant mice exhibit hyperactivity, circling behavior, and progressive age-related decline in hearing functions, which is reflected in reduced otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) followed by elevated hearing thresholds. The reduction of the amplitude of DPOAEs in transgenic mice was first detected at 1 month of age. By 6-9 months of age, DPOAEs completely disappeared, suggesting a functional inefficiency of outer hair cells (OHCs). The timing of DPOAE reduction coincides with the onset of the deterioration of cochlear efferent terminals. In contrast to these effects on efferents, we only found a moderate loss of OHCs and spiral ganglion neurons. For the first time, our results show that the genetic alteration of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent system induces an early onset of age-related hearing loss. Thus, the neurodegeneration of the MOC system could be a contributing factor to the pathology of age-related hearing loss.

  12. Age-related hearing loss: aquaporin 4 gene expression changes in the mouse cochlea and auditory midbrain.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Nathan; D'Souza, Mary; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Frisina, Robert D

    2009-02-01

    Presbycusis -- age-related hearing loss, is the number one communication disorder, and one of the top three chronic medical conditions of our aged population. Aquaporins, particularly aquaporin 4 (Aqp4), are membrane proteins with important roles in water and ion flux across cell membranes, including cells of the inner ear and pathways of the brain used for hearing. To more fully understand the biological bases of presbycusis, 39 CBA mice, a well-studied animal model of presbycusis, underwent non-invasive hearing testing as a function of sound frequency (auditory brainstem response -- ABR thresholds, and distortion-product otoacoustic emission -- DPOAE magnitudes), and were clustered into four groups based on age and hearing ability. Aqp4 gene expression, as determined by genechip microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR, was compared to the young adult control group in the three older groups: middle aged with good hearing, old age with mild presbycusis, and old age with severe presbycusis. Linear regression and ANOVA showed statistically significant changes in Aqp4 gene expression and ABR and DPOAE hearing status in the cochlea and auditory midbrain -- inferior colliculus. Down-regulation in the cochlea was seen, and an initial down-, then up-regulation was discovered for the inferior colliculus Aqp4 expression. It is theorized that these changes in Aqp4 gene expression represent an age-related disruption of ion flux in the fluids of the cochlea that are responsible for ionic gradients underlying sound transduction in cochlear hair cells necessary for hearing. In regard to central auditory processing at the level of the auditory midbrain, aquaporin gene expression changes may affect neurotransmitter cycling involving supporting cells, thus impairing complex sound neural processing with age.

  13. Neuronal erythropoietin overexpression protects mice against age-related hearing loss (presbycusis).

    PubMed

    Naldi, Arianne Monge; Belfrage, Celina; Jain, Neha; Wei, Eric T; Martorell, Belén Canto; Gassmann, Max; Vogel, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    So far, typical causes of presbycusis such as degeneration of hair cells and/or primary auditory (spiral ganglion) neurons cannot be treated. Because erythropoietin's (Epo) neuroprotective potential has been shown previously, we determined hearing thresholds of juvenile and aged mice overexpressing Epo in neuronal tissues. Behavioral audiometry revealed in contrast to 5 months of age, that 11-month-old Epo-transgenic mice had up to 35 dB lower hearing thresholds between 1.4 and 32 kHz, and at the highest frequencies (50-80 kHz), thresholds could be obtained in aged Epo-transgenic only but not anymore in old C57BL6 control mice. Click-evoked auditory brainstem response showed similar results. Numbers of spiral ganglion neurons in aged C57BL6 but not Epo-transgenic mice were dramatically reduced mainly in the basal turn, the location of high frequencies. In addition, there was a tendency to better preservation of inner and outer hair cells in Epo-transgenic mice. Hence, Epo's known neuroprotective action effectively suppresses the loss of spiral ganglion cells and probably also hair cells and, thus, development of presbycusis in mice. PMID:26364734

  14. Genome-wide association study for age-related hearing loss (AHL) in the mouse: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ohmen, Jeffrey; Kang, Eun Yong; Li, Xin; Joo, Jong Wha; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Zheng, Qing Yin; Davis, Richard C; Lusis, Aldons J; Eskin, Eleazar; Friedman, Rick A

    2014-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss (AHL) is characterized by a symmetric sensorineural hearing loss primarily in high frequencies and individuals have different levels of susceptibility to AHL. Heritability studies have shown that the sources of this variance are both genetic and environmental, with approximately half of the variance attributable to hereditary factors as reported by Huag and Tang (Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 267(8):1179-1191, 2010). Only a limited number of large-scale association studies for AHL have been undertaken in humans, to date. An alternate and complementary approach to these human studies is through the use of mouse models. Advantages of mouse models include that the environment can be more carefully controlled, measurements can be replicated in genetically identical animals, and the proportion of the variability explained by genetic variation is increased. Complex traits in mouse strains have been shown to have higher heritability and genetic loci often have stronger effects on the trait compared to humans. Motivated by these advantages, we have performed the first genome-wide association study of its kind in the mouse by combining several data sets in a meta-analysis to identify loci associated with age-related hearing loss. We identified five genome-wide significant loci (<10(-6)). One of these loci confirmed a previously identified locus (ahl8) on distal chromosome 11 and greatly narrowed the candidate region. Specifically, the most significant associated SNP is located 450 kb upstream of Fscn2. These data confirm the utility of this approach and provide new high-resolution mapping information about variation within the mouse genome associated with hearing loss.

  15. Auditory efferent feedback system deficits precede age-related hearing loss: contralateral suppression of otoacoustic emissions in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Vasilyeva, Olga N; Kim, Sunghee; Jacobson, Michael; Romney, Joshua; Waterman, Marjorie S; Tuttle, David; Frisina, Robert D

    2007-08-10

    The C57BL/6J mouse has been a useful model of presbycusis, as it displays an accelerated age-related peripheral hearing loss. The medial olivocochlear efferent feedback (MOC) system plays a role in suppressing cochlear outer hair cell (OHC) responses, particularly for background noise. Neurons of the MOC system are located in the superior olivary complex, particularly in the dorsomedial periolivary nucleus (DMPO) and in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body (VNTB). We previously discovered that the function of the MOC system declines with age prior to OHC degeneration, as measured by contralateral suppression (CS) of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in humans and CBA mice. The present study aimed to determine the time course of age changes in MOC function in C57s. DPOAE amplitudes and CS of DPOAEs were collected for C57s from 6 to 40 weeks of age. MOC responses were observed at 6 weeks but were gone at middle (15-30 kHz) and high (30-45 kHz) frequencies by 8 weeks. Quantitative stereological analyses of Nissl sections revealed smaller neurons in the DMPO and VNTB of young adult C57s compared with CBAs. These findings suggest that reduced neuron size may underlie part of the noteworthy rapid decline of the C57 efferent system. In conclusion, the C57 mouse has MOC function at 6 weeks, but it declines quickly, preceding the progression of peripheral age-related sensitivity deficits and hearing loss in this mouse strain.

  16. Age-related Hearing Loss: GABA, Nicotinic Acetylcholine and NMDA Receptor Expression Changes in Spiral Ganglion Neurons of the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaolan; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Ding, Bo; Walton, Joseph P.; Frisina, Robert D.; Su, Jiping

    2014-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss – presbycusis – is the number one communication disorder and most prevalent neurodegenerative condition of our aged population. Although speech understanding in background noise is quite difficult for those with presbycusis, there are currently no biomedical treatments to prevent, delay or reverse this condition. A better understanding of the cochlear mechanisms underlying presbycusis will help lead to future treatments. Objectives of the present study were to investigate gamma-amino butyric acid A (GABAA) receptor subunit α1, nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor subunit β2, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NR1 mRNA and protein expression changes in spiral ganglion neurons of the CBA/CaJ mouse cochlea, that occur in age-related hearing loss, utilizing quantitative immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative RT-PCR techniques. We found that auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds shifted over 40 dB from 3–48 kHz in old mice compared to young adults. DPOAE thresholds also shifted over 40 dB from 6–49 kHz in old mice, and their amplitudes were significantly decreased or absent in the same frequency range. Spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) density decreased with age in basal, middle and apical turns, and SGN density of the basal turn declined the most. A positive correlation was observed between SGN density and ABR wave 1 amplitude. mRNA and protein expression of GABAAR α1 and AChR β2 decreased with age in SGNs in the old mouse cochlea. mRNA and protein expression of NMDAR NR1 increased with age in SGNs of the old mice. These findings demonstrate that there are functionally-relevant age-related changes of GABAAR, nAChR, NMDAR expression in CBA mouse SGNs reflecting their degeneration, which may be related to functional changes in cochlear synaptic transmission with age, suggesting biological mechanisms for peripheral age-related hearing loss. PMID:24316061

  17. Synergistic effects of free radical scavengers and cochlear vasodilators: a new otoprotective strategy for age-related hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Juan Carlos; Fuentes-Santamaría, Verónica; Melgar-Rojas, Pedro; Valero, María Llanos; Gabaldón-Ull, María Cruz; Miller, Josef M.; Juiz, José M.

    2015-01-01

    The growing increase in age-related hearing loss (ARHL), with its dramatic reduction in quality of life and significant increase in health care costs, is a catalyst to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent or reduce this aging-associated condition. In this regard, there is extensive evidence that excessive free radical formation along with diminished cochlear blood flow are essential factors involved in mechanisms of other stress-related hearing loss, such as that associated with noise or ototoxic drug exposure. The emerging view is that both play key roles in ARHL pathogenesis. Therapeutic targeting of excessive free radical formation and cochlear blood flow regulation may be a useful strategy to prevent onset of ARHL. Supporting this idea, micronutrient-based therapies, in particular those combining antioxidants and vasodilators like magnesium (Mg2+), have proven effective in reducing the impact of noise and ototoxic drugs in the inner ear, therefore improving auditory function. In this review, the synergistic effects of combinations of antioxidant free radicals scavengers and cochlear vasodilators will be discussed as a feasible therapeutic approach for the treatment of ARHL. PMID:26029103

  18. Synergistic effects of free radical scavengers and cochlear vasodilators: a new otoprotective strategy for age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Juan Carlos; Fuentes-Santamaría, Verónica; Melgar-Rojas, Pedro; Valero, María Llanos; Gabaldón-Ull, María Cruz; Miller, Josef M; Juiz, José M

    2015-01-01

    The growing increase in age-related hearing loss (ARHL), with its dramatic reduction in quality of life and significant increase in health care costs, is a catalyst to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent or reduce this aging-associated condition. In this regard, there is extensive evidence that excessive free radical formation along with diminished cochlear blood flow are essential factors involved in mechanisms of other stress-related hearing loss, such as that associated with noise or ototoxic drug exposure. The emerging view is that both play key roles in ARHL pathogenesis. Therapeutic targeting of excessive free radical formation and cochlear blood flow regulation may be a useful strategy to prevent onset of ARHL. Supporting this idea, micronutrient-based therapies, in particular those combining antioxidants and vasodilators like magnesium (Mg(2+)), have proven effective in reducing the impact of noise and ototoxic drugs in the inner ear, therefore improving auditory function. In this review, the synergistic effects of combinations of antioxidant free radicals scavengers and cochlear vasodilators will be discussed as a feasible therapeutic approach for the treatment of ARHL.

  19. Age-related hearing loss and ear morphology affect vertical but not horizontal sound-localization performance.

    PubMed

    Otte, Rik J; Agterberg, Martijn J H; Van Wanrooij, Marc M; Snik, Ad F M; Van Opstal, A John

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have attributed deterioration of sound localization in the horizontal (azimuth) and vertical (elevation) planes to an age-related decline in binaural processing and high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL). The latter might underlie decreased elevation performance of older adults. However, as the pinnae keep growing throughout life, we hypothesized that larger ears might enable older adults to localize sounds in elevation on the basis of lower frequencies, thus (partially) compensating their HFHL. In addition, it is not clear whether sound localization has already matured at a very young age, when the body is still growing, and the binaural and monaural sound-localization cues change accordingly. The present study investigated sound-localization performance of children (7-11 years), young adults (20-34 years), and older adults (63-80 years) under open-loop conditions in the two-dimensional frontal hemifield. We studied the effect of age-related hearing loss and ear size on localization responses to brief broadband sound bursts with different bandwidths. We found similar localization abilities in azimuth for all listeners, including the older adults with HFHL. Sound localization in elevation for the children and young adult listeners with smaller ears improved when stimuli contained frequencies above 7 kHz. Subjects with larger ears could also judge the elevation of sound sources restricted to lower frequency content. Despite increasing ear size, sound localization in elevation deteriorated in older adults with HFHL. We conclude that the binaural localization cues are successfully used well into later stages of life, but that pinna growth cannot compensate the more profound HFHL with age.

  20. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Hearing Loss What is Hearing Loss? Hearing loss is a common problem caused by ... sec Click to watch this video Types of Hearing Loss Hearing loss comes in many forms. It can ...

  1. N-acetyl-cysteine prevents age-related hearing loss and the progressive loss of inner hair cells in γ-glutamyl transferase 1 deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dalian; Jiang, Haiyan; Chen, Guang-Di; Longo-Guess, Chantal; Muthaiah, Vijaya Prakash Krishnan; Tian, Cong; Sheppard, Adam; Salvi, Richard; Johnson, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors combined with oxidative stress are major determinants of age-related hearing loss (ARHL), one of the most prevalent disorders of the elderly. Dwarf grey mice, Ggt1dwg/dwg, are homozygous for a loss of function mutation of the γ-glutamyl transferase 1 gene, which encodes an important antioxidant enzyme critical for the resynthesis of glutathione (GSH). Since GSH reduces oxidative damage, we hypothesized that Ggt1dwg/dwg mice would be susceptible to ARHL. Surprisingly, otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonic potentials, which reflect cochlear outer hair cell (OHC) function, were largely unaffected in mutant mice, whereas auditory brainstem responses and the compound action potential were grossly abnormal. These functional deficits were associated with an unusual and selective loss of inner hair cells (IHC), but retention of OHC and auditory nerve fibers. Remarkably, hearing deficits and IHC loss were completely prevented by N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which induces de novo synthesis of GSH; however, hearing deficits and IHC loss reappeared when treatment was discontinued. Ggt1dwg/dwgmice represent an important new model for investigating ARHL, therapeutic interventions, and understanding the perceptual and electrophysiological consequences of sensory deprivation caused by the loss of sensory input exclusively from IHC. PMID:26977590

  2. Age-Related Benefits of Digital Noise Reduction for Short-Term Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rate of word learning for children with hearing loss (HL) in quiet and in noise compared to normal-hearing (NH) peers. The effects of digital noise reduction (DNR) were examined for children with HL. Method: Forty-one children with NH and 26 children with HL were grouped by age (8-9 years and 11-12 years). The children…

  3. Age-Related Hearing Loss and Degeneration of Cochlear Hair Cells in Mice Lacking Thyroid Hormone Receptor β1.

    PubMed

    Ng, Lily; Cordas, Emily; Wu, Xuefeng; Vella, Kristen R; Hollenberg, Anthony N; Forrest, Douglas

    2015-10-01

    A key function of the thyroid hormone receptor β (Thrb) gene is in the development of auditory function. However, the roles of the 2 receptor isoforms, TRβ1 and TRβ2, expressed by the Thrb gene are unclear, and it is unknown whether these isoforms promote the maintenance as well as development of hearing. We investigated the function of TRβ1 in mice with a Thrb(b1) reporter allele that expresses β-galactosidase instead of TRβ1. In the immature cochlea, β-galactosidase was detected in the greater epithelial ridge, sensory hair cells, spiral ligament, and spiral ganglion and in adulthood, at low levels in the hair cells, support cells and root cells of the outer sulcus. Although deletion of all TRβ isoforms causes severe, early-onset deafness, deletion of TRβ1 or TRβ2 individually caused no obvious hearing loss in juvenile mice. However, over subsequent months, TRβ1 deficiency resulted in progressive loss of hearing and loss of hair cells. TRβ1-deficient mice had minimal changes in serum thyroid hormone and thyrotropin levels, indicating that hormonal imbalances were unlikely to cause hearing loss. The results suggest mutually shared roles for TRβ1 and TRβ2 in cochlear development and an unexpected requirement for TRβ1 in the maintenance of hearing in adulthood.

  4. Fetal thymus graft prevents age-related hearing loss and up regulation of the IL-1 receptor type II gene in CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Hiroshi; Inaba, Muneo

    2012-09-15

    We found that rejuvenation of the recipient immunity by inoculation of young CD4(+) T cells or a fetal thymus graft led to down regulation of the interleukin 1 receptor type II (IL-1R2) gene in CD4(+) T cells and reduced age-related hearing loss and degeneration of the spiral ganglion in SAMP1 mice, a murine model of human senescence. Our studies on the relationship between age-related systemic immune dysfunctions and neurodegeneration mechanisms open up new avenues of treatment of neurosenescence, including presbycusis, for which there is no effective therapy.

  5. A Comparative Study of Age-Related Hearing Loss in Wild Type and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Raquel; Cediel, Rafael; Contreras, Julio; Lourdes, Rodriguez-de la Rosa; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Hernandez-Sanchez, Catalina; Zubeldia, Jose M.; Cerdan, Sebastian; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) belongs to the family of insulin-related peptides that fulfils a key role during the late development of the nervous system. Human IGF1 mutations cause profound deafness, poor growth and mental retardation. Accordingly, Igf1−/− null mice are dwarfs that have low survival rates, cochlear alterations and severe sensorineural deafness. Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is a common disorder associated with aging that causes social and cognitive problems. Aging is also associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I levels and this reduction has been related to cognitive and brain alterations, although there is no information as yet regarding the relationship between presbycusis and IGF-I biodisponibility. Here we present a longitudinal study of wild type Igf1+/+ and null Igf1−/− mice from 2 to 12 months of age comparing the temporal progression of several parameters: hearing, brain morphology, cochlear cytoarchitecture, insulin-related factors and IGF gene expression and IGF-I serum levels. Complementary invasive and non-invasive techniques were used, including auditory brainstem-evoked response (ABR) recordings and in vivo MRI brain imaging. Igf1−/− null mice presented profound deafness at all the ages studied, without any obvious worsening of hearing parameters with aging. Igf1+/+ wild type mice suffered significant age-related hearing loss, their auditory thresholds and peak I latencies augmenting as they aged, in parallel with a decrease in the circulating levels of IGF-I. Accordingly, there was an age-related spiral ganglion degeneration in wild type mice that was not evident in the Igf1 null mice. However, the Igf1−/− null mice in turn developed a prematurely aged stria vascularis reminiscent of the diabetic strial phenotype. Our data indicate that IGF-I is required for the correct development and maintenance of hearing, supporting the idea that IGF-I-based therapies could contribute to prevent or

  6. Possible age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) and corresponding change in echolocation parameters in a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin.

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Matthias; Fernando, Nimal; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Lin, Wenzhi; Chen, Jialin; Ng, Timothy

    2013-11-15

    The hearing and echolocation clicks of a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Zhuhai, China, were studied. This animal had been repeatedly observed in the wild before it was stranded and its age was estimated to be ~40 years. The animal's hearing was measured using a non-invasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) method. Echolocation clicks produced by the dolphin were recorded when the animal was freely swimming in a 7.5 m (width)×22 m (length)×4.8 m (structural depth) pool with a water depth of ~2.5 m. The hearing and echolocation clicks of the studied dolphin were compared with those of a conspecific younger individual, ~13 years of age. The results suggested that the cut-off frequency of the high-frequency hearing of the studied dolphin was ~30-40 kHz lower than that of the younger individual. The peak and centre frequencies of the clicks produced by the older dolphin were ~16 kHz lower than those of the clicks produced by the younger animal. Considering that the older dolphin was ~40 years old, its lower high-frequency hearing range with lower click peak and centre frequencies could probably be explained by age-related hearing loss (presbycusis).

  7. Dietary intake of heat-killed Lactococcus lactis H61 delays age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Oike, Hideaki; Aoki-Yoshida, Ayako; Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Yamagishi, Naoko; Tomita, Satoru; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Wakagi, Manabu; Sakurai, Mutsumi; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Suzuki, Chise; Kobori, Masuko

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (AHL) is a common disorder associated with aging. In this study, we investigated the effect of the intake of heat-killed Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris H61 (strain H61) on AHL in C57BL/6J mice. Measurement of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) demonstrated that female mice at 9 months of age fed a diet containing 0.05% strain H61 for 6 months maintained a significantly lower ABR threshold than control mice. The age-related loss of neurons and hair cells in the cochlea was suppressed by the intake of strain H61. Faecal analysis of bacterial flora revealed that the intake of strain H61 increased the prevalence of Lactobacillales, which is positively correlated with hearing ability in mice. Furthermore, plasma fatty acid levels were negatively correlated with hearing ability. Overall, the results supported that the intake of heat-killed strain H61 for 6 months altered the intestinal flora, affected plasma metabolite levels, including fatty acid levels, and retarded AHL in mice. PMID:27000949

  8. Dietary intake of heat-killed Lactococcus lactis H61 delays age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Oike, Hideaki; Aoki-Yoshida, Ayako; Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Yamagishi, Naoko; Tomita, Satoru; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Wakagi, Manabu; Sakurai, Mutsumi; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Suzuki, Chise; Kobori, Masuko

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (AHL) is a common disorder associated with aging. In this study, we investigated the effect of the intake of heat-killed Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris H61 (strain H61) on AHL in C57BL/6J mice. Measurement of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) demonstrated that female mice at 9 months of age fed a diet containing 0.05% strain H61 for 6 months maintained a significantly lower ABR threshold than control mice. The age-related loss of neurons and hair cells in the cochlea was suppressed by the intake of strain H61. Faecal analysis of bacterial flora revealed that the intake of strain H61 increased the prevalence of Lactobacillales, which is positively correlated with hearing ability in mice. Furthermore, plasma fatty acid levels were negatively correlated with hearing ability. Overall, the results supported that the intake of heat-killed strain H61 for 6 months altered the intestinal flora, affected plasma metabolite levels, including fatty acid levels, and retarded AHL in mice. PMID:27000949

  9. miR-29b overexpression induces cochlear hair cell apoptosis through the regulation of SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling: Implications for age-related hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Tao; Wei, Li; Zha, Ding-Jun; Qiu, Jian-Hua; Chen, Fu-Quan; Qiao, Li; Qiu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that the degeneration of cochlear hair cells is the typical cause of presbycusis (or age-related hearing loss). However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate cochlear hair cell apoptosis are not yet fully understood and there is no effective treatment for this disorder. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have been increasingly shown to be associated with age-related diseases and are emerging as promising therapeutic targets. In this study, we investigated whether miR-29b is involved in the degeneration of cochlear hair cells. To examine our hypothesis, nuclear staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) were used to quantify the hair cell counts. RT-qPCR and western blot analysis were used to examine miR-29b/sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)/proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) signaling in cochlear hair cells. We found that there was a significant degeneration of cochlear hair cells and a higher expression of miR-29b in aged C57BL/6 mice compared with young mice. There was also an age-related decrease in the expression of SIRT1 and PGC-1α. In the inner ear cell line, HEI-OC1, miR-29b overexpression (by transfection with miR-29b mimic) inhibited SIRT1 and PGC-1α expression, leading to an increase in mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Moreover, the inhibition of miR-29b (by transfection with miR-29b inhibitor) increased SIRT1 and PGC-1α expression, while it decreased apoptosis. Taken together, our findings support a link between age-related cochlear hair cell apoptosis and miR-29b/SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling, which may present an attractive pharmacological target for the development of novel drugs for the treatment of age-related hearing loss. PMID:27635430

  10. Auditory Brainstem Gap Responses Start to Decline in Middle Age Mice: A Novel Physiological Biomarker for Age-Related Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Tanika T.; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.; Frisina, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The CBA/CaJ mouse strain's auditory function is normal during the early phases of life and gradually declines over its lifespan, much like human age-related hearing loss (ARHL), but on a mouse life cycle “time frame”. This pattern of ARHL is relatively similar to that of most humans: difficult to clinically diagnose at its onset, and currently not treatable medically. To address the challenge of early diagnosis, CBA mice were used for the present study to analyze the beginning stages and functional onset biomarkers of ARHL. The results from Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) audiogram and Gap-in-noise (GIN) ABR tests were compared for two groups of mice of different ages, young adult and middle age. ABR peak components from the middle age group displayed minor changes in audibility, but had a significantly higher prolonged peak latency and decreased peak amplitude in response to temporal gaps in comparison to the young adult group. The results for the younger subjects revealed gap thresholds and recovery rates that were comparable to previous studies of auditory neural gap coding. Our findings suggest that age-linked degeneration of the peripheral and brainstem auditory system is already beginning in middle age, allowing for the possibility of preventative biomedical or hearing protection measures to be implemented as a possibility for attenuating further damage to the auditory system due to ARHL. PMID:25307161

  11. Auditory brainstem gap responses start to decline in mice in middle age: a novel physiological biomarker for age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Tanika T; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P; Frisina, Robert D

    2015-07-01

    The auditory function of the CBA/CaJ mouse strain is normal during the early phases of life and gradually declines over its lifespan, much like human age-related hearing loss (ARHL) but within the "time frame" of a mouse life cycle. This pattern of ARHL is similar to that of most humans: difficult to diagnose clinically at its onset and currently not treatable medically. To address the challenge of early diagnosis, we use CBA mice to analyze the initial stages and functional onset biomarkers of ARHL. The results from Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) audiogram and Gap-in-noise (GIN) ABR tests were compared for two groups of mice of different ages, namely young adult and middle age. ABR peak components from the middle age group displayed minor changes in audibility but had a significantly higher prolonged peak latency and decreased peak amplitude in response to temporal gaps in comparison with the young adult group. The results for the younger subjects revealed gap thresholds and recovery rates that were comparable with previous studies of auditory neural gap coding. Our findings suggest that age-linked degeneration of the peripheral and brainstem auditory system begins in middle age, allowing for the possibility of preventative biomedical or hearing protection measures to be implemented in order to attenuate further damage to the auditory system attributable to ARHL.

  12. Age-related hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... EH, Katz PR, Malone ML, eds. Practice of Geriatrics . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2007:chap ... Seshamani M, Kashima ML. Special considerations in managing geriatric patients. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, ...

  13. Soybean β-Conglycinin Prevents Age-Related Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, Tohru; Shibata, Rei; Kondo, Kazuhisa; Katahira, Nobuyuki; Kambara, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoko; Nonoyama, Hiroshi; Horibe, Yuichiro; Ueda, Hiromi; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-related complications are associated with the development of age-related hearing impairment. β-Conglycinin (β-CG), one of the main storage proteins in soy, offers multiple health benefits, including anti-obesity and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Here, to elucidate the potential therapeutic application of β-CG, we investigated the effect of β-CG on age-related hearing impairment. Male wild-type mice (age 6 months) were randomly divided into β-CG-fed and control groups. Six months later, the body weight was significantly lower in β-CG-fed mice than in the controls. Consumption of β-CG rescued the hearing impairment observed in control mice. Cochlear blood flow also increased in β-CG-fed mice, as did the expression of eNOS in the stria vascularis (SV), which protects vasculature. β-CG consumption also ameliorated oxidative status as assessed by 4-HNE staining. In the SV, lipofuscin granules of marginal cells and vacuolar degeneration of microvascular pericytes were decreased in β-CG-fed mice, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. β-CG consumption prevented loss of spiral ganglion cells and reduced the frequencies of lipofuscin granules, nuclear invaginations, and myelin vacuolation. Our observations indicate that β-CG ameliorates age-related hearing impairment by preserving cochlear blood flow and suppressing oxidative stress.

  14. Nonsyndromic hereditary hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Alford, Raye L

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of hereditary hearing loss is extraordinarily complex. More than 400 genetic syndromes are associated with hearing loss and more than 140 genetic loci associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss have been mapped, with more than 60 genes identified to date. Hereditary hearing loss can be inherited as an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked or mitochondrial (maternally inherited) condition. The overlapping audiologic phenotypes associated with many genes and the variability and/or reduced, sometimes age-related, penetrance of some phenotypic features of syndromic hearing loss can complicate the distinction between various genetic causes of nonsyndromic hearing loss and between nonsyndromic and syndromic hearing loss, especially in childhood. Testing for individual genes associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss, beyond GJB2 which encodes Connexin 26, can become expensive and, without specific phenotypic features to guide selection of genes for testing (such as enlarged vestibular aqueducts, low frequency hearing loss or auditory neuropathy), it is not likely to yield an etiology. Advances in DNA sequencing and the rapid decline in the cost of sequencing presage the availability of testing that can identify the etiology in the majority of cases of genetic hearing loss. However, until comprehensive genetic testing of hearing loss is clinically available and cost-effective, thorough phenotypic and audiologic evaluation and careful documentation of risk factors, infectious exposures and patient and family medical history will continue to be important to efforts directed toward etiologic diagnosis. The complexities associated with interpretation of genetic test results, genetic counseling and genetic risk assessment make consultation with medical geneticists important for many patients.

  15. Hearing loss in older adults.

    PubMed

    Walling, Anne D; Dickson, Gretchen M

    2012-06-15

    Hearing loss affects approximately one-third of adults 61 to 70 years of age and more than 80 percent of those older than 85 years. Men usually experience greater hearing loss and have earlier onset compared with women. The most common type is age-related hearing loss; however, many conditions can interfere with the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear and their conversion to electrical impulses for conduction to the brain. Screening for hearing loss is recommended in adults older than 50 to 60 years. Office screening tests include the whispered voice test and audioscopy. Older patients who admit to having difficulty hearing may be referred directly for audiometry. The history can identify risk factors for hearing loss, especially noise exposure and use of ototoxic medications. Examination of the auditory canal and tympanic membrane can identify causes of conductive hearing loss. Audiometric testing is required to confirm hearing loss. Adults presenting with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss should be referred for urgent assessment. Management of hearing loss is based on addressing underlying causes, especially obstructions (including cerumen) and ototoxic medications. Residual hearing should be optimized by use of hearing aids, assistive listening devices, and rehabilitation programs. Surgical implants are indicated for selected patients. Major barriers to improved hearing in older adults include lack of recognition of hearing loss; perception that hearing loss is a normal part of aging or is not amenable to treatment; and patient nonadherence with hearing aids because of stigma, cost, inconvenience, disappointing initial results, or other factors.

  16. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. PMID:26370651

  17. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  18. Association of Age Related Macular Degeneration and Age Related Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Hassan; Pourakbari, Malihe Shahidi; Entezari, Morteza; Yarmohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and sensory neural hearing impairment (SHI). Methods: In this case-control study, hearing status of 46 consecutive patients with ARMD were compared with 46 age-matched cases without clinical ARMD as a control group. In all patients, retinal involvements were confirmed by clinical examination, fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). All participants were examined with an otoscope and underwent audiological tests including pure tone audiometry (PTA), speech reception threshold (SRT), speech discrimination score (SDS), tympanometry, reflex tests and auditory brainstem response (ABR). Results: A significant (P = 0.009) association was present between ARMD, especially with exudative and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) components, and age-related hearing impairment primarily involving high frequencies. Patients had higher SRT and lower SDS against anticipated presbycusis than control subjects. Similar results were detected in exudative, CNV and scar patterns supporting an association between late ARMD with SRT and SDS abnormalities. ABR showed significantly prolonged wave I and IV latency times in ARMD (P = 0.034 and 0.022, respectively). Average latency periods for wave I in geographic atrophy (GA) and CNV, and that for wave IV in drusen patterns of ARMD were significantly higher than controls (P = 0.030, 0.007 and 0.050, respectively). Conclusion: The association between ARMD and age-related SHI may be attributed to common anatomical components such as melanin in these two sensory organs. PMID:27195086

  19. Age-related hearing decline in individuals with and without occupational noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Hederstierna, Christina; Rosenhall, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the pattern of age-related hearing decline in individuals with and without self-reported previous occupational noise exposure. This was a prospective, population-based, longitudinal study of individuals aged 70-75 years, from an epidemiological investigation, comprising three age cohorts. In total there were 1013 subjects (432 men and 581 women). Participants were tested with pure tone audiometry, and they answered a questionnaire to provide information regarding number of years of occupational noise exposure. There were no significant differences in hearing decline, at any frequency, for those aged 70-75 years between the noise-exposed (N= 62 men, 22 women) and the nonexposed groups (N = 96 men, 158 women). This study supports the additive model of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and age-related hearing loss (ARHL). The concept of different patterns of hearing decline between persons exposed and not exposed to noise could not be verified.

  20. Hearing loss in older adults.

    PubMed

    Walling, Anne D; Dickson, Gretchen M

    2012-06-15

    Hearing loss affects approximately one-third of adults 61 to 70 years of age and more than 80 percent of those older than 85 years. Men usually experience greater hearing loss and have earlier onset compared with women. The most common type is age-related hearing loss; however, many conditions can interfere with the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear and their conversion to electrical impulses for conduction to the brain. Screening for hearing loss is recommended in adults older than 50 to 60 years. Office screening tests include the whispered voice test and audioscopy. Older patients who admit to having difficulty hearing may be referred directly for audiometry. The history can identify risk factors for hearing loss, especially noise exposure and use of ototoxic medications. Examination of the auditory canal and tympanic membrane can identify causes of conductive hearing loss. Audiometric testing is required to confirm hearing loss. Adults presenting with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss should be referred for urgent assessment. Management of hearing loss is based on addressing underlying causes, especially obstructions (including cerumen) and ototoxic medications. Residual hearing should be optimized by use of hearing aids, assistive listening devices, and rehabilitation programs. Surgical implants are indicated for selected patients. Major barriers to improved hearing in older adults include lack of recognition of hearing loss; perception that hearing loss is a normal part of aging or is not amenable to treatment; and patient nonadherence with hearing aids because of stigma, cost, inconvenience, disappointing initial results, or other factors. PMID:22962895

  1. Canine hearing loss management.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, Lesa; Clark, John Greer; Scheifele, Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Dog owners and handlers are naturally concerned when suspicion of hearing loss arises for their dogs. Questions frequently asked of the veterinarian center on warning signs of canine hearing loss and what can be done for the dog if hearing loss is confirmed. This article addresses warning signs of canine hearing loss, communication training and safety awareness issues, and the feasibility of hearing aid amplification for dogs.

  2. Hearing Loss and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Loss and Older Adults On this page: What is ... about hearing loss and older adults? What is hearing loss? Hearing loss is a sudden or gradual decrease ...

  3. Hearing Loss in Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nelia; Wallhagen, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Age-related hearing loss is remarkably common, affecting more than 60% of adults over the age of 75. Moreover, hearing loss has detrimental effects on quality of life and communication, outcomes that are central to palliative care. Despite its high prevalence, there is remarkably little written on the impact of hearing loss in the palliative care literature. Objective: The objective was to emphasize its importance and the need for further study. We use a case as a springboard for discussing what is known and unknown about the epidemiology, presentation, screening methodologies, and treatment strategies for age-related hearing loss in palliative care. Discussion: The case describes a 65-year-old man with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) that has progressed despite treatment. No concerns are raised about communication challenges during conversations between the palliative care team and the patient in his quiet room. However, in the midst of a family meeting, shortly after discussing prognosis, the patient reports that he cannot hear what anyone is saying. Conclusion: We describe simple methods of screening patients for hearing loss, and suggest that practical approaches should be used universally in patient encounters. These include facing the patient, pitching one's voice low, using a pocket talker, and creating a hearing-friendly environment when planning a family or group meeting. PMID:25867966

  4. Hearing: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Hearing: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Hearing: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss The importance of hearing Hearing allows you to ... surround the soft tissue of the inner ear. Hearing loss occurs when the inner ear is damaged. What ...

  5. Genetics of Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Latin America Information For... Media Policy Makers Genetics of Hearing Loss Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... of hearing loss in babies is due to genetic causes. There are also a number of things ...

  6. Genes and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

  7. Adiponectin deficiency exacerbates age-related hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, T; Shibata, R; Ouchi, N; Kondo, K; Ishii, M; Katahira, N; Kambara, T; Inoue, Y; Takahashi, R; Ikeda, N; Kihara, S; Ueda, H; Murohara, T

    2014-04-24

    Obesity-related disorders are closely associated with the development of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). Adiponectin (APN) exerts protective effects against obesity-related conditions including endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the impact of APN on ARHI. APN-knockout (APN-KO) mice developed exacerbation of hearing impairment, particularly in the high frequency range, compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Supplementation with APN prevented the hearing impairment in APN-KO mice. At 2 months of age, the cochlear blood flow and capillary density of the stria vascularis (SV) were significantly reduced in APN-KO mice as compared with WT mice. APN-KO mice also showed a significant increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive apoptotic cells in the organ of Corti in the cochlea at 2 months of age. At the age of 6 months, hair cells were lost at the organ of Corti in APN-KO mice. In cultured auditory HEI-OC1 cells, APN reduced apoptotic activity under hypoxic conditions. Clinically, plasma APN levels were significantly lower in humans with ARHI. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified APN as a significant and independent predictor of ARHI. Our observations indicate that APN has an important role in preventing ARHI.

  8. Hearing loss in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, J. C. Jr; Musiek, F. E.; Kline-Schoder, R.; Clark, J. C.; Hart, S.; Havelka, J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Temporary and, in some cases, permanent hearing loss has been documented after long-duration spaceflights. METHODS: We examined all existing published data on hearing loss after space missions to characterize the losses. RESULTS: Data from Russian missions suggest that the hearing loss, when it occurs, affects mainly mid to high frequencies and that using hearing protection often might prevent the loss. Several significant questions remain about hearing loss in space. While the hearing loss has been presumed to be noise-induced, no clear link has been established between noise exposure and hearing loss during spaceflight. In one documented case of temporary hearing loss from the Shuttle-Mir program, the pattern of loss was atypical for a noise-induced loss. Continuous noise levels that have been measured on the Mir and previous space stations, while above engineering standards, are not at levels usually associated with hearing loss in ground-based studies (which have usually been limited to 8-10 h exposure periods). Attempts to measure hearing in space using threshold-based audiograms have been unsuccessful in both the American and Russian programs due to noise interference with the measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The existing data highlight the need for reliable monitoring of both hearing and noise in long-duration spaceflight.

  9. Living with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... family, including dad Bob, have adapted to her hearing impairment. Photo courtesy of Stefan Radtke, www.stefanradtke. ...

  10. Genetic and Environmental Factors in Age-Related Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Momi, Sukhleen K; Wolber, Lisa E; Fabiane, Stella Maris; MacGregor, Alex J; Williams, Frances M K

    2015-08-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a common condition with complex etiology but a recognized genetic component. Heritability estimates for pure tone audiogram-determined hearing ability lie in the range 26-75%. The speech-in-noise (SIN) auditory test, however, may be better at encapsulating ARHI symptoms, particularly the diminished ability to segregate environmental sounds into comprehendible auditory streams. As heritability of SIN has not previously been reported, we explored the genetic and environmental contributions to ARHI determined by SIN in 2,076 twins (87.8% female) aged 18-87 (mean age 54.4). SIN was found to be significantly heritable (A, unadjusted for age=40%; 95% confidence intervals, CI=32%-47%). With age adjustment, heritability fell (A=25%; 95% CI=16-33%), and a relatively strong influence of environmental exposure unshared within twin siblings was identified (E=75%). To explore the environmental aspects further, we assessed the influence of diet (through the Food Frequency Questionnaire, FFQ), smoking (through self-report and cotinine metabolite levels) and alcohol intake (through the FFQ). A negative influence of high cholesterol diet was observed after adjustment (p=.037). A protective effect of raised serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels was observed after adjustment (p=.004). This study is the first assessment of the genetic and environmental influence on SIN perception. The findings suggest SIN is less heritable than pure tone audiogram (PTA) ability and highly influenced by the environment unique to each twin. Furthermore, a possible role of dietary fat in the etiology of ARHI is highlighted.

  11. Deafness and Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This brief overview provides information on the definition, incidence, and characteristics of children with hearing impairments and deafness. The federal definitions of hearing impairment and deafness are provided. The different types of hearing loss are noted, including: (1) conductive (caused by diseases or obstructions in the outer or middle…

  12. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies. PMID:27259171

  13. Red ginseng delays age-related hearing and vestibular dysfunction in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chunjie; Kim, Yeon Ju; Lim, Hye Jin; Kim, Young Sun; Park, Hun Yi; Choung, Yun-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    Since Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been proven to protect against gentamicin-induced vestibular and hearing dysfunction, the effects of KRG on age-related inner ear disorder in C57BL/6 mice were investigated. While age-related hearing loss was detected at the age of 6months (32kHz) and 9months (16kHz) in the control group, it was significantly delayed (p<0.05) in the 150mg/kg KRG-treated group. Vestibular dysfunction was observed in the tail-hanging and swimming tests, with significantly different severity scores and swimming times detected between the control and 150mg/kg KRG-treated group at the age of 12months (p<0.05). Mice treated with 500mg/kg KRG exhibited irritability and aggravated inner ear dysfunction. Histological observation supported the findings of hearing and vestibular function defects. In conclusion, C57BL/6 mice showed early-onset hearing loss and progressive vestibular dysfunction with aging, which were delayed by treatment with 150mg/kg KRG. However, 500mg/kg KRG treatment may induce aggressive behavior. PMID:24952098

  14. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Noise-Induced Hearing Loss On this page: What is noise-induced hearing ... additional information about NIHL? What is noise-induced hearing loss? Every day, we experience sound in our environment, ...

  15. Hearing loss and music

    MedlinePlus

    Noise induced hearing loss - music; Sensory hearing loss - music ... talking is 40 dB to 60 dB. A rock concert is between 110 dB and 120 ... when listening to music depends on: How loud the music is How ...

  16. Hereditary Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, LenhAnh P.; Grundfast, Kenneth M.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses inheritance patterns in hearing loss, epidemiology, clues to genetic causes, locating genes that cause hereditary disorders, genes related to hearing loss disorders in individuals with Usher syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, Branchio-oto-renal and Pendred syndromes, and the significance of finding…

  17. Hearing Loss and Cytomegalovirus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Melvin

    1997-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of congenital virally induced hearing loss. Maternal infection is most often asymptomatic as is the infection in the newborn. Hearing loss occurs in both clinically apparent infection and in the asymptomatic infection. Current methods of detection, treatment, and prevention and research efforts are…

  18. Factors Associated With Age-related Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Il Joon; Byun, Hayoung; Woo, Sook-young; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Hong, Sung Hwa; Chung, Won-Ho; Cho, Yang-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a complex degenerative disease in the elderly. As multiple factors interact during the development of ARHI, it is important to elucidate the major influencing factors to understand and prevent ARHI. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with the development of ARHI with a retrospective cohort from 2001 to 2010. The records of the adult subjects over 40 years of age who consecutively underwent a comprehensive health checkup including pure-tone audiometry at the Health Promotion Center were reviewed. During this period, 1560 subjects who underwent pure-tone audiometry more than twice, had no other otologic diseases, and were followed-up more than 2 years were included. A pure-tone average (PTA: 0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz) was calculated. Development of ARHI was defined as a PTA at follow-up more than 10 dB greater than the baseline PTA. Times to the first development of ARHI were investigated. Overall, 12.7% of subjects developed ARHI within the first 4 years. High blood ionized calcium (hazard ratio [HR] 0.084), albumin (HR 0.239), systolic blood pressure (HR 0.577), thyroid hormone (T3) (HR 0.593), and alpha fetoprotein levels (HR 0.883) were associated with decreased hazard for the development of ARHI. In contrast, high blood high-density lipoprotein (HR 2.105), uric acid (HR 1.684), total protein (HR 1.423), and total bilirubin levels (HR 1.220) were potential risk factors for the development of ARHI. Development of ARHI is common among the aged population, and a variety of factors may interact during this process. The results of this study can be used for counseling of adults at high-risk of developing ARHI with regard to regular audiological check-up. PMID:26512592

  19. Hearing Loss in Children: Types of Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... the ear to the brain so that our brain pathways are part of our hearing. There are four types of hearing loss: Conductive Hearing Loss Hearing loss caused by something that stops sounds from getting through the outer or middle ear. This type of hearing loss can often ...

  20. Age-related cochlear hair cell loss in the chinchilla.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, T K; Dayal, V S

    1985-01-01

    The spiral organ of the chinchilla was studied by the surface-preparation technique in four different age groups: 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 4 years, to assess age-related hair cell loss. Decrease in hair cell population is linearly related to age, and damage rate of outer hair cells is greater than that of inner hair cells. The mean percentage of damaged total outer hair cells was 0.60%, 1.16%, 1.71%, and 7.07% in animals in 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 4 years of age, respectively. Outer hair cell loss was greatest in the apex of the cochlea and, of these cells, the outermost row was the most affected. Damage to inner hair cells also increases with age. Age-related apical cochlear cell loss in the chinchilla is comparable to that observed in other laboratory animals. PMID:3970507

  1. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Maggie; Heman-Ackah, Selena E.; Shaikh, Jamil A.

    2011-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is commonly encountered in audiologic and otolaryngologic practice. SSNHL is most commonly defined as sensorineural hearing loss of 30dB or greater over at least three contiguous audiometric frequencies occurring within a 72-hr period. Although the differential for SSNHL is vast, for the majority of patients an etiologic factor is not identified. Treatment for SSNHL of known etiology is directed toward that agent, with poor hearing outcomes characteristic for discoverable etiologies that cause inner ear hair cell loss. Steroid therapy is the current mainstay of treatment of idiopathic SSNHL in the United States. The prognosis for hearing recovery for idiopathic SSNHL is dependent on a number of factors including the severity of hearing loss, age, presence of vertigo, and shape of the audiogram. PMID:21606048

  2. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Stew, B T; Fishpool, S J C; Williams, H

    2012-02-01

    Sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss is a medical emergency that continues to be poorly understood despite being recognized in the literature since 1944 (De Kleyn, 1944). A commonly used criterion to qualify for this diagnosis is a sensorineural hearing loss over three contiguous pure-tone frequencies of 30 dB or more that develops within 72 hours. The vast majority of cases are unilateral and the estimated annual incidence is 20 per 100 000 persons (Nosrati-Zarenoe et al, 2007). A cause for the hearing loss is only identified in up to 10% of cases but 50% of patients will improve spontaneously (Penido et al, 2009).

  3. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Stew, B T; Fishpool, S J C; Williams, H

    2012-02-01

    Sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss is a medical emergency that continues to be poorly understood despite being recognized in the literature since 1944 (De Kleyn, 1944). A commonly used criterion to qualify for this diagnosis is a sensorineural hearing loss over three contiguous pure-tone frequencies of 30 dB or more that develops within 72 hours. The vast majority of cases are unilateral and the estimated annual incidence is 20 per 100 000 persons (Nosrati-Zarenoe et al, 2007). A cause for the hearing loss is only identified in up to 10% of cases but 50% of patients will improve spontaneously (Penido et al, 2009). PMID:22504750

  4. Occupational hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    Over time, repeated exposure to loud noise and music can cause hearing loss. Sounds above 80 decibels ( ... Airline ground maintenance Construction Farming Jobs involving loud music or machinery Military jobs that involve combat, aircraft ...

  5. Individual Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Andersen, Ture; Poulsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR), held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium. PMID:27566802

  6. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... SafeInSound Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog Smartphone Sound Apps Music-induced Hearing Loss ... SafeInSound Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog Smartphone Sound Apps Music-induced Hearing Loss ...

  7. Endocrine causes of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Riggs, B Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Women have an early postmenopausal phase of rapid bone loss that lasts for 5-10 years after menopause, whereas both ageing women and men have a slow continuous phase of bone loss that lasts indefinitely. In women, the rapid phase is mediated mainly by loss of the direct restraining effect of oestrogen on bone cell function, whereas the slow phase is mediated mainly by the loss of oestrogen action on extraskeletal calcium homeostasis leading to net calcium wasting and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Because elderly men have low serum bioavailable oestrogen and testosterone levels, and because recent data suggest that oestrogen is the main sex steroid regulating bone metabolism in men, oestrogen deficiency may also be the principal cause of bone loss in elderly men. Decreased bone formation contributes to bone loss in both genders and may be caused by a decreased production of growth hormone and IGF1 as well as oestrogen and testosterone deficiency. Other changes in endocrine secretion, although present in the elderly, seem less important in the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis. PMID:11855691

  8. Diagnosis of Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Seven conference papers from the U.S.S.R., India, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia consider the diagnosis of hearing loss. They are "Examination of Hearing of Children, Aged from 2 to 5, by Means of Playing Audiometry" by A. P. Kossacheva, "A Study of the Etiology and Pattern of Deafness in a School for the Deaf in Madras, South India" by Y.…

  9. Age-Related Loss of Muscle Mass and Strength

    PubMed Central

    Goldspink, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Age-related muscle wasting and increased frailty are major socioeconomic as well as medical problems. In the quest to extend quality of life it is important to increase the strength of elderly people sufficiently so they can carry out everyday tasks and to prevent them falling and breaking bones that are brittle due to osteoporosis. Muscles generate the mechanical strain that contributes to the maintenance of other musculoskeletal tissues, and a vicious circle is established as muscle loss results in bone loss and weakening of tendons. Molecular and proteomic approaches now provide strategies for preventing age-related muscle wasting. Here, attention is paid to the role of the GH/IGF-1 axis and the special role of the IGFI-Ec (mechano growth factor/MGF) which is derived from the IGF-I gene by alternative splicing. During aging MGF levels decline but when administered MGF activates the muscle satellite (stem) cells that “kick start” local muscle repair and induces hypertrophy. PMID:22506111

  10. Congenital sensorineural hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Mafee, M.F.; Selis, J.E.; Yannias, D.A.; Valvassori, G.E.; Pruzansky, S.; Applebaum, E.L.; Capek, V.

    1984-02-01

    The ears of 47 selected patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined with complex-motion tomography. The patients were divided into 3 general categories: those with a recognized syndrome, those with sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to any known syndrome, and those with microtia. A great variety of inner ear anomalies was detected, but rarely were these characteristic of a particular clinical entity. The most common finding was the Mondini malformation or one of its variants. Isolated dysplasia of the internal auditory canal or the vestibular aqueduct may be responsible for sensorineural hearing loss in some patients. Patients with microtia may also have severe inner ear abnormalities despite the fact that the outer and inner ears develop embryologically from completely separate systems.

  11. Autism and Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenhall, Ulf; Nordin, Viviann; Sandstrom, Mikael; Ahlsen, Gunilla; Gillberg, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Children and adolescents (N=199) with autistic disorder were audiologically evaluated. Mild to moderate hearing loss was diagnosed in 7.9 percent, with deafness diagnosed in 3.5 percent of all cases, which represented a prevalence considerably above that in the general population and comparable to the prevalence found in populations with mental…

  12. Acquired Hearing Loss in Children.

    PubMed

    Kenna, Margaret A

    2015-12-01

    Hearing loss is the most common congenital sensory impairment. According to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2001 to 2008, 20.3% of subjects aged greater than or equal to 12 had unilateral or bilateral hearing loss. The World Health Organization notes that, worldwide, there are 360 million people with disabling hearing loss, with 50% preventable. Although many hearing losses are acquired, many others are manifestations of preexisting conditions. The purpose of a pediatric hearing evaluation is to identify the degree and type of hearing loss and etiology and to outline a comprehensive strategy that supports language and social development and communication.

  13. Personal Sound Amplifiers for Adults with Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Sara K; Reed, Nicholas S; Nieman, Carrie L; Oh, Esther S; Lin, Frank R

    2016-03-01

    Age-related hearing loss is highly prevalent and often untreated. Use of hearing aids has been associated with improvements in communication and quality of life, but such treatment is unaffordable or inaccessible for many adults. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical guide for physicians who work with older adults who are experiencing hearing and communication difficulties. Specifically, we review direct-to-consumer amplification products that can be used to address hearing loss in adults. Helping adults with hearing loss navigate hearing loss treatment options ranging from being professionally fitted with hearing aids to using direct-to-consumer amplification options is important for primary care clinicians to understand given our increasing understanding of the impact of hearing loss on cognitive, social, and physical functioning.

  14. Pediatric Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Kizilay, Ahmet; Koca, Çiğdem Firat

    2016-06-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is defined as sudden unilateral or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with at least 30 dB decrease in threshold in 3 contiguous test frequencies occurring over 72 hours or less. It is rare among children. The mechanism of the process and prognosis of the disorder remains unclear. The current incidence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss among pediatric population is unknown. The authors carried out a retrospective chart analysis of patients under 15 years of age from 2004 to 2015, who consulted to the Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Department of Inonu University Medical Faculty. Age, sex, number of affected ear and side, audiometric evaluations, medical follow-up, treatment method, duration of treatment recovery, associated complaints; tinnitus and/or vertigo, presence of mumps disease were recorded for each patient. A 4-frequency pure-tone average (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) was calculated for each ear. Complete recovery, defined as some hearing level compared with the nonaffected ear, was observed in 3 patients (21.4 %) and there was no partial hearing recovery. The hearing loss of 11 patient remained unchanged after prednisolone treatment. Two of the 11 patients had bilaterally total sensorineural hearing loss and evaluated as appropriate for cochlear implantation. Sex of patient and laterality of hearing loss were not correlated with hearing recovery. Sensorineural hearing loss among pediatrics has been the issue of otolaryngologists. The incidence, etiology, and treatment methods should be more studied.

  15. The Stigma of Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallhagen, Margaret I.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore dimensions of stigma experienced by older adults with hearing loss and those with whom they frequently communicate to target interventions promoting engagement and positive aging. Design and Methods: This longitudinal qualitative study conducted interviews over 1 year with dyads where one partner had hearing loss. Participants…

  16. Genes and Syndromic Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keats, Bronya J. B.

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a description of the human genome and patterns of inheritance and discusses genes that are associated with some of the syndromes for which hearing loss is a common finding, including: Waardenburg, Stickler, Jervell and Lange-Neilsen, Usher, Alport, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, and sensorineural hearing loss. (Contains…

  17. Gene Expression Changes for Antioxidants Pathways in the Mouse Cochlea: Relations to Age-related Hearing Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Tadros, Sherif F.; D'Souza, Mary; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Frisina, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss – presbycusis – is the number one neurodegenerative disorder and top communication deficit of our aged population. Like many aging disorders of the nervous system, damage from free radicals linked to production of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) may play key roles in disease progression. The efficacy of the antioxidant systems, e.g., glutathione and thioredoxin, is an important factor in pathophysiology of the aging nervous system. In this investigation, relations between the expression of antioxidant-related genes in the auditory portion of the inner ear – cochlea, and age-related hearing loss was explored for CBA/CaJ mice. Forty mice were classified into four groups according to age and degree of hearing loss. Cochlear mRNA samples were collected and cDNA generated. Using Affymetrix® GeneChip, the expressions of 56 antioxidant-related gene probes were analyzed to estimate the differences in gene expression between the four subject groups. The expression of Glutathione peroxidase 6, Gpx6; Thioredoxin reductase 1, Txnrd1; Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, Idh1; and Heat shock protein 1, Hspb1; were significantly different, or showed large fold-change differences between subject groups. The Gpx6, Txnrd1 and Hspb1 gene expression changes were validated using qPCR. The Gpx6 gene was upregulated while the Txnrd1 gene was downregulated with age/hearing loss. The Hspb1 gene was found to be downregulated in middle-aged animals as well as those with mild presbycusis, whereas it was upregulated in those with severe presbycusis. These results facilitate development of future interventions to predict, prevent or slow down the progression of presbycusis. PMID:24587312

  18. Gene expression changes for antioxidants pathways in the mouse cochlea: relations to age-related hearing deficits.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Sherif F; D'Souza, Mary; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Frisina, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss - presbycusis - is the number one neurodegenerative disorder and top communication deficit of our aged population. Like many aging disorders of the nervous system, damage from free radicals linked to production of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) may play key roles in disease progression. The efficacy of the antioxidant systems, e.g., glutathione and thioredoxin, is an important factor in pathophysiology of the aging nervous system. In this investigation, relations between the expression of antioxidant-related genes in the auditory portion of the inner ear - cochlea, and age-related hearing loss was explored for CBA/CaJ mice. Forty mice were classified into four groups according to age and degree of hearing loss. Cochlear mRNA samples were collected and cDNA generated. Using Affymetrix® GeneChip, the expressions of 56 antioxidant-related gene probes were analyzed to estimate the differences in gene expression between the four subject groups. The expression of Glutathione peroxidase 6, Gpx6; Thioredoxin reductase 1, Txnrd1; Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, Idh1; and Heat shock protein 1, Hspb1; were significantly different, or showed large fold-change differences between subject groups. The Gpx6, Txnrd1 and Hspb1 gene expression changes were validated using qPCR. The Gpx6 gene was upregulated while the Txnrd1 gene was downregulated with age/hearing loss. The Hspb1 gene was found to be downregulated in middle-aged animals as well as those with mild presbycusis, whereas it was upregulated in those with severe presbycusis. These results facilitate development of future interventions to predict, prevent or slow down the progression of presbycusis.

  19. [Hereditary hearing loss: genetic counselling].

    PubMed

    Cabanillas Farpón, Rubén; Cadiñanos Bañales, Juan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an updated overview of hereditary hearing loss, with special attention to the etiological diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss, the genes most frequently mutated in our environment, the techniques available for their analysis and the clinical implications of genetic diagnosis. More than 60% of childhood sensorineural hearing loss is genetic. In adults, the percentage of hereditary hearing loss is unknown. Genetic testing is the highest yielding test for evaluating patients with sensorineural hearing loss. The process of genetic counselling is intended to inform patients and their families of the medical, psychological and familial implications of genetic diseases, as well as the risks, benefits and limitations of genetic testing. The implementation of any genetic analysis must be always preceded by an appropriate genetic counselling process.

  20. The Stigma of Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Wallhagen, Margaret I.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore dimensions of stigma experienced by older adults with hearing loss and those with whom they frequently communicate to target interventions promoting engagement and positive aging. Design and Methods: This longitudinal qualitative study conducted interviews over 1 year with dyads where one partner had hearing loss. Participants were naive to or had not worn hearing aids in the past year. Data were analyzed using grounded theory, constant comparative methodology. Results: Perceived stigma emerged as influencing decision-making processes at multiple points along the experiential continuum of hearing loss, such as initial acceptance of hearing loss, whether to be tested, type of hearing aid selected, and when and where hearing aids were worn. Stigma was related to 3 interrelated experiences, alterations in self-perception, ageism, and vanity and was influenced by dyadic relationships and external societal forces, such as health and hearing professionals and media. Implications: Findings are discussed in relation to theoretical perspectives regarding stigma and ageism and suggest the need to destigmatize hearing loss by promoting its assessment and treatment as well as emphasizing the importance of remaining actively engaged to support positive physical and cognitive functioning. PMID:19592638

  1. Hearing Loss in Children: Screening and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Form Controls NCBDDD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Hearing Loss in Children Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hearing Loss Homepage Facts Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Genetics of ...

  2. Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epidemiology Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss [text version] Note: Higher numbers are better. *This ... 2010 and 2020. The number of persons with hearing loss is calculated based on National Health and Nutrition ...

  3. Vertigo and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Newman-Toker, David E; Della Santina, Charles C; Blitz, Ari M

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms referable to disorders affecting the inner ear and vestibulocochlear nerve (eighth cranial nerve) include dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss, in various combinations. Similar symptoms may occur with involvement of the central nervous system, principally the brainstem and cerebellum, to which the vestibular and auditory systems are connected. Imaging choices should be tailored to patient symptoms and the clinical context. Computed tomography (CT) should be used primarily to assess bony structures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be used primarily to assess soft-tissue structures. Vascular imaging by angiography or venography should be obtained when vascular lesions are suspected. No imaging should be obtained in patients with typical presentations of common peripheral vestibular or auditory disorders. In current clinical practice, neuroimaging is often overused, especially CT in the assessment of acute dizziness and vertigo in the emergency department. Despite low sensitivity for ischemic strokes, CT is often used to rule out neurologic causes. When ischemic stroke is the principal concern in acute vestibular presentations, imaging should almost always be by MRI with diffusion-weighted images, rather than CT. In this chapter, we describe recommended strategies for audiovestibular imaging based on patient symptoms and signs. PMID:27430449

  4. Hearing loss in Australian divers.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, C; Freeman, P

    1985-11-11

    Permanent hearing loss of the sensorineural type has been demonstrated to be an occupational hazard of professional SCUBA divers. An audiometric survey was performed on a group of professional abalone divers, all of whom had experienced excessive exposure to dysbaric conditions. The results of this survey revealed that, even allowing for the very liberal requirements of the Australian Standard for divers, over 60% had unacceptable sensorineural, high frequency deafness. In half these cases deafness was unilateral, and in half bilateral. Making allowance for age, two-thirds had hearing loss to a degree which is compensable, according to the method of the National Acoustic Laboratories (1974) for determining proportional loss of hearing.

  5. Noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Catlin, F I

    1986-03-01

    Hearing loss affects 30 million people in the United States; of these, 21 million are over the age of 65 years. This disorder may have several causes: heredity, noise, aging, and disease. Hearing loss from noise has been recognized for centuries but was generally ignored until some time after the Industrial Revolution. Hearing loss from occupational exposure to hazardous noise was identified as a compensable disability by the United States courts in 1948 to 1959. Development of noisy jet engines and supersonic aircraft created additional claims for personal and property damage in the 1950s and 1960s. These conditions led to legislation for noise control in the form of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Protection of the noise-exposed employee was also an objective of the Hearing Conservation Act of 1971. Subsequent studies have confirmed the benefits of periodic hearing tests for workers exposed to hazardous noise and of otologic evaluation as part of the hearing conservation process. Research studies in laboratory animals, using scanning electron microscopical techniques, have demonstrated that damage to the inner ear and organ of hearing can occur even though subjective (conditioned) response to sound stimuli remains unaffected. Some investigators have employed an epidemiologic approach to identify risk factors and to develop profiles to susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. The need for joint involvement of workers and employers in the reduction and control of occupational noise hazards is evident.

  6. Noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Catlin, F I

    1986-03-01

    Hearing loss affects 30 million people in the United States; of these, 21 million are over the age of 65 years. This disorder may have several causes: heredity, noise, aging, and disease. Hearing loss from noise has been recognized for centuries but was generally ignored until some time after the Industrial Revolution. Hearing loss from occupational exposure to hazardous noise was identified as a compensable disability by the United States courts in 1948 to 1959. Development of noisy jet engines and supersonic aircraft created additional claims for personal and property damage in the 1950s and 1960s. These conditions led to legislation for noise control in the form of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Protection of the noise-exposed employee was also an objective of the Hearing Conservation Act of 1971. Subsequent studies have confirmed the benefits of periodic hearing tests for workers exposed to hazardous noise and of otologic evaluation as part of the hearing conservation process. Research studies in laboratory animals, using scanning electron microscopical techniques, have demonstrated that damage to the inner ear and organ of hearing can occur even though subjective (conditioned) response to sound stimuli remains unaffected. Some investigators have employed an epidemiologic approach to identify risk factors and to develop profiles to susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. The need for joint involvement of workers and employers in the reduction and control of occupational noise hazards is evident. PMID:2938482

  7. Intellectual Disabilities and Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herer, Gilbert R.

    2012-01-01

    Undetected/untreated hearing loss imposes significant limitations upon individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). It can interfere with cognitive development, impede communicative and social interactions, and limit vocational aspirations. Over the past decade, the hearing of 9961 people with ID was evaluated at Special Olympics sports…

  8. Noise-induced hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Catlin, F.I.

    1986-03-01

    Hearing loss affects 30 million people in the United States; of these, 21 million are over the age of 65 years. This disorder may have several causes: heredity, noise, aging, and disease. Hearing loss from noise has been recognized for centuries but was generally ignored until some time after the Industrial Revolution. Hearing loss from occupational exposure to hazardous noise was identified as a compensable disability by the United States courts in 1948 to 1959. Development of noisy jet engines and supersonic aircraft created additional claims for personal and property damage in the 1950s and 1960s. These conditions led to legislation for noise control in the form of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Protection of the noise-exposed employee was also an objective of the Hearing Conservation Act of 1971. Subsequent studies have confirmed the benefits of periodic hearing tests for workers exposed to hazardous noise and of otologic evaluation as part of the hearing conservation process. Research studies in laboratory animals, using scanning electron microscopical techniques, have demonstrated that damage to the inner ear and organ of hearing can occur even though subjective (conditioned) response to sound stimuli remains unaffected. Some investigators have employed an epidemiologic approach to identify risk factors and to develop profiles to susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. The need for joint involvement of workers and employers in the reduction and control of occupational noise hazards is evident. 19 references.

  9. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed. PMID:21258593

  10. Sudden hearing loss in children.

    PubMed

    Ječmenica, Jovana; Bajec-Opančina, Aleksandra

    2014-08-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is defined as a unilateral or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with at least 30 dB decrease in threshold in 3 contiguous test frequencies occurring over 72 hours or less. It is very rare in children. Sudden hearing loss is a symptom that suggests that there is a problem in the inner ear, surrounding structures, or the whole organism. The etiology and development of this disorder are still not fully understood. The literature contains numerous models of the pathogenesis of SSHL, with childhood SSHL having certain peculiarities. In practical terms, the multifactorial nature of SSHL is important in the choice of diagnostic methods and treatment methods. It is important to determine the cause and effect relationship between the underlying disease and hearing loss.

  11. Resounding Facts on Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apfel, Robert E.

    1977-01-01

    Provides a brief description of the physiology of the human ear. The effect of sustained noise levels on hearing loss is discussed, as well as the establishment of maximum noise levels for American industries. (CP)

  12. Progress and prospects in human genetic research into age-related hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yasue; Sugiura, Saiko; Sone, Michihiko; Ueda, Hiromi; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a complex, multifactorial disorder that is attributable to confounding intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The degree of impairment shows substantial variation between individuals, as is also observed in the senescence of other functions. This individual variation would seem to refute the stereotypical view that hearing deterioration with age is inevitable and may indicate that there is ample scope for preventive intervention. Genetic predisposition could account for a sizable proportion of interindividual variation. Over the past decade or so, tremendous progress has been made through research into the genetics of various forms of hearing impairment, including ARHI and our knowledge of the complex mechanisms of auditory function has increased substantially. Here, we give an overview of recent investigations aimed at identifying the genetic risk factors involved in ARHI and of what we currently know about its pathophysiology. This review is divided into the following sections: (i) genes causing monogenic hearing impairment with phenotypic similarities to ARHI; (ii) genes involved in oxidative stress, biologic stress responses, and mitochondrial dysfunction; and (iii) candidate genes for senescence, other geriatric diseases, and neurodegeneration. Progress and prospects in genetic research are discussed.

  13. Hearing loss in shipyard employees

    PubMed Central

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.; Tsouvaltzidou, Thomaella

    2015-01-01

    Background: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the most prevalent occupational illnesses, with a higher incidence in the heavy industry. Objectives of the Study: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of NIHL in Greece and explore its correlations with other job and individual-related factors. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires were administered, and audiograms were conducted to 757 employees of a shipyard company in Greece, both white- and blue-collar, during the period 2006–2009. A modification of the 1979' equation of the American Academy of Otolaryngology was used to calculate hearing loss. Statistical analysis was conducted by means of the SPSS v. 17. Results: A 27.1% of the employees were hearing handicap. Hearing loss was correlated with age, past medical history of ear disease (Meniere's disease, acoustic neuroma, otosclerosis) or injury, hyperlipidemia, job title and level of education. A few questions on subjective hearing ability and symptoms showed strong discriminatory power of hearing pathology. Conclusions: The results of this study emphasize the burden of disease in the shipyard industry, and the need for continuous monitoring, implementation of preventive measures and hearing conservation programs. PMID:26023266

  14. Negative consequences of uncorrected hearing loss--a review.

    PubMed

    Arlinger, Stig

    2003-07-01

    Hearing loss gives rise to a number of disabilities. Problems in recognizing speech, especially in difficult environments, give rise to the largest number of complaints. Other kinds of disabilities may concern the reduced ability to detect, identify and localize sounds quickly and reliably. Such sounds may be warning or alarm signals, as well as music and birds singing. The communicative disability affects both hearing-impaired people and other people in their environment--family members, fellow workers, etc. Hearing-impaired people are not always aware of all the consequences of the impairment; they do not always know what they are missing. Several studies have shown that uncorrected hearing loss gives rise to poorer quality of life, related to isolation, reduced social activity, and a feeling of being excluded, leading to an increased prevalence of symptoms of depression. These findings indicate the importance of early identification of hearing loss and offers of rehabilitative support, where the fitting of hearing aids is usually an important component. Several studies also point to a significant correlation between hearing loss and loss of cognitive functions. Most of these studies show such a correlation without being able to show whether the hearing loss caused the reduction in cognitive performance or if both the hearing loss and the cognitive decline are parts of a common, general age-related degeneration. A couple of these studies, however, indicate that the uncorrected hearing loss may be the cause of cognitive decline. Whichever alternative is true, the correlation should be seen as a clear indication for early hearing aid fitting for those needing it. Monaural hearing aid fitting in subjects with bilateral hearing loss may give rise to a reduced ability to recognize speech presented to the unaided ear, the so-called late-onset auditory deprivation effect. This functional decline is reversible in some but not all subjects after fitting of a hearing aid

  15. Sudden Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, John C.

    1997-01-01

    Patients with a sudden dramatic decline in hearing usually require rapid diagnosis and treatment. Unfortunately, the treatment of this condition continues to be controversial and an exact etiology in most cases has been inconclusive. Nevertheless, physicians have reached a consensus regarding several broad principles, which are presented in this…

  16. Devices for hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... bring the sound from your TV, radio, or music player directly to your inner ear. Many listening devices now work through a wireless link and can connect directly to your hearing aid. There is also television closed-captioning, which shows ...

  17. The Impact of Hearing Loss on Quality of Life in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Dayna S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Wiley, Terry L.; Nondahl, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigate the impact of hearing loss on quality of life in a large population of older adults. Design and Methods: Data are from the 5-year follow-up Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study, a population-based longitudinal study of age-related hearing impairment conducted in Beaver Dam, WI. Participants (N = 2,688) were 53-97…

  18. Genome-wide association analysis demonstrates the highly polygenic character of age-related hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Erik; Bonneux, Sarah; Corneveaux, Jason J; Schrauwen, Isabelle; Di Berardino, Federica; White, Cory H; Ohmen, Jeffrey D; Van de Heyning, Paul; Ambrosetti, Umberto; Huentelman, Matthew J; Van Camp, Guy; Friedman, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify the genes responsible for age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), the most common form of hearing impairment in the elderly. Analysis of common variants, with and without adjustment for stratification and environmental covariates, rare variants and interactions, as well as gene-set enrichment analysis, showed no variants with genome-wide significance. No evidence for replication of any previously reported genes was found. A study of the genetic architecture indicates for the first time that ARHI is highly polygenic in nature, with probably no major genes involved. The phenotype depends on the aggregated effect of a large number of SNPs, of which the individual effects are undetectable in a modestly powered GWAS. We estimated that 22% of the variance in our data set can be explained by the collective effect of all genotyped SNPs. A score analysis showed a modest enrichment in causative SNPs among the SNPs with a P-value below 0.01. PMID:24939585

  19. Noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Davis, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English), which were identified by a literature search of accessible medical and other relevant databases. A substantial part of this research has been concerned with the risk of NIHL in the entertainment sector, particularly in professional, orchestral musicians. There are also constant concerns regarding noise exposure and hearing risk in "hard to control" occupations, such as farming and construction work. Although occupational noise has decreased since the early 1980s, the number of young people subject to social noise exposure has tripled. If the exposure limits from the Noise at Work Regulations are applied, discotheque music, rock concerts, as well as music from personal music players are associated with the risk of hearing loss in teenagers and young adults. Several recent research studies have increased the understanding of the pathomechanisms of acoustic trauma, the genetics of NIHL, as well as possible dietary and pharmacologic otoprotection in acoustic trauma. The results of these studies are very promising and offer grounds to expect that targeted therapies might help prevent the loss of sensory hair cells and protect the hearing of noise-exposed individuals. These studies emphasize the need to launch an improved noise exposure policy for hearing protection along with developing more efficient norms of NIHL risk assessment.

  20. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing ... learning important speech and language skills. Types of hearing loss Conductive hearing loss is a form of hearing ...

  1. Hearing Loss Signals Need for Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Hearing Loss Signals Need for Diagnosis Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... or serious ear condition and lead to further hearing loss or other complications. “The problem might be as ...

  2. Talking to someone with hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000361.htm Talking to someone with hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, ... It may be hard for a person with hearing loss to understand a conversation with another person. Being ...

  3. Drug Induced Hearing Loss: What Is Ototoxicity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Drug-Induced Hearing Loss What Is Ototoxicity? Past Issues / Spring 2016 Table ... of patients taking these drugs." "Antibiotics Caused My Hearing Loss..." Gulab Lalwani Photo Courtesy of: Gulab Lalwani When ...

  4. Acoustic Trauma - Hearing Loss in Teenagers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Acoustic Trauma - Hearing Loss in Teenagers Page Content Article ... temporary or permanent hearing loss. This is called acoustic trauma. How loud is 85 decibels? Surprisingly, not ...

  5. Hearing Loss Widespread, 'Progressive' in Older Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160985.html Hearing Loss Widespread, 'Progressive' in Older Americans Rates accelerate especially ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new study finds widespread hearing loss among elderly Americans, with an especially high rate ...

  6. Hearing, Cognition, and Healthy Aging: Social and Public Health Implications of the Links between Age-Related Declines in Hearing and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Mick, Paul; Reed, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Sensory input provides the signals used by the brain when listeners understand speech and participate in social activities with other people in a range of everyday situations. When sensory inputs are diminished, there can be short-term consequences to brain functioning, and long-term deprivation can affect brain neuroplasticity. Indeed, the association between hearing loss and cognitive declines in older adults is supported by experimental and epidemiologic evidence, although the causal mechanisms remain unknown. These interactions of auditory and cognitive aging play out in the challenges confronted by people with age-related hearing problems when understanding speech and engaging in social interactions. In the present article, we use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the Selective Optimization with Compensation models to highlight the importance of adopting a healthy aging perspective that focuses on facilitating active social participation by older adults. First, we examine epidemiologic evidence linking ARHL to cognitive declines and other health issues. Next, we examine how social factors influence and are influenced by auditory and cognitive aging and if they may provide a possible explanation for the association between ARHL and cognitive decline. Finally, we outline how audiologists could reposition hearing health care within the broader context of healthy aging. PMID:27516713

  7. Hearing, Cognition, and Healthy Aging: Social and Public Health Implications of the Links between Age-Related Declines in Hearing and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Mick, Paul; Reed, Marilyn

    2015-08-01

    Sensory input provides the signals used by the brain when listeners understand speech and participate in social activities with other people in a range of everyday situations. When sensory inputs are diminished, there can be short-term consequences to brain functioning, and long-term deprivation can affect brain neuroplasticity. Indeed, the association between hearing loss and cognitive declines in older adults is supported by experimental and epidemiologic evidence, although the causal mechanisms remain unknown. These interactions of auditory and cognitive aging play out in the challenges confronted by people with age-related hearing problems when understanding speech and engaging in social interactions. In the present article, we use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the Selective Optimization with Compensation models to highlight the importance of adopting a healthy aging perspective that focuses on facilitating active social participation by older adults. First, we examine epidemiologic evidence linking ARHL to cognitive declines and other health issues. Next, we examine how social factors influence and are influenced by auditory and cognitive aging and if they may provide a possible explanation for the association between ARHL and cognitive decline. Finally, we outline how audiologists could reposition hearing health care within the broader context of healthy aging. PMID:27516713

  8. Hearing, Cognition, and Healthy Aging: Social and Public Health Implications of the Links between Age-Related Declines in Hearing and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Mick, Paul; Reed, Marilyn

    2015-08-01

    Sensory input provides the signals used by the brain when listeners understand speech and participate in social activities with other people in a range of everyday situations. When sensory inputs are diminished, there can be short-term consequences to brain functioning, and long-term deprivation can affect brain neuroplasticity. Indeed, the association between hearing loss and cognitive declines in older adults is supported by experimental and epidemiologic evidence, although the causal mechanisms remain unknown. These interactions of auditory and cognitive aging play out in the challenges confronted by people with age-related hearing problems when understanding speech and engaging in social interactions. In the present article, we use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the Selective Optimization with Compensation models to highlight the importance of adopting a healthy aging perspective that focuses on facilitating active social participation by older adults. First, we examine epidemiologic evidence linking ARHL to cognitive declines and other health issues. Next, we examine how social factors influence and are influenced by auditory and cognitive aging and if they may provide a possible explanation for the association between ARHL and cognitive decline. Finally, we outline how audiologists could reposition hearing health care within the broader context of healthy aging.

  9. A genome-wide association study for age-related hearing impairment in the Saami.

    PubMed

    Van Laer, Lut; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Hannula, Samuli; Van Eyken, Els; Stephan, Dietrich A; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Aikio, Pekka; Fransen, Erik; Lysholm-Bernacchi, Alana; Sorri, Martti; Huentelman, Matthew J; Van Camp, Guy

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed at contributing to the elucidation of the genetic basis of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), a common multifactorial disease with an important genetic contribution as demonstrated by heritability studies. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the Finnish Saami, a small, ancient, genetically isolated population without evidence of demographic expansion. The choice of this study population was motivated by its anticipated higher extent of LD, potentially offering a substantial power advantage for association mapping. DNA samples and audiometric measurements were collected from 352 Finnish Saami individuals, aged between 50 and 75 years. To reduce the burden of multiple testing, we applied principal component (PC) analysis to the multivariate audiometric phenotype. The first three PCs captured 80% of the variation in hearing thresholds, while maintaining biologically important audiometric features. All subjects were genotyped with the Affymetrix 100 K chip. To account for multiple levels of relatedness among subjects, as well as for population stratification, association testing was performed using a mixed model. We summarised the top-ranking association signals for the three traits under study. The top-ranked SNP, rs457717 (P-value 3.55 x 10(-7)), was associated with PC3 and was localised in an intron of the IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating-like protein (IQGAP2). Intriguingly, the SNP rs161927 (P-value 0.000149), seventh-ranked for PC1, was positioned immediately downstream from the metabotropic glutamate receptor-7 gene (GRM7). As a previous GWAS of a European and Finnish sample set already suggested a role for GRM7 in ARHI, this study provides further evidence for the involvement of this gene.

  10. Methadone Induced Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Saifan, Chadi; Barakat, Iskandar; El-Sayegh, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) caused by opiate abuse or overuse has been well documented in the medical literature. Most documented case reports have involved either heroin or hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Recently, case reposts of methadone induced SSHL have been published. Case Report. We present the case of a 31-year-old man who developed SSHL after a methadone overdose induced stupor. He was subsequently restarted on methadone at his regular dose. On follow-up audiometry exams, he displayed persistent moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss bilaterally. Discussion. This case is notable because unlike all but one previously reported case, the patient—who was restated on methadone—did not make a complete recovery. Conclusion. Methadone overuse in rare cases causes SSHL. PMID:23983704

  11. Radiation Therapy and Hearing Loss

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandare, Niranjan; Jackson, Andrew; Eisbruch, Avraham; Pan, Charlie C.; Flickinger, John C.; Antonelli, Patrick; Mendenhall, William M.

    2010-03-01

    A review of literature on the development of sensorineural hearing loss after high-dose radiation therapy for head-and-neck tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for the treatment of vestibular schwannoma is presented. Because of the small volume of the cochlea a dose-volume analysis is not feasible. Instead, the current literature on the effect of the mean dose received by the cochlea and other treatment- and patient-related factors on outcome are evaluated. Based on the data, a specific threshold dose to cochlea for sensorineural hearing loss cannot be determined; therefore, dose-prescription limits are suggested. A standard for evaluating radiation therapy-associated ototoxicity as well as a detailed approach for scoring toxicity is presented.

  12. Psychosocial Aspects of Hearing Loss in Children.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Donna L; Gates-Ulanet, Patricia; Mellon, Nancy K

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric hearing loss changed more in the past two decades than it had in the prior 100 years with children now identified in the first weeks of life and fit early with amplification. Dramatic improvements in hearing technology allow children the opportunity to listen, speak and read on par with typically hearing peers. National laws mandate that public and private schools, workplaces, and anywhere people go must be accessible to individuals with disabilities. In 2015, most children with hearing loss attended mainstream schools with typically hearing peers. Psychosocial skills still present challenges for some children with hearing loss.

  13. Psychosocial Aspects of Hearing Loss in Children.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Donna L; Gates-Ulanet, Patricia; Mellon, Nancy K

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric hearing loss changed more in the past two decades than it had in the prior 100 years with children now identified in the first weeks of life and fit early with amplification. Dramatic improvements in hearing technology allow children the opportunity to listen, speak and read on par with typically hearing peers. National laws mandate that public and private schools, workplaces, and anywhere people go must be accessible to individuals with disabilities. In 2015, most children with hearing loss attended mainstream schools with typically hearing peers. Psychosocial skills still present challenges for some children with hearing loss. PMID:26429333

  14. Modeling the Mechanical Consequences of Age-Related Trabecular Bone Loss by XFEM Simulation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruoxun; Gong, He; Zhang, Xianbin; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhengbin; Zhu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The elderly are more likely to suffer from fracture because of age-related trabecular bone loss. Different bone loss locations and patterns have different effects on bone mechanical properties. Extended finite element method (XFEM) can simulate fracture process and was suited to investigate the effects of bone loss on trabecular bone. Age-related bone loss is indicated by trabecular thinning and loss and may occur at low-strain locations or other random sites. Accordingly, several ideal normal and aged trabecular bone models were created based on different bone loss locations and patterns; then, fracture processes from crack initiation to complete failure of these models were observed by XFEM; finally, the effects of different locations and patterns on trabecular bone were compared. Results indicated that bone loss occurring at low-strain locations was more detrimental to trabecular bone than that occurring at other random sites; meanwhile, the decrease in bone strength caused by trabecular loss was higher than that caused by trabecular thinning, and the effects of vertical trabecular loss on mechanical properties were more severe than horizontal trabecular loss. This study provided a numerical method to simulate trabecular bone fracture and distinguished different effects of the possible occurrence of bone loss locations and patterns on trabecular bone. PMID:27403206

  15. Modeling the Mechanical Consequences of Age-Related Trabecular Bone Loss by XFEM Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ruoxun; Zhang, Xianbin; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhengbin; Zhu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The elderly are more likely to suffer from fracture because of age-related trabecular bone loss. Different bone loss locations and patterns have different effects on bone mechanical properties. Extended finite element method (XFEM) can simulate fracture process and was suited to investigate the effects of bone loss on trabecular bone. Age-related bone loss is indicated by trabecular thinning and loss and may occur at low-strain locations or other random sites. Accordingly, several ideal normal and aged trabecular bone models were created based on different bone loss locations and patterns; then, fracture processes from crack initiation to complete failure of these models were observed by XFEM; finally, the effects of different locations and patterns on trabecular bone were compared. Results indicated that bone loss occurring at low-strain locations was more detrimental to trabecular bone than that occurring at other random sites; meanwhile, the decrease in bone strength caused by trabecular loss was higher than that caused by trabecular thinning, and the effects of vertical trabecular loss on mechanical properties were more severe than horizontal trabecular loss. This study provided a numerical method to simulate trabecular bone fracture and distinguished different effects of the possible occurrence of bone loss locations and patterns on trabecular bone. PMID:27403206

  16. Early detection of hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Schade, Götz

    2010-01-01

    The universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) is currently spreading in Germany, as well, even though there can be no talk of a comprehensive establishment. The introduction of UNHS in several federal states such as Hamburg, Hessen, and Schleswig-Holstein can be ascribed to the personal commitment of individual pediatric audiologists. Apart from the procurement of the screening equipment and the training of the staff responsible for the examination of the newborns, the tracking, i.e. the follow-up on children with conspicuous test results, is of utmost importance. This involves significant administration effort and work and is subject to data protection laws that can differ substantially between the various federal states. Among audiologists, there is consensus that within the first three months of a child’s life, a hearing loss must be diagnosed and that between the age of 3 and 6 months, the supply of a hearing aid must have been initiated. For this purpose, screening steps 1 (usually a TEOAE measurement) and 2 (AABR testing) need to be conducted in the maternity hospital. The follow-up of step 1 then comprises the repetition of the TEOAE- and AABR measurement for conspicuous children by a specialized physician. The follow-up of step 2 comprises the confirmatory diagnostics in a pediatric audiological center. This always implies BERA diagnostics during spontaneous sleep or under sedation. The subsequent early supply of a hearing aid should generally be conducted by a (pediatric) acoustician specialized on children. PMID:22073092

  17. Hearing Loss among High School Farm Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broste, Steven K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Audiometric threshold testing of 872 vocational agriculture students carried out over a three-year period indicates an increased prevalence of hearing loss among students actively involved in farm work. Use of hearing protection may reduce the risk of hearing loss, although few students report using such devices. (Author/BJV)

  18. Noise and hearing loss in firefighting.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R L

    1995-01-01

    Since the NIH received a request to investigate the high degree of hearing loss in a fire department in 1980, hearing loss among firefighters has become an area of increased investigation. The author identifies the sources of occupational noise in firefighting, looks at audiometric testing and recent research in firefighting noise, and presents guidelines for implementing hearing conservation programs.

  19. Navigating Your Child's Hearing Loss Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapp Petty, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    For hearing parents, receiving a hearing loss diagnosis for their child can be a shocking event. For some parents, the diagnosis is the fulfillment of a hunch; confirmation of the suspected, but still scary verdict. Recent research finds that the period directly after hearing loss diagnosis is the most stressful and burdensome for parents,…

  20. Hearing loss among high school farm students.

    PubMed Central

    Broste, S K; Hansen, D A; Strand, R L; Stueland, D T

    1989-01-01

    To study the prevalence of hearing loss among teen-aged farm children in central Wisconsin, audiometric threshold testing of 872 vocational agriculture students was carried out over a three-year period. The results indicate an increased prevalence of hearing loss among students actively involved in farm work, as compared to their peers not involved in farm work. Findings also suggest that use of hearing protection may reduce the risk of hearing loss among students who work on the farm, although few students report the use of such devices. These data also suggest that the hearing loss often observed in adult farmers may begin in childhood. PMID:2784948

  1. Hearing loss among classical-orchestra musicians.

    PubMed

    Toppila, Esko; Koskinen, Heli; Pyykkö, Ilmari

    2011-01-01

    This study intended to evaluate classical musicians' risk of hearing loss. We studied 63 musicians from four Helsinki classical orchestras. We measured their hearing loss with an audiometer, found their prior amount of exposure to sound and some individual susceptibility factors with a questionnaire, measured their present sound exposure with dosimeters, and tested their blood pressure and cholesterol levels, then compared their hearing loss to ISO 1999-1990's predictions. The musicians' hearing loss distribution corresponded to that of the general population, but highly exposed musicians had greater hearing loss at frequencies over 3 kHz than less-exposed ones. Their individual susceptibility factors were low. Music deteriorates hearing, but by less than what ISO 1999-1990 predicted. The low number of individual susceptibility factors explained the difference, but only reduced hearing loss and not the prevalence of tinnitus.

  2. Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss On this page: ... more information about enlarged vestibular aqueducts? What are vestibular aqueducts? The inner ear Credit: NIH Medical Arts ...

  3. Factors Associated With Age-related Hearing Impairment: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Moon, Il Joon; Byun, Hayoung; Woo, Sook-Young; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Hong, Sung Hwa; Chung, Won-Ho; Cho, Yang-Sun

    2015-10-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a complex degenerative disease in the elderly. As multiple factors interact during the development of ARHI, it is important to elucidate the major influencing factors to understand and prevent ARHI. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with the development of ARHI with a retrospective cohort from 2001 to 2010. The records of the adult subjects over 40 years of age who consecutively underwent a comprehensive health checkup including pure-tone audiometry at the Health Promotion Center were reviewed. During this period, 1560 subjects who underwent pure-tone audiometry more than twice, had no other otologic diseases, and were followed-up more than 2 years were included. A pure-tone average (PTA: 0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz) was calculated. Development of ARHI was defined as a PTA at follow-up more than 10 dB greater than the baseline PTA. Times to the first development of ARHI were investigated. Overall, 12.7% of subjects developed ARHI within the first 4 years. High blood ionized calcium (hazard ratio [HR] 0.084), albumin (HR 0.239), systolic blood pressure (HR 0.577), thyroid hormone (T3) (HR 0.593), and alpha fetoprotein levels (HR 0.883) were associated with decreased hazard for the development of ARHI. In contrast, high blood high-density lipoprotein (HR 2.105), uric acid (HR 1.684), total protein (HR 1.423), and total bilirubin levels (HR 1.220) were potential risk factors for the development of ARHI. Development of ARHI is common among the aged population, and a variety of factors may interact during this process. The results of this study can be used for counseling of adults at high-risk of developing ARHI with regard to regular audiological check-up.

  4. Effects of chronic estrogen treatment on modulating age-related bone loss in female mice.

    PubMed

    Syed, Farhan A; Mödder, Ulrike Il; Roforth, Matthew; Hensen, Ira; Fraser, Daniel G; Peterson, James M; Oursler, Merry Jo; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-11-01

    While female mice do not have the equivalent of a menopause, they do undergo reproductive senescence. Thus, to dissociate the effects of aging versus estrogen deficiency on age-related bone loss, we sham-operated, ovariectomized, or ovariectomized and estrogen-replaced female C57/BL6 mice at 6 months of age and followed them to age 18 to 22 months. Lumbar spines and femurs were excised for analysis, and bone marrow hematopoietic lineage negative (lin-) cells (enriched for osteoprogenitor cells) were isolated for gene expression studies. Six-month-old intact control mice were euthanized to define baseline parameters. Compared with young mice, aged/sham-operated mice had a 42% reduction in lumbar spine bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), and maintaining constant estrogen levels over life in ovariectomized/estrogen-treated mice did not prevent age-related trabecular bone loss at this site. By contrast, lifelong estrogen treatment of ovariectomized mice completely prevented the age-related reduction in cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and thickness at the tibial diaphysis present in the aged/sham-operated mice. As compared with cells from young mice, lin- cells from aged/sham-operated mice expressed significantly higher mRNA levels for osteoblast differentiation and proliferation marker genes. These data thus demonstrate that, in mice, age-related loss of cortical bone in the appendicular skeleton, but not loss of trabecular bone in the spine, can be prevented by maintaining constant estrogen levels over life. The observed increase in osteoblastic differentiation and proliferation marker gene expression in progenitor bone marrow cells from aged versus young mice may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to ongoing bone loss. PMID:20499336

  5. Cigarette smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Piers; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Moore, David R; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Fortnum, Heather; Munro, Kevin J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this large population-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, and hearing loss. The study sample was a subset of the UK Biobank Resource, 164,770 adults aged between 40 and 69 years who completed a speech-in-noise hearing test (the Digit Triplet Test). Hearing loss was defined as speech recognition in noise in the better ear poorer than 2 standard deviations below the mean with reference to young normally hearing listeners. In multiple logistic regression controlling for potential confounders, current smokers were more likely to have a hearing loss than non-smokers (odds ratio (OR) 1.15, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.21). Among non-smokers, those who reported passive exposure to tobacco smoke were more likely to have a hearing loss (OR 1.28, 95 %CI 1.21-1.35). For both smoking and passive smoking, there was evidence of a dose-response effect. Those who consume alcohol were less likely to have a hearing loss than lifetime teetotalers. The association was similar across three levels of consumption by volume of alcohol (lightest 25 %, OR 0.61, 95 %CI 0.57-0.65; middle 50 % OR 0.62, 95 %CI 0.58-0.66; heaviest 25 % OR 0.65, 95 %CI 0.61-0.70). The results suggest that lifestyle factors may moderate the risk of hearing loss. Alcohol consumption was associated with a protective effect. Quitting or reducing smoking and avoiding passive exposure to tobacco smoke may also help prevent or moderate age-related hearing loss. PMID:24899378

  6. A Large Genome-Wide Association Study of Age-Related Hearing Impairment Using Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Keats, Bronya J.; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Risch, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), one of the most common sensory disorders, can be mitigated, but not cured or eliminated. To identify genetic influences underlying ARHI, we conducted a genome-wide association study of ARHI in 6,527 cases and 45,882 controls among the non-Hispanic whites from the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort. We identified two novel genome-wide significant SNPs: rs4932196 (odds ratio = 1.185, p = 4.0x10-11), 52Kb 3’ of ISG20, which replicated in a meta-analysis of the other GERA race/ethnicity groups (1,025 cases, 12,388 controls, p = 0.00094) and in a UK Biobank case-control analysis (30,802 self-reported cases, 78,586 controls, p = 0.015); and rs58389158 (odds ratio = 1.132, p = 1.8x10-9), which replicated in the UK Biobank (p = 0.00021). The latter SNP lies just outside exon 8 and is highly correlated (r2 = 0.96) with the missense SNP rs5756795 in exon 7 of TRIOBP, a gene previously associated with prelingual nonsyndromic hearing loss. We further tested these SNPs in phenotypes from audiologist notes available on a subset of GERA (4,903 individuals), stratified by case/control status, to construct an independent replication test, and found a significant effect of rs58389158 on speech reception threshold (SRT; overall GERA meta-analysis p = 1.9x10-6). We also tested variants within exons of 132 other previously-identified hearing loss genes, and identified two common additional significant SNPs: rs2877561 (synonymous change in ILDR1, p = 6.2x10-5), which replicated in the UK Biobank (p = 0.00057), and had a significant GERA SRT (p = 0.00019) and speech discrimination score (SDS; p = 0.0019); and rs9493627 (missense change in EYA4, p = 0.00011) which replicated in the UK Biobank (p = 0.0095), other GERA groups (p = 0.0080), and had a consistent significant result for SRT (p = 0.041) and suggestive result for SDS (p = 0.081). Large cohorts with GWAS data and electronic health records may be a useful

  7. Gulliver meets Descartes: early modern concepts of age-related memory loss.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Age-related memory loss was a marginal issue in medical discussions during early modern times and until well into the second half of the 17th century. There are many possible explanations: the lack of similar traditions in antiquity and in the Middle Ages, insufficient physiological and morphological knowledge of the brain, and the underlying conflict between idealistic and materialistic perspectives on the functions of the soul and the conditions of these in old age. After these boundaries had been pushed back by the influence of Cartesianism and Iatromechanism, the problem of age-related memory loss was increasingly regarded as a physical illness and began to receive more attention. This trend first occurred in medicine, before spreading to the literary world, where the novel "Gulliver's Travels" is one clear and famous example.

  8. Exercise boosts hippocampal volume by preventing early age-related gray matter loss.

    PubMed

    Fuss, Johannes; Biedermann, Sarah V; Falfán-Melgoza, Claudia; Auer, Matthias K; Zheng, Lei; Steinle, Jörg; Hörner, Felix; Sartorius, Alexander; Ende, Gabriele; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Gass, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Recently, a larger hippocampus was found in exercising mice and men. Here we studied the morphological underpinnings in wheel running mice by longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that running increases hippocampal volume by inhibiting an early age-related gray matter loss. Disruption of neurogenesis-related neuroplasticity by focalized irradiation is sufficient to block positive effects of exercise on macroscopic brain morphology. PMID:24178895

  9. F1 (CBA×C57) mice show superior hearing in old age relative to their parental strains: hybrid vigor or a new animal model for "golden ears"?

    PubMed

    Frisina, Robert D; Singh, Ameet; Bak, Matthew; Bozorg, Sara; Seth, Rahul; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2011-09-01

    Age-related hearing loss - presbycusis - is the most common communication problem and third most prevalent chronic medical disorder of the aged. The CBA and C57BL/6 mouse strains are useful for studying features of presbycusis. The CBA loses its hearing slowly, like most humans. Because the C57 develops a rapid, high frequency hearing loss by middle age, it has an "old" ear but a relatively young brain, a model that helps separate peripheral (cochlear) from central (brain) etiologies. This field of sensory neuroscience lacks a good mouse model for the 5-10% of aged humans with normal cochlear sensitivity, but who have trouble perceiving speech in background noise. We hypothesized that F1 (CBA×C57) hybrids would have better hearing than either parental strain. Measurements of peripheral auditory sensitivity supported this hypothesis, however, a rapid decline in the auditory efferent feedback system, did not. Therefore, F1s might be an optimal model for studying cases where the peripheral hearing is quite good in old age; thereby allowing isolation of central auditory changes due to brain neurodegeneration.

  10. Age-related loss of muscle fibres is highly variable amongst mouse skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Sheard, Philip W; Anderson, Ross D

    2012-04-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, attributable in part to muscle fibre loss. We are currently unable to prevent fibre loss because we do not know what causes it. To provide a platform from which to better understand the causes of muscle fibre death we have quantified fibre loss in several muscles of aged C57Bl/6J mice. Comparison of muscle fibre numbers on dystrophin-immunostained transverse tissue sections at 6 months of age with those at 24 months shows a significant fibre loss in extensor digitorum longus and soleus, but not in sternomastoid or cleidomastoid muscles. The muscles of the elderly mice were mostly lighter than their younger counterparts, but fibres in the elderly muscles were of about the same cross-sectional area. This study shows that the contribution of fibre death to sarcopenia is highly variable and that there is no consistent pattern of age-related fibre loss between skeletal muscles.

  11. Naproxen-associated sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, B J; Lassen, L F

    1998-11-01

    Naproxen is a commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) whose side effects include tinnitus and transient hearing loss. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss has rarely been reported as a result of NSAID use. This usually occurs in patients taking other ototoxic medications, with poor renal function, or with autoimmune disease. This article reports the case of an otherwise healthy patient who experienced permanent sensorineural hearing loss after a brief course of naproxen and reviews the literature on NSAID-related permanent sensorineural hearing loss.

  12. Reading Recovery for Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlesworth, Ann; Charlesworth, Robert; Raban, Bridie; Rickards, Field

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the application of Reading Recovery for children with hearing loss by measuring and comparing the literacy achievement of 12 children who are deaf or hard of hearing and 12 children with typical hearing who were participating in Reading Recovery interventions in the second year of primary school. Progress was measured by…

  13. Noise and Hearing Loss: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    Background: Noise-induced hearing loss is a major cause of deafness and hearing impairment in the United States. Though genetics and advanced age are major risk factors, temporary and permanent hearing impairments are becoming more common among young adults and children especially with the increased exposure to portable music players. Though…

  14. Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss With Minimal Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Chin Saeng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the characteristics of patients who did not match the audiometric criteria of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) but complained of acute hearing loss. Methods By thorough medical chart reviews, historical cohort study was performed with consecutive data of 589 patients complaining of acute unilateral sensorineural hearing loss without identifiable causes between 2005 and 2013. Those patients demonstrating a hearing loss of at least 30 dB at three consecutive frequencies based on pure tone audiometry were classified as group I; the others were classified as group II. Patients' characteristics, final hearing, and hearing improvement rate (HIR) between the two groups were compared. Results Group II exhibited distinctive characteristics, including an early age of onset of the hearing loss (P<0.01), an absence of accompanying diabetes (P<0.01) and hypertension (P<0.01), and better unaffected hearing and final hearing compared with group I (P<0.001). However, the HIR of the patients in the two groups was not significantly different (P>0.05). Conclusion Patients who did not meet the audiological criteria of SSNHL exhibited distinctive characteristics compared to SSNHL patients. PMID:26622953

  15. Individual Hearing Loss: Characterization, Modelling, Compensation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Andersen, Ture; Poulsen, Torben

    2016-08-26

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR), held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium.

  16. Superoxide Dismutase 1 Loss Disturbs Intracellular Redox Signaling, Resulting in Global Age-Related Pathological Changes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aging is characterized by increased oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and organ dysfunction, which occur in a progressive and irreversible manner. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) serves as a major antioxidant and neutralizes superoxide radicals throughout the body. In vivo studies have demonstrated that copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1−/−) mice show various aging-like pathologies, accompanied by augmentation of oxidative damage in organs. We found that antioxidant treatment significantly attenuated the age-related tissue changes and oxidative damage-associated p53 upregulation in Sod1−/− mice. This review will focus on various age-related pathologies caused by the loss of Sod1 and will discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis in Sod1−/− mice. PMID:25276767

  17. Characterization of hearing loss in aged type II diabetics.

    PubMed

    Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Kim, SungHee; Frisina, D Robert; Frisina, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    Presbycusis - age-related hearing loss - is the number one communicative disorder and a significant chronic medical condition of the aged. Little is known about how type II diabetes, another prevalent age-related medical condition, and presbycusis interact. The present investigation aimed to comprehensively characterize the nature of hearing impairment in aged type II diabetics. Hearing tests measuring both peripheral (cochlea) and central (brainstem and cortex) auditory processing were utilized. The majority of differences between the hearing abilities of the aged diabetics and their age-matched controls were found in measures of inner ear function. For example, large differences were found in pure-tone audiograms, wideband noise and speech reception thresholds, and otoacoustic emissions. The greatest deficits tended to be at low frequencies. In addition, there was a strong tendency for diabetes to affect the right ear more than the left. One possible interpretation is that as one develops presbycusis, the right ear advantage is lost, and this decline is accelerated by diabetes. In contrast, auditory processing tests that measure both peripheral and central processing showed fewer declines between the elderly diabetics and the control group. Consequences of elevated blood sugar levels as possible underlying physiological mechanisms for the hearing loss are discussed.

  18. Treatment efficacy: hearing loss in children.

    PubMed

    Carney, A E; Moeller, M P

    1998-02-01

    This article provides a review of the topic of treatment efficacy for children with hearing loss. Efficacy is related to a wide range of treatment goals in the areas of sensory and perceptual skill development, language development (regardless of communication modality), speech-production skill development, academic performance, and social-emotional growth. Topics addressed in this article include (a) the definition of hearing loss in children; (b) incidence and prevalence data; (c) the effects of childhood hearing loss on daily life, including language and literacy, speech perception and production, socialization and family dynamics; (d) the role of audiologists and speech-language pathologists in managing children with hearing loss; and (e) a summary of pertinent efficacy research for children with hearing loss. The analysis of the available research suggests that (a) early intervention for children who are deaf or hard of hearing has long-term positive effects on overall development; (b) a variety of communication modalities exist for this population, and research to date has been more descriptive than prognostic on the choice of modality; (c) sensory aids (hearing aids, tactile aids, and cochlear implants) provide different degrees of benefit for children in the areas of speech perception, production, and language development, depending upon the extent of their hearing loss; (d) few studies have addressed rates of learning and long-term outcomes, but existing data suggest that enriched programs provide some children with hearing loss with the ability to overcome developmental lags in language and academic skills. PMID:9493747

  19. Restaurant noise, hearing loss, and hearing aids.

    PubMed Central

    Lebo, C P; Smith, M F; Mosher, E R; Jelonek, S J; Schwind, D R; Decker, K E; Krusemark, H J; Kurz, P L

    1994-01-01

    Our multidisciplinary team obtained noise data in 27 San Francisco Bay Area restaurants. These data included typical minimum, peak, and average sound pressure levels; digital tape recordings; subjective noise ratings; and on-site unaided and aided speech discrimination tests. We report the details and implications of these noise measurements and provide basic information on selecting hearing aids and suggestions for coping with restaurant noise. Images PMID:7941506

  20. Hearing Loss in Children: Data and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... hearing loss is intellectual disability (23%), followed by cerebral palsy (10%), autism spectrum disorder (7%), and/or vision ... without other related conditions (such as intellectual disability, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, or vision loss) were employed. [ Read summary ] ...

  1. 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... 241-1055 E-mail: nidcdinfo@nidcd.nih.gov Internet: www.nidcd.nih.gov WISE EARS! ® Could you or a loved one have noise-induced hearing loss? Millions of Americans areexperiencing hearing loss due to excessive noise exposure and other causes. 10 Ways to ...

  2. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an overview of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), the leading cause of occupationally induced hearing loss in industrialized countries. It discusses causes of NIHL and compelling evidence that reactive oxygen metabolites and cochlear hypoprefusion are responsible for the destruction of cochlear hair cells. Prevention is also…

  3. Sounding the Alarm on Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Mona

    1992-01-01

    Discusses hearing loss resulting from everyday noise. Recent research suggests that noise-induced hearing loss among school-aged children and teens is more severe than parents and teachers realize. Suggestions about what parents and teachers can do about excessive noise are presented. (SM)

  4. Age-Related Hearing Impairment (ARHI) Associated with GJB2 Single Mutation IVS1+1G>A in the Yakut Population Isolate in Eastern Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Pshennikova, Vera G.; Solovyev, Aisen V.; Klarov, Leonid A.; Solovyeva, Natalya A.; Kozhevnikov, Andrei A.; Vasilyeva, Lena M.; Fedotova, Elvira E.; Pak, Maria V.; Lekhanova, Sargylana N.; Zakharova, Elena V.; Savvinova, Kyunney E.; Gotovtsev, Nyurgun N.; Rafailo, Adyum M.; Luginov, Nikolay V.; Alexeev, Anatoliy N.; Posukh, Olga L.; Dzhemileva, Lilya U.; Khusnutdinova, Elza K.; Fedorova, Sardana A.

    2014-01-01

    Age-Related Hearing Impairment (ARHI) is one of the frequent sensory disorders registered in 50% of individuals over 80 years. ARHI is a multifactorial disorder due to environmental and poor-known genetic components. In this study, we present the data on age-related hearing impairment of 48 heterozygous carriers of mutation IVS1+1G>A (GJB2 gene) and 97 subjects with GJB2 genotype wt/wt in the Republic of Sakha/Yakutia (Eastern Siberia, Russia). This subarctic territory was found as the region with the most extensive accumulation of mutation IVS1+1G>A in the world as a result of founder effect in the unique Yakut population isolate. The GJB2 gene resequencing and detailed audiological analysis in the frequency range 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 kHz were performed in all examined subjects that allowed to investigate genotype-phenotype correlations between the presence of single mutation IVS1+1G>A and hearing of subjects from examined groups. We revealed the linear correlation between increase of average hearing thresholds at speech frequencies (PTA0.5,1.0,2.0,4.0 kHz) and age of individuals with GJB2 genotype IVS1+1G>A/wt (rs = 0.499, p = 0.006860 for males and rs = 0.427, p = 0.000277 for females). Moreover, the average hearing thresholds on high frequency (8.0 kHz) in individuals with genotype IVS1+1G>A/wt (both sexes) were significantly worse than in individuals with genotype wt/wt (p<0.05). Age of hearing loss manifestation in individuals with genotype IVS1+1G>A/wt was estimated to be ∼40 years (rs = 0.504, p = 0.003). These findings demonstrate that the single IVS1+1G>A mutation (GJB2) is associated with age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) of the IVS1+1G>A carriers in the Yakuts. PMID:24959830

  5. Obesity and medicare expenditure: accounting for age-related height loss.

    PubMed

    Onwudiwe, Nneka C; Stuart, Bruce; Zuckerman, Ilene H; Sorkin, John D

    2011-01-01

    To determine the relationship between BMI and Medicare expenditure for adults 65-years and older and determine whether this relationship changes after accounting for misclassification due to age-related height loss. Using a cross sectional study design, the relationship between BMI and fee-for-service Medicare expenditure was examined among beneficiaries who completed the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) in 2002, were not enrolled in Medicare Health Maintenance Organization, had a self-reported height and weight, and were 65 and older (n = 7,706). Subjects were classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese (obese I), and severely obese (obese II/III). To adjust BMI for the artifactual increase associated with age-related height loss, the reported height was transformed by adding the sex-specific age-associated height loss to the reported height in MCBS. The main outcome variable was total Medicare expenditure. There was a significant U-shaped pattern between unadjusted BMI and Medicare expenditure: underweight $4,581 (P < 0.0003), normal weight $3,744 (P < 0.0000), overweight $3,115 (reference), obese I $3,686 (P < 0.0039), and obese II/III $4,386 (P < 0.0000). This pattern persisted after accounting for height loss: underweight $4,640 (P < 0.0000), normal weight $3,451 (P < 0.0507), overweight $3,165 (reference), obese I $3,915 (P < 0.0010), and obese II/III $4,385 (P < 0.0004) compared to overweight. In older adults, minimal cost is not found at "normal" BMI, but rather in overweight subjects with higher spending in the obese and underweight categories. Adjusting for loss-of-height with aging had little affect on cost estimates.

  6. Amplification Considerations for Children With Minimal or Mild Bilateral Hearing Loss and Unilateral Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Sarah; Gravel, Judith S.; Tharpe, Anne Marie

    2008-01-01

    Children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss and unilateral hearing loss are at higher risk for academic, speech-language, and social-emotional difficulties than their normal hearing peers. The choice to fit infants with moderate or greater degrees of bilateral hearing loss has been standard practice for most clinicians, but for those with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss, the fitting of hearing technology must be based on limited data. Evidence does not yet exist to support all the management decisions that an audiologist must make upon identifying an infant with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss. It is not yet known which children are at the greatest risk for educational problems nor is it known if the provision of early amplification in this population will help a child avoid later difficulties. Some of these considerations and current hearing technology options for children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss are reviewed in this article. PMID:18270178

  7. Asymmetric and Unilateral Hearing Loss in Children

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Peter; Lieu, Judith E. C.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric and unilateral hearing losses in children have traditionally been underappreciated, but health care practitioners are now beginning to understand their effect on development and the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. The common wisdom among medical and educational professionals has been that at least one normal hearing or near-normal hearing ear was sufficient for typical speech and language development in children. The objective of this review is to illustrate to the non-otolaryngologist the consequences of asymmetric and unilateral hearing loss in children on developmental and educational outcomes. In the process, etiology, detection, and management are discussed. Lastly, implications for further research are considered. PMID:26004144

  8. Sudden hearing loss associated with methylphenidate therapy.

    PubMed

    Karapinar, Ugur; Saglam, Omer; Dursun, Engin; Cetin, Bilal; Salman, Nergis; Sahan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old child diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder presented to our Department of Otolaryngology 4 days after suffering hearing loss, loss of balance, tinnitus, and fullness sensation of the left ear. Her symptoms occured with the first dose of methylphenidate. The medical history and physical examination revealed no other diseases associated with sudden hearing loss. The audiogram revealed a total hearing loss on the left ear. Stapedial reflexes, distortion product and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions were absent in left ear. The absence of clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence of a possible cause for complaints, an association between methylphenidate and sudden hearing loss was suggested. The patient received a standard course of oral corticosteroid and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Weekly otological and audiological examinations were performed. Conservative and medical treatments offered no relief from hearing loss. Sudden hearing loss is a serious and irreversible adverse effect of methylphenidate. Therefore, the risk of hearing loss should be taken into consideration when initiating methylphenidate therapy.

  9. Sudden hearing loss after dental treatment.

    PubMed

    Kansu, Leyla; Yilmaz, Ismail

    2013-08-01

    A 66-year-old man presented with impaired balance, tinnitus, sensation of blockage, and hearing loss in his left ear, which developed after dental treatment for dental pain 4 days previously. Treatment of the carious left upper second molar tooth had included pulp extirpation, canal expansion, and tooth filling under local anesthesia with articaine and epinephrine. Impaired balance decreased spontaneously within 3 days of dental treatment, but tinnitus and hearing loss persisted. Pure tone audiogram showed profound sensorineural hearing loss in the left ear, with a downslope from 40 to 100 dB, and an abnormal speech discrimination score (50%). Treatment included intravenous prednisolone, intratympanic dexamethasone, and oral betahistine and trimetazidine. The patient had improved hearing and resolution of tinnitus. Sudden hearing loss is rare after dental treatment, and awareness of this complication may prompt early referral for treatment and may improve recovery and prognosis.

  10. Gene therapy for sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chien, Wade W; Monzack, Elyssa L; McDougald, Devin S; Cunningham, Lisa L

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy is a promising treatment modality that is being explored for several inherited disorders. Multiple human gene therapy clinical trials are currently ongoing, but few are directed at hearing loss. Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent sensory disabilities in the world, and genetics play an important role in the pathophysiology of hearing loss. Gene therapy offers the possibility of restoring hearing by overcoming the functional deficits created by the underlying genetic mutations. In addition, gene therapy could potentially be used to induce hair cell regeneration by delivering genes that are critical to hair cell differentiation into the cochlea. In this review, we examine the promises and challenges of applying gene therapy to the cochlea. We also summarize recent studies that have applied gene therapy to animal models of hearing loss.

  11. Sudden hearing loss after dental treatment.

    PubMed

    Kansu, Leyla; Yilmaz, Ismail

    2013-08-01

    A 66-year-old man presented with impaired balance, tinnitus, sensation of blockage, and hearing loss in his left ear, which developed after dental treatment for dental pain 4 days previously. Treatment of the carious left upper second molar tooth had included pulp extirpation, canal expansion, and tooth filling under local anesthesia with articaine and epinephrine. Impaired balance decreased spontaneously within 3 days of dental treatment, but tinnitus and hearing loss persisted. Pure tone audiogram showed profound sensorineural hearing loss in the left ear, with a downslope from 40 to 100 dB, and an abnormal speech discrimination score (50%). Treatment included intravenous prednisolone, intratympanic dexamethasone, and oral betahistine and trimetazidine. The patient had improved hearing and resolution of tinnitus. Sudden hearing loss is rare after dental treatment, and awareness of this complication may prompt early referral for treatment and may improve recovery and prognosis. PMID:23642550

  12. 20 CFR 702.441 - Claims for loss of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Claims for loss of hearing. 702.441 Section... Care and Supervision Hearing Loss Claims § 702.441 Claims for loss of hearing. (a) Claims for hearing... regulations. (b) An audiogram shall be presumptive evidence of the amount of hearing loss on the...

  13. 20 CFR 702.441 - Claims for loss of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Claims for loss of hearing. 702.441 Section... Care and Supervision Hearing Loss Claims § 702.441 Claims for loss of hearing. (a) Claims for hearing... regulations. (b) An audiogram shall be presumptive evidence of the amount of hearing loss on the...

  14. 20 CFR 702.441 - Claims for loss of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Claims for loss of hearing. 702.441 Section... Care and Supervision Hearing Loss Claims § 702.441 Claims for loss of hearing. (a) Claims for hearing... regulations. (b) An audiogram shall be presumptive evidence of the amount of hearing loss on the...

  15. Understanding the Experience of Age-Related Vestibular Loss in Older Individuals: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Carol; Bridges, John F. P.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Background Inner ear balance (or vestibular) function declines with age and is associated with decreased mobility and an increased risk of falls in older individuals. We sought to understand the lived experience of older adults with vestibular loss in order to improve care in this population. Methods Qualitative data were derived from semi-structured interviews of individuals aged 65 years or older presenting to the Balance and Falls Prevention Clinic from February 1, 2014 to March 30, 2015 for evaluation of age-related vestibular loss. Transcripts were analyzed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. We created a taxonomy of overarching superordinate themes based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Framework, and classified key dimensions within each of these themes. Results Sixteen interviews were conducted with individuals (mean age 76.0 years, 75 % female) with age-related vestibular loss. The three superordinate themes and associated key dimensions were (1) body impairment (including depression, fatigue, fear/anxiety, and problems with concentrating and memory); (2) activity limitation and participation restriction (isolation, needing to stop in the middle of activities, reduced participation relative to expectations, reduced ability to drive or travel, and problems with bending/looking up, standing, and walking); and (3) environmental influences (needing help with daily activities). All participants reported difficulty walking. Conclusions Older adults report that vestibular loss impacts their body functioning and restricts their participation in activities. The specific key dimensions uncovered by this qualitative study can be used to evaluate care from the patient's perspective. PMID:26739817

  16. [Hearing loss in leprosarium: Current status].

    PubMed

    Kosugiyama, Reiri; Kasai, Norio; Etani, Tsutomu; Oshima, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Due to aging and aftereffects of leprosy, many of them are now struggling with hearing loss and visual impairment. The purpose of this study was to investigate and analyze the present situation of hearing level and hearing aid among residents in leprosy sanatorium. We have been carrying out hearing screening for the all ex-patients in three national sanatoriums, Nagashima-Aisein (since 2011), Oku-Komyo-en (since 2012), and Matsuoka-Hoyo-en (since 2014). The results of audiometry and questionnaire in 2014 were analyzed. Eligible persons who took pure tone audiometry were 198, and their age ranged between 59 and 99, mean 82.95. Their average hearing level of better hearing ear was 39.3 ± 17.2 dB. Since this result is not different from previous reports, which mentioned about average hearing level in elder persons, history of leprosy may not affect with hearing. According to the questionnaire, not only hearing level but also the awareness of hearing disability may lead to need for hearing aid. Also, it was considered that each communicative condition in sanatorium could have effect on self-assessment of hearing disability. PMID:27008826

  17. Genetic Effects on Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Evidence-based Treatment for Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-qiang; Yang, Huai-an; Xiao, Ming; Wang, Jing-wei; Huang, Dong-yan; Bhambhani, Yagesh; Sonnenberg, Lyn; Clark, Brenda; Jin, Yuan-zhe; Fu, Wei-neng; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Qian; Liang, Xue-ting; Zhang, Ming

    2015-09-01

    In this article, the mechanism of inheritance behind inherited hearing loss and genetic susceptibility in noise-induced hearing loss are reviewed. Conventional treatments for sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), i.e. hearing aid and cochlear implant, are effective for some cases, but not without limitations. For example, they provide little benefit for patients of profound SNHL or neural hearing loss, especially when the hearing loss is in poor dynamic range and with low frequency resolution. We emphasize the most recent evidence-based treatment in this field, which includes gene therapy and allotransplantation of stem cells. Their promising results have shown that they might be options of treatment for profound SNHL and neural hearing loss. Although some treatments are still at the experimental stage, it is helpful to be aware of the novel therapies and endeavour to explore the feasibility of their clinical application.

  18. Evidence-based practice: management of adult sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chau, Justin K; Cho, John J W; Fritz, Dieter K

    2012-10-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is a complex disease state influenced by genetics, age, noise, and many other factors. This article reviews our current knowledge regarding the causes of sensorineural hearing loss and reviews the more challenging clinical presentations of sensorineural hearing loss. We have reviewed the latest medical literature in an attempt to provide an evidence-based strategy for the assessment and management of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, rapidly progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and asymmetric/unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.

  19. Tooth loss early in life accelerates age-related bone deterioration in mice.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, Minori; Kondo, Hiroko; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Tamura, Yasuo; Chen, Huayue; Kubo, Kin-ya

    2015-01-01

    Both osteoporosis and tooth loss are health concerns that affect many older people. Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease of the elderly, characterized by low bone mass and microstructural deterioration of bone tissue. Chronic mild stress is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Many studies showed that tooth loss induced neurological alterations through activation of a stress hormone, corticosterone, in mice. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that tooth loss early in life may accelerate age-related bone deterioration using a mouse model. Male senescence-accelerated mouse strain P8 (SAMP8) mice were randomly divided into control and toothless groups. Removal of the upper molar teeth was performed at one month of age. Bone response was evaluated at 2, 5 and 9 months of age. Tooth loss early in life caused a significant increase in circulating corticosterone level with age. Osteoblast bone formation was suppressed and osteoclast bone resorption was activated in the toothless mice. Trabecular bone volume fraction of the vertebra and femur was decreased in the toothless mice with age. The bone quality was reduced in the toothless mice at 5 and 9 months of age, compared with the age-matched control mice. These findings indicate that tooth loss early in life impairs the dynamic homeostasis of the bone formation and bone resorption, leading to reduced bone strength with age. Long-term tooth loss may have a cumulative detrimental effect on bone health. It is important to take appropriate measures to treat tooth loss in older people for preventing and/or treating senile osteoporosis.

  20. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss Part II: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss, Therapeutic Options].

    PubMed

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    The great majority of hearing disorders generates from pathologies in the inner ear, mainly the outer hair cells, as mentioned in the first part of this review. Very often, however, hearing loss appears suddenly and even without external causes like noise exposure. This sudden hearing loss is mostly unilateral, recovers very often spontaneously and should be treated, if persisting. Only in this acute stage there are therapeutic options available. If the inner ear hearing loss is chronic there is no curative therapy, an effective management of the hearing disorder is only possible through rehabilitation. This is due to the fact, that hair cells of all mammals, incl. humans, have no regenerative capacity and neither pharmaceutic agents nor other means can induce regeneration and recovery of hair cells. Even a gen-therapy is not available yet. In the second part of this review the main focus lies in sudden hearing loss and general therapeutic options for inner ear hearing loss. PMID:27392187

  1. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss Part II: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss, Therapeutic Options].

    PubMed

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    The great majority of hearing disorders generates from pathologies in the inner ear, mainly the outer hair cells, as mentioned in the first part of this review. Very often, however, hearing loss appears suddenly and even without external causes like noise exposure. This sudden hearing loss is mostly unilateral, recovers very often spontaneously and should be treated, if persisting. Only in this acute stage there are therapeutic options available. If the inner ear hearing loss is chronic there is no curative therapy, an effective management of the hearing disorder is only possible through rehabilitation. This is due to the fact, that hair cells of all mammals, incl. humans, have no regenerative capacity and neither pharmaceutic agents nor other means can induce regeneration and recovery of hair cells. Even a gen-therapy is not available yet. In the second part of this review the main focus lies in sudden hearing loss and general therapeutic options for inner ear hearing loss.

  2. Aging-related gains and losses associated with word production in connected speech.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Paul A; Hess, Thomas M

    2016-11-01

    Older adults have been observed to use more nonnormative, or atypical, words than younger adults in connected speech. We examined whether aging-related losses in word-finding abilities or gains in language expertise underlie these age differences. Sixty younger and 60 older adults described two neutral photographs. These descriptions were processed into word types, and textual analysis was used to identify interrupted speech (e.g., pauses), reflecting word-finding difficulty. Word types were assessed for normativeness, with nonnormative word types defined as those used by six (5%) or fewer participants to describe a particular picture. Accuracy and precision ratings were provided by another sample of 48 high-vocabulary younger and older adults. Older adults produced more interrupted and, as predicted, nonnormative words than younger adults. Older adults were more likely than younger adults to use nonnormative language via interrupted speech, suggesting a compensatory process. However, older adults' nonnormative words were more precise and trended for having higher accuracy, reflecting expertise. In tasks offering response flexibility, like connected speech, older adults may be able to offset instances of aging-related deficits by maximizing their expertise in other instances. PMID:26963869

  3. Aging-related gains and losses associated with word production in connected speech.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Paul A; Hess, Thomas M

    2016-11-01

    Older adults have been observed to use more nonnormative, or atypical, words than younger adults in connected speech. We examined whether aging-related losses in word-finding abilities or gains in language expertise underlie these age differences. Sixty younger and 60 older adults described two neutral photographs. These descriptions were processed into word types, and textual analysis was used to identify interrupted speech (e.g., pauses), reflecting word-finding difficulty. Word types were assessed for normativeness, with nonnormative word types defined as those used by six (5%) or fewer participants to describe a particular picture. Accuracy and precision ratings were provided by another sample of 48 high-vocabulary younger and older adults. Older adults produced more interrupted and, as predicted, nonnormative words than younger adults. Older adults were more likely than younger adults to use nonnormative language via interrupted speech, suggesting a compensatory process. However, older adults' nonnormative words were more precise and trended for having higher accuracy, reflecting expertise. In tasks offering response flexibility, like connected speech, older adults may be able to offset instances of aging-related deficits by maximizing their expertise in other instances.

  4. Hereditary Non-Syndromic Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Schrijver, Iris

    2004-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular basis of hearing and hearing loss. Through recent advances, we have begun to understand the fascinating biology of the auditory system and unveiled new molecular mechanisms of hearing impairment. Changes in the diagnostic impact of genetic testing have occurred, as well as exciting developments in therapeutic options. Molecular diagnosis, which is already a reality for several hearing-associated genes, will doubtlessly continue to increase in the near future, both in terms of the number of mutations tested and the spectrum of genes. Genetic analysis for hearing loss is mostly used for diagnosis and treatment, and relatively rarely for reproductive decisions, in contrast to other inherited disorders. Inherited hearing loss, however, is characterized by impressive genetic heterogeneity. An abundance of genes carry a large number of mutations, but specific mutations in a single gene may lead to syndromic or non-syndromic hearing loss. Some mutations predominate in individual ethnic groups. For clinical and laboratory diagnosticians, it is challenging to keep abreast of the unfolding discoveries. This review aims to provide the framework pertinent to diagnosticians and a practical approach to mutation analysis in the hearing impaired. PMID:15507665

  5. Coping with Hearing Loss and High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High school can be a bumpy road for teenagers, especially since most teenagers are trying to fit in and start to define their own individuality and future. Now imagine if a teenager has hearing loss. Besides not being able to hear their instructors or friends as well as their classmates, self image problems can be magnified if they need to wear…

  6. Communicating with patients who have hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Herring, R; Hock, I

    2000-02-01

    Access to health care services is of paramount interest to all New Jerseyans. For people with varying degrees of hearing loss, affordable health insurance, while important, is not the only barrier to quality health care. Doctors are required by law to ensure effective communication between themselves and their deaf or hard-of-hearing patients. PMID:10697387

  7. Sporadic Visual Acuity Loss in the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Benjamin J.; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Huang, Jiayan; Levy, Nicole E.; Maguire, Maureen G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate transient, large visual acuity (VA) decreases, termed sporadic vision loss, during anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Cohort within a randomized clinical trial. Methods Setting Comparison of AMD Treatments Trials (CATT). Study Population 1185 CATT patients. Main Outcome Measures incidence of sporadic vision loss and odds ratio (OR) for association with patient and ocular factors. Sporadic vision loss was a decline of ≥ 15 letters from the previous visit, followed by a return at the next visit to no more than 5 letters worse than the visit before the VA loss. Results There were 143 sporadic vision loss events in 122/1185 (10.3%) patients. Mean VA at two years for those with and without sporadic vision loss was 58.5 (~20/63) and 68.4 (~20/40) letters, respectively (P < 0.001). Among patients treated pro re nata, no injection was given for 27.6% (27/98) of sporadic vision loss events. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that baseline predictors for sporadic vision loss included worse baseline VA (OR 2.92, 95%CI:1.65–5.17 for ≤ 20/200 compared with ≥ 20/40), scar (OR 2.21, 95%CI:1.22–4.01), intraretinal foveal fluid on optical coherence tomography (OR 1.80, 95%CI:1.11–2.91), and medical history of anxiety (OR 1.90, 95%CI:1.12–3.24) and syncope (OR 2.75, 95%CI:1.45–5.22). Refraction decreased the likelihood of sporadic vision loss (OR 0.62, 95%CI:0.42–0.91). Conclusions Approximately 10% of CATT patients had sporadic vision loss. Baseline predictors included AMD-related factors and factors independent of AMD. These data are relevant for clinicians in practice and those involved in clinical trials. PMID:24727261

  8. Vibrant Soundbridge rehabilitation of sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Khan, Andleeb; Hillman, Todd; Chen, Douglas

    2014-12-01

    The Vibrant Soundbridge is a means to rehabilitate patients with sensorineural hearing loss. It differs from hearing aids in that it uses mechanical energy rather than acoustic sound to deliver better sound quality to the inner ear. The implant's crucial component is a floating mass transducer that is directly fixed to the incus to drive it, which is introduced into the middle ear through a facial recess approach. Although this is a newer technology, studies thus far have demonstrated better hearing results compared with hearing aids in terms of functional gain and speech intelligibility, and better outcomes on subjective assessments.

  9. Hearing loss in students at a conservatory.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J M; Verschuure, J; Brocaar, M P

    1994-01-01

    We tend not to think of music as noise but as a pleasant sound. Yet, played loud enough, music can become a threat to the human ear. The question arises whether professional musicians suffer from hearing losses caused by their playing of music. The hearing of students at the Rotterdam conservatory was studied; medical students served as a reference group. High percentages of audiometric noise dips (16%) and high-frequency losses (20%) were found in students of the conservatory, as well as a high percentage (72%) of extended high-frequency losses relative to the reference curves of Dreschler et al. Surprisingly, an equally large (and in the high-frequency region an even higher) percentage of hearing losses was found in the control group of medical students with the same median age. In sum, the exposure of conservatory students to the practice of music has as yet had no effect on their hearing.

  10. Individual Hearing Loss: Characterization, Modelling, Compensation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Andersen, Ture; Poulsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR), held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium. PMID:27566802

  11. Hearing loss in an aging American population: extent, impact, and management.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Kathleen E; Wallhagen, Margaret I

    2014-01-01

    Despite contributing substantially to disability in the United States, age-related hearing loss is an underappreciated public health concern. Loss of hearing sensitivity has been documented in two-thirds of adults aged 70 years and older and has been associated with communication difficulties, lower health-related quality of life, and decreased physical and cognitive function. Management strategies for age-related hearing loss are costly, yet the indirect costs due to lost productivity among people with communication difficulties are also substantial and likely to grow. Hearing aids can improve health-related quality of life, but the majority of people with documented hearing loss do not report using them. Uncovering effective means to improve the utilization of hearing health care services is essential for meeting the hearing health care demands of our aging population. The importance of hearing for general well-being warrants an effort to enhance awareness among the general population of the indications of hearing loss and options for assistance. PMID:24641557

  12. Pannexin 1 deficiency can induce hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Bo; Zhu, Yan; Liang, Chun; Chen, Jin

    Gap junctions play a critical role in hearing. Connexin gap junction gene mutations can induce a high incidence of hearing loss. Pannexin (Panx) gene also encodes gap junction proteins in vertebrates. Panx1 is a predominant pannexin isoform and has extensive expression in the cochlea. Here, we report that deletion of Panx1 in the cochlea could produce a progressive hearing loss. The auditory brainstem response (ABR) recording showed that hearing loss was moderate to severe and severe at high-frequencies. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), which reflects the activity of active cochlear mechanics that can amply acoustic stimulation to enhance hearing sensitivity and frequency selectivity, was also reduced. We further found that Panx1 deficiency could activate Caspase-3 cell apoptotic pathway in the cochlea to cause hair cells and other types of cells degeneration. These data indicate that like connexins Panx1 deficiency can also induce hearing loss. These data also suggest that pannexins play important rather than redundant roles in the cochlea and hearing.

  13. Hearing loss in veterans and the need for hearing loss prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Gabrielle H; Griest, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there are more than 445,000 veterans receiving compensation for hearing loss associated with military service, and 395,000 receiving compensation for service-related tinnitus. In addition to compensation payments, service-related hearing disorders cost the US Department of Veterans Affairs in terms of provision of hearing aids, hearing aid-related services, and clinical services at its 220 facilities nationwide. It is imperative that hearing conservation among military personnel and veterans be addressed. In this paper, we describe the rationale for and the development of a multimedia Hearing Loss Prevention Program aimed at preventing the progression of hearing loss among veterans associated with social, recreational, and nonmilitary occupational noise exposure. The program was developed based on the principles outlined in the Health Belief Model of Rosenstock (1966) and the Health Promotion Model of Pender et al. (2002). PMID:19265249

  14. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention: Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... SafeInSound Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog Smartphone Sound Apps Music-induced Hearing Loss ... SafeInSound Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog Smartphone Sound Apps Music-induced Hearing Loss ...

  15. Hearing and hearing loss: Causes, effects, and treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmiedt, Richard A.

    2003-04-01

    Hearing loss can have multiple causes. The outer and middle ears are conductive pathways for acoustic energy to the inner ear (cochlea) and help shape our spectral sensitivity. Conductive hearing loss is mechanical in nature such that the energy transfer to the cochlea is impeded, often from eardrum perforations or middle ear fluid buildup. Beyond the middle ear, the cochlea comprises three interdependent systems necessary for normal hearing. The first is that of basilar-membrane micromechanics including the outer hair cells. This system forms the basis of the cochlear amplifier and is the most vulnerable to noise and drug exposure. The second system comprises the ion pumps in the lateral wall tissues of the cochlea. These highly metabolic cells provide energy to the cochlear amplifier in the form of electrochemical potentials. This second system is particularly vulnerable to the effects of aging. The third system comprises the inner hair cells and their associated sensory nerve fibers. This system is the transduction stage, changing mechanical vibrations to nerve impulses. New treatments for hearing loss are on the horizon; however, at present the best strategy is avoidance of cochlear trauma and the proper use of hearing aids. [Work supported by NIA and MUSC.

  16. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy reduces body weight without accelerating age-related bone loss.

    PubMed

    Turner, Russell T; Dube, Michael; Branscum, Adam J; Wong, Carmen P; Olson, Dawn A; Zhong, Xiaoying; Kweh, Mercedes F; Larkin, Iske V; Wronski, Thomas J; Rosen, Clifford J; Kalra, Satya P; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain in adults is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, dieting, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have had limited long-term success in weight control and can result in detrimental side effects, including accelerating age-related cancellous bone loss. We investigated the efficacy of using hypothalamic leptin gene therapy as an alternative method for reducing weight in skeletally-mature (9 months old) female rats and determined the impact of leptin-induced weight loss on bone mass, density, and microarchitecture, and serum biomarkers of bone turnover (CTx and osteocalcin). Rats were implanted with cannulae in the 3rd ventricle of the hypothalamus and injected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the gene for rat leptin (rAAV-Leptin, n=7) or a control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP, n=10) and sacrificed 18 weeks later. A baseline control group (n=7) was sacrificed at vector administration. rAAV-Leptin-treated rats lost weight (-4±2%) while rAAV-GFP-treated rats gained weight (14±2%) during the study. At study termination, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats weighed 17% less than rAAV-GFP-treated rats and had lower abdominal white adipose tissue weight (-80%), serum leptin (-77%), and serum IGF1 (-34%). Cancellous bone volume fraction in distal femur metaphysis and epiphysis, and in lumbar vertebra tended to be lower (P<0.1) in rAAV-GFP-treated rats (13.5 months old) compared to baseline control rats (9 months old). Significant differences in cancellous bone or biomarkers of bone turnover were not detected between rAAV-Leptin and rAAV-GFP rats. In summary, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats maintained a lower body weight compared to baseline and rAAV-GFP-treated rats with minimal effects on bone mass, density, microarchitecture, or biochemical markers of bone turnover.

  17. Prognostic Factors in Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Atay, Gamze; Kayahan, Bahar; çınar, Betül çiçek; Saraç, Sarp; Sennaroğlu, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is still a complex and challenging process which requires clinical evidence regarding its etiology, treatment and prognostic factors. Therefore, determination of prognostic factors might aid in the selection of proper treatment modality. Aims: The aim of this study is to analyze whether there is correlation between SSNHL outcomes and (1) systemic steroid therapy, (2) time gap between onset of symptoms and initiation of therapy and (3) audiological pattern of hearing loss. Study Design: Retrospective chart review. Methods: Patients diagnosed at our clinic with SSNHL between May 2005 and December 2011 were reviewed. A detailed history of demographic features, side of hearing loss, previous SSNHL and/or ear surgery, recent upper respiratory tract infection, season of admission, duration of symptoms before admission and the presence of co-morbid diseases was obtained. Radiological and audiological evaluations were recorded and treatment protocol was assessed to determine whether systemic steroids were administered or not. Treatment started ≤5 days was regarded as “early” and >5 days as “delayed”. Initial audiological configurations were grouped as “upward sloping”, “downward sloping”, “flat” and “profound” hearing loss. Significant recovery was defined as thresholds improved to the same level with the unaffected ear or improved ≥30 dB on average. Slight recovery was hearing improvement between 10–30dB on average. Hearing recovery less than 10 dB was accepted as unchanged. Results: Among the 181 patients who met the inclusion criteria, systemic steroid was administered to 122 patients (67.4%), whereas 59 (32.6%) patients did not have steroids. It was found that steroid administration did not have any statistically significant effect in either recovered or unchanged hearing groups. Early treatment was achieved in 105 patients (58%) and 76 patients (42%) had delayed treatment. Recovery

  18. Childhood Hearing Health: Educating for Prevention of Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Lacerda, Giselle; Lobato, Diolén Conceição Barros; Santos, Luciana; Moreira, Aline Carlezzo; Ribas, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The presence of noise in our society has attracted the attention of health professionals, including speech-language pathologists, who have been charged along with educators with developing hearing conservation programs in schools. Objective To describe the results of three strategies for awareness and hearing preservation in first to fourth grades in public elementary schools. Methods The level of environmental noise in classrooms was assessed, and 638 elementary school students from first to fourth grades, 5 to 10 years of age, were audiologically evaluated. After the evaluations, educational activities were presented to children and educators. Results The noise level in the classroom ranged from 71.8 to 94.8 A-weighted decibels. The environment of the classroom was found to promote sound reverberation, which hinders communication. Thirty-two students (5.1%) presented hearing alterations. Conclusion The application of strategies for a hearing conservation program at the school showed that noise is present in the room, and hearing loss, sometimes silent, affects schoolchildren. Students and teachers were aware that hearing problems can be prevented. Avoiding exposure to noise and improving the acoustics in classrooms are essential. PMID:25992146

  19. Idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss in the only hearing ear.

    PubMed

    Berrettini, S; De Vito, A; Bruschini, L; Fortunato, S; Forli, F

    2016-04-01

    A retrospective chart review was used for 31 patients with sudden, progressive or fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss (SHL) in the only hearing ear who had been consecutively evaluated at the ENT, Audiology and Phoniatrics Unit of the University of Pisa. The group of patients was evaluated with a complete history review, clinical evaluation, imaging exam (MRI, CT), audiologic tests (tone and speech audiometry, tympanometry, study of stapedial reflexes, ABR and otoacoustic emission) evaluation. In order to exclude genetic causes, patients were screened for CX 26 and CX30 mutations and for mitochondrial DNA mutation A1555G. Patients with sudden or rapidly progressive SHL in the only hearing ear were treated with osmotic diuretics and corticosteroids. In patients who did not respond to intravenous therapy we performed intratympanic injections of corticosteroid. Hearing aids were fitted when indicated and patients who developed severe to profound SHL were scheduled for cochlear implant surgery. The aim of this study is to report and discuss the epidemiology, aetiopathogenesis, therapy and clinical characteristic of patients affected by SHL in the only hearing hear and to discuss the issues related to the cochlear implant procedure in some of these patients, with regard to indications, choice of the ear to implant and results.

  20. Cross-Modal Re-Organization in Clinical Populations with Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anu; Glick, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    We review evidence for cross-modal cortical re-organization in clinical populations with hearing loss. Cross-modal plasticity refers to the ability for an intact sensory modality (e.g., vision or somatosensation) to recruit cortical brain regions from a deprived sensory modality (e.g., audition) to carry out sensory processing. We describe evidence for cross-modal changes in hearing loss across the age-spectrum and across different degrees of hearing impairment, including children with profound, bilateral deafness with cochlear implants, single-sided deafness before and after cochlear implantation, and adults with early-stage, mild-moderate, age-related hearing loss. Understanding cross-modal plasticity in the context of auditory deprivation, and the potential for reversal of these changes following intervention, may be vital in directing intervention and rehabilitation options for clinical populations with hearing loss. PMID:26821049

  1. Cross-Modal Re-Organization in Clinical Populations with Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anu; Glick, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    We review evidence for cross-modal cortical re-organization in clinical populations with hearing loss. Cross-modal plasticity refers to the ability for an intact sensory modality (e.g., vision or somatosensation) to recruit cortical brain regions from a deprived sensory modality (e.g., audition) to carry out sensory processing. We describe evidence for cross-modal changes in hearing loss across the age-spectrum and across different degrees of hearing impairment, including children with profound, bilateral deafness with cochlear implants, single-sided deafness before and after cochlear implantation, and adults with early-stage, mild-moderate, age-related hearing loss. Understanding cross-modal plasticity in the context of auditory deprivation, and the potential for reversal of these changes following intervention, may be vital in directing intervention and rehabilitation options for clinical populations with hearing loss. PMID:26821049

  2. Sensorineural hearing loss in chronic otitis media.

    PubMed

    MacAndie, C; O'Reilly, B F

    1999-06-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated an association between chronic otitis media (COM) and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), there still remains disagreement about the relationship. A retrospective study was conducted to examine the relationship between sensorineural hearing loss and chronic otitis media. Forty-one patients met the following criteria: unilateral COM and no history of head injury, meningitis or previous otological surgery. The differences in preoperative bone conduction threshold between diseased and control (contralateral normal) ear were statistically significant (P < 0.01) and varied from 5.24 to 9.02 dB across the frequency range. The effect of duration of disease on the degree of SNHL was also analysed but no correlation was found. The presence of cholesteatoma and/or ossicular erosion was not associated with a significantly increased risk of sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:10384849

  3. Genetics of Nonsyndromic Congenital Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Egilmez, Oguz Kadir; Kalcioglu, M Tayyar

    2016-01-01

    Congenital hearing impairment affects nearly 1 in every 1000 live births and is the most frequent birth defect in developed societies. Hereditary types of hearing loss account for more than 50% of all congenital sensorineural hearing loss cases and are caused by genetic mutations. HL can be either nonsyndromic, which is restricted to the inner ear, or syndromic, a part of multiple anomalies affecting the body. Nonsyndromic HL can be categorised by mode of inheritance, such as autosomal dominant (called DFNA), autosomal recessive (DFNB), mitochondrial, and X-linked (DFN). To date, 125 deafness loci have been reported in the literature: 58 DFNA loci, 63 DFNB loci, and 4 X-linked loci. Mutations in genes that control the adhesion of hair cells, intracellular transport, neurotransmitter release, ionic hemeostasis, and cytoskeleton of hair cells can lead to malfunctions of the cochlea and inner ear. In recent years, with the increase in studies about genes involved in congenital hearing loss, genetic counselling and treatment options have emerged and increased in availability. This paper presents an overview of the currently known genes associated with nonsyndromic congenital hearing loss and mutations in the inner ear. PMID:26989561

  4. Absence of age-related dopamine transporter loss in current cocaine abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Fischman, M.

    1997-05-01

    The brain dopamine (DA) system appears to play a crucial role in the reinforcing properties of cocaine. Using PET we had previously shown significant decreases in DA D2 receptors but no changes in DA transporters (DAT) in detoxified cocaine abusers (>1 month after last cocaine use). This study evaluates DAT availability in current cocaine abusers (15 male and 5 female; age = 36.2{+-}5.3 years old) using PET and [C-11]cocaine, as a DAT ligand, and compares it to that in 18 male and 2 female age matched normal controls. Cocaine abusers had a history of abusing 4.2{+-}2.8 gm /week of cocaine for an average of 11.0{+-}4.9 years and their last use of cocaine was 5.4{+-}8 days prior to PET study. DAT availability was obtained using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, pulamen) to that in cerebellum which is a function of Bmax./Kd.+1. DAT availability in cocaine abusers did not differ to that in normals (N) (C= 1.78{+-}0.14, N= 1.77{+-}0.13). In addition, there were no differences between the groups in the distribution volume or the Kl (plasma to brain transfer constant) measures for [C-11]cocaine. However, in the normals but not in the abusers striatal DAT availability decreased with age (C: r = -0.07, p = 0.76; N: r = -0.55, p < 0.01). Though this study fails to show group differences in DAT availability between normals and current cocaine abusers it indicates a blunting of the age-related decline in DAT availability in the cocaine abusers. Future studies in older cocaine abusers at different time after detoxification arc required in order to assess if cocaine slows the loss of DAT with age or whether these changes reflect compensation to increased DAT blockade and recover with detoxification.

  5. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Primary Care Update.

    PubMed

    Leung, Marcia A; Flaherty, Anna; Zhang, Julia A; Hara, Jared; Barber, Wayne; Burgess, Lawrence

    2016-06-01

    The primary care physician's role in recognizing sudden sensorineural hearing (SSNHL) loss and delivering initial treatment is critical in the management of the syndrome. This role involves recognizing its clinical symptoms, distinguishing it from conductive hearing loss with the Weber tuning fork or the Rauch hum test, and urgent administration of high dose oral corticosteroids. Diagnosis and treatment should not be delayed for audiometric testing or referral to otolaryngology. This paper provides an update on the initial evaluation and treatment of this syndrome based on the literature and clinical guideline recommendations. PMID:27413627

  6. [Occupational hearing loss: new principles of certification].

    PubMed

    Guzek, Wojciech J; Sułkowski, Wiesław J

    2002-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss, together with presbyacusis, are the most prevalent causes of the functional impairment of the inner ear in an adult population. The authors discuss briefly the epidemiological, diagnostic and medical certification issues. The paper is focused on the new legislation that brings about considerable changes in the procedure of medical certification of noise-induced hearing loss. Both the definition of the pathology and new principles for its certification as an occupational disease were intended to harmonize Polish regulations with respective legislation of the EU countries.

  7. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Primary Care Update

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Marcia A; Flaherty, Anna; Zhang, Julia A; Hara, Jared; Barber, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The primary care physician's role in recognizing sudden sensorineural hearing (SSNHL) loss and delivering initial treatment is critical in the management of the syndrome. This role involves recognizing its clinical symptoms, distinguishing it from conductive hearing loss with the Weber tuning fork or the Rauch hum test, and urgent administration of high dose oral corticosteroids. Diagnosis and treatment should not be delayed for audiometric testing or referral to otolaryngology. This paper provides an update on the initial evaluation and treatment of this syndrome based on the literature and clinical guideline recommendations. PMID:27413627

  8. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Primary Care Update.

    PubMed

    Leung, Marcia A; Flaherty, Anna; Zhang, Julia A; Hara, Jared; Barber, Wayne; Burgess, Lawrence

    2016-06-01

    The primary care physician's role in recognizing sudden sensorineural hearing (SSNHL) loss and delivering initial treatment is critical in the management of the syndrome. This role involves recognizing its clinical symptoms, distinguishing it from conductive hearing loss with the Weber tuning fork or the Rauch hum test, and urgent administration of high dose oral corticosteroids. Diagnosis and treatment should not be delayed for audiometric testing or referral to otolaryngology. This paper provides an update on the initial evaluation and treatment of this syndrome based on the literature and clinical guideline recommendations.

  9. Hearing Loss in Children: Treatment and Intervention Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... coordinator to find available services in your state. Technology Many people who are deaf or hard-of- ... of-hearing person has is called "residual hearing". Technology does not "cure" hearing loss, but may help ...

  10. SOX10 mutations mimic isolated hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Pingault, V; Faubert, E; Baral, V; Gherbi, S; Loundon, N; Couloigner, V; Denoyelle, F; Noël-Pétroff, N; Ducou Le Pointe, H; Elmaleh-Bergès, M; Bondurand, N; Marlin, S

    2015-10-01

    Ninety genes have been identified to date that are involved in non-syndromic hearing loss, and more than 300 different forms of syndromic hearing impairment have been described. Mutations in SOX10, one of the genes contributing to syndromic hearing loss, induce a large range of phenotypes, including several subtypes of Waardenburg syndrome and Kallmann syndrome with deafness. In addition, rare mutations have been identified in patients with isolated signs of these diseases. We used the recent characterization of temporal bone imaging aspects in patients with SOX10 mutations to identify possible patients with isolated hearing loss due to SOX10 mutation. We selected 21 patients with isolated deafness and temporal bone morphological defects for mutational screening. We identified two SOX10 mutations and found that both resulted in a non-functional protein in vitro. Re-evaluation of the two affected patients showed that both had previously undiagnosed olfactory defects. Diagnosis of anosmia or hyposmia in young children is challenging, and particularly in the absence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), SOX10 mutations can mimic non-syndromic hearing impairment. MRI should complete temporal bones computed tomographic scan in the management of congenital deafness as it can detect brain anomalies, cochlear nerve defects, and olfactory bulb malformation in addition to inner ear malformations.

  11. Sensorineural hearing loss in Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Varun; Etinger, Veronica; Orjuela, Andres F

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is a common nonspecific vasculitis seen in childhood. The most significant long-term sequela is coronary artery aneurysm. However, the spectrum of complications involves not only the heart, but also other organs such as the eyes, skin, kidneys, gallbladder, liver, and central nervous system. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a relatively unrecognized complication of the disease. Although most of the complications (except coronary artery aneurysm) are self-limiting, SNHL can be persistent. It is, especially important in infants and young children who might not be able to report the hearing deficits and are most likely to have cognitive and speech delays if this hearing loss is not addressed in a timely manner. We report a child with Kawasaki disease who had SNHL during the 2(nd) week of the illness. The aim of this article is to briefly review the pathophysiology behind this hearing loss and strongly emphasize the importance of universal hearing evaluation in all children diagnosed with Kawasaki disease. This screening in children with Kawasaki disease may provide some timely intervention if needed. Since most Kawasaki disease patients will be seen by cardiologists, we hope to create more awareness about this complication to the cardiology community as well. PMID:27011703

  12. Sensorineural hearing loss in Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Varun; Etinger, Veronica; Orjuela, Andres F

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is a common nonspecific vasculitis seen in childhood. The most significant long-term sequela is coronary artery aneurysm. However, the spectrum of complications involves not only the heart, but also other organs such as the eyes, skin, kidneys, gallbladder, liver, and central nervous system. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a relatively unrecognized complication of the disease. Although most of the complications (except coronary artery aneurysm) are self-limiting, SNHL can be persistent. It is, especially important in infants and young children who might not be able to report the hearing deficits and are most likely to have cognitive and speech delays if this hearing loss is not addressed in a timely manner. We report a child with Kawasaki disease who had SNHL during the 2nd week of the illness. The aim of this article is to briefly review the pathophysiology behind this hearing loss and strongly emphasize the importance of universal hearing evaluation in all children diagnosed with Kawasaki disease. This screening in children with Kawasaki disease may provide some timely intervention if needed. Since most Kawasaki disease patients will be seen by cardiologists, we hope to create more awareness about this complication to the cardiology community as well. PMID:27011703

  13. Dietary and genetic effects on age-related loss of gene silencing reveal epigenetic plasticity of chromatin repression during aging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Du, Guyu; Tobias, Ethan; Wood, Jason G; Whitaker, Rachel; Neretti, Nicola; Helfand, Stephen L

    2013-11-01

    During aging, changes in chromatin state that alter gene transcription have been postulated to result in expression of genes that are normally silenced, leading to deleterious age-related effects on cellular physiology. Despite the prevalence of this hypothesis, it is primarily in yeast that loss of gene silencing with age has been well documented. We use a novel position effect variegation (PEV) reporter in Drosophila melanogaster to show that age-related loss of repressive heterochromatin is associated with loss of gene silencing in metazoans and is affected by Sir2, as it is in yeast. The life span-extending intervention, calorie restriction (CR), delays the age-related loss of gene silencing, indicating that loss of gene silencing is a component of normal aging. Diet switch experiments show that such flies undergo a rapid change in their level of gene silencing, demonstrating the epigenetic plasticity of chromatin during aging and highlighting the potential role of diet and metabolism in chromatin maintenance, Thus, diet and related interventions may be of therapeutic importance for age-related diseases, such as cancer.

  14. New treatment options for hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ulrich; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G

    2015-05-01

    Hearing loss is the most common form of sensory impairment in humans and affects more than 40 million people in the United States alone. No drug-based therapy has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and treatment mostly relies on devices such as hearing aids and cochlear implants. Over recent years, more than 100 genetic loci have been linked to hearing loss and many of the affected genes have been identified. This understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate auditory function has revealed new targets for pharmacological treatment of the disease. Moreover, approaches that are based on stem cells and gene therapy, which may have the potential to restore or maintain auditory function, are beginning to emerge. PMID:25792261

  15. Expression levels of the BAK1 and BCL2 genes highlight the role of apoptosis in age-related hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Falah, Masoumeh; Najafi, Mohammad; Houshmand, Massoud; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a progressive and a common sensory disorder in the elderly and will become an increasingly important clinical problem given the growing elderly population. Apoptosis of cochlear cells is an important factor in animal models of ARHI. As these cells cannot regenerate, their loss leads to irreversible hearing impairment. Identification of molecular mechanisms can facilitate disease prevention and effective treatment. In this study, we compared the expression of the genes BAK1 and BCL2 as two arms of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway between patients with ARHI and healthy subjects. ARHI and healthy subjects were selected after an ear nose throat examination, otoscopic investigation, and pure tone audiometry. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples, and relative gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. BAK1 and the BAK1/BCL2 ratio were statistically significantly upregulated in the ARHI subjects. The BAK1/BCL2 ratio was positively correlated with the results of the audiometric tests. Our results indicate that BAK-mediated apoptosis may be a core mechanism in the progression of ARHI in humans, similar to finding in animal models. Moreover, the gene expression changes in peripheral blood samples could be used as a rapid and simple biomarker for early detection of ARHI. PMID:27555755

  16. Expression levels of the BAK1 and BCL2 genes highlight the role of apoptosis in age-related hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Falah, Masoumeh; Najafi, Mohammad; Houshmand, Massoud; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a progressive and a common sensory disorder in the elderly and will become an increasingly important clinical problem given the growing elderly population. Apoptosis of cochlear cells is an important factor in animal models of ARHI. As these cells cannot regenerate, their loss leads to irreversible hearing impairment. Identification of molecular mechanisms can facilitate disease prevention and effective treatment. In this study, we compared the expression of the genes BAK1 and BCL2 as two arms of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway between patients with ARHI and healthy subjects. ARHI and healthy subjects were selected after an ear nose throat examination, otoscopic investigation, and pure tone audiometry. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples, and relative gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. BAK1 and the BAK1/BCL2 ratio were statistically significantly upregulated in the ARHI subjects. The BAK1/BCL2 ratio was positively correlated with the results of the audiometric tests. Our results indicate that BAK-mediated apoptosis may be a core mechanism in the progression of ARHI in humans, similar to finding in animal models. Moreover, the gene expression changes in peripheral blood samples could be used as a rapid and simple biomarker for early detection of ARHI. PMID:27555755

  17. Screening for Hearing Loss in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alice E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The results of an auditory screening protocol administered to 342 adolescents (ages 10-20) suggest a high level of noise exposure in the adolescent population. Overall failure rate was 25%. Significant correlations were found between firearm use and hearing loss at 6000 Hertz. Screening and education efforts are urged. (Author/CR)

  18. Actin in hair cells and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Meghan C; Belyantseva, Inna A; Friderici, Karen H; Friedman, Thomas B

    2012-06-01

    Hereditary deafness is genetically heterogeneous such that mutations of many different genes can cause hearing loss. This review focuses on the evidence and implications that several of these deafness genes encode actin-interacting proteins or actin itself. There is a growing appreciation of the contribution of the actin interactome in stereocilia development, maintenance, mechanotransduction and malfunction of the auditory system.

  19. Survey of commercial airline pilots' hearing loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, D. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Tran, L. L.; Anderson, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    64 commercial airline pilots (ages 35-64 yr, Mdn: 53) were surveyed regarding hearing loss and tinnitus. Within specific age groups, the proportions responding positively exceed the corresponding proportions in the general population reported by the National Center for Health Statistics.

  20. Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Lund, Emily; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Measures of print knowledge were compared across preschoolers with hearing loss and normal hearing. Alphabet knowledge did not differ between groups, but preschoolers with hearing loss performed lower on measures of print concepts and concepts of written words than preschoolers with normal hearing. Further study is needed in this area.

  1. Alcohol Use among Students with and without Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2015-01-01

    We compared alcohol use among adolescents with and without hearing loss. Adolescents with hearing loss reported consuming less alcohol, less binge drinking, fewer episodes of drunkenness, and a higher age at first drunkenness than their hearing peers. Alcohol use did not vary between students who were deaf or hard of hearing or between students…

  2. Relationship Between Hair Cell Loss and Hearing Loss in Fishes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to intense sound or ototoxic chemicals can damage the auditory hair cells of vertebrates, resulting in hearing loss. Although the relationship between such hair cell damage and auditory function is fairly established for terrestrial vertebrates, there are limited data available to understand this relationship in fishes. Although investigators have measured either the morphological damage of the inner ear or the functional deficits in the hearing of fishes, very few have directly measured both in an attempt to find a relationship between the two. Those studies that have examined both auditory hair cell damage in the inner ear and the resulting hearing loss in fishes are reviewed here. In general, there is a significant linear relationship between the number of hair cells lost and the severity of hearing threshold shifts, although this varies between species and different hair cell-damaging stimuli. After trauma to the fish ear, auditory hair cells are able to regenerate to control level densities. With this regeneration also comes a restoration of hearing. Thus there is also a significant relationship between hair cell recovery and hearing recovery in fishes.

  3. Does erythropoietin augment noise induced hearing loss?

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Lund, Søren Peter; Wagner, Niels; Asal, Korhan; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Thomsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss may result from excessive release of glutamate, nitrogen oxide and reactive oxygen species. The effects of these factors on the inner ear may potentially be prevented or reduced by erythropoietin (EPO), as indicated by previously demonstrated neuro-protective effects of EPO upon damage to the central nervous system and the retina. This paper reports three separate trials, conducted to investigate the hypothesis that noise-induced hearing loss is prevented or reduced by erythropoietin. The trials employed three different modes of drug application, different administration time windows and different rodent species. In trial 1, guinea pigs were exposed to 110dB SPL, 4-20kHz wide band noise (WBN) for 8h. EPO was administered to the round window membrane 24h after noise exposure, either sustained by pump for a week or by single dose middle ear instillation. In trial 2, rats were exposed to 105dB SPL, 4-20kHz WBN for 8h. EPO was administered by single dose middle ear instillation 1 or 14h after noise exposure. In trial 3, rats were exposed to 105dB SPL, 4-20kHz WBN for 8 or 3x8h. EPO was injected intraperitoneally 1h before noise exposure. Oto-acoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses (at 16kHz) were recorded before and after noise exposure in all trials. The noise exposure induced a hearing loss in all animals. In trial 1, no recovery and no improvement of hearing occurred in any treatment group. In trial 2 and 3, a partial hearing recovery was seen. However, the hearing loss of the EPO treated animals was significantly worse than controls in trial 2. In trial 3, the hearing of the EPO treated animals exposed for 3x8h was significantly worse than controls. Thus, surprisingly, the results from 2 of the 3 present trials indicate that erythropoietin may in fact augment noise-induced hearing loss. This is contradictory to the beneficial effect of EPO reported by the vast majority of studies on stressed neural tissues. EPO administration

  4. Does erythropoietin augment noise induced hearing loss?

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Lund, Søren Peter; Wagner, Niels; Asal, Korhan; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Thomsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss may result from excessive release of glutamate, nitrogen oxide and reactive oxygen species. The effects of these factors on the inner ear may potentially be prevented or reduced by erythropoietin (EPO), as indicated by previously demonstrated neuro-protective effects of EPO upon damage to the central nervous system and the retina. This paper reports three separate trials, conducted to investigate the hypothesis that noise-induced hearing loss is prevented or reduced by erythropoietin. The trials employed three different modes of drug application, different administration time windows and different rodent species. In trial 1, guinea pigs were exposed to 110dB SPL, 4-20kHz wide band noise (WBN) for 8h. EPO was administered to the round window membrane 24h after noise exposure, either sustained by pump for a week or by single dose middle ear instillation. In trial 2, rats were exposed to 105dB SPL, 4-20kHz WBN for 8h. EPO was administered by single dose middle ear instillation 1 or 14h after noise exposure. In trial 3, rats were exposed to 105dB SPL, 4-20kHz WBN for 8 or 3x8h. EPO was injected intraperitoneally 1h before noise exposure. Oto-acoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses (at 16kHz) were recorded before and after noise exposure in all trials. The noise exposure induced a hearing loss in all animals. In trial 1, no recovery and no improvement of hearing occurred in any treatment group. In trial 2 and 3, a partial hearing recovery was seen. However, the hearing loss of the EPO treated animals was significantly worse than controls in trial 2. In trial 3, the hearing of the EPO treated animals exposed for 3x8h was significantly worse than controls. Thus, surprisingly, the results from 2 of the 3 present trials indicate that erythropoietin may in fact augment noise-induced hearing loss. This is contradictory to the beneficial effect of EPO reported by the vast majority of studies on stressed neural tissues. EPO administration

  5. Vibrant Soundbridge rehabilitation of conductive and mixed hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lüers, Jan-Christoffer; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2014-12-01

    The Vibrant Soundbridge is the world's most often implanted active middle ear implant or hearing aid. During the last few years, the device indications have expanded from sensorineural hearing loss to conductive and mixed hearing loss. Titanium couplers have led to improved contact of the floating mass transducer with the middle ear structures. The resulting hearing gain is satisfying for most patients, but so far, there is no clear audiologic advantage over conventional hearing aids. Currently, the indications are mainly related to intolerance of conventional hearing aids (eg, chronic otitis externa), severe mixed hearing loss with a destructed middle ear and certain medical diagnosis (eg, congenital atresia).

  6. [Aggravation after Diagnosis of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Ichiro; Nemoto, Toshimitsu; Tsukuda, Tomoko; Koshizuka, Keiichi

    2015-03-01

    Among 95 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss who received inpatient treatment at our hospital within the 27-month period between October 2009 and December 2011, those in whom hearing loss was aggravated after diagnosis were compared with a control group. Hearing loss aggravation was defined as a decrease by 10 dB or more in the mean hearing threshold at 5 frequencies from 250 to 4,000 Hz or decrease of 15 dB or more in the hearing threshold at 2 consecutive frequencies. Hearing loss was aggravated after diagnosis in 22 (23.2%) of the 95 patients, showing a similar tendency to that previously reported. Although the grades of hearing loss in these patients were higher than those in 73 control group patients, according to the sudden hearing loss severity classification, their outcomes were favorable. The hearing loss aggravation group consisted of those with steroid-dependent hearing loss (6) and those who had undergone perilymphatic fistula repair (4), in addition to a large number of patients with idiopathic hearing loss, including suspicious perilymphatic fistula (10). When hearing loss becomes aggravated after the diagnosis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, it may be important to determine the most appropriate approach in each case, such as a careful and gradual decrease in the adenocortical steroid dose and the consideration of perilymphatic fistula repair.

  7. The Relationship between Nonverbal Cognitive Functions and Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…

  8. [Nonorganic (functional) hearing loss in children].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C-M; Am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, A; Deuster, D

    2013-02-01

    Nonorganic (functional) hearing loss in children is characterized by hearing loss without a detectable corresponding pathology in the auditory system. It is not an uncommon disease in childhood. Typically, there is a discrepancy between elevated pure tone thresholds and normal speech discrimination in everyday life. We evaluated 85 original publications, 27 reviews and 4 textbook articles. Mean age at diagnosis was 11.3 years. Girls were affected twice as often as boys. Patient histories showed a high prevalence of emotional and school problems. Pre-existing organic hearing loss can be worsened by nonorganic causes. A brainstem audiometry should confirm the diagnosis. The differential diagnosis includes auditory processing disorder, elevated thresholds in mental retardation and auditory neuropathy. We recommend taking a personal history including biographical factors, a psychological assessment including intelligence testing and referral to a child psychiatrist. Prognosis seems to be dependent on the severity of the patient's school and/or personal problems. Categorization following the Austen-Lynch model can be a valuable prognostic factor.

  9. Potential treatments for genetic hearing loss in humans: current conundrums.

    PubMed

    Minoda, R; Miwa, T; Ise, M; Takeda, H

    2015-08-01

    Genetic defects are a major cause of hearing loss in newborns. Consequently, hearing loss has a profound negative impact on human daily living. Numerous causative genes for genetic hearing loss have been identified. However, presently, there are no truly curative treatments for this condition. There have been several recent reports on successful treatments in mice using embryonic gene therapy, neonatal gene therapy and neonatal antisense oligonucleotide therapy. Herein, we describe state-of-the-art research on genetic hearing loss treatment through gene therapy and discuss the obstacles to overcome in curative treatments of genetic hearing loss in humans.

  10. Hearing Loss in HIV-Infected Children in Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Hrapcak, Susan; Kuper, Hannah; Bartlett, Peter; Devendra, Akash; Makawa, Atupele; Kim, Maria; Kazembe, Peter; Ahmed, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection is becoming a chronic illness. Preliminary data suggest that HIV-infected children have a higher risk of disabilities, including hearing impairment, although data are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and types of hearing loss in HIV-infected children in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 380 HIV-infected children aged 4–14 years attending ART clinic in Lilongwe between December 2013-March 2014. Data was collected through pediatric quality of life and sociodemographic questionnaires, electronic medical record review, and detailed audiologic testing. Hearing loss was defined as >20 decibels hearing level (dBHL) in either ear. Predictors of hearing loss were explored by regression analysis generating age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios. Children with significant hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids. Results Of 380 patients, 24% had hearing loss: 82% conductive, 14% sensorineural, and 4% mixed. Twenty-one patients (23% of those with hearing loss) were referred for hearing aid fitting. There was a higher prevalence of hearing loss in children with history of frequent ear infections (OR 7.4, 4.2–13.0) and ear drainage (OR 6.4, 3.6–11.6). Hearing loss was linked to history of WHO Stage 3 (OR 2.4, 1.2–4.5) or Stage 4 (OR 6.4, 2.7–15.2) and history of malnutrition (OR 2.1, 1.3–3.5), but not to duration of ART or CD4. Only 40% of caregivers accurately perceived their child’s hearing loss. Children with hearing impairment were less likely to attend school and had poorer emotional (p = 0.02) and school functioning (p = 0.04). Conclusions There is an urgent need for improved screening tools, identification and treatment of hearing problems in HIV-infected children, as hearing loss was common in this group and affected school functioning and quality of life. Clear strategies were identified for prevention and treatment, since most

  11. FVB/NJ mice demonstrate a youthful sensitivity to noise-induced hearing loss and provide a useful genetic model for the study of neural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Ho, Maria K; Li, Xin; Wang, Juemei; Ohmen, Jeffrey D; Friedman, Rick A

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP), a panel of 100 strains, has been employed in genome wide association studies (GWAS) to study complex traits in mice. Hearing is a complex trait and the CBA/CaJ mouse strain is a widely used model for age-related hearing loss (ARHI) and noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). The CBA/CaJ strain's youthful sensitivity to noise and limited age-related loss led us to attempt to identify additional strains segregating a similar phenotype for our panel. FVB/NJ is part of the HMDP and has been previously described as having a similar ARHI phenotype to CBA/CaJ. For these reasons, we have studied the FVB/NJ mouse for ARHI and NIHL phenotypes in hopes of incorporating its phenotype into HMDP studies. We demonstrate that FVB/NJ exhibits ARHI at an earlier age than CBA/CaJ and young FVB/NJ mice are vulnerable to NIHL up until 10 to 12 weeks. This suggests that FVB/NJ may be used as an additional genetic model for neural forms of progressive hearing loss and for the study of youthful sensitivity to noise.

  12. FVB/NJ mice demonstrate a youthful sensitivity to noise-induced hearing loss and provide a useful genetic model for the study of neural hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Maria K.; Li, Xin; Wang, Juemei; Ohmen, Jeffrey D.; Friedman, Rick A.

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP), a panel of 100 strains, has been employed in genome wide association studies (GWAS) to study complex traits in mice. Hearing is a complex trait and the CBA/CaJ mouse strain is a widely used model for age-related hearing loss (ARHI) and noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). The CBA/CaJ strain's youthful sensitivity to noise and limited age-related loss led us to attempt to identify additional strains segregating a similar phenotype for our panel. FVB/NJ is part of the HMDP and has been previously described as having a similar ARHI phenotype to CBA/CaJ. For these reasons, we have studied the FVB/NJ mouse for ARHI and NIHL phenotypes in hopes of incorporating its phenotype into HMDP studies. We demonstrate that FVB/NJ exhibits ARHI at an earlier age than CBA/CaJ and young FVB/NJ mice are vulnerable to NIHL up until 10 to 12 weeks. This suggests that FVB/NJ may be used as an additional genetic model for neural forms of progressive hearing loss and for the study of youthful sensitivity to noise. PMID:24707282

  13. Designer aminoglycosides prevent cochlear hair cell loss and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Huth, Markus E; Han, Kyu-Hee; Sotoudeh, Kayvon; Hsieh, Yi-Ju; Effertz, Thomas; Vu, Andrew A; Verhoeven, Sarah; Hsieh, Michael H; Greenhouse, Robert; Cheng, Alan G; Ricci, Anthony J

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial infections represent a rapidly growing challenge to human health. Aminoglycosides are widely used broad-spectrum antibiotics, but they inflict permanent hearing loss in up to ~50% of patients by causing selective sensory hair cell loss. Here, we hypothesized that reducing aminoglycoside entry into hair cells via mechanotransducer channels would reduce ototoxicity, and therefore we synthesized 9 aminoglycosides with modifications based on biophysical properties of the hair cell mechanotransducer channel and interactions between aminoglycosides and the bacterial ribosome. Compared with the parent aminoglycoside sisomicin, all 9 derivatives displayed no or reduced ototoxicity, with the lead compound N1MS 17 times less ototoxic and with reduced penetration of hair cell mechanotransducer channels in rat cochlear cultures. Both N1MS and sisomicin suppressed growth of E. coli and K. pneumoniae, with N1MS exhibiting superior activity against extended spectrum β lactamase producers, despite diminished activity against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Moreover, systemic sisomicin treatment of mice resulted in 75% to 85% hair cell loss and profound hearing loss, whereas N1MS treatment preserved both hair cells and hearing. Finally, in mice with E. coli-infected bladders, systemic N1MS treatment eliminated bacteria from urinary tract tissues and serially collected urine samples, without compromising auditory and kidney functions. Together, our findings establish N1MS as a nonototoxic aminoglycoside and support targeted modification as a promising approach to generating nonototoxic antibiotics.

  14. Vision loss and hearing loss in painting and musical composition.

    PubMed

    Marmor, Michael F

    2014-07-01

    This article considers the impact of vision and hearing loss on great painters and musical composers. The visual work of Mary Cassatt, Georgia O'Keeffe, Edgar Degas, and Claude Monet all showed alterations as their vision failed. In contrast, Gabriel Fauré, Bedřich Smetana, and Ludwig von Beethoven wrote many of their best compositions while totally deaf, and Georg Friedrich Handel and Frederick Delius struggled to compose late in life when they lost their vision (although their hearing remained excellent). There are 2 major distinctions between the role of vision and hearing for these artistic disciplines. First, there is a surrogate means of "hearing" music, through the musical score, which allows composers to write and edit music while totally deaf. The greatest problem with deafness for a skilled composer is interference from internal noise (tinnitus). There is no surrogate for vision to allow a painter to work when the subject is a blur or the colors on the canvas cannot be distinguished. Second, although the appreciation of art is visual and that of music is auditory, the transcription of both art and musical composition is visual. Thus, visual loss does pose a problem for a composer accustomed to working with good sight, because it disrupts habitual methods of writing and editing music.

  15. Life-Long Wheel Running Attenuates Age-Related Fiber Loss in the Plantaris Muscle of Mice: a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Suwa, M; Ishioka, T; Kato, J; Komaita, J; Imoto, T; Kida, A; Yokochi, T

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether long-term wheel running would attenuate age-related loss of muscle fiber. Male ICR mice were divided into young (Y, n=12, aged 3 months), old-sedentary (OS, n=5, aged 24 months), and old-exercise (OE, n=6, aged 24 months) groups. The OE group started spontaneous wheel running at 3 months and continued until 24 months of age. Soleus and plantaris muscles were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde buffer. The fixed muscle was digested in a 50% NaOH solution to isolate single fiber and then fiber number was quantified. The masses of the soleus and plantaris muscles were significantly lower at 24 months than at 3 months of age, and this age-related difference was attenuated by wheel running (P<0.05). Soleus muscle fiber number did not differ among the groups. In the plantaris muscle, the fiber number in the OS group (1 288±92 fibers) was significantly lower than in the Y group (1 874±93 fibers), and this decrease was attenuated in the OE group (1 591±80 fibers) (P<0.05). These results suggest that age-related fiber loss occurs only in the fast-twitch fiber-rich muscle of mice, and that life-long wheel running exercise can prevent this fiber loss.

  16. Can self assessment of communication predict hearing loss?

    PubMed

    Vij, S; Nagarkar, A N; Jindal, P

    2007-05-01

    A total of 120 subjects with hearing loss (75 men, 45 women), within the age range 18-70 years (mean, 38 years), and 15 normal subjects were administered a modified Hindi adaptation of the 'self assessment of communication' hearing loss inventory. The study aimed to determine whether there was any correlation between subjects' average pure tone thresholds and their inventory scores. Data was analysed using the Pearson coefficient of correlation and regression analysis. A negative correlation was obtained stating that the greater the hearing loss, the lower the inventory score. An equation could also be derived for the bilateral symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss group and the bilateral symmetrical conductive hearing loss group to enable calculation of patients' average hearing loss from their inventory scores, in the absence of an audiogram. This could aid rehabilitation in cases with either type of hearing loss (in which no medical intervention was required) when pure tone audiometry is not possible.

  17. Association of GRM7 Variants with Different Phenotype Patterns of Age-Related Hearing Impairment in an Elderly Male Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiaojie; Pang, Xiuhong; Li, Jiping; Chai, Yongchuan; Li, Lei; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Luping; Zhang, Zhihua; Wu, Wenjing; Zhang, Qin; Hu, Xianting; Sun, Jingwen; Jiang, Xuemei; Fan, Zhuping; Huang, Zhiwu; Wu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the Glutamate metabotrophic receptor 7 gene (GRM7) have recently been identified by the genome-wide association study (GWAS) as potentially playing a role in susceptibility to age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), however this has not been validated in the Han Chinese population. The aim of this study was to determine if these SNPs are also associated with ARHI in an elderly male Han Chinese population. In this case-control candidate genes association study, a total of 982 men with ARHI and 324 normal-hearing controls subjects were studied. Using K-means cluster analysis, four audiogram shape subtypes of ARHI were identified in the case group: ‘‘flat shape (FL)’’, ‘‘sloping shape (SL)’’, ‘‘2-4 kHz abrupt loss (AL) shape’’ and ‘‘8 kHz dip (8D) shape’’. Results suggested that the SNP rs11928865 (A>T) of GRM7 was significantly associated with ARHI after adjusting for non-genetic factors (p= 0.000472, OR= 1.599, 95%CI= 1.229~2.081). Furthermore, frequency of TT genotype (rs11928865) were significant higher in the SL subgroup and AL subgroup with compared to controls group (p= 9.41E-05, OR= 1.945, 95%CI= 1.393~2.715; p= 0.000109, OR= 1.915, 95%CI= 1.378~2.661 adjusted, respectively) after Bonferroni correction. However, there wasn’t significant difference in the frequency of the TT genotype between cases in the FL subgroup or the 8D subgroup with when compared with controls. Results of the current study suggest that, in an elderly male Han Chinese population, GRM7 SNP rs11928865 (TT) occurs more frequently in ARHI patients with SL and AL phenotype patterns. PMID:24146964

  18. Is Body Mass Index Associated With the Development of Age-Related Hearing Impairment in Koreans? The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2012

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Da Jung; Jang, Jeong Hun; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate whether body mass index (BMI) is associated with age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in the Asian elderly population. Methods Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2012 were used for the analyses. The pure tones at 0.5 and 1 kHz of both ears of each subject were averaged to obtain the low-frequency, those at 2 and 3 kHz were averaged to obtain the mid-frequency, and those at 4 and 6 kHz were averaged to obtain the high-frequency. The average hearing threshold (AHT) was calculated as pure tone average at 4 frequencies in the better ear. ARHL was defined as the AHT >25 dB. Results Univariate analyses revealed an increase in the BMI tertile in men was associated with a decreased low-frequency threshold, while an increase in the BMI tertile in women was associated with decreased mid- and high-frequency thresholds. Multivariate analyses adjusted for confounders show no significant differences in low-, mid-, or high-frequency. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of ARHL by BMI tertiles. Linear regression analyses show no association between BMI and low-, mid-, and high-frequency or AHTs. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values for AHT was 0.515 in men and 0.522 in women. The logistic regression analyses showed no association between BMI and ARHL in either sex. Conclusion BMI is not advantageous for the prediction of ARHL. In future epidemiological studies, BMI as a covariate of obesity may be replaced by other active metabolic parameters that have better predictive ability of ARHL than BMI. PMID:27090278

  19. Early Identification of Hearing Loss: Practices and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, James H.; Mengle, Heidi

    1983-01-01

    The process of identification of hearing loss in preschool children, including infant screening techniques, audiological testing methods, and other tests used to determine the kind and degree of hearing loss, are discussed. Appropriate habilitation and educational placement is also discussed, including hearing aid selection and parent…

  20. Reiter's syndrome and hearing loss: a possible association?

    PubMed Central

    Monsanto, Rafael C; Neto, Arlindo C L; Lorenzetti, Fábio T M

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Patient complained of hearing loss and tinnitus after the onset of Reiter's syndrome. Audiometry confirmed the hearing loss on the left ear; blood work showed increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C3 fraction of the complement. Genotyping for HLA-B27 was positive. Treatment with prednisolone did not improve the hearing levels. PMID:25548635

  1. Nonmetro Residence, Hearing Loss, and Its Accommodation Among Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nan E.

    2004-01-01

    No previous studies compare the prevalence of physiological hearing loss among older adults by nonmetro/metro residence. Also, there is little information on their relative successes in accommodating hearing loss with a hearing aid. This study sought to bridge these gaps by analyzing the 8,222 respondents to Wave 1 (1993?1994) of the national…

  2. Teaching Children with Hearing Loss in Reading Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlesworth, Ann; Charlesworth, Robert; Raban, Bridie; Rickards, Field

    2006-01-01

    This study quantitatively analyzed the structure of Reading Recovery lessons for children with hearing loss by examining and comparing the supportive interactions of three Reading Recovery teachers of 12 children with hearing loss and three Reading Recovery teachers of 12 hearing children. All of the children were in the second year of primary…

  3. Musical hallucination associated with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Rocha, Savya Cybelle Milhomem; Knobel, Keila Alessandra Baraldi; Kii, Márcia Akemi; Santos, Rosa Maria Rodrigues dos; Pereira, Cristiana Borges

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that musical hallucination have a significant impact on patients' lives, they have received very little attention of experts. Some researchers agree on a combination of peripheral and central dysfunctions as the mechanism that causes hallucination. The most accepted physiopathology of musical hallucination associated to hearing loss (caused by cochlear lesion, cochlear nerve lesion or by interruption of mesencephalon or pontine auditory information) is the disinhibition of auditory memory circuits due to sensory deprivation. Concerning the cortical area involved in musical hallucination, there is evidence that the excitatory mechanism of the superior temporal gyrus, as in epilepsies, is responsible for musical hallucination. In musical release hallucination there is also activation of the auditory association cortex. Finally, considering the laterality, functional studies with musical perception and imagery in normal individuals showed that songs with words cause bilateral temporal activation and melodies activate only the right lobe. The effect of hearing aids on the improvement of musical hallucination as a result of the hearing loss improvement is well documented. It happens because auditory hallucination may be influenced by the external acoustical environment. Neuroleptics, antidepressants and anticonvulsants have been used in the treatment of musical hallucination. Cases of improvement with the administration of carbamazepine, meclobemide and donepezil were reported, but the results obtained were not consistent. PMID:21625772

  4. Studies in Pediatric Hearing Loss at the House Research Institute

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen C.; Martinez, Amy S.; Visser-Dumont, Leslie; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Still, Jennifer F.

    2012-01-01

    Three clinical research projects are described that are relevant to pediatric hearing loss. The three projects fall into two distinct areas. The first area emphasizes clinical studies that track developmental outcomes in children with hearing loss; one project is specific to cochlear implants and the other to hearing aids. The second area addresses speech perception test development for very young children with hearing loss. Although these two lines of research are treated as separate areas, they begin to merge as new behavioral tests become useful in developing protocols for contemporary studies that address longitudinal follow-up of children with hearing loss. PMID:22668762

  5. Gap-Junction Channels Dysfunction in Deafness and Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Acuña, Rodrigo; Figueroa, Vania; Maripillan, Jaime; Nicholson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Gap-junction channels connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells, allowing the diffusion of ions and small metabolites. They are formed at the appositional plasma membranes by a family of related proteins named connexins. Mutations in connexins 26, 31, 30, 32, and 43 have been associated with nonsyndromic or syndromic deafness. The majority of these mutations are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, but a few of them have been associated with dominantly inherited hearing loss. Mutations in the connexin26 gene (GJB2) are the most common cause of genetic deafness. This review summarizes the most relevant and recent information about different mutations in connexin genes found in human patients, with emphasis on GJB2. The possible effects of the mutations on channel expression and function are discussed, in addition to their possible physiologic consequences for inner ear physiology. Finally, we propose that connexin channels (gap junctions and hemichannels) may be targets for age-related hearing loss induced by oxidative damage. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 309–322. PMID:18837651

  6. Aging-related loss of the chromatin protein HMGB2 in articular cartilage is linked to reduced cellularity and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Noboru; Caramés, Beatriz; Ronfani, Lorenza; Ulmer, Ulrich; Komiya, Setsuro; Bianchi, Marco E.; Lotz, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease and typically begins with an aging-related disruption of the articular cartilage surface. Mechanisms leading to the aging-related cartilage surface degeneration remain to be determined. Here, we demonstrate that nonhistone chromatin protein high-mobility group box (HMGB) protein 2 is uniquely expressed in the superficial zone (SZ) of human articular cartilage. In human and murine cartilage, there is an aging-related loss of HMGB2 expression, ultimately leading to its complete absence. Mice genetically deficient in HMGB2 (Hmgb2−/−) show earlier onset of and more severe OA. This is associated with a profound reduction in cartilage cellularity attributable to increased cell death. These cellular changes precede glycosaminoglycan depletion and progressive cartilage erosions. Chondrocytes from Hmgb2−/− mice are more susceptible to apoptosis induction in vitro. In conclusion, HMGB2 is a transcriptional regulator specifically expressed in the SZ of human articular cartilage and supports chondrocyte survival. Aging is associated with a loss of HMGB2 expression and reduced cellularity, and this contributes to the development of OA. PMID:19139395

  7. Computer Simulations of Loss of Organization of Neurons as a Model for Age-related Cognitive Decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Luis; Fengometidis, Elene; Jones, Frank; Jampani, Srinivas

    2011-03-01

    In normal aging, brains suffer from progressive cognitive decline not linked with loss of neurons common in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. However, in some brain areas neurons have lost positional organization specifically within microcolumns: arrays of interconnected neurons which may constitute fundamental computational units in the brain. This age-related loss of organization, likely a result of micron-sized random displacements in neuronal positions, is hypothesized to be a by-product of the loss of support from the surrounding medium, including dendrites. Using a dynamical model applied to virtual 3D representation of neuronal arrangements, that previously showed loss of organization in brains of cognitively tested rhesus monkeys, the relationship between these displacements and changes to the surrounding dendrite network are presented. The consequences of these displacements on the structure of the dendritic network, with possible disruptions in signal synchrony important to cognitive function, are discussed. NIH R01AG021133.

  8. Dietary Polyphenols, Berries, and Age-Related Bone Loss: A Review Based on Human, Animal, and Cell Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Patrice A.; Lee, Sang Gil; Lee, Sun-Kyeong; Chun, Ock K.

    2014-01-01

    Bone loss during aging has become an increasing public health concern as average life expectancy has increased. One of the most prevalent forms of age-related bone disease today is osteoporosis in which the body slows down bone formation and existing bone is increasingly being resorbed by the body to maintain the calcium balance. Some causes of this bone loss can be attributed to dysregulation of osteoblast and osteoclast activity mediated by increased oxidative stress through the aging process. Due to certain serious adverse effects of the currently available therapeutic agents that limit their efficacy, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has garnered interest as a natural means for the prevention of this debilitating disease. Natural antioxidant supplementation, a type of CAM, has been researched to aid in reducing bone loss caused by oxidative stress. Naturally occurring polyphenols, such as anthocyanins rich in berries, are known to have anti-oxidative properties. Several studies have been reviewed to determine the impact polyphenol intake—particularly that of berries—has on bone health. Studies reveal a positive association of high berry intake and higher bone mass, implicating berries as possible inexpensive alternatives in reducing the risk of age related bone loss. PMID:26784669

  9. Independent impacts of age and hearing loss on spatial release in a complex auditory environment

    PubMed Central

    Gallun, Frederick J.; Diedesch, Anna C.; Kampel, Sean D.; Jakien, Kasey M.

    2013-01-01

    Listeners in complex auditory environments can benefit from the ability to use a variety of spatial and spectrotemporal cues for sound source segregation. Probing these abilities is an essential part of gaining a more complete understanding of why listeners differ in navigating the auditory environment. Two fundamental processes that can impact the auditory systems of individual listeners are aging and hearing loss. One difficulty with uncovering the independent effects of age and hearing loss on spatial release is the commonly observed phenomenon of age-related hearing loss. In order to reveal the effects of aging on spatial hearing, it is essential to develop testing methods that reduce the influence of hearing loss on the outcomes. The statistical power needed for such testing generally requires a larger number of participants than can easily be tested using traditional behavioral methods. This work describes the development and validation of a rapid method by which listeners can be categorized in terms of their ability to use spatial and spectrotemporal cues to separate competing speech streams. Results show that when age and audibility are not covarying, age alone can be shown to substantially reduce spatial release from masking. These data support the hypothesis that aging, independent of an individual's hearing threshold, can result in changes in the cortical and/or subcortical structures essential for spatial hearing. PMID:24391535

  10. Baha solutions for patients with severe mixed hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Mark C; Sadeghi, Andre; Halvarsson, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Patients with a mixed hearing loss present special challenges. The amplification demands of mixed hearing loss can drive powerful digital hearing aids to their limits and introduce distortion through saturation. Conversely, the Baha System effectively bypasses the conductive component and focuses on compensating for the sensorineural component of the hearing loss. Ten patients with a mixed hearing loss participated in the present study. Results indicate that Baha provided significant benefits (p < 0.01) over conventional air conduction hearing instruments across the dimensions of audibility, speech understanding and sound quality. Given the increased output force of the latest Baha instruments, once the conductive component of a severe mixed hearing loss becomes greater than 30 dB, a Baha should be considered and evaluated on audiological grounds alone to provide optimal amplification. PMID:19195004

  11. Hearing loss with frequent diving (deaf divers).

    PubMed

    Edmonds, C

    1985-09-01

    An audiometric survey was performed on a group of professional abalone divers, all of whom had experienced a great deal of exposure to dysbaric conditions. The results of this survey revealed that, even allowing for the very liberal requirements of the Australian standards for divers, over 60% had an unacceptable sensorineural, high frequency deafness. In half of these cases it was unilateral, and half bilateral. Making allowance for age, over 70% had evidence of hearing loss to a degree considered by the National Acoustic Laboratories to be compensatable.

  12. Reported Causes of Hearing Loss for Hearing Impaired Students; United States 1970-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Augustine; Rambin, J. Bentley

    Reported are causes of hearing loss for 41,109 hearing impaired students enrolled in 555 special educational programs as part of a national annual survey during the 1970-71 school year. Data is provided on the relationship between hearing loss etiology and the following variables: age and sex of students, additional handicapping conditions, family…

  13. Loss of UCHL1 promotes age-related degenerative changes in the enteric nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Coulombe, Josée; Gamage, Prasanna; Gray, Madison T.; Zhang, Mei; Tang, Matthew Y.; Woulfe, John; Saffrey, M. Jill; Gray, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    UCHL1 (ubiquitin carboxyterminal hydrolase 1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that is particularly abundant in neurons. From studies of a spontaneous mutation arising in a mouse line it is clear that loss of function of UCHL1 generates profound degenerative changes in the central nervous system, and it is likely that a proteolytic deficit contributes to the pathology. Here these effects were found to be recapitulated in mice in which the Uchl1 gene had been inactivated by homologous recombination. In addition to the previously documented neuropathology associated with loss of UCHL1 function, axonal swellings were detected in the striatum. In agreement with previously reported findings the loss of UCHL1 function was accompanied by perturbations in ubiquitin pools, but glutathione levels were also significantly depleted in the brains of the knockout mice, suggesting that oxidative defense mechanisms may be doubly compromised. To determine if, in addition to its role in the central nervous system, UCHL1 function is also required for homeostasis of the enteric nervous system the gastrointestinal tract was analyzed in UCHL1 knockout mice. The mice displayed functional changes and morphological changes in gut neurons that preceded degenerative changes in the brain. The changes were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those observed in wild type mice of much greater age, and strongly resemble changes reported for elderly humans. UCHL1 knockout mice should therefore serve as a useful model of gut aging. PMID:24994982

  14. [Clinical features associated with sudden hearing loss in children].

    PubMed

    Taiji, Hidenobu; Morimoto, Noriko

    2012-07-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is usually unilateral, and the cause is not identified in most adult cases. However, a specific cause has frequently been found in the case of children, in whom idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISHL) is comparatively rare. We investigated 20 cases of acute unilateral sensorineural hearing loss in children associated with a certain disease, but which was first diagnosed as ISHL. Thirteen patients aged 6 to 16 years old were diagnosed as having psychogenic (functional) hearing loss. Discrepancies in behavioral and objective tests are most valuable when functional hearing loss is suspected. Elevated pure-tone thresholds associated with normal distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) enable prompt further investigation. There are several conditions that may mimic functional hearing loss, so auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing is necessary to verify the actual cause. The unilateral profound hearing loss in 2 patients aged 7 and 11 years old was due to asymptomatic mumps proven by detecting the mumps IgM antibody. Total hearing recovery in the 125-1000 Hz frequencies occurred in one case. In 5 patients aged 6 to 12 years old with acute hearing loss and vertigo, high resolution CT imaging showed an abnormally enlarged vestibular aqueduct on the affected side. Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome should be considered in acute high-frequency sloping hearing loss with an A-B gap at low frequencies.

  15. Self-Esteem in Children and Adolescents With Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Loy, Betty A.; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years). Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002) and attention (r = .45, p = .001) temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = − .60, p < .0001). No significant correlations emerged between self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population. PMID:25755025

  16. Self-esteem in children and adolescents with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Warner-Czyz, Andrea D; Loy, Betty A; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A

    2015-03-09

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years). Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002) and attention (r = .45, p = .001) temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = - .60, p < .0001). No significant correlations emerged between self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population.

  17. Self-esteem in children and adolescents with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Warner-Czyz, Andrea D; Loy, Betty A; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A

    2015-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years). Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002) and attention (r = .45, p = .001) temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = - .60, p < .0001). No significant correlations emerged between self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population. PMID:25755025

  18. Viral causes of hearing loss: a review for hearing health professionals.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Brandon E; Durstenfeld, Anne; Roehm, Pamela C

    2014-07-29

    A number of viral infections can cause hearing loss. Hearing loss induced by these viruses can be congenital or acquired, unilateral or bilateral. Certain viral infections can directly damage inner ear structures, others can induce inflammatory responses which then cause this damage, and still others can increase susceptibility or bacterial or fungal infection, leading to hearing loss. Typically, virus-induced hearing loss is sensorineural, although conductive and mixed hearing losses can be seen following infection with certain viruses. Occasionally, recovery of hearing after these infections can occur spontaneously. Most importantly, some of these viral infections can be prevented or treated. For many of these viruses, guidelines for their treatment or prevention have recently been revised. In this review, we outline many of the viruses that cause hearing loss, their epidemiology, course, prevention, and treatment.

  19. Viral Causes of Hearing Loss: A Review for Hearing Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Brandon E.; Durstenfeld, Anne

    2014-01-01

    A number of viral infections can cause hearing loss. Hearing loss induced by these viruses can be congenital or acquired, unilateral or bilateral. Certain viral infections can directly damage inner ear structures, others can induce inflammatory responses which then cause this damage, and still others can increase susceptibility or bacterial or fungal infection, leading to hearing loss. Typically, virus-induced hearing loss is sensorineural, although conductive and mixed hearing losses can be seen following infection with certain viruses. Occasionally, recovery of hearing after these infections can occur spontaneously. Most importantly, some of these viral infections can be prevented or treated. For many of these viruses, guidelines for their treatment or prevention have recently been revised. In this review, we outline many of the viruses that cause hearing loss, their epidemiology, course, prevention, and treatment. PMID:25080364

  20. Course of hearing recovery according to frequency in patients with acute acoustic sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Harada, Hirofumi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Imamura, Akihide

    2008-01-01

    Through pure-tone audiometry, we studied the course of hearing recovery in 24 ears of 20 men (ages 18-48 years) who had acute acoustic sensorineural hearing loss (ASHL). All subjects were members of the Japanese Self-Defense Force. The hearing level in 5 ears returned to normal, the hearing level of 13 ears recovered but was not within the normal range, and the hearing level of 6 ears was unchanged. The time from noise exposure to presentation was longer in patients with unchanged hearing than in other patients. Recovery of hearing was poorest at 4,000 Hz, followed by 8,000 and 2,000 Hz. We concluded that hearing in patients with acute ASHL is likely to return to normal when the hearing level at 4,000 Hz recovers gradually; partial recovery of hearing is expected when the hearing level at 4,000 Hz reaches an early plateau. PMID:18616091

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of Age-Related Sleep Loss in the Fruit Fly

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Meagan; Keene, Alex C.

    2013-01-01

    Across phyla, aging is associated with reduced sleep duration and efficiency. Both aging and sleep involve complex genetic architecture and diverse cell types and are heavily influenced by diet and environment. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms of age-dependent changes in sleep will require integrative approaches that go beyond examining these two processes independently. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, provides a genetically amenable system for dissecting the molecular basis of these processes. In this review, we examine the role of metabolism and circadian rhythms in age-dependent sleep loss. PMID:23594925

  2. [Hereditary hearing loss: Part 1: diagnostic overview and practical advice].

    PubMed

    Burke, W F; Lenarz, T; Maier, H

    2013-04-01

    Hearing loss is the most frequently occurring congenital sensory defect in humans. It is believed that between one and five of every 1000 children born suffers from hearing loss of at least 40 dB. The economic consequences of deafness are staggering and affect not only the individual patient but also society as a whole. A genetic cause is suspected in 50 %-70 % of cases of congenital hearing loss. To date over 130 loci have been associated with genetic hearing loss, with some loci containing more than one gene and others containing as yet unidentified genes. The present article is intended to provide some insight into the complex background issues involved and offer guidance on appropriate decision-making with regard to genetic testing in affected patients. Part 1 is concerned with non-syndromic hearing loss, while part 2 deals with syndromic hearing loss.

  3. Shortening-induced torque depression in old men: implications for age-related power loss.

    PubMed

    Power, Geoffrey A; Makrakos, Demetri P; Stevens, Daniel E; Herzog, Walter; Rice, Charles L; Vandervoort, Anthony A

    2014-09-01

    Following active muscle shortening, the steady-state isometric torque at the final muscle length is lower than the steady-state torque obtained for a purely isometric contraction at that same final muscle length. This well-documented property of skeletal muscle is termed shortening-induced torque depression (TD). Despite many investigations into the mechanisms of weakness and power loss in old age, the influence of muscle shortening on the history dependence of isometric torque production remains to be elucidated. Thus, it is unclear whether older adults are disadvantaged for torque and power production following a dynamic shortening contraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate shortening-induced TD in older adults, and to determine whether shortening-induced TD is related to power loss. Maximal voluntary isometric dorsiflexion contractions (MVC; 10s) in 8 young (25.5±3.7years) and 9 old (76.1±5.4years) men were performed on a HUMAC NORM dynamometer as a reference, and then again following an active shortening of 40° joint excursion (40°PF-0°PF) at angular velocities of 15°/s and 120°/s. Work and instantaneous power were derived during shortening. Shortening-induced TD was calculated and expressed as a percentage by determining the mean torque value over 1s during the isometric steady state of the MVC following shortening, divided by the mean torque value for the same 1s time period during the isometric reference MVC. To assess muscle activation, electromyography (root mean square; EMGRMS) of the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL) was calculated at identical time points used in assessing shortening-induced TD, and voluntary activation (VA) was assessed using the interpolated twitch technique. Old were 18% weaker than young for MVC, and ~40% less powerful for 15°/s and 120°/s of shortening. Old produced 37% and 21% less work for 15°/s and 120°/s than young, respectively. Furthermore, old experienced 60% and 70% greater shortening-induced TD

  4. Is Sudden Hearing Loss Associated with Atherosclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Rajati, Mohsen; Azarpajooh, Mahmoud Reza; Mouhebati, Mohsen; Nasrollahi, Mostafa; Salehi, Maryam; Khadivi, Ehsan; Nourizadeh, Navid; Hashemi, Firoozeh; Bakhshaee, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sudden sensorineural hearing-loss (SSNHL) patients constitute approximately 2–3% of referrals to ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinics. Several predisposing factors have been proposed for this condition; one of which is vascular disorders and perfusion compromise. In this research the atherosclerotic changes and their known risk factors are studied in SSNHL patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty SSNHL patients and 30 controls were evaluated with regard to cardiovascular risks including history, heart examination, blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, electrocardiogram, blood sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP); also, carotid artery color Doppler study was undertaken to measure intima media thickness(IMT). Results: IMT and HSCRP showed an increased risk in the case group compared with the controls (P= 0.005 & P=0.001). However, waist circumference, history of smoking, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and electrocardiogram revealed no significant difference between the two groups. Interestingly, blood pressure and body mass index were higher in the controls in this study. Conclusion: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss may be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:27429947

  5. Wnt16 Is Associated with Age-Related Bone Loss and Estrogen Withdrawal in Murine Bone

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Henry; Galea, Gabriel L.; Meakin, Lee B.; Delisser, Peter J.; Lanyon, Lance E.

    2015-01-01

    Genome Wide Association Studies suggest that Wnt16 is an important contributor to the mechanisms controlling bone mineral density, cortical thickness, bone strength and ultimately fracture risk. Wnt16 acts on osteoblasts and osteoclasts and, in cortical bone, is predominantly derived from osteoblasts. This led us to hypothesize that low bone mass would be associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression and that Wnt16 expression would be increased by anabolic factors, including mechanical loading. We therefore investigated Wnt16 expression in the context of ageing, mechanical loading and unloading, estrogen deficiency and replacement, and estrogen receptor α (ERα) depletion. Quantitative real time PCR showed that Wnt16 mRNA expression was lower in cortical bone and marrow of aged compared to young female mice. Neither increased nor decreased (by disuse) mechanical loading altered Wnt16 expression in young female mice, although Wnt16 expression was decreased following ovariectomy. Both 17β-estradiol and the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen increased Wnt16 expression relative to ovariectomy. Wnt16 and ERβ expression were increased in female ERα-/- mice when compared to Wild Type. We also addressed potential effects of gender on Wnt16 expression and while the expression was lower in the cortical bone of aged males as in females, it was higher in male bone marrow of aged mice compared to young. In the kidney, which we used as a non-bone reference tissue, Wnt16 expression was unaffected by age in either males or females. In summary, age, and its associated bone loss, is associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression whereas bone loss associated with disuse has no effect on Wnt16 expression. In the artificially loaded mouse tibia we observed no loading-related up-regulation of Wnt16 expression but provide evidence that its expression is influenced by estrogen receptor signaling. These findings suggest that while Wnt16 is not an obligatory contributor to

  6. Wnt16 Is Associated with Age-Related Bone Loss and Estrogen Withdrawal in Murine Bone.

    PubMed

    Todd, Henry; Galea, Gabriel L; Meakin, Lee B; Delisser, Peter J; Lanyon, Lance E; Windahl, Sara H; Price, Joanna S

    2015-01-01

    Genome Wide Association Studies suggest that Wnt16 is an important contributor to the mechanisms controlling bone mineral density, cortical thickness, bone strength and ultimately fracture risk. Wnt16 acts on osteoblasts and osteoclasts and, in cortical bone, is predominantly derived from osteoblasts. This led us to hypothesize that low bone mass would be associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression and that Wnt16 expression would be increased by anabolic factors, including mechanical loading. We therefore investigated Wnt16 expression in the context of ageing, mechanical loading and unloading, estrogen deficiency and replacement, and estrogen receptor α (ERα) depletion. Quantitative real time PCR showed that Wnt16 mRNA expression was lower in cortical bone and marrow of aged compared to young female mice. Neither increased nor decreased (by disuse) mechanical loading altered Wnt16 expression in young female mice, although Wnt16 expression was decreased following ovariectomy. Both 17β-estradiol and the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen increased Wnt16 expression relative to ovariectomy. Wnt16 and ERβ expression were increased in female ERα-/- mice when compared to Wild Type. We also addressed potential effects of gender on Wnt16 expression and while the expression was lower in the cortical bone of aged males as in females, it was higher in male bone marrow of aged mice compared to young. In the kidney, which we used as a non-bone reference tissue, Wnt16 expression was unaffected by age in either males or females. In summary, age, and its associated bone loss, is associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression whereas bone loss associated with disuse has no effect on Wnt16 expression. In the artificially loaded mouse tibia we observed no loading-related up-regulation of Wnt16 expression but provide evidence that its expression is influenced by estrogen receptor signaling. These findings suggest that while Wnt16 is not an obligatory contributor to

  7. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss after non-otologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Page, Joshua Cody; Peters, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss following non-otologic surgery is a rare event described in the medical literature. Cardiopulmonary bypass surgery is most commonly associated with this type of hearing loss. Our case report and review of the literature describe two cases with postoperative hearing loss - neither of which are cardiac surgeries - making them exceedingly rare in the medical literature. Regardless of the rarity of this unfortunate event, the possibility for permanent hearing loss is a potentially devastating unanticipated complication and one that all surgeons should be aware.

  8. Immersive simulation of hearing loss and auditory prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Patrick M.; Desloge, Joseph G.

    2001-05-01

    Simulation of hearing loss is useful for demonstrating the communication challenges facing hearing-impaired people. However, current simulations, most of which are only recordings, do not actually elevate thresholds; i.e., they do not simulate hearing loss, per se. The hearing loss simulator described in this talk is immersive; the user's detection thresh- olds for ambient sounds are shifted by a prescribed degree. This threshold shift is achieved through a combination of passive attenuation (from muff-type hearing protectors) and additive masking noise (introduced by within-muff earphones). Acoustic signals picked up by microphones near each ear are processed through bandpass AGC channels and delivered via the earphones to complete the simulation of frequency-dependent hearing loss and loudness recruitment. Preliminary results validating the accuracy of specified threshold shift will be presented, along with speech-reception data comparing simulated with actual hearing losses. Subjective reactions of users engaged in one-on-one conversation suggest that strong feelings of communication disability are engendered by even moderate degrees of simulated hearing loss. The system, which is capable of simulating any degree of recruiting hearing loss along with hearing aids or cochlear implants, can provide effective interactive demonstrations of both auditory communication handicap and rehabilitation options. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  9. The Effects of Mild Hearing Loss on Infant Auditory Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nozza, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    A review of laboratory research estimating effects of mild hearing impairment on infant speech perception abilities, under conditions simulating mild hearing loss in normal hearing infants, suggests that even mild alterations of auditory input during infancy may have significant developmental consequences. Results support identification,…

  10. Including Children with Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.

    2006-01-01

    These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…

  11. 77 FR 15003 - Passive Activity Losses and Credits Limited; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ33 Passive Activity Losses and Credits Limited; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ] ACTION: Notice of public hearing on proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: This document provides notice of public hearing on proposed rulemaking regarding...

  12. Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss in Rural Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Charles M.; Lass, Norman J.

    1993-01-01

    A high level of work-related and recreational noise has led to a high prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss in rural students. Teachers can help prevent this problem by integrating hearing conservation education with existing curricula. Educators could be trained about hearing conservation by professional audiologists. (LP)

  13. Bringing Text Display Digital Radio to Consumers with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Ellyn G.; Starling, Michael; Schwab, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Radio is migrating to digital transmission, expanding its offerings to include captioning for individuals with hearing loss. Text display radio requires a large amount of word throughput with minimal screen display area, making good user interface design crucial to its success. In two experiments, we presented hearing, hard-of-hearing, and deaf…

  14. [Universal hearing screening in newborns -- recommendations for organizing and conducting universal hearing screening for congenital hearing loss in Germany].

    PubMed

    Gross, M

    2005-11-01

    The Interdisciplinary Consensus Conference for Newborn Hearing Screening (IKKNHS) has worked out joint recommendations for universal hearing screening of newborns. In the consensus paper, 11 professional associations and scientific societies in the fields of gynecology and obstetrics, ENT, pediatrics, and phoniatrics and pedaudiology came to an agreement how to implement newborn hearing screening in Germany. The paper deals with the following topics: goals of universal newborn hearing screening, target group of hearing screening, schedule for screening, personnel involved in the screening program, technologies and framework conditions of hearing screening, documentation, continuous quality control of screening, confirmation diagnostics for conspicuous test subjects, motivation to take part in screening, information on newborn hearing screening, tracking, various infrastructural situations in urban and rural regions, follow-up care, in-patient vs. out-patient screening, cost factors of screening, reporting children with permanent hearing loss to the German Central Registry for hearing loss in children.

  15. Simulated Interventions to Ameliorate Age-Related Bone Loss Indicate the Importance of Timing

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Carole J.; Gartland, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Bone remodeling is the continuous process of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, in order to maintain homeostasis. The activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts is regulated by a network of signaling pathways, including Wnt, parathyroid hormone (PTH), RANK ligand/osteoprotegrin, and TGF-β, in response to stimuli, such as mechanical loading. During aging there is a gradual loss of bone mass due to dysregulation of signaling pathways. This may be due to a decline in physical activity with age and/or changes in hormones and other signaling molecules. In particular, hormones, such as PTH, have a circadian rhythm, which may be disrupted in aging. Due to the complexity of the molecular and cellular networks involved in bone remodeling, several mathematical models have been proposed to aid understanding of the processes involved. However, to date, there are no models, which explicitly consider the effects of mechanical loading, the circadian rhythm of PTH, and the dynamics of signaling molecules on bone remodeling. Therefore, we have constructed a network model of the system using a modular approach, which will allow further modifications as required in future research. The model was used to simulate the effects of mechanical loading and also the effects of different interventions, such as continuous or intermittent administration of PTH. Our model predicts that the absence of regular mechanical loading and/or an impaired PTH circadian rhythm leads to a gradual decrease in bone mass over time, which can be restored by simulated interventions and that the effectiveness of some interventions may depend on their timing. PMID:27379013

  16. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M.; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L.; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B.; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J.; Blood, Anne J.; Breiter, Hans C.

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task. PMID:25983682

  17. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  18. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task. PMID:25983682

  19. To unite or divide: mitochondrial dynamics in the murine outer retina that preceded age related photoreceptor loss

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Jaimie Hoh; Jeffery, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial function declines with age and is associated with age-related disorders and cell death. In the retina this is critical as photoreceptor energy demands are the greatest in the body and aged cell loss large (~30%). But mitochondria can fuse or divide to accommodate changing demands. We explore ageing mitochondrial dynamics in young (1 month) and old (12 months) mouse retina, investigating changes in mitochondrial fission (Fis1) and fusion (Opa1) proteins, cytochrome C oxidase (COX III), which reflects mitochondrial metabolic status, and heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) that is a mitochondrial chaperon for protein folding. Western blots showed each protein declined with age. However, within this, immunostaining revealed increases of around 50% in Fis1 and Opa1 in photoreceptor inner segments (IS). Electron microscope analysis revealed mitochondrial fragmentation with age and marked changes in morphology in IS, consistent with elevated dynamics. COX III declined by approximately 30% in IS, but Hsp60 reductions were around 80% in the outer plexiform layer. Our results are consistent with declining mitochondrial metabolism. But also with increased photoreceptor mitochondrial dynamics that differ from other retinal regions, perhaps reflecting attempts to maintain function. These changes are the platform for age related photoreceptor loss initiated after 12 months. PMID:26393878

  20. Communication Assessment and Intervention: Implications for Pediatric Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Bobsin, Lori L; Houston, K Todd

    2015-12-01

    Historically, children with hearing loss have fallen well behind their hearing peers in the areas of speech and language development, which has often limited their participation in a range of social, educational, and vocational activities. However, with early identification and appropriate intervention coupled with current hearing technology, children with hearing loss can achieve speech and language milestones at rates commensurate with hearing peers. To attain the best outcomes for these children, an early intervention system that provides thorough and unbiased information to families and allows for the efficient and coordinated efforts of qualified professionals must be present.

  1. Advances in genetic diagnostics for hereditary hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Idan, Natali; Brownstein, Zippora; Shivatzki, Shaked; Avraham, Karen B

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hearing loss affects a significant proportion of the hearing impaired, with genetic mutations estimated to be responsible for its etiology in over 50% of this population. The methods for molecular diagnostics are changing as a result of the transition from linkage analysis to next generation sequencing to identify the genes responsible for hearing loss in affected families. In this review, we summarize the attitudes of the hearing impaired towards genetic testing, the latest techniques for identifying mutations, and provide a comprehensive list of the mutations found in the Israeli Jewish hearing-impaired population.

  2. Isolated Sensorineural Hearing Loss as a Sequela after Lightning Strike.

    PubMed

    Turan, Mahfuz; Kalkan, Ferhat; Bozan, Nazım; Özçalimli, İsa; Zeki Erdem, Mehmet; Yalınkılıç, Abdülaziz; Garca, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    In most of the surviving patients after a lightning strike, audiovestibular abnormalities have been reported. The most frequently reported type of abnormalities is a tympanic membrane perforation with hearing loss and external ear canal burn. However a sensor neural hearing loss and mixed type hearing loss can also occur, but these occur rarely. A nineteen-year-old female patient had, after a lightning strike, serious burns on the left ear, behind the ear, and on the chest and neck. She also had in her left ear 108 dB hearing loss with irregular central perforation and in her right ear 52 dB sensorineural hearing loss. There was no hearing loss before the strike. A hearing aid was recommended for the right ear and good care and follow-up were recommended for the left ear. A lightning strike can cause serious audiological damage. Therefore, it is necessary to make a careful audiovestibular evaluation of the patients. Although there exist rarely healed cases from sensorineural hearing loss after lightning strike in literature, in our case hearing loss occurred bilaterally and then it healed unilaterally. This condition is quite rare in literature. PMID:26161278

  3. Isolated Sensorineural Hearing Loss as a Sequela after Lightning Strike.

    PubMed

    Turan, Mahfuz; Kalkan, Ferhat; Bozan, Nazım; Özçalimli, İsa; Zeki Erdem, Mehmet; Yalınkılıç, Abdülaziz; Garca, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    In most of the surviving patients after a lightning strike, audiovestibular abnormalities have been reported. The most frequently reported type of abnormalities is a tympanic membrane perforation with hearing loss and external ear canal burn. However a sensor neural hearing loss and mixed type hearing loss can also occur, but these occur rarely. A nineteen-year-old female patient had, after a lightning strike, serious burns on the left ear, behind the ear, and on the chest and neck. She also had in her left ear 108 dB hearing loss with irregular central perforation and in her right ear 52 dB sensorineural hearing loss. There was no hearing loss before the strike. A hearing aid was recommended for the right ear and good care and follow-up were recommended for the left ear. A lightning strike can cause serious audiological damage. Therefore, it is necessary to make a careful audiovestibular evaluation of the patients. Although there exist rarely healed cases from sensorineural hearing loss after lightning strike in literature, in our case hearing loss occurred bilaterally and then it healed unilaterally. This condition is quite rare in literature.

  4. A case of sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss with contralateral psychogenic hearing loss induced by gunshot noise.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young-Ho; Mun, Seog-Kyun

    2011-10-01

    The reasons behind sudden sensorineural hearing loss are mostly unknown, but viral infections, blood disorders, ototoxicity, noise trauma, autoimmune disease, acoustic tumor, and even mental stress may be related to the disease. In cases of hearing loss as a result of psychogenic factors, early diagnosis and adequate treatment under collaboration with the psychiatric department are crucial, since failure to take appropriate measures may result in permanent sequela. We report a case, with a review of the literature, of sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss with contralateral psychogenic hearing loss induced by gunshot noise.

  5. A case of sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss with contralateral psychogenic hearing loss induced by gunshot noise.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young-Ho; Mun, Seog-Kyun

    2011-10-01

    The reasons behind sudden sensorineural hearing loss are mostly unknown, but viral infections, blood disorders, ototoxicity, noise trauma, autoimmune disease, acoustic tumor, and even mental stress may be related to the disease. In cases of hearing loss as a result of psychogenic factors, early diagnosis and adequate treatment under collaboration with the psychiatric department are crucial, since failure to take appropriate measures may result in permanent sequela. We report a case, with a review of the literature, of sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss with contralateral psychogenic hearing loss induced by gunshot noise. PMID:22128658

  6. Mechanisms and Treatment of Blast Induced Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of the basic mechanisms of blast induced hearing loss and review pharmacological treatments or interventions that can reduce or inhibit blast induced hearing loss. The mechanisms of blast induced hearing loss have been studied in experimental animal models mimicking features of damage or injury seen in human. Blast induced hearing loss is characterized by perforation and rupture of the tympanic membrane, ossicular damage, basilar membrane damage, inner and outer hair cell loss, rupture of round window, changes in chemical components of cochlear fluid, vasospasm, ischemia, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, hematoma, and hemorrhage in both animals and humans. These histopathological consequences of blast exposure can induce hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and headache. The pharmacological approaches to block or inhibit some of the auditory pathological consequences caused by blast exposure have been developed with antioxidant drugs such as 2,4-disulfonyl α-phenyl tertiary butyl nitrone (HXY-059, now called HPN-07) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). A combination of antioxidant drugs (HPN-07 and NAC) was administered to reduce blast induced cochlear damage and hearing loss. The combination of the antioxidant drugs can prevent or treat blast induced hearing loss by reducing damage to the mechanical and neural component of the auditory system. Although information of the underlying mechanisms and treatment of blast induced hearing loss are provided, further and deep research should be achieved due to the limited and controversial knowledge. PMID:24653882

  7. An analysis of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and its significance on osteoarthritis in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun-Tae; Kim, Hyun-Je; Ahn, Hee-Yun; Hong, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study was conducted in order to analyze the effects of sarcopenia on age-related osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee in a Korean population. Methods: All the Korean subjects who visited the Yeungnam University Medical Center Health Promotion Center between 2008 and 2012 in order to undergo a routine medical examination were enrolled. A total of 5,723 young, healthy people (2,959 males, 2,764 females) enrolled as normal subjects and 23,473 subjects (13,006 males and 10,467 females) were included for evaluation of the effects of sarcopenia on OA. There were 266 subjects who followed-up bioelectrical impedance analysis at a 4-year interval. Of 327 subjects enrolled in this study, knees with anteroposterior X-rays were assessed according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L) grade. Results: Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) showed a steady decrease with the advance of age (p < 0.01), but SMI showed strong positive correlation with BMR (r = 0.72, β = 30.96, p < 0.01). During the 4-year interval, BMR showed a significant decrease with aging (p < 0.01), consistently with the decrease of SMI. Knees with normal SMI were prone to be designated as K/L grade 0 or 1; however, subjects with sarcopenia showed a trend toward the higher K/L grade, classified as knee radiological osteoarthritis (ROA) (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results of this study may indicate that sarcopenia as age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass is interactively correlated with the presence and severity of age-related OA. PMID:26976151

  8. Unilateral sudden hearing loss: a rare symptom of Moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Gül, Fatih; Berçin, Sami; Müderris, Togay; Yalçıner, Gökhan; Ünal, Özkan; Kırış, Muzaffer

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old female patient experienced a sudden onset of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss due to Moyamoya disease. A detailed summary of audiological and neurological findings indicated that the sudden hearing loss might be due to Moyamoya disease resulting in occlusion of posterior and middle cerebral arteries. Intravenous prednisolone and trimetazidine dihydrochloride may improve hearing thresholds and speech understanding. To our knowledge, this is the first article in the literature reporting a case of sudden hearing loss as the first manifestation of Moyamoya disease in a young adult.

  9. Pragmatic Abilities of Children with Hearing Loss Using Cochlear Implants or Hearing Aids Compared to Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Most, Tova; Shina-August, Ella; Meilijson, Sara

    2010-01-01

    This study characterized the profile of pragmatic abilities among 24 children with hearing loss (HL) aged 6.3-9.4 years, 13 using hearing aids (HAs) and 11 using cochlear implants (CIs), in comparison to those of 13 hearing children with similar chronological and language ages. All the children with HL used spoken language, attended regular…

  10. Noise-related hearing loss can be avoided

    SciTech Connect

    Istre, C.O. Jr.

    1982-03-01

    The physiological changes in the auditory organ are described with the protective equipment available for prevention of occupationally related hearing losses. Since most affected employees are unaware of the hearing loss until the damage is irreversible the author stresses that protective equipment usage must be mandatory for supervisory as well as active workers. Mechanical movement, combustion, and high pressure venting are all listed as detrimental to human hearing. (PSB)

  11. Effective Identification of Functional Hearing Loss Using Behavioral Threshold Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlauch, Robert S.; Koerner, Tess K.; Marshall, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Four functional hearing loss protocols were evaluated. Method: For each protocol, 30 participants feigned a hearing loss first on an audiogram and then for a screening test that began a threshold search from extreme levels (-10 or 90 dB HL). Two-tone and 3-tone protocols compared thresholds for ascending and descending tones for 2 (0.5…

  12. Mild and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Implications for Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holstrum, W. June; Biernath, Krista; McKay, Sarah; Ross, Danielle S.

    2009-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening has become a standard practice in most birthing hospitals in the United States. Historically, the primary target for the identification of hearing loss has been infants with permanent bilateral loss of moderate degree or greater (i.e., greater than 40 dB). However, research indicates that without early identification and…

  13. Call centers and noise-induced hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Beyan, Ayse Coskun; Demiral, Yucel; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet; Ergor, Alparslan

    2016-01-01

    Noise is defined as unwelcome sound. It has been estimated that 16% of adult hearing loss in the world is due to noise exposure at the workplace. This report offers a case that diagnosed with hearing loss of whom working as a call center operator at home. Home agent operators should be explored. PMID:26960789

  14. A Young Man With Progressive Vision and Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Kung, Nathan H; Bucelli, Robert C; Van Stavern, Renee B; Goebel, Joel A; Van Stavern, Gregory P

    2016-07-01

    A 37-year-old man with a history of progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss presented to a neuro-ophthalmology clinic with an acute left homonymous hemianopsia. In this article, we discuss the clinical approach and differential diagnosis of progressive combined vision and hearing loss and guide the reader to discover the patient's ultimate diagnosis. PMID:27213952

  15. Arts Education: Diminishing Communications Barriers for Students with Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Susan D.

    1996-01-01

    The writer, an individual with progressive hearing loss, describes the isolation and powerlessness experienced by people with hearing loss and comments on the great value that participation in the arts and art education can have in moderating this isolation and empowering individuals to find their own identity. (DB)

  16. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  17. Hearing Loss and Cognition: The Role of Hearing Aids, Social Isolation and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Piers; Emsley, Richard; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Moore, David R.; Fortnum, Heather; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Munro, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss is associated with poor cognitive performance and incident dementia and may contribute to cognitive decline. Treating hearing loss with hearing aids may ameliorate cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to test whether use of hearing aids was associated with better cognitive performance, and if this relationship was mediated via social isolation and/or depression. Structural equation modelling of associations between hearing loss, cognitive performance, social isolation, depression and hearing aid use was carried out with a subsample of the UK Biobank data set (n = 164,770) of UK adults aged 40 to 69 years who completed a hearing test. Age, sex, general health and socioeconomic status were controlled for as potential confounders. Hearing aid use was associated with better cognition, independently of social isolation and depression. This finding was consistent with the hypothesis that hearing aids may improve cognitive performance, although if hearing aids do have a positive effect on cognition it is not likely to be via reduction of the adverse effects of hearing loss on social isolation or depression. We suggest that any positive effects of hearing aid use on cognition may be via improvement in audibility or associated increases in self-efficacy. Alternatively, positive associations between hearing aid use and cognition may be accounted for by more cognitively able people seeking and using hearing aids. Further research is required to determine the direction of association, if there is any direct causal relationship between hearing aid use and better cognition, and whether hearing aid use results in reduction in rates of cognitive decline measured longitudinally. PMID:25760329

  18. Head Position Comparison between Students with Normal Hearing and Students with Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Renato de Souza; Amorim da Silva, Polyanna Waleska; Souza, Robson Arruda; Raposo, Maria Cristina Falcão; Ferraz, Karla Mônica

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Head sense position is coordinated by sensory activity of the vestibular system, located in the inner ear. Children with sensorineural hearing loss may show changes in the vestibular system as a result of injury to the inner ear, which can alter the sense of head position in this population. Aim Analyze the head alignment in students with normal hearing and students with sensorineural hearing loss and compare the data between groups. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study examined the head alignment of 96 students, 48 with normal hearing and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss, aged between 7 and 18 years. The analysis of head alignment occurred through postural assessment performed according to the criteria proposed by Kendall et al. For data analysis we used the chi-square test or Fisher exact test. Results The students with hearing loss had a higher occurrence of changes in the alignment of the head than normally hearing students (p < 0.001). Forward head posture was the type of postural change observed most, occurring in greater proportion in children with hearing loss (p < 0.001), followed by the side slope head posture (p < 0.001). Conclusion Children with sensorineural hearing loss showed more changes in the head posture compared with children with normal hearing. PMID:25992037

  19. Effect of Speaker Age on Speech Recognition and Perceived Listening Effort in Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuliffe, Megan J.; Wilding, Phillipa J.; Rickard, Natalie A.; O'Beirne, Greg A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Older adults exhibit difficulty understanding speech that has been experimentally degraded. Age-related changes to the speech mechanism lead to natural degradations in signal quality. We tested the hypothesis that older adults with hearing loss would exhibit declines in speech recognition when listening to the speech of older adults,…

  20. Hearing in young adults. Part I: The effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices.

    PubMed

    Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Vinck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    There is great concern regarding the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in youth caused by high sound levels during various leisure activities. Health-orientated behavior of young adults might be linked to the beliefs and attitudes toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices (HPDs). The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and HPDs on young adults' hearing status. A questionnaire and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years). The questionnaire contained the Youth Attitude to Noise Scale (YANS) and Beliefs about Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss (BAHPHL). A more positive attitude or belief represented an attitude where noise or hearing loss is seen as unproblematic and attitudes and beliefs regarding HPDs is worse. Hearing was evaluated using (high frequency) pure tone audiometry (PTA), transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. First, mean differences in hearing between the groups with different attitudes and beliefs were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Second, a χ² test was used to examine the usage of HPDs by the different groups with different attitudes and beliefs. Young adults with a positive attitude had significantly more deteriorated hearing and used HPDs less than the other subjects. Hearing conservation programs (HCPs) for young adults should provide information and knowledge regarding noise, hearing loss, and HPDs. Barriers wearing HPDs should especially be discussed. Further, those campaigns should focus on self-experienced hearing related symptoms that might serve as triggers for attitudinal and behavioral changes.

  1. Screening of Connexin 26 in Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Danielle; Silva, Daniela da; Lopez, Priscila; Mantovani, Jair Cortez

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The first locus for nonsyndromic autosomal recessive hearing loss is on chromosome 13q11–22. The 35delG mutation is present in 80% of cases in which GJB2 is involved, which makes the study of this mutation very important. The viability and benefits of screening for mutations in the connexin 26 gene are now beginning to change the diagnostic evaluation and identification of the etiology of hearing loss. Objective To investigate the occurrence of the 35delG mutation in patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss and their first degree relatives. Methods This transversal study included 72 patients from the local hospital. The patients were divided into three groups: group A, sensorineural hearing loss (n = 58); group B, first-degree relatives of group A with sensorineural hearing loss (n = 09); and group C, first-degree relatives of patients from group A without hearing loss (n = 05). All patients had audiological evaluation and genetic testing of the 35delG mutation. Results The 35delG mutation was found in four heterozygous mutations (three of them found in the same family). The other heterozygous mutation was found in a female patient with bilateral, moderate, prelingual, sensorineural hearing loss. A single homozygous mutation was found in a male patient, with severe sensorineural hearing loss in his right ear and profound hearing loss in the left ear. Conclusions The 35delG mutation was found in 7% of the cases. The test is easy to perform and inexpensive, but it is necessary to investigate other genes related to hearing loss. PMID:25992148

  2. Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Firszt, Jill B; Reeder, Ruth M; Holden, Timothy A; Burton, Harold; Chole, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Monaural hearing induces auditory system reorganization. Imbalanced input also degrades time-intensity cues for sound localization and signal segregation for listening in noise. While there have been studies of bilateral auditory deprivation and later hearing restoration (e.g., cochlear implants), less is known about unilateral auditory deprivation and subsequent hearing improvement. We investigated effects of long-term congenital unilateral hearing loss on localization, speech understanding, and cortical organization following hearing recovery. Hearing in the congenitally affected ear of a 41 year old female improved significantly after stapedotomy and reconstruction. Pre-operative hearing threshold levels showed unilateral, mixed, moderately-severe to profound hearing loss. The contralateral ear had hearing threshold levels within normal limits. Testing was completed prior to, and 3 and 9 months after surgery. Measurements were of sound localization with intensity-roved stimuli and speech recognition in various noise conditions. We also evoked magnetic resonance signals with monaural stimulation to the unaffected ear. Activation magnitudes were determined in core, belt, and parabelt auditory cortex regions via an interrupted single event design. Hearing improvement following 40 years of congenital unilateral hearing loss resulted in substantially improved sound localization and speech recognition in noise. Auditory cortex also reorganized. Contralateral auditory cortex responses were increased after hearing recovery and the extent of activated cortex was bilateral, including a greater portion of the posterior superior temporal plane. Thus, prolonged predominant monaural stimulation did not prevent auditory system changes consequent to restored binaural hearing. Results support future research of unilateral auditory deprivation effects and plasticity, with consideration for length of deprivation, age at hearing correction and degree and type of hearing loss.

  3. Disrupted functional brain connectome in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haibo; Fan, Wenliang; Zhao, Xueyan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Wenjuan; Lei, Ping; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Haha; Cheng, Huamao; Shi, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is generally defined as sensorineural hearing loss of 30 dB or greater over at least three contiguous audiometric frequencies and within a three-day period. This hearing loss is usually unilateral and can be associated with tinnitus and vertigo. The pathogenesis of unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss is still unknown, and the alterations in the functional connectivity are suspected to involve one possible pathogenesis. Despite scarce findings with respect to alterations in brain functional networks in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss, the alterations of the whole brain functional connectome and whether these alterations were already in existence in the acute period remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the alterations of brain functional connectome in two large samples of unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients and to investigate the correlation between unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss characteristics and changes in the functional network properties. Pure tone audiometry was performed to assess hearing ability. Abnormal changes in the peripheral auditory system were examined using conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The graph theoretical network analysis method was used to detect brain connectome alterations in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Compared with the control groups, both groups of unilateral SSNHL patients exhibited a significantly increased clustering coefficient, global efficiency, and local efficiency but a significantly decreased characteristic path length. In addition, the primary increased nodal strength (e.g., nodal betweenness, hubs) was observed in several regions primarily, including the limbic and paralimbic systems, and in the auditory network brain areas. These findings suggest that the alteration of network organization already exists in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients within the acute period

  4. Disrupted functional brain connectome in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haibo; Fan, Wenliang; Zhao, Xueyan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Wenjuan; Lei, Ping; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Haha; Cheng, Huamao; Shi, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is generally defined as sensorineural hearing loss of 30 dB or greater over at least three contiguous audiometric frequencies and within a three-day period. This hearing loss is usually unilateral and can be associated with tinnitus and vertigo. The pathogenesis of unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss is still unknown, and the alterations in the functional connectivity are suspected to involve one possible pathogenesis. Despite scarce findings with respect to alterations in brain functional networks in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss, the alterations of the whole brain functional connectome and whether these alterations were already in existence in the acute period remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the alterations of brain functional connectome in two large samples of unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients and to investigate the correlation between unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss characteristics and changes in the functional network properties. Pure tone audiometry was performed to assess hearing ability. Abnormal changes in the peripheral auditory system were examined using conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The graph theoretical network analysis method was used to detect brain connectome alterations in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Compared with the control groups, both groups of unilateral SSNHL patients exhibited a significantly increased clustering coefficient, global efficiency, and local efficiency but a significantly decreased characteristic path length. In addition, the primary increased nodal strength (e.g., nodal betweenness, hubs) was observed in several regions primarily, including the limbic and paralimbic systems, and in the auditory network brain areas. These findings suggest that the alteration of network organization already exists in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients within the acute period

  5. Prelinguistic Vocal Development in Infants with Typical Hearing and Infants with Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2008-01-01

    Delays in the onset of canonical babbling with hearing loss are extensively documented. Relatively little is known about other aspects of prelinguistic vocal development and hearing loss. Eight infants with typical hearing and eight with severe-to-profound hearing loss were matched with regard to a significant vocal development milestone, the…

  6. Categorical loudness scaling and equal-loudness contours in listeners with normal hearing and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M; Trevino, Andrea C; Gombert, Jessa N; Liebig-Trehearn, Lauren; Kopun, Judy G; Jesteadt, Walt; Neely, Stephen T; Gorga, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    This study describes procedures for constructing equal-loudness contours (ELCs) in units of phons from categorical loudness scaling (CLS) data and characterizes the impact of hearing loss on these estimates of loudness. Additionally, this study developed a metric, level-dependent loudness loss, which uses CLS data to specify the deviation from normal loudness perception at various loudness levels and as function of frequency for an individual listener with hearing loss. CLS measurements were made in 87 participants with hearing loss and 61 participants with normal hearing. An assessment of the reliability of CLS measurements was conducted on a subset of the data. CLS measurements were reliable. There was a systematic increase in the slope of the low-level segment of the CLS functions with increase in the degree of hearing loss. ELCs derived from CLS measurements were similar to standardized ELCs (International Organization for Standardization, ISO 226:2003). The presence of hearing loss decreased the vertical spacing of the ELCs, reflecting loudness recruitment and reduced cochlear compression. Representing CLS data in phons may lead to wider acceptance of CLS measurements. Like the audiogram that specifies hearing loss at threshold, level-dependent loudness loss describes deficit for suprathreshold sounds. Such information may have implications for the fitting of hearing aids.

  7. Membrane lipid rafts and neurobiology: age-related changes in membrane lipids and loss of neuronal function.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Junji; Pearn, Matthew L; Lemkuil, Brian P; Patel, Piyush M; Head, Brian P

    2016-08-15

    A better understanding of the cellular physiological role that plasma membrane lipids, fatty acids and sterols play in various cellular systems may yield more insight into how cellular and whole organ function is altered during the ageing process. Membrane lipid rafts (MLRs) within the plasma membrane of most cells serve as key organizers of intracellular signalling and tethering points of cytoskeletal components. MLRs are plasmalemmal microdomains enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol and scaffolding proteins; they serve as a platform for signal transduction, cytoskeletal organization and vesicular trafficking. Within MLRs are the scaffolding and cholesterol binding proteins named caveolin (Cav). Cavs not only organize a multitude of receptors including neurotransmitter receptors (NMDA and AMPA receptors), signalling proteins that regulate the production of cAMP (G protein-coupled receptors, adenylyl cyclases, phosphodiesterases (PDEs)), and receptor tyrosine kinases involved in growth (Trk), but also interact with components that modulate actin and tubulin cytoskeletal dynamics (e.g. RhoGTPases and actin binding proteins). MLRs are essential for the regulation of the physiology of organs such as the brain, and age-related loss of cholesterol from the plasma membrane leads to loss of MLRs, decreased presynaptic vesicle fusion, and changes in neurotransmitter release, all of which contribute to different forms of neurodegeneration. Thus, MLRs provide an active membrane domain that tethers and reorganizes the cytoskeletal machinery necessary for membrane and cellular repair, and genetic interventions that restore MLRs to normal cellular levels may be exploited as potential therapeutic means to reverse the ageing and neurodegenerative processes.

  8. Cochlear Implantation in Adults with Asymmetric Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Laura K.; Reeder, Ruth M.; Cowdrey, Lisa; King, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objective Bilateral severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss is a standard criterion for cochlear implantation. Increasingly, patients are implanted in one ear and continue to use a hearing aid in the non-implanted ear to improve abilities such as sound localization and speech understanding in noise. Patients with severe-to-profound hearing loss in one ear and a more moderate hearing loss in the other ear (i.e., asymmetric hearing) are not typically considered candidates for cochlear implantation. Amplification in the poorer ear is often unsuccessful due to limited benefit, restricting the patient to unilateral listening from the better ear alone. The purpose of this study was to determine if patients with asymmetric hearing loss could benefit from cochlear implantation in the poorer ear with continued use of a hearing aid in the better ear. Design Ten adults with asymmetric hearing between ears participated. In the poorer ear, all participants met cochlear implant candidacy guidelines; seven had postlingual onset and three had pre/perilingual onset of severe-to-profound hearing loss. All had open-set speech recognition in the better hearing ear. Assessment measures included word and sentence recognition in quiet, sentence recognition in fixed noise (four-talker babble) and in diffuse restaurant noise using an adaptive procedure, localization of word stimuli and a hearing handicap scale. Participants were evaluated pre-implant with hearing aids and post-implant with the implant alone, the hearing aid alone in the better ear and bimodally (the implant and hearing aid in combination). Postlingual participants were evaluated at six months post-implant and pre/perilingual participants were evaluated at six and 12 months post-implant. Data analysis compared results 1) of the poorer hearing ear pre-implant (with hearing aid) and post-implant (with cochlear implant), 2) with the device(s) used for everyday listening pre- and post-implant and, 3) between the hearing

  9. Hearing loss in hydrocephalus: a review, with focus on mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Satzer, David; Guillaume, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    While neither hydrocephalus nor cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt placement is traditionally considered in the differential diagnosis of hearing loss, there is substantial evidence that CSF circulation and pressure abnormalities can produce auditory dysfunction. Several indirect mechanisms may explain association between hydrocephalus and hearing loss, including mass effect, compromise of the auditory pathway, complications of prematurity, and genetically mediated hydrocephalus and hearing loss. Nevertheless, researchers have proposed a direct mechanism, which we term the hydrodynamic theory. In this hypothesis, the intimate relationship between CSF and inner ear fluids permits relative endolymphatic or perilymphatic hydrops in the setting of CSF pressure disturbances. CSF is continuous with perilymph, and CSF pressure changes are known to produce parallel perilymphatic pressure changes. In support of the hydrodynamic theory, some studies have found an independent association between hydrocephalus and hearing loss. Moreover, surgical shunting of CSF has been linked to both resolution and development of auditory dysfunction. The disease burden of hydrocephalus-associated hearing loss may be large, and because hydrocephalus and over-shunting are reversible, this relationship merits broader recognition. Hydrocephalic patients should be monitored for hearing loss, and hearing loss in a patient with shunted hydrocephalus should prompt further evaluation and possibly adjustment of shunt settings.

  10. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives  To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Methods  Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Results  Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. Conclusions  The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health. PMID:27413410

  11. Analgesic Use and the Risk of Hearing Loss in Men

    PubMed Central

    Curhan, Sharon G.; Eavey, Roland; Shargorodsky, Josef; Curhan, Gary C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Hearing loss is a common sensory disorder, yet prospective data on potentially modifiable risk factors are limited. Regularly used analgesics, the most commonly used drugs in the US, may be ototoxic and contribute to hearing loss. Methods We examined the independent association between self-reported professionally diagnosed hearing loss and regular use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and acetaminophen in 26,917 men aged 40–74 years at baseline in 1986. Study participants completed detailed questionnaires at baseline and every two years thereafter. Incident cases of new onset hearing loss were defined as those diagnosed after 1986. Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression was used to adjust for potential confounding factors. Results During 369,079 person-years of follow-up, 3488 incident cases of hearing loss were reported. Regular use of each analgesic was independently associated with an increased risk of hearing loss. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of hearing loss in regular users (2+ times/week) compared with men who used the specified analgesic <2 times/week were 1.12 (95% CI, 1.04–1.20) for aspirin, 1.21 (95% CI, 1.11–1.33) for NSAIDs, and 1.22 (95% CI, 1.07–1.39) for acetaminophen. For NSAIDs and acetaminophen, the risk increased with longer duration of regular use. The magnitude of the association was substantially higher in younger men. For men younger than age 50, the hazard ratio for hearing loss was 1.33 for regular aspirin use, 1.61 for NSAIDs, and 1.99 for acetaminophen. Conclusions Regular use of aspirin, NSAIDs, or acetaminophen increases the risk of hearing loss in men and the impact is larger on younger individuals. PMID:20193831

  12. Hearing Loss and Deafness. An Annotated Bibliography of Children's Books about Hearing Loss, Deafness, and Hearing Impaired People. Have You Ever Wondered About...?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldman-Brown, Deborah

    The annotated bibliography lists children's books about hearing loss, deafness, and hearing-impaired persons. The first section lists books about Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan, Keller's teacher. In section 2, each of the fiction entries features at least one major character with hearing impairment. Section 3 contains non-fiction books about…

  13. Age-related differences in heat loss capacity occur under both dry and humid heat stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Larose, Joanie; Boulay, Pierre; Wright-Beatty, Heather E.; Sigal, Ronald J.; Hardcastle, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the progression of impairments in heat dissipation as a function of age and environmental conditions. Sixty men (n = 12 per group; 20–30, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, and 55–70 yr) performed four intermittent exercise/recovery cycles for a duration of 2 h in dry (35°C, 20% relative humidity) and humid (35°C, 60% relative humidity) conditions. Evaporative heat loss and metabolic heat production were measured by direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Body heat storage was measured as the temporal summation of heat production and heat loss during the sessions. Evaporative heat loss was reduced during exercise in the humid vs. dry condition in age groups 20–30 (−17%), 40–44 (−18%), 45–49 (−21%), 50–54 (−25%), and 55–70 yr (−20%). HE fell short of being significantly different between groups in the dry condition, but was greater in age group 20–30 yr (279 ± 10 W) compared with age groups 45–49 (248 ± 8 W), 50–54 (242 ± 6 W), and 55–70 yr (240 ± 7 W) in the humid condition. As a result of a reduced rate of heat dissipation predominantly during exercise, age groups 40–70 yr stored between 60–85 and 13–38% more heat than age group 20–30 yr in the dry and humid conditions, respectively. These age-related differences in heat dissipation and heat storage were not paralleled by significant differences in local sweating and skin blood flow, or by differences in core temperature between groups. From a whole body perspective, combined heat and humidity impeded heat dissipation to a similar extent across age groups, but, more importantly, intermittent exercise in dry and humid heat stress conditions created a greater thermoregulatory challenge for middle-aged and older adults. PMID:24812643

  14. Age-related differences in heat loss capacity occur under both dry and humid heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Larose, Joanie; Boulay, Pierre; Wright-Beatty, Heather E; Sigal, Ronald J; Hardcastle, Stephen; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the progression of impairments in heat dissipation as a function of age and environmental conditions. Sixty men (n = 12 per group; 20-30, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, and 55-70 yr) performed four intermittent exercise/recovery cycles for a duration of 2 h in dry (35°C, 20% relative humidity) and humid (35°C, 60% relative humidity) conditions. Evaporative heat loss and metabolic heat production were measured by direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Body heat storage was measured as the temporal summation of heat production and heat loss during the sessions. Evaporative heat loss was reduced during exercise in the humid vs. dry condition in age groups 20-30 (-17%), 40-44 (-18%), 45-49 (-21%), 50-54 (-25%), and 55-70 yr (-20%). HE fell short of being significantly different between groups in the dry condition, but was greater in age group 20-30 yr (279 ± 10 W) compared with age groups 45-49 (248 ± 8 W), 50-54 (242 ± 6 W), and 55-70 yr (240 ± 7 W) in the humid condition. As a result of a reduced rate of heat dissipation predominantly during exercise, age groups 40-70 yr stored between 60-85 and 13-38% more heat than age group 20-30 yr in the dry and humid conditions, respectively. These age-related differences in heat dissipation and heat storage were not paralleled by significant differences in local sweating and skin blood flow, or by differences in core temperature between groups. From a whole body perspective, combined heat and humidity impeded heat dissipation to a similar extent across age groups, but, more importantly, intermittent exercise in dry and humid heat stress conditions created a greater thermoregulatory challenge for middle-aged and older adults.

  15. Hearing loss and tinnitus in rock musicians: A Norwegian survey.

    PubMed

    Størmer, Carl Christian Lein; Laukli, Einar; Høydal, Erik Harry; Stenklev, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    Our focus in this study was to assess hearing thresholds and the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in a large group of rock musicians based in Norway. A further objective was to assess related factors such as exposure, instrument category, and the preventive effect of hearing protection. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random from a defined cohort of musicians. A random control group was included for comparison. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 nonmusicians from the student population at the University of TromsØ. The subjects were investigated using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and a questionnaire. We observed a hearing loss in 37.8% of the rock musicians. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds were seen at most pure-tone frequencies in musicians than controls, with the most pronounced threshold shift at 6 kHz. The use of hearing protection, in particular custom-fitted earplugs, has a preventive effect but a minority of rock musicians apply them consistently. The degree of musical performance exposure was inversely related to the degree of hearing loss in our sample. Bass and guitar players had higher hearing thresholds than vocalists. We observed a 20% prevalence of chronic tinnitus but none of the affected musicians had severe tinnitus symptomatology. There was no statistical association between permanent tinnitus and hearing loss in our sample. We observed an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in our sample of Norwegian rock musicians but the causal relationship between musical exposure and hearing loss or tinnitus is ambiguous. We recommend the use of hearing protection in rock musicians. PMID:26572701

  16. Hearing loss and tinnitus in rock musicians: A Norwegian survey.

    PubMed

    Størmer, Carl Christian Lein; Laukli, Einar; Høydal, Erik Harry; Stenklev, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    Our focus in this study was to assess hearing thresholds and the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in a large group of rock musicians based in Norway. A further objective was to assess related factors such as exposure, instrument category, and the preventive effect of hearing protection. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random from a defined cohort of musicians. A random control group was included for comparison. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 nonmusicians from the student population at the University of TromsØ. The subjects were investigated using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and a questionnaire. We observed a hearing loss in 37.8% of the rock musicians. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds were seen at most pure-tone frequencies in musicians than controls, with the most pronounced threshold shift at 6 kHz. The use of hearing protection, in particular custom-fitted earplugs, has a preventive effect but a minority of rock musicians apply them consistently. The degree of musical performance exposure was inversely related to the degree of hearing loss in our sample. Bass and guitar players had higher hearing thresholds than vocalists. We observed a 20% prevalence of chronic tinnitus but none of the affected musicians had severe tinnitus symptomatology. There was no statistical association between permanent tinnitus and hearing loss in our sample. We observed an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in our sample of Norwegian rock musicians but the causal relationship between musical exposure and hearing loss or tinnitus is ambiguous. We recommend the use of hearing protection in rock musicians.

  17. Hearing loss and tinnitus in rock musicians: A Norwegian survey

    PubMed Central

    Størmer, Carl Christian Lein; Laukli, Einar; Høydal, Erik Harry; Stenklev, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    Our focus in this study was to assess hearing thresholds and the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in a large group of rock musicians based in Norway. A further objective was to assess related factors such as exposure, instrument category, and the preventive effect of hearing protection. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random from a defined cohort of musicians. A random control group was included for comparison. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 nonmusicians from the student population at the University of Tromsø. The subjects were investigated using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and a questionnaire. We observed a hearing loss in 37.8% of the rock musicians. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds were seen at most pure-tone frequencies in musicians than controls, with the most pronounced threshold shift at 6 kHz. The use of hearing protection, in particular custom-fitted earplugs, has a preventive effect but a minority of rock musicians apply them consistently. The degree of musical performance exposure was inversely related to the degree of hearing loss in our sample. Bass and guitar players had higher hearing thresholds than vocalists. We observed a 20% prevalence of chronic tinnitus but none of the affected musicians had severe tinnitus symptomatology. There was no statistical association between permanent tinnitus and hearing loss in our sample. We observed an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in our sample of Norwegian rock musicians but the causal relationship between musical exposure and hearing loss or tinnitus is ambiguous. We recommend the use of hearing protection in rock musicians. PMID:26572701

  18. A review of new insights on the association between hearing loss and cognitive decline in ageing.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, S; Forli, F; Guglielmi, V; De Corso, E; Paludetti, G; Berrettini, S; Fetoni, A R

    2016-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) has a multifactorial pathogenesis and it is an inevitable hearing impairment associated with reduction of communicative skills related to ageing. Increasing evidence has linked ARHL to more rapid progression of cognitive decline and incidental dementia. Many aspects of daily living of elderly people have been associated to hearing abilities, showing that hearing loss (HL) affects the quality of life, social relationships, motor skills, psychological aspects and function and morphology in specific brain areas. Epidemiological and clinical studies confirm the assumption of a relationship between these conditions. However, the mechanisms are still unclear and are reviewed herein. Long-term hearing deprivation of auditory inputs can impact cognitive performance by decreasing the quality of communication leading to social isolation and depression and facilitate dementia. On the contrary, the limited cognitive skills may reduce the cognitive resources available for auditory perception, increasing the effects of HL. In addition, hearing loss and cognitive decline may reflect a 'common cause' on the auditory pathway and brain. In fact, some pathogenetic factors are recongised in common microvascular disease factors such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and hypertension. Interdisciplinary efforts to investigate and address HL in the context of brain and cognitive ageing are needed. Surprisingly, few studies have been adressed on the effectiveness of hearing aids in changing the natural history of cognitive decline. Effective interventions with hearing aids or cochlear implant may improve social and emotional function, communication, cognitive function and positively impact quality of life. The aim of this review is to overview new insights on this challenging topic and provide new ideas for future research.

  19. A review of new insights on the association between hearing loss and cognitive decline in ageing.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, S; Forli, F; Guglielmi, V; De Corso, E; Paludetti, G; Berrettini, S; Fetoni, A R

    2016-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) has a multifactorial pathogenesis and it is an inevitable hearing impairment associated with reduction of communicative skills related to ageing. Increasing evidence has linked ARHL to more rapid progression of cognitive decline and incidental dementia. Many aspects of daily living of elderly people have been associated to hearing abilities, showing that hearing loss (HL) affects the quality of life, social relationships, motor skills, psychological aspects and function and morphology in specific brain areas. Epidemiological and clinical studies confirm the assumption of a relationship between these conditions. However, the mechanisms are still unclear and are reviewed herein. Long-term hearing deprivation of auditory inputs can impact cognitive performance by decreasing the quality of communication leading to social isolation and depression and facilitate dementia. On the contrary, the limited cognitive skills may reduce the cognitive resources available for auditory perception, increasing the effects of HL. In addition, hearing loss and cognitive decline may reflect a 'common cause' on the auditory pathway and brain. In fact, some pathogenetic factors are recongised in common microvascular disease factors such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and hypertension. Interdisciplinary efforts to investigate and address HL in the context of brain and cognitive ageing are needed. Surprisingly, few studies have been adressed on the effectiveness of hearing aids in changing the natural history of cognitive decline. Effective interventions with hearing aids or cochlear implant may improve social and emotional function, communication, cognitive function and positively impact quality of life. The aim of this review is to overview new insights on this challenging topic and provide new ideas for future research. PMID:27214827

  20. Hearing loss in speech-language delayed children.

    PubMed

    Psarommatis, I M; Goritsa, E; Douniadakis, D; Tsakanikos, M; Kontrogianni, A D; Apostolopoulos, N

    2001-05-11

    An infant begins to communicate with his/her environment from the first months of life. However, true words do not appear until the age of 12-15 months, following a rather predictable sequence. Delay or failure of normal language development is not a rare situation in childhood and may be due to a variety of reasons. Among these, hearing undoubtedly plays a leading part in the language acquisition process. The purpose of this study was to assess the percentage of hearing-impaired children in a group of phenotypically healthy children presenting with speech-language delay. Between March 1993 and March 1999, 726 speech-language delayed children were examined in our department. In 72 of them, various diseases or syndromes had already been diagnosed and so they were excluded from the study. The remaining 654 apparently healthy children entered the study and underwent a thorough audiological assessment for determination of their hearing thresholds. Eighty-seven children (13.3%) showed various degrees of hearing loss. Most of them (55 children, 8.4%) suffered from sensorineural hearing impairment, while in 32 children (4.9%) a conductive hearing loss was discovered. The increased prevalence of hearing impairment found in our population mandates a thorough hearing evaluation for every case of speech-language delay, even for those children who show no evidence of other handicaps. This will help in the early diagnosis of hearing loss, allowing proper management to be instituted as early as possible. PMID:11335007

  1. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Murphy-Lavoie, H; Piper, S; Moon, R E; Legros, T

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) is the newest indication approved by the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society's Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Committee. Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss appears to be characterized by hypoxia in the perilymph and therefore the scala tympani and the organ of Corti. A review of the literature reveals more than 100 publications evaluating the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) for the treatment of ISSHL, including eight randomized controlled trials. The best and most consistent results are obtained when HBO2 is initiated within two weeks of symptom onset and combined with corticosteroid treatment. The average hearing gain is 19.3 dB for moderate hearing loss and 37.7 dB for severe cases. This improvement brings hearing deficits from the moderate/severe range into the slight/no impairment range. This is a significant gain that can markedly improve a patient's quality of life, both clinically and functionally.

  2. Ear infection and hearing loss amongst headphone users.

    PubMed

    Mazlan, R; Saim, L; Thomas, A; Said, R; Liyab, B

    2002-07-01

    The use of headphone has been thought to cause infection in the ear canal and contribute to hearing loss. In this study, we examined 136 Customer Service Representative from Celcom (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. who use headphone throughout their working hours. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ear canal infection and other related diseases of the ear, nose and throat. Their hearing thresholds were also determined using the Amplaid 309 Clinical Audiometer. We found no incidence of infection of the external ear canal amongst the subjects. There were 4 cases of chronic middle ear infection and 4 cases of impacted wax. Hearing impairment was found in 25 subjects (21.2%). However, there was no significant association between hearing loss and the exposure to sound from headphone usage because the high frequencies were not predominantly affected. There was also no association between hearing loss and duration of service.

  3. Hearing loss in diving--a study amongst Navy divers.

    PubMed

    Zulkaflay, A R; Saim, L; Said, H; Mukari, S Z; Esa, R

    1996-03-01

    Despite the commonly observed condition of middle and inner ear barotrauma among divers, there is little evidence of insidious and permanent development of sensorineural hearing loss associated with diving. An audiometric survey was performed on a group of 120 divers and 166 non divers from the Royal Malaysian Naval Base in Lumut, West Malaysia between July to December 1991. The results of this survey revealed that insidious development of high frequency sensorineural hearing loss may be associated with diving. At frequencies 4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz the divers had higher mean hearing levels than non divers and their hearing at those frequencies seemed to deteriorate faster. The etiology of this insidious hearing loss is multifactorial and may be related to inner ear barotrauma, decompression sickness or noise-induced deafness.

  4. Myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Maguchi, S; Fukuda, S; Chida, E; Terayama, Y

    2001-05-01

    A 36-year-old female with hyperthyroidism that had been treated with propilthiouracil (PTU) complained of tinnitus and hearing loss in both ears. She was treated with steroid administration by an otolaryngologist; however, hearing continued to fluctuate when the steroids were tapered. Laboratory evaluation revealed a decreased complement level and elevated levels of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA). With the withdrawal of PTU and high-dose methylprednisolone, she had excellent return of right-sided hearing. In recent years, there have been many reports about MPO-ANCA-associated small vessel vasculitis. Although any organ may be affected by this disease, there are no reports about MPO-ANCA-associated progressive hearing loss without any other organ involvement. The present case suggests the possibility that inner ear blood flow impairment due to ANCA-associated small vessel vasculitis induces the so-called autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss.

  5. Costs of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Alleyne, B C; Dufresne, R M; Kanji, N; Reesal, M R

    1989-02-01

    Much has been written about the merits, needs, adequacy, and effectiveness of hearing conservation programs but very little about the cost of noise-induced hearing loss. Using claims for hearing loss submitted to a Canadian compensation board for a 5-years period (1979 to 1983), we estimated the current cost per claim to be $14,106. We observed an annual increase of 20.4% for noise-induced hearing loss claims and project that if 80% of the 450 claims submitted in 1987 are accepted, it will commit the Workers' Compensation Board in Alberta to a cost of $5,373,360--a considerable commitment for a disease that makes up only 0.3% of all claims. As a measure of morbidity we determined the years of potential hearing loss. The 207 workers between the ages of 18 and 70 years who were pensioned had a potential hearing loss value of 2529 years. Some authors have expressed the view that hearing loss is currently inadequately compensated and our review of the literature suggests that a fertile climate is emerging for increasing litigation. This tendency is likely to lead to further escalation of costs if prevention is not taken more seriously.

  6. Identifying Hearing Loss in Young Children: Technology Replaces the Bell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiserman, William; Shisler, Lenore

    2010-01-01

    Hearing loss can too easily be misdiagnosed or overlooked by providers serving young children. Parents and professionals may observe a language delay--an "invisible" condition--while failing to identify the underlying cause. Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) hearing screening technology, used extensively with newborns, is becoming an essential tool,…

  7. Hearing Loss in Middle-Age Persons with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenhuis, H. M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study assessed the hearing function of 35 middle-aged adults with Down's syndrome by means of otoscopy, impedance audiometry, brainstem evoked response audiometry, and pure tone audiometry. The study found brainstem evoked response audiometry useful for routine audiological assessment, as it identified hearing losses of 20 to 90 decibels in…

  8. Identification and Treatment of Very Young Children with Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madell, Jane R.

    1988-01-01

    Hearing loss in infants and young children can be identified through behavioral observation audiometry, visual reinforcement audiometry, or auditory brainstem response testing. Habilitation may involve amplification with hearing aids, other assistive listening devices, or cochlear implants. Expectations for children with different degrees of…

  9. Screening Procedures Used to Identify Children with Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barringer, Donald G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of data on 1,404 young children with hearing losses indicated that 80% of the children were identified via informal hearing-screening procedures, such as parental suspicion and referral. Auditory brainstem response technology provided the lowest mean identification age. The study concludes that formal screening programs are not locating…

  10. The Socioeconomic Impact of Hearing Loss in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, Susan D.; Francis, Howard W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations between hearing loss and educational attainment, income, and unemployment/underemployment in US adults. Study design National cross-sectional survey. Setting Ambulatory examination centers. Patients Adults aged 20-69 years who participated in the 1999-2002 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) audiometric evaluation and income questionnaire (n = 3379). Intervention(s) Pure tone audiometry, with hearing loss defined by World Health Organization criteria of bilateral pure tone average >25 decibels (0.5,1,2,4 kHz). Main outcome measure(s) Low educational attainment, defined as not completing high school; low income, defined as family income less than $20,000/year, and unemployment or underemployment, defined as not having a job or working less than 35 hours per week. Results Individuals with hearing loss had 3.21 times higher odds of low educational attainment (95% CI: 2.20-4.68) compared to normal-hearing individuals. Controlling for education, age, sex, and race, individuals with hearing loss had 1.58 times higher odds of low income (95% CI: 1.16-2.15) and 1.98 times higher odds of being unemployed or underemployed (95% CI: 1.38-2.85) compared to normal-hearing individuals. Conclusions Hearing loss is associated with low educational attainment in US adults. Even after controlling for education and important demographic factors, hearing loss is independently associated with economic hardship, including both low income and unemployment/underemployment. The societal impact of hearing loss is profound in this nationally representative study and should be further evaluated with longitudinal cohorts. PMID:25158616

  11. Membrane lipid rafts and neurobiology: age-related changes in membrane lipids and loss of neuronal function.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Junji; Pearn, Matthew L; Lemkuil, Brian P; Patel, Piyush M; Head, Brian P

    2016-08-15

    A better understanding of the cellular physiological role that plasma membrane lipids, fatty acids and sterols play in various cellular systems may yield more insight into how cellular and whole organ function is altered during the ageing process. Membrane lipid rafts (MLRs) within the plasma membrane of most cells serve as key organizers of intracellular signalling and tethering points of cytoskeletal components. MLRs are plasmalemmal microdomains enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol and scaffolding proteins; they serve as a platform for signal transduction, cytoskeletal organization and vesicular trafficking. Within MLRs are the scaffolding and cholesterol binding proteins named caveolin (Cav). Cavs not only organize a multitude of receptors including neurotransmitter receptors (NMDA and AMPA receptors), signalling proteins that regulate the production of cAMP (G protein-coupled receptors, adenylyl cyclases, phosphodiesterases (PDEs)), and receptor tyrosine kinases involved in growth (Trk), but also interact with components that modulate actin and tubulin cytoskeletal dynamics (e.g. RhoGTPases and actin binding proteins). MLRs are essential for the regulation of the physiology of organs such as the brain, and age-related loss of cholesterol from the plasma membrane leads to loss of MLRs, decreased presynaptic vesicle fusion, and changes in neurotransmitter release, all of which contribute to different forms of neurodegeneration. Thus, MLRs provide an active membrane domain that tethers and reorganizes the cytoskeletal machinery necessary for membrane and cellular repair, and genetic interventions that restore MLRs to normal cellular levels may be exploited as potential therapeutic means to reverse the ageing and neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26332795

  12. [Local drug therapy for inner ear hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Liebau, A; Plontke, S K

    2015-06-01

    The indications for local drug therapy of inner ear hearing loss include sudden sensorineural hearing loss, Menière's disease, autoimmune-associated hearing loss, ototoxicity as a side effect of other therapies, acute acoustic trauma and improvement of the safety and performance of cochlear implants. Various drugs are currently being used and tested for local treatment of inner ear hearing loss, including glucocorticoids, growth factors, apoptosis inhibitors, antioxidants, TNF-α inhibitors and antibodies. To further a better understanding of pharmacokinetics and the development of rational pharmacotherapy of the inner ear, the"liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination" (LADME) principle can be applied to local therapy of the inner ear. Local application strategies can be differentiated into intratympanic applications to the middle ear cavity and direct intralabyrinthine or intracochlear applications.

  13. 38 CFR 20.717 - Rule 717. Loss of hearing tapes or transcripts-motion for new hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rule 717. Loss of hearing tapes or transcripts-motion for new hearing. 20.717 Section 20.717 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... on Appeal § 20.717 Rule 717. Loss of hearing tapes or transcripts—motion for new hearing. (a)...

  14. 38 CFR 20.717 - Rule 717. Loss of hearing tapes or transcripts-motion for new hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rule 717. Loss of hearing tapes or transcripts-motion for new hearing. 20.717 Section 20.717 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... on Appeal § 20.717 Rule 717. Loss of hearing tapes or transcripts—motion for new hearing. (a)...

  15. 38 CFR 20.717 - Rule 717. Loss of hearing tapes or transcripts-motion for new hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule 717. Loss of hearing tapes or transcripts-motion for new hearing. 20.717 Section 20.717 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... on Appeal § 20.717 Rule 717. Loss of hearing tapes or transcripts—motion for new hearing. (a)...

  16. 38 CFR 20.717 - Rule 717. Loss of hearing tapes or transcripts-motion for new hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rule 717. Loss of hearing tapes or transcripts-motion for new hearing. 20.717 Section 20.717 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... on Appeal § 20.717 Rule 717. Loss of hearing tapes or transcripts—motion for new hearing. (a)...

  17. 38 CFR 20.717 - Rule 717. Loss of hearing tapes or transcripts-motion for new hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rule 717. Loss of hearing tapes or transcripts-motion for new hearing. 20.717 Section 20.717 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... on Appeal § 20.717 Rule 717. Loss of hearing tapes or transcripts—motion for new hearing. (a)...

  18. Auditory Evoked Potential Response and Hearing Loss: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Paulraj, M. P; Subramaniam, Kamalraj; Yaccob, Sazali Bin; Adom, Abdul H. Bin; Hema, C. R

    2015-01-01

    Hypoacusis is the most prevalent sensory disability in the world and consequently, it can lead to impede speech in human beings. One best approach to tackle this issue is to conduct early and effective hearing screening test using Electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG based hearing threshold level determination is most suitable for persons who lack verbal communication and behavioral response to sound stimulation. Auditory evoked potential (AEP) is a type of EEG signal emanated from the brain scalp by an acoustical stimulus. The goal of this review is to assess the current state of knowledge in estimating the hearing threshold levels based on AEP response. AEP response reflects the auditory ability level of an individual. An intelligent hearing perception level system enables to examine and determine the functional integrity of the auditory system. Systematic evaluation of EEG based hearing perception level system predicting the hearing loss in newborns, infants and multiple handicaps will be a priority of interest for future research. PMID:25893012

  19. Analysis of Predisposing Factors for Hearing Loss in Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joong Seob; Choi, Hyo Geun; Jang, Jeong Hun; Sim, Songyong; Hong, Sung Kwang; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Hyung-Jong

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to estimate the effects of various risk factors on hearing level in Korean adults, using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We examined data from 13,369 participants collected between 2009 and 2011. Average hearing thresholds at low (0.5, 1, and 2 kHz) and high frequencies (3, 4, and 6 kHz), were investigated in accordance with various known risk factors via multiple regression analysis featuring complex sampling. We additionally evaluated data from 4,810 participants who completed a questionnaire concerned with different types of noise exposure. Low body mass index, absence of hyperlipidemia, history of diabetes mellitus, low incomes, low educational status, and smoking were associated with elevated low frequency hearing thresholds. In addition, male sex, low body mass index, absence of hyperlipidemia, low income, low educational status, smoking, and heavy alcohol consumption were associated with elevated high frequency hearing thresholds. Participants with a history of earphone use in noisy circumstances demonstrated hearing thresholds which were 1.024 dB (95% CI: 0.176 to 1.871; P = 0.018) higher, at low-frequencies, compared to participants without a history of earphone use. Our study suggests that low BMI, absence of hyperlipidemia, low household income, and low educational status are related with hearing loss in Korean adults. Male sex, smoking, and heavy alcohol use are related with high frequency hearing loss. A history of earphone use in noisy circumstances is also related with hearing loss.

  20. Geriatric hearing loss: management strategies for nurses.

    PubMed

    Taylor, K S

    1993-01-01

    Communication with the hearing impaired is sometimes difficult. Nurses can become more sensitive to the communication disorders of the elderly and use their knowledge to avoid creating unnecessary barriers to the nurse-patient relationship. PMID:8384591

  1. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldonate, J.; Mercuri, C.; Reta, J.; Biurrun, J.; Bonell, C.; Gentiletti, G.; Escobar, S.; Acevedo, R.

    2007-11-01

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory.

  2. Hearing Loss in Patients with Shunt-Treated Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Panova, Margarita V; Geneva, Ina E; Madjarova, Kalina I; Bosheva, Miroslava N

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common manifestation of the long-term complications in patients with shunt treated hydrocephalus along with motor development disturbance, cognitive and visual impairment, epilepsy and endocrine disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the alterations of hearing in patients with shunt treated hydrocephalus of non-tumor etiology and at least one year after implantation of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, as well as their impact on the quality of life of patients. The study included 70 patients (age range 1.25 years - 21.25 years) with shunted non-tumor hydrocephalus and at least one year after placement of the shunt system. Hearing alterations were proved by measuring the brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) for children up to 5 years of age and children with mental retardation; audiograms was used for children older than 5 years with normal neuro-psychological development (NPD). Of the 70 studied patients 17 (24%) had hearing loss (10 bilateral and 7-unilateral) and all of them had sensorineural hearing loss, which is associated with low weight at birth, posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and brainstem symptoms at the time of diagnosis of hydrocephalus. Hearing pathology was found more often in shunt-treated patients with NPD retardation, poor functional status and low quality of life. Children with shunt-treated hydrocephalus have hearing loss of sensorineural type. Children with brain stem symptomatology at diagnosing hydrocephalus and children with post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus show higher risk of hearing loss. Children with shunted hydrocephalus and hearing loss show lower NPD, lower quality of life and lower functional status.

  3. Hearing Loss in Patients with Shunt-Treated Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Panova, Margarita V; Geneva, Ina E; Madjarova, Kalina I; Bosheva, Miroslava N

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common manifestation of the long-term complications in patients with shunt treated hydrocephalus along with motor development disturbance, cognitive and visual impairment, epilepsy and endocrine disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the alterations of hearing in patients with shunt treated hydrocephalus of non-tumor etiology and at least one year after implantation of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, as well as their impact on the quality of life of patients. The study included 70 patients (age range 1.25 years - 21.25 years) with shunted non-tumor hydrocephalus and at least one year after placement of the shunt system. Hearing alterations were proved by measuring the brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) for children up to 5 years of age and children with mental retardation; audiograms was used for children older than 5 years with normal neuro-psychological development (NPD). Of the 70 studied patients 17 (24%) had hearing loss (10 bilateral and 7-unilateral) and all of them had sensorineural hearing loss, which is associated with low weight at birth, posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and brainstem symptoms at the time of diagnosis of hydrocephalus. Hearing pathology was found more often in shunt-treated patients with NPD retardation, poor functional status and low quality of life. Children with shunt-treated hydrocephalus have hearing loss of sensorineural type. Children with brain stem symptomatology at diagnosing hydrocephalus and children with post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus show higher risk of hearing loss. Children with shunted hydrocephalus and hearing loss show lower NPD, lower quality of life and lower functional status. PMID:27180348

  4. Audiometric Evaluation of Children with Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Alison J; Waltzman, Susan B

    2015-12-01

    This article provides the reader with basic knowledge regarding the measurement tools needed to assess hearing in children. The test batteries described here are adaptable and interchangeable to meet the needs of the entire pediatric population no matter what the age or developmental stage. It is meant to provide the team of professionals involved in the treatment of pediatric hearing disorders with a framework from which the process of diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation can begin at an early age. PMID:26388609

  5. Evaluation of the risk of noise-induced hearing loss among unscreened male industrial workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, Mary M.; Gilbert, Stephen J.; Smith, Randall J.; Stayner, Leslie T.

    2003-02-01

    Variability in background risk and distribution of various risk factors for hearing loss may explain some of the diversity in excess risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). This paper examines the impact of various risk factors on excess risk estimates of NIHL using data from the 1968-1972 NIOSH Occupational Noise and Hearing Survey (ONHS). Previous analyses of a subset of these data focused on 1172 highly ``screened'' workers. In the current analysis, an additional 894 white males (609 noise-exposed and 285 controls), who were excluded for various reasons (i.e., nonoccupational noise exposure, otologic or medical conditions affecting hearing, prior occupational noise exposure) have been added (n=2066) to assess excess risk of noise-induced material impairment in an unscreened population. Data are analyzed by age, duration of exposure, and sound level (8-h TWA) for four different definitions of noise-induced hearing impairment, defined as the binaural pure-tone average (PTA) hearing threshold level greater than 25 dB for the following frequencies: (a) 1-4 kHz (PTA1234), (b) 1-3 kHz (PTA123), (c) 0.5, 1, and 2 kHz (PTA512), and (d) 3, 4, and 6 kHz (PTA346). Results indicate that populations with higher background risks of hearing loss may show lower excess risks attributable to noise relative to highly screened populations. Estimates of lifetime excess risk of hearing impairment were found to be significantly different between screened and unscreened population for noise levels greater than 90 dBA. Predicted age-related risk of material hearing impairment in the ONHS unscreened population was similar to that predicted from Annex B and C of ANSI S3.44 for ages less than 60 years. Results underscore the importance of understanding differential risk patterns for hearing loss and the use of appropriate reference (control) populations when evaluating risk of noise-induced hearing impairment among contemporary industrial populations.

  6. Phonemic restoration by hearing-impaired listeners with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Başkent, Deniz; Eiler, Cheryl L; Edwards, Brent

    2010-02-01

    The auditory system is capable of perceptually restoring inaudible portions of speech. This restoration may be compromised as a result of hearing impairment, particularly if it is combined with advanced age, because of degradations in the bottom-up and top-down processes. To test this hypothesis, phonemic restoration was quantitatively measured with hearing-impaired listeners of varying ages and degrees of hearing impairment, as well as with a normal hearing control group. The results showed that the restoration benefit was negatively correlated with both hearing impairment and age, supporting the original hypothesis. Group data showed that listeners with mild hearing loss were able to perceptually restore the missing speech segments as well as listeners with normal hearing. By contrast, the moderately-impaired listeners showed no evidence of perceptual restoration. Further analysis using the articulation index showed that listeners with mild hearing loss were able to increase phonemic restoration with audibility. Moderately-impaired listeners, on the other hand, were unable to do so, even when the articulation index was high. The overall findings suggest that, in addition to insufficient audibility, degradations in the bottom-up and/or top-down mechanisms as a result of hearing loss may limit or entirely prevent phonemic restoration. PMID:19922784

  7. Hearing Loss: Communicating With the Patient Who Is Deaf or Hard of Hearing.

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael M; Moreland, Christopher; Atcherson, Samuel R; Zazove, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Hearing loss impairs health care communication and adversely affects patient satisfaction, treatment adherence, and use of health services. Hearing loss is the third most common chronic health condition among older patients after hypertension and arthritis, but only 15% to 18% of older adults are screened for hearing loss during health maintenance examinations. Patients with hearing loss may be reluctant to disclose it because of fear of ageism, perceptions of disability, and vanity. Lipreading and note writing often are ineffective ways to communicate with deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) patients who use American Sign Language; use of medical sign language interpreters is preferred. A variety of strategies can improve the quality of health care communication for DHH patients, such as the physician facing the patient, listening attentively, and using visual tools. Physicians should learn what hearing loss means to the DHH patient. Deaf American Sign Language users may not perceive hearing loss as a disability but as a cultural identity. Patients' preferred communication strategies will vary. Relay services, electronic communication, and other telecommunications methods can be helpful, but family physicians and medical staff should learn from each DHH patient about which communication strategies will work best. PMID:26161525

  8. Effects of hearing loss on the voice in children.

    PubMed

    Bolfan-Stosic, Natalija; Simunjak, Boris

    2007-04-01

    The object of this paper is to report on preliminary acoustic characteristics obtained from a group of 10 to 12 year old males from special institution from Zagreb with more than mild sensorineural hearing losses. The study was structured as an investigation of voice and resonance characteristics of Croatian children with and without sensorineural hearing loss, using sustained phonation of the vowel /a/ which was recorded using a high-quality tape recorder carried out by two voice clinicians. The samples were digitized and analyzed for frequency and spectral characteristics by EZVoice and Bruel & Kjaer Real-time Frequency Analyzer and high quality sound level meter (mouth-to-microphone distance = 30 cm). Differences were observed in perturbation measures; F0 variability; vocal intensity. Spectral deviations were also observed. Discussion focuses on application of these findings by Croatian speech and hearing specialists with the hearing impaired population. Results indicated the following: measures of jitter were significantly elevated in the hearing loss group as compared to the normal controls. A similar result was observed for measures of shimmer. Lack of voice professional's awareness of importance for making pleasant voice quality of hearing-impaired individuals was the initial idea of this study. Patients with hearing losses have been reported to show a wide variety of voice disturbances.

  9. Prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss in drivers

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Andréa Cintra; Otowiz, Vanessa Guioto; Lopes, Patrícia Monteiro de Barros; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Santos, Cibele Carméllo

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Work-related hearing loss is one of the most common occupational illness progresses over the years of noise exposure associated with the work environment, may cause damage to undertake physical activity, the individual's physiological and mental besides causing hearing damage irreversible interfering with communication and quality of life. With high prevalence of male evaluates which is the second leading cause of hearing loss. Since there is no medical treatment for this type of hearing loss, it is evident the importance of preventive and conferences aimed at preserving hearing and health as a whole. Objective: To assess the prevalence of hearing loss in audiometry admission of drivers. Methods: Retrospective study. By 76 charts of professional drivers in leased transport companies. We analyzed data from specific interview and pure tone audiometry. Results: The prevalence of abnormal tests was 22.36% with the lowest thresholds for tritonal average of 3,000, 4,000 and 6,000 Hz. The higher the age, the higher thresholds. Conclusion: This study has highlighted the occurrence of hearing in the absence of complaints. Considering that PAIR is preventable, justifies the importance of coordinated and multidisciplinary involving not only health teams and safety, but also the institutions involved in preserving the health of workers, as the team SESMET, unions or prosecutors. PMID:25991981

  10. Perception of Speech Simulating Different Configurations of Hearing Loss in Normal Hearing Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Prawin; Yathiraj, Asha

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at assessing perception of filtered speech that simulated different configurations of hearing loss. The simulation was done by filtering four equivalent lists of a monosyllabic test developed by Shivaprasad for Indian-English speakers. This was done using the Adobe Audition software. Thirty normal hearing participants in…

  11. The Influence of Hearing Aid Use on Outcomes of Children with Mild Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; Holte, Lenore; McCreery, Ryan W.; Spratford, Meredith; Page, Thomas; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of consistent hearing aid (HA) use on outcomes in children with mild hearing loss (HL). Method: Five- or 7-year-old children with mild HL were separated into 3 groups on the basis of patterns of daily HA use. Using analyses of variance, we compared outcomes between groups on speech and language tests and a…

  12. Predictors of Hearing Aid Use Time in Children with Mild-to-Severe Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; Spratford, Meredith; Moeller, Mary Pat; Oleson, Jacob; Ou, Hua; Roush, Patricia; Jacobs, Shana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated predictors of hearing aid (HA) use time for children with mild-to-severe hearing loss (HL). Barriers to consistent HA use and reliability of parent report measures were also examined. Method: Participants included parents of 272 children with HL. Parents estimated the amount of time the child used HAs daily.…

  13. (De)stigmatizing the silent epidemic: representations of hearing loss in entertainment television.

    PubMed

    Foss, Katherine A

    2014-01-01

    The number of adolescents, young adults, and senior citizens experiencing hearing loss has significantly increased over the last 30 years. Despite this prevalence, hearing loss receives little attention in popular and political discourse, except in its connection to aging. Thus, hearing loss and the use of hearing aids have been stigmatized, discouraging adults from seeking hearing evaluation and screening, and justifying the lack of insurance coverage for hearing devices. This research explored how and why hearing loss continues to be stigmatized through a study of media messages about hearing loss. A textual analysis was conducted on 276 television episodes that involved d/Deaf characters and/or storylines about hearing loss and deafness from 1987 through 2013 (see Table 1). Only 11 fictional programs addressed the experience of hearing loss through 47 episodes, including Criminal Minds, Switched at Birth, House, M.D., and New Girl. Contrary to the assumption that hearing loss exclusively impacts older people, characters were typically young, attractive, working professionals who held prominent roles in the programs. For most characters, hearing loss developed suddenly and was restored by the end of the episode, with only four characters using hearing aids. Hearing loss was depicted as comical, embarrassing, lonely, and threatening to one's work. The scarcity of hearing loss portrayals, combined with the negative representations of hearing loss, could help explain why hearing loss continues to be stigmatized and overlooked, even though almost half of all Americans will eventually experience difficulty hearing.

  14. Hearing loss in Thai naval officers of coastal patrol crafts.

    PubMed

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Srinoon, Sutasinee; Lormphongs, Srirat; Morioka, Ikuharu; Mungarndee, S Suriyaphun

    2014-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the prevalence of hearing loss and its risk factors among Thai naval officers. The subjects consisted of 149 males who were asked to complete a questionnaire. Audiometric threshold testing was performed at the audiometric frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz. The noise levels and the organic solvent concentrations in the working environment were measured on a common type of gun boat. The findings revealed that 39.6% of naval officers had hearing loss. The noise level (LAeq) was 100.6 dB in the engine room. The organic solvent concentrations were less than the occupational exposure limit for organic solvents. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated 2 factors were significantly associated with hearing loss. They were age and service experience. The results suggest that the Thai navy should develop a hearing conservation program for naval officers on coastal patrol crafts. PMID:24285776

  15. Progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss induced by an antithyroid drug.

    PubMed

    Sano, Masaki; Kitahara, Nobuo; Kunikata, Ryutarou

    2004-01-01

    We report a patient with antithyroid drug-induced progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss associated with myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (MPO-ANCA). While antithyroid drugs have been linked to MPO-ANCA-associated small-vessel vasculitis, sensorineural hearing loss rarely was noted. A 36-year-old man treated for hyperthyroidism with propylthiouracil (PTU) developed progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss accompanied by fever and arthritis. MPO-ANCA were demonstrated in serum. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions test results suggested dysfunction of outer hair cells of the organ of Corti. Inner ear blood flow impairment from ANCA-associated small-vessel vasculitis presumably caused cochlear dysfunction. PTU withdrawal and high-dose methylprednisolone administration greatly improved hearing on both sides.

  16. Fluctuating hearing loss, episodic headache, and stroke with platelet hyperaggregability: coexistence of auditory neuropathy and cochlear hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Nobutoki, Tatsuro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Fukumizu, Michio; Hanaoka, Shigeru; Sugai, Kenji; Anzai, Yuki; Kaga, Makiko

    2006-01-01

    We encountered a 10-year-old girl with fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss, episodic headache, and white matter stroke. Strenuous exercise, febrile illness, and general anesthesia all temporarily worsened hearing. Audiologic findings were asymmetric: left-sided retrocochlear dysfunction consistent with auditory neuropathy contrasted with cochlear hearing loss in the right ear. Platelets obtained during a headache-free period showed excessive responsiveness to collagen in vitro, while episodic elevations of thromboxane B(2) and thrombin-antithrombin III complex were noted in blood sampled during headache. Treatment of hyperaggregability of platelets with aspirin and antioxidant vitamins relieved headache, while adenosine triphosphate administration improved hearing thresholds. In this patient, hearing impairment and white matter strokes appeared to respectively related to impaired blood flow to the cochlea and white matter caused by platelet dysfunction triggered by physiologic stresses.

  17. Perceptual Consequences of “Hidden” Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Daphne; Prendergast, Garreth

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic results from recent animal experiments show that noise exposure can cause a selective loss of high-threshold auditory nerve fibers without affecting absolute sensitivity permanently. This cochlear neuropathy has been described as hidden hearing loss, as it is not thought to be detectable using standard measures of audiometric threshold. It is possible that hidden hearing loss is a common condition in humans and may underlie some of the perceptual deficits experienced by people with clinically normal hearing. There is some evidence that a history of noise exposure is associated with difficulties in speech discrimination and temporal processing, even in the absence of any audiometric loss. There is also evidence that the tinnitus experienced by listeners with clinically normal hearing is associated with cochlear neuropathy, as measured using Wave I of the auditory brainstem response. To date, however, there has been no direct link made between noise exposure, cochlear neuropathy, and perceptual difficulties. Animal experiments also reveal that the aging process itself, in the absence of significant noise exposure, is associated with loss of auditory nerve fibers. Evidence from human temporal bone studies and auditory brainstem response measures suggests that this form of hidden loss is common in humans and may have perceptual consequences, in particular, regarding the coding of the temporal aspects of sounds. Hidden hearing loss is potentially a major health issue, and investigations are ongoing to identify the causes and consequences of this troubling condition. PMID:25204468

  18. Hearing loss in the elderly: History of occupational noise exposure

    PubMed Central

    Meneses-Barriviera, Caroline Luiz; Melo, Juliana Jandre; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Noise exposure is one of the most common health risk factors, and workers are exposed to sound pressure levels capable of producing hearing loss. Aim: To assess the prevalence of hearing loss in the elderly and its possible association with a history of occupational noise exposure and with sex. Methods: A prospective study in subjects aged over 60 years. The subjects underwent anamnesis and audiological assessment. The Mann–Whitney test and multiple logistic regression, with 95% confidence interval and p < 0.05, were used for statistical analysis. Results: There were 498 subjects from both sexes, and the median age was 69 years. From the comparison between men and women, we obtained the medium hearing I (500, 1000, and 2000 Hz p = 0.8318) and the mean hearing II (3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz; p < 0.0001). Comparing the thresholds of individuals with and without a history of occupational noise exposure, we obtained the medium hearing I (p = 0.9542) and the mean hearing II (p = 0.0007). Conclusion: There was a statistically significant association between hearing loss at high frequencies and the risk factors being male and occupational noise exposure. PMID:25992010

  19. Folic acid deficiency induces premature hearing loss through mechanisms involving cochlear oxidative stress and impairment of homocysteine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Vega, Raquel; Garrido, Francisco; Partearroyo, Teresa; Cediel, Rafael; Zeisel, Steven H; Martínez-Álvarez, Concepción; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Pajares, María A

    2015-02-01

    Nutritional imbalance is emerging as a causative factor of hearing loss. Epidemiologic studies have linked hearing loss to elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and folate deficiency, and have shown that folate supplementation lowers tHcy levels potentially ameliorating age-related hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to address the impact of folate deficiency on hearing loss and to examine the underlying mechanisms. For this purpose, 2-mo-old C57BL/6J mice (Animalia Chordata Mus musculus) were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 65 each) that were fed folate-deficient (FD) or standard diets for 8 wk. HPLC analysis demonstrated a 7-fold decline in serum folate and a 3-fold increase in tHcy levels. FD mice exhibited severe hearing loss measured by auditory brainstem recordings and TUNEL-positive-apoptotic cochlear cells. RT-quantitative PCR and Western blotting showed reduced levels of enzymes catalyzing homocysteine (Hcy) production and recycling, together with a 30% increase in protein homocysteinylation. Redox stress was demonstrated by decreased expression of catalase, glutathione peroxidase 4, and glutathione synthetase genes, increased levels of manganese superoxide dismutase, and NADPH oxidase-complex adaptor cytochrome b-245, α-polypeptide (p22phox) proteins, and elevated concentrations of glutathione species. Altogether, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that the relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia induced by folate deficiency and premature hearing loss involves impairment of cochlear Hcy metabolism and associated oxidative stress.

  20. [Temporal bone histopathology of noise-induced hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Yoshinori; Iino, Yukiko; Kodera, Kazuoki

    2005-02-01

    To examine the relationship between hearing and changes in the inner ear, we investigated human temporal bone specimens from 2 patients with noise-induced hearing loss and prepared audio-cytocochleograms as described by Schuknecht et al. Patient 1 was a 50-year-old male who died of thyroid cancer and had worked at a printing house for 38 years. Patient 2 was a 58-year old male who died of maxillary sinus cancer and had worked in construction for 22 years. A pure-tone audiogram showed high-tone sensorineural hearing loss with c5-dip-type hearing disorder in both ears in Patient 1, and a high-tone abrupt form of sensorineural hearing loss in Patient 2. Pathological examination of the temporal bone revealed degeneration and disappearance of the organ of Corti at the basal turn and disappearance of cochlear neurons in both patients. Audio-cytocochleograms revealed hearing disorder consistent with the changes in the inner ear in both patients. Marked degeneration and disappearance of the organ of Corti and stria vascularis were present in patient 1. It is generally known that disorders of the organ of Corti for a long period is involved in the etiology of noise-induced hearing loss. This degeneration of the organ of Corti is produced at a basilar membrane with the maximum amplitude related to exposure to noise according to a physical and mechanical factors. Moreover, animal experiments have shown that exposure to noise decrease cochlear blood flow. In Patient 1 both the organ of Corti and the stria vascularis exhibited degeneration, suggesting that not only physical and mechanical factors but a cochlear circulatory disorder related to exposure to noise was involved in the etiology of the pathological changes in the temporal bone related to noise-induced hearing loss.

  1. Evidence for hearing loss in amblyopsid cavefishes

    PubMed Central

    Niemiller, Matthew L.; Higgs, Dennis M.; Soares, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    The constant darkness of caves and other subterranean habitats imposes sensory constraints that offer a unique opportunity to examine evolution of sensory modalities. Hearing in cavefishes has not been well explored, and here we show that cavefishes in the family Amblyopsidae are not only blind but have also lost a significant portion of their hearing range. Our results showed that cave and surface amblyopsids shared the same audiogram profile at low frequencies but only surface amblyopsids were able to hear frequencies higher than 800 Hz and up to 2 kHz. We measured ambient noise in aquatic cave and surface habitats and found high intensity peaks near 1 kHz for streams underground, suggesting no adaptive advantage in hearing in those frequencies. In addition, cave amblyopsids had lower hair cell densities compared with their surface relative. These traits may have evolved in response to the loud high-frequency background noise found in subterranean pools and streams. This study represents the first report of auditory regression in a subterranean organism. PMID:23536444

  2. Temporary Hearing Loss and Rock Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danenberg, Mary A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Pre- and post-exposure testing of normal-hearing secondary school students (N=20) and adult chaperones (N=7) exposed to live rock music indicated that almost all subjects experienced at least a five-decibel threshold shift, with most also reporting tinnitus. Of six subjects retested three days later, four demonstrated partial recovery. (Author/CB)

  3. Sensorineural hearing loss in patients with coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Mohsen Mirmohammad; Radman, Masoud; Bidaki, Reza; Sonbolestan, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study is planned to obtain a better understanding of the correlation between sudden sensorineural hearing loss and cardiopulmonary bypass. There are many causes for sudden hearing loss which include infectious, circulatory, inner ear problems like meniere's disease, neoplastic, traumatic, metabolic, neurologic, immunologic, toxic, cochlear, idiopathic (unknown cause) and other causes. One of the less common cause is surgery include cardiopulmonary bypass procedures. Materials and Methods: This study is a self controlled clinical trial on 105 patients that was carried out in chamran Hospital, Esfahan, Iran. Participants were including all those patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery in the hospital who fell under the criteria for inclusion. Patients underwent audiometric testing at our hospital on three or two different occasions during the course of this study, Initially before the procedure to test the baseline hearing capacity; then two week after the procedure to assess any changes in hearing ability following the surgery. Data analysis performed by co-variance analysis. Results: In our study the changes in the threshold of hearing in frequency of 1000 in right ear and in frequencies of 2000 and 4000 in left ear were significant, but this changes were about 2-3 db and were not noticeable. The difference in degree of SNHL, before and after surgery in different frequencies were been shown. Conclusion: As loss of the patients with symptomatic sensory neural hearing loss in this study, It isn't commanded the routin auditory assessment pre and post surgery was been done. PMID:23930250

  4. Hearing loss and the central auditory system: Implications for hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisina, Robert D.

    2003-04-01

    Hearing loss can result from disorders or damage to the ear (peripheral auditory system) or the brain (central auditory system). Here, the basic structure and function of the central auditory system will be highlighted as relevant to cases of permanent hearing loss where assistive devices (hearing aids) are called for. The parts of the brain used for hearing are altered in two basic ways in instances of hearing loss: (1) Damage to the ear can reduce the number and nature of input channels that the brainstem receives from the ear, causing plasticity of the central auditory system. This plasticity may partially compensate for the peripheral loss, or add new abnormalities such as distorted speech processing or tinnitus. (2) In some situations, damage to the brain can occur independently of the ear, as may occur in cases of head trauma, tumors or aging. Implications of deficits to the central auditory system for speech perception in noise, hearing aid use and future innovative circuit designs will be provided to set the stage for subsequent presentations in this special educational session. [Work supported by NIA-NIH Grant P01 AG09524 and the International Center for Hearing & Speech Research, Rochester, NY.

  5. Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy of Vestibular Schwannomas Accelerates Hearing Loss

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Rune; Claesson, Magnus; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Roed, Henrik; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Juhler, Marianne

    2012-08-01

    Objective: To evaluate long-term tumor control and hearing preservation rates in patients with vestibular schwannoma treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT), comparing hearing preservation rates to an untreated control group. The relationship between radiation dose to the cochlea and hearing preservation was also investigated. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients receiving FSRT between 1997 and 2008 with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included. All patients received 54 Gy in 27-30 fractions during 5.5-6.0 weeks. Clinical and audiometry data were collected prospectively. From a 'wait-and-scan' group, 409 patients were selected as control subjects, matched by initial audiometric parameters. Radiation dose to the cochlea was measured using the original treatment plan and then related to changes in acoustic parameters. Results: Actuarial 2-, 4-, and 10-year tumor control rates were 100%, 91.5%, and 85.0%, respectively. Twenty-one patients had serviceable hearing before FSRT, 8 of whom (38%) retained serviceable hearing at 2 years after FSRT. No patients retained serviceable hearing after 10 years. At 2 years, hearing preservation rates in the control group were 1.8 times higher compared with the group receiving FSRT (P=.007). Radiation dose to the cochlea was significantly correlated to deterioration of the speech reception threshold (P=.03) but not to discrimination loss. Conclusion: FSRT accelerates the naturally occurring hearing loss in patients with vestibular schwannoma. Our findings, using fractionation of radiotherapy, parallel results using single-dose radiation. The radiation dose to the cochlea is correlated to hearing loss measured as the speech reception threshold.

  6. Altered gene expression in dry age-related macular degeneration suggests early loss of choroidal endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, S. Scott; Braun, Terry A.; Skeie, Jessica M.; Haas, Christine M.; Sohn, Elliott H.; Stone, Edwin M.; Scheetz, Todd E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in developed countries. The molecular pathogenesis of early events in AMD is poorly understood. We investigated differential gene expression in samples of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid from early AMD and control maculas with exon-based arrays. Methods Gene expression levels in nine human donor eyes with early AMD and nine control human donor eyes were assessed using Affymetrix Human Exon ST 1.0 arrays. Two controls did not pass quality control and were removed. Differentially expressed genes were annotated using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID), and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed on RPE-specific and endothelium-associated gene sets. The complement factor H (CFH) genotype was also assessed, and differential expression was analyzed regarding high AMD risk (YH/HH) and low AMD risk (YY) genotypes. Results Seventy-five genes were identified as differentially expressed (raw p value <0.01; ≥50% fold change, mean log2 expression level in AMD or control ≥ median of all average gene expression values); however, no genes were significant (adj. p value <0.01) after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. Of 52 genes with decreased expression in AMD (fold change <0.5; raw p value <0.01), 18 genes were identified by DAVID analysis as associated with vision or neurologic processes. The GSEA of the RPE-associated and endothelium-associated genes revealed a significant decrease in genes typically expressed by endothelial cells in the early AMD group compared to controls, consistent with previous histologic and proteomic studies. Analysis of the CFH genotype indicated decreased expression of ADAMTS9 in eyes with high-risk genotypes (fold change = –2.61; raw p value=0.0008). Conclusions GSEA results suggest that RPE transcripts are preserved or elevated in early AMD, concomitant with loss of endothelial cell marker

  7. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Marques, Jair; Panegalli, Flavio; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Souza, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP) is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those that may exist in the workplace and lead to workers' hearing damage. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HCP in preventing further hearing loss in workers with audiograms suggestive of NIHL. The audiometric tests and medical records of 28 furniture company workers exposed to noise were reviewed and monitored for 2 years. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined five audiometric tests in the medical records (on admission and every semester) of 28 workers in a furniture company (totaling 140 audiometric exams) following the introduction of the HCP. Results Data analysis showed no differences between the audiometric tests conducted on admission and those performed every semester. Conclusions The HCP implemented was effective in preventing the worsening of hearing loss in workers already with NIHL when exposed to occupational noise. Therefore, such a measure could be useful for the employment of workers with hearing loss in job sectors that have noise exposure. PMID:26722345

  8. Clinical Study on 136 Children with Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-Jiao; Wang, Da-Yong; Wang, Hong-Yang; Wang, Li; Yang, Feng-Bo; Lan, Lan; Guan, Jing; Yin, Zi-Fang; Rosenhall, Ulf; Yu, Lan; Hellstrom, Sten; Xue, Xi-Jun; Duan, Mao-Li; Wang, Qiu-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in children (CSSNHL) is consistently increasing. However, the pathology and prognosis of CSSNHL are still poorly understood. This retrospective study evaluated clinical characteristics and possible associated factors of CSSNHL. Methods: One hundred and thirty-six CSSNHL patients treated in Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Institute of Otolaryngology at Chinese PLA General Hospital between July 2008 and August 2015 were included in this study. These patients were analyzed for clinical characteristics, audiological characteristics, laboratory examinations, and prognostic factors. Results: Among the 136 patients (151 ears), 121 patients (121 ears, 80.1%) were diagnosed with unilaterally CSSNHL, and 15 patients (30 ears, 19.9%) with bilateral CSSNHL. The complete recovery rate of CSSNHL was 9.3%, and the overall recovery rate was 37.7%. We found that initial degree of hearing loss, onset of treatment, tinnitus, the ascending type audiogram, gender, side of hearing loss, the recorded auditory brainstem response (ABR), and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) had prognostic significance. Age, ear fullness, and vertigo had no significant correlation with recovery. Furthermore, the relevant blood tests showed 30.8% of the children had abnormal white blood cell (WBC) counts, 22.1% had elevated homocysteine levels, 65.8% had high alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 33.8% had high IgE antibody levels, and 86.1% had positive cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG antibodies. Conclusions: CSSNHL commonly occurs unilaterally and results in severe hearing loss. Initial severe hearing loss and bilateral hearing loss are negative prognostic factors for hearing recovery, while positive prognostic factors include tinnitus, gender, the ascending type audiogram, early treatment, identifiable ABR waves, and DPOAEs. Age, vertigo, and ear fullness are not correlated with the recovery. Some serologic indicators

  9. Noise-induced hearing loss: the family physician's role

    SciTech Connect

    Dobie, R.A.

    1987-12-01

    Noise is an environmental health problem that has not received sufficient attention. Physicians should become knowledgeable about the medical consequences of excessive noise, support legislation to reduce the problem and promote programs aimed at noise control and prevention of hearing loss. Questions about noise and hearing should be incorporated into the medical history, and pure-tone audiometry should be a part of periodic physical evaluations.

  10. The application of genome editing in studying hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Zou, Bing; Mittal, Rahul; Grati, M'hamed; Lu, Zhongmin; Shu, Yilai; Tao, Yong; Feng, Youg; Xie, Dinghua; Kong, Weijia; Yang, Shiming; Chen, Zheng-Yi; Liu, Xuezhong

    2015-09-01

    Targeted genome editing mediated by clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) technology has emerged as one of the most powerful tools to study gene functions, and with potential to treat genetic disorders. Hearing loss is one of the most common sensory disorders, affecting approximately 1 in 500 newborns with no treatment. Mutations of inner ear genes contribute to the largest portion of genetic deafness. The simplicity and robustness of CRISPR/Cas9-directed genome editing in human cells and model organisms such as zebrafish, mice and primates make it a promising technology in hearing research. With CRISPR/Cas9 technology, functions of inner ear genes can be studied efficiently by the disruption of normal gene alleles through non-homologous-end-joining (NHEJ) mechanism. For genetic hearing loss, CRISPR/Cas9 has potential to repair gene mutations by homology-directed-repair (HDR) or to disrupt dominant mutations by NHEJ, which could restore hearing. Our recent work has shown CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing can be efficiently performed in the mammalian inner ear in vivo. Thus, application of CRISPR/Cas9 in hearing research will open up new avenues for understanding the pathology of genetic hearing loss and provide new routes in the development of treatment to restore hearing. In this review, we describe major methodologies currently used for genome editing. We will highlight applications of these technologies in studies of genetic disorders and discuss issues pertaining to applications of CRISPR/Cas9 in auditory systems implicated in genetic hearing loss.

  11. Hearing loss associated with US military combat deployment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Timothy S; Seelig, Amber D; Ryan, Margaret A K; Jones, Jason M; Hooper, Tomoko I; Jacobson, Isabel G; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to define the risk of hearing loss among US military members in relation to their deployment experiences. Data were drawn from the Millennium Cohort Study. Self-reported data and objective military service data were used to assess exposures and outcomes. Among all 48,540 participants, 7.5% self-reported new-onset hearing loss. Self-reported hearing loss showed moderate to substantial agreement (k = 0.57-0.69) with objective audiometric measures. New-onset hearing loss was associated with combat deployment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-1.77), as well as male sex and older age. Among deployers, new-onset hearing loss was also associated with proximity to improvised explosive devices (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.62-2.73) and with experiencing a combat-related head injury (AOR = 6.88, 95% CI = 3.77-12.54). These findings have implications for health care and disability planning, as well as for prevention programs.

  12. Hearing loss associated with US military combat deployment

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Timothy S.; Seelig, Amber D.; Ryan, Margaret A. K.; Jones, Jason M.; Hooper, Tomoko I.; Jacobson, Isabel G.; Boyko, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to define the risk of hearing loss among US military members in relation to their deployment experiences. Data were drawn from the Millennium Cohort Study. Self-reported data and objective military service data were used to assess exposures and outcomes. Among all 48,540 participants, 7.5% self-reported new-onset hearing loss. Self-reported hearing loss showed moderate to substantial agreement (k = 0.57-0.69) with objective audiometric measures. New-onset hearing loss was associated with combat deployment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-1.77), as well as male sex and older age. Among deployers, new-onset hearing loss was also associated with proximity to improvised explosive devices (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.62-2.73) and with experiencing a combat-related head injury (AOR = 6.88, 95% CI = 3.77-12.54). These findings have implications for health care and disability planning, as well as for prevention programs. PMID:25599756

  13. The impact of hearing impairment, perceptions and attitudes about hearing loss, and noise exposure risk patterns on hearing handicap among farm family members.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Ann; Robert, Ashly E; Hurley, Annette; Currie, Paula S

    2007-06-01

    Farm noise exposure is the major cause of noise-induced hearing loss among farmers. Hearing impairment associated with hearing loss, however, may not adequately represent communication handicap and the impact on quality of life. This descriptive correlational study examines the impact of hearing impairment, perceptions and attitudes about hearing loss, and noise exposure risk patterns on hearing handicap among farm family members. A convenience sample of 56 farmers and family members recruited from community-based agricultural events was studied. A hearing impairment was noted in the majority of the participants (80.4%). Fewer than 10 reported regularly wearing protection during work or recreational activities. High-frequency hearing loss in the left ear (F= 10.30, p < .002), the attitude that wearing hearing protection prevents others from getting one's attention (F= 11.90, p < .001), and the self-reported description of hearing (F= 6.66, p < .013) significantly predicted hearing handicap using multiple regression analysis. Farmers and family members do not use hearing protection because they are concerned they will not hear others who are trying to communicate with them. The findings of this study confirm that this attitude, along with hearing loss in the left ear, is associated with a communication handicap in work settings. Although being able to hear others on a day-to-day basis is important, this attitude may contribute to behaviors leading to hearing loss and decreased communication over time. PMID:17601063

  14. Sudden onset unilateral sensorineural hearing loss after rabies vaccination.

    PubMed

    Okhovat, Saleh; Fox, Richard; Magill, Jennifer; Narula, Antony

    2015-12-15

    A 33-year-old man developed profound sudden onset right-sided hearing loss with tinnitus and vertigo, within 24 h of pretravel rabies vaccination. There was no history of upper respiratory tract infection, systemic illness, ototoxic medication or trauma, and normal otoscopic examination. Pure tone audiograms (PTA) demonstrated right-sided sensorineural hearing loss (thresholds 90-100 dB) and normal left-sided hearing. MRI internal acoustic meatus, viral serology (hepatitis B, C, HIV and cytomegalovirus) and syphilis screen were normal. Positive Epstein-Barr virus IgG, viral capsid IgG and anticochlear antibodies (anti-HSP-70) were noted. Initial treatment involved a course of high-dose oral prednisolone and acyclovir. Repeat PTAs after 12 days of treatment showed a small improvement in hearing thresholds. Salvage intratympanic steroid injections were attempted but failed to improve hearing further. Sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is an uncommon but frightening experience for patients. This is the first report of SSNHL following rabies immunisation in an adult.

  15. Alterations in gray matter volume due to unilateral hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingchao; Xu, Pengfei; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhenmin; Zhao, Fu; Gao, Zhixian; Xu, Lei; Luo, Yue-jia; Fan, Jin; Liu, Pinan

    2016-01-01

    Although extensive research on neural plasticity resulting from hearing deprivation has been conducted, the direct influence of compromised audition on the auditory cortex and the potential impact of long durations of incomplete sensory stimulation on the adult cortex are still not fully understood. In this study, using voxel-based morphometry, we evaluated gray matter (GM) volume changes that may be associated with reduced hearing ability and the duration of hearing impairment in 42 unilateral hearing loss (UHL) patients with acoustic neuromas compared to 24 normal controls. We found significant GM volume increases in the somatosensory and motor systems and GM volume decreases in the auditory (i.e., Heschl’s gyrus) and visual systems (i.e., the calcarine cortex) in UHL patients. The GM volume decreases in the primary auditory cortex (i.e., superior temporal gyrus and Heschl’s gyrus) correlated with reduced hearing ability. Meanwhile, the GM volume decreases in structures involving high-level cognitive control functions (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) correlated positively with hearing loss duration. Our findings demonstrated that the severity and duration of UHL may contribute to the dissociated morphology of auditory and high-level neural structures, providing insight into the brain’s plasticity related to chronic, persistent partial sensory loss. PMID:27174521

  16. Sudden onset unilateral sensorineural hearing loss after rabies vaccination.

    PubMed

    Okhovat, Saleh; Fox, Richard; Magill, Jennifer; Narula, Antony

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old man developed profound sudden onset right-sided hearing loss with tinnitus and vertigo, within 24 h of pretravel rabies vaccination. There was no history of upper respiratory tract infection, systemic illness, ototoxic medication or trauma, and normal otoscopic examination. Pure tone audiograms (PTA) demonstrated right-sided sensorineural hearing loss (thresholds 90-100 dB) and normal left-sided hearing. MRI internal acoustic meatus, viral serology (hepatitis B, C, HIV and cytomegalovirus) and syphilis screen were normal. Positive Epstein-Barr virus IgG, viral capsid IgG and anticochlear antibodies (anti-HSP-70) were noted. Initial treatment involved a course of high-dose oral prednisolone and acyclovir. Repeat PTAs after 12 days of treatment showed a small improvement in hearing thresholds. Salvage intratympanic steroid injections were attempted but failed to improve hearing further. Sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is an uncommon but frightening experience for patients. This is the first report of SSNHL following rabies immunisation in an adult. PMID:26670892

  17. Memory Loss, Dementia, and Stroke: Implications for Rehabilitation of Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Older adults with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are not immune to the other diseases of aging. Although AMD is the leading cause of low vision in older Americans, stroke is the leading cause of disability, and dementias affect another 2.5 million older Americans. Each condition alone can significantly impair a person's ability to…

  18. Severity and pattern of bone mineral loss in endocrine causes of osteoporosis as compared to age-related bone mineral loss

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, D; Dharmshaktu, P; Aggarwal, A; Gaurav, K; Bansal, R; Devru, N; Garga, UC; Kulshreshtha, B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Data are scant on bone health in endocrinopathies from India. This study evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) loss in endocrinopathies [Graves’ disease (GD), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HypoH), hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HyperH), hypopituitarism, primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT)] as compared to age-related BMD loss [postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO), andropause]. Materials and Methods: Retrospective audit of records of patients >30 years age attending a bone clinic from August 2014 to January 2016 was done. Results: Five-hundred and seven records were screened, out of which 420 (females:male = 294:126) were analyzed. A significantly higher occurrence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was noted in T1DM (89.09%), HyperH (85%), and HypoH (79.59%) compared to age-related BMD loss (60.02%; P < 0.001). The occurrence of osteoporosis among females and males was 55.41% and 53.97%, respectively, and of osteopenia among females and males was 28.91% and 32.54%, respectively. In females, osteoporosis was significantly higher in T1DM (92%), HyperH (85%), and HypoH (59.26%) compared to PMO (49.34%; P < 0.001). Z score at LS, TF, NOF, and greater trochanter (GT) was consistently lowest in T1DM women. Among men, osteoporosis was significantly higher in T1DM (76.67%) and HypoH (54.55%) compared to andropause (45.45%; P = 0.001). Z score at LS, TF, NOF, GT, and TR was consistently lowest in T1DM men. In GD, the burden of osteoporosis was similar to PMO and andropause. BMD difference among the study groups was not significantly different after adjusting for body mass index (BMI) and vitamin D. Conclusion: Low bone mass is extremely common in endocrinopathies, warranting routine screening and intervention. Concomitant vitamin D deficiency compounds the problem. Calcium and vitamin D supplementations may improve bone health in this setting. PMID:27241810

  19. Attainment of Developmental Tasks by Adolescents with Hearing Loss Attending Special Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2014-01-01

    The investigators compared the perceived attainment of developmental tasks by 181 German adolescents with hearing loss and 254 peers without hearing loss. The adolescents with hearing loss were attending special schools for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. On average, the two groups perceived similar levels of success across the assessed…

  20. Influences of Working Memory and Audibility on Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Derek Jason

    2010-01-01

    As a group, children with hearing loss demonstrate delays in language development relative to their peers with normal hearing. Early intervention has a profound impact on language outcomes in children with hearing loss. Data examining the relationship between degree of hearing loss and language outcomes are variable. Two approaches are used in the…

  1. Hearing Loss: Issues in the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Communities.

    PubMed

    Moreland, Christopher; Atcherson, Samuel R; Zazove, Philip; McKee, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    Hearing loss can lead to impairments in language and speech acquisition, educational attainment, social development, and reading achievement. More than 90% of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children are born to hearing parents who may lack the knowledge or experience to effectively care for a child with hearing loss. Family involvement is crucial for teaching self-advocacy and global communication skills, optimizing social development, and helping DHH individuals understand and manage external attitudes about deafness and hearing loss. American Sign Language is a naturally developed language with an always-expanding lexicon and grammatical structures different from those of English. Teaching spoken English and American Sign Language equally, often called bilingual bimodal education, can enhance academic and reading achievement as well as language and psychosocial development. Formal schooling options for a DHH child include enrollment in a public or private school system (often called inclusion, integration, or mainstreaming), a school for the deaf, or a bilingual school. Individuals with hearing loss experience stereotypes and biases that create disparities in health insurance coverage, health care access, and outcomes of mental and physical conditions. Family physicians should recognize and minimize biases to improve health care in the DHH community. PMID:26161526

  2. Bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss in Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Lau, Joanne Wai Ling; Ceranic, Borka; Harris, Robert; Timehin, Elwina

    2015-09-14

    This case highlights the diagnostic challenges in patients presenting with bilateral sudden sensorinueral hearing loss (SNHL). The aetiology of bilateral sudden SNHL may span several medical disciplines. Therefore, clinicians should be mindful of such presentations, and consider aetiologies beyond otological and neurological causes. We present a case of a previously healthy 51-year-old woman who presented with coryzal symptoms and sudden audiovestibular failure. Examination revealed fever, tachycardia, bilateral profound hearing loss and nystagmus. Following investigations, an initial working diagnosis of vasculitis was made. Later, blood cultures revealed methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and a transoesophageal echocardiogram confirmed endocarditis. The patient made a good recovery, but the hearing loss was permanent and managed with a cochlear implant.

  3. [Advances in hereditary hearing loss caused by TMC1 mutations].

    PubMed

    Wu, Kaiwen; Wang, Hongyang; Wang, Qiuju

    2016-03-01

    Hearing loss is the most frequent sensorineural disorder worldwild, among which about 50% are caused by genetic factors. TMC1 is one of the common genes causing hereditary hearing loss. TMC1 mutations can cause pre-lingual profound/severe autosomal recessive (DFNB7/11) and post-lingual progressive autosomal dominant (DFNA36) non-syndromic hearing loss. Murine models studies show that TMC1, 2 are expressed in cochlea inner and outer hair cells and maintain normal mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) functions of the hair cells. A growing number of evidence indicate that TMC1, 2 are components of the MET complex. It is necessary to definite the precise distribution and exact function of TMC1, 2, because it is important to understand the regulating mechanism of auditory function. PMID:27033582

  4. Prelinguistic Vocal Development in Infants with Typical Hearing and Infants with Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2010-01-01

    Delays in the onset of canonical babbling with hearing loss are extensively documented. Relatively little is known about other aspects of prelinguistic vocal development and hearing loss. Eight infants with typical hearing and eight with severe-to-profound hearing loss were matched with regard to a significant vocal development milestone, the onset of canonical babbling, and were examined at three points in time: before, at, and after the onset of canonical babbling. No differences in volubility were noted between the two infant groups. Growth in canonical babbling appeared to be slower for infants with hearing loss than infants with typical hearing. Glottal and glide production was similar in both groups. The results add to a body of information delineating aspects of prelinguistic vocal development that seem to differ or to be similar in infants with hearing loss compared to infants with typical hearing. PMID:21499444

  5. Hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Frank R; Yaffe, Kristine; Xia, Jin; Xue, Qian-Li; Harris, Tamara B; Purchase-Helzner, Elizabeth; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ayonayon, Hilsa N; Ferrucci, Luigi; Simonsick, Eleanor M

    2013-02-25

    BACKGROUND Whether hearing loss is independently associated with accelerated cognitive decline in older adults is unknown. METHODS We studied 1984 older adults (mean age, 77.4 years) enrolled in the Health ABC Study, a prospective observational study begun in 1997-1998. Our baseline cohort consisted of participants without prevalent cognitive impairment (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination [3MS] score, ≥80) who underwent audiometric testing in year 5. Participants were followed up for 6 years. Hearing was defined at baseline using a pure-tone average of thresholds at 0.5 to 4 kHz in the better-hearing ear. Cognitive testing was performed in years 5, 8, 10, and 11 and consisted of the 3MS (measuring global function) and the Digit Symbol Substitution test (measuring executive function). Incident cognitive impairment was defined as a 3MS score of less than 80 or a decline in 3MS score of more than 5 points from baseline. Mixed-effects regression and Cox proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS In total, 1162 individuals with baseline hearing loss (pure-tone average >25 dB) had annual rates of decline in 3MS and Digit Symbol Substitution test scores that were 41% and 32% greater, respectively, than those among individuals with normal hearing. On the 3MS, the annual score changes were -0.65 (95% CI, -0.73 to -0.56) vs -0.46 (95% CI, -0.55 to -0.36) points per year (P = .004). On the Digit Symbol Substitution test, the annual score changes were -0.83 (95% CI, -0.94 to -0.73) vs -0.63 (95% CI, -0.75 to -0.51) points per year (P = .02). Compared to those with normal hearing, individuals with hearing loss at baseline had a 24% (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05-1.48) increased risk for incident cognitive impairment. Rates of cognitive decline and the risk for incident cognitive impairment were linearly associated with the severity of an individual's baseline hearing loss. CONCLUSIONS Hearing loss is

  6. Analgesic Use and the Risk of Hearing Loss in Women

    PubMed Central

    Curhan, Sharon G.; Shargorodsky, Josef; Eavey, Roland; Curhan, Gary C.

    2012-01-01

    Use of analgesics is common and is associated with increased risk of hearing loss in men; however, the relation has not been examined prospectively in women. The authors prospectively examined the relation between frequency of aspirin, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen use and risk of hearing loss among 62,261 women aged 31–48 years at baseline (1995) in Nurses' Health Study II. The outcome was self-reported hearing loss (n = 10,012), and the follow-up period was 1995–2009. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. During 764,247 person-years of follow-up, ibuprofen use and acetaminophen use were independently associated with increased risk of hearing loss, but aspirin use was not. For ibuprofen, the multivariate-adjusted relative risk of hearing loss was 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.19) for use 2–3 days/week, 1.21 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.32) for use 4–5 days/week, and 1.24 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.35) for use ≥6 days/week (P-trend < 0.0001), compared with use less than once per week. For acetaminophen, the corresponding relative risks were 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.19), 1.21 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.37), and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.22), respectively (P-trend = 0.0007). In this study, use of ibuprofen or acetaminophen (but not aspirin) 2 or more days per week was associated with an increased risk of hearing loss in women. PMID:22933387

  7. Chronic bilateral hearing loss in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Akyol, Asli G.; Nazliel, Bijen; Oner, Yusuf; Erdem, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Congenital, infectious, toxic, and demyelinating disorders are common etiological causes of deafness. Tuberculous meningitis, as one of the infectious causes, should be considered in the differential diagnosis since tuberculosis represents an endemic public health problem in developing countries. Multiple cranial nerve palsies can be expected due to basal meningitis; however, presentation with bilateral hearing loss is quite rare. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent mortality and residual neurologic deficits. The focus of this discussion is a 42-year-old female presenting with bilateral hearing loss and nonspecific complaints who was finally diagnosed with chronic tuberculous meningitis. We also demonstrate the characteristic radiological and histopathological findings. PMID:25274594

  8. Implications of Sensorineural Hearing Loss With Hydrocodone/Acetaminophen Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Novac, Andrei; Iosif, Anamaria M.; Groysman, Regina; Bota, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is an infrequently recognized side effect of pain medication abuse. Chronic pain patients treated with opiates develop different degrees of tolerance to pain medications. In many cases, the tolerance becomes the gateway to a variety of cycles of overuse and unmasking of significant psychiatric morbidity and mortality. An individualized approach utilizing combined treatment modalities (including nonopiate pharmaceuticals) is expected to become the norm. Patients can now be provided with multidisciplinary care that addresses an individual’s psychiatric, social, and medical needs, which requires close cooperation between physicians of varying specialties. This report describes a patient who experienced hearing loss from hydrocodone/acetaminophen abuse. PMID:26835162

  9. Implications of Sensorineural Hearing Loss With Hydrocodone/Acetaminophen Abuse.

    PubMed

    Novac, Andrei; Iosif, Anamaria M; Groysman, Regina; Bota, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is an infrequently recognized side effect of pain medication abuse. Chronic pain patients treated with opiates develop different degrees of tolerance to pain medications. In many cases, the tolerance becomes the gateway to a variety of cycles of overuse and unmasking of significant psychiatric morbidity and mortality. An individualized approach utilizing combined treatment modalities (including nonopiate pharmaceuticals) is expected to become the norm. Patients can now be provided with multidisciplinary care that addresses an individual's psychiatric, social, and medical needs, which requires close cooperation between physicians of varying specialties. This report describes a patient who experienced hearing loss from hydrocodone/acetaminophen abuse. PMID:26835162

  10. Cochlear implantation for severe sensorineural hearing loss caused by lightning.

    PubMed

    Myung, Nam-Suk; Lee, Il-Woo; Goh, Eui-Kyung; Kong, Soo-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Lightning strike can produce an array of clinical symptoms and injuries. It may damage multiple organs and cause auditory injuries ranging from transient hearing loss and vertigo to complete disruption of the auditory system. Tympanic-membrane rupture is relatively common in patients with lightning injury. The exact pathogenetic mechanisms of auditory lesions in lightning survivors have not been fully elucidated. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss caused by a lightning strike, who was successfully rehabilitated after a cochlear implantation.

  11. Hearing loss in stranded odontocete dolphins and whales.

    PubMed

    Mann, David; Hill-Cook, Mandy; Manire, Charles; Greenhow, Danielle; Montie, Eric; Powell, Jessica; Wells, Randall; Bauer, Gordon; Cunningham-Smith, Petra; Lingenfelser, Robert; DiGiovanni, Robert; Stone, Abigale; Brodsky, Micah; Stevens, Robert; Kieffer, George; Hoetjes, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The causes of dolphin and whale stranding can often be difficult to determine. Because toothed whales rely on echolocation for orientation and feeding, hearing deficits could lead to stranding. We report on the results of auditory evoked potential measurements from eight species of odontocete cetaceans that were found stranded or severely entangled in fishing gear during the period 2004 through 2009. Approximately 57% of the bottlenose dolphins and 36% of the rough-toothed dolphins had significant hearing deficits with a reduction in sensitivity equivalent to severe (70-90 dB) or profound (>90 dB) hearing loss in humans. The only stranded short-finned pilot whale examined had profound hearing loss. No impairments were detected in seven Risso's dolphins from three different stranding events, two pygmy killer whales, one Atlantic spotted dolphin, one spinner dolphin, or a juvenile Gervais' beaked whale. Hearing impairment could play a significant role in some cetacean stranding events, and the hearing of all cetaceans in rehabilitation should be tested. PMID:21072206

  12. Hearing Loss as a Function of Aging and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon; Kim, MyungGu; Chung, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hearing loss may be caused by various factors, it is also a natural phenomenon associated with the aging process. This study was designed to assess the contributions of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension, both chronic diseases associated with aging, as well as aging itself, to hearing loss in health screening examinees. Methods This study included 37,773 individuals who underwent health screening examinations from 2009 to 2012. The relationships between hearing threshold and subject age, hearing threshold at each frequency based on age group, the degree of hearing loss and the presence or absence of hypertension and DM were evaluated. Results The prevalence of hearing loss increased with age, being 1.6%, 1.8%, 4.6%, 14.0%, 30.8%, and 49.2% in subjects in their twenties, thirties, forties, fifties, sixties, and seventies, respectively (p<0.05). Hearing value per frequency showed aging-based changes, in the order of 6000, 4000, 2000, 1000 and 500 Hz, indicating greater hearing losses at high frequencies. The degree of hearing loss ranged from mild to severe. Aging and DM were correlated with the prevalence of hearing loss (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant association between hearing loss and hypertension after adjusting for age and DM. Conclusions The prevalence of hearing loss increases with age and the presence of DM. Hearing loss was greatest at high frequencies. In all age groups, mild hearing loss was the most common form of hearing loss. PMID:25549095

  13. Effects of hearing aid amplification on voice F0 variability in speakers with prelingual hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lee, Guo-She; Liu, Chialin; Lee, Shao-Hsuan

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the audio-vocal feedback responses of (F0) to hearing amplification in severe-to-profound prelingual hearing loss (SPHL) using power spectral analysis of F0 contour of sustained vowels. Sustained phonations of vowel/a/of seventeen participants with SPHL were acquired with and without hearing-aid amplifications. The vocal intensity was visually fed back to the participants to help controlling the vocal intensity at 65-75 dBA and 85-95 dBA. The F0 contour of the phonations was extracted and submitted to spectral analysis to measure the extent of F0 fluctuations at different frequency ranges. The results showed that both high vocal intensity and hearing-aid amplification significantly improved voice F0 control by reducing the low-frequency fluctuations (low-frequency power, LFP, 0.2-3 Hz) in F0 spectrum. However, the enhanced feedback from higher vocal intensity and/or hearing amplification was not adequate to reduce the LFP to the level of a normal hearing person. Moreover, we found significant and negative correlations between LFP and supra-threshold feedback intensity (phonation intensity - hearing threshold level) for the frequencies of 500-2000 Hz. Increased vocal intensity, as well as hearing-aid amplification, improved voice F0 control by reducing the LFP of F0 spectrum, and the subtle changes in voices could be well explored using spectral analysis of F0. PMID:23648550

  14. Options for Auditory Training for Adults with Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Olson, Anne D

    2015-11-01

    Hearing aid devices alone do not adequately compensate for sensory losses despite significant technological advances in digital technology. Overall use rates of amplification among adults with hearing loss remain low, and overall satisfaction and performance in noise can be improved. Although improved technology may partially address some listening problems, auditory training may be another alternative to improve speech recognition in noise and satisfaction with devices. The literature underlying auditory plasticity following placement of sensory devices suggests that additional auditory training may be needed for reorganization of the brain to occur. Furthermore, training may be required to acquire optimal performance from devices. Several auditory training programs that are readily accessible for adults with hearing loss, hearing aids, or cochlear implants are described. Programs that can be accessed via Web-based formats and smartphone technology are reviewed. A summary table is provided for easy access to programs with descriptions of features that allow hearing health care providers to assist clients in selecting the most appropriate auditory training program to fit their needs. PMID:27587915

  15. Options for Auditory Training for Adults with Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Anne D.

    2015-01-01

    Hearing aid devices alone do not adequately compensate for sensory losses despite significant technological advances in digital technology. Overall use rates of amplification among adults with hearing loss remain low, and overall satisfaction and performance in noise can be improved. Although improved technology may partially address some listening problems, auditory training may be another alternative to improve speech recognition in noise and satisfaction with devices. The literature underlying auditory plasticity following placement of sensory devices suggests that additional auditory training may be needed for reorganization of the brain to occur. Furthermore, training may be required to acquire optimal performance from devices. Several auditory training programs that are readily accessible for adults with hearing loss, hearing aids, or cochlear implants are described. Programs that can be accessed via Web-based formats and smartphone technology are reviewed. A summary table is provided for easy access to programs with descriptions of features that allow hearing health care providers to assist clients in selecting the most appropriate auditory training program to fit their needs. PMID:27587915

  16. Lipid Profile among Patients with Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Ali A Muttalib

    2014-12-01

    Associations between hearing and blood lipids have been the focus of scientific inquiry for more than 50 years. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association between hyperlipidaemia among patients presented with sudden sensorineural hearing loss compared to normal controls. A case control study concerned with 22 patients presented with sudden sensorineural hearing loss who underwent lipid profile evaluation. The lipid profile of these patients was compared with corresponding results of 55 age matched persons (volunteers) with normal hearing. These patients were collected from the Out Patient Department of ENT at Al-Jamhory Teaching Hospital, Mosul/Iraq and private clinic of the author for the period from February 2011 to July 2013. The average age of patients was 44.7 years with a range of 26-65 years. The peak age incidence was in the 5(th) decade of life. The study included 11 male patients (50 %) and 11 females (50 %). Meanwhile, the average age of the control group was 41.7 years with 25 (45.5 %) males and 30 (54.5 %) females. Statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference between the means of lipid profile and blood sugar of the patients and the control group apart from HDL where there was no significant difference. In conclusion, hyperlipidemia seems to be significantly associated with the occurrence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss according to this study.

  17. Synaptopathy in the noise-exposed and aging cochlea: Primary neural degeneration in acquired sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Kujawa, Sharon G; Liberman, M Charles

    2015-12-01

    The classic view of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is that the "primary" targets are hair cells, and that cochlear-nerve loss is "secondary" to hair cell degeneration. Our recent work in mouse and guinea pig has challenged that view. In noise-induced hearing loss, exposures causing only reversible threshold shifts (and no hair cell loss) nevertheless cause permanent loss of >50% of cochlear-nerve/hair-cell synapses. Similarly, in age-related hearing loss, degeneration of cochlear synapses precedes both hair cell loss and threshold elevation. This primary neural degeneration has remained hidden for three reasons: 1) the spiral ganglion cells, the cochlear neural elements commonly assessed in studies of SNHL, survive for years despite loss of synaptic connection with hair cells, 2) the synaptic terminals of cochlear nerve fibers are unmyelinated and difficult to see in the light microscope, and 3) the degeneration is selective for cochlear-nerve fibers with high thresholds. Although not required for threshold detection in quiet (e.g. threshold audiometry or auditory brainstem response threshold), these high-threshold fibers are critical for hearing in noisy environments. Our research suggests that 1) primary neural degeneration is an important contributor to the perceptual handicap in SNHL, and 2) in cases where the hair cells survive, neurotrophin therapies can elicit neurite outgrowth from spiral ganglion neurons and re-establishment of their peripheral synapses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled .

  18. ACEMg supplementation ameliorates progressive Connexin 26 hearing loss in a child.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Aaron; Le Prell, Colleen; Miller, Josef; Green, Glenn

    2014-03-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding Connexin 26 are the most common cause of genetic hearing loss. The hearing loss is typically stable but may be progressive. The reason for progression is unknown. Antioxidants have been associated with attenuation of hearing loss from other insults. One antioxidant regimen consists of beta-carotene (metabolized to vitamin A), vitamin C, vitamin E, and magnesium (ACEMg). We present a child with Connexin 26 related hearing loss who experienced progressive hearing loss over 7 years of observation. He was given ACEMg daily for 3 years, during which time his progressive hearing loss was ameliorated.

  19. Site-specific thigh muscle loss as an independent phenomenon for age-related muscle loss in middle-aged and older men and women.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Patterson, Kaitlyn M; Stover, Caitlin D; Geddam, David A R; Tribby, Aaron C; Lajza, David G; Young, Kaelin C

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-determined appendicular lean mass (aLM) and ultrasound-measured thigh muscle thickness (MTH) ratio and between aLM or thigh MTH ratio and zigzag walking performance. Eighty-one middle-aged and older adults (41 men and 40 women) aged 50 to 74 years volunteered for the study. Approximately two thirds of the subjects (34 men and 17 women) carried out regular sports activity (at least >2 times a week) including running and cycling exercise. MTH was measured using B-mode ultrasound at two sites on the anterior (A50) and posterior (P50) aspects of the mid-thigh. A50:P50 MTH ratio was calculated to evaluate site-specific thigh muscle loss. aLM and percent body fat were also determined using a DXA. Men had lower body fat and higher aLM than women. Anterior and posterior thigh MTH as well as A50:P50 MTH ratio was higher in men than in women. Zigzag walking time was faster in men than in women. Anterior and posterior thigh MTH was positively (p < 0.001) correlated to aLM and aLM index in men and women. However, A50:P50 MTH ratio was not significantly correlated with aLM and aLM index in both sexes. There was no significant correlation between aLM index and zigzag walking time in men and women. A50:P50 MTH ratio was inversely (p < 0.05) correlated to zigzag walking time in both men and women. Our results suggest that thigh MTH ratio is independent of age-related muscle mass loss detected by aLM.

  20. Outcomes of Children with Hearing Loss: Data Collection and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Walker, Elizabeth A.; McCreery, Ryan W.; Arenas, Richard M.; Harrison, Melody; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective of this article was to describe recruitment, data collection, and methods for a longitudinal, multicenter study involving children with bilateral mild-severe hearing loss. The goals of this research program were to characterize the developmental outcomes of children with mild to severe bilateral hearing loss during infancy and the preschool years. Furthermore, the researchers examined how these outcomes were associated with the child’s hearing loss and how home background and clinical interventions mediated and moderated these outcomes. Design The participants in this study were children who are hard of hearing (CHH) and children with normal hearing (CNH) who provided comparison data. CHH were eligible for participation if (1) their chronological age was between 6 months and 7 years of age at the time of recruitment, (2) they had a better-ear pure tone average of 25 dB HL through 75 dB HL, (3) they had not received a cochlear implant, (4) they were from homes where English was the primary language, and (5) they did not demonstrate significant cognitive or motor delays. Across the time span of recruitment, 430 parents of potential children with hearing loss made contact with the research group. This resulted in 317 CHH who qualified at enrollment. In addition, 117 CNH qualified for enrollment. An accelerated longitudinal design was used, in which multiple age cohorts were followed long enough to provide overlap. Specifically, children were recruited and enrolled continuously across an age span of 6.5 years and were followed for at least 3 years. This design allowed for tests of time (period) versus cohort age effects that could arise by changes in services and technology over time, yet still allowed for examination of important developmental relationships. Results The distribution of degree of hearing loss for the CHH showed that the majority of CHH had moderate or moderate to severe hearing losses, indicating that the sample

  1. Age-related changes in the hippocampus (loss of synaptophysin and glial-synaptic interaction) are modified by systemic treatment with an NCAM-derived peptide, FGL.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Bunmi; Rezaie, Payam; Gabbott, Paul L; Davies, Heather; Colyer, Frances; Cowley, Thelma R; Lynch, Marina; Stewart, Michael G

    2012-07-01

    Altered synaptic morphology, progressive loss of synapses and glial (astrocyte and microglial) cell activation are considered as characteristic hallmarks of aging. Recent evidence suggests that there is a concomitant age-related decrease in expression of the presynaptic protein, synaptophysin, and the neuronal glycoprotein CD200, which, by interacting with its receptor, plays a role in maintaining microglia in a quiescent state. These age-related changes may be indicative of reduced neuroglial support of synapses. FG Loop (FGL) peptide synthesized from the second fibronectin type III module of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), has previously been shown to attenuate age-related glial cell activation, and to 'restore' cognitive function in aged rats. The mechanisms by which FGL exerts these neuroprotective effects remain unclear, but could involve regulation of CD200, modifying glial-synaptic interactions (affecting neuroglial 'support' at synapses), or impacting directly on synaptic function. Light and electron microscopic (EM) analyses were undertaken to investigate whether systemic treatment with FGL (i) alters CD200, synaptophysin (presynaptic) and PSD-95 (postsynaptic) immunohistochemical expression levels, (ii) affects synaptic number, or (iii) exerts any effects on glial-synaptic interactions within young (4 month-old) and aged (22 month-old) rat hippocampus. Treatment with FGL attenuated the age-related loss of synaptophysin immunoreactivity (-ir) within CA3 and hilus (with no major effect on PSD-95-ir), and of CD200-ir specifically in the CA3 region. Ultrastructural morphometric analyses showed that FGL treatment (i) prevented age-related loss in astrocyte-synaptic contacts, (ii) reduced microglia-synaptic contacts in the CA3 stratum radiatum, but (iii) had no effect on the mean number of synapses in this region. These data suggest that FGL mediates its neuroprotective effects by regulating glial-synaptic interaction.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: nonsyndromic hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss result from changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy ... DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the nucleus, mitochondria also have a small amount of their own ...

  3. Auditory Deprivation and Early Conductive Hearing Loss from Otitis Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarson, Adele D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews auditory deprivation effects on anatomy, physiology, and behavior in animals and discusses the sequelae of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children. Focused on are central auditory processing disorders associated with early fluctuating hearing loss from OME. (DB)

  4. Sensory Temporal Processing in Adults with Early Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heming, Joanne E.; Brown, Lenora N.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined tactile and visual temporal processing in adults with early loss of hearing. The tactile task consisted of punctate stimulations that were delivered to one or both hands by a mechanical tactile stimulator. Pairs of light emitting diodes were presented on a display for visual stimulation. Responses consisted of YES or NO…

  5. Is There a Silent Hearing Loss among Children in Jordan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaqrabawi, Wala' S.; Alshawabka, Amneh Z.; Al-Addasi, Zainab M.

    2016-01-01

    This study measured the prevalence of hearing loss among school children in Jordan. A random sample of 1649 children (990 males and 659 females) was collected from randomly chosen 40 schools in Amman. Screening was conducted between November 2010 and October 2014. Otoscopic examination, tympanometry, and audiometry were used for screening. Based…

  6. Middle Ear Disorders and Hearing Loss in Native Hawaiian Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang-Ching, Glenn; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Native Hawaiian preschoolers (n=172) received a battery of tests that included pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry, acoustic reflectometry, and pneumatic otoscopy. Approximately 15% of children failed a majority of the tests. Results are discussed in comparison to other indigenous groups at risk for middle ear disorders and hearing loss.…

  7. Otoacoustic Emissions in an Adult with Severe Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieve, Beth A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the unexpected finding of evoked otoacoustic emissions from one ear of a subject with severe-to-profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. It is suggested that the subject may have a group of surviving outer hair cells in some regions of the left cochlea with corresponding inner hair cell or neural damage. (Author/DB)

  8. Wordlikeness and Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Derek J.; McGregor, Karla K.; Bentler, Ruth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The more a novel word conforms to the phonotactics of the language, the more wordlike it is and the easier it is to learn. It is unknown to what extent children with hearing loss (CHL) take advantage of phonotactic cues to support word learning. Aims: This study investigated whether CHL had similar sensitivities to wordlikeness during…

  9. Management of Young Children with Unilateral Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) are at risk for academic, speech and language and social-emotional difficulties. To date, most of the evidence documented in the literature has been obtained from school-age children, most of whom were diagnosed with UHL after enrollment in school. Following the widespread institution of universal…

  10. Noise induced hearing loss of forest workers in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tunay, M; Melemez, K

    2008-09-01

    In this study, a total number of 114 workers who were in 3 different groups in terms of age and work underwent audiometric analysis. In order to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between the hearing loss levels of the workers who were included in the study, variance analysis was applied with the help of the data obtained as a result of the evaluation. Correlation and regression analysis were applied in order to determine the relations between hearing loss and their age and their time of work. As a result of the variance analysis, statistically significant differences were found at 500, 2000 and 4000 Hz frequencies. The most specific difference was observed among chainsaw machine operators at 4000 Hz frequency, which was determined by the variance analysis. As a result of the correlation analysis, significant relations were found between time of work and hearing loss in 0.01 confidence level and between age and hearing loss in 0.05 confidence level. Forest workers using chainsaw machines should be informed, they should wear or use protective materials and less noising chainsaw machines should be used if possible and workers should undergo audiometric tests when they start work and once a year.

  11. Facilitating Emergent Literacy Skills in Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupan, Barbra; Dempsey, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To (a) familiarize readers with the components of emergent literacy and the impact hearing loss may have on the development of these skills; (b) demonstrate the importance of parent-professional collaboration and show how specific literacy-based activities can be integrated into existing daily routines and intervention programming; and…

  12. Considerations in Diagnosing Usher's Syndrome: RP and Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, McCay

    1982-01-01

    The association of hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa has been generally recognized as the genetic disorder of Usher's syndrome. The article reviews findings of this syndrome and suggests strategies for dealing with the clinical and psychological problems displayed by Usher's syndrome patients. (Author/SW)

  13. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: The Question of Perilymph Fistula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backous, Douglas D.; Niparko, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Perilymph fistula (PLF) is an abnormal communication between the fluid-containing spaces of the inner ear and the air-containing spaces of the temporal bone that can cause hearing loss, tinnitus, aural fullness, vertigo, and postural instability. Diagnosis of PLF and management of those with presumed PLF are discussed. (Contains extensive…

  14. Early Detection of Hearing Loss: The Case for Listening to Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchbank, Alison Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This article is drawn from a larger doctoral study that explored hearing mothers' experiences of discovering that their babies had a permanent hearing loss in Australia in 2008. The particular focus for this paper is the period in time after a concern is flagged, either by a newborn hearing screener or the mother herself, until a hearing loss is…

  15. Masking Release in Children and Adults with Hearing Loss When Using Amplification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Marc; McCreery, Ryan; Kopun, Judy; Lewis, Dawna; Alexander, Joshua; Stelmachowicz, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared masking release for adults and children with normal hearing and hearing loss. For the participants with hearing loss, masking release using simulated hearing aid amplification with 2 different compression speeds (slow, fast) was compared. Method: Sentence recognition in unmodulated noise was compared with recognition…

  16. Incorporating Mythic and Interpretive Analysis in the Investigation of Hearing Loss on the Family Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meister, Mark; Hest, Theresa; Burnett, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Despite knowing about the dangers of hearing loss, farmers typically choose not to protect their hearing. Examining the myth of farm life, this study aims to discern whether rhetorical myths influence farmers' decisions to wear hearing protection. Researchers conducted 40 interviews with farmers regarding farm life and hearing loss. Results…

  17. Bone-anchored hearing aids in conductive and mixed hearing losses: why do patients reject them?

    PubMed

    Siau, Richard T K; Dhillon, Baljeet; Siau, Derrick; Green, Kevin M J

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to report the bone-anchored hearing aid uptake rate and the reasons for their rejection by patients with conductive and mixed hearing losses. A retrospective review was performed of 113 consecutive patients with unilateral or bilateral conductive or mixed hearing loss referred to the Greater Manchester bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) programme between September 2008 and August 2011. 98 (86.7 %) patients were deemed audiologically suitable for BAHA implantation. Of these, 38 (38.8 %) had BAHA implanted; 60 (61.2 %) patients declined. Of those who declined, 27 (45 %) cited anxiety over surgery, 18 (30 %) cited cosmetic reasons, 16 (26.7 %) perceived limited benefit from the device and six (10 %) preferred conventional hearing aids. Our study highlights a 38.8 % BAHA uptake rate in audiologically suitable patients. The main reasons cited for rejection of BAHA were anxiety over surgery and cosmetic concerns. It is important that clinicians address these early during consultation with prospective BAHA recipients and avoid rushing to implant these patients with a bone-anchored hearing aid.

  18. Bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss as an initial presentation of myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jung; Yoon, Yong Joo

    2012-01-01

    This study reports an unusual case in which myelodysplastic syndrome presented bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss as the first symptom of the disease. The aural symptoms and signs such as tinnitus, dizziness, and hearing impairment of a hematologic disease are common. However, sudden hearing loss as the first manifestation of a hematologic disease is extremely rare. A 76-year-old woman presented with bilateral sudden hearing loss. The patient was found to have myelodysplastic syndrome during a workup for her hearing loss. Unfortunately, the patient's hearing loss did not improve after the medical treatment.

  19. Mineralization of the connective tissue: a complex molecular process leading to age-related loss of function.

    PubMed

    Shindyapina, Anastasia V; Mkrtchyan, Garik V; Gneteeva, Tatiana; Buiucli, Sveatoslav; Tancowny, B; Kulka, M; Aliper, Alexander; Zhavoronkov, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    Age-related metastatic mineralization of soft tissues has been considered a passive and spontaneous process. Recent data have demonstrated that calcium salt deposition in soft tissues could be a highly regulated process. Although calcification occurs in any tissue type, vascular calcification has been of particular interest due to association with atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and osteoporosis. Different mechanisms underlying calcium apatite accumulation are explored with these age-related disorders. In the case of atherosclerotic plaques, oxy-lipids trigger release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation that activate calcification processes in aorta intimae. In CKD patients, renal failure alters the balance between calcium and phosphate levels usually regulated by fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), Klotho, and vitamin D, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) begin to explore an osteoblastosteoblast-like phenotype. Calcification could affect extracellular matrix along with VSMCs. Collagen is a major component of extracellular matrix and its modifications accumulate with age. The formation of cross-links between collagen fibers is regulated by the action of lysine hydroxylases and lysyl oxidase and could occur spontaneously. Oxidation-induced advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a major type of spontaneous cross-links that accelerate with age and may result in tissue stiffness, problems with recycling, and potential accumulation of calcium apatite. Applying strategies for clearing the AGEs proposed by de Grey may be more difficult in the highly mineralized extracellular matrix. We performed bioinformatic analysis of the molecular pathways underlying calcification in atherosclerotic and CKD patients, signaling pathways of collagen cross-links formation, and bone mineralization, and we propose new potential targets and review drugs for calcification treatment. PMID:23902273

  20. Prolactin Expression in the Cochlea of Aged BALB/c Mice Is Gender Biased and Correlates to Loss of Bone Mineral Density and Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Marano, Robert J.; Tickner, Jennifer; Redmond, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    Prolactin is a versatile hormone with over 300 known functions and predominantly expressed in the pituitary. However, its expression has additionally been found in a number of extrapituitary organs. Recently, we described the expression of prolactin in the inner ear of mice, where it was correlated to age. Previous research has shown prolactin to be linked to abnormal bone metabolism and hearing loss due to changes in morphology of the bony otic capsule. Here we further investigated the relationship between prolactin, hearing loss and cochlea bone metabolism. BALB/c mice were tested for hearing using ABR at 6 and 12 months of age. Bone mineral density of the cochlea was evaluated using microCT scanning. Prolactin expression was calculated using quantitative real time PCR. Expression of the key regulators of bone metabolism, osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand were also determined. We found that prolactin expression was exclusive to the female mice. This also correlated to a greater threshold shift in hearing for the females between 6 and 12 months of age. Analyses of the cochlea also show that the bone mineral density was lower in females compared to males. However, no gender differences in expression of osteoprotegerin or receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand could be found. Further analysis of cochlea histological sections revealed larger ostocyte lacunae in the females. These results provide a possible mechanism for an age related hearing loss sub-type that is associated with gender and provides clues as to how this gender bias in hearing loss develops. In addition, it has the potential to lead to treatment for this specific type of hearing loss. PMID:23667691

  1. Prolactin expression in the cochlea of aged BALB/c mice is gender biased and correlates to loss of bone mineral density and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Marano, Robert J; Tickner, Jennifer; Redmond, Sharon L

    2013-01-01

    Prolactin is a versatile hormone with over 300 known functions and predominantly expressed in the pituitary. However, its expression has additionally been found in a number of extrapituitary organs. Recently, we described the expression of prolactin in the inner ear of mice, where it was correlated to age. Previous research has shown prolactin to be linked to abnormal bone metabolism and hearing loss due to changes in morphology of the bony otic capsule. Here we further investigated the relationship between prolactin, hearing loss and cochlea bone metabolism. BALB/c mice were tested for hearing using ABR at 6 and 12 months of age. Bone mineral density of the cochlea was evaluated using microCT scanning. Prolactin expression was calculated using quantitative real time PCR. Expression of the key regulators of bone metabolism, osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand were also determined. We found that prolactin expression was exclusive to the female mice. This also correlated to a greater threshold shift in hearing for the females between 6 and 12 months of age. Analyses of the cochlea also show that the bone mineral density was lower in females compared to males. However, no gender differences in expression of osteoprotegerin or receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand could be found. Further analysis of cochlea histological sections revealed larger ostocyte lacunae in the females. These results provide a possible mechanism for an age related hearing loss sub-type that is associated with gender and provides clues as to how this gender bias in hearing loss develops. In addition, it has the potential to lead to treatment for this specific type of hearing loss.

  2. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in the Police Force

    PubMed Central

    Win, Kyaw N.; Balalla, Nayake B.P.; Lwin, Min Z.; Lai, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Background Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major preventable occupational health problem with 250 million people worldwide known to have disabling impairment of moderate to greater severity. The aims of the study are to estimate the prevalence of NIHL in the police force; and study its association with age, sex, duration of service (years), smoking and alcohol habits, use of hearing protective devices, as well as preexisting chronic diseases. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 543 police personnel who had undergone periodic medical examination over a 12-month period. The diagnostic criteria for NIHL were (1) history of occupational noise exposure, (2) bilateral hearing loss, (3) hearing loss of ≥ 25 dBA at 4,000 Hz in two consecutive audiograms, and (4) no significant medical history affecting hearing. Severity of NIHL was based on the World Health Organization grading. Results Males (74.8%) made up the majority of the police force. The mean age for police personnel was 35.55 ± 9.57 years, and the mean duration of service was 14.75 ± 9.39 years. Compliance with the usage of hearing protective devices was seen in 64.4%. The prevalence of NIHL in this study population was 34.2%, with a higher prevalence in males (37.7%) than in females (23.9%). The study also showed strong associations between NIHL and male sex (odds ratio, 1.9; P < 0.05), and hypertension (odds ratio, 3.3; P < 0.001). Overall, 93% were found to have mild NIHL, 3.5% had moderate NIHL, and 3.5% had severe NIHL. No police personnel were found to have profound hearing loss. Conclusion The prevalence of NIHL in this study is high compared to other similar studies among police personnel. This study shows that increasing age, male, presence of hypertension, diabetes, and longer duration of service are significant associated factors for NIHL. Preventative strategies include health surveillance, implementation of a hearing conservation program, and legislation. PMID

  3. [Multicenter trial for sudden hearing loss therapy - planning and concept].

    PubMed

    Plontke, S K; Girndt, M; Meisner, C; Probst, R; Oerlecke, I; Richter, M; Steighardt, J; Dreier, G; Weber, A; Baumann, I; Plößl, S; Löhler, J; Laszig, R; Werner, J A; Rahne, T

    2016-04-01

    Systemic steroids are widely used worldwide as a standard of care for primary therapy of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL). The German ISSHL guideline recommends high-dose steroids for primary therapy of ISSHL, without evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The rationale for the treatment of ISSHL using high dose steroids is only based on retrospective cohort studies.This article describes the planning and initiation of a multicenter, national, randomized, controlled clinical trial entitled Efficacy and safety of high dose glucocorticosteroid treatment for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss - a three-armed, randomized, triple-blind, multicenter trial (HODOKORT). This clinical trial aims to compare standard dose with two types of high-dose steroids for primary systemic therapy with respect to their efficacy in improving hearing, and thus communication ability, in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.This study is funded by the "Clinical Trials with High Patient Relevance" research program in the health research framework of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It is one of two studies by the German Study Center of Clinical Trials of the German Society of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (DSZ-HNO). Planning and initiation was done in cooperation with the DSZ-HNO, the Coordination Center of Clinical Trials of the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, and the Study Center of the University Hospital Freiburg. PMID:27038034

  4. [Multicenter trial for sudden hearing loss therapy - planning and concept].

    PubMed

    Plontke, S K; Girndt, M; Meisner, C; Probst, R; Oerlecke, I; Richter, M; Steighardt, J; Dreier, G; Weber, A; Baumann, I; Plößl, S; Löhler, J; Laszig, R; Werner, J A; Rahne, T

    2016-04-01

    Systemic steroids are widely used worldwide as a standard of care for primary therapy of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL). The German ISSHL guideline recommends high-dose steroids for primary therapy of ISSHL, without evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The rationale for the treatment of ISSHL using high dose steroids is only based on retrospective cohort studies.This article describes the planning and initiation of a multicenter, national, randomized, controlled clinical trial entitled Efficacy and safety of high dose glucocorticosteroid treatment for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss - a three-armed, randomized, triple-blind, multicenter trial (HODOKORT). This clinical trial aims to compare standard dose with two types of high-dose steroids for primary systemic therapy with respect to their efficacy in improving hearing, and thus communication ability, in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.This study is funded by the "Clinical Trials with High Patient Relevance" research program in the health research framework of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It is one of two studies by the German Study Center of Clinical Trials of the German Society of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (DSZ-HNO). Planning and initiation was done in cooperation with the DSZ-HNO, the Coordination Center of Clinical Trials of the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, and the Study Center of the University Hospital Freiburg.

  5. Neuro-rehabilitation Approach for Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Kenichi; Fukushima, Munehisa; Teismann, Henning; Lagemann, Lothar; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo; Okamoto, Hidehiko

    2016-01-25

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is characterized by acute, idiopathic hearing loss. The estimated incidence rate is 5-30 cases per 100,000 people per year. The causes of SSHL and the mechanisms underlying SSHL currently remain unknown. Based on several hypotheses such as a circulatory disturbance to the cochlea, viral infection, and autoimmune disease, pharmaco-therapeutic approaches have been applied to treat SSHL patients; however, the efficacy of the standard treatment, corticosteroid therapy, is still under debate. Exposure to intense sounds has been shown to cause permanent damage to the auditory system; however, exposure to a moderate level enriched acoustic environment after noise trauma may reduce hearing impairments. Several neuroimaging studies recently suggested that the onset of SSHL induced maladaptive cortical reorganization in the human auditory cortex, and that the degree of cortical reorganization in the acute SSHL phase negatively correlated with the recovery rate from hearing loss. This article reports the development of a novel neuro-rehabilitation approach for SSHL, "constraint-induced sound therapy (CIST)". The aim of the CIST protocol is to prevent or reduce maladaptive cortical reorganization by using an enriched acoustic environment. The canal of the intact ear of SSHL patients is plugged in order to motivate them to actively use the affected ear and thereby prevent progress of maladaptive cortical reorganization. The affected ear is also exposed to music via a headphone for 6 hr per day during hospitalization. The CIST protocol appears to be a safe, easy, inexpensive, and effective treatment for SSHL.

  6. Consensus on Hearing Aid Candidature and Fitting for Mild Hearing Loss, With and Without Tinnitus: Delphi Review

    PubMed Central

    Hoare, Derek J.; Nicholson, Richard; Smith, Sandra; Hall, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In many countries including the United Kingdom, hearing aids are a first line of audiologic intervention for many people with tinnitus and aidable hearing loss. Nevertheless, there is a lack of high quality evidence to support that they are of benefit for tinnitus, and wide variability in their use in clinical practice especially for people with mild hearing loss. The aim of this study was to identify a consensus among a sample of UK clinicians on the criteria for hearing aid candidature and clinical practice in fitting hearing aids specifically for mild hearing loss with and without tinnitus. This will allow professionals to establish clinical benchmarks and to gauge their practice with that used elsewhere. Design: The Delphi technique, a systematic methodology that seeks consensus amongst experts through consultation using a series of iterative questionnaires, was used. A three-round Delphi survey explored clinical consensus among a panel of 29 UK hearing professionals. The authors measured panel agreement on 115 statements covering: (i) general factors affecting the decision to fit hearing aids, (ii) protocol-driven factors affecting the decision to fit hearing aids, (iii) general practice, and (iv) clinical observations. Consensus was defined as a priori ≥70% agreement across the panel. Results: Consensus was reached for 58 of the 115 statements. The broad areas of consensus were around factors important to consider when fitting hearing aids; hearing aid technology/features offered; and important clinical assessment to verify hearing aid fit (agreement of 70% or more). For patients with mild hearing loss, the greatest priority was given by clinicians to patient-centered criteria for fitting hearing aids: hearing difficulties, motivation to wear hearing aids, and impact of hearing loss on quality of life (chosen as top five by at least 64% of panelists). Objective measures were given a lower priority: degree of hearing loss and shape of the

  7. Age-related loss of hepatic Nrf2 protein homeostasis: Potential role for heightened expression of miR-146a.

    PubMed

    Smith, Eric J; Shay, Kate P; Thomas, Nicholas O; Butler, Judy A; Finlay, Liam F; Hagen, Tory M

    2015-12-01

    Nrf2 regulates the expression of numerous anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and metabolic genes. We observed that, paradoxically, Nrf2 protein levels decline in the livers of aged rats despite the inflammatory environment evident in that organ. To examine the cause(s) of this loss, we investigated the age-related changes in Nrf2 protein homeostasis and activation in cultured hepatocytes from young (4-6 months) and old (24-28 months) Fischer 344 rats. While no age-dependent change in Nrf2 mRNA levels was observed (p>0.05), Nrf2 protein content, and the basal and anetholetrithione (A3T)-induced expression of Nrf2-dependent genes were attenuated with age. Conversely, overexpression of Nrf2 in cells from old animals reinstated gene induction. Treatment with A3T, along with bortezomib to inhibit degradation of existing protein, caused Nrf2 to accumulate significantly in cells from young animals (p<0.05), but not old, indicating a lack of new Nrf2 synthesis. We hypothesized that the loss of Nrf2 protein synthesis with age may partly stem from an age-related increase in microRNA inhibition of Nrf2 translation. Microarray analysis revealed that six microRNAs significantly increase >2-fold with age (p<0.05). One of these, miRNA-146a, is predicted to bind Nrf2 mRNA. Transfection of hepatocytes from young rats with a miRNA-146a mimic caused a 55% attenuation of Nrf2 translation that paralleled the age-related loss of Nrf2. Overall, these results provide novel insights for the age-related decline in Nrf2 and identify new targets to maintain Nrf2-dependent detoxification with age. PMID:26549877

  8. The influence of hearing aids on the speech and language development of children with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Tomblin, J Bruce; Oleson, Jacob J; Ambrose, Sophie E; Walker, Elizabeth; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2014-05-01

    IMPORTANCE Hearing loss (HL) in children can be deleterious to their speech and language development. The standard of practice has been early provision of hearing aids (HAs) to moderate these effects; however, there have been few empirical studies evaluating the effectiveness of this practice on speech and language development among children with mild-to-severe HL. OBJECTIVE To investigate the contributions of aided hearing and duration of HA use to speech and language outcomes in children with mild-to-severe HL. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS An observational cross-sectional design was used to examine the association of aided hearing levels and length of HA use with levels of speech and language outcomes. One hundred eighty 3- and 5-year-old children with HL were recruited through records of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening and referrals from clinical service providers in the general community in 6 US states. INTERVENTIONS All but 4 children had been fitted with HAs, and measures of aided hearing and the duration of HA use were obtained. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Standardized measures of speech and language ability were obtained. RESULTS Measures of the gain in hearing ability for speech provided by the HA were significantly correlated with levels of speech (ρ179 = 0.20; P = .008) and language: ρ155 = 0.21; P = .01) ability. These correlations were indicative of modest levels of association between aided hearing and speech and language outcomes. These benefits were found for children with mild and moderate-to-severe HL. In addition, the amount of benefit from aided hearing interacted with the duration of HA experience (Speech: F4,161 = 4.98; P < .001; Language: F4,138 = 2.91; P < .02). Longer duration of HA experience was most beneficial for children who had the best aided hearing. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The degree of improved hearing provided by HAs was associated with better speech and language development in children

  9. Consequences of congenital hearing loss - a longterm view.

    PubMed

    Rapin, I

    1978-12-01

    Responsibility for detection of hearing loss at the earliest possible age rests on the shoulders of the medical profession. Early detection and presentation of language through all available sensory channels, most notably the visual, are essential since deaf children of hearing parents, the vast majority of the deaf, characteristically remain grossly deficient linguistically despite years of special schooling. The deaf children of deaf parents, who are not as deprived linguistically since they learn a manual language at the normal age of language acquisition, tend to be less severely handicapped than the deaf children of hearing parents. Deafness is a hidden handicap in infancy although lack of vestibular function may delay motor milestones like sitting and walking but does not constitute a serious problem after they are achieved. The average 18 year old deaf student achieves a reading level comparable to that of a hearing fourth grader and the mathematical skills of a sixth grader. He is also deficient in science, social studies, and general information despite his average scores on nonverbal intelligence tests. Although many deaf students drop out of school before graduation and few go on to higher education, congenitally deaf adults are usually self-supporting and independent. Eighty per cent of the deaf marry hearing impaired persons. The deaf are greatly assisted by the cohesive deaf community existing in every sizable city which provides a social, recreational, and economic framework to their lives. As a result, delinquency and psychiatric illness are not higher among the deaf than the hearing, despite the difficulties they have dealing with the complexities of the hearing society. PMID:731774

  10. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  11. Analogous and Distinctive Patterns of Prelinguistic Communication in Toddlers with and without Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Dromi, Esther

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to compare the prelinguistic communicative abilities of toddlers with hearing loss and without hearing loss during the 2nd year of life and shortly before the emergence of productive single-word lexicons. Method: The participants were 28 toddlers with hearing loss who participated in an early intervention program…

  12. [Acute unilateral deafness and contralateral hearing loss following inguinal hernia repair under controlled anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Constantinidis, J; Mertzlufft, F; Steinhart, H

    1999-10-01

    Acute hearing loss following non-otologic surgery and general anesthesia is a rare occurrence. Deafness following anesthesia has more commonly been associated with spinal anesthesia or cardiopulmonary bypass surgical procedures. We present a case with unilateral cochlear dysfunction and sensorineural hearing loss after inguinal hernia operation. The literature is reviewed and the mechanisms causing hearing loss during anesthesia are discussed.

  13. Toward a Differential Diagnosis of Hidden Hearing Loss in Humans.

    PubMed

    Liberman, M Charles; Epstein, Michael J; Cleveland, Sandra S; Wang, Haobing; Maison, Stéphane F

    2016-01-01

    Recent work suggests that hair cells are not the most vulnerable elements in the inner ear; rather, it is the synapses between hair cells and cochlear nerve terminals that degenerate first in the aging or noise-exposed ear. This primary neural degeneration does not affect hearing thresholds, but likely contributes to problems understanding speech in difficult listening environments, and may be important in the generation of tinnitus and/or hyperacusis. To look for signs of cochlear synaptopathy in humans, we recruited college students and divided them into low-risk and high-risk groups based on self-report of noise exposure and use of hearing protection. Cochlear function was assessed by otoacoustic emissions and click-evoked electrocochleography; hearing was assessed by behavioral audiometry and word recognition with or without noise or time compression and reverberation. Both groups had normal thresholds at standard audiometric frequencies, however, the high-risk group showed significant threshold elevation at high frequencies (10-16 kHz), consistent with early stages of noise damage. Electrocochleography showed a significant difference in the ratio between the waveform peaks generated by hair cells (Summating Potential; SP) vs. cochlear neurons (Action Potential; AP), i.e. the SP/AP ratio, consistent with selective neural loss. The high-risk group also showed significantly poorer performance on word recognition in noise or with time compression and reverberation, and reported heightened reactions to sound consistent with hyperacusis. These results suggest that the SP/AP ratio may be useful in the diagnosis of "hidden hearing loss" and that, as suggested by animal models, the noise-induced loss of cochlear nerve synapses leads to deficits in hearing abilities in difficult listening situations, despite the presence of normal thresholds at standard audiometric frequencies. PMID:27618300

  14. Multiple-ASSR Interactions in Adults with Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Ieda M; Stapells, David R

    2012-01-01

    The multiple auditory steady-state response (multiple-ASSR) technique, where thresholds for up to 8 frequencies (4 in each ear) are obtained simultaneously, is currently of great interest for audiometric assessment of infants. Although threshold estimates using the multiple-ASSR appear to be reasonably accurate, it is not currently known whether it is more efficient to use multiple stimuli or single stimuli when testing individuals with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The current study investigated the effect of single versus multiple simultaneous stimuli on the 80- and 40-Hz ASSRs in adults with normal hearing or SNHL. Results showed significant interactions (i.e., decreased amplitudes) for both ASSRs going from single to multiple stimuli in one ear. Going from multiple one ear to multiple two ears did not further reduce the amplitude of the 80-Hz ASSR. At the 40-Hz rate, however, there was a further amplitude decrease going from one-ear multiple to two-ear multiple stimuli. Importantly, these interactions did not differ between the normal-hearing and SNHL groups. Although supportive of the multiple-ASSR technique, there are likely situations where it is more efficient to use single stimuli. Future studies are required to assess these interactions in infants with varying degrees and configurations of hearing loss. PMID:23049561

  15. Murine CMV-Induced Hearing Loss Is Associated with Inner Ear Inflammation and Loss of Spiral Ganglia Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Golemac, Mijo; Pugel, Ester Pernjak; Jonjic, Stipan; Britt, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) occurs in 0.5–1% of live births and approximately 10% of infected infants develop hearing loss. The mechanism(s) of hearing loss remain unknown. We developed a murine model of CMV induced hearing loss in which murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection of newborn mice leads to hematogenous spread of virus to the inner ear, induction of inflammatory responses, and hearing loss. Characteristics of the hearing loss described in infants with congenital HCMV infection were observed including, delayed onset, progressive hearing loss, and unilateral hearing loss in this model and, these characteristics were viral inoculum dependent. Viral antigens were present in the inner ear as were CD3+ mononuclear cells in the spiral ganglion and stria vascularis. Spiral ganglion neuron density was decreased after infection, thus providing a mechanism for hearing loss. The lack of significant inner ear histopathology and persistence of inflammation in cochlea of mice with hearing loss raised the possibility that inflammation was a major component of the mechanism(s) of hearing loss in MCMV infected mice. PMID:25875183

  16. Autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss: the otology-rheumatology interface.

    PubMed

    Mijovic, Tamara; Zeitouni, Anthony; Colmegna, Inés

    2013-05-01

    Autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a rare clinical entity characterized by a progressive fluctuating bilateral asymmetric SNHL that develops over several weeks to months. Vestibular symptoms, tinnitus and aural fullness are present in up to 50% of patients. Due to the lack of specific diagnostic tests, both clinical suspicion and responsiveness to corticosteroids are the pillars for the diagnosis of autoimmune SNHL. The evaluation of patients in whom this condition is suspected should include a detailed history and physical examination, an audiogram, an MRI and a limited laboratory workup to exclude secondary causes of hearing loss. The low frequency of this condition, the heterogeneity in the designs of the available studies and the absence of randomized trials comparing treatment responses and assessing long-term outcomes are some of the factors accounting for the limited evidence to guide the clinician in the approach to the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune SNHL.

  17. Prevalence, aetiology, and care of severe and profound hearing loss.

    PubMed Central

    Baille, M F; Arnaud, C; Cans, C; Grandjean, H; du Mazaubrun, C; Rumeau-Rouquette, C

    1996-01-01

    Severe and profound hearing loss (> 70 dB) were analysed in a retrospective study of 226 children, born between 1976 and 1985, and recruited from three French administrative departments. The prevalence was 0.54 per 1000 children under 9 years old, with no decrease over the study period. A hereditary origin was identified in 20.8% of cases and an infectious origin in 11.5%. Perinatal risk factors were present in 11.5%, while the aetiology was undetermined in more than half the cases. In 85.8% of the children there was no other severe impairment. Marked learning difficulties were observed: 36% of the children were two years behind their age group and 28% were more than two years behind. The age of initial care decreased over the study period but is still too advanced. Systematic neonatal screening would enable earlier care, which should limit the social and educational impact of hearing loss. PMID:8869193

  18. Effects of potential neurotoxic pesticides on hearing loss: a review.

    PubMed

    Gatto, M P; Fioretti, M; Fabrizi, G; Gherardi, M; Strafella, E; Santarelli, L

    2014-05-01

    Several pesticides are supposed to be neurotoxic for humans, consequently, they may also affect the auditory system. This review analyzes human and experimental animal studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides is associated with hearing loss. The literature on this topic is still sparse and methodological limitations of some papers evaluated are identified. As a whole, available data indicate a possible ototoxic action of pesticides, but alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out, also considering some confounders, such as the co-exposure to noise. Therefore, further studies are necessary in order to clarify the association between pesticides exposure and hearing loss. While awaiting more evidence, for precautionary action we recommend considering pesticides as possible ototoxic agents, in particular for vulnerable targets, such as pregnant women and children during early development.

  19. Sensorineural hearing loss associated with a factitious disorder.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Ayako; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; Ito, Taku; Narushima, Kenji; Kitamura, Ken

    2015-12-01

    Factitious disorders are characterized by intentionally abnormal physical and/or psychological behavior, and affected patients often make up their symptoms and clinical histories. The most serious and chronic type of factitious disorder is Munchausen syndrome. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman with a 2-year history of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) who later confessed to feigning her hearing loss. She was eventually diagnosed with a factitious disorder. During those 2 years, she was able to induce her SNHL by exposing herself to excessive noise or high doses of aspirin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing an association between a factitious disorder and SNHL. PMID:26670765

  20. The mitochondrion: a perpetrator of acquired hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Böttger, Erik C; Schacht, Jochen

    2013-09-01

    Age, drugs, and noise are major causes of acquired hearing loss. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hair cell death has long been discussed, but there is considerably less information available as to the mechanisms underlying ROS formation. Most cellular ROS arise in mitochondria and this review will evaluate evidence for mitochondrial pathology in general and dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in particular in acquired hearing loss. We will discuss evidence that different pathways can lead to the generation of ROS and that oxidative stress might not necessarily be causal to all three pathologies. Finally, we will detail recent advances in exploiting knowledge of aminoglycoside-mitochondria interactions for the development of non-ototoxic antibacterials. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Annual Reviews 2013".

  1. Developmental plasticity of spatial hearing following asymmetric hearing loss: context-dependent cue integration and its clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Peter; King, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Under normal hearing conditions, comparisons of the sounds reaching each ear are critical for accurate sound localization. Asymmetric hearing loss should therefore degrade spatial hearing and has become an important experimental tool for probing the plasticity of the auditory system, both during development and adulthood. In clinical populations, hearing loss affecting one ear more than the other is commonly associated with otitis media with effusion, a disorder experienced by approximately 80% of children before the age of two. Asymmetric hearing may also arise in other clinical situations, such as after unilateral cochlear implantation. Here, we consider the role played by spatial cue integration in sound localization under normal acoustical conditions. We then review evidence for adaptive changes in spatial hearing following a developmental hearing loss in one ear, and show that adaptation may be achieved either by learning a new relationship between the altered cues and directions in space or by changing the way different cues are integrated in the brain. We next consider developmental plasticity as a source of vulnerability, describing maladaptive effects of asymmetric hearing loss that persist even when normal hearing is provided. We also examine the extent to which the consequences of asymmetric hearing loss depend upon its timing and duration. Although much of the experimental literature has focused on the effects of a stable unilateral hearing loss, some of the most common hearing impairments experienced by children tend to fluctuate over time. We therefore propose that there is a need to bridge this gap by investigating the effects of recurring hearing loss during development, and outline recent steps in this direction. We conclude by arguing that this work points toward a more nuanced view of developmental plasticity, in which plasticity may be selectively expressed in response to specific sensory contexts, and consider the clinical implications of this

  2. Genetics of hearing loss: where are we standing now?

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Hossein; Dwabe, Sami; Fradkin, Matthew; Kimonis, Virginia; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2012-07-01

    Hearing loss (HL) is the most common sensory impairment and is caused by a broad range of inherited to environmental causes. Inherited HL consists 50-60% of all HL cases. The inherited form of HL is further classified to different categories. More than 300 syndromes and 40 genes have been identified to result in different levels of HL. Although several diagnostic or screening tests have been developed, yet there are controversies around their use. PMID:22218850

  3. Behavioral training promotes multiple adaptive processes following acute hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Peter; Rosenior-Patten, Onayomi; Dahmen, Johannes C; Bell, Olivia; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The brain possesses a remarkable capacity to compensate for changes in inputs resulting from a range of sensory impairments. Developmental studies of sound localization have shown that adaptation to asymmetric hearing loss can be achieved either by reinterpreting altered spatial cues or by relying more on those cues that remain intact. Adaptation to monaural deprivation in adulthood is also possible, but appears to lack such flexibility. Here we show, however, that appropriate behavioral training enables monaurally-deprived adult humans to exploit both of these adaptive processes. Moreover, cortical recordings in ferrets reared with asymmetric hearing loss suggest that these forms of plasticity have distinct neural substrates. An ability to adapt to asymmetric hearing loss using multiple adaptive processes is therefore shared by different species and may persist throughout the lifespan. This highlights the fundamental flexibility of neural systems, and may also point toward novel therapeutic strategies for treating sensory disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12264.001 PMID:27008181

  4. Hemoconcentration as a possible pathogenic factor of sudden hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Suckfüll, M; Mees, K

    1998-01-01

    Hemodilution is considered to be a useful therapy for sudden hearing loss by improving cochlear blood flow (COBF) as a result of decreasing viscosity of the whole blood. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate whether hemoconcentration actually leads to a diminished COBF and impaired function of the cochlea to thus play a role in the pathogenesis of sudden hearing loss. Ten New Zealand White rabbits were anesthetized and ventilated. Cochlear function was evaluated by measuring distortion products of otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) at the beginning of each experiment and after 120 min. In the interim, each test animal's hematocrit was raised by an infusion of packed red cells. Control animals were not infused, so hematocrits were left unchanged. Reproducibility of DPOAE measurements were found to be dependent upon the stimulus level. Correlation coefficients were 0.83 for 65 dB SPL and 0.78 for 45 dB SPL. Although no changes in the absolute level of DPOAEs were observed after raising the hematocrit, correlation coefficients were diminished to 0.68 at 65 dB SPL and 0.58 at 45 dB SPL. Hemoconcentration caused no apparent changes in the cochlear function in our animals. Although these findings may reflect species differences, hemoconcentration might still be a factor causing sudden hearing loss in older, atherosclerotic patients.

  5. Cochlear neuropathy in human presbycusis: confocal analysis of hidden hearing loss in post-mortem tissue

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Lucas M.; O’Malley, Jennifer T.; Burgess, Barbara J.; Jones, Dianne D.; Oliveira, Carlos A.C.P.; Santos, Felipe; Merchant, Saumil N.; Liberman, Leslie D.; Liberman, M. Charles

    2015-01-01

    Recent animal work has suggested that cochlear synapses are more vulnerable than hair cells in both noise-induced and age-related hearing loss. This synaptopathy is invisible in conventional histopathological analysis, because cochlear nerve cell bodies in the spiral ganglion survive for years, and synaptic analysis requires special immunostaining or serial-section electron microscopy. Here, we show that the same quadruple-immunostaining protocols that allow synaptic counts, hair cell counts, neuronal counts and differentiation of afferent and efferent fibers in mouse can be applied to human temporal bones, when harvested within 9 hrs post-mortem and prepared as dissected whole mounts of the sensory epithelium and osseous spiral lamina. Quantitative analysis of five “normal” ears, aged 54 to 89 yrs, without any history of otologic disease, suggests that cochlear synaptopathy and the degeneration of cochlear nerve peripheral axons, despite a near-normal hair cell population, may be an important component of human presbycusis. Although primary cochlear nerve degeneration is not expected to affect audiometric thresholds, it may be key to problems with hearing in noise that are characteristic of declining hearing abilities in the aging ear. PMID:26002688

  6. Serotonin 2B receptor: upregulated with age and hearing loss in mouse auditory system.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Sherif F; D'Souza, Mary; Zettel, Martha L; Zhu, XiaoXia; Lynch-Erhardt, Martha; Frisina, Robert D

    2007-07-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Serotonin may modulate afferent fiber discharges in the cochlea, inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex. Specific functions of serotonin are exerted upon its interaction with specific receptors; one of those receptors is the serotonin 2B receptor. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in gene expression of serotonin 2B receptors with age in cochlea and IC, and the possible correlation between gene expression and functional hearing measurements in CBA/CaJ mice. Immunohistochemical examinations of protein expression of IC in mice of different age groups were also performed. Gene expression results showed that serotonin 2B receptor gene was upregulated with age in both cochlea and IC. A significant correlation between gene expression and functional hearing results was established. Immunohistochemical protein expression studies of IC showed more serotonin 2B receptor cells in old mice relative to young adult mice, particularly in the external nucleus. We conclude that serotonin 2B receptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of age-related hearing loss.

  7. Toward a Differential Diagnosis of Hidden Hearing Loss in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, M. Charles; Epstein, Michael J.; Cleveland, Sandra S.; Wang, Haobing

    2016-01-01

    Recent work suggests that hair cells are not the most vulnerable elements in the inner ear; rather, it is the synapses between hair cells and cochlear nerve terminals that degenerate first in the aging or noise-exposed ear. This primary neural degeneration does not affect hearing thresholds, but likely contributes to problems understanding speech in difficult listening environments, and may be important in the generation of tinnitus and/or hyperacusis. To look for signs of cochlear synaptopathy in humans, we recruited college students and divided them into low-risk and high-risk groups based on self-report of noise exposure and use of hearing protection. Cochlear function was assessed by otoacoustic emissions and click-evoked electrocochleography; hearing was assessed by behavioral audiometry and word recognition with or without noise or time compression and reverberation. Both groups had normal thresholds at standard audiometric frequencies, however, the high-risk group showed significant threshold elevation at high frequencies (10–16 kHz), consistent with early stages of noise damage. Electrocochleography showed a significant difference in the ratio between the waveform peaks generated by hair cells (Summating Potential; SP) vs. cochlear neurons (Action Potential; AP), i.e. the SP/AP ratio, consistent with selective neural loss. The high-risk group also showed significantly poorer performance on word recognition in noise or with time compression and reverberation, and reported heightened reactions to sound consistent with hyperacusis. These results suggest that the SP/AP ratio may be useful in the diagnosis of “hidden hearing loss” and that, as suggested by animal models, the noise-induced loss of cochlear nerve synapses leads to deficits in hearing abilities in difficult listening situations, despite the presence of normal thresholds at standard audiometric frequencies. PMID:27618300

  8. Working memory, age and hearing loss: susceptibility to hearing aid distortion

    PubMed Central

    Arehart, Kathryn H.; Souza, Pamela; Baca, Rosalinda; Kates, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Hearing aids use complex processing intended to improve speech recognition. While many listeners benefit from such processing, it can also introduce distortion that offsets or cancels intended benefits for some individuals. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of cognitive ability (working memory) on individual listeners’ responses to distortion caused by frequency compression applied to noisy speech. Design The present study analyzed a large dataset of intelligibility scores for frequency-compressed speech presented in quiet and at a range of signal-to-babble ratios. The intelligibility dataset was based on scores from 26 adults with hearing loss with ages ranging from 62 to 92 years. The listeners were grouped based on working memory ability. The amount of signal modification (distortion) due to frequency compression and noise was measured using a sound quality metric. Analysis of variance and hierarchical linear modeling were used to identify meaningful differences between subject groups as a function of signal distortion caused by frequency compression and noise. Results Working memory was a significant factor in listeners’ intelligibility of sentences presented in babble noise and processed with frequency compression based on sinusoidal modeling. At maximum signal modification (caused by both frequency compression and babble noise), the factor of working memory (when controlling for age and hearing loss) accounted for 29.3% of the variance in intelligibility scores. Combining working memory, age, and hearing loss accounted for a total of 47.5% of the variability in intelligibility scores. Furthermore, as the total amount of signal distortion increased, listeners with higher working memory performed better on the intelligibility task than listeners with lower working memory. Conclusions Working memory is a significant factor in listeners’ responses to total signal distortion caused by cumulative effects of babble noise

  9. The Importance of Hearing: A Review of the Literature on Hearing Loss for Older People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Sarah; McShea, Lynzee; Brennan, Siobhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hearing loss has a significant impact on living well and on communication in all adults, with the numbers affected increasing with age, and adults with learning disabilities being at particular risk. Methods: A review of the literature on hearing loss in older adults with learning disabilities was completed. Results: A significant…

  10. [Acute perceptive hearing loss. Importance of tuning fork test in primary care].

    PubMed

    Verburg, A F E Arianne; Alkhateeb, W H F Waiel; Merkus, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman presented with acute right-sided hearing loss. At first presentation she was diagnosed as having otitis media with effusion. No tuning fork test was performed. After four weeks she was finally correctly diagnosed as having a right-sided sensorineural hearing loss of 90 dB. As a result of the delay no treatment was started. Her hearing loss did not show any improvement after three months. Sensorineural hearing loss is a rare, potentially invalidating condition with a considerable psychological impact. The treatment consists of systemic steroids, which may only be useful if started within 14 days after symptoms start. Some patients are initially treated for conductive hearing loss. Routine performance of the tuning fork test helps in differentiating between conductive and perceptive hearing loss. In cases of acute perceptive hearing loss, patients should be referred to the otorhinolaryngologist to exclude possible causes and start treatment and guidance.

  11. Neuro-rehabilitation Approach for Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Kenichi; Fukushima, Munehisa; Teismann, Henning; Lagemann, Lothar; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo; Okamoto, Hidehiko

    2016-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is characterized by acute, idiopathic hearing loss. The estimated incidence rate is 5-30 cases per 100,000 people per year. The causes of SSHL and the mechanisms underlying SSHL currently remain unknown. Based on several hypotheses such as a circulatory disturbance to the cochlea, viral infection, and autoimmune disease, pharmaco-therapeutic approaches have been applied to treat SSHL patients; however, the efficacy of the standard treatment, corticosteroid therapy, is still under debate. Exposure to intense sounds has been shown to cause permanent damage to the auditory system; however, exposure to a moderate level enriched acoustic environment after noise trauma may reduce hearing impairments. Several neuroimaging studies recently suggested that the onset of SSHL induced maladaptive cortical reorganization in the human auditory cortex, and that the degree of cortical reorganization in the acute SSHL phase negatively correlated with the recovery rate from hearing loss. This article reports the development of a novel neuro-rehabilitation approach for SSHL, "constraint-induced sound therapy (CIST)". The aim of the CIST protocol is to prevent or reduce maladaptive cortical reorganization by using an enriched acoustic environment. The canal of the intact ear of SSHL patients is plugged in order to motivate them to actively use the affected ear and thereby prevent progress of maladaptive cortical reorganization. The affected ear is also exposed to music via a headphone for 6 hr per day during hospitalization. The CIST protocol appears to be a safe, easy, inexpensive, and effective treatment for SSHL. PMID:26863274

  12. Neuro-rehabilitation Approach for Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Sekiya, Kenichi; Fukushima, Munehisa; Teismann, Henning; Lagemann, Lothar; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo; Okamoto, Hidehiko

    2016-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is characterized by acute, idiopathic hearing loss. The estimated incidence rate is 5-30 cases per 100,000 people per year. The causes of SSHL and the mechanisms underlying SSHL currently remain unknown. Based on several hypotheses such as a circulatory disturbance to the cochlea, viral infection, and autoimmune disease, pharmaco-therapeutic approaches have been applied to treat SSHL patients; however, the efficacy of the standard treatment, corticosteroid therapy, is still under debate. Exposure to intense sounds has been shown to cause permanent damage to the auditory system; however, exposure to a moderate level enriched acoustic environment after noise trauma may reduce hearing impairments. Several neuroimaging studies recently suggested that the onset of SSHL induced maladaptive cortical reorganization in the human auditory cortex, and that the degree of cortical reorganization in the acute SSHL phase negatively correlated with the recovery rate from hearing loss. This article reports the development of a novel neuro-rehabilitation approach for SSHL, "constraint-induced sound therapy (CIST)". The aim of the CIST protocol is to prevent or reduce maladaptive cortical reorganization by using an enriched acoustic environment. The canal of the intact ear of SSHL patients is plugged in order to motivate them to actively use the affected ear and thereby prevent progress of maladaptive cortical reorganization. The affected ear is also exposed to music via a headphone for 6 hr per day during hospitalization. The CIST protocol appears to be a safe, easy, inexpensive, and effective treatment for SSHL. PMID:26863274

  13. Infants and children with hearing loss need early language access.

    PubMed

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Mathur, Gaurav; Moreland, Christopher J; Napoli, Donna Jo; Osterling, Wendy; Padden, Carol; Rathmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Around 96 percent of children with hearing loss are born to parents with intact hearing, who may initially know little about deafness or sign language. Therefore, such parents will need information and support in making decisions about the medical, linguistic, and educational management of their child. Some of these decisions are time-sensitive and irreversible and come at a moment of emotional turmoil and vulnerability (when some parents grieve the loss of a normally hearing child). Clinical research indicates that a deaf child's poor communication skills can be made worse by increased level of parental depression. Given this, the importance of reliable and up-to-date support for parents' decisions is critical to the overall well-being of their child. In raising and educating a child, parents are often offered an exclusive choice between an oral environment (including assistive technology, speech reading, and voicing) and a signing environment. A heated controversy surrounds this choice, and has since at least the late 19th century, beginning with the International Congress on the Education of the Deaf in Milan, held in 1880. While families seek advice from many sources, including, increasingly, the internet, the primary care physician (PCP) is the professional medical figure the family interacts with repeatedly. The present article aims to help family advisors, particularly the PCP and other medical advisors in this regard. We argue that deaf children need to be exposed regularly and frequently to good language models in both visual and auditory modalities from the time hearing loss is detected and continued throughout their education to ensure proper cognitive, psychological, and educational development. Since there is, unfortunately, a dearth of empirical studies on many of the issues families must confront, professional opinions, backed by what studies do exist, are the only option. We here give our strongly held professional opinions and stress the need for

  14. Analysis of the Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Hearing Loss in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seok Min; Park, Il-Seok; Kim, Yong Bok; Hong, Seok Jin; Lee, Byungho

    2016-01-01

    Background Hearing loss can lead to a number of disabilities, subsequently reducing the quality of life. In general, hearing thresholds of adolescents are better than adults and the elderly. However, occasionally, adolescents acquire hearing loss for a number of reasons. In this study, our goal was to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss in the Korean population and to investigate the factors related to hearing thresholds in adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2010 and 2012. We enrolled a total of 1,658 participants, ages 13 to 18 years. We investigated the prevalence of hearing loss and the factors associated with hearing thresholds at various frequencies (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 KHz). Results Weighted prevalence of unilateral and bilateral hearing loss in Korean adolescents was 2.2% and 0.4%, respectively. Weighted prevalence of hearing thresholds ≥ 20 dB at speech and high frequencies were 3.1% and 5.0%, respectively, for unilateral hearing loss and 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively, for bilateral. Age group, tympanometric data, and household income were significantly related to unilateral or bilateral hearing thresholds ≥ 20 dB at speech frequencies. Earphone use in noisy places was associated with bilateral hearing thresholds ≥ 20 dB at high frequencies. Conclusions The prevalence of hearing loss in Korean adolescents was 2.6% using the general standard threshold associated with hearing loss. However, the prevalence of hearing thresholds ≥ 20 dB for speech and high frequencies was much higher. The results from this study provide an estimate of hearing loss in adolescents and suggest the need for early detection and hearing preservation programs among adolescents. PMID:27513659

  15. Hearing Outcomes After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannomas : Mechanism of Hearing Loss and How to Preserve Hearing.

    PubMed

    Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Gyu; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Paek, Sun Ha; Jung, Hee-Won

    2016-01-01

    The use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) expanded to include the treatment of vestibular schwannomas (VSs) in 1969; since then, efforts to increase tumour control and to reduce cranial neuropathy have continued. Using the currently recommended marginal dose of 12-13 Gy, long-term reported outcomes after SRS include not only excellent tumour control rates of 92-100 % but also outstanding functional preservation of the trigeminal and facial nerves, with values of 92-100 % and 94-100 %, respectively. Nonetheless, hearing preservation remains in the range of 32-81 %. Previous studies have suggested possible prognostic factors of hearing preservation such as the Gardner-Robertson grade, radiation dose to the cochlea, transient volume expansion (TVE) after SRS, length of irradiated cochlear nerve, marginal dose to the tumour, and age. However, we still do not clearly understand why patients lose their hearing after SRS for VS.Relevant to these considerations, one study recently reported that the auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave V latency and waves I and V interval (IL_I-V) correlated well with intracanalicular pressure values and even with hearing level. The demonstration that ABR values, especially wave V latency and IL_I-V, correlate well with intracanalicular pressure suggests that patients with previously elevated intracanalicular pressure might have an increased chance of hearing loss on development of TVE, which has been recognised as a common phenomenon after SRS or stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for intracranial schwannomas.In our experience, the ABR IL_I-V increased during the first 12 months after SRS for VSs in patients who lost their serviceable hearing. The effect of increased ABR IL_I-V on hearing outcome also became significant over time, especially at 12 months after SRS, and was more prominent in patients with poor initial pure-tone average (PTA) and/or ABR values. We hypothesise that patients with considerable intracanalicular pressure at the

  16. Hearing Outcomes After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannomas : Mechanism of Hearing Loss and How to Preserve Hearing.

    PubMed

    Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Gyu; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Paek, Sun Ha; Jung, Hee-Won

    2016-01-01

    The use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) expanded to include the treatment of vestibular schwannomas (VSs) in 1969; since then, efforts to increase tumour control and to reduce cranial neuropathy have continued. Using the currently recommended marginal dose of 12-13 Gy, long-term reported outcomes after SRS include not only excellent tumour control rates of 92-100 % but also outstanding functional preservation of the trigeminal and facial nerves, with values of 92-100 % and 94-100 %, respectively. Nonetheless, hearing preservation remains in the range of 32-81 %. Previous studies have suggested possible prognostic factors of hearing preservation such as the Gardner-Robertson grade, radiation dose to the cochlea, transient volume expansion (TVE) after SRS, length of irradiated cochlear nerve, marginal dose to the tumour, and age. However, we still do not clearly understand why patients lose their hearing after SRS for VS.Relevant to these considerations, one study recently reported that the auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave V latency and waves I and V interval (IL_I-V) correlated well with intracanalicular pressure values and even with hearing level. The demonstration that ABR values, especially wave V latency and IL_I-V, correlate well with intracanalicular pressure suggests that patients with previously elevated intracanalicular pressure might have an increased chance of hearing loss on development of TVE, which has been recognised as a common phenomenon after SRS or stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for intracranial schwannomas.In our experience, the ABR IL_I-V increased during the first 12 months after SRS for VSs in patients who lost their serviceable hearing. The effect of increased ABR IL_I-V on hearing outcome also became significant over time, especially at 12 months after SRS, and was more prominent in patients with poor initial pure-tone average (PTA) and/or ABR values. We hypothesise that patients with considerable intracanalicular pressure at the

  17. Differential pathologies resulting from sound exposure: Tinnitus vs hearing loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longenecker, Ryan James

    The first step in identifying the mechanism(s) responsible for tinnitus development would be to discover a neural correlate that is differentially expressed in tinnitus-positive compared to tinnitus negative animals. Previous research has identified several neural correlates of tinnitus in animals that have tested positive for tinnitus. However it is unknown whether all or some of these correlates are linked to tinnitus or if they are a byproduct of hearing loss, a common outcome of tinnitus induction. Abnormally high spontaneous activity has frequently been linked to tinnitus. However, while some studies demonstrate that hyperactivity positively correlates with behavioral evidence of tinnitus, others show that when all animals develop hyperactivity to sound exposure, not all exposed animals show evidence of tinnitus. My working hypothesis is that certain aspects of hyperactivity are linked to tinnitus while other aspects are linked to hearing loss. The first specific aim utilized the gap induced prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (GIPAS) to monitor the development of tinnitus in CBA/CaJ mice during one year following sound exposure. Immediately after sound exposure, GIPAS testing revealed widespread gap detection deficits across all frequencies, which was likely due to temporary threshold shifts. However, three months after sound exposure these deficits were limited to a narrow frequency band and were consistently detected up to one year after exposure. This suggests the development of chronic tinnitus is a long lasting and highly dynamic process. The second specific aim assessed hearing loss in sound exposed mice using several techniques. Acoustic brainstem responses recorded initially after sound exposure reveal large magnitude deficits in all exposed mice. However, at the three month period, thresholds return to control levels in all mice suggesting that ABRs are not a reliable tool for assessing permanent hearing loss. Input/output functions of

  18. Factors associated with hearing loss in a normal-hearing guinea pig model of Hybrid cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Chiemi; Nguyen-Huynh, Anh; Loera, Katherine; Stark, Gemaine; Reiss, Lina

    2014-10-01

    The Hybrid cochlear implant (CI), also known as Electro-Acoustic Stimulation (EAS), is a new type of CI that preserves residual acoustic hearing and enables combined cochlear implant and hearing aid use in the same ear. However, 30-55% of patients experience acoustic hearing loss within days to months after activation, suggesting that both surgical trauma and electrical stimulation may cause hearing loss. The goals of this study were to: 1) determine the contributions of both implantation surgery and EAS to hearing loss in a normal-hearing guinea pig model; 2) determine which cochlear structural changes are associated with hearing loss after surgery and EAS. Two groups of animals were implanted (n = 6 per group), with one group receiving chronic acoustic and electric stimulation for 10 weeks, and the other group receiving no direct acoustic or electric stimulation during this time frame. A third group (n = 6) was not implanted, but received chronic acoustic stimulation. Auditory brainstem response thresholds were followed over time at 1, 2, 6, and 16 kHz. At the end of the study, the following cochlear measures were quantified: hair cells, spiral ganglion neuron density, fibrous tissue density, and stria vascularis blood vessel density; the presence or absence of ossification around the electrode entry was also noted. After surgery, implanted animals experienced a range of 0-55 dB of threshold shifts in the vicinity of the electrode at 6 and 16 kHz. The degree of hearing loss was significantly correlated with reduced stria vascularis vessel density and with the presence of ossification, but not with hair cell counts, spiral ganglion neuron density, or fibrosis area. After 10 weeks of stimulation, 67% of implanted, stimulated animals had more than 10 dB of additional threshold shift at 1 kHz, compared to 17% of implanted, non-stimulated animals and 0% of non-implanted animals. This 1-kHz hearing loss was not associated with changes in any of the cochlear measures

  19. Screening for hearing loss versus parental concern regarding hearing problems: Subsequent referral and treatment for otitis media in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Lok, Willeke; Anteunis, Lucien J. C.; Chenault, Michelene N.; Meesters, Cor; Haggard, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates whether general practitioner (GP) consultation initiated by failing the population hearing screening at age nine months or GP consultation because of parental concern over ear/hearing problems was more important in deciding on referral and/or surgical treatment of otitis media (OM). Design A questionnaire covering the history between birth and 21 months of age was used to obtain information on referral after failing the hearing screening, GP consultations for ear/hearing problems, and subsequent referral to a specialist and possible surgical treatment at an ENT department. Setting The province of Limburg, the Netherlands. Subjects Healthy infants invited for the hearing screening at age nine months, who responded in an earlier study called PEPPER (Persistent Ear Problems, Providing Evidence for Referral, response rate 58%). Main outcome measures The odds of a child being surgically treated for OM. Results The response rate for the present questionnaire was 72%. Of all children tested, 3.9% failed the hearing screening and were referred to their GP. Of all 2619 children in this study, 18.6% visited their GP with ear/hearing problems. Children failing the hearing screening without GP consultation for ear/hearing problems were significantly more often treated surgically for OM than children passing the hearing screening but with GP consultation for ear/hearing problems. Conclusion Objectified hearing loss, i.e. failing the hearing screening, was important in the decision for surgical treatment in infants in the Netherlands. PMID:22794165

  20. 29 CFR 1904.10 - Recording criteria for cases involving occupational hearing loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... loss. (a) Basic requirement. If an employee's hearing test (audiogram) reveals that the employee has... occupational noise exposure standard at 29 CFR 1910.95(g)(10)(i) as a change in hearing threshold, relative to... experienced a recordable hearing loss, you must compare the employee's current audiogram with that...

  1. 29 CFR 1904.10 - Recording criteria for cases involving occupational hearing loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... loss. (a) Basic requirement. If an employee's hearing test (audiogram) reveals that the employee has... occupational noise exposure standard at 29 CFR 1910.95(g)(10)(i) as a change in hearing threshold, relative to... experienced a recordable hearing loss, you must compare the employee's current audiogram with that...

  2. The Relationship between Language Development and Behaviour Problems in Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim; McCann, Donna; Watkin, Peter; Worsfold, Sarah; Kennedy, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Background: There are well-replicated findings that link poor development on a range of communication skills with increased behavioural problems. This paper examines this relationship in children with hearing loss. Method: One hundred and twenty children with hearing loss (67 boys, 53 girls) and 63 hearing children (37 boys, 26 girls) with a mean…

  3. 29 CFR 1904.10 - Recording criteria for cases involving occupational hearing loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... loss. (a) Basic requirement. If an employee's hearing test (audiogram) reveals that the employee has... occupational noise exposure standard at 29 CFR 1910.95(g)(10)(i) as a change in hearing threshold, relative to... experienced a recordable hearing loss, you must compare the employee's current audiogram with that...

  4. 29 CFR 1904.10 - Recording criteria for cases involving occupational hearing loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... loss. (a) Basic requirement. If an employee's hearing test (audiogram) reveals that the employee has... occupational noise exposure standard at 29 CFR 1910.95(g)(10)(i) as a change in hearing threshold, relative to... experienced a recordable hearing loss, you must compare the employee's current audiogram with that...

  5. Children with Mild Bilateral and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Parents' Reflections on Experiences and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Grandpierre, Viviane; Durieux-Smith, Andrée; Gaboury, Isabelle; Coyle, Doug; Na, Eunjung; Sallam, Nusaiba

    2016-01-01

    Children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss are now commonly identified early through newborn hearing screening initiatives. There remains considerable uncertainty about how to support parents and about which services to provide for children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss. The goal of this study was to learn about…

  6. Talker Differences in Clear and Conversational Speech: Vowel Intelligibility for Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the range of talker variability for vowel intelligibility in clear versus conversational speech for older adults with hearing loss and to determine whether talkers who produced a clear speech benefit for young listeners with normal hearing also did so for older adults with hearing loss. Method: Clear and conversational vowels…

  7. 29 CFR 1904.10 - Recording criteria for cases involving occupational hearing loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... loss. (a) Basic requirement. If an employee's hearing test (audiogram) reveals that the employee has... occupational noise exposure standard at 29 CFR 1910.95(g)(10)(i) as a change in hearing threshold, relative to... experienced a recordable hearing loss, you must compare the employee's current audiogram with that...

  8. Comparisons of Social Competence in Young Children with and without Hearing Loss: A Dynamic Systems Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michael F.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Cejas, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    This study compared levels of social competence and language development in 74 young children with hearing loss and 38 hearing peers aged 2.5-5.3 years. This study was the first to examine the relationship between oral language and social competence using a dynamic systems framework in children with and without hearing loss. We hypothesized that,…

  9. Listening Effort and Fatigue in School-Age Children with and without Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Candace Bourland; Tharpe, Anne Marie

    2002-01-01

    Two studies compared either physiological signs of fatigue or evidence of effort expended by 20 school-age children with or without mild-to-moderate hearing loss under difficult hearing conditions. Although the first study found no differences in fatigue, the second study found that children with hearing loss expend more effort in listening than…

  10. 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents ... you determine if you need to have your hearing evaluated by a health professional. Answer YES or ...

  11. Auditory Temporal-Organization Abilities in School-Age Children with Peripheral Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess auditory sequential organization (ASO) ability in children with and without hearing loss. Method: Forty children 9 to 12 years old participated in the study: 12 with sensory hearing loss (HL), 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and 16 with normal hearing. They performed an ASO task in which…

  12. Temporal Intraspeech Masking of Plosive Bursts: Effects of Hearing Loss and Frequency Shaping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackersie, Carol L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes were (a) to compare masking of consonant bursts by adjacent vowels for listeners with and without hearing loss and (b) to determine the extent to which the temporal intraspeech masking can be reduced by a simulated hearing-aid frequency-response shaping. Method: Fourteen adults with sensorineural hearing loss and 10 with…

  13. Maternal Distancing Strategies toward Twin Sons, One with Mild Hearing Loss: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Silva, Alicia; Sanchez-Garcia, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    The authors apply descriptive and sequential analyses to a mother's distancing strategies toward her 3-year-old twin sons in puzzle assembly and book reading tasks. One boy had normal hearing and the other a mild hearing loss (threshold: 30 dB). The results show that the mother used more distancing behaviors with the son with a hearing loss, and…

  14. Minocycline protection of neomycin induced hearing loss in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Alan M; Vujanovic, Irena; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    This animal study was designed to determine if minocycline ameliorates cochlear damage is caused by intratympanic injection of the ototoxic aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin. Baseline auditory-evoked brainstem responses were measured in gerbils that received 40 mM intratympanic neomycin either with 0, 1.2, or 1.5 mg/kg intraperitoneal minocycline. Four weeks later auditory-evoked brainstem responses were measured and compared to the baseline measurements. Minocycline treatments of 1.2 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg resulted in significantly lower threshold increases compared to 0 mg/kg, indicating protection of hearing loss between 6 kHz and 19 kHz. Cochleae were processed for histology and sectioned to allow quantification of the spiral ganglion neurons and histological evaluation of organ of Corti. Significant reduction of spiral ganglion neuron density was demonstrated in animals that did not receive minocycline, indicating that those receiving minocycline demonstrated enhanced survival of spiral ganglion neurons, enhanced survival of sensory hairs cells and spiral ganglion neurons, and reduced hearing threshold elevation correlates with minocycline treatment demonstrating that neomycin induced hearing loss can be reduced by the simultaneous application of minocycline.

  15. Current aspects of hearing loss from occupational and leisure noise

    PubMed Central

    Plontke, S.; Zenner, H.-P.

    2004-01-01

    Hearing loss from occupational and leisure noise numbers amongst the most frequent causes of an acquired sensorineural hearing loss. Here we present a review of up-to-date findings on the pathophysiology of acoustic injury to the inner ear, with special attention being paid to its molecular-biological and genetic aspects. Epidemiological aspects shall also be dealt with, as shall the roles of lacking recovery from occupational noise due to additional exposure by leisure noise and the combined exposure of noise and chemicals. Based on the epidemiological and pathophysiological findings and against the background of published animal-experimental, pre-clinical and clinical findings, the various approaches for prevention, protection and therapeutic intervention with acoustic trauma are discussed. Pharmacological strategies involving anti-oxidative, anti-excitotoxic and anti-apoptotic substances as well as non-pharmacological strategies like "sound conditioning" are given attention. Furthermore, systemic and local substance application as well as the therapy of acute acoustic trauma and chronic hearing problems (including modern therapy forms for comorbidities such as tinnitus) shall be delved into. PMID:22073048

  16. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss during oral anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Mierzwa, Kathleen; Schneider, Gerlind; Müller, Andreas

    2004-11-01

    This study investigated the role of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) as a symptom in oral anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists (Phenprocoumon; Marcumar, Falithrom). Vascular compromise of the cochlea due to thrombosis, embolus, reduced blood flow or vasospasm is one of the four possible pathways that can lead to SSNHL. Oral anticoagulant therapy should prevent thrombosis; if it does not the question arises as to whether the anticoagulation is working, or the wrong hypothesis of vascular compromise has been made. Patients with SSNHL during oral anticoagulant therapy who were admitted to the ENT Department of the University Hospital in Jena from 1998 to 2001 were included. The pure-tone audiograms and the prothrombin time (PT) values before and after the event of the SSNHL were evaluated. The study found 10 patients with SSNHL during oral anticoagulant therapy. Although the audiograms showed some improvement in the majority of cases, three cases showed almost no improvement in hearing. On admission, half of the patients showed a PT-value higher than 30 per cent and in nine cases a PT-value >30 per cent could be demonstrated at least once during testing. It was not possible to demonstrate a relationship between the SSNHL and oral anticoagulation. Vascular compromise cannot be excluded as a cause for sudden hearing loss in patients undergoing oral anticoagulant therapy. It is possible that oral anticoagulants influence the viscosity of the plasma leading to interference with the microcirculation in the inner ear. Further research into this area is currently being conducted.

  17. Improved treatment of sudden hearing loss by specific fibrinogen aphaeresis.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Heidrun; Kleinjung, Tobias; Steffens, Thomas; Jacob, Peter; Schmitz, Gerd; Strutz, Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    The etiology of sudden sensorineural hearing loss is still unclear and is thought to result from disturbances of microcirculation, infectious causes, or autoimmune disorders. So far standard therapy did not show clear improvement over spontaneous remission rate, which is assumed to be about 50% [Nakashima et al., Acta. Otolaryngol. Stockh. 514:14-16, 1994; Schuknecht and Donovan, Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 243:1-15, 1986; Harris and Sharp, Laryngoscope 100:516-524, 1990; Mayot et al., Clin. Immunol. Immunopath. 68:41-45, 1993; Gussen, Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 85:94-100, 1976]. Elevated blood viscosity due to high fibrinogen levels is supposed to cause decreased cochlear blood flow and thus initiate sudden hearing loss. The specific lowering of fibrinogen immediately decreases plasma viscosity exactly to the desired extent and should lead to improved cochlear blood flow [Suckfüll et al., Acta. Otolaryngol 119:763-766, 1999; Suckfüll, Lancet 360:1811-1817, 2002; Walch et al., Laryngol. Rhino. Otol. 75:641-645, 1996; Suckfüll et al., Otol. Neurotol. 23:309-311, 2002]. In a prospective uncontrolled pilot study on 36 patients with unilateral sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss (SHL) we tried to establish that 1-3 specific fibrinogen aphaereses alone improve recovery of hearing and that it is possible to lower fibrinogen to the target of 80-100 mg/dl without important side effects. Pure tone audiometry was carried out immediately before and after each aphaeresis as well as at 2 and 4 weeks and 6 months after treatment. Sixteen patients recovered spontaneously before undergoing fibrinogen adsorption. All 20 aphaeresis patients improved during immunoadsorption; in 60% of patients auditory thresholds returned to normal after the first immunoadsorption and treatment could be discontinued, in another 20% of patients complete recovery was reached after 4 weeks. The mean plasma fibrinogen concentration of the 20 patients before the first aphaeresis session was 308

  18. [FEDERAL CLINICAL RECOMMENDATIONS IN DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF HEARING LOSS DUE TO NOISE].

    PubMed

    Adeninskaya, E E; Bukhtiarov, I V; Bushmanov, A Iu; Dayhes, N A; Denisov, E I; Izmerov, N F; Mazitova, N N; Pankova, V B; Preobrazhenskaya, E A; Prokopenko, L V; Simonova, N I; Tavartkiladze, G A; Fedina, I N

    2016-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss is a slowly developing hearing impairment, caused by occupational exposure to excessive noise levels, constitutes a lesion of the auditory analyzer and clinically manifested as chronic bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Currently, there is not a treatment that provide a cure of sensorineural hearing loss. Regular, individually tailored treatment should be directed to the pathogenic mechanisms and specific clinical symptoms of hearing loss, as well as the prevention of complications. We recommend using non-drug therapies that can improve blood flow in labyrinth, tissue and cellular metabolism.

  19. Sensorineural hearing loss and celiac disease: A coincidental finding

    PubMed Central

    Volta, Umberto; Ferri, Gian Gaetano; De Giorgio, Roberto; Fabbri, Angela; Parisi, Claudia; Sciajno, Laura; Castellari, Alessandra; Fiorini, Erica; Piscaglia, Maria; Barbara, Giovanni; Granito, Alessandro; Pirodda, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Celiac disease (CD) can be associated with a variety of extraintestinal manifestations, including neurological diseases. A new neurological correlation has been found between CD and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). OBJECTIVE To verify the association between SNHL and CD, and to establish whether the neurological hearing impairment in CD is related to nonorgan-specific and antineuronal antibodies, as well as the presence of autoimmune disorders. METHODS A sample of 59 consecutive biopsy- and serologically proven CD patients were studied. Among CD patients, 11 were newly diagnosed and 48 were on a gluten-free diet. Hearing function was assessed by audiometric analysis in all CD patients as well as in 59 age- and sex-matched controls. Patients were tested for a panel of immune markers including nonorgan-specific autoantibodies and antineuronal antibodies. RESULTS SNHL was detected in five CD patients (8.5%) and in two controls (3.4%). In one patient, the SNHL was bilateral, whereas the remaining four had a monolateral impairment. The prevalence of SNHL was not significantly different between CD patients and controls. At least one of the antibodies tested for was positive in two of the five CD patients with SNHL and in 12 of the 54 CD patients without SNHL. Antineuronal antibodies to central nervous system antigens were consistently negative in the five CD patients with SNHL. Only one of the five CD patients with SNHL had Hashimoto thyroiditis. CONCLUSIONS SNHL and CD occur coincidentally. Hearing function should be assessed only in CD patients with clinical signs of hearing deficiency. PMID:19668795

  20. Age-related site-specific muscle loss in the thigh and zigzag walking performance in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, J P; Thiebaud, R S; Ogawa, M; Mitsukawa, N

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the relationships between site-specific muscle loss in the thigh, muscle quality and zigzag walking performance, 40 men and 41 women aged 65-79 years had muscle thickness (MTH) measured by ultrasound at nine sites on the anterior and posterior aspects of the body. Skeletal muscle mass (SM) was estimated from an ultrasound-derived prediction equation. Site-specific thigh sarcopenia was calculated using ultrasound-measured MTH at the anterior/posterior aspects of the thigh (AP-MTH ratio). Zigzag walking time (ZWT) and maximum isometric knee extension (KE) and flexion (KF) torques were measured. Muscle quality (torque/thigh SM) and knee joint strength index (torque/body mass) were calculated. There were no significant correlations between SM index and ZWT. However, AP-MTH ratio was inversely correlated (P < 0.05) to ZWT in men (r = -0.335) and women (r = -0.309). ZWT was also inversely correlated (P < 0.05) to KE-strength index in both sexes (men, r = -0.328; women, r = -0.372). Similarly, ZWT was correlated to KF-strength index (r = -0.497) and muscle quality (r = -0.322) in women, but not in men. After adjusting for age, height and body mass, AP-MTH ratio was inversely correlated to ZWT in men (r = -0.325) and tended to be correlated to ZWT in women (r = -0.263). Zigzag walking performance may be associated with site-specific thigh sarcopenia in older men and women.

  1. Determinants of Hearing Loss in Perforations of the Tympanic Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ritvik P.; Rosowski, John J.; Voss, Susan E.; O’Neil, Ellen; Merchant, Saumil N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although tympanic membrane perforations are common, there have been few systematic studies of the structural features determining the magnitude of the resulting conductive hearing loss. Our recent experimental and modeling studies predicted that the conductive hearing loss will increase with increasing perforation size, be independent of perforation location (contrary to popular otologic belief), and increase with decreasing size of the middle-ear and mastoid air space (an idea new to otology). Objective To test our predictions regarding determinants of conductive hearing loss in tympanic membrane perforations against clinical data gathered from patients. Study Design Prospective clinical study. Setting Tertiary referral center. Inclusion Criteria Patients with tympanic membrane perforations without other middle-ear disease. Main Outcome Measures Size and location of perforation; air-bone gap at 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 Hz; and tympanometric estimate of volume of the middle-ear air spaces. Results Isolated tympanic membrane perforations in 62 ears from 56 patients met inclusion criteria. Air-bone gaps were largest at the lower frequencies and decreased as frequency increased. Air-bone gaps increased with perforation size at each frequency. Ears with small middle-ear volumes, ≤4.3 ml (n = 23), had significantly larger air-bone gaps than ears with large middle-ear volumes, >4.3 ml (n = 39), except at 2,000 Hz. The mean air-bone gaps in ears with small volumes were 10 to 20 dB larger than in ears with large volumes. Perforations in anterior versus posterior quadrants showed no significant differences in air-bone gaps at any frequency, although anterior perforations had, on average, air-bone gaps that were smaller by 1 to 8 dB at lower frequencies. Conclusion The conductive hearing loss resulting from a tympanic membrane perforation is frequency-dependent, with the largest losses occurring at the lowest sound frequencies; increases as size of the

  2. Apoptosis-related genes change their expression with age and hearing loss in the mouse cochlea.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Sherif F; D'Souza, Mary; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Frisina, Robert D

    2008-11-01

    To understand possible causative roles of apoptosis gene regulation in age-related hearing loss (presbycusis), apoptotic gene expression patterns in the CBA mouse cochlea of four different age and hearing loss groups were compared, using GeneChip and real-time (qPCR) microarrays. GeneChip transcriptional expression patterns of 318 apoptosis-related genes were analyzed. Thirty eight probes (35 genes) showed significant differences in expression. The significant gene families include Caspases, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma2 family, P53, Calpains, Mitogen activated protein kinase family, Jun oncogene, Nuclear factor of kappa light chain gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-related and tumor necrosis factor-related genes. The GeneChip results of 31 genes were validated using the new TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA). Eight genes showed highly correlated results with the GeneChip data. These genes are: activating transcription factor3, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma2, Bcl2-like1, caspase4 apoptosis-related cysteine protease 4, Calpain2, dual specificity phosphatase9, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member12a, and Tumor necrosis factor superfamily member13b, suggesting they may play critical roles in inner ear aging.

  3. Mechanisms of hearing loss after blast injury to the ear.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Il; Gao, Simon S; Xia, Anping; Wang, Rosalie; Salles, Felipe T; Raphael, Patrick D; Abaya, Homer; Wachtel, Jacqueline; Baek, Jongmin; Jacobs, David; Rasband, Matthew N; Oghalai, John S

    2013-01-01

    Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body's most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction.

  4. Mechanisms of Hearing Loss after Blast Injury to the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Il; Gao, Simon S.; Xia, Anping; Wang, Rosalie; Salles, Felipe T.; Raphael, Patrick D.; Abaya, Homer; Wachtel, Jacqueline; Baek, Jongmin; Jacobs, David; Rasband, Matthew N.; Oghalai, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body’s most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction. PMID:23840874

  5. Coenzyme Q Protects Against Age-Related Alveolar Bone Loss Associated to n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Rich-Diets by Modulating Mitochondrial Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Varela-Lopez, Alfonso; Bullon, Pedro; Battino, Maurizio; Ramirez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Ochoa, Julio J; Cordero, Mario D; Ramirez-Tortosa, César L; Rubini, Corrado; Zizzi, Antonio; Quiles, José L

    2016-05-01

    An age-dependent model of the periodontium was reproduced to evaluate the effect of life-long feeding on a low coenzyme Q10 dosage in n-6, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid or monounsaturated fatty acid-based diets on periodontal tissues of young and old rats. Results shown that exacerbated age-related alveolar bone loss previously associated to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet was attenuated by coenzyme Q10 Gene expression analysis suggests that involved mechanisms might be related to a restored capacity of mitochondria to adapt to aging in gingival cells from rats fed on n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid. In particular, this could be due to an age-related increase of the rate of mitochondrial biogenesis and a better oxidative and respiratory balance in these animals. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that supplementation with coenzyme Q10 could counteract the negative effects of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid on alveolar bone loss (a major feature of periodontitis) associated to age.

  6. Semi-implantable middle ear electromagnetic hearing device for sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Maniglia, A J; Ko, W H; Garverick, S L; Abbass, H; Kane, M; Rosenbaum, M; Murray, G

    1997-05-01

    A semi-implantable middle ear electromagnetic hearing device (SIMEHD) is proposed for limited clinical trial in adult patients to evaluate the implantable hearing device for moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigational device exemption (IDE) approval has been granted (May 1996) for clinical trials. The implant unit has been evaluated acutely and chronically in animals (cats) with excellent results. Five cats undergoing chronic implantation were allowed to survive an average of 9.6 months, showing that the SIMEHD is biocompatible, functional and without untoward complications. All implant units recovered from the cats were functional, except for wire breakage of the internal antenna. A new antenna was redesigned for human implantation. The SIMEHD system consists of an external and internal unit. The external unit consists of a microphone, audio amplifier, modulator, radio frequency (RF) amplifier, antenna and battery. The internal unit is composed of a receiving antenna, hybrid electronic circuit, air core driving coil, and a target magnet cemented to the incus. All materials in contact with the body are biocompatible and expected to survive indefinitely. The implant unit is miniaturized and manufactured with existing fabrication technology by our industrial collaborator, Wilson Greatbatch, Ltd. The specific aims and major tasks of the proposed research are: a) to evaluate reliability, safety and efficacy of the SIMEHD system in a selected group of patients diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss, due mainly to presbycusis or aging of the inner ear; and b) to obtain objective and subjective evaluation of audiologic and psychoacoustic performance as compared to the acoustic hearing aid. This paper describes the design, illustrates the actual device (newest prototype) and details the technique for surgical implantation in the attic and mastoid antrum in humans.

  7. A Taxonomy of Fatigue Concepts and Their Relation to Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Hornsby, Benjamin W Y; Naylor, Graham; Bess, Fred H

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is common in individuals with a variety of chronic health conditions and can have significant negative effects on quality of life. Although limited in scope, recent work suggests persons with hearing loss may be at increased risk for fatigue, in part due to effortful listening that is exacerbated by their hearing impairment. However, the mechanisms responsible for hearing loss-related fatigue, and the efficacy of audiologic interventions for reducing fatigue, remain unclear. To improve our understanding of hearing loss-related fatigue, as a field it is important to develop a common conceptual understanding of this construct. In this article, the broader fatigue literature is reviewed to identify and describe core constructs, consequences, and methods for assessing fatigue and related constructs. Finally, the current knowledge linking hearing loss and fatigue is described and may be summarized as follows: Hearing impairment may increase the risk of subjective fatigue and vigor deficits; adults with hearing loss require more time to recover from fatigue after work and have more work absences; sustained, effortful, listening can be fatiguing; optimal methods for eliciting and measuring fatigue in persons with hearing loss remain unclear and may vary with listening condition; and amplification may minimize decrements in cognitive processing speed during sustained effortful listening. Future research is needed to develop reliable measurement methods to quantify hearing loss-related fatigue, explore factors responsible for modulating fatigue in people with hearing loss, and identify and evaluate potential interventions for reducing hearing loss-related fatigue. PMID:27355763

  8. Infants and Children with Hearing Loss Need Early Language Access

    PubMed Central

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Mathur, Gaurav; Moreland, Christopher J.; Napoli, Donna Jo; Osterling, Wendy; Padden, Carol; Rathmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Around 96 percent of children with hearing loss are born to parents with intact hearing,1 who may initially know little about deafness or sign language. Therefore, such parents will need information and support in making decisions about the medical, linguistic, and educational management of their child. Some of these decisions are time-sensitive and irreversible and come at a moment of emotional turmoil and vulnerability (when some parents grieve the toss of a normally hearing child).2 Clinical research indicates that a deaf child’s poor communication skills can be made worse by increased level of parental depression.3 Given this, the importance of reliable and up-to-date support for parents’ decisions is critical to the overall well-being of their child.4 In raising and educating a child, parents are often offered an exclusive choice between an oral environment (including assistive technology, speech reading, and voicing) and a signing environment. A heated controversy surrounds this choice, and has since at least the late 19th century, beginning with the International Congress on the Education of the Deaf in Milan, held in 1880.5 While families seek advice from many sources, including, increasingly, the internet,6 the primary care physician (PCP) is the professional medical figure the family interacts with repeatedly.7 The present article aims to help family advisors, particularly the PCP and other medical advisors in this regard. We argue that deaf children need to be exposed regularly and frequently to good language models in both visual and auditory modalities from the time hearing loss is detected and continued throughout their education to ensure proper cognitive, psychological, and educational development. Since there is, unfortunately, a dearth of empirical studies on many of the issues families must confront, professional opinions, backed by what studies do exist, are the only option. We here give our strongly held professional opinions and stress the

  9. Cellular signaling protective against noise-induced hearing loss – A role for novel intrinsic cochlear signaling involving corticotropin-releasing factor?

    PubMed

    Vetter, Douglas E

    2015-09-01

    Hearing loss afflicts approximately 15% of the world's population, and crosses all socioeconomic boundaries. While great strides have been made in understanding the genetic components of syndromic and non-syndromic hearing loss, understanding of the mechanisms underlying noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) have come much more slowly. NIHL is not simply a mechanism by which older individuals loose their hearing. Significantly, the incidence of NIHL is increasing, and is now involving ever younger populations. This may predict future increased occurrences of hearing loss. Current research has shown that even short-term exposures to loud sounds generating what was previously considered temporary hearing loss, actually produces an almost immediate and permanent loss of specific populations of auditory nerve fibers. Additionally, recurrent exposures to intense sound may hasten age-related hearing loss. While NIHL is a significant medical concern, to date, few compounds have delivered significant protection, arguing that new targets need to be identified. In this commentary, we will explore cellular signaling processes taking place in the cochlea believed to be involved in protection against hearing loss, and highlight new data suggestive of novel signaling not previously recognized as occurring in the cochlea, that is perhaps protective of hearing. This includes a recently described local hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA)-like signaling system fully contained in the cochlea. This system may represent a local cellular stress-response system based on stress hormone release similar to the systemic HPA axis. Its discovery may hold hope for new drug therapies that can be delivered directly to the cochlea, circumventing systemic side effects.

  10. An Introduction to the Outcomes of Children with Hearing Loss Study.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Mary Pat; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of service provision for young children with hearing loss has shifted in recent years as a result of newborn hearing screening and the early provision of interventions, including hearing technologies. It is expected that early service provision will minimize or prevent linguistic delays that typically accompany untreated permanent childhood hearing loss. The post-newborn hearing screening era has seen a resurgence of interest in empirically examining the outcomes of children with hearing loss to determine if service innovations have resulted in expected improvements in children's functioning. The Outcomes of Children with Hearing Loss (OCHL) project was among these recent research efforts, and this introductory article provides background in the form of literature review and theoretical discussion to support the goals of the study. The Outcomes of Children with Hearing Loss project was designed to examine the language and auditory outcomes of infants and preschool-age children with permanent, bilateral, mild-to-severe hearing loss, and to identify factors that moderate the relationship between hearing loss and longitudinal outcomes. The authors propose that children who are hard of hearing experience limitations in access to linguistic input, which lead to a decrease in uptake of language exposure and an overall reduction in linguistic experience. The authors explore this hypothesis in relation to three primary factors that are proposed to influence children's access to linguistic input: aided audibility, duration and consistency of hearing aid use, and characteristics of caregiver input.

  11. Sarcopenia and Hearing Loss in Older Koreans: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jieun; Han, Kyungdo; Song, Jae Jun; Im, Gi Jung; Chae, Sung Won

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is becoming a more significant issue as geriatric population increases. Sarcopenia in older people is known to have a diverse health problem in various circumstances in recent studies. We assessed whether the decrease in muscle mass is related to ARHI. We used the 2010 data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to examine the associations between sarcopenia and ARHI. A total number of participants was 1,622 including 746 males and 876 females aged 60 years or older. Muscle mass was assessed as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and hearing loss was defined as the pure-tone averages (PTA) of test frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz at a threshold of 40 dB or higher in worse hearing side of the ear. Among 1,622 participants, 298 men and 256 women had hearing loss. Appendicular muscle mass (ASM), expressed as kg, was categorized in tertiles. In female population, after adjusting for age, smoking, drinking, amount of exercise, total body fat, education level, income level, and tinnitus, the odds ratio (OR) for hearing loss was 1.57 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.92–2.68) in the middle tertile and 1.79 (1.03–3.08) in the lowest tertile, compared with the highest tertile. P for trend in this model was 0.036. Controlling further for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and three types of noise exposure did not change the association. Larger muscle mass is associated with lower prevalence of hearing loss in elderly Korean females. PMID:26978776

  12. Occupational hearing loss of market mill workers in the city of Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kitcher, Emmanuel D; Ocansey, Grace; Abaidoo, Benjamin; Atule, Alidu

    2014-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an irreversible sensorineural hearing loss associated with exposure to high levels of excessive noise. Prevention measures are not well established in developing countries. This comparative cross sectional study aims to determine the prevalence of hearing loss in both a group of high risk workers and a control group and to assess their knowledge of the effects of noise on hearing health. A total of 101 market mill workers and 103 controls employed within markets in the city of Accra, Ghana, were evaluated using a structured questionnaire and pure tone audiometry. The questionnaire assessed factors including self-reported hearing loss, tinnitus, knowledge on the effects of noise on hearing health and the use of hearing protective devices. Pure tone audiometric testing was conducted for both mill workers and controls. Noise levels at the work premises of the mill workers and controls were measured. Symptoms of hearing loss were reported by 24 (23.76%) and 8 (7.7%) mill workers and controls respectively. Fifty-five (54.5%) and fifty-four (52.37%) mill workers and controls exhibited knowledge of the effects of noise on hearing health. Five (5.0%) mill workers used hearing protective devices. There was significant sensorineural hearing loss and the presence of a 4 kHz audiometric notch among mill workers when compared with controls for the mean thresholds of 2 kHz, 3 kHz and 4 kHz (P = 0. 001). The prevalence of hearing loss in the better hearing ears of the mill workers and controls was 24.8% and 4.8% respectively (P < 0.5). The prevalence of hearing loss, which may be characteristic of NIHL in the better hearing ears of the mill workers and controls was 24.8% and 4.8% respectively. The majority of mill workers did not use hearing protection. PMID:24953884

  13. Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: cardiovascular risk factors do not influence hearing threshold recovery.

    PubMed

    Ciorba, A; Hatzopoulos, S; Bianchini, C; Iannini, V; Rosignoli, M; Skarzynski, H; Aimoni, C

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that risk factors for ischaemic vascular disease, such as cigarette smoking, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, can also be considered risk factors for the development of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). In this study, we have evaluated the hypothesis that these factors can influence hearing threshold recovery in patients affected by ISSNHL. A total of 141 subjects who suffered an episode of ISSNHL were included. All subjects were assessed with tonal audiometry, auditory brainstem responses and MRI to exclude retrocochlear pathology. Hearing tests were conducted at ISSNHL onset (t = 0) and after 30 days. Patients were divided into three classes according to the presence/absence of one or more cardiovascular risk factors including: history of smoking, total serum cholesterol/triglycerides, history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Values of hearing threshold recovery were estimated and comparisons were conducted across the three risk factor classes. 75% of patients affected by ISSNHL showed a threshold recovery. However, the threshold recovery was found to be class-independent (average recovery value of 18 dB HL per classes) and also independent of age and gender. Even if cardiovascular risk factors have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of ISSNHL, the present study suggests that these factors do not have any significant influence on the threshold recovery in ISSNHL.

  14. Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: cardiovascular risk factors do not influence hearing threshold recovery.

    PubMed

    Ciorba, A; Hatzopoulos, S; Bianchini, C; Iannini, V; Rosignoli, M; Skarzynski, H; Aimoni, C

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that risk factors for ischaemic vascular disease, such as cigarette smoking, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, can also be considered risk factors for the development of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). In this study, we have evaluated the hypothesis that these factors can influence hearing threshold recovery in patients affected by ISSNHL. A total of 141 subjects who suffered an episode of ISSNHL were included. All subjects were assessed with tonal audiometry, auditory brainstem responses and MRI to exclude retrocochlear pathology. Hearing tests were conducted at ISSNHL onset (t = 0) and after 30 days. Patients were divided into three classes according to the presence/absence of one or more cardiovascular risk factors including: history of smoking, total serum cholesterol/triglycerides, history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Values of hearing threshold recovery were estimated and comparisons were conducted across the three risk factor classes. 75% of patients affected by ISSNHL showed a threshold recovery. However, the threshold recovery was found to be class-independent (average recovery value of 18 dB HL per classes) and also independent of age and gender. Even if cardiovascular risk factors have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of ISSNHL, the present study suggests that these factors do not have any significant influence on the threshold recovery in ISSNHL. PMID:26019394

  15. The Dose Response Relationship between In Ear Occupational Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Galusha, Deron; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Clougherty, Jane E.; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Current understanding of the dose-response relationship between occupational noise and hearing loss is based on cross-sectional studies prior to the widespread use hearing protection and with limited data regarding noise exposures below 85dBA. We report on the hearing loss experience of a unique cohort of industrial workers with daily monitoring of noise inside of hearing protection devices. Methods At an industrial facility, workers exhibiting accelerated hearing loss were enrolled in a mandatory program to monitor daily noise exposures inside of hearing protection. We compared these noise measurements (as time-weighted LAVG) to interval rates of high frequency hearing loss over a six year period using a mixed effects model, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Workers’ high frequency hearing levels at study inception averaged more than 40 dB hearing threshold level (HTL). Most noise exposures were less than 85dBA (mean LAVG 76 dBA, interquartile range 74 to 80 dBA). We found no statistical relationship between LAvg and high frequency hearing loss (p = 0.53). Using a metric for monthly maximum noise exposure did not improve model fit. Conclusion At-ear noise exposures below 85dBA did not show an association with risk of high frequency hearing loss among workers with substantial past noise exposure and hearing loss at baseline. Therefore, effective noise control to below 85dBA may lead to significant reduction in occupational hearing loss risk in such individuals. Further research is needed on the dose response relationship of noise and hearing loss in individuals with normal hearing and little prior noise exposure. PMID:23825197

  16. Resolution of sudden sensorineural hearing loss following a roller coaster ride.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aman; Sinha, Amrita; Al-Waa, Ahmad M

    2011-07-01

    We report a case of sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss of sudden onset during an aeroplane flight, which completely resolved during a roller coaster ride at Alton Towers theme park. A review of the literature concerning sudden idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss and spontaneous resolution are discussed. Initially, pure-tone audiometry showed a profound sensorineural hearing loss in the right ear and mild sensorineural hearing loss in the left ear (of note, the hearing was normal prior to the episode). Following resolution of the patient's symptoms during a roller coaster ride, pure-tone audiometry showed normal hearing thresholds in both ears. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is a symptom of cochlear injury and the mechanism of the patient's symptoms was attributed to a patent cochlear aqueduct. PMID:22754856

  17. Resolution of sudden sensorineural hearing loss following a roller coaster ride.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aman; Sinha, Amrita; Al-Waa, Ahmad M

    2011-07-01

    We report a case of sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss of sudden onset during an aeroplane flight, which completely resolved during a roller coaster ride at Alton Towers theme park. A review of the literature concerning sudden idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss and spontaneous resolution are discussed. Initially, pure-tone audiometry showed a profound sensorineural hearing loss in the right ear and mild sensorineural hearing loss in the left ear (of note, the hearing was normal prior to the episode). Following resolution of the patient's symptoms during a roller coaster ride, pure-tone audiometry showed normal hearing thresholds in both ears. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is a symptom of cochlear injury and the mechanism of the patient's symptoms was attributed to a patent cochlear aqueduct.

  18. High-frequency hearing loss among mobile phone users.

    PubMed

    Velayutham, P; Govindasamy, Gopala Krishnan; Raman, R; Prepageran, N; Ng, K H

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess high frequency hearing (above 8 kHz) loss among prolonged mobile phone users is a tertiary Referral Center. Prospective single blinded study. This is the first study that used high-frequency audiometry. The wide usage of mobile phone is so profound that we were unable to find enough non-users as a control group. Therefore we compared the non-dominant ear to the dominant ear using audiometric measurements. The study was a blinded study wherein the audiologist did not know which was the dominant ear. A total of 100 subjects were studied. Of the subjects studied 53% were males and 47% females. Mean age was 27. The left ear was dominant in 63%, 22% were dominant in the right ear and 15% did not have a preference. This study showed that there is significant loss in the dominant ear compared to the non-dominant ear (P < 0.05). Chronic usage mobile phone revealed high frequency hearing loss in the dominant ear (mobile phone used) compared to the non dominant ear.

  19. PDZD7 and hearing loss: more than just a modifier

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Kevin T; Azaiez, Hela; Kahrizi, Kimia; Simpson, Allen C; Tollefson, William TA; Sloan, Christina M; Meyer, Nicole C; Babanejad, Mojgan; Ardalani, Fariba; Arzhangi, Sanaz; Schnieders, Michael J; Najmabadi, Hossein; Smith, Richard JH

    2016-01-01

    Deafness is the most frequent sensory disorder. With over 90 genes and 110 loci causally implicated in non-syndromic hearing loss, it is phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous. Here we investigate the genetic etiology of deafness in four families of Iranian origin segregating autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL). We used a combination of linkage analysis, homozygosity mapping and a targeted genomic enrichment platform to simultaneously screen 90 known deafness-causing genes for pathogenic variants. Variant segregation was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Linkage analysis and homozygosity mapping showed segregation with the DFNB57 locus on chromosome 10 in two families. Targeted genomic enrichment with massively parallel sequencing identified causal variants in PDZD7: a homozygous missense variant (p.Gly103Arg) in one family and compound heterozygosity for missense (p.Met285Arg) and nonsense (p.Tyr500Ter) variants in the second family. Screening of two additional families identified two more variants: (p.Gly228Arg) and (p.Gln526Ter). Variant segregation with the hearing loss phenotype was confirmed in all families by Sanger sequencing. The missense variants are predicted to be deleterious, and the two nonsense mutations produce null alleles. This report is the first to show that mutations in PDZD7 cause ARNSHL, a finding that offers addition insight into the USH2 interactome. We also describe a novel likely disease-causing mutation in CIB2 and illustrate the complexity associated with gene identification in diseases that exhibit large genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. PMID:26416264

  20. The need for improved detection and management of adult-onset hearing loss in australia.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Catherine M; Gopinath, Bamini; Schneider, Julie; Reath, Jennifer; Hickson, Louise; Leeder, Stephen R; Mitchell, Paul; Cowan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Adult-onset hearing loss is insidious and typically diagnosed and managed several years after onset. Often, this is after the loss having led to multiple negative consequences including effects on employment, depressive symptoms, and increased risk of mortality. In contrast, the use of hearing aids is associated with reduced depression, longer life expectancy, and retention in the workplace. Despite this, several studies indicate high levels of unmet need for hearing health services in older adults and poor use of prescribed hearing aids, often leading to their abandonment. In Australia, the largest component of financial cost of hearing loss (excluding the loss of well-being) is due to lost workplace productivity. Nonetheless, the Australian public health system does not have an effective and sustainable hearing screening strategy to tackle the problem of poor detection of adult-onset hearing loss. Given the increasing prevalence and disease burden of hearing impairment in adults, two key areas are not adequately met in the Australian healthcare system: (1) early identification of persons with chronic hearing impairment; (2) appropriate and targeted referral of these patients to hearing health service providers. This paper reviews the current literature, including population-based data from the Blue Mountains Hearing Study, and suggests different models for early detection of adult-onset hearing loss. PMID:23710184